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The 10 mm frog embryo

Bio 132 Animal Developmental Biology Created 1st sem, AY 2012-2013 For the 1st practical exam

Early Stages of Development

Cleavage

Smaller cells called the blastomeres Morula = ball of cells at 128 cell stage Animal vs. vegetal pole Mass still enclosed within the zona pellucida, to prevent early implantation

Blastula Stage
No growth taking place Controlled by maternal molecules until midblastula Blastocoel Blastoderm Macromeres Micromeres

Early gastrula Dent


Invagination to form archenteron

Animal hemisphere
Above blastocoel Micromeres Small, many, nuclei may not be visible Numerous and rapid cell division

Early gastrula

Vegetal hemisphere
Below blastocoel Yolk-laden Large but few Yolk impedes cell division Granular due to yolk platelets

Blastocoel
Purpose: prevents differentiation of top region of animal hemisphere from becoming mesoderm

Middle g
No archenteron Epiboly Dorsal and ventral lip of blastopore

Late gastrula

Yolk plug Dorsal and ventral lip of blastopore Ectoderm (derivatives?) Endoderm (derivatives?) Mesoderm (derivatives?) Blastocoel Archenteron chordamesoderm Why did the blastopore close? The infidibulum

Closed blastopore stage


Yolk plug Dorsal and ventral lip of blastopore Blastocoel Archenteron Why did the blastopore close? The infidibulum

n. plate

Neural fold

n. tube

Notochord Neural crest Somites Epimere/mesome re/hypomere Somatic/splanchn ic mesoderm Somatopleure/spl anchnopleure

Ectodermal derivatives

Ectodermal derivatives

Telencephalon

Origin: prosencephalon Fate: cerebrum Function: storage of memory, control of consciousness, voluntary action Cavity: Lateral ventricle Lamina terminalis Olfactory nerve

Ectodermal derivatives

Diencephalon
Optic recess Epiphysis Optic chiasma Optic nerve hypophysis Infundibulum Cavity: third ventricle
Fate: epithalamus, hypothalamus, thalamus

Ectodermal

Mesencephalon
Cavity: Aqueduct of Sylvius Optic lobes Oculomotor nerves

Metencephalon
Trochlear nerve

Myelencephalon
4th ventricle (cavities of meten and myelen)

Ectodermal

Cranial Nerve Ganglia


Semilunar Acoustico-fascialis Glossopharyngeal Vagus

Spinal cord
Central canal Ependyma Mantle and marginal layers

Sympathetic ganglia

Ectodermal

Eye

Ear
Otocyst Utriculus semicircular canals Sacculus cochlea organ of Corti Endolymphatic duct

Optic cup Optic lens Retina Pigmented epithelium Sensory retina (rods and cones) Bipolar neurons Ganglion cells Choroid coat Sclerotic coat

Olfactory

Ectodermal

Eye

Optic cup Optic lens Retina Pigmented epithelium Sensory retina (rods and cones) Bipolar neurons Ganglion cells Choroid coat Sclerotic coat

Ectodermal

Chondrocranium
Labial cartilage Trabecular horns Ethmoid plate Palatoquadrate Basicranial fontanelle Trabeculae Basilar plate Parachordals

Splanchnocraniu m
Mental and Meckelian cartilages Ceratohyals Copula (basibranchial) Hypobranchials Ceratobranchials

Ectodermal

Splanchnocraniu m
Mental and Meckelian cartilages Ceratohyals Copula (basibranchial) Hypobranchials Ceratobranchials

Endodermal

Branchial region
Pharyngeal pouches Pharyngeal furrows/grooves gills and operculum Thyroid (smileyface)

Respiratory system
Pharynx Trachea Lung buds

Digestive system
Buccal cavity Mouth (stomodeum)

Pharynx Esophagus Stomach (with rugae) Liver Pancreas Pancreatic duct Gall bladder Hepatic duct Cystic duct Common bile duct Intestines Cloaca Anus

Mesodermal

Epimere
Dermatome Myotome Sclerotome

Mesomere Hypomere

Somatic mesoderm Splanchnic mesoderm

Mesodermal

Urogenital
Mesonephros Mesonephric tubules and duct Glomi, nephrostome beside it Gonadal ridge (also include PCGs)

Circulatory
Heart
Atrium Ventricle Sinus venosus Conus arteriosus Ventral aorta Common cardinal veins

Mesodermal

Urogenital
Mesonephros Mesonephric tubules Mesonephric duct Glomi, nephrostome beside it Gonadal ridge (also include PCGs)

Mesodermal

Circulatory
Veins
Anterior cardinal vein lateral to otocyst Common cardinal Small inferior jugular Posterior cardinals Subcardinals Postcava Hepatic

Hepatic portal

Arteries
Efferent branchial Internal carotid 2nd-4th branchial Dorsal aorta branches
Intersegmental Mesenteric caudal

Afferent branchial Lingual/external carotid

Mesodermal

Mesenteric artery

Mesodermal

Subcardinal veins

Mesodermal
Dorsal aorta Postcardinal vein