You are on page 1of 233

英汉翻译策略

田传茂 杨先 明 编著

许明武 审校

华东 师范 大学 出版 社

1
目 录

序…………………………………………………………………………………………………黄忠廉
自 序
导 言
一、翻译的本质
二、翻译的原则
三、翻译的程序
四、翻译质量评估
五、译者的素养

第一章 汉英 三大差异
第一节 思维方式差异
一、英语重形合,汉语重意合
二、英语“焦点”视,汉语“散点”视
三、英语客体意识强,汉语主体意识强
四、英汉语在时空观等方面的不同逻辑性

第二节 文化差异
一、历史地理差异
二、宗教习俗差异
三、价值观念差异
四、文学艺术差异
五、社交礼仪差异

第三节 语言差异
一、词类系统差异
二、构词法差异
三、用词倾向差异
四、词义差异
五、词序差异
六、句法结构差异
七、句子扩展机制差异

第二章 汉英 对译四大 疑难
第1节 语言难点
1、 语义
2、 语音
3、 语形
2
第 节 思维方式难点
一、表达方式
二、叙事逻辑与推理模式
第3节 文化难点

2
1、 文化词语的非完全对应
2、 文化空缺
3、 文化冲突
第4节 非语言因素难点
1、 文本语境
2、 文化语境

第三章 汉英 对译策略
第1节 选词
一、通过搭配确定词义
二、通过语篇语境确定词义
3、 通过常识判断确定词义
4、 利用背景知识确定词义
5、 利用逻辑判断和推理确定词义
第2节 替换
1、 替代
2、 转换
第3节 增减
1、 增词
2、 减词
4
第 节 伸缩
一、概括化
二、具体化
第五节 分合
1、 切分
2、 合并
第六节 译借
1、 移植
2、 音译
第七节 直译与意译
1、 直译
2、 意译
3、 直译+意译
第八节 保留与还原
1、 保留
2、 还原
第九节 标点符号的运用
1、 省略原文标点符号
2、 增加原文没有的标点符号
3、 更换原文标点符号
第十节 加注法

第四章 语用 翻译:技 巧综合运 用


第1节 句子翻译

3
1、
定语从句的翻译
2、
被动语态的翻译
3、
汉语特殊句型的翻译
4、
长句的翻译
第二节 常见修辞格的翻译
一、比喻
二、拟人
三、夸张
四、拟声
五、双关
第三节 文化翻译
1、 成语的翻译
2、 颜色词的翻译
3、 文化词语的翻译
4、 临时杜撰词语的翻译
第四节 语篇翻译
1、 段落翻译
2、 篇章翻译
第五节 专八译文选析

翻译练习
参考译文
参考文献

4

黄忠廉

照我原先的计划,四十岁之前从事和研究外译汉,之后研究汉译外。所以,汉译英做得
少研究得也少,仅限于论文摘要的俄译与英译。这次,校友和学友田传茂为我提供了难得的
学习机会,正可以填补这方面的知识空白,使我对汉译外有个较全面的认识。
一个人的写作仅凭文献,搬用某某学的体系,只算得知识型写作,而有人靠才与识,
靠激情,写出的东西不仅有体系,更有血肉,这就是智慧型写作。传茂的《汉英翻译策略》即
属后一种。
本书的立论点是“对译”。“对译”之名,实为互译,但显然作者还有更深层次的一些
考虑。全书首先简述翻译的纯理论问题,如翻译的本质、原则、过程、标准等。这部分简炼到位。
第一章抓住了汉外互译的实质,从深层次的思维差异入手,辅以文化的差异,最终落脚于
语言的差异,这种由里而外的论证,为翻译提供了理论关照。第二章突出汉英互译的四大疑
难,即语言难点、思维方式难点、文化难点和非语言因素难点,与前一章形成内在的呼应。上
述两章正是此书的第一大特色,即为汉英互译提供理论依据。第三和第四章则是基于汉英对
译的差异,专门介绍破解难题的策略,既有具体的全译策略,又有策略的综合运用,这就
形成了此书的第二大特点,即为汉英互译实践提供对策。有理据,有对策,正可以解决全译
的理论与实践两方面的问题。
读罢本书,有一点遗憾,传茂所用材料绝大部分是国内学者的英译。研究汉译英,我有
一种偏见,认为用母语为英语的译者的作品作为语料最好,正如大山汉语说得再好,也好
不过母语,他的汉语听起来可能规范,有时却少了些生气,有时还说些翻译腔式的汉语。我
说此话,并非对国内学者不恭,只有选用地道的汉译英,才能捕捉英语的精气神。另外,我
们知道,直译与意译是形式与意义在语际转换中相互矛盾的产物,直译受制于形式,但能
转形换态,意译则是以意驭形,对形式施“化”。典型的直译是字词的对译,而直译与意译
结合可以产生增译、减译、转译、换译、分译、合译等六种策略,这是次一级的全译策略。就书
的第三章而言,若能深入细辨各种翻译策略之间的关系,还需要从更宏观的层面去安排各
节内容。这个困惑不仅仅是传茂的,也是译界的,因为近年来译界对宏观理论思考趋之若鹜,
而深挖汉外互译事实与规律者愈来愈少。当然,要在一书之中兼论双向语际转化,实在不易,
这个问题仍需继续研究与试验,找到切点,尚待时日。
八年前,我供职江汉石油学院,传茂在荆州师范学院,2002 年几校并为长江大学。现
在传茂让我精神回家,多谢了。当时,周永模、倪传斌、赵军锋等三五好友,常在一起神侃学
问,后来又分居在武汉、上海、南京、广州等地,而现在长江大学又成长了一批青年学者,借
此机会我祝传茂一路走好,更祝长江大学越办越好。

黄忠廉
07 年 4 月于武昌桂子山

5
自 序

《英汉翻译策略》的写作是一个向各位译界前辈学习的过程,我感恩于先哲智慧的滋润。
无论是翻译基本理论探讨,还是翻译实例分析,拙作借鉴或借用了大量中外翻译理论家和
实践家的观点与译文,在此表示真挚的谢意。
谈翻译,绕不开理论与实践的关系问题。第一个问题是,翻译的教与学,需不需要理
论?我们认为,从学习翻译的角度看,关于翻译活动的一些最基本的东西,如“何为翻译 ?
”、“为何翻译”、“翻译什么”、“怎么翻译”以及“何为善译”等,学习者必须知道。第
二个问题是,需要什么样的理论?翻译说到底是一门实践的学问。应当说,那些从实践经验
升华而来的理论,对翻译学习者是具有指导作用的,可以帮助他们熟悉双语对译的规律,
缩短摸索的时间,尽快地踏上译路。
基于这样的认识,本书导言部分旨在帮助学习者了解翻译现象,翻译的本质,翻译的
原则,翻译的过程,翻译的质量标准以及译者应具有的素养。第一章从思维方式、文化、语言
三个方面探讨了英汉语的异同,侧重点在差异上。翻译活动无可逃避地永远在两条思维的轨
道上同时与两种或两种以上的语言和文化打交道。要学好翻译,对所涉两种语言的异同有全
面透彻的了解是基础。语言文化差异必然给翻译带来困难,因此第二章对英汉对译中的各种
难点包括不可译因素进行了讨论,以使翻译学习者对翻译的困难有充分的认识和思想准备。
困难并不意味着放弃,而应寻找可行的办法加以克服,缘此第三、四两章介绍了前人总结出
的各种翻译策略与技巧,及其综合运用。
在翻译技巧的讨论和译例的选择上存在固有的弊端。一方面,译技分门别类,易于讨
论和学习,但实践中的任何一次翻译行为,决不是某种译技的孤立运用,而是各种译技的
综合运用。另一方面,译例为孤立的词语或句子,有断章取义之嫌,与实际翻译活动存在距
离,其优点是学习者可以把某种技巧的运用看得很分明。本着这样的考虑,我们用第四章“
技巧综合运用”来弥补第三章对技巧和语篇割裂的缺欠。另外,第三章的十种技巧,有些技
巧有部分重叠之处,但侧重点不同,书中已作说明。本书最后设计有翻译练习及参考译文。
学习翻译,除了打好理论基础和培养技巧意识外,实践是最终途径。只有通过反复实践,才
能弥合技巧与实践的距离,使技巧的运用成为一种轻松自如的潜意识行为。对于参考译文,
学习者应抱的态度是,没有最好,只有更好,自己的翻译不必不如人家的翻译,反对把名
家翻译或参考译文当作至上权威的观念。
黄忠廉和许明武两位教授在本书写作过程中给予了大力的支持。黄先生是我的学长,
在百忙之中为拙著作序,并对本书的宏观框架提出了很好的改进意见;许先生是我的导师 ,
引我走上学术研究之路,也在百忙之中审校了书稿。在此对两位教授表示由衷的感谢。
本书由田传茂统稿并负责其中导言部分以及第一、二、三章的撰写,杨先明负责第四章
的撰写以及翻译练习与答案部分的设计。
最后希望译界同仁对本书中的错误不吝指正。书中凡有舛漏,概有本书作者负责。

6
导 言

人类社会的发展从古至今离不开语言,也离不开社会交往。但由于人类语言在发音和书
写符号上的差异,人们无论是在口头还是在书面交际上都遇到了困难。为了克服这一困难,
翻译活动便应运而生。
翻译的历史与语言同样悠久。自从有了语言,就有了翻译。翻译可以是语内的,也可以
是语际的,前者如同一语言内各方言间的对译以及古文的今译。后者如英汉互译。
口译早于笔译,因为人类语言最初只有声音和意义,没有书写符号。也因此,人类最早
的翻译活动(口译)无从考证。但我国古代典籍上的有关记载表明,早在远古时期就有了口
译之事。
《周礼》中的“象胥”,就是四方译官的总称。《礼 记·王制》记载:“中国,夷,蛮,
戎,狄……五方之民,言语不通,嗜欲不同,达其志,通其欲:东方曰寄,南方曰象,西
方曰狄鞮,北方曰译。”寄、象、狄鞮、译都是指通译言语的人。由于当时中原文化高于周边民
族,两者之间的翻译只限于通达志欲的口译沟通。后来,佛经译者在“译”之前加“翻”,
构成“翻译”一词,一直沿用至今。
至于笔译,有学者指出,《越人歌》的翻译,即楚王同母弟鄂君子请人将越国舟子的歌
词翻译为楚语,是我国历史上第一篇诗歌翻译(马祖毅,2001:5)。它也许可以视为我国
笔译史的发端。真正意义上的笔译,始于公元一世纪(东汉)时的佛经翻译。说到佛经,我
们立刻会想到《西游记》,想到唐僧西天取经。其实,早在唐朝以前佛经就传到中国并被译成
古汉语。我国的佛经翻译活动自东汉末年至宋代,历一千二三百年,在隋唐时期达到高潮。
比较著名的佛经翻译家有三国时期的支谦、东晋的道安、六朝的鸠摩罗什、唐朝的玄奘等。
佛经翻译之后的第二个翻译高潮是明清耶稣会士和士大夫的科学启蒙翻译,如意大利
传教士利马窦与徐光启合译古希腊数学家欧几里德的《几何原本》,李之藻与葡萄牙人傅汎
际合译亚理士多德的《寰有诠》和《名理探》

《圣经》亦在此时译介到中国。第三 个翻译高潮主
要集中在清末民初,代表人物为严复和林纾,分别译介西方的政治经济学和文学经典著作 ,
如严译黑胥黎的《天演论》,亚当·斯密的《原富》,穆勒的《群己权界论》,林译小仲马的《巴
黎茶花女遗事》,斯陀夫人的《黑奴吁天录》,笛福的《鲁宾孙漂流记》等。
第四个翻译高潮介于五四运动之后到新中国成立之前,主要是马克思主义经典著作和
世界文学的翻译。前者加速了马克思主义在中国的传播,后者推动了五四新文化运动的发展,
在文学创作领域产生了深远的影响。这个时期的著名翻译家有鲁迅、郭沫若、林语堂、朱生豪、
陈望道等。新中国成立之后,在党和政府的关怀之下,马列著作、东欧和苏俄革命文学的译
介蓬勃发展。建国五十多年来,我国的翻译事业在政治、经济、文化、科技等领域取得了令人
瞩目的成就。中央编译局将马列著作全面、系统地译成中文,将我国老一辈领导人的著述和
政府重要文件翻译成外文。在文学方面,傅雷的法国文学翻译、卞之琳的英国文学翻译、戈宝
权的俄罗斯文学翻译等等为中西文化交流作出了重要的贡献。改革开放以来,科技、经贸、法
律翻译等呈现朝气蓬勃的发展趋势,翻译覆盖面愈来愈广,翻译语种愈来愈多,大大加快
了中国与世界接轨、与全球政治经济文化融合的进程。
有趣的是,西方最早的笔译也是始于宗教经典——基督教圣经的翻译。 《圣经》最初的 语
言是希伯莱语,公元一世纪时译为希腊语和阿拉米语,公元四世纪时出现拉丁文翻译的《圣
经》,后由教皇达马塞斯指派圣杰罗姆译为通俗拉丁文圣经,这就是权威的中世纪圣经。公
元十四世纪时威克利夫首次将《圣经》译成英语。1611 年出版的《钦定圣经译本》一直沿用至
今。有人认为,用古希伯莱语写的《圣经》和用阿拉米语写的《福音》,如果没有先译为希腊语
和拉丁文,后来又译为中世纪和近代诸语言的话,两千年来的犹太基督教文化就不会产生 ,
因而欧洲文化也不会出现。从这个意义上讲,欧洲文明离不开翻译,上至罗马帝国,下至今

7
天的欧盟,都要靠翻译来进行国际贸易。
自翻译《圣经》始,将近两千年来,欧洲的翻译活动一直没有停止过。在古希腊、拉丁文
学方面,荷马的史诗,希腊的悲剧、喜剧和抒情诗,忒奥克里托斯,卡图卢斯,普卢塔克的
作品等也多次被译为欧洲许多国家的语言。在保存古希腊文化方面,阿拉伯译者也作出了巨
大的贡献。至于欧洲各国古代和近代的其他大作家,如维吉尔、但丁、莎士比亚、塞万提斯、莫
里哀、歌德、安徒生、陀思妥耶夫斯基、易卜生、托尔斯泰等的作品,也都多次被译成其他国家
的语言。在东方文学方面,阿拉伯的《一千零一夜》、日本 的传统戏剧――能剧、印度的《故事
海》

《薄迦梵歌》、
《沙恭达罗》等都译成了欧洲语言 。特别值得一提的是印度的《五卷书》,它
通过中古波斯文和阿拉伯文译本,反反复复地被译成了多种欧洲语言,产生了巨大的影响。

一、翻译的本质
关于翻译的本质,圣经中的一段故事也许能给我们一些启示。
《创世记》第十一章记载 :
诺亚逃过洪水劫难之后,东迁到示拿,并在底格里斯河与幼发拉底河之间发现了一块大平
原,就在那里从事生产,繁衍子孙。那里土地肥沃,日子也过得越来越兴旺,后来成了人口
众多的城镇。因为祖先们被洪水冲怕了,担心再遭水灾,决定动手修筑一座通天的高塔,以
防水患。他们学会用石料、烧砖与石灰等材料建造高大建筑物的技术,很快把塔建得越来越
高。按计划,这座高塔非常庞大,要能容纳全城的人,因此高度必须达到天顶。上帝耶和华
得知此事,决定亲临人间看个究竟。当他见到塔身后,又惊又怒,心想,刚刚繁荣起来的人
类,就有如此高超的本领,将来高塔直通到我的宝座如何了得。他决定施神术搅乱示拿人的
语言。这样,正在建塔的示拿人彼此不懂对方的话,工程便无法再进行下去,并且发生了许
多纠纷,结果是塔未建成,弄得一片混乱。最后,大家只得按语言结群,散居各地。人们丢
下工具和材料,承认这是“渎犯上帝”的一种惩罚。这座建了一半的塔,被称为巴别塔。这
是基督教解释世界各民族语言来源的故事。而翻译因着这则故事而带上叛逆的色彩,它让不
同语言文化的民族能够跨越上帝耶和华在他们之间设下的语言天堑,继续建造通天塔的未
竟事业,实现全球政治经济文化的大同。
翻译,从某种意义上说,就是叛逆,但不是对上帝的叛逆,而是对原作或原作者的叛
逆。由于不同语言文化之间的差异,绝对忠实于原作的译文是不存在的。叛逆,不是译者有
意为之,而是译者无奈的选择。叛逆,毫无疑问,是翻译固有的属性,但是否就是翻译的本
质呢?我们知道,事物的本质,是决定该事物成为该事物并同其他种类的事物相区别开来
的质的规定性。那么,翻译的质的规定性是什么?国内外不少学者对翻译的本质直接或间接
地提出了自己的观点:
泰特勒:好的翻译应该是把原作的长处如此完备地移注入另一种语言,以使译入语所
属国家的本地人能明白地领悟,强烈地感受,如同使用原作语言的人所领悟、所感受的一样。
(沈苏儒,1998:120)
巴尔胡达罗夫:把一种语言的言语产物(话语),在保持内容不变的情况下改变为另
一种语言的言语产物。(蔡毅,1985:1)
奈达:翻译就是在译入语中再现与原语的信息最切近的自然对等物。(沈苏儒,1998:
131)
卡特福德:用一种等值的语言(译语)的文本材料去替换另一种语言(原语)的文本
材料。(廖七一,2001:128)
沃·维尔施:从本质上看,翻译是一种处于创造和再创造这个“高压区”之中的转换活
动。(桂乾元,1995:59)
季羡林、许国璋:把已说出或写出的话的意思用另一种语言表达出来的活动。(《中国大
百科全书》CD1《语言·文字》卷“翻译”条目)

