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Chakras

Compiled by: Trisha Lamb Last Revised: April 27, 2006

2004 by International Association of Yoga Therapists (IAYT)

International Association of Yoga Therapists


P.O. Box 2513 Prescott AZ 86302 Phone: 928-541-0004 E-mail: mail@iayt.org URL: www.iayt.org
The contents of this bibliography do not provide medical advice and should not be so interpreted. Before beginning any exercise program, see your physician for clearance.

What then might be the character of the emerging global brain? In a conversation with Jeff Zaleski (1997), the co-creator of VRML (virtual reality modeling language) Mark Pesce speculates on the deeper significance of cyberspace: Okay. Heres my operating theory. Its a theory and Im doing my best to put it to the test. The yogis talk about the chakras. My own theory is that the planet has chakras, as well as human beings, and that the planetary body is actualizing these chakras. I am pretty sure that the World Wide Web is the physical manifestation, the activation, of [the] ajna chakra . . .
From the article Cyberspace: The Network Frontier, by Doug Phillips URL: http://www.journalofyoga.org/cyberspacejoy.htm

NOTE: See also the Kundalini bibliography.

Ambikananda Saraswati, Swami. Healing Yoga: A Guide to Integrating the Chakras with Your Yoga Practice. Marlowe & Co., 2001. (Includes a section on Yoga for specific ailments.) From the publisher: Today healing has come to mean more than overcoming illness or disease. It is also about finding, maintaining and restoring balance and harmony in both body and mindand in our relationships with ourselves and others. Healing Yoga helps you to do this by teaching you how to integrate an awareness of the panchatattvathe five forces of vitalityinto your Yoga practice. Each tattva is housed in one of the bodys five energy centers, the chakras. Healing Yoga explores each specific tattva and the chakra where it resides, revealing the nature of its vital energy and what happens when this vitality is disturbed. The Yoga asanas most beneficial for enhancing the energy of each tattva are fully illustrated with clear step-by-step photography. Further techniques for attaining balancebreathwork, gestures, visualizations, mantras and dietary adviceare also included. Anandakapila Saraswati, Swami. Chakras. Yoga (Sivananda Math), Jan 1977, pp. 2531. Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii. Glands and subglands. In Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, Yoga Psychology. 3d ed. Calcutta, India: Ananda Marga Publications, 1998. Discusses psychological aspects of cakras and the asanas appropriate for each. Apte, M. V. The cakras. Yoga-Mimamsa, Jul 1966, 9(1):10-15. Arewa, Caroline Showa. Journey Through the Chakras Workbook Using Meditation and Ritual. [Publisher unknown.] All of the chakras are explored from root (or muladhara) chakra to the crown chakra (sahasrara). A detailed table of relationships and correspondences is given for each chakra as well as its related symbol; this is followed by suggestions for a specific meditation to help you get in touch with the energy of each particular chakra. The

visualisations comprise an experiential journey through the chakras, each visualisation building upon the last in an ascension process, an opening to Spirit. These visualisations could be used with clients to help them deal with any issues relating to chakric imbalance or development. Apart from the visualisation there is instruction in a ritual process for each chakra, which will be of particular appeal to those therapists who work in a more shamanic mode. Auriol, Bernard M. Les chakras: Les troubles du comportement et laudiopsychophonologie. Journes Scientifiques de lA.F.A.P.P., 2-3 Jul 1977. ___________. Blanche neige et les sept chakras. Paper presented at a conference 11 Feb 1992. Paper available online: http://auriol.free.fr/yogathera/bn.htm. ___________. Chakras et mots damour. Paper presented at Le Congrs du Transpersonnel sur lAmour, Lavaur, Centre Vajra Yogini. Paper available online: http://auriol.free.fr/yogathera/chakamor.htm. [In French.] Chakras, known as energy centers of the body in the tantric Yoga System, were previews of psychoanalytic driving zones. ___________. La voix et les chakras. [Titled Les chemins de la voix in] Revue Bimestrielle, 1998, no. 142-143, pp. 34-44. Published by le Thtre de Gennevilliers, (ISSN 0335-2927), Thtre du Lierre. Article available online: http://auriol.free.fr/clefsons/voixchak.htm. [In French.] Hypothse de travail sur la production phonique et son coute in thtre/public. ___________, and Paule Vern. Le yoga et les chakras. Paper presented at 2nd Congrs Mondial de Sophrologie, Barcelona, Oct 1975. [In French.] Avalon, Arthur (Sir John Woodroffe). The Serpent Power: The Secrets of Tantric and Shaktic Yoga. New York: Dover, 1974. One of the best resources on the cakras, along with Shyam Sundar Goswamis unparalleled Laya-Yoga: The Definitive Guide to the Chakras and Kundalini. M. Alan Kazlev (http://www.kheper.net/topics/chakras/books.html): The most importantbecause it accurately presents the traditional Indian Shakta Tantric position of the Kundalini and chakra texts available today in the West is Sir John Woodroffes (pseudonym Arthur Avalon) The Serpent Power, first published in 1919 and reprinted a number of times since then. This is actually the translation of two important Indian texts and their commentaries, the Sat-Cakra-Nirupana, written in 1577, and the PadakaPancaka, containing descriptions of the centers and related practices, and Gorakshashatakam, which gives instructions for meditating on the chakras. Woodroffes bookhis own chapters cover Shakta metaphysics and cosmology, Patanjali Yoga, and Tantric practice, as well as the chakras themselvesis unfortunately 3

very difficult for the beginner, but it served as the inspiration and chief reference text (usually without acknowledgment) for many Western occult-esoteric and New Age writers. It could be said without exaggeration that this book forms the basis of almost all contemporary Western understanding of traditional chakra doctrine and Kundalini yoga. ___________. The Mahanirvana Tantra. 1913. Available online: http://www.sacredtexts.com/tantra/maha/index.htm. Framed as a conversation between the god Shiva and goddess Shakti, this text describes the cakra, or subtle energy, structure of the human body, ceremonies, yogic practices, and mantras for meditation . . . Barrall, Julia. Anahata: The singing chakra. Yoga and Life, no. 6, pp. 15-16. Batsheva. Yoga Inside & Out: Exploring Your Chakras video. Volumes 1 and 2. Seven half- hour classes. URL: http://www.yoga-insideout.com. Beeken, Jenny. The Chakras. In Jenny Beeken, Yoga of the Heart: A White Eagle Book of Yoga. News Lands, England: The White Eagle Publishing Trust, 1990, pp. 48-53. Benton, Sue, and Drew Denbaum. Chi Fitness. New York: Harper Resource, 2002. Incorporates cakra exercises for physical and emotional problems. Bhumi (Harriet Russell). Chakra Yoga with Bhumi audiotape. Cleveland, Ohio: Bhumis Yoga and Wellness Center. Tel.: 440-899-9569; email: healingbreath@comcast.net. From Bhumi: Goes through the asanas for each cakra, the colors, psychological implications, sounds to chant, etc., with background music by Jonathan Foust (Sudhir). It also includes a mini chakra chart. Birch, Beryl Bender. Beyond Power Yoga: Eight Levels of Practice for Body and Soul. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000. From the preface: As a result of an insight that occurred to me during a running meditation . . ., I have developed what I believe is a fascinating relationship between each of these eight limbs and the recognized yoga chakras . . . When this vision about an associa tion between the limbs and the chakras occurred to me, I didnt quite get it at first. Discussing the chakras was certainly never part of the original plan for this book, particularly since I knew virtually nothing about them. But as I began to research the chakras, I became more and more intrigued by their relationship to the eight levels of practice in the astanga system. Bittlinger, Arnold. Archetypal Chakras: Meditations and Exercises for Opening Your Chakras. New Delhi, India: New Age Books, 2003.

