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ecology

biology
dendrology

Oikos

level of organization spectrum


biological spectrum
biotic components
abiotic components
biosystems

physiology ecology
isolutiom
local population
ecotype
ecocline
speciation
physiological
morphological
integrative level concept
principle of hierarchical control

biome
formation
(1) tundra
(2) desert semidresert
(3) grassland
(4) savanna
(5) broad-leaved forest
(6) coniferous forest

forest

closed circulation

one-way flow
(1) solar-powerd
ecosysetem
(2)
(3)
(4)

(1) Inorgantic substance


(2) Organic compounds
(3) Climate regime
(4) Producers
(5) Macroconsumers
(6) Microconsumers

biomass
standinng crop

watershed

Oikos economics

genescellsorgansorganismspopulationcommunities
matterenergy
genetic cell
organ organismic population ecosystem
system system system system
system

local population

broad-leavedsoftwood
coniferhardwood

1. woody vegetation
2.
3.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


(6)

loe of entorpy

CNCO2H2O

(4)-(6)

(Pteridophyta)

(Filices)

(Filicales)

(Gymonospermae)

(Cycadopsida) (Cycadales)

(Ginkgoales)

(Coniferopsida)

(Cyatheaceae)

(Cycadoidae)

(Ginkgoaceae)

(Coniferae) (Pinaceae)

(Taxodiaceae)

(Chamaecyparis)

(Podocarpoidae)

(Cephalotaxus)
(Araucariaceae)

(Taxopsida) (Taxales)

(Taxaceae)

(Alsopila)

(Sphaeropteris)

(Cycas)

(Ginkgo)

(Abies)
(Keteleeria)
(Picea)
(Pinus)

(Pseudotsuga)
(Tsuga)
(Cryptomeria)

(Cunninghamia)

(Twiwania)

(Chamaecyparis)
(Calocedrus)
(Juniperus)

(Decussocarpus)
(Podocarpus)

(Cephalotaxus)

(Agathis)

(Araucaria)

(Amentotaxus)

(Taxus)

Alsophila metteniana
Alsophila podophylla
Alsophila spinulosa
Sphaeropteris lepifera

Cycas revoluate
Cycas taiwanina
Cycas taitungensis
Cycas thouarsii

Ginkgo biloba
Abies kawakami
Keteleeria davidiana
Picea morrisionicala
Pinus taiwanensis
Pinus armandi
Pinus morrisonicola
Pseudotsuga wilsoniana
Tsuga chinensis
Cryptomeria japonica
Cunninghamia lanceolta
Cunninghamia lanceolta (Lamb.) Hook. Var. konishi
Taiwania cryptomerioides
Chamaecyparis formosensis
Chamaecyparis obtusa
Calocedrus formosana
Juniperus chinese var. kaizuka
Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii
Juniperus squamata
Decussocarpus nagi
Podocarpus costails
Podocarpus fasciculus
Podocarpus macrophyllus
Podocarpus nakaii
Cephalotaxus willsoniana
Agathis dammara
Araucaria cunninghamil
Araucaria heyerophylla
Amentotaxus formosana
Taxus mairei


(Angiospermiae)

(Dicotyledoneae)

(Magnoliales)

(Annona)
(Laurales)

(Magnoliaceae)

(Liriodendron)
(Magnolia)

(Michelia)

(Illiciaceae)

(Illicium)

(Schisandraceae)

(Kadsura)

(Schisandra)

(Trochodendron)

(Trochodendraceae)
(Annonaceae)
(Lauraceae)

(Fissistigma)

Liriodendron chinese
Liriodendron tulipifera
Magnolia denudata
Magnolia grandifola
Magnolia kachirachiral
Magnolia kobus
Michelia alba
Michelia campaca
Michelia compressa var.compressa
Maichelia compressa var. fomosana
Michelia compressa var. lanyuensis
Illicium arborescens
Illicium tashiror
Kadsura japonica
Schisandra arisanensisi
Trochodendron aralioides
Fissitigma glaucescens