8
张培基等:翻译是运用一种语言把另一种语言所表达的思维内容准确而完整地重新表
达出来的语言活动。(《英汉翻译教程》绪论,1983)
许均:在某种意义上,翻译就是求“真”。限于字面的翻译,能否传达词语及词语之后的
“真”?在我看来,思与言,是一个互动的过程。而翻译所固有的“求真”的本质,应该是一
个不断求索的过程。……翻译,就其根本,是翻译意义。(《辞海新知》,2001 年,第 5 页)
蔡毅:将一种语言传达的信息用另一种语言传达出来。(《中国翻译》,1995 年,第 6
期)
王克非:翻译是将一种语言文字所蕴含的意思用另外一种语言文字表达出来的文化活
动。(《中国翻译》,1997 年,第 1 期)
方梦之:翻译是按社会认知需要,在具有不同规则的符号系统之间所作的信息传递过
程。(《翻译新论与实践》,1999 年)
范仲英:翻译是人类交流思想过程中沟通不同语言的桥梁,使通晓不同语言的人能通
过原文的重新表达而进行思想交流。翻译是把一种语言(即原语)的信息用另一种语言(即
译语)表达出来,使译文读者能得到原作者所表达的思想,得到与原文读者大致相同的感
受。(《实用翻译教程》,1994 年,第 13 页)
黄忠廉:翻译是有译者参加的活动;翻译是一种语际转换活动;翻译转换的对象是文
化信息;翻译是在译作与原作之间求似的过程;翻译是一种思维活动;翻译是一种语言活
动。(《中国翻译》,2000 年第 6 期,第 46 页)
夏廷德:补偿是翻译的本质。(《外语与外语教学》,2003 年,第 7 期,第 47 页)
赵彦春:既然缺省是必然的,文化缺省自然也避免不了,这就是翻译的本质性特点。
(《四川外语学院学报》,2003 年,第 5 期)
杨大亮、张志强:翻译是设法将一种语言所传递的信息用另一种语言表达出来的跨文化
交际行为。(《上海科技翻译》,2001 年,第 10 页)
从以上论述可以看出,中外翻译研究者大都从规范研究的视角来探讨翻译的本质。也就
是说,他们给翻译的本质以人为的规定性,如“明白地领悟,强烈地感受”、“保持内容不
变”、“最切近的自然对等物”、“对等”、“准确而完整”等。他们的定义与其说是揭示了
翻译的本质特性,不如说是规定了翻译的原则和译文评价标准。有的研究者过于强调语言文
化间的“异”,以至于将文化缺省或对缺省进行补偿视为翻译的本质。这种观点失之片面和
偏激。人类共同的生存环境和生理特性决定了语言文化间的“同”总是大于“异”,思维和
文化的差异不可能是翻译的普遍性,只是特殊的、个别的存在。而本质是事物客观的、普遍的
存在。要弄清翻译的本质,首先必须厘定翻译的内涵与外延。
R.T.贝尔(Roger T. Bell,1991 )指出,英语中的 Translation 有三层含义,一指翻译
过程(Translating),二指翻译过程的产物,三指抽象概念,既包括过程也包括产物。汉语
中的“翻译”,既指翻译活动的主体,即翻译者;也可以指翻译的行为和过程;还可以指
翻译活动的结果,即译文(许均,2001)。雅可布逊(Roman Jakobson)的翻译类型三分法更
是将翻译的领域从语际翻译扩大到语内翻译和符际翻译。此外还有机器翻译、手语翻译等等。
有人甚至认为思想向语言的转换也是一种翻译(许均,2001)。本书不准备讨论广义的翻译,
仅探究狭义的翻译即传统意义上的翻译。从历史看,翻译既可以是声音的转换,也可以是语
言形式的转换。在转换的背后是意思的移植或释传。因此,翻译涉及的是人类自然语言,可
以是一种语言的两种方言或历时变体,也可以是两种不同的语言。这就排除了人工语言与自
然语言之间的转换,也排除了手语翻译这种语言与动作行为之间的转换,更排除了非语言
的不同符号系统之间的转换。
狭义的翻译指语内翻译和语际翻译,包括翻译过程和结果。考察翻译的本质不能撇开译
者。因其目的不同,译者可能会采用不同的翻译策略,如全译和变译(编译、摘译等),这

9
直接影响到原语形式的存易。又因其修养高低有别,译者的产出也不一样,如孬译、庸译、佳
译等,这直接影响原语意义的传达程度。但是我们应当承认,这些都是客观存在的、搬移意
义和信息的语言转换活动,是翻译。因此,从客观的、普遍的意义上看,翻译的 本质是具
有释义 性质的人 类自然语 言转换。这里不说“转换活动”,是要将翻译行为、过程和结果
包括在内。同时也不用“语言活动”、“文化活动”或者“跨文化交际”,因为这不是翻译
区别于他事物的本质特征。“人类自然语言”则排除了各种非语言符号的转换形式。用“释
义”而不用“对等”、“最切近”、“准确而忠实”等是考虑到译者的主观能动性、翻译的目
的及可译性等客观因素。“释义”是翻译内在的但不具有区别性的本质特征,因为其他许多
事物如阅读理解中的变换措词、图画的讲解、体育解说员的解说等等都具有释义性质。只有“
自然语言转换”,虽然它只是翻译的表象,却反映出翻译所独有的、区别于其他任何事物的
本质特性。
国内翻译研究中存在把翻译的本质同翻译的原则、目标、功能相混淆的倾向。忠实与对等,
至多只是某一层次翻译的原则;大体相同的感受,只是译者既定的翻译目标;跨文化交际
不过是翻译的客观功能。翻译除了语言形式转换以及永相伴随的意义转渡外,还有两个内在
特征:意义的丢失或缺省以及译文的老化。翻译中的损失是不可避免的。由于两种语言文化
之间总是存在着差异性,一种语言文化的所有特征不可能在翻译中全部保留。例如英语中的
第三人称语法范畴,英国文化中“西风”的情感因素等等,在汉语语言文化中就没有对应
之物,要么牺牲,要么补偿。但译者必须抱有“保留一切”的愿望,尽自己的努力将损失减
至最低。此外,翻译的时间性因素也特别突出。每一个时代对翻译都有自己的特殊要求,每
一代人都希望在翻译中看到自己和自己的时代。因此,无论是语内翻译,还是语际翻译,复
译新译是永远不会停止的。

二、翻译的原则
所谓原则,指“说话或行事所依据的法则或标准”(《现代汉语词典》(修订本),
1999 年,1549 页)。因此,谈翻译原则即是谈翻译标准。古往今来,许多中外翻译实践家和
理论家提出了形形色色的翻译原则或标准,如古希腊政治家、演说家西塞罗(M. T. Cicero)的
“ 解 释 员 ” 式 的 翻 译 和 “ 演 说 家 ” 式 的 翻 译 , 近 代 英 国 诗 人 兼 翻 译 家 德 莱 顿 ( John
Dryden)的“直译”、“释译”与“仿译”,当代美国译论家奈达(E. A. Nida)的“功能对等
”与“动态对等”,我国古代佛经翻译家支谦和道安的直译、鸠摩罗什的意译,清末严复的
“信、达、雅”,当代学者张培基的“忠实、通顺”、许渊冲的“音美、形美、意美”等等,不
胜枚举。
面对如此众多、差异很大甚至是两相对立的翻译原则,翻译学习者、教师以及实践者应
当何去何从?我们认为,翻译原则的确定取决于许多因素。首先是时代文化语境因素。不同
的时代对翻译有不同的要求。不可能有适合一切时代的翻译准则。例如我国古代从西域和印
度输入佛经,是服务于当时的封建统治阶级麻痹控制百姓思想的需要。由于经典本身的神圣
性以及本土的儒道思想包含有对统治者有利的思想因素,直译与归化式的借用就成为持续
一千多年的佛经翻译的主流原则。到了清朝末年,时代文化语境发生了变化。通过翻译输入
西方先进的科技文化知识,是为了“以夷制夷”。因此,严复、林纾等人的翻译突破了佛经
翻译所依循的直译和严格的意译,采用了溶合增、删、并、改、述、评等手段的灵活翻译策略,
即当代学者黄忠廉先生所谓的“变译”,吸取原著精华,甚至锦上添花。
翻译原则还受翻译自身因素的影响,如翻译的类型、翻译文本的类型、翻译的目的与动
机等等。口译与笔译的原则显然不同。文学文本的翻译同科技文本的翻译原则也不完全一样。
同是文学翻译,作为教学用途的翻译与作为艺术欣赏的翻译原则也不一样。同是科技翻译,
商业与非商业性的翻译原则又不一样。翻译原则是一个多层、多元的系统集合,就像一座大

10
厦,由一个基座以及位于其上的许多不同单元构成。谈翻译原则,只能就事论事。本书探讨
的是笔译(传统意义上的全译)的基本原则。
依附于当代文化语境的翻译,其原则仍然脱不了一个“信”字,即忠实。无论什么类型
的翻译,基本的忠实是必须的。否则就成了创作或四不象。关于忠实的内涵,朱光潜先生在
其文章《谈翻译》中说得很透彻:
严又陵以为译事三难:信,达,雅。其实归根到底,“信”字最不容易做到。原文“
达”而“雅”,译文不“达”不“雅”,那还是不“信”;如果原文不“达”不“雅”,译文“达”
而“雅”,过犹不及,那也还是不“信”。所谓“信”,是对原文忠实,恰如其分地把它的
意思用中文表达出来。有文学价值的作品必是完整的有机体,情感思想和语文风格必
融为一体,声音与意义也必欣和无间。所以对原文忠实,不仅是对浮面的字义忠实,
对情感、思想、风格、声音节奏等必同时忠实……大部分文学作品虽可翻译,译文也只
能得原文的近似。绝对的“信”只是一个理想,事实上很不易做到。
(《翻译论集》,罗新璋编,1984 年,第 8 页)
语言的扦格,文化的差异,译者与作者在时代社会、民族心理、知识架构、写作风格等方
面的距离,决定了翻译实践不可能产生绝对忠实的译文。翻译的求“信”,准确地说,不过
是求“似”而已。“似”的内容大致包括思想、情感、修辞、风格等方面。思想内容的“似”以
至准确是对翻译最基本的要求,同时也较易做到。而情感、修辞与风格,求“似”已不易,
完全的对等几乎是一个难以企及的梦想。也就是说,纯粹的意义相对容易表达;而与意义和
语言形式都有联系的情感、修辞与风格则常常使译者束手无策;形式与意义好比鱼和熊掌,
常常不可兼得。
英汉两种语言属于两种完全不同的语言家族,具有完全不同或大不相同的发音、书写和
意义系统,其间没有丝毫的渊源与联系。如果原作特点体现在语言形式之上,该特点的再现
将非常困难。例如我们中文里可以用字词表示情感,到了英文里不得不用语调。赵元任举了
一个著名的例子。他说汉语的委婉说法“好是好”,翻译成英文最好是用一种雁颈式语调,
It’s good ↗ (but)。不过,“这样子就是把中文的字译成英文的调了”。 (罗新璋,1984:
735)按照赵先生的意见,貌似形义兼顾的“(As for being) good , (it) is good” ,“不能算翻
译”。可见,形义完全的等值不符合英汉语的实际情况,机械地追求形义对等对翻译实践极
其有害,是翻译的大敌。
英汉对译的原则只能是:意义的 “等似” 以及在保 证意义等 似前提下 的“形似 ”。
这里的“意义”包括概念意义、隐含意义、联想意义、情感意义、修辞意义、风格意义、语用意
义等。意义是个复杂的系统,牵涉到情感态度、价值观念、风格语用等很多方面,有时可以做
到对等,有时只能求似。关于意义传译之难,我们将在“汉英对译四大疑难”一章讨论。英
汉语间的“形似”,不是语言外形相似。汉语是四角棱正的方块字,英语是字母文字,它们
之间的语言外形不可能相似;关系亲近的英语与法语、汉语与日语的对译有时或许可以做到
形似。英汉语的形似其实不过是语词基本意义的对应、原文核心词语的完全保存以及词序的
基本一致。例如汉语句子“我住在北京”,英语表达此意的方式与汉语相同,因此可直译为:
I live in Beijing.。显而易见,汉语原文与英语译文,毫无形似可言,只不过在意义上逐词对
应,且词序一致。“形似”包括语言形式的完全相同和大致相似,后者指译文用词相对于原
文可略增或略减,允许词序适当变动,如”I lived in Beijing.”可译为“我曾在北京住过”。
至于“达”与“雅”,视原文而定。原文达雅,则译文达雅,原文不达不雅,则译文亦不达
不雅。

三、翻译的程序
从翻译本身看,可分为结果和过程,前者指静态的翻译产品,后者指动态的、具体的翻

11
译操作。翻译过程决定翻译产品。翻译过程的具体内容因翻译类型而异。这里的“翻译类型”
有三层含义,一是就翻译组织形式而言,是单兵作战,还是集体协作;二是就翻译动机而
言,是非赢利性翻译,还是赢利性的商业化翻译;三是就翻译体式而言,是传统的全译,
还是诸如摘译、编译、译述之类的变译。个人翻译的过程必然不同于小组翻译,前者的文本选
择、收集背景资料、文本转换、译文校核等均由一人完成,后者则在翻译过程的所有环节上存
在分工和互动,如文本选择、理解、译文校核上的协商讨论,文本翻译时的切割分工等。非赢
利性翻译的过程也不同于商业化翻译,如文本选择的主体不同,翻译标准的厘定相异,参
与翻译过程的人员不同等等。全译的过程与变译不同,不同之处在表达即翻译阶段,相应地,
翻译的产出形式也不一样。如摘译,需要摘选,只须翻译原文片段,译文是原文的局部;全
译无须摘选,从头译到尾,译文再现原文的全貌。
无论何种翻译类型,其翻译过程都有一个共核,即理解、表达与校对。先说理解。理解即
解读原语文本。从阐释学和解构主义的角度看,文本是个开放的系统,它允许任何人在任何
语境中以任何方式解读。文本解读是一个心理认知的过程,因不同的解读主体而异。解读主
体,即阅读原文本的人,具有不同的生活阅历,不同的文化知识结构,不同的心性、写作风
格以及各种观念,如世界观、价值观、文化观、审美观等。所有这些个人因素,不管是有意还
是无意,将不可避免地、不以人的意志为转移地渗入译者的文本解读活动,从而使同一文本
的不同阐释成为必然。所谓“译者的隐形”( Venuti, 2004),只是一种良好的愿望,不太
可能实现。
文本的本文意义(semantic inherence of the original, George Steiner, 2001:291 ),即隐藏在
文字背后的作者本意,是客观存在的。从文本的微观结构看,即从字、词、句、段看,本文意
义有时确凿固定,不论隐显,都可以理解;有时则游移不定,难以把捉。从文本的宏观结构
看,本文意义在定与不定之间游动,因此具有无限的阐释可能性。文本就像一花一叶,一草
一木,即便是在观察它的那一瞬间,看似好像没有任何变化,但它的根茎里,汁液在流动 ,
以我们人类肉眼看不见的方式在发育、生长。文本,从表象上看,是一定数量的语言符号的
集合。没有人的阅读,文本不过是没有生命的自在之物,即潜在的审美客体。一旦被人解读,
文本就开始生长、发育、丰满起来。人的解读,赋予文本以生命,给它血肉与灵魂。读者创造
的文本生命已与作者创造的生命有所不同。一方面,创造生命的主体已发生变化;另一方面,
创造生命的时代文化语境也可能发生了变化。文本本文意义的游移性便在此。
解读的对象,从实际看,一般为意义完整的文章或著作,但在特殊情形下,如翻译教
学、翻译考试、变译活动或商业化翻译中,解读对象可能是文本的一部分,如句、段、章节等。
就全译的翻译程序而言, E. A. 奈达(1999:143-150)认为,理想的翻译包括两个步骤,
一是收集有关背景信息,二是实际翻译过程。背景信息的收集包括广泛地阅读原作者的其他
著作或者阅读与原作者同时代的其他作者有关同一主题的文章或著作;确定原著是否已有
翻译文本,若有,可以借鉴原著中的各种难题在该译本中是如何解决的。实际翻译过程则包
括八个步骤: 1)快速翻译原文,注意原作风格, 2)初译稿搁置一周左右,以便再次修改
时能更客观地对译文进行评价而不受以前翻译惯势的影响, 3)仔细检查译文内容,注意表
达的准确性和一致性,4)翻译修改稿搁置几天,6)再次检查译文,校对拼写、标点符号与
格式,7)提交给编辑或出版商,有时必须在检查之后再提交,8)根据编辑或出版商的意
见再次修改。
奈达将翻译程序的核心过程分为四个阶段:1)文本分析,即分析原作的内容与形式两
个方面,主要是确定原文文本的意义——词汇、句法、修辞等各方面的意义;2)语言转换,
即由原语转换成目的语,这是一种思维转换过程,而且是有别于其他任何语言活动的思维
过程,翻译的思维不是一维的抽象思维,它包含着形象思维和灵感思维的交错运用(杨自
检,1994),美国德克萨斯州立大学翻译研究中心的 Rainer Schulte 等人正致力于揭示翻译

12
思维转换过程的研究 (见 http://www.utatdallas.edu/resaerch/cts 网站介绍),但翻译的心理转换
机制至今还是个迷; 3)结构重组,即先把原语的表层结构(形式)转换成深层结构(意
义),再把深层结构转换成目的语的表层结构;4)译文检验,即对原文和译文进行比较,
检查意义是否对等。