From the publisher: Unites Eastern concepts of the bodys energy centers, or chakras, with Western psychology. [The author] explores the parallels between the chakra system symbolism and C. G. Jungs process of individuation, showing how each chakra represents a stage in our psychospiritual development. Bourn, Verlon R, II, and Teo Barry Vincent IV. Seven Chakras Kundalini Meditation. Standard music CD (seven pieces, over 1/2 hour), and a multimedia CD (runs in a browser and presents over 1/2 hour of graphics with standard stereo AIF music files automatically playing) that present chakra meditation techniques through information, visuals, and music. Seven sections, one for each chakra: Muladhara, Svadisthana, Manipura, Anahata, Vishuddha, Ajna, and Sahasrara. Samples from the CD can be heard at http://www.JahBuddha.com and at http://www.Blippy.com/chakras. Brennan, Barbara. Hands of Light. New York: Bantam, 1987. M. Alan Kazlev (http://www.kheper.net/topics/chakras/books.html): The classic work on the human energy field (aura) also contains a lot of very useful information on the chakras of the various octaves of the etheric body. The chakras are plausibly described here as having different colours according to the chakra and to the subtle body they are a part of, and also examples are given of them rotating clockwise or anticlockwise, blocked or open. There is also very fascinating material on pathologies of the subtle bodies, and how to heal them. While the primary chakras are not described here, this is still an invaluable book for anyone interested in understanding the subtle body and the dynamics of the human aura . . . Brown, Robert (Himachal). The Chakras of Tantric Yoga software. URL: http://www.webware.ws/chakras.htm?hop=webwight. Includes: Comprehensive description of the cakras and their various attribute; full-screen animations of the cakras accompanied by their associated bja mantras; individual cakra exercises (sanas, mudrs, bandhas, prnyma) for developing health and spiritual well-being by ensuring a free flow of essential life energy or prna through the entire organism; meditations to develop cakra awareness, concentration, relaxation, and the deeper states of consciousness. The material is based on the Shat Chakra Nirupana tantric teachings and the Satyananda Yoga tradition. Bruyere, Rosalyn L. Wheels of Light: Chakras, Auras, and the Healing Energy of the Body. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. Budilovsky, Joan. The Little Yogi Energy Book. URL: http://www.yoyoga.com/books2.html.

From the authors website: . . . explores the yogic system of energy called chakras and relates poses to the seven major chakras. Burger, Bruce. Esoteric Anatomy: The Body as Consciousness. North Atlantic Books. From a review by Philip Young: [The authors] primary emphasis as a teacher and practitioner of Polarity Therapy is that Polarity Therapy is a form of Bhakti yoga. Bhakti yoga is one of the eight branches of classical yoga and relates to compassionate service as a yogic practise. Esoteric Anatomy is infused with Bruces deep commitment to Polarity as spiritual practise . . . It is an extraordinary body of work that displays not only his deep understanding of the art of Polarity therapy but also reflects his spiritual studies in India and Asia and so covers an array of material on all the differing aspects of Polarity theory and practice as well as detail on an esoteric approach to somatic psychology. The philosophical underpinning of the book is derived from Sanatana Dharma, which is an expression of the teachings of the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the teachings of the Indian sage Shankara. Cakras. URL: http://www.tantra-kundalini.com/chakras.htm. Chakra charts. From Wholistic Creations. Created by Terry Satterhwaite. Available for purchase at: http://www.americansanskrit.com/inspire/alphabet.html. Chakra healing. Available online: http://www.yogamedicine.com/chakrahealing.htm. Chakras: The chapels within. A yogic road-map for awareness as it journeys through states of consciousness. Hinduism Today, Jul 1998, pp. 28-31. The chakras and channels of energy. Article available online: http://www.sahajayoga.org/ChakrasAndSubtleBody. The Chakra System. Article available online: http://www.sacredcenters.com/chakras.html. Chakravarti, Sree. The theory of color meditation [utilizing the cakras]; Practicing color meditation. In Sree Chakravarti, A Healers Journey. Portland, Ore.: Rudra Press, 1993, pp. 216-219. Chernin, Dennis K. How to Meditate Using Chakras, Mantras, and Breath. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Think Publishing, 2001. Contents: What is meditation?, Meditation and health, Meditation theory and philosophy, Preparing for meditation, How to meditate Colton, Ann Ree. Kundalini West. Spokane, Wash.: Timeless Books, 1978.

M. Alan Kazlev (http://www.kheper.net/topics/chakras/books.html): As the title indicates, the subject of this book is the chakras and kundalini as interpreted through Ann Rees own eccentric brand of Christian Theosophy. The whole approach is very much for the esoteric/theosophical Christian, and there is a continual emphasis on morality that (to me) is irksome. References are made to Western concepts such as the 12 zodiacal archetypes, the etheric and emotional and mental body, and so on. There are Eastern references but they are often bizarrely interpreted. Ms. Coltons style of writing is very disorganised and heavy, and you will have trouble understanding what she is saying if you are not already familiar with her teachings. But even so, if you plow through it you will find frequent gems of insight . . . The most important thing about this book is that it is one of the very few unique Western interpretations of the primary (archetypal) chakras. Also included are photographs of many of her mandala-paintings, whic h are more approachable than her writing style. Cosmic Energy. Chakra Meditation in Seven Parts CD. Aquarius International Music, 1999. Devi, Nischala. Healing with the Chakras workshop. 6th Annual Yoga Journal Convention, 27-30 Sep 2001, Estes Park, Colorado. Dhaliwal, Hardeep. Uncoiling the serpent: Lights, chakras, action! Ascent. Available online: http://www.ascentmagazine.com/issues/07- lights.html. Digambarji, Swami. Are chakras or lotuses anatomical structures?. In Swami Digambarji, Some thoughts about a few concepts in Yoga. In Swami Digambarji, ed., Collected Papers on Yoga. Lonavla, India: Kaivalyadhama, 1975, p. 30. They have . . . no permanent existence, even for a Yogi. As soon as the Yogi returns back to the ordinary day-to-day consciousness, he can not feel and see these chakras or lotuses . . . Durkheim, Karl Graf von. Hara: The Vital Center of Man. London: Mandala Books, 1977. Earle, Bob. Finding my chakra. Article available online: http://www.sunandmoonstudio.com/finding.html. In two years of regular yoga practice, I have heard about the seven chakras, or centers of energy in the astral body, that rise from the base of the spine through the crown of the head, but I have never found or experienced them, not even one of them and not even once. Yet this doesnt frustrate or make me especially skeptical about their existence. In a man working on fifty, yoga unfolds slowly; its a complex process requiring an encounter between the mind and the body which, despite my intellectual interests and athletic pursuits, I have spent a lifetime avoiding. Energy centres of the human body. Yoga and Life, no. 7, pp. 16-17.