四、翻译质量评估
翻译实践中存在各式各样的翻译。这里边,有好的翻译,有基本上过得去的翻译,也有
糟糕的翻译,这就涉及到译文的质量问题。如何评判一篇译文的质量?显然,用前人提出的
抽象翻译标准是无法进行译文质量评估的,如清末学者马建忠关于“善译”的标准——译
成之文适如其所译而止,英国学者泰特勒的翻译三原则等等,都太过抽象,不宜作为评判
标准。翻译质量评估必须建立自己的评判标准和模式。翻译质量评估的核心是翻译观和翻译
质量观。翻译本质的认识和翻译质量标准的厘定决定翻译质量评估的结果。对翻译质量评估
进 行 专 门 研 究 的 学 者 , 国 内 外 并 不 多 见 。 国 外 主 要 有 朱 莉 安 · 豪 斯 (Juliane House,
1981,1997),国内较早的有范守义(1987)、徐盛桓(1987),最近的则有司显柱(2005)。
豪斯博士认为,翻译的本质在于意义从一种语言转移到另一种语言时保持不变。豪斯眼
中的“意义”包括语义、语用及语篇三个维度。具体地说,豪斯把原文和译文切分成八个语
境维度,包括所处地域、社会阶层、所处时代、语言媒介、介入程度、社会职能、社会态度以及
话题范畴。然后分析原文和译文在这八个维度上是否两两相符,是否用同样的方法获得同样
的功能。二者相符度越高,翻译质量越好。
范守义教授是国内较早尝试运用定量分析进行译文评估的学者。他运用模糊数学中诸如
“论域”、“集合”、“元素”等术语和概念,以句子为评估单位,从句法结构、词义搭配、
修辞色彩、风格层次、逻辑结构、形象变通、心理转换、社会规范以及双关语义九个方面判断译
文单位的隶属度。一般是每句只从一个方面进行考察。最后将所有句子的隶属度相加并求出
其平均数,即为对译文的评价。
徐盛桓先生则具体提出了译文评估的数学模型: (W1, W2, …, Wn)·│X1, X2, …,
Xn│。其中 X 表示“标准”,W 表示“权值”,并作出如下规定:1)评估译文质量可分为四
级:好,一般,较差,差;2)评估对象为非抒情性无韵文体(如小说、记叙文、说明文、论说
文等 ),并将评估标准定为不同权值的四类: X1→ 实在意义 (W1=3.5) ,X2→ 文字表达
(W2=2.5),X3→风格和修辞色彩的传递(W3=2),X4→衔接与连贯(W4=2);3)评估译文:以
句子或较长的分句为单位;4)评估单元:以十个评估单位(即十个句子)为一单元,等距离
随 机 抽 样 。 根 据 此 规 定 , 得 出 抒 情 性 无 韵 体 译 文 评 估 的 数 学 公 式 : (3.5, 2.5, 2,
2)·│X1, X2, X3, X4│。具体操作是,译评人对每一评估单元的十个句子按标准进行等级
评判,并将同等级的数量(次数)相加,乘以相应的权值,最后得到四个等级的数字,数字
最大者即为译文评估的结果,如最大数落在“好”上,则译文质量就为“好”。徐先生特别
指出,评估标准和等级具开放性和动态性,如诗歌译文评估就要增加韵律和节奏标准,若
译文评估精粗有变,评估等级可相应增减。
司显柱教授主要从功能语言学的角度探讨了翻译质量评估。他从豪斯的翻译质量评估模
式中吸取营养,认为翻译评估的焦点在文本概念意义、人际意义和语篇意义上,将评估活动
分为三个步骤。首先从形式、功能、情景三者互动的角度对原文、译文语篇里的小句自下而上
地做及物性、语气、情态、评价和主位分析,并据此判断译文与原文是否产生了概念与人际意
义的偏离。其次,自上而下地以整个语篇为视角,同样从形式、功能、情景互动的角度,从反
映翻译情景的目的语特征、社会文化环境等方面,重新审视第一步所发现和描述的偏离个案,
排除对译文质量未造成影响的偏离。最后,在前二步的基础上,从调整后的偏离个案出发,
判定译文在多大程度上和原文对等。司教授将译文中那些在微观层面偏离原文概念意义或人

13
际意义但在宏观即整个语篇层面却未偏离的个案称为“假篇离”,强调了翻译活动中不可
避免的意义偏离的客观事实,强调运用自下而上和自上而下两种方法辨别译文文本中的真
假偏离现象。
最近我国制定了《翻译质量国家标准》和《翻译服务译文质量要求》,对译文质量提出的
要求是:根据翻译服务的特点,译文综合差错率一般不超过 1.5‰,并给出了综合差错率的
计算公式。综观以上翻译质量评估的模式、公式、方法和标准,都有一个无法回避的问题:无
论是翻译标准的确定,等级的评判,还是纠错,真假偏离辨别,都必须依赖于译评人的主
观判断。译文质量评估不可能像自然科学那样客观,因为评估对象具有游移不定性,同时译
文评估的操作者是人,而不是机器,这就加大了评估的主观性,不过可以通过增加评估人
的数量和质量来最大限度地降低评估的偏差,但这在实际操作上又受到人力物力资源的限
制。
翻译质量评估的手段是原文与译文的对比分析。这种分析是宏观和微观的辩证统一,出
发点是微观的字、词、句、段的理解与表达,目的地是译者对原作宏观的把握,如原作的篇章
意旨,作者的文本风格、审美情趣,以及原作的目的功能等,然后再反过来从宏观出发,审
视译者在文本整体把握上的得当与否,推断其在微观的词句选择与安排、语篇衔接与连贯的
考虑,修辞与风格的再现等方面的得与失,最后下一个公允的判断。
这里简要介绍一种文学翻译质量评价标准及模式。文学翻译质量评估标准的核心是原作
整体精神和审美意蕴的再现。评估模式包括评估单位、评估内容、评估均值、评估级别等。评估
一般以语篇为单位;评估内容包括上述四种参数;评估均值的含义是,先由每位评估人按
百分制给出量化分数,然后将所有分数相加,最后用总分数除以评估人数,即为评估均值 ;
最后按百分制区间划定等级,如 A(优)、B(良)、C(好)、D(差)、E(极差)。在翻译
质量评估中,分级制优于百分制,因为评估人的量化分数太过具体,不符合翻译活动自身
的特点,分级制更客观一些。全国英语专业八级考试英译汉评分标准运用分级制和分数化相
结合的方法值得借鉴,其具体标准如下:
第五级(最高级)10-9 分 Excellent Translation
The translation faithfully reflects the original passage with only 1 or 2 minor lexical errors. It
adequately reflects the style and tone of the original passage. The translation is elegant
(appropriate choice of words, a variety in sentence patterns).
第四级 8-7 分 Good Translation with Few Inaccuracies
The translation reflects almost all the original passage with relatively few significant errors in
comprehending individual words, phrases, sentences or ideas. The translation is readable
(generally clear, smooth and cohesive).
第三级 6-5 分 Passable Translation with Some Inaccuracies
The translation adequately reflects most of the original passage with occasional errors in
comprehending individual words, phrases, sentences or ideas. The translation is, for the most part,
readable.
第二级 4-3 分 Inadequate Translation with Frequent Inaccuracies
The translation only reflects about half of the original passage with frequent errors in
comprehending individual words, phrases, sentences or ideas. The translation is, in some parts,
unreadable.
第一级(最低级)2-1 分 Poor Translation
The translation reflects less than half of the original passage. Almost all sentences contain
errors in comprehending individual words, phrases, sentences or ideas. The translation is, for the
most part, unreadable.

14
五、译者的素养
美国翻译理论家奈达 (1993:134-137)在谈及译者的能力时认为,译者应具备四个方面
的基本能力,即双语能力,双重文化修养,专业知识和表达能力。翻译一般涉及两种语言,
因此译者首先必须精通所关涉的两种语言。但翻译不是翻译语言,而是翻译语言所承载的文
化。所以,译者还必须对两种语言所在的文化,如操该语言的民族的历史、风俗、心理以及通
用该语言的国家的地理、政治、经济、科技和意识形态等尽可能地了解。翻译的内容无所不包,
译者不可能做到无所不知。因此译者要量力而为,选择自己欲从事的翻译领域,如文学翻译、
科技翻译、经贸翻译、医学翻译、法律翻译、军事翻译等等。恰当地确定翻译的范围可以最大限
度地发挥自己的潜能,能事半功倍,胜任愉快。
翻译还要求译者有很强的表达能力。翻译虽不是创作,但类似创作。创作是“无中生有
”,是用文字(一般为母语)表达作者头脑中酝酿成熟的思想情感。为什么并非人人都能成
为作家?一个重要因素是表达能力的问题。翻译是“有中生有”,是译者用另外一种语言表
达一种语言表达的思想。由于两种语言文化的差异,我们甚至因此说翻译比创作还难。一个
合格的译者应当像作家一样有很强的写作能力,这是对译者的基本要求之一。否则,无论你
对原文理解多么准确透彻,不会表达,翻译就很难实现。
傅雷认为,一个译者,特别是一个文学翻译者,“要以艺术修养为根本:无敏感之心
灵,无热烈之同情,无适当之鉴赏力,无相当之社会经验,无充分之常识(即所谓杂学) ,
势难理解原作,即或理解,亦未必能深切领悟”。他还说,“平日除钻研外文外,中文亦不
可忽视,旧小说不可不多读,充实辞汇,熟悉吾国固有句法及行文习惯”。( 罗新璋,
1984:695)
今天的社会是市场经济的社会,商业化意识渗透到社会的各个角落,同时也渗透进人
们的心灵。这是一个对翻译需求愈来愈大的时代,翻译市场愈来愈大,翻译商业化性质愈加
彰显。面对商业化浪潮的冲击,我们认为译者应当坚守以下三种精神:
1. 追本穷源的精神
有人会说,追字词之本义,穷用典之源头,贯通原文乃译者本职,似乎用不着强调。其
实不然。目睹译界某些怪现状,使人如骨鲠在喉,不吐不快。拿 Generation X 的翻译为例。有
人根据美国作家 Douglas Coupland 的同名小说(在该小说中 Generation X 用以指美国二十
世纪九十年代初那些从事低报酬的体力劳动的二十来岁的年轻一代)的内容将其译作“无
名一代”,还有人干脆译作“X 一代”。前译还有所本,后译则完全是一种想当然的翻译。
这里的 X 究竟指什么?是与数学里的未知数同义进而喻指“无名”呢,抑或与罗马数字“
十”有关系?有人理解为表示数字“十”,并提供了证据:“从美国建国的 1776 年算起到
1991 年是 215 年,一二十年为一代,差不多是十代”(周新,2001:61)。按这种推理,
Generation X 应译“第十代”。且不论这种理解和翻译正确与否,其追根究底的精神实在可
嘉。也许,Generation X 既包含“无名一代”又包含“第十代”亦未可知。这就是语言文字
的魅力,文学的魅力。答案在作者脑子里,而他是不会明说的。关于想当然,吕淑湘先生就
曾 因自 己的 一个 小疏 忽而 深有 感触 地向 翻译 工作 者发 出忠 告: Never take anything for
granted. 。在这方面,那些译界泰斗是我们学习的楷模。例如王宗炎先生,为了搞清楚
Alliteration 的 翻 译 , 查 阅 了 十 多 种 词 典 , 参 考 了 不 少 外 国 学 者 的 观 点 , 最 后 得 出
Alliteration 是“双声”而非“头韵”,传统译法被推翻。
2. 对读者负责的精神
鲁迅先生曾批评某些译者,“翻开第一行就译”,实在“是太不负责任了”。 (罗新璋,
1984:292)在当代社会,“负责任”是所有人、所有行业、所有实体组织都需要的一种精神,
也是当今国际政治的一个流行概念。中国就一直郑重承诺做一个负责任的大国。国有国格,

15
人有人格。作为翻译人,亦应郑重承诺(在心底而不是口头)永远做一个对读者负责人的人。
对作者、读者、编者和出版者负责,是译者基本的职业道德。而中国当今译界却有极少数不守
职业道德之人。比如某些旅游手册的翻译,企事业单位及其产品简介的翻译,教辅材料的参
考译文,还有极少数当代流行文学作品的翻译,其中误译、漏译、改译、乱译甚至胡译的现象
时有所见。这些虽然不是翻译界的主流,译者也主要是一些打游击的非职业译者,但其负面
影响是巨大的。有的翻译是给外国人看的,有的是给国内学习者和读者看的。错误的翻译不
仅误导人,还损坏了中国翻译人的整体形象。
3. 淡泊名利的精神
市场经济和高校现行的考评体制把一些游击译手市场化、功利化了。翻译能带来名和利。
于是有人自不量力搞起了翻译副业,承接什么手册、什么简介、什么产品之类的翻译业务。还
有近水楼台者能在第一时间获得国外最新畅销书,在商业动机的役使下进行抢译。有的勉强
译之,有的仓促译之,有的草率译之,结果便有了形形色色的译文。这些译者不重过程,只
重结果。只要文章发了,书出了,就达到了目的,译事的是非让别人说去。译者的良知已凐
灭于市场大潮。当然,我们必须承认,译者是人,必须生存,商业性翻译无可非议。但是不
考虑自身的条件,不坚守职业道德,过于看重名利,这些都是翻译所拒斥的。淡泊名利是中
国译界一脉相承的优良传统,早为古人彦琮所提倡,后世译人努力践行。晚清名儒辜鸿铭翻
译的儒家经典《大学》因过不了自己这一关而未予付梓。像傅雷、朱生豪这样的翻译大师,做
翻译常常是几移其稿,以向读者奉献精品为自己的神圣职责,却不知抢译为何物。

16
第一章 汉英三大差异

狭义的翻译一般涉及两种语言,因此语言对比成为翻译研究的重要内容。通过对比,我
们可以归纳总结出两种语言的异同。语言的异同有助于在翻译实践中确定翻译的策略与方法。
例如,若两种语言表达方式相似,我们完全可以采用直译的策略,否则,我们就要运用翻
译的各种技巧来弥合两种语言的差异。当然,只有语言比较是不够的,我们还要了解两种语
言在思维方式和文化上的异同。只有这样才能真正了解翻译所涉及的两种语言,这是从事翻
译的基本前提之一。
任何两种语言的异同,异是相对的,同是普遍的,相似性要远远大于差异性。正如刘宓
庆(1999:43)所说,人类语言的第一位的性质是同质性,人类所有的语言都是符号序列,
都是交际工具,都有大体相同的整体性结构,如语音、语法、词汇,都有从不完善到大体完
善的发展演变史等等。哲学家贺麟(1990)也说,翻译的哲学基础,即在于“人同此心,心
同此理”,心同理同之处,才是人类的真实本性和文化创造之真正源泉,而同心同理之处
亦为人类可以相通之处。不同语言文化的同质性是翻译得以存在的基础,而异质性则给翻译
带来重重困难,因此把握其异质性有助于翻译实践的顺利进行。
汉语和英语分属两种不同的语系,前者属于汉藏语系 (The Sino-Tibetan ),后者属于印
欧语系(The Indo-European)。显然,汉语与英语的差异,比属于同一语系的英语和法语的差
异要大得多,翻译难度更大。下面我们从思维方式、文化、语言三个方面探讨汉语和英语的差
异。

第一节 思维方式差异

“言为心声”。言语是思维的物质化。遣词造句的方式即表达方式,是思维方式的反映。
研究思维方式离不开表达方式;研究思维方式的目的就是要了解某一特定语言的表达方式 。
透彻的了解语言的表达方式可以帮助我们准确而自然地用这种语言说话、写作和翻译。表达
方式与思维的联系比与语言的联系更为紧密,因此我们把它从语言中抽离出来作为独立的
一节讨论。
思维方式是思维活动进行的方式,是思维结构和思维功能的统一。关于思维与语言的
关系,美国语言学家 B. L. 沃尔夫继承了他的老师萨丕尔的学说,提出了著名的沃尔夫假
说(The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis ),认为语言结构决定思维过程,不同民族的语言带有该
民族的思维特点。沃尔夫假说关于语言决定思维的观点至今未被科学证实。相反,不少科学
实验证明,思维虽然与言语有联系,但是并不等同于言语,言语不是思维的必要因素。例
如,一个人处于完全麻醉的状态时,意识没有受到干扰,思维活动仍能照常进行;不掌握
出声语言的聋哑人仍然可以进行思维,婴儿在未学会说话或刚刚开始咿呀学语时也具有一
定的思维能力。不过这是一些特例。在正常情况下,人是借助言语来进行思维活动的。概念
是思维的基本要素,而概念是由语词来表示的,例如“汽车”的概念就是用词“汽车”来
表示的。“汽车”作为能指以符号的形式存在,标志了各式各样的车辆如客车、轿车、卡车
等,具有概括性。词的抽象和概括的特性以及语法规则等,都使语言适于充任思维的工具。
沃尔夫假说中关于不同民族的语言带有该民族思维特点的观点是合乎客观实际的。例
如英语民族的思维方式与汉民族的思维方式存在显著的差异。西方人习惯于对象性的思维
方式,即将整个世界作为一种外在的对象进行研究,将认识的主体和客体截然分开,相互
对立,形成主体-客体二元对立的思维模式;中国人则习惯于非对象性的思维方式,即以“

17
天人合一”作为最基本的思维方式,认为天地与我同心,万物与我并生,反映在认识过程
中就是认识主体与客体的同一性。西方人的主客体二元哲学观和中国人的主客体合一的哲
学观决定了英语和汉语的表达方式具有各自的特点。

一、英语重形合,汉语重意合
季羡林先生(1994)说,“读西方语言写成的书,变格、变位清清楚楚,不必左顾右盼,
就能够了解句子的内容。读汉语则不行,你必须左顾右盼,看上下文,看内在和外在的联
系,然后才能真正了解句子的内容。”产生这种差异的一个重要原因是西方语言 重形合,
汉语则重意合。英语民族表达思想以形驭意,意显于形,注重形式结构的严密性,多用关
联词语、词形变化、虚词,句子各部分的关系清楚明了;汉语民族表达思想则形随意走,意
隐于形,不重视形式结构的严密性,少用关联词语,句子结构松散,各部分关系不明确。
例如:
(1)我买了六只钢笔,一共三十元,拿回家一看,都是用过了的。
译文:I bought six pens which cost me thirty yuan. When I took them back, I
found they were second-hand.(陈定安 用例)
(2)他来了,我走。
译文 :If he comes, I will go. / Since he comes, I will go. / When he comes, I
will go. / As he has come, I will go now. (陈定安 用例)
例 1)汉语原句各部分关系松散,逻辑关系不明确。整个句子只有一个主语“我”,但
句中四个小句的主语并不都是“我”。“一共三十元”和“都是用过了的”的主语实际上
是第一个小句的宾语“这六只钢笔”。汉语的暗示与含蓄由此可见。抓不住汉语句子的意义
脉络,就无法确定句中省略的信息和各小句之间的关系,也就无从翻译。再看对应的英语
译文,句子结构紧凑,各分句的主语以及相互之间的关系一目了然。
例 2)则表明了汉语句子各部分关系含蓄以至含混的特点(忽视句子各部分的逻辑关
系似乎是中国人说话的一惯特点,如“欲穷千里目,更上一层楼”,其中的条件 -结果关系
是通过语义关系暗示的。)。因此,汉译英必须特别注意汉语句子中隐含的逻辑关系,这种
逻辑关系在注重形合的英语中一般要采用增加关联词的方法表达出来。反过来,英译汉则
要考虑汉语意合的特点,英语中的关联词以及某些语境可以暗示的信息要省略,以便符合
汉语“形散”的特点。例如有这样一个英语句子:
(3)An Englishman who could not speak Chinese was once traveling in China.
译文:一个英国人,不会说中国话,有一次在中国旅行。 (毛荣贵 用例)
例 3)英语原句中的关系代词 who,根据汉语意合式行文的特点,在译文中省掉了。总
之,英汉互译必须考虑英语形合和汉语意合的特点,否则译文就会欠地道。比如,如果我
们把例 2)译成“He has come, I will go now” ,就不符合英语句子多用关联词使形式结构显
得紧凑的特点,而如果把例 3)译作“一个不会说中国话的英国人有一次在中国旅行”,
则有拗口之嫌,不符合汉语多用短句、常省略主语的特点。
需要指出的是,英语重形合并不表明它没有意合句,英语中也有意合句,如凯撒的名
言“I came, I saw, I conquered.”,像汉语的意合句一样,其内隐的因果关系是通过前后两个
分句的意义关系暗示的。同样,汉语中也有不少“因为……,所以……”之类的形合句。受
外来语言文化特别是欧化翻译的影响,现代汉语的形合句愈来愈多。

二、英语“焦点”视,汉语“散点”视
申小龙等语法学家认为,从句子形态变化来看,西方语言是一种“焦点”视语言,汉
语则是“散点”视语言。一般说来,英语句子的谓语必然由限定动词 (Finite verb)充当,这

18
个限定动词在人称和数上必须与主语保持一致。句子中如果出现其他动词,则必须采用非
限定形式(Non-finite form,如分词、不定式、动名词等),以示它与限定动词的区别。因此,
抓住句子的限定动词,就是抓住了句的骨干。整个句子的格局也就纲举目张了。也就是说,
谓语动词是英语句子的灵魂与焦点。
汉语句子与英语不同,很少使用 SVO 句型(只有 9%,陈定安,2000:41)。很多汉语
句子以“流水句”形式出现,没有焦点,一个个小句按事理逻辑的发展顺序加以铺排。英
语句子的生成方式表现为一种物理空间体,即按照形式链造句;汉语句子的生成方式表现
为一种心理时间流,即按照自然时空顺序造句。从句子的形态特点看,我们不难发现英语
民族和汉语民族在观察事物方式上的差异:英美人注重个体思维,特别重视细节,总能从
纷繁复杂的事物中抓住最重要的事物,并在思维语言化的过程中将最重要的信息置于主句
的位置,而将次要的信息置于从句或其他次要的句子成分中;中国人惯于综合思维,观察
事物注重整体,不重视个体之间的联系,常常忽视个体的轻重主次,反映在语言表达中多
结构松散、随意铺排的“流水句”。请看下面两个句子:
(4)Lulled by the gentle motion and soothed by the rippling music of the
waves the babies soon fell asleep.
译文:船儿轻轻摇荡,波声潺潺悦耳,孩子们不久就睡着了。 (陈定安 用例)
(5)他拿起杂志,看了一眼,摇了摇头,把它放回桌子上。
译文 :He picked up the magazine and had a look at it. Shaking his head, he
put it back onto the desk.
例 4 )的谓语动词是“ fell asleep” ,这是整个句子的焦点,其他的动词如“ lull” 和
“ soothe” 均采用非限定形式即过去分词形式,句子的信息结构重心与非重心一目了然。而
汉语译句为流水句式,三个小句信息的主次不明确。将英语的主从结构句译为汉语的并列
结构句,原文的信息结构重心发生了改变,翻译时应予以注意,能避免时要尽量避免这种
改变。例 5)为典型流水句,按照事理和心理时间铺陈意思。翻译时,汉语的“散点”视要
转换为英语的“焦点”视。译文将原文的四个焦点减为三个,“摇了摇头”的信息被淡化。
我们也可以只保留句尾焦点,译文便成了: Picking up the magazine to have a look at it and
then shaking his head, he put it back onto the desk.。
要注意的是,“焦点”视是就英语的主从结构句而言的,因为在英语中主从结构是句
子的主要结构形式,但英语中也有类似于汉语的并列结构。是否用并列连词或表示并列关
系的标点符号翻译汉语的并列结构,汉译英时要具体问题具体分析,不可盲目地将所有汉
语的流水句转换为英语的焦点句。“削足适履”式的翻译有时反倒显得不自然,如上面例
5)的翻译,保留三个焦点的译文更接近原文的流水句信息结构,比保留一个焦点的、看似
更“地道”的译文要自然。汉语中并非都是流水句。据有人统计,《老乞大》一文全书共有
643 句,其中流水句 448 句,占全书复合句的 75.89%(陈定安,1998:10)。还有一部分是主
从复合句。因此,英语句子不一定都要转换成汉语的流水句。一种句式最好译成同一种句式,
如果不自然,再考虑转换。

三、英语客体意识强,汉语主体意识强
西方人的主客体对立的哲学观决定了在他们的思维与认识中,主客二分,天人对立,
区别人的内心世界与外界自然物象,划分自我意识和认识对象。也就是说,西方人的思维
方式具有双重特点,既有主体性思维,也有客体对象性思维,而后者占据主导地位,因为
西方思维传统以自然为认知对象。这种客体对象性思维方式使西方人在观察事物时,常常
把视点聚焦于事物而不是观察者自身,表现在语言中就是,英语句子多物称主语,且一般
不能省略,并由此产生谓语形态的被动化。

19
汉民族则习惯于主客体合一的思维方式,如孟子的“万物皆备于我”,陆象山的“宇
宙便是吾心,吾心便是宇宙”等等。中国人强调“移情”,“融合”,认为山水有情,万
物有情,追求的是“你中有我,我中有你,物我一体”的境界。也就是说,汉民族的思维
方式是一元的主体意向性思维方式,其特点是主体介入客体,客体融入主体,以主体意向
统摄客观事实,寓事实判断于道德价值判断之中,主观能动性强,但缺乏客观科学性。表
现在语言中,汉语句子多用人称主语,而且当人称不言而喻时常常隐含人称或省略人称,
从而使汉语中出现大量的省略句和无主句。比如汉语句子“我突然想到一个好主意”,其
思维焦点是“我”,而客体对象“主意”则处于次要地位。同样的意思,英语里习惯说:
“A good idea suddenly struck me.” ,在这里客体对象“ a good idea” 成了思维的焦点,而思
维的主体“me”被置于次要的地位,与汉语思维方式刚好相反,因此初学英语的中国人可
能不习惯这种表达方式,需要特别注意。碰到这种表达方式大相径庭的地方,中国学生要
努力调整自己的思维模式,与英语思维方式接轨,才能像英美人那样地道地说写英语,并
能在两条既有交叉(相同)又有平行(相异)的思维轨道上来去自如,做好翻译。下面列
举反映这一思维方式差异的要点及其实例。
(一)英语句子一般不能没有主语,且多为无灵主语(没有生命的事物)。英译汉时,
英语的物称一般应转换为汉语的人称。人称主语从语境内外寻找,多在句内(如例(6)、(7)和
(8)),有时在句外(如例(9)),如:
(6)The sight of the little poor boy reminded him of his childhood.
译文:看到这个可怜的孩子,他想到了自己的童年。
(7)The bad weather prevented him from attending the meeting.
译文:天气不好,他没去开会。
(8)His passion carried him away.
译文:他因感情冲动而误入歧途。
(9) Memories of that historic and happy occasion still linger.
译文:人们对那次历史性的盛会记忆犹新。
(二)汉语句子多用人称主语,且常省略,又多无主句和省略句。汉译英时,要考虑汉语
的人称是否需要转换成英语的物称;同时,汉语省略句中省略的主语要找出来,然后根据
英文的习惯,确定是否需要翻译出来;汉语无主句,必须先找出它的主语或者确定符合逻
辑的主语,然后作为译句的主语,如:
(10)热得我满身大汗。
译文:The heat makes me sweat.(将原文的动词巧妙地转换为译句的主语)
(11)袭人道:“一百年还记着呢!比不得你,拿着我的话当耳边风,夜里说了,早起就
忘了。”
译文 :I’ll remember if I live to be a hundred!”said Aroma. “I’m not like you,
letting what I say go in at one ear and out at the other forgetting what’s
said at night by the next morning.”(根据上下文语境确定省略的主语)
(12)搞得我心乱如麻。
译文:It made me upset.(增加指代被说话者省略的某事的代词 it 作主语)

四、英汉语在时空观等方面的不同逻辑性
在时空观上,英语是由小到大,汉语则是由大到小。例如时间标记,英语里先说日期
和月份,再说年份;汉语里正好相反,先说年份,再说月日。空间观念差异在写信地址上
表现尤为明显,英语里由小到大,如由街道而城市而省或州而国家;汉语正好相反,由大
到小。这是英语民族重个体思维、汉民族重整体思维的语言例证。在叙事时序上,英语里叙

20
述事件常常是按照时间顺序由现在向过去推进;汉语正相反,由过去向现在推进。英语似
乎特别注意事件发生的“当下性”,而不太注重事理逻辑,如一件事总是在某一具体的时
间点和空间点上发生的,然后再把这一时空点与时空整体相联系,叙述一般从“现在”开
始。汉语总按自然时序来表达,例如叙述事件,过去的事件先发生,现在的事件后发生,
叙述一般由过去向现在推进。在事理逻辑关系的叙述上,英语常把结果放在前面,而把原
因、条件等放在后面。汉语一般是先因后果,似乎更合逻辑。
要注意的是,英语中先果后因的结构是就复句而言的。英语单句的层次还是先说次要 ,
后说主要。刘宓庆(2003:122)指出,英语复句的层次安排常常是:先说结论,后说分析;
先说结果,后说原因,先说假设,再说前提,句子重心取前置式,而汉语单句和复句均取
重心后置式。例如下面英语句子结论在前,分析在后,译成汉语,就必须颠倒顺序,将结
论放到后面去:
13)It was our view that the United States could be effective in both the
tasks outlined by the president -- that is, of ending hostilities as well as of
making a contribution to a permanent peace in the Middle East -- if we
conducted ourselves so that we could remain in permanent contact with all
of these elements in the equation.
译文:如果我们采取行动以便能够继续与中东问题各方始终保持接触,那么我们美国就
能有效地担当起总统所提出的两项任务,那就是在中东结束敌对行动以及对该地区的永
久和平作出贡献。这就是我们的观点。

第二节 文化差异

要了解英汉文化的差异,首先必须了解文化的概念。我国学者梁淑溟说,文化是人们
生活的样法,这是比较笼统的说法。英国文化人类学者泰勒 (Edward Tylor,1871)说,所谓文
化,包括知识、信仰、艺术、道德、法律、习俗以及其它作为社会成员的人们能够获得的一切
能力和习惯在内的复杂集合。人类创造的或留有人类印迹的一切东西,无论是精神的还是
物质的,都是文化现象。各民族由于居住的地理环境不同,历史进程殊异,宗教信仰有别 ,
生活习俗差异等,以至于在文化各方面表现出这样或那样的差异。例如知识,是人类认识
自然、征服自然的产物,但不同的社会,由于文明进程不一样,其知识的积累也就不一样。
就目前来说,西方特别是英美民族的自然科学知识要比汉民族丰富。而历史长短的差异又
决定了英语民族的历史人文知识没有中华民族底蕴深厚。
整体来看,中西文化表现出各自的特色。张岱年先生将中国文化的主要思想观念归纳
为刚健有为、中庸、崇德利用、天人合一、有机整体观、知行合一、重义轻利、重德教轻宗教、爱
国观念、人格意识、因循守旧、自由超脱、虚静思想、等级观念、男尊女卑、命运观念、鬼神迷信
等。西方文化同样博大繁杂,它既包括古希腊的民族与科学精神、希伯莱的神学思想、古罗
马的法律精神、启蒙主义以来的理性主义、也包括反理性主义的现代主义以及反现代反形而
上学的后现代主义。(杨自俭,1999)我们在这里仅从语言与翻译的角度,探讨英语文化和汉
语文化在历史地理、宗教习俗、价值观念、文学艺术、社交礼仪等方面的主要差异。

一、历史地理差异
(一)历史文化差异
历史文化指由特定的历史进程和社会遗产的积淀所形成的文化。各民族国家的历史起
源、发展、进程与内容具有很大的差异性,各自的语言客观而忠实地记录了这种差异性。历
史典故是历史文化的一个重要内容,包含着极其丰富的历史文化背景内容。例如英语习语

21
to eat no fish,出自一个典故,指英国伊丽莎白女王 (1558-1603)时代,耶稣教徒(Protestants)
为了表示对政府忠诚,拒绝遵守反政府的罗马天主教徒 (Roman Catholics) 在星期五只吃鱼
的习俗。根据这一历史背景, to eat no fish 不能作字面解,而应理解为“忠诚”。又如
redcoat,其意不是“红色的外套”,而是指美国独立战争时期的英国士兵,因其身穿红色
制服而得名。再如 Robin Hood,一般译作“罗宾汉”,相传为英国约翰王 (King John, 1199-
1216)时代的人。约翰王有点像中国历史上的商纣王,只知道搜刮民脂民膏,穷兵黩武,引
得民怨沸腾。罗宾汉昼伏夜出,劫富济贫,是如梁山泊好汉那样的英雄,因此在英语文化
中常作为“好汉”的代名词。英语中的历史典故很多,其意常常不在字面,如 go to the
country—“ 付诸全民公决,即指解散议会重新选举下议院”, Big Ben—“ 大本钟”,
carrot and stick—“ 软硬兼施”, New Deal—“ 新政”,cash and carry—“现金自运”, eleven
plus—“小学毕业生进行的考试(相当于我国的中考)”等。
汉语中的历史典故也非常丰富。毛泽东《七律·送氲神》诗词中有两句诗:“春风杨柳万
千条,六亿神州尽舜尧”,其中的“舜尧”是中国历史传说中的两位贤明帝王,为人民所
爱戴,象征圣贤。“舜尧”的这一历史文化内涵对于不熟悉中国文化的外国读者来说是生
疏的。翻译时,可采用直译加注或意译。美国汉学家亚瑟·库柏(Arthur Cooper)采用意译法,
将两行诗译为: Spring winds move willow wands, in tens of millions. / Six hundred million we
shall all be sage-kings!。又如“不为五斗米折腰”,与我国历史上的大诗人陶渊明有关。“五
斗米”虚指东晋时县令的奉禄,陶渊明身为彭泽县令却拒绝阿谀权贵,最后辞官归田。因
此该成语实际上的意思是“不为蝇头小利丧失人格”,似可译为” would rather starve than
bow low for small profit”。
再如”风声鹤唳,草木皆兵”,典出中国历史上的淝水之战。公元 383 年,强大的 前
秦王苻坚率领百万强兵攻打弱小的东晋,晋朝大将谢石、谢玄率兵迎战。苻坚自信必胜,于
是派东晋降将朱序去谢营劝降,可是朱序到了那里,不但未劝降,反而告知谢石,敌营大
军未到,可乘虚进攻。于是,谢石立刻派部下刘牢,率精兵 5 万趁着天黑,渡过洛涧奇袭秦
军,结果苻坚的军队大败。 苻坚吃了败仗,勃然大怒,他登上城楼,朝淝水南岸的晋军望
去,不由地打了个冷战。苻坚远远望见晋军队伍整齐,士气高昂。再看,八公山上草木丛丛,
迎风摇曳,他以为那是晋兵,不觉惴惴不安,自言自语道:“晋兵真不少啊”。汉语历史
典故多为成语,如“朝秦暮楚”,“围魏救赵”,“完璧归赵”,“闻鸡起舞”,“中流
砥柱”等。翻译汉语历史典故,必须首先了解其历史背景,然后确定恰当的翻译策略。
(二)地理文化差异
地理文化指由所处地域、自然条件和地理环境所形成的文化。各民族国家的地理位置、
气候、地貌等生存环境存在不同程度的差异。这一差异使人们对同一现象或事物形成不同的
看法,同时也影响着人们的日常交际。辜振坤博士(2004)认为,地理气候因素对文化的产生、
发展、变化有很大的影响。西方土地贫瘠,但海运便利,于是发展起以商业运输为特色的航
海文化。而古代中国的中原土地肥沃、气候适宜,于是形成了极为丰富的内陆农业文化。英
语民族,即安格鲁·撒克逊民族(Anglo-Saxons) ,生活在大不列颠岛上,周围为海洋环绕,
航海发达,天气多变多雨。汉民族历史上长期生活在内陆,以农耕为主,属温带大陆性气
候。不同的生存环境在各自的语言中有很鲜明的印记。例如日常打招呼,英国人喜欢谈天气,
常说“It’s fine today, isn’t it?”,其原因是英国天气多变,说下雨就下雨,对英国人的日常生
活产生很大影响。中国人日常打招呼常说“吃饭没有?”,其原因大概是,中国虽然是农业国,
在封建社会普通百姓却常常食不裹腹,不得不为一天三餐操心。不过,无论英语还是汉语 ,
这样的招呼语早已失去了其字面意义,仅作为人际交往中寒喧和联络感情用,也就是说,
其语义功能已为交际语用功能代替。鉴于交际语用功能相似,这样的英汉招呼语翻译时可
互换使用。