Fadlon, Judith. Meridians, chakras and psycho-neuro-immunology: The dematerializing body and the domestication of alterna tive medicine. Body & Society, Vol. 10, No. 4, 6986 (2004). Abstract: In recent years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has grown both in popularity and economic importance. I argue that this success is primarily the result of domestication to the dominant culture of biomedicine and is readily observable in images and metaphors of the body used both in CAM and biomedical discourse. It is suggested that this shared imagery points to a new phase in the relationship between the body and society. The domestication of CAM is further illustrated through processes of dissemination and professionalization. The article concludes by discussing the domestication of CAM as a reflection of an epistemological shift in biomedicine alongside its continued hegemony. Finger, Alan, with Katrina Repka. Chakra Yoga: Balancing Energy for Physical, Spiritual, and Mental Well-Being. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 2005. From the publisher: Yoga poses, breathing techniques, visualization, and chanting to enhance the subtle energies o the bodyaccompanied by a CD of guided meditations. Fostering healthy chakras in children. Article available online: http://www.sacredcenters.com/articles/childrenchakras.html. Frawley, David. Opening the chakras: New myths and old truths. Yoga International, May/Jun 1993, pp. 20-25. See also the follow-up letter to the editor in the Jul/Aug 1993 issue, p. 5. Gach, Michael Reed, with Carolyn Marco. The chakras. In Michael Reed Gach with Carolyn Marco, Acu-Yoga: The Acupressure Stress Management Book. Tokyo: Japan Publications, 1981, pp. 61-75. Ganapathy, T. N. Appendix G. In T. N. Ganapathy, The Yoga of Tamil Siddha Boganathar, Vol. 1. St. Etienne de Bolton, Quebec, Canada: Babajis Kriya Yoga and Publications, Inc., 2002. Lists Brijendranath Seals and Vasant G. Reles views on the gross anatomical equivalents for each cakra; e.g., the muladhara cakra corresponds to the sacrococcygeal plexus, or the pelvic plexus (inferior hypogastric). Garde, R. K. [Shatchakras and yogasanas]. In R. K. Garde, Principles and Practice of Yoga-Therapy. Bombay, India: D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co., 1972, 1984, pp. 110-111. Gilbert, Lisa. Chakras. Unpublished paper. Author email: LisGil@ashastd.com.

Reviews some of the published and Internet literature (both scientific and anecdotal) that supports or refutes the evidence for chakras. First, evidence for the existence of chakras is summarized. Second, possible physio-biological explanations and plausible theories [are] presented. Third, implications fo r yoga practice of these opinions, theories, and evidence is discussed. Gitananda, Swami. The chakras and nadis of the lower body. Yoga Life, Oct 1981, 12(10):6. Shows the Yoga and Tantric concept of kundalini arousal. ___________. Sailing the inner seas: Meditative concepts concerning chakras and mandalas. Yoga Life, Dec 2002, 33(12):3-9. Contents: Muladhara chakra/prithvi mandala; Swadhisthana chakra/apas mandala; Manipura chakra/tejas mandala; Anahata chakra/vayu mandala; Vishuddhakya chakra/akasha mandala; Ajna chakra; Manas mandala Goel, B. S. Third Eye and Kundalini: An Experiential Account of Journey from Dust to Divinity. Haryana, India: Third Eye Foundation of India, 1995. Gore, Jerry. Holistic medicine and the yoga chakra theory. YOGAChicago, Apr 2000, pp. 3, 6. Gormley, J. J. Aligning Your Chakras with Yoga video. Sun and Moon Yoga Studio, 2003. URL: www.sunandmoonstudio.com. ___________. Seven Chakra Sun Salutes video. Sun and Moon Yoga Studio, 2003. URL: www.sunandmoonstudio.com. Goswami, Shyam Sundar. Layayoga: The Definitive Guide to the Chakras and Kundalini. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions International, 1999. The primary resource on the cakras and the subtle body. Superb. Grasse, Ray. Karma, the chakras, and esoteric yoga. Source unknown. Harris, Judith. Muladhara, elephants and the Kabbalah. In Judith Harris, Jung and Yoga: The Psyche-Body Connection. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Inner City Books, 2001, pp. 102-116. Heilijgers -Seelen, Dorothea Maria. The system of five cakras in the Kubjikamatatantra 14-16. Groningen, the Netherlands : E. Forsten, 1994. (The authors Ph.D. dissertation.) Herring, Barbara Kaplan. Seventh heaven. Yoga Journal. Article available online: http://www.yogajournal.com/newtoyoga/seventh1.cfm.

There are seven chakras, or energy centers, in the body that become blocked by longheld tension and low self-esteem. But practicing poses that correspond to each chakra can release these blocks and clear the path to higher consciousness. Hills, Christopher. Nuclear Evolution: Discovery of the Rainbow Body. Boulder Creek, Calif.: University of Trees Press, 1977. M. Alan Kazlev (http://www.kheper.net/topics/chakras/books.html): . . . presents a detailed, if perhaps a little too simplistic, theory of psychological types in terms of colorradiations of each of the seven chakras. Like so many Westerners, Hills was writing about what he thought were the primary chakras (or just the chakras) but actually were the secondary chakras. This was the book that started the whole rainbow-chakra meme, but it is far more intelligent and sensible than most of its New Age successors . . . Christopher Hills writes a book that could have been a classic but is just bloated. Nevertheless, if you can get hold of copy in a library or 2nd-hand bookshop, you will not find this book lacking in value. From a bookseller description: . . . explores the levels of the personality spectrum mapping out the nature of Mans being through Light, Aura Colors, the Chakras, Einstein Theory, Jungian Typologies, the I Ching, and the highest Yo gic teachings. Contents include: Levels of Consciousness; Kundalini; Penetrating the Imagination Barrier; The Hologram of Life; Colour; The Intuitive Level; The Experience of Space; The Ego Bubble; Influence of Colour and Light on Personality; The Physics of Consciousness; Inside the Nucleus; Ancient and Modern Seers; Experitypics, another of the New Typologies; etc. Himalayan Institute Press. Cakra poster. Available at: http://www.hipress.org/product.asp?item_no=TMPS. History of the Chakra System. Article available online: http://www.sacredcenters.com/articles/chakrahistory.html. Hough, Julia. Peter Falk, the chakras, and spirituality. Enlightened Practice, Jun/Jul 2003, p. 22. Irving, Darrel. Do the chakras really exist? In Darrel Irving, Serpent of Fire: A Modern View of Kundalini. York Beach, Me.: Samuel Weiser, 1995, 61-82. Iyengar, B. K. S. Chakras, bandhas, and kriyas. Iyengar Yoga Institute Review, Summer 1989, 9(3):1-10. (On the psychophysiology of cakras.) ___________. Physiology and cakra. In B. K. S. Iyengar, Astadala Yogaml, Vol. 2. New Delhi, India: Allied Publishers Limited, 2001, pp. 174-181.