22
又如“东风”与“西风”,在英汉两种文化中,虽然所指意义相似,都指由东面吹来
的风,但内涵意义大不一样,这是由不同的地理环境造成的。在中国,“东风”由太平洋
吹来,温暖潮湿,使万物复苏,有“东风报春”、“东风压倒西风”等之说,所以中国人
偏爱东风,常用它作为革命力量的象征。“西风”来自西北,寒冷干燥,中国人不喜欢它 ,
常用它作为反革命势力的象征。在英国,“东风”由东北的欧洲大陆吹来,寒冷干燥,因
此英国人不喜欢它。而“西风”由西南方向的大西洋吹来,这里有大西洋暖流经过,“西
风”给英国人带来温暖和雨水,带来春天,因而深受英国人的喜爱。英国文学史上有两位
诗人用同一个标题 Ode to the West Wind 对西风进行了情深意浓地歌颂,一位是雪莱 (Percy
Bysshe Shelley) ,一位是曼斯菲尔德 (John Mansfield) 。雪莱诗的最后两行是: O, wind, if
Winter comes, can Spring be far behind? (啊,西风,冬天来了,春天还会远吗?)。曼斯菲尔德
的诗如下: It’s a warm wind, the west wind, full of birds’ cries, / never hear the west wind but
tears are in my eyes, / For it comes from the west lands, the old brown hill, / And April’s in the
west wind, and daffodils. (这是暖风哟,西风哟,充满了小鸟的歌唱; 我每一次听到了西
风,就不禁泪水哟盈眶。 因为它来自那西土,那苍老而暗黄的山峦, 西风吹来了四月,
也吹来了水仙。——余光中 译)。可见,在英汉两种文化中,“东风”与“西风”的含义
正好相反,翻译时要特别注意,若直译,必须加注,交代其文化含义。
另外,英国是一个岛国,航海作为探索世界、认识世界、殖民扩张以及经济军事竞争的
手段,在英国历史上一直占据重要地位。英语中因此有许多与航海有关的习语,如 when
one’s ship comes home——“ 等 到 有 钱 时 ” , plain sailing ——“ 一 帆 风 顺 ” , all at sea
——“ 不 知 所 措 ” , to keep one’s head above water——“ 奋 力 图 存 ” , to sink or swim
——“好歹,不论成败”, to rest on one’s oars——“暂时歇一歇”,to tide over ——“顺
利度过”, to know the ropes——“懂得秘诀,内行”, Still waters run deep.——“静水流
深”等。这类习语的理解与翻译必须结合航海的历史背景。除了航海,英国也有农牧业。耕
地用马,所以英语里有 as strong as a horse ——“非常强壮”和 work as a horse ——“非常
勤奋”;畜牧业以放羊为主,盛产羊奶、牛奶,所以英语里有 black sheep——“害群之马
”与 It’s no use crying over spilt milk. ——“覆水难收”。
中国是一个典型的内陆型农业国,耕地用牛,因此汉语中有很多与农事有关的成语和
用语,如“力大如牛” ——as strong as an ox,“牛饮” ——to drink like a fish,“吹牛”
——to talk horse,“对牛弹琴” ——to cast pearls before swine, “斩草除根” ——to cut
the weeds and dig up the roots -- to destroy root and branch ,“瑞雪兆丰年” ——Auspicious
snow foretells a bumper harvest / Snow is the harbinger of an abundant year ,“揠苗助长” —
— to try to help the shoots grow by pulling them upward -- to spoil things by excessive
enthusiasm,“解甲归田” ——to take off one’s armour and return to one’s native place ,“瓜
熟蒂落” ——A melon falls off the stem when it is ripe ,“检了芝麻,丢了西瓜” ——Pick
up the sesame seeds but overlook the watermelons 等。
此外,英汉民族在方位感上也有差异。中国文化传统上尊南卑北,有“南面为王,北
面为朝”之说,南的方位在说法上常常置前,如“从南到北”,“南来北往”等。英语里
表示方位的说法在很多情况下与汉语恰好相反,如汉语里的“从南到北”、“南屋”、“西
北”、“东南”等,译成英语分别是: from north to south, a room with a northern exposure,
northwest, southeast。

二、宗教习俗差异
(一)宗教文化差异
宗教文化指由民族的宗教信仰、意识等所形成的文化,表现为不同民族在崇尚、禁忌等

23
方面的差异。儒教、道教、佛教是中国人信仰的三大宗教。他们敬畏的神明是孔圣人、佛祖菩
萨、玉皇大帝、太上老君、老天爷、阎王、龙王,因此过去读书人启蒙要拜孔圣人的牌位,人
生追求的是“仁” (benevolence) ,“义” (justice) ,“礼” (etiquette) ,“智” (wit) ,“信
”(faithfulness);中国人喜得贵子要拜观音菩萨(White Goddess of Mercy);避灾免祸祈求福
祉要念“阿弥陀佛”([Namo] Amitabha);感叹、惊喜时会说“我的天哪!”许多三大宗教经典
中的用语成为成语谚语,为人们喜闻乐用,如“任重道远”、“温故知新”、“见贤思齐”、
“循序渐进”、“借花献佛”、“泥菩萨过河,自身难保”、“道高一尺,魔高一丈”等等。
英美人多信基督教,认为世界上的一切都是由上帝创造和安排的,圣子耶稣与圣父、
圣灵三位一体,因此西方人吃惊、感叹、惊喜时常说“My God!”/ ”My Lord”/ ”My Christ!”,
大致相当于中国人的“我的天哪!”。他们发怒时会说”Go to hell!”/ ”Go to the devil”,则与汉
语里的“打到十八层地狱”/“见阎王”/“见鬼去”相仿佛。基督教的经典是《圣经》。据有人 统
计,英语中来自《圣经》的典故多达七百多条,比较常用的如”fig leaf” ——“遮羞布”,
” forbidden fruit” ——“禁果”,” original sin / Adam’ sin” ——“原罪”,” cast pearls
before swine” ——“对牛弹琴”,”an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth” ——“以眼还
眼,以牙还牙”, “turn a deaf ear to” ——“充耳不闻”,”apple of one’s eye” ——“珍
贵之物”,” to wash one’s hands of ” ——“洗手不干”,” the salt of the earth” ——“社
会精英”等等。宗教典故的翻译要注意宗教色彩,如汉语的”谋事在人,成事在天”,其
中的“天”,也就是“老天爷”,带有明显的汉文化色彩,最好不要用英语中意义对等的
”Man proposes, God disposes.”翻译,因为 God 是基督教的主神,不是汉民族宗教神话里的
神,似可用中性的 Heaven 替代。
(二)习俗文化差异
习俗文化指贯穿于日常社会生活和交际活动中由民族的风俗习惯形成的文化。一种文
化的习俗有时是独特的,不见于其他文化;有时可见于其他文化,但存在不同程度的差异 ;
有时会与其他文化的习俗产生冲突。郑晓龙导演的电影《刮痧》生动而深刻地反映了中西文
化习俗的冲突。刮痧,本是中国民间流传了几千年的传统疗法,在美国却被视为虐待儿童
的罪证。该电影虽属虚构,却告诉人们,在跨文化交际中要注意并尊重习俗差异。
传统节日是各民族在长期的历史过程中逐渐形成的,是习俗文化的重要内容。不同民
族的传统节日在形式和内容上都大不相同。现将中西方的主要传统节日列举如下:

中国传统节日
春 节 Spring Festival(or Chinese New Year’s Day, 1st of the first lunar month, 3 days
off)(盍家团聚,吃团年饭)
元宵节 Lantern Festival (15th of the first lunar month, marking the end of the Chinese
New Year celebrations with a display of colourful lanterns and eating of
yuanxiao)(赏花灯,吃元宵)
清明节 Pure Brightness Festival (marking the 5th seasonal division point and usually
falling on the 5th or 6th of April, a traditional festival for commemorating the dead,
also called Tomb-Sweeping Festival)(扫墓祭祖)
端午节 Dragon Boat Festival (5th of the fifth lunar month, celebrated by eating zongzi and
holding dragon boat races, also called Double Fifth Festival)(赛龙舟,吃棕子,
祭屈原)
中秋节 Mid-Autumn Festival (15th of the eighth lunar month, a traditional festival for
family reunion, celebrated by eating moon cakes and enjoying the full moon)(盍
家团聚,赏月,吃月饼)
重阳节 Double Ninth Festival (9th of the ninth lunar month, celebrated by climbing
heights to enjoy nature and honouring elderly people)(登高望远,孝敬老人)

24
西方传统节日
Valentine’s Day 情 人 节 (February 14, celebrated in various North American and most
European countries by the exchange of valentines or love tokens)(给关爱
的人送礼物)
Good Friday 耶 稣 受 难 节 (the Friday before Easter, observed by Christians in the
crucifixion of Jusus)(纪念耶稣受难)
Easter 复 活 节 (the day on which a Christian feast commemorating the
Resurrection of Jesus is observed, the first Sunday following the full moon
that occurs on or next to March 21)(纪念耶稣复活)
April Fools’ Day 愚人节 (April 1, celebrated by various countries such as the United States
and Great Britain, and marked by the playing of practical jokes)(对人开
玩笑而不会冒犯对方)
May Day 五朔 节(May 1, observed in the United States, Canada and parts of West
Europe in celebration of the coming of spring)(青年男女跳舞、比赛迎接
春天到来)
Halloween 万圣节前夕 (October 31, celebrated in the United States, Canada, and the
British Isles by children going door to door while wearing costumes and
begging treats and playing pranks)(百鬼出动,人们带假面具、穿古怪服
装游行)
Guy Fawkes 盖伊·福克斯之夜(篝火之夜) (November 5, when GUYS are burnt and
Night coloured fireworks are lighted)(燃放烟火)
Thanksgiving 感恩节 (the fourth Thursday of November, observed as a legal holiday
Day in the Unites States to commemorate the feast held at Plymouth in 1621,
the Pilgrim colonists and members of Wampanoag people and marked by
the giving of thanks to God for harvest and health)(感谢上帝赐予人类
丰年与健康)
Christmas 圣诞节 (December 25, the day on which a Christian feast commemorating
the birth of Jesus Christ is celebrated)( 盍家团聚,吃圣诞晚餐,纪念耶
稣诞生)
Boxing Day 节礼日(the first weekday after Christmas, celebrated as a holiday in parts
of the British Commonwealth, when gifts are traditionally given to service
workers)(主人给仆人、公司给职员送礼物)

中西方的传统节日有各自的来历和内容,如中国的重阳节,为九月初九。《易经》中 把
“九”定为阳数,九月九日,两九相重,古人认为是一个值得庆贺的吉利日子。据文献记
载,早在战国时代重阳节时民间就有登高、饮菊花酒的风俗。西汉时成为固定节日。重阳节
的活动丰富多彩,一般包括出游赏景、登高远眺、观赏菊花、遍插茱萸、吃重阳糕、饮菊花酒
等。登高远眺相传始于东汉,是重阳节的重要内容,故又叫“登高节”。重阳节饮菊花酒的
习俗源于晋朝大诗人陶渊明。陶渊明以隐居、作诗、饮酒、爱菊出名;后人效仿他,遂有重阳
赏菊的风俗。插茱萸和簪菊花也是重阳节的重要习俗,在唐代就已经很普遍。古人认为在重
阳节这一天插茱萸可以避难消灾。在汉语文化中,“九九”还意蕴“高寿”,因此 中国政
府于 1989 年将每年的这一天定为“老人节”。
又如盖伊·福克斯之夜,与英国历史上的“火药阴谋”(Gunpowder Plot)有关。1605 年,
遭受新教政府重压的英国天主教徒密谋趁议会于 11 月 5 日开会时一举将拒绝宗教宽容的詹
姆士一世国王,还有王后、太子以及议会成员全部炸死。他们租赁了一间直通议会大厦基层

25
的地下室。密谋者之一的盖伊·福克斯(Guy Fawkes, 1570-1606)在地下室放了 20 多桶炸药。由
于阴谋败露,福克斯及其同伙被捕,后来被处死。拥护政府的新教徒 (Protestants)对阴谋者
切齿痛恨,就用旧衣服、废旧纸张做成象征密谋者的假人 (Guy),有点像我国农村扎的稻草
人,放在自家的菜园里,架起干柴,燃起熊熊大火,将假人烧成灰烬,后来逐渐形成 节日,
并演变成燃放烟花、焰火的篝火节。
要注意的是,有很多英汉习语与习俗有关。以英语为例,如 to be egged and tomatoed 这
一表达法有它特殊的文化蕴含:在英语国家里,将生鸡蛋、西红柿扔向对方是给人难堪、使
人狼狈,借以发泄对对方的厌恶、蔑视和不屑,是侮辱人的做法。又如 Sunday best,意为“
最好、最漂亮的衣服”,相当于中国人逢年过节穿的新衣服。在星期天,西方人一般上教堂
做祷告,当然得穿上最好的衣服。Trick or treat! 则与万圣节前夕(Halloween)有关,是小孩子
向人家索取糖果吃时的说话,意为“不想我作怪就请我吃糖”。再如 Roman Striking ——
罗马式鸣钟法,是十八世纪以前西方的一种报时习惯,用高低二钟响铃,高音铃一响表示
一点,两响表示两点,等等;低音铃一响表示五点,两响表示十点。这些习语,要么意在
字面之外,要么内涵非常丰富,翻译时要特别注意。
禁忌是习俗的一部分。中西方禁忌的内容大不相同,如在英语文化里,下面的问题就
属于禁忌语,一般是不能问的:“你多大年纪 ?”“你挣多少钱?”“你的收入多少?”“你这件外
衣多少钱?”“你这辆汽车多少钱?”“你结婚了吗?”“你怎么还没结婚呢?”“你是共和党还是民主
党?”“你信教吗?”“你信什么教?”(邓炎昌、刘润清,1989:227)但偶尔也有相似的,如中英文
化都认为在屋中撑伞会倒霉。
这里主要介绍两种文化中吉利与不吉利的事情。在西方,数字 13 和星期五都是不吉利
的,因为在最后晚餐上犹大就是出卖耶稣的第 13 个人,而耶稣在星期五受难;在中国,
数字 4 与 8 分别代表不吉利与吉利,因为它们分别与“死”、“发”音近。在西方,圣诞晚
餐时按顺时针方向搅动布丁能使自己在未来的一年中万事如意,同时会许下一个心愿,但
不能告诉任何人;抓住飘落的树叶是吉利的;屋里有蟋蟀会带来好运;提起兔脚可交好运 ;
但是从梯子下面走过是不吉利的;打破镜子会带来七年厄运;看见黑猫在你面前横穿马路
也是不吉利的;下床方向错了,一天都不会顺利。在中国,逢年过节说“死”不吉利,在
晾晒衣服的裤腿中间走过不吉利,右眼跳不吉利,等等。

三、价值观念差异
价值观是社会成员用来评价行为、事物以及从各种可能的目标中选择自己合意目标的
原则。价值观通过人们的行为取向及对事物的态度、评价表现出来。价值观是后天形成的,
是通过公开或隐蔽的教育,把已有的传统价值观念灌输给新一代人,并使之内化为个人的
行为准则,成为自己判断是与非、好与坏、善与恶、美与丑的标准。英汉民族由于政治、经济、
历史、宗教的不同,对同一事物、现象、观念的价值判断上有时存在很大的差异。例如“个人
主义”,英语对应词是 individualism。中国传统文化强调大一统,因此民族团体意识较强而
竞争意识较淡薄,对将个人利益置于集体利益之上的个人主义持否定态度,汉语谚语“ 一
根筷子易折断,十根筷子硬如铁”就反映了这种价值观。英国人由于航海而性格呈外向型,
重个人奋斗、人际竞争,这种价值观可从《鲁宾逊漂流记》等文学作品中看出。因此,
individualism 在英美人眼里是一种积极向上的个人品质。
这种差异告诉我们是不能简单地用“个人主义”译 individualism 的。尊重个体还是忽视
个体,是中西价值观念的一个基本差异。中国漫长的封建社会权力集于皇帝一身,所谓“
普天同之下,莫非王土;率土之滨,莫非王民”,老百姓是皇帝的附属物,根本无人权可
言。十五、六世纪的文艺复兴运动使西方由以神为中心转变为以人为中心,人权、人性、人道
主义逐渐成为西方意识形态关注的焦点。个人隐私权如年龄、婚姻、收入等属于个人的权利,

26
不容侵犯。英语”privacy”一词具有极为丰富的含义,与汉语的”隐私”(不愿告人的事)在
内涵与外延上有很大出入。此外,民主 / democracy、自由 / freedom、正义 / justice、人道主义
/ humanism、人权 / human rights 等,英汉民族因立场不同而有不一样的理解。
英汉民族价值观念的差异还表现在对某些事物如动物、颜色等的美与丑、好与坏的审美
价值判断上。如“猫”与 cat。在中国文化里,“猫”的文化内涵一般指其机灵可爱,但在西
方传说中,cat 是魔鬼的化身,是中世纪巫婆的守护精灵,由此 cat 便具有了“恶妇、淫妇”
(a nasty woman,见《朗文当代英汉双解词典》207 页)的文化内涵。又如“狗”与 dog。欧美人
爱狗如子,经常让它与人平起平坐。Dog 在西方被看作是心爱之物,是人类忠实的朋友,因
此英语里有不少褒义的、与狗有关的习语,如 top dog——“最重要的人物”, lucky dog
——“幸运儿”, dog-tired——“精疲力竭”以及 love me, love my dog——“爱屋及乌”
与 Every dog has his day——“人人都有得意时”等。当然并非绝对, go to the dogs ,就含
有贬义,意为“堕落”,不过这个成语来自希腊文化而非安格鲁·撒克逊文化。在中国人看
来,狗的形象是肮脏、龌龊,令人讨厌,因此汉语里有大量贬义的、与狗有关的成语和用语,
如“狗腿子”——lackey,“狗杂种”——bastard,“狗娘养的”——son of a bitch,“狗
胆 包 天 ” — — monstrous audacity , “ 狗 急 跳 墙 ” — — a cornered beast will do sth.
desperate,“狗嘴里吐不出象牙”——a filthy mouth can’t utter decent language 等。
再如“龙”与 dragon。在西方文化里,dragon 是“怪物、魔鬼、凶残”的代名词。希腊神
话中,dragon 是长着一百颗头的蟒蛇,英国古史诗《贝奥武甫》(Beowulf)中的 dragon 则是一
条劫掠村庄、滥杀无辜的火龙。在中国文化里,“龙”则象征“神圣、高贵、吉祥、强大、民族
精神、中华民族”,如龙袍,龙床,龙凤呈祥,望子成龙,龙的传人,亚洲四小龙等。翻译
时要特别注意“龙”与 dragon 的文化内涵,不可草率直译。颜色词在英汉语里负载的价值
观有时也不一样。例如红色,在中国文化里象征“幸福、吉祥”,在英语文化里则寓意“鲜
血、死亡、暴力”。又如白色,西方文化里主要喻指“纯洁”,而汉语文化里,除了此意,
白色还与“死亡、葬礼”有关。关于颜色词的文化含义与翻译,我们将在第四章辟专节讨论。

四、文学艺术差异
英汉文化的文学艺术传统与样式差别很大。就文学样式而言,英语里有 epic( 史诗),
sonnet(十四行诗),essay(散文),drama(戏剧),novel(小说)等,汉语里则有诗、词、曲、演义、
传记、传奇等。Drama 和“曲”同时还是英汉文化中的艺术样式。汉文化里的京剧、书画与西
方的 opera、painting、calligraphy 有完全不同的风格。这里谈谈来自文学作品的典故。
文学典故包括来自于神话、童话、寓言、诗歌、小说、戏剧等一切文学体裁的典故,英汉
语中都极为丰富。汉语文学典故大多直接或间接出自汉唐诗文,特别是先秦诸子散文,如
“东施效颦”(《庄子·天运》),“愚公移山”(《列子·汤问》),“姜太公钓鱼,愿者上钩”
( 武王伐纣平话》)等。英语里如 Derby and Joan,出自十八世纪英国的一首民谣。老 Derby 与

妻子 Joan 相亲相爱、形影不离。渐渐地,它就成为”恩爱夫妻”的代名词了。又如 pumpkin-
eater,意为“养不活老婆的人”,典出童谣(nursery rhyme):Peter, Peter, pumpkin eater, had
a wife and couldn’t keep her.。英语中有不少文学典故出自莎士比亚的作品名、作品中人物名
或经典台词,如 much ado about nothing——“无事生非”, Hamlet——“优柔寡断的人”,
Shylock——“凶残贪婪的守财奴”, Leopatra——“绝世佳人”, to lead a charmed life
——“命好,福大命大,造化大”, to eat someone out of house and home ——“吃光某人的
家当”,to live in a fool's paradise——“陶醉在虚无飘渺的乐境中”,等等。此外,像 man
Friday——“忠仆”, utopia——“乌托邦”, catch-22——“左右为难”,均来自文学作
品,英语学习者应特别注意。

27
五、社交礼仪差异
社交礼仪是习俗文化的一部分,同时也与历史、地理、宗教文化以及价值观相联系,如
上面已提到的多变的气候影响了英国日常寒喧的主题,而西方人对隐私权的重视又形成了
日常交际中的许多禁忌。英汉民族在打招呼、称谓、道谢、恭维、致歉、告别、打电话等方面表
现出不同的规约与习俗。有一则关于跨文化交际的笑话使人颇受启发。一天,一位美国人邀
请在同一公司工作的一位中国女士参加一个晚会。该女士如约到来。美国人见女同事经过精
心打扮,显得风度迷人,便由衷地说:”You look very beautiful!”。该女士听后忙客套地说:
“哪里,哪里”,当然是用英文:“where, where”。美国人听到女同事的回答一楞,幸好他
比较了解中国文化,知道是谦词,便灵机一动地说:”Everywhere!”。这则笑话反映了中西
文化对恭维回应的差异:中国人听见恭维,总是谦虚客套,有时甚至到了矫情虚伪的地步 ;
西方人对符合事实的恭维则坦然接受,表示谢意。
谈社交礼仪绕不开称谓。中国文化亲属称谓语 (kinship terms)发达,指称明确;英语的
称谓语相对较少,有时指代不明确,如 brother(哥哥还是弟弟?),aunt(分不清姑、舅、姨),
cousin(堂表大小不分)等等,必须用修饰语,有时要很多修饰语才能说清楚亲属关系。对于
非亲属成员,英美人对男子统称“ Mr .”,对未婚女士统称“ Miss” ,对已婚女士统称
“Mrs.”;中国人为了表示礼貌,对陌生人也以亲属关系称呼,如大爷、大娘、大叔、大婶、
大哥、大姐等。又如打招呼。中国人常说,“吃饭了吗?”,“你去哪儿?”,“你干什么去?”。
如果同西方人打招呼也这样问,第一个问题会使对方不知所措,对方可能会信以为真,认
为你打算请他吃饭,第二、三个问题会使对方反感,因为这是属于个人的私事。英语里惯用
的招呼语是” Hi” ,” Hello!” ,” Good Morning/Afternoon / Evening / Night!” ,” How are
you?”,”It’s a lovely day, isn’t it?”等。
中西文化邀请习惯也不一样。传统中国人的邀请很少预约,一般是不请自到,有时还
搭带客人,到达时间也没个准儿,或早到或迟到。在西方,邀请一定要有预约,忌讳“不
速之客”,而且到达时间要准确,不准早到或迟到。就餐时,面对满桌酒菜,中国主人会
说“没什么菜,吃顿便饭,薄酒一杯,不成敬意”。这种违反事实的客套话会让外国人大
惑不解。他们劝客时,最多只会说” Help yourself to some vegetables, please.” ,而且饭菜简
单,吃喝随客人自便,无须客套。道别的方式也不一样。在中国,客人离开时一般会说“打
扰了”之类的话;主人则会说“慢走”或“有时间再来玩”之类的话。在英美文化中,主
人一般会说” Thank you for your coming ” ,客人则会说” The dessert is terrific” / ”I really
appreciate the steak!” / ”I had a pretty wonderful evening here.”等诸如此类的话。
中英文化打电话的用语也不一样。在中国,打电话的人会说“我是某某,您是谁?”,接
电话的人的回答是“我是某某,您找谁?”。英语里不这样说,打电话的人会说”Who is this
speaking, please?” ,或” Hello, this is John speaking.” ,或” Could I speak to Tom, please?” ,
或”Is that Mary speaking?”。西方人一接到电话一般都先报自己的号码或者工作单位的名称。
如:“Hello,52164768,this is Jim.”。英汉民族接受礼物的习惯也不一样。中国人收到礼
物时,一般是放在一旁,确信客人走后,才迫不及待地拆开;受礼时连声说:“哎呀,还
送礼物干什么?”/“真是不好意思啦。”/“下不为例。”/“让您破费了。” 西方人收到礼物时
一般当着客人的面马上打开,并连声称好:“ Very beautiful !Wow!”/“What a wonderful
gift it is!”/“Thank you for your present.” 。

第三节 语言差异

英语属于印欧语系,是拼音文字,汉语属于汉藏语系,是象形文字;两种语言在音、
形、义、词法、句法、语法等方面存在差异。世界上的语言,从形态看,可分为综合性语言

28
(synthetic language)和分析性语言(analytic language)。所谓综合性语言,是指这种语言主要通
过词语本身的形态变化来表达语法意义,如格、数、时等。分析性语言则指语法关系主要不
是通过词语本身的形态来表达,而是通过虚词、词序等手段来表达。从历史看,英语逐渐由
综合性语言向分析性语言发展过渡。古英语中的词尾曲折变化(inflections)形式非常丰富,在
现代英语中大多已消失,只有极少数留存下来,如表示名词复数的 -s/-es,表示形容词和副
词比较级、最高级的-er/-est,表示动作过去或正在进行的-ed/-ing 等等。
汉语中也有表示时数等语法意义的词尾变化,如“们” /“俩”/“仨”(咱爷儿们/咱爷儿
俩/咱爷儿仨),“着”/“了”/“过”(他听着/他睡了/他来过)等。汉语词尾形态变化比英语更
少,基本上是一种分析性语言,对虚词和词序的依赖性很强。以虚词为例。“我把他打败了
”和“我被他打败了”,一个虚词不同,使整个句子意思完全相反。同时,这个例子还说
明,汉语的语法意义基本上由词汇来表达,第二个句子的“被”表示被动,而英语的被动
意义则通过词形变化由”be + v-ed”结构或 v-ed 短语来表达。这给我们以启示:在英汉对译
时,汉语由词汇表达的语法意义可通过英语的词语形态变化来表示;同理,英语中由词语
形态表示的语法意义译成汉语时可通过词汇来表达。
再说词序。词序对于英汉语都很重要,词序的变化会影响意义 (包括语法意义,如“英
语学习”/“学习英语”,前一个“学习”是名词,后一个是动词 ),但英语词序变化没有汉
语那样要求严格。举一个简单的例子。在汉语里,我们只能说“我们在教室里学习翻译”,
而不能说“我们学习翻译在教室里”,也不能说“在教室里我们学习翻译”,因为这不符
合汉语的说话习惯。“在教室里我们学习翻译”的说法具有一定的可接受性,但中国人还
是觉得它有点别扭,究其根源,是由于汉民族的主体意识很强,只有将作为主体的“我们
”置于句首才显得自然。同样的意思,在英语里既可以说”We are studying translation in the
classroom”,也可以说”In the classroom we are studying translation”。除了词汇,词序在汉语
里也能担当语法功能,改变词性和句子成分,如“一个月用不了十块钱” (“十块钱”作宾
语)/“十块钱用不了一个月”(“十块钱”作主语),“我们坐车到武汉。”(“到武汉”作补语)/
“我们到武汉坐车。”(“到武汉”作状语”),等等。英汉语言的差异,上面思维方式一节已
涉及到,如形合与意合,为表达方式上的差异,不再赘述。下面就英汉语在词类系统、构词
法、用词倾向、词义、词序、句法结构、句子扩展机制等方面的差异作简要介绍。

一、词类系统差异
人类生活在同一个世界上,所见所闻无非是物体、运动、物体或运动的性状、方位、关系
等,反映在语言中则是名词、动词、形容词、副词、介词、连词。名词是语言的核心部分。人类
的认识发展史,从某种意义上说,就是一部命名(积累名词)的历史。就词类而言,英汉语基
本相似,都有名词——noun,动词——verb,形容词——adjective ,代词——pronoun ,副
词——adverb,介词——preposition,连词——conjunction,感叹词——interjection。但是,
汉语量词发达,英语没有量词。有语法书将 a lot of, plenty of , a great deal of , a large number
of 等视为量词,似乎不太合理。它们表示数量,但却是词组。作为词类系统的量词必须是单
个的词 而非词组。汉语有语气助词,英语没有。英语有冠词,汉语没有。另外,英语中的关
系代词/副词在汉语中也没有对应的词类,因为汉语没有定语从句。
词类空缺并不表明不能翻译。只要是意义,都能用词汇表达,这是语际翻译得以存在
的根本原因。以英语的冠词为例。当 a / an 表示数的概念时,可以用汉语数词“一”翻译;
当定冠词 the 表示特指时,可用汉语的指示代词“这”、“这些”、“那”、“那些”翻译;
当 a, an, the 表示泛指时,可以略去不译。又如英语的关系代词/副词。若关系代词指物或人,
可通过重复关系代词指代的名词来翻译,也可用“他”、“她”、“他们”、“她们”、“它
”、“这”等代词翻译;关系副词 where / when 则可用汉语的介词短语“在某地”、“在某

29
时”、“在那里”、“(在)那时”等翻译。英语中没有的汉语的语气助词,可用语音、语调、特
殊词语、特殊词序以及标点符号来表达。汉语的量词一般用英语的名词来表达,如“一杯茶
”译作 a cup of tea,或据译入语习惯略去不译,如“一轮红日”译作 a red sun。

二、构词法差异
如前所述,英语自中古时期开始,词尾变化大量消失,保留至今的已经很少,即已由
曲折语逐渐转化为分析语。汉语在早期基本没有词缀变化,后来受西方语言的影响,已出
现一些词缀。从形态构词看,英汉语都有前缀、后缀,英语更发达。就前缀而言,英语常用
前缀约 130 个左右,汉语不过几十个,前者如 non-, un-, ir-, in-, de-. ab-, anti-, counter-, a-,
im-, dis-, over-, super-, ultra-, extra-, sur-, mono-, poly-, multi-, quasi-, pan-, pro-, bi-, di-, semi-,
hemi-, demi-, vice-, sub-, under-, by-, self-, auto- ,后者有“非”,“不”,“无”,“反”,
“超”,“单”,“多”,“准”,“副”,“泛”,“亲”,“双”,“半”,“自”
等。这些英汉前缀在意义上基本呈一种对应关系,如 non- 对“非”, un-/ir-/de-/ab-/a-/im-
/dis-对“不”,anti-/counter-对“反”,over-/super-/ultra-对“超”,mono-对“单”,等等
这是两种语言的相似之处,当然也存在不同之处。如构词格式, self-respect 与”自尊”(尊
重自己),前者为 self+n,后者为“自”+动词。汉语部分前缀在英语中空缺,如“老,阿,
初,第,本,打”。少数汉语前缀和英语后缀对应,如“无”与-less,“可”与-able。此外,
英语大部分前缀(en-, a-, be-除外)只能改变词义,不能改变词性;汉语绝大部分前缀兼具两
种功能。
从后缀看,英语后缀有 220 个之多,其中名词后缀 100 有余,形容词后缀近 80 个,其
他的是副词、动词等的后缀,如 -er, -or, -ar, -ee, -ant, -ist, -ary, -ier, -eer, -ian, -ent, -ior, -age,
-ard, -ast, -al, -ling, -let, -ive, -tion, -sion, -ics, -logy, -ism, -ing, -ness, -cy, -ity, -hood, -ation,
-ance, -y, -tron, -ence, -osity, -th, -ure, -ative, -our, -tude, -ition, -ry, -ship, -ize, -fy, -ate, -en 等。汉
语后缀不多,主要是名词后缀,如“子,儿,头,巴,员,派,分子,器,品,机,学,
主义,性,度,法,化,型,手,家,师,者,士,生,汉,鬼,迷”等。所列英汉后缀
基本呈语义对应关系,但构词格式上有不同之处,如 trouble-maker 与“捣乱分子”,前者
为”n+v+-er”,后者为”动词+分子”。值得注意的是,汉语后缀构词法引入了句法关系,
且相当广泛,而英语的形态构词很少使用句法关系。汉语后缀法生成的词语中含有动宾关
系(如“传教士”为“动宾+士”),主谓关系(如“国有化”为“主谓+化”),并列关系(如
“拖拉机”为“动词+动词+机”)等。此外,汉语后缀“子,头,儿”没有相对应的英语后
缀。
从复合法构词看,英汉语都很发达。以英语为例,长篇史诗《贝奥武甫》中就有 1069 个
复合词,由此可见复合词在英语词汇中的重要地位。而现代汉语中的大多数词都是复合词。
英汉语的复合词以名词为最多。就复合词的句法关系来看,英汉语有四种:主谓、动宾、修
饰和并列,如 earthquake/ 地震 ( 主谓 ) , knitwear/ 织物 ( 动宾 ) , dark room/ 暗室 ( 偏正 ) , back-
and-white/黑白(并列)。不过,即便是同一种句法关系,英汉复合词在结构格式上仍然存在区
别,如同为动宾关系的 hair-cut 和“理发”,前者为”n+v”,后者为“动词+名词”。又如
并列关系,英汉语里都有“名词 +名词”(如 pepper-and-salt/手脚),“形容词+形容词”(如
black-and-tan/贵贱),“动词+动词”(如 hide-and-seek/吃喝)。汉语并列关系除以上形式外还
有“名词+形容词”,如“父老”;“形容词+名词”,如“幸福”;“名词+动词”,如
“膳宿”。此外,汉语复合词还有英语里没有的一种句法关系:后补关系,如“拆穿”,
“突破”,“推翻”等。
从转化法构词看,英语同一个词的转化类型比汉语要丰富,如形容词 like 转化为副词、
连词、动词、形容词、介词和名词。汉语同一个词一般只在两种词性之间转化,但汉语使用转

30
化法的频率比英语要高。英汉转化法的类型主要包括名动、形动、形名之间的转化。英语转化
法主要在简单词中进行,有时还伴随语义和语音的变化,如 mushroom 由名词转化为动词,
除了”采蘑菇”的意思外,还有”迅速传播和生长”之意; record 由名词转化为动词时重
音由第一个音节移到第二个音节。汉语转化法构词也涉及语音变化,如名词“种”转化为
动词“种”时由去声变为入声。除了重音/声调方面的区别外,英汉转化法涉及语音变化的
另 一 个 差 异 是 : 英 语 多 通 过 改 变 词 尾 辅 音 实 现 转 化 , 如 close [klous] adj.——close
[klouz] v., mouth [mauθ] n.——mouth [mauð] v.等,汉语则通过改变词首声母实现
词性或词义变化,如“重” [zhong] ( 形, heavy)——“重” [chong] ( 动, repeat) ,“弹
” [tan] ( 动, play)——“弹” [dan] ( 名, bullet/bomb) ,“降” [jiang] ( 动, fall)——“降
”[xiang] (动,surrender)等。(冯文池,1995)
从缩略法构词看,英汉语都有缩略语,但构词形式与方法存在差异。英语常用的缩略
法有:溶合法(blending) ,如 heliport (=helicopter + airport);首字母拼音/拼缀法(acronyms /
initials),如 sonar (=sound navigation and ranging), IMF (=International Monetary Fund);截短
法 (clipping) , 如 lab (=laboratory , 截 去 尾 部 ), maths (=mathematics , 截 去 中 间 ),
bus(=omnibus,截去头部), flu (=influenza,截去头尾)。汉语常见的缩略形式与方法包括:并
列式,如“科技”(=科学+技术);动宾式,如“投产”(投入生产);偏正式,如“武警”(=
武装警察);求同数字法,即抽取缩略对象中相同的字,然后在该字前冠以缩略对象的数目 ,
如“三讲”(讲学习、讲政治、讲正气),“四美”(心灵美、语言美、行为美、环境美);求同存
异法,即抽取缩略对象的相同成分,然后与所剩不同成分结合,如“指战员” (指挥员、战
斗员);去同存异法,即去掉缩略对象相同的部分,然后将不同成分合并,如“亚非拉”
(亚洲、非洲、拉丁美洲)等。