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Iyengar, Prashant. Why you are like this and why you are not like that. Part III. Yoga Rahasya, 1998, 5(4):30-38. On the anahata, vishuddi, and agneya [ajna] cakras. ___________. Talks on Chakras audiotape. 23rd Annual Day, Ramamani Iyengar Memorial Yoga Institute. Available from Iyengar Yoga Institute of San Francisco, http://www.iyisf.org/resources/bookstore.html. ___________. Chakras in Yoga Nidra: A little about the tradition behind Yoga Nidra. Bindu, no. 11, pp. 18-20. Available online: http://www.scandyoga.org/english/bindu/27e_tant.html. (Detailed explanation of Yoga Nidra and its practice.) Janakananda, Swami. Tantra and yoga nidra. Available online: http://www.scandyoga.org/english/bindu/27e_tant.html. The chakras have corresponding areas in the brain. When they are relaxed and harmonised during Yoga Nidra, the release of unwanted states such as confusion and lack of concentration begins. People who awaken their chakras through yoga and meditation, open up to a previously unknown capacity for communication, insight and creativity. Janakiraman, Yogacharya, and Carolina Rosso Cicogna. The chakra system. In Yogacharya Janakiraman and Carolina Rosso Cicogna, Solar Yoga. Trieste: Edizioni Italo Svevo, 1989. Jelusich, Richard A. Psychology of the chakras. Article available online: http://www.lightnews.org/psychology_of_the_chakras.htm. (Excerpted from Richard A. Jelusich, Psychology of the Chakras: A Handbook for Healers and Therapists.) __________. Eye of the Lotus: Psychology of the Chakras. Twin Lakes, Wis.: Lotus Press, 2004. From the author: Eye of the Lotus is a book about chakra psychology, an esoteric look at the qualitative philosophy and psychology of being and how chakras affect mental, spiritual, emotional, and physical aspects of our life. The book includes a [large] appendix of chakra balancing and toning exercises, prayers, meditations, yoga, etc. It is the culmination of almost 17 years of spiritual counseling and my intuitive observations of the whole human being. Jepsen, Cindy. Harry Potter and yoga? 28 Jun 2004. Article available online: http://www.veritaserum.com/editorials/cindy-yoga.shtml. In this article, the author points out the similarities between the seven cakras and the plotline of the Harry Potter books. Each of the first five cakras directly relates to the

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themes addressed in each of the first five books, and the author discusses what this may mean for future books. Johari, Harish. Chakras: Energy Centers for Transformation. Rev. and enlarged. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions/Bear & Company, 2001. ___________. Sounds of the Chakras. A companion to the above book by the same author. Judith, Anodea. Eastern Body, Western Mind: Psychology and the Chakra System as a Path to the Self. Berkeley, Calif.: Celestial Arts, 1997. ___________. The Chakra System: A Complete Course in Self-Diagnosis and Healing audiotape set. Boulder, Colo.: Sounds True, 2000. Twelve sessions, six tapes. Anodea Judith has mapped the striking connections between the yogic healing arts and modern psychology and demonstrates how a combination of both traditions can be dramatically more effective than using either one alone. ___________. Wheels of Life: A Users Guide to the Chakra System. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 2000. From a review at Amazon.com: Each chapter is dedicated to a particular chakra. You will learn the Sanskrit name to each chakra, its meaning, location, element, function, inner state, outer state, body parts, color, mantra sound, Hindu deity, as well as other deities from other pantheons. Also each chapter has a meditation on that particular chakra as well as Yoga exercises to harness that particular chakra to your favor. ___________. Coming of Age in the Heart: Chakras, Evolution and the Myth of Our Time. Forthcoming. URL: http://www.sacredcenters.com/articles/CAHconcept.htm. From the website: The chakra system is a profound model for both personal and planetary transformation. This model mirrors the process of individual psychological development from birth to adulthood, described in detail in Eastern Body, Western Mind (and more briefly in the artic le, How to foster health chakras in children). The same model can be applied to our collective development from first chakra stone age infancy, to second chakra Neolithic toddlerhood, and the past 5,000 years of third chakra sibling rivalry and social organization, to emerge at the present time in the throes of adolescence, coming of age into adulthood. Having reached our adult size in terms of population, we must now grow in a spiritual direction, which involves awakening the values of the heart and integrating the chakras above with those below. This coming of age process is an initiatory rite of passage, occurring both individually and collectively through the byproducts of our civilization: overpopulation, environmental destruction, resource scarcity, political conflict, and the global brain that is awakening through mass media and the internet.

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Combines nonfiction and fiction chapters. ___________. How to foster healthy chakras in children. Article available online: http://www.sacredcenters.com/articles/childrenchakras.html. ___________. The Truth about Chakras. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications. ___________, and Selene Vega. The Sevenfold Journey: Reclaiming Mind, Body, and Spirit through the Chakras. Crossing Press, 1993. ___________, and Selene Vega. Psychology of the Chakras workshop. Kripalu Center for Yoga and Health, Lenox, Massachusetts. See http://www.kripalu.org. Kapke, Barry. Energy medicine body maps: Chakras, a structured view. Massage & Bodywork Magazine, Oct-Nov 2000. Karagulla, Shafica, and Dora van Gelder Kunz. The Chakras and the Human Energy Fields. Wheaton, Ill.: The Theosophical Publishing House, 1989. Kaur, Gurutej. Chakra Yoga: A Complete Exercise Program for Balancing the Bodys Energy Centers video. 72 minutes. (Kundalini Yoga.) . . . sixteen asanas, a complete cycle of dynamic moving practices and sacred chants to release blockages in each of your body's energy centers . . . Kaviraj, Gopinath. The Systems of Chakras according to Gorakhanath. Kazlev, M. Alan. The chakras. Extensive online resource: http://www.kheper.net/topics/chakras/index.html Contents: HISTORICAL AND COMPARATIVE: Introduction, Early doctrines regarding chakras, The Tibetan Buddhist theory of chakras, The Natha theory of chakras, The Shakta tgheory of chakras, Radha Soami (Sant Mat), The Theoshophical theory of chakras, The chakras according to Sri Aurobindo, The Rainbow Theory of chakras, New Age interpretations, Barbara Ann Brennan The World Clock Model by Richard Haider; PARALLELS IN NON-INDO-TIBETAN SYSTEMS: Taoist concepts of the subtle body and centers of chii, Early hints of chakras in Platonism, The Sufi Latifa, Hesychastic centres of prayer, The chakras and the Sefirot, Chakras, Sefirot, and Chinese thought; ASSOCIATED CONCEPTS: The nadis, Subtle life energy - prana- vayu - chii - ki; The serpent fire - kundalini - tumo, The circulation of the light - microcosmic orbit; PRACTICAL: Meditating on and balancing the chakras, Some notes on working with chakra energies and energy balancing, Energetic pathways - the chakra figure 8s; METAPHYSICS: Types of chakras, Major and minor chakras, The chakras and the subtle bodies, The transpersonal chakras, The Chakras and the kingdoms of nature, The Chakras and the astrological spheres, Chakras and the evolution of consciousness, The chakras and cosmosomatics, The difficulty of formulating a unified chakra science

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Kelder, Peter. A Chakra and Kundalini Workbook: Psycho-Spiritual Techniques for Health, Rejuvenation, Psychic Powers, and Spiritual Realization. Inner Traditions, 1995. Khalsa, Dharma Singh, M.D., and Cameron Stauth. Healing with the chakra system. In Dharma Singh Khalsa, M.D., and Cameron Stauth, Meditation as Medicine: Activate the Power of Your Natural Healing Force. New York: Pocket Books, 2001, pp. 163-274. Khalsa, Gurmukh Kaur. Shifting Gears: Yoga for Moving Through the Chakras workshop. 6th Annual Yoga Journal Convention, 27-30 Sep 2001, Estes Park, Colorado. Khalsa, Gururattan K. Your Life is in Your Chakras. Sunbury, Pa.: Yoga Technology. URL: http://www.yogatech.com/go/htmlos.cgi/008655.13.1123729322730514357. Kingsland, Kevin and Venika. The chakra system; Chakras and nadis. In Kevin and Venika Kingsland, Complete Hatha Yoga. New York: Arco Publishing, 1976, pp. 34-47; 48-63. ___________. The chakras: The Sahasaram. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Spring 1980, pp. 6-9. Knox, Hansa. The cakras packet. Available from Hansa: hansaknox@aol.com. From Hansa: The chakras are [varyingly] complex and have often been minimized in the way they are presented. I have read and researched and done a composite of information that I include in an extended training I have designed. The full training includes doshic implications and the endocrine balance. Kooten, Victor Van. Grounding and Ascending Spirit workshop. 6th Annual Yoga Journal Convention, 27-30 Sep 2001, Estes Park, Colorado. The chakras in movement through different methods of contacting Earth and Sky. Kriyananda, Goswami. Balancing the cakras. YOGAChicago, Mar-Apr 2001. ___________. How the cakras affect the physical body and cause events to manifest. YOGAChicago, May-Jun 2001, pp. 9-10. ___________. The classical postures (asana). In Goswami Kriyananda, The Spiritual Science of Kriya Yoga. Chicago: The Temple of Kriya Yoga, 1976, 2002, pp. 104-164. Contents: Kriya Yogathe art of balanced being; The five stages of every posture; Guide to performing the postures; Saturn chakra, asans for offering [the]; Jupiter chakra, asans for affecting [the]; Mars chakra, asans for affecting [the]; Venus chakra, asans for affecting [the]; Mercury chakra, asans for affecting [the]; Sun and moon chakras, asans for affecting [the]; All chakras, asans for affecting

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___________. Misconceptions about the chakras. In Goswami Kriyananda, The Spiritual Science of Kriya Yoga. Chicago: The Temple of Kriya Yoga, 1976, 2002, p. 317. Kronlage, Rebekkah. Climbing the ladder of meditation: Introducing the chakra system in your yoga classes. Kripalu Yoga Teachers Association Yoga Bulletin, Fall 200r. Article available online: http://www.kripalu.org/kyta_artcl.php?id=166. Kulak, Daryl. The business chakra system. Massage & Bodywork, Apr/May 2005, pp. 122-126. Includes sections entitled, The Chakras of Your Business, and Diagnosing Business ProblemsA Meditation. Lansdowne, Zachary F. The Chakras and Esoteric Healing. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1993. Available online: http://www.newagebooksindia.com. Leadbeater, C. W. The Chakras. Wheaton, Ill.: Theosophical Publishing House, 1927, 1972. Contents include: The Force-Centers, The Forces, The Absorption of Vitality, The Development of the Chakras, Laya Yoga M. Alan Kazlev (http://www.kheper.net/topics/chakras/books.html): This book exerted a tremendous influence in the West, but it is less about the Chakras than about what Leadbeater thinks about the Chakras and Kundalini. There are some tables and so on which give the basic Tantric iconography, but mostly it is an Adyar Theosophical approach that is as far from the original Shakta tradition as you can get. This was the first book to describe the secondary chakras in the West . . ., and typically these are misunderstood as the primary chakras. Moreover, the fact that these chakras are located along the front of the body has led to the entrenched New Age confusion and guided meditations raising the chi (not kundalini!) energy up the front of the body. As Mantak Chia explains, this is the yin channel, and hence the energy here should descend, not ascend. The most valuable part of this book is the observation that the late 17th century German mystic Johann George Gichtel associated the 7 planets with particular positions on the human body, not unlike the chakras, As I understand it, astrology deals with the archetypal or primary chakras of the solar system as a whole, and Rudolph Steiner also frequently mentions the celestial spheres. An important book nevertheless, but mainly for the historical factor. Anyone who reads this will notice where Barbara Brennan and almost every other New Age writer around have gotten their ideas about the chakras . . . Lele, Avinash, Subhash Ranade, and David Frawley. Marma and yoga [cakras]. In Avinash Lele, Subhash Ranade, and David Frawley. Secrets of Marma: A Comprehensive Text Book of Ayurvedic Vital Points. Pune, India: International Academy of Ayurveda, 1999, pp. 25-29.

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Lis, Kira. Chakras and yoga postures. Available online: http://kira_lis.tripod.com/chakra1.html. Lovell, Charles. The chakras: Are they real? Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Spring 1998, pp. 13-14. Luby, Thia. The chakras. In Thia Luby, Yoga for Teens: How to Improve Your Fitness, Confidence, Appearance, and Health and Have Fun Doing It! Santa Fe, N.M.: Clear Light Publishing, 2000, pp. 8-11. Kaviraj, Gopi Nath. The system of chakras according to Goraksanath. Article available online: http://www.shivashakti.com/gorchak.htm. This article, by Tantric scholar Gopinath Kaviraj, first appeared in the Princess of Wales Sarasvati Bhavan Series, Vo l. II, 1923. ___________. Chakras and the 64 yoginis. Article available online: http://www.shivashakti.com/mat2.htm. There are more systems of chakras in the tantrik tradition than most people realise. One of the most ancient appears in chapter nine of the Kaulajnana Nirnaya, attributed to Siddha Matsyendranath. Said to be the progenitor of the Kaula school of tantra, this chakra system is eightfold. Each of the lotuses has eight petals and these represent the 64 yoginis, famed in Kamarupa. McCord, Rich. Yoga to Awaken the Chakras video. Clarity Sound & Light, 2000. 60 minutes. Migdow, Jeff. Anatomy & Physiology of Yoga: Chakras, Glands, & Nerves audiotape. Presentation at Yoga into the 21st Century Conference, 22-24 Sep 2000, sponsored by Omega Institute and Yoga Journal. Boulder, Colo.: Sounds True. 60 minutes. Learn about the inner connections between your chakras and stimulate the self- healing process of your body by practicing Asanas and Pranayama. ___________. Yoga for second chakra conditio ns. Kripalu Yoga Teachers Association Yoga Bulletin, Fall 2003. Article available online: http://www.kripalu.org/kyta_artcl.php?id=99. Miller, Richard. Chakra cosmology. In Richard C. Miller, The Principles and Practices of Yoga Nidra. Sebastopol, Calif.: Anahata Press, [n.d.]. Moleda, Ula. Yoga for chakra balancing. Article available online: http://www.reikihealing- touch.com/informationevents/articles/yogachakra.htm. Moll, Vicki. Befriending my least favorite chakra through yoga. Article available online: http://www.sunandmoonstudio.com/befriend.html. (On the first cakra.) 16