三、用词倾向差异
在用词倾向上,操英语的人喜欢使用名词、介词和形容词;说汉语的人则多用动词和
量词。碰到词语重复,英美人一般倾向于用替代形式或者在不影响达意的前提下采用省略
法;汉语则不怕重复。英语重形合,所以连词、介词之类的虚词和代词用得多;汉语重意合,
虚词用得少。(陈定安,1998)下面就以上三点差别分别举例说明。
英语里并非不用动词,但动词意义常常由其名词或形容词形式或者意义相当的介词来
表达,碰到这样的名词、形容词或介词,翻译时常常要转换为汉语的动词,如:
(1)He was always an unwelcome intruder.他经常冒冒失失地闯进人家的家里。
(2)They went on across the desert and into China.他们越过沙漠,然后到达中国。
(3)It is indicative of the change in Mary that she is having a big birthday
party.
有迹象表明,马丽转变了观念,她打算举行一个盛大的生日聚会。
汉语则多用动词和量词,如:
(4)他拿起杂志,看了一眼,摇了摇头,把它放回桌子上。
(5)一寸相思一寸灰/一江离恨一江愁/一串笑声/一孔之见
对于词语重复,英语多用替代形式,如代名词或代动词 (包括助动词 do, have, be, will
等的各种变化形式),有时则采用省略法。请看下面的例子:
(6)The child doesn’t like this book. Show him a more interesting one. (one
= book)
(7)Look at that bird. It always comes to my window. (It = the bird)
(8)She plays the piano better than she does the guitar. (does = plays)
(9)He said he would tell me the news, but he didn’t do so. (do so = tell me

31
the news)
(10)She wore the red dress, but the blue suits her better. (the blue = the
blue dress)
(11)It might rain, but I don’t think it will. (it will = it will rain)
汉语则不怕重复,如:
(12)人不犯我,我不犯人;人若犯我,我必犯人。
像汉语里目前流行的标语口号,如“四个坚持”、“三个面向”、“三讲”、“三个代
表”等等,都多次重复了动词,译成英语,一个动词即可。
英语虚词如介词、连词、冠词以及代词用得多,汉语正好相反,如:
(13)You cannot build a ship, a bridge or a house if you don’t know how to
make a design or how to read it.
不会制图或看不懂图纸,就不可能造船、架桥或盖房子。
(14)He shrugged his shoulders, shook his head, cast up his eyes, but said
nothing.
他耸耸肩,摇摇头,两眼望天,一句话不说。
例(13)的译文基本未明确译出原文的虚词和代词,如 you, a, if, how ,而是将其意义隐
于译文的深层结构之中。也就是说,这些未译之词的意义可以从译文的字里行间琢磨出来。
例(14)则说明,在英语中表示所属关系的代词是绝对不能省略的,若省略,则所属关系不
明,同时也有悖英语表达习惯。汉语正相反,因为是”意合语”,习惯上省略所有格代词 ,
用了反而显得不自然,如“耸耸他的肩”,就有点洋腔洋调。

四、词义差异
除了某些专有名词和科技术语外,英汉语中绝大多数词语都是一词多义。英汉词义因
此形成三种对应关系:完全对应,部分对应,不对应。完全对应的词语为某些专有名词和
科技术语,如“太平洋”与(the) Pacific,“非典”与 SARS。不对应词语,即目标语言中空
缺的词语,主要指文化词语,当然也包括因发展差异而空缺的一些科技新概念,如“粽子
”,“阴阳”,“八卦”,“侠客”,“江湖”, salad (色拉),Maypole (五月花柱),Bard
(诗歌之王),knight (骑士)等。部分对应词语指的是多义词。英汉语的多数词汇一般具有几种、
甚至十多种意思,有的词有几十种意思,比如一个简单的 of,牛津词典就归纳了 63 种意思。
英语中的一个多义词可对应汉语中几个词,反之亦然。这样就出现了词义交错对应、循环往
复以至无穷的语义链,见下图:

汉语 英语 汉语 英语
做 do 情形 condition(s)
使 make 条件 article(s)
叫 call 物件 object(s)
目的 objective(s)

(见王宗炎“介绍赵元任:译文忠实性面面观”,载《中国翻译》1981 年第 1 期)
另外,从词义本身看,英语比较灵活、抽象,词的涵义范围比较广,词义对上下文的
依赖性比较大,而汉语词义相对说来比较严谨、固定、具体,词的含义范围比较窄,对上下
文的依赖没有英语那样大。英语词义的抽象性主要体现在名词 (特别是由形容词和动词派生
的名词)和介词上,如:
(1)He is a valuable acquisition to the team.

32
他是该队不可多得的新队员。
(2)There is more to their life than political and social and economic
problems; more than transient everydayness.
他们的生活远不止那些政治的、社会的和经济的问题,远不止一时的基本的 柴米油盐问
题。
(3)He is at it again. 他又干上了。
(4)If your mother sees your torn trousers, you’ll be in for it.
要是你母亲看见你的裤子破了,你有得好受的。
汉语少用介词,名词则很具体。因此,王力先生说:“我们所谓名词,和英语所谓
noun, 范围广狭稍微不同。我们的名词,就普通说,除了哲学上的名词外,只能指称具体
的东西,而且可以说五官所能感触的。”“英语从形容词构成的名词,如
kindness , wisdom , humility , youth , 从 动 词 形 成 的 抽 象 名 词 , 如
invitation,movement,choice,arrival,assistance,discovery 等,中国字典里可以说是没有
一个词和它相当的。”

五、词序差异
英汉语中的许多说法,词序正好相反,如 President Bush——布什总统,Mr. Wang——
王先生,Classroom 108——108 教室,Page 8——第 8 页等等。从词法和句法结构看,定语
和状语的位置在英汉语中存在差异。就定语而言,在汉语里,它一般只能出现在被修饰对
象的前面,如“秋岚远景”,“一对夫妻只生一个孩子的国策”,但在口语中,定语可出
现在被修饰对象的后面,如“一个要饭的,身材矮小,面黄肌瘦,衣衫褴缕”。英语中,
定 语 位 置 灵 活 , 可 置 于 被 修 饰 对 象 之 前 或 之 后 , 如 an important person, something
important, a man of few words, an apartment with a balcony, a great black bridge 等。
同为前置定语,形容词组型定语中各形容词的排列顺序在英汉语中有时也不一样。如
果出现在名词中心语之前的几个形容词属于同一层次,英语中一般是较长的形容词置于最
后,如 a rainy, windy, freezing day;汉语正相反,较长的形容词往往放在较短的形容词之前,
如“勤劳勇敢的中国人”。当然,“勤劳勇敢”与“中国”属于不同层次。按照英语约定俗
成的习惯,出现在名词中心语前面的不同层次的形容词修饰语的顺序一般为:限定词 →表
示说话人评价的形容词→表示大小、形状、新旧的形容词→表示颜色的形容词→表示国别、
来源、材料的形容词→表示用途或目的的形容词或分词、名词等类别词→名词中心语。其中
限定词指定冠词、物主代词、名词属格、指示代词,关系代词、疑问代词、不定代词、数词等。
限定词又分为前位限定词(如 all, both, half, double, twice, three times, one-third, what, such a /
an 等),中位限定词(如 a/ an, the, this, that, these, those, my, Mary’s, some, every, neither, whose
等),以及后位限定词(如 one, first, next, many, more, a lot of 等)。如果前置修饰语中出现几个
限定词,则按前、中、后位限定词的顺序排列,如 the man’s first two interesting little red
French oil paintings,其中 the 是前位限定词,man’s 是中位限定词,first 和 two 是后位限定
词,interesting 是说话人的评价语,little 表示大小,red 表示颜色,French 表示国别,oil 表
示材料。汉语前置定语的顺序与英语有相似的地方,如 the peaceful green countryside / “宁
静的绿色田野”,排列顺序均为“评价语+颜色词+名词中心语”;也有不同的地方,如 a
large new building / “一座新大 楼”,英语是大小在前,新旧在后,汉语正好相反。
从状语的位置看,单词型状语在英语中一般放在被修饰对象的前面,有时放在后面,
视具体情况而定。修饰名词、介词、连词、数词、副词时,单词型状语一般置前,如 rather a
fool, right in front of you, precisely because…, about 5 miles, extremely carefully。修饰形容词
时,一般在前,如 very big,但 enough 习惯上要放在形容词或副词后面,如 big enough,to

33
work hard enough 。修饰动词分两种情况:若是及物动词,一般置前,如 China is rapidly
developing its economy. ;若是不及物动词,一般置后,如 China’s economy is developing
rapidly.。修饰整个句子,单词型状语(特别是时间副词)可置于句首、句中、句尾,如 Recently
they had an accident. / They recently had an accident. / They had an accident recently. ,其中置
于句首的 recently 有强调意味,句中、句尾的 recently 则没有。汉语的单词型状语一般置于被
修饰对象之前,如果置后,须加“得”,此时状语变为补语,如“很重”,“重得很”,
“特别 流利”,“快得惊人”等。
短语型状语,如英语的不定式、分词短语等,一般放在被修饰对象的后面,汉语中的
时间/地点/方式状语一般放在被修饰对象前面。如果同时出现几个状语,英语一般是较短的
放在较长的之前,方式状语在地点状语之前,地点状语在时间状语之前。 (陈定安,1998:
191)汉语的时间、地点、方式状语的顺序正好相反,如 She reads aloud in the classroom every
morning. /“她每天早晨在教室里高声朗读。” 状语的位置,无论单词型还是短语型,总体
来看,英语要比汉语灵活,如上面的例子” They recently had an accident” ,”recently”可出
现在句首、句中、句尾三个位置上,在汉语里则只能出现在句首、句中,如我们可以说“最
近他们出了事故”或“他们最近出了事故”,但不能说“他们出了事故最近 ”。短语型状
语也是如此。例如英语里可以说:Rather nervous, the man opened the letter. / The man, rather
nervous, opened the letter. / The man opened the letter, rather nervous.。英国语言学家伦道夫·夸
克(Randolph Qurik, 1985:425)说,形容词短语” rather nervous” 与句子的主语和谓语都发
生关系,因此既可以把它看作状语,也可以把它看作补语。翻译成汉语,” rather nervous”
只能出现在句中、句尾:“那个男人很紧张地把信打开”/“那个男人把信打开时心里很紧张
”,除非在口语中,我们一般不说“非常紧张地,那个男人把信打开”。
从句型的基本顺序看,英汉语基本相同,都有主-谓式、主-系-表式、主-动-宾(宾)式、主-
动-宾-补式。但疑问句、感叹句和某些强调句的词序,英语一般为倒装语序,汉语为自然语
序,对译时需要转换。另外,英汉语里有些约定俗成的说法词序不同或正好相反,如“他
大 约 花 了 一 个 小 时 ” / He spent about one hour. , “ 在 周 围 两 英 里 内 ” / in a 2-mile
radius ,“每年至少两次” / at least twice a year ,“不论晴雨” / rain or shine ,“迟早” /
sooner or later,“田径” / track and field,“唯一的” / one and only,“同一的”/ one and
the same ,“血肉” / flesh and blood ,“悲欢” / joy and sorrow ,“前后” / back and
forth,“水火”/ fire and water 等等。

六、句法结构差异
从整体看,英语句子结构紧凑、严密,各部分通过连词、介词、代词、非限定形式等有机
地衔接成一个整体。汉语句子结构松散,少用虚词,主要是以意驭形,各部分的逻辑关系
由意义暗示。从主语看,汉语多无主句或主语省略句,在有主语的情况下,则多为人称主
语;英语句子重主语,除口语外,主语在英语句子中一般不能省略,且多为表示事物的物
称主语。英语的主语容易识别,汉语则不然,如“酒不喝了”,“酒”与“喝”,并没有
施事关系,喝酒的是人;又如“这件事你跟她谈了吗 ?”,从汉语的角度不能理解成是倒装
的 SVO 结构,在说话者主体的意识中,“这件事”这个话题是主语,而“你跟她谈了吗”
是阐述话题的述题。话题性主语以及话题 -述题结构是汉语句法的一大特色,翻译时是将其
转换为英语的 SVO 句型还是采用其他句型要特别注意。
从谓语看,英汉句法都重视谓语动词。汉语句子里动词用得多,但形态变化单一,只
有“着、了、过”表示的有限几种时间,而且还不常用,时、体、态的语法意义多为语义暗示
或通过词汇表达,如“北海有煤”,陈述事实,隐含一般现在时,“总书记会见沂蒙山区
老党员”,暗含过去时,“饭烧熟了”,隐含被动意义,“明天必将美好”,用词汇“将

34
”表示将来时。英语则重时、体、态。英语中有十多种时态,因此英语动词形态丰富,变化复
杂,不像汉语动词形态固定,任何情况下都不发生变化。
从语态角度看,汉语多主动句,英语多被动句。从修饰语的位置看,英语修饰语多后
置,因为充当修饰语的短语、定语从句一般后置;汉语修饰语多前置,汉语没有定语从句。
从句子的长度和层次结构看,英语多长句,汉语多中、短句;英语多主从复合句,汉语多
成分并列的“流水句”。从句子的信息结构看,英语复句多为前重心,即信息的焦点在句
首,如;Look before you leap.;汉语复句多为后重心,即信息的焦点在句尾,如“三思而
后行”。此外,英语中 there + be 结构,虚词 it 及其 it…that…结构用得比较广泛。

七、句子扩展机制差异
从句子的扩展机制看,刘宓庆(2001:44-46)认为,相对而言,汉语句子,句首呈开放
状态,即句子可以有限度地向左扩展,这大概与汉语句子“主题+述题”结构中“主题”
具有一定弹性有关,而句尾则呈收缩状态,即汉语核心句只容许三、四度向后扩展,句尾
即自然收缩,若再扩展,单句就成了并列或主从复合句了。英语句子正相反,句尾呈开放
状态,即句子可以有限度地向右扩展,这大概与英语修饰语 (包括定语从句)常常后置有关,
而句首则呈封闭状态,其原因刘先生认为有二: 1)英语 SV 的提契机制,2)英语动词形态体
系的制约性。下面分别举例说明英汉句子扩展的不同机制。
汉语句子的句首(即向左)扩展模式:
←— 左 右 —→
基本句:张华来了。
一度向左扩展 ←……………………………………… 上周张华来了。
二度向左扩展 ←………………………………… 他说上周张华来了。
三度向左扩展 ←………………………………我听他说上周张华来了。
四度向左扩展 ←…………………………昨晚我听他说上周张华来了。
五度向左扩展 ←………………… 记得昨晚我听他说上周张华来了。
六度向左扩展 ←………… 隐约还记得昨晚我听他说上周张华来了。

英语句子的句尾(即向右)扩展模式:
←— 左 右 —→
基本句:This is the cat.
This is the cat that killed the rat.
………………………………………→ 一度向右扩展
This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt.
………………………………………→ 二度向右扩展
This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house.
………………………………………→ 三度向右扩展
This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.
……………………………………→ 四度向右扩展
上例为一著名英语童谣。它利用英语特有的定语从句,顺线性地向右自由扩展,直至
意尽。汉语没有定语从句,因此无法向右扩展。汉语句尾的收缩性决定了这类英语句子的翻
译只能采用分句法,可译为:“这就是那只吃了耗子的猫。那只耗子吃了麦芽。麦芽堆放在
杰克盖的那幢房子里”。

35
第二章 汉英对译四大疑难

从英汉语言文化的比较可以看出,两种语言在思维方式、文化、语言三个方面都存在明
显差异。而在语言实践中,这三个方面交错溶合,给语言转换带来更大的困难。下面从语言、
思维方式、文化以及非语言因素等四个方面探讨英汉对译中存在的难点。

第一节 语言难点

人类语言的本质是音与义的结合。早期人类语言没有书写符号。从现代交际和笔译的角
度看,我们可以说,语言是音、形、义的复合体,三者密不可分,其中每一个方面都有可能
给翻译带来困难。虽然孤立地研究音、形、义有割裂活生生的语言之嫌,却有助于我们把翻译
的难点看得更清楚。