Moore, Elaine. The fifth chakra and thyroid disease. Article available online: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/graves_disease/78674. Motoyama, Hiroshi. Chakra, Nadi of Yoga, and Meridian Points of Acupuncture. Tokyo: The International Association for Religion and Parapsychology, 1972. ___________. The Ejection of Energy from the Chakra of Yoga and Meridian Points of Acupuncture. Tokyo: The International Association for Religion and Parapsychology, 1975. ___________. A Psychophysiological Study of Yoga. Tokyo The International Association for Religion and Parapsychology, 1976. ___________. The ChakrasInto New Dimensions. 1978. Contents: Introduction, The practice of Tantric Yoga, The chakras and nadis as described in the Upanishads, The chakras and nadis as described in Shat-Chakra-Nirupana, The chakras and paranormal abilities described in Gorakshashatakam, The chakras as explained by Rev. Leadbeater, The chakras and nadis as described by Swami Satyananda, Experience and experiments of the chakras by Motoyama. ___________. An electrophysiological study of prana (ki). Research for Religion and Parapsychology, 1979. Tokyo: The International Association for Religion and Parapsyc hology. Also in Spiritual India and Kundalini, 1978, 2(4):25-38. ___________. Experiments on psi-energy and psi-phenomena by means of chakra instrument and polygraph. Research for Religion and Parapsychology, Jul 1979, 5(2):3562. Tokyo: The International Association for Religion and Parapsychology. ___________. Theories of the Chakras: Bridge to Higher Consciousness. Wheaton, Ill.: The Theosophical Publishing House, 1981. Contents: Introduction, The practice of Tantra Yoga, Yoga asanas, Pranayama and bandhas, The mudras and the awakening of the chakras, The chakras and nadis as described in the Upanishads (The chakras and nadis as described in Shat-ChakraNirupana, The chakras and nadis as described in Gorakshashatakam), The chakras as seen by Rev. C. W. Leadbeater, The chakras and nadis as described by Swami Satyananda, Experience and experiments of the chakras by Motoyama ___________. Relationship among chakras, meridians, character, constitution and karma (part 1). Holistic Science and Human Values, 1989, 1(4):102-107. ___________, and Rande Brown. Science and the Evolution of Consciousness: Chakras, KI and PSI. New York: Random House, 1978/Autumn Press, 1978.

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___________, and Gaetan Chevalier. Similarities and dissimilarities of meridian functions between genders. Submitted for publication: Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, Nov 2001. Abstract: The Single Square Voltage Pulse (SSVP) method was applied on specific acupuncture points of about 2500 male and female subjects who live in California. Data was gathered during a period of six years from 1994 to 2000 at the California Institute for Human Science (CIHS). The gathered data were examined to investigate possible gender differences regarding meridian function. From the current curve generated by the application of the SSVP method, only the BP (Before Polarization; the pre-polarization current in the dermis) was used in this study. Analysis of the data showed that male meridian function is more active and has more energy than female meridian function during cold and hot climates, whereas female subjects have more energy and have more active meridian function during mild climates. On the contrary, the distribution of the most excessive meridians and the most deficient meridians shows the same pattern between males and females, which indicates that males and females are almost the same in their vital energy system. Mullin, Glenn. Tsongkhapas Six Yogas of Naropa. Ithaca, N.Y.: Snow Lion Publications, 1996. Mumford, Jonn. Chakra dharana. In Jonn Mumford, Psychosomatic Yoga. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1974, pp. 46-53. ___________. Laya Yoga theory. In Jonn Mumford, Psychosomatic Yoga. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1974, pp. 39-46. ___________. Solar plexus charging. In Jonn Mumford, Psychosomatic Yoga. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1974, pp. 53-56. Murray, Muz. Chanting the Chakras: Mantras for Healers audiocassette. From the publisher: A vibrant rendering of the ancient Bija Mantras, or seed-sounds as used by Tantric adepts for the activation of the Chakras. These seed-sounds (Lam, Vam, Ram, Yam, Ham, A and Om) pronounced in the authentic nasalised manner of the tantrics, awaken and harmonise the whole chakra system, generating kundalini heat and bringing energy to the nervous system and perceivable vital force throughout the body. Nischalananda Saraswati, Swami. The chakras. Satyananda Ashram Newsletter, 1992, no. 9. ___________. The chakras: Keys to a quantum leap in human evolution. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Autumn 1998, pp. 6-7, 25. Article available online: http://www.yes2yoga.com/article9.asp.

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___________. The Chakras: Catalysts of Evolution. In progress as of 2002. The author may be contacted at: email@mandalayoga.freeserve.co.uk or purnabodha@yahoo.com. . . . treats the chakras from all perspectives and is intended as a practical manual for transformation of energy and the awakening of Consciousness. Nityabodhananda, Swami. Ajna Chakra. Monghyr (Bihar), India: The Bihar School of Yoga, 1973. Partially available online: http://www.beezone.com/AjnaChakra/ajna_chakra.htm. Contents: Introduction, Scriptural reference, Psycho-physiological aspects, Psychic and mystic conceptions, Correlations between science and Yoga, The yogic practices for awakening the ajna chakra (jala neti, asanas, omkar chanting, japa, kaya stairium, tratak, antar tratak, shambhavi mudra, anulom vilom, maha mudra, trikuti nadi shodhanam, guru chakra bheda, ajapa japa, meditation on trikuti) Nolan, Roger. A Journey through the Chakras: Guided Meditation with Roger Nolan audiotape. 1998. OBrien, Paddy. Chakra, colour and sound. In Paddy OBrien, Yoga for Women: A Gentler Strength. London: Thorsons, 1991, 1994, pp. 78-82. Oetgen, Shirley. Use of chakras for yoga sessions. IYTA News (N.Z.) Inc., Winter 2001, p.
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Ozaniec, Naomi. Chakras. Thorsons First Directions series. Thorsons, 2002. Paulson, Genevieve Lewis. Kundalini and the Chakras. Llewellyn, 1991. M. Alan Kazlev (http://www.kheper.net/topics/chakras/books.html): Presents a personal interpretation with very little connection to the original Shakta/Tantra tradition. A lot of material on Kundalini (or Kundalini- like chi?) energy. An interesting approach to the tertiary chakrasdifferent tertiary chakras are listed for each etheric/subtle body. As with Barbara Brennan [in Hands of Light] these are related to psychological states. Pennington, Susan. Introduction to the Chakras with Susan Pennington video. Baltimore, Md.: Susquehanna Yoga Center, 1999. Contact: yoga-susq@erols.com, 410583-7798, ext. 4. 90 minutes, 22-page videolog. From a review by Debbie Grossblatt in the Jul/Aug/Sep 1999 Yoga Community Newsletter: Susan, a classically trained Iyengar yoga teacher, does some good work in trying to demonstrate how specific postures can help a student release the core energies stored within the body . . . I have always found the concept of lines of energy in yoga postures very fascinating and Susans instructions helped me to visualize them and to understand how each one is vital to attain a balanced system.

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Prendergast, John. The cakras in transpersonal psychology. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 2000, no. 10, pp. 45-64. Radha, Swami Sivananda. Kundalini Yoga for the West. Timeless books, 1978, 1993. Contents: The Aspirant; Mystical aspects of Hatha Yoga; Divine Mother Sakti (The Devi); Muladhara: The first cakra; Svadhisthana: The second cakra; Manipura: The third cakra; Anahata: The fourth cakra; Visuddha: The fifth cakra; Ajna: The sixth cakra; Powers of the cakras; Brainstorming: Mind, consciousness, energy ___________. Power and the kundalini system: A brief look at the first three chakras. Ascent, Apr-Jun 1995, pp. 4-13. Rama, Swami. Purifying the chakras: The practice of bhuta shuddhi. Yoga International, Apr/May 2002, pp. 72-79. Ratnam, Bala. Chakra Meditation for Healing audiotape. URL: www.vbt.com.au. Reddy, M. Venkata. A new perspective on chakras & diseases. Prakriti, May-Jun 1990, 73(1):28-35. Roland, Tanya. A chakral awakening. Article available online: http://www.sunandmoonstudio.com/awakening.html. ___________. Moving toward the core: Part one: Chakras and the spine. Article available online: http://www.sunandmoonstudio.com/core.html. Part two: What is a bandha [and how do they relate to the chakras]? Article available online: http://www.sunandmoonstudio.com/core2.html. An interview with J. J. Gormley. Roman, Dinu. The two polarities in Yoga. From a Roots & Wings newsgroup posting. Article available online: http://www.yoga.com/raw/yoga/info/Polarities.html. Author email: dinu@aksi.net. On the yin/yang, lunar/solar polarity of the cakras and nadis. Roney-Dougal, S. M. On a possible psychophysiology of the yogic chakra system. Journal of Indian Psychology, Jul 1999, 17(2). Reprinted in Yoga (Sivananda Math), May 2000, 11(3):35-46 (Part 1), Jul 2000, 11(4):39-47 (Part 2), Sep 2000, 11(5):40-48 (Part 3). Articles available online: (Part 1): http://www.yogamag.net/archives/2000/3may00/chakra1.shtml; (Part 2): http://www.yogamag.net/archives/2000/4july00/chakra2.shtml; (Part 3): http://www.yogamag.net/archives/2000/5sep00/chakras3.shtml.

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S., F. J. Spiritual [subtle] anatomy and the Christian scriptures. Article available online: http://pub30.ezboard.com/fshareyourheresyfrm6.showMessage?topicID=5.topic. Sahaj Yoga (Shakti Das). Chakra and energy body healing: Modalities for conscious practice on yourself and others. Article available online: http://www.rainbowbody.net/HeartMind/ChakraHeal.htm. Sahi, B. B. Vital Energy: Energy for Normal Body Function. New Delhi, India: New Age Books, 2002. Contents: Elements (tattavas); Gunas; Constitution of human body; Vedas and Upanishads; Quotes from Upanishads; Human aura; Chakras; Muladhara (first) chakra; Svadhishthana (second) chakra; Manipura (third) chakra; Ego; Anahata (fourth) chakra; Vishudda (fifth) chakra; Ajna (sixth) chakra; Kundalini shakti; Sahasrara (seventh) chakra; Universal energy field; Sources of human (vital) energy; External energies which influence vital energy; Vital airs (energies) of yoga; Yantra energy; Sex energy; Spiritual intelligence; Meditation; Answers to some frequently asked questions Satchidananda Ma, Swami. Three chakra meditations. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Spring 1998, p. 15. Satyananda Saraswati, Swami. Kundalini Yoga. Bihar, India: Bihar School of Yoga, 1972. ___________. The Pineal Gland (Ajna Chakra). Bihar, India: Bihar School of Yoga, 1972. ___________. The chakras. In Swami Satyananda Saraswati, A Systematic Course in the Ancient Tantric Techniques of Yoga and Kriya. Monghyr, India: Bihar School of Yoga, 1981, pp. 460-592. ___________. Kundalini Tantra. Bihar, India: Bihar School of Yoga, 1996. ___________. Sleep, dreams and yoga nidra. In Swami Satyananda, Yoga Nidra. Munger, Bihar, India: Yoga Publications Trust,1998, pp. 151-157. ___________. Yoga Chudamani Upanishad: Crown Jewel of Yoga. Bihar, India: Bihar School of Yoga. From the publisher: This book is a manual of higher sadhana for advanced aspirants. It delineates the ancient path of kundalini awakening and discusses the nadis, prana vayus, chakras, kundalini shakti, ajapa gayatri, and pranava. The text includes the original Sanskrit verses with transliteration, anvay, translation and a comprehensive commentary by Swami Satyananda. Scott, Melissa B. Chakra awakening: Tap into your deepest self and show your true colors. Fit Yoga, Aug 2004, pp. 56-61, 90. 21

Describes the seven cakras in the Hindu cakra model and illustrates an asana for each. Servine, Sonya. From instinct to illumination: The chakras and human evolution: An exploration. (Part 2.) Yoga Life, May 2005, 36(5):13-19. ___________. From instinct to illumination: The chakras and human evolution: An exploration. (Part 2.) Yoga Life, Jun 2005, 36(6):19-24. ___________. From instinct to illumination: The chakras and human evolution: An exploration. (Part 3.) Yoga Life, Jul 2005, 36(7):11-15. Shachoy, Cator. The chakra system and human physiology: The healing potential of integrating ancient yogic wisdom and modern medical understanding. Common Ground, Fall 2001, pp. 14, 126-128. Author contact: 415-235-9380. Shankaranarayanan, S. Sri Chakra. Chennai, India: Samata Books and Sri Mira Trust, 1996. Contents: The way of the Tantra, The concept of the Chakra, The king of chakras, The emergence of Sri Chakra, Bindu and trikona, The threefold and ninefold division, The nine chakras, The two in one, The deities, Sri Chakra and the mantra, Sri Chakra and the guru, Sri Chakra and the human body, Sri Chakraformulations, Outer worship, Inner worship, Meditations Sharamon, Shalila, and Bodo J. Baginski. The Chakra Handbook: From a Basic Understanding to Practical Application. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2000/Twin Lakes, Wi.: Lotus Press, 2000. Sherwood, Keith. Chakra Therapy, for Personal Growth and Healing. Llewellyn Publications, 1988. Sieczka, Helmut. Chakra Breathing: Pathway to Energy, Harmony, and Self-Healing. Liferhythm, 1994. Simpson, Savitri. Chakras for Starters: Unlock the Hidden Door to Peace and WellBeing. Nevada City, Calif.: Crystal Clarity, 2002. Smith, Trebor. Chakra art. URL: http://www.satorivision.com/chakra.html. Steinberg, David. Third eye meditation and the inner path. Thoughtful Yogi Journal, Apr 2004, 3. As a psychotherapist, yogi and healer, I am deeply interested in how we metabolize and store experience in our bodies. My path has taken me to explore both Western and Eastern forms of psychotherapy and energy work. Various experiences in my yoga

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practice have led me to search for understanding and explanations. I first explored yoga looking for better physical health. What I found, however, was a system for reintegrating mind with body and spirit. Yoga literally means yolk or union in Sanskrit, the ancient Hindu language in which much of India's sacred texts are written. As a psychotherapist, I began to see that certain clients did very well with talking therapy, while others seemed to be much more difficult to reach through language. Persistent states of mind, body and breath (spirit), ways of being and experiencing others often unfold before one develops the capacity of verbal language. In Vedantic psychology, all of life, including Pre- verbal trauma and even your thoughts are imprinted in various physical energy centers in the body. The pathway for tuning into the various chakras (energy centers) is through the third eye center (ajna chakra), located in the center of the brain straight back from the space between your eyebrows . . . Stockman, Paula. Strengthening my heart. Article available online: http://www.sunandmoonstudio.com/strengthening.html. On the heart cakra. Strutt, Malcolm. The evolution of yoga. Yoga Today, Dec 1979, 4(8):18-23. Sukul, Sri Deva Ram. Yoga, Tantra, and modern science. In Sri Deva Ram Sukul, Yoga and Self-Culture. New York: Yoga Institute of America, 1947, pp. 110-146. (Includes color plates of cakras.) Tansley, David V. Subtle Body: Essence and Shadow. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1985. Tigunait, Pandit Rajmani. Answers the questions: I have seen the chakras depicted in a number of books. Sometimes they are elaborate, sometimes quite simple. The colors also differ. How can I tell which of these depictions is accurate? Are the chakras twodimensional as pictured in books or are they three-dimensional? Are they real? Yoga International, Apr/May 2002, pp. 32-34. Trungpa, Chgyam. Secret Beyond Thought: The Five Chakras and the Four Karmas. This brief but potent presentation of the five chakras and the four karmas is especially recommended for students doing the four karmas fire puja or beginning Chakrasamvara retreats. The five chakras, form, speech, consciousness, quality and activity are present in everything and are referred to in the tantric teachings as the secret which is beyond the measure of thoughts and lies hidden in the midst of everyday life. Based on a two-talk seminar given in Boston in 1971. Vaughan, Frances. Chakra symbolism: A psychological commentary. The American Theosophist, Fall Special Issue 1983, pp. 364-373. Reprinted as Cakra symbolism: A psychological commentary in International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 2004, no. 14, pp. 79-85. Author website: www.francesvaughan.com. 23

Velez, Glen. Rhythms of the Chakras, Drumming for the Bodys Energy Centers CD. Boulder, Colo.: Sounds True, 1998. Each of the bodys seven chakras is sensitive to particular tempos and sounds. This CD is an invigorating tour through the physical energy centers, using rhythms, overtones and harmonies that percussionist and composer Glen Velez has reined over 25 years of exploration. Venkatesananda, Swami. The practice of visualization: The mudra. 1975. Article available online: http://www.dailyreadings.com/hatha-8.htm#mudratop. On cakra meditation. Walter, J. Donald. Chakras for Starters. Nevada City, Calif.: Crystal Clarity Publishers, 2002. Ward, Paul Von. Subtle energy in human senses and powers. Cosmic Light, Spring 2000. Article available online: http://www.vonward.com/art27.html. Wauters, Ambika. Chakras and Their Archetypes: Uniting Energy Awareness and Spiritual Growth. Crossing Press, 1997. ___________. Life Changes with the Energy of the Chakras. Crossing Press, 1999. Wilber, Ken. Toward a comprehensive theory of subtle energies. In Ken Wilber, Kosmic Karmic. Boston: Shambhala Publications, forthcoming. Yoga to Awaken the Chakras video. Ananda Yoga series. Nevada City, Calif.: Crystal Clarity Publishers. Zimberoff, Diane. Personal transformation with heart-centered therapies. Journal of Heart Centered Therapies, Spring 1999. Available online: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FGV/1_2/65014122/print.jhtml. (See the section on cakras.)

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Davidson-Rada M, Davidson-Rada J. The Rainbow Model of health as ongoing transformation. Journal of Holistic Nursing, Mar 1993, 11(1):42-55. PMID: 7680678. Abstract: A model is proposed that suggests new directions for achieving well-being that meet the emergent self-transformational needs of individuals. The Rainbow Model is a systematic framework for showing the relationship between approaches to health and total, whole-of- life development, including the spiritual dimension. It uses the colors of

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the rainbow and the chakras to denote progressively expansive understandings and actions regarding wellness and health care. Red, the longest wavelength, corresponds to one's present state of health or disease. Orange reflects a concern with reducing risk factors. Yellow, the third wavelength, signifies a rational approach to health: Beliefs and habits of thinking are examined. Green means health through emotional balance, supportive relationships, and values that support health. Blue is the layer of health through involvement with one's higher purpose. Indigo is the wavelength of health through metaphysical awareness, and violet, the shortest wavelength, shows health to be most profound when one attains universal consciousness: the sense of unity with all life. Dram, D. P., Jr. Multisite surface electromyography and complementary healing intervention: A comparative analysis. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Winter 1997, 3(4):355-364. PMID: 9449057. Abstract: A comparative analysis was conducted on a series of three experimental studies that examined the effect of various local and nonlocal (distant) complementary healing methods on multisite surface electromyographic (sEMG) and autonomic measures. The series concentrated sEMG electrode placement on specific neuromuscular paraspinal centers (cervical [C4], thoracic [T6], and lumbar [L3]), along with the frontalis region, due to the fact that these sites corresponded to the location of individual chakra centers as delineated in ancient Eastern medical and philosophical texts. It was hypothesized that the sEMG assessment procedure had the potential to provide objective, quantifiable correlates for complementary healing treatment effects, as well as assess the energy flow through the chakras during a healing treatment. The studies were the first of their kind to incorporate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled protocols in order to evaluate correlative neuromuscular multisite sEMG paraspinal measures with different complementary healing treatment interventions. Although the measurement protocols were similar between experiments, the results, demonstrated by the individual studies, varied. Whereas the overall findings of the series are encouraging because they indicate a potential objective scientific correlate to complementary healing treatment intervention, the results are considered preliminary in nature and appear to be linked to either the meditational experience of the subjects or dependent on the particular healer(s) used. Additional research is needed in order to establish the multisite sEMG assessment procedure as a reliable correlative measure for complementary healing treatment effects and to determine whether a consistent replicative treatment effect can be demonstrated independent of the specific subject population or practitioner(s) used. Grasse, Ray. Astrology and the chakras: Toward a sacred psychology of the horoscope. InnerSelf magazine. Article available online: http://www.innerself.com/Astrology/chakras.htm. Author email: jupiter@enteract.com. Regardie, Israel. The True Art of Healing: The Unlimited Power of Prayer and Visualization. Novato, Calif.: New World Library, 1932, 1997. (On the Middle Pillar meditation, a technique that combines cakras and the Kabbalahs Tree of Life.)

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Shang, C. Emerging paradigms in mind-body medicine. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Feb 2001, 7(1):83-91. Email: cshang9@yahoo.com. PMID: 11246939. Abstract: The emerging paradigms in medicine can be seen through mind-body interactions. Observations in many meditative traditions suggest a series of objective indicators of health beyond absence of disease. Several of the physical signs have been confirmed by research or are consistent with modern science. Further correlation with long term health outcome is needed. Integration of meditation with conventional therapy has enriched psychotherapy with parallels drawn between the Nine Step Qigong and Freudian developmental psychology. A unified theory of the chakra system and the meridian system widely used in traditional mind-body interventions and acupuncture is presented in terms of modern science based on the morphogenetic singularity theory. Acupuncture points originate from the organizing centers in morphogenesis. Meridians and chakras are related to the underdifferentiated, interconnected cellular network that regulates growth and physiology. This theory explains the distribution and nonspecific activa tion of organizing centers and acupuncture points; the high electric conductance of the meridian system; the polarity effect of electroacupuncture; the side-effect profile of acupuncture; and the ontogeny, phylogeny, and physiologic function of the meridia n system and chakra system. It also successfully predicted several findings in conventional biomedical science. These advances have implications in many disciplines of medicine. Slater, V. E. Toward an understanding of energetic healing, Part 1: Energe tic structures. Journal of Holistic Nursing, Sep 1995, 13(3):209-224. PMID: 7650348. Abstract: The purpose of this article is to describe one understanding of structures involved in energetic healing, which is defined as healing occurring at the quantum and electromagnetic levels of a person, plant, or animal. Characteristics of electromagnets, direct electric currents, Fourier analyzers, and L-C circuits are discussed and applied to the human being. Human electromagnetic characteristics are compared to descriptions of auras, meridians, and chakras. Quantum and chaos theories are presented and applied to the question of the mechanism of energetic healing.

Ongoing Research
Steve Ragsdale, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Biochemistry Beadle Center University of Nebraska Sragsdale1@unl.edu 402-472-2943 Is exploring the relationship between biochemistry, the anatomy of the nervous system, and the cakras.

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