一、语义
有人曾说,翻译就是译意。意义是翻译的核心,而忠实则是意义的归宿。问题是,如何
做到意义的忠实?意义必须由符号来表达,而符号具有任意性。也就是说,语言符号与意义
没有必然的联系,英语中有句话说得好: Words have no meaning; man gives meaning for
them.。英国作家卡罗尔(Lewis Carroll)笔下的人物 Humpty Dumpty 说的一句话表明了人类使
用语言符号的自由性。他说:“当我使用一个词时,我要它是什么意思,它就是什么意思—
—既不多也不少” (”When I use a word, it means just what I choose it to mean – neither more
nor less.”)。就同一语言系统而言,某些语词意义模糊,不能见文知义,如汉语的“牛角尖
”(喻指无法解决或不值得研究的小问题 ),“花红”(指红利或赏钱 ),“方寸地”(古人用
以指“心” ),“顺风” (方言,婉指“猪耳朵” )等;英语如 ladybird (“ 瓢虫”,不是“鸟
”而是“虫”),blue-bottle (“青蝇”,不是“瓶”而是“蝇”),blue-stocking (“女学者”,
不是“袜”而是“人”),the Milky Way (“ 银河”,不是“路”而是“星系” )等等。关于
the Milky Way,还有一个翻译掌故和有趣的神话传说。二十世纪二十年代,赵景深将 the
Milky Way 译作“牛奶路”。这种令国人不明其意的“硬译”使鲁迅先生大为恼火。他撰文
讽刺译者的无知:牛奶与人奶不分。原文如下:
“牛”了一下之后,使我联想起赵先生有名的“牛奶路”来了。这很像是直译或“硬
译”,其实却不然,也是无缘无故地“牛”了进去的。这故事无须查字典,在图画上也
能看见。却说希腊神话里的大神宙斯是一位很有些喜欢女人的神,他有一回到人间去,
和某女士生了一个男孩子。物必有偶,宙斯太太却偏又是一个很有些嫉妒心的女神。
她一知道,拍桌打凳的(?)大怒了一通之后,便将那孩子取到天上,要看机会将他害
死。然而孩子是天真的,他满不知道,有一回,碰到宙太太的乳头,便一吸,太太大
吃一惊,将他一推,跌落到人间,不但没有被害,后来还成了英雄。但宙太太的乳汁,
却因此一吸,喷了出来,飞散天空,成为银河……。
(《鲁迅全集》第 2 卷,154 页)
从希腊神话传说可以看出, the Milky Way 中的 milk 既不是牛奶,也不是人奶,而是宙
斯太太赫拉的乳汁。鲁迅先生在文中说,按赵景深的“硬译”法,该译作“神奶路”了。英
语的 milk,是一切奶的统称,不仅仅指牛奶。鲁迅先生的批评,在翻译的想当然上,更在翻
译不考虑读者的接受力上,虽然他自己一贯是主张直译的。有人把意义在字面之外的语词称

36
为“假朋友”(false friend / faux amis)。英语中的“假朋友”有这样几种类型,一是普通词语,
如 whitecap( 浪头白沫 ) , turnkey( 狱吏 ) , longlegs( 盲蜘蛛 ) , butterfingers( 丢三落四的人 ) ,
longnose( 欧洲一种长嘴硬鳞鱼 ),blue-coat(警察)等;二是成语典故,如 heads over heels( 手
忙脚乱地),a brown study(沉思默想),British Sunday(枯燥乏味之物),Jekyll and Hyde(双面
人 ) 等;三是修辞性语言,如 under the weather( 身体欠佳 ) , in one’s birthday suit( 赤裸 ) ,
eating for two(怀孕),married but not churched( 同居),the smiling year(春天)等;四是俚俗用
语,如 Blast you!(挨刀货),You’re telling me.(我早知道了,还用你说)等;五是科技用语,
如 bull’s eye(靶心),dog’s ears(轧件表面上的疤痕)等。
另一方面,除了语言符号与意义的错位外,人们修辞性地使用语言使语词的意义又具
有了抽象、游移性。英国文论家理查兹(I. A. Richards)指出,在人们的说话和写作中比喻无处
不在(the omnipresent principle of language)。上面提到的 blue-stocking 就是由提喻生成的语词:
穿蓝色长统袜是十九世纪美国新英格兰地区特别是波士顿地区女学者的共同特点,因此这
一特点被提取(抽象)出来喻指女学者。就不同的语言系统而言,同一事物的比喻意象常常不
同,如天上的银河,汉文化的比喻意象是“河”,从而隔断了牛郎织女团聚,西方文化的
比喻意象是“路”(Way),成为连接天上人间的纽带。
意义是一个非常复杂的系统。中外许多学者对意义进行了分类。利奇(G. Leech)从交际的
角度把意义分为七类:1)理性意义,2)内涵意义,3)社会意义,4)情感意义,5)反映意义,
6)搭配意义,7)主题意义。第二至第六种意义统称为联想意义。联想意义不太稳定,随意性
较大,往往因个人经历不同而有所变化。理性意义又称概念意义,是关于逻辑、认知、外延内
容的意义,是语词最基本的意义,一般词典上词项的第一种定义即是。没有概念意义,语言
及言语交际就会失去基础而变得无法想象。不同语言系统中,同一事物的概念意义,从词典
定义看,只能是基本相似,不可能完全一样,如汉语的“粉笔”,指“在黑板上写字用的
条状物,用白垩、熟石膏粉等加水搅拌,灌入模型后凝固制成”(《现代汉语词典》,1999:
371) ;英语 chalk 的定义则是: piece of white soft limestone , sometimes coloured, for writing
or drawing (Oxford English-Chinese Dictionary, 2002:167)。对比两种定义,都描述了粉笔的
制作材料和功能,但汉语在粉笔形状、制作过程的描述方面更具体,英语则在粉笔颜色的描
述上更具体。就翻译而言,概念意义较易掌握。
内涵意义是附加在概念意义上的一种意义,可以看作是后者的抽象、延伸。内涵意义是
文本中语言的临时意义,若反复使用,并为大众接受,就会成为约定俗成的意义。英汉词典
中较靠后的语词的定义多为词的内涵意义。修辞意义有很多都是内涵意义,我们可以说“我
靠吃粉笔灰为生”。这里,“吃粉笔灰”不表示字面意义,而是一种转喻修辞,喻指“教书
”这门职业。两种语言中,词的内涵意义有时一样,如“狐狸”与 fox,都蕴涵“狡猾”;
有时又不一样,如“乌鸦”在汉语里象征恶兆,英语中对应的 crow 则无此内涵意义;
magpie 在英语中可指“绕舌之人”,而汉语对应的“喜鹊”则象征喜兆,中国民间有所谓
“喜鹊叫,火在笑,客要到”的说法。
社会意义又称社会-风格意义,指的是社会环境对语言的影响。不同的语言环境决定了
所使用的语言不会一样。例如一个学生,在家里、寝室、教室、购物中心与不同对象交际时,
使用的语言不会一样。因此,利奇将语言风格分为 formal and literary, colloquial, familial and
slang 三个层次。英汉语中都有风格各异的语词,有的为文学用语,有的是专门技术用语,
有的是俚俗用语,还有的是粗语黑话。比如描述一个人死了,可用不同的风格来表达: 1)
My father has joined the heavenly choir. / “ 我父亲仙逝了”, 2) My father has passed away. / “
我 父亲 去世 了” , 3) My father has died. / “ 我 父亲 死了 ” , 4)My old man has kicked the
bucket. / “老头子跷辫子了”。第一句正式而文雅,第二句委婉有礼,第三句为事实陈述,
第四句粗俗无礼。著名翻译学者、语言学家奈达以“请人就餐”为例,列举了六种说法来说

37
明六种语言风格。它们是:1)The guests may now proceed to the banquet room. (“现在恭请各
位客人入席”,风格为 ritual-frozen) ,2)Dinner is now being served. (“ 现在上菜开席”,风
格为 formal) ,3)Let us go in and eat. (“ 大家入座吃饭吧”,风格为 informal) ,4)Let’s eat. (“
大家吃饭吧”,风格为 casual),5)Skueet!(“吃吧”,风格为 intimate),6)Soup’s on.(“开饭喽
”,风格为 familial)。
情感意义用来表达说话人的感情或态度,它不是独立的意义,必须依附于概念意义、
内涵意义等主体意义而存在。对同一个人、事物或现象,不同的人可能会有不同的价值判断,
从而显露出不同的情感与态度。例如一个女子很瘦,可能会有三种不同的态度,有人不喜欢
她,会用“枯瘦如柴”、“皮包骨”之类的字眼;有人就事论事,不带偏见,则会用“瘦弱
”、“消瘦”之类的词语;有人喜欢她,又会用“苗条”、“窈窕”、“修长”之类的好词妙
语。第一类是贬义词 (derogatory words) ,第二类是中性词 (neutral words),第三类是褒义词
(complimentary words),英汉语中都有不少这类词,如汉语中关于“老师”的褒义词有“师
长”、“先生”、“老师”、“教师”,中性词有“教员”,贬义词有“教书的”、“教书匠
”、“臭老九”。英语里,如英国湖畔派诗人柯勒律治(S. T. Coleridge)的三类老年妇女的划
分就带有强烈的感情色彩。他说,” There are three classes into which all the women past
seventy that I knew were to be divided : 1. That dear old soul; 2. That old woman; 3. That old
witch.”。显然,” That dear old soul”为褒义,可译作“老人家”,” That old woman”为中
性,可译作“老妇人”,而” That old witch”是贬义,可译为“老妖婆”。英语中有不少成
双或成仨的带感情色彩和价值判断的语词,下面是一些常见的例子:

褒义词 (Favourable) 中性词(Neutral) 贬义词(Unfavourable)


scholar(学者) student(学生) bookworm(书呆子)
replica(艺术复制品) copy(复制品) counterfeit(伪造物)
wit(富于机智的人) comic(喜剧演员) buffoon(小丑)
literary artist (文学家) writer(作者) hack(雇佣文人)
community(公众) people (人们) mob(群氓/乌合之众)
svelte(窈窕) thin(瘦的) skinny(皮包骨的)
unique(独一无二的) unusual(不寻常的) bizarre(稀奇古怪的)
penetrating(深刻的) sharp(尖锐的) caustic(刻薄的)
time-tested(久经考验的) old(旧的) out-of-date(过时的)
firm(坚定的) stubborn(倔强的) pigheaded(顽固不化的)
man Friday (忠仆) servant(仆人) lackey(走狗)
beautify(美化) decorate(装饰) prettify (粉饰)
antique(古色古香的) old-fashioned (老式) antiquated(废旧的)
saliva / spit(唾液) puke(呕吐物)
average(一般的) mediocre(平庸的)

bachelor girl(单身女子) spinster(老处女)


indoctrination(灌输) brainwashing(洗脑))
venerable(古老的) superannuated(淘汰的)

值得注意的是,词的褒贬意义并非泾渭分明,褒义与中性之间、中性与贬义之间常难一
刀切,如 thin, old, stubborn, old-fashioned 就略带贬义。词义的褒贬,特别是像 ambition 这种
褒贬模糊的词,常常需要由语境决定其感情色彩。另外,词的褒贬可能会随时间而发生变化,
如 notorious(臭名昭著的),原为贬义,现在已成为中性词,有时甚至含有褒义。
反映意义指的是由词的一种意义联想到该词的另一种意义,如汉语的“小姐”,在当

38
下的语境中,会使人由其“未婚女子”的传统概念自然联想到它现时的“妓女”的意义。英
语中如 kill 一词,奈达与王宗炎先生交流时曾说, kill 除了“杀死”的意义外,会使人想到
“暴力”(violence)。这里,violence 就是 kill 的反映意义。搭配意义指某词与其他不同的词搭
配时所具有的不同意义。仍以“小姐”为例。“千金小姐”与“三陪小姐”中的“小姐”意
义就不一样。再以英语 light 为例。light music——轻音乐,light loss——轻微损失,light car
——轻便汽车, light heart——轻松的心情, light step——轻快的脚步, light manners——
轻浮的举止, light work——轻松的工作,light voice——轻柔的声音,其中的 light 意义各不
相 同 , 依 次 可 分 别 理 解 为 : intended chiefly to entertain, not heavy, having little weight,
relaxed, gentle, frivolous, requiring little effort, soft。主题意义指以“次序”和“强调”获得的
意义,如广告的主题意义是宣传和劝说。
纽马克(Peter Newmark)则把意义分为三种类型:1)认知意义,2)交际意义,3)联系意义。
以英语插入语 you know 为例,其认知意义是指说话者所说的是事实;交际意义是说话人希
望对方认可自己的话,也可能只是为了引起对方的注意;联系意义是指说话人与对方的关
系较为密切。具体说来,认知意义包括:1)语言学意义即字面意义,如 He is going to see his
friend this afternoon 的语言学意义是“他今天下午要去看朋友”;2)所指意义,如上例中的
his friend 指他的朋友“张华”;3)隐含意义,一般由语调决定,如“好是好,……”可能
暗示说话人的犹豫或委婉拒绝;4)主位意义,指句子中处于主位的信息,如 Whether you go
or not is up to you. 中的 Whether you go or not 是主位,属于“已知信息”,表达的就是主位
意义。交际意义包括语为意义(illocutionary meaning)、施为意义(performative meaning)、推论意
义(inferential meaning)和预兆意义(prognostic meaning)。以汉语为例。如“宇宙的历史有多长?
”的语为意义(即言语引发行为)是要求听者/读者回答。排球、羽毛球比赛中的“过网击球”的
施为意义(即行为产生结果)表示失分。“我真蠢,没听他的建议”的推论意义是“我希望自
己采纳了他的建议”。“地上是湿的”的预兆意义是“天下雨了”。
符号学也将意义分为三种类型,第一种是符号和该符号所标志的事物之间的关系,即
符号的所指意义,与概念意义相当。第二种是符号和所使用符号的人之间的关系,即符号的
语用意义,涉及词的语体、语域、和感情色彩,涵盖风格、情感等意义。第三种意义指任何符
号与同一符号系统内的其他符号存在各式各样的复杂关系,即符号的语言内部意义,包括
相同语义关系(如同一词义场)、相同声音关系(如元韵与辅韵)、相同词素结构关系(如同根词
组)。汉语中“道是无晴却有晴”中的“晴”与“情”双关,就体现为一种语言内部意义,
我们将在下面语音与语形两节中详细讨论这种意义。

二、语音
语音是人类语言最为基本的要素之一,是意义传递的一种重要媒介。不同的语言具有不
同的语音系统。即便是同一语言,各方言的发音也存在不同程度的差异。属于两种完全不同
语系的英语和汉语,在语音上没有任何相似之处,汉语是声调语言 (tone language),声调分
为 平 上 去 入 四 声 , 语 音 的 抑 扬 顿 挫 靠 平 仄 声 来 调 节 ; 英 语 是 语 调 语 言 (intonation
language),有音节及重音非重音之分,语音、语调的轻重缓急靠音的强弱来调节。
英国大诗人蒲柏(Alexander Pope)说“声音是意义的回声”(The sound must seem an echo to
the sense.)。也就是说,在很多情况下,语音蕴涵意义。不少学者认为,如果意义由声音来体
现,翻译几乎是不可能的。例如诗歌,无论英语汉语,都非常注重声律、讲究尾韵,但汉诗
以平仄造格律节奏,英诗则以长短音(即轻重音)建音步节律。以平仄代长短音,以顿代音
步,英诗就完全汉化了,失去了本来面目。美国诗人弗罗斯特 (Robert Frost) 说诗不可译
(Poetry is what gets lost in translation. ),在很大程度上是指诗歌声律包含的意义无法对等
地用译入语的语音资源传达。就英译汉而言,语音难点主要体现在诗歌韵律、双关,头韵、文

39
字游戏等的翻译上。有时语音特点非常奇特,完全不可译,如汉语文字游戏“烟沿艳檐烟燕
眼”,七个字的声、韵母皆同,仅声调有异,在英语中不可能找到发音大致相同的七个单词,
组成一句话,表达与原文相同的意思。但是在有些情况下,语音及其所含之义是可译的。下
面略举两例。
弗罗斯特有一首名曰《人生苦短》(The Span of Life)的诗,其中有这样两句:
The old dog barks backward without getting up.
I can remember when he was a pup.
短短两行诗,其声律却包含了极为丰富的内容。黄杲炘先生( 1995:32-33)是这样分
析归纳的:两行诗句尾押韵,音步格式基本上是抑抑扬格,每行四个音步;诗人选择三音
节的音步,是因为在同样的一拍中,容纳三音节时的语速,比容纳两音节的要快,这就更
能衬托 time is fleeting 之意,特别是在第二行中,更有利于表现这狗小时候的灵活敏捷;第
一行诗音节多重音,音节首尾多为发音清晰有力的辅音,因此发音难度增加,节奏受到了
干扰,让人读来既费力又无可奈何,就像那有气无力的老狗,虽想站起来,却力不从心,
仍无可奈何地趴着;第二行诗则音步格式整齐,词尾多为元音或流音,读起来轻松流畅,
整个诗行在舌头上一溜即过;第一行中多的是爆破音与比较粗重刺耳的辅音,如 [d], [b],
[ks], [g], [p],第二行中的辅音听起来大多比较柔和轻快,如 ]n], [r], [m], [hw], [h], [s]。这样,
两行诗的发音和朗读时给人的感受,同它们提示的视角形象之间,建立起一种呼应关系。另
外,第一行中还用了个拟声词 bark,与紧随其后的 backward 构成头韵,由此加强了听觉效
果。
两行诗蕴涵了如此丰富的声音意义与意象,汉语的语音手段能再现吗?翻译无难事,只
怕有心人。黄杲炘先生就是这样的一位有心人,他的译文是:“这老犬转头叫了叫,没起身。
/ 它小时那模样,我印象还很深。”译文句尾押韵,“身”对“深”;三字顿对英语的一个
音步;第一行“犬”,“转”等字发音拗口,第二行读来顺口;重复“叫”,以再现原诗
拟声词 bark 和补偿头韵的声音效果。由此可以看出,语音意义只能部分地传达,完全的传
译是不可能的。声音意象丰富的另一个例子是柯勒律治《古舟子咏》(The Rime of the Ancient
Mariner)中的片段。原诗如下:
The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
The furrow followed free.
We were the first that ever burst
Into that silent sea.
此诗在音韵上最大的特色是头韵和元韵的使用。头韵如 [f](foam flew / furrow followed
free) , [b](breeze blew) , [s](silent sea) ,元韵如 [i : ](breeze, free) , [u : ](blew, flew) , [e : ]
(first, burst)。这些元音和辅音使人自然联想到大海悠长的风声和波浪声,将音韵美和意境美
融为一体,似可译为:“和风拂吹,白浪翻飞,/ 船儿破浪前行。/ 咱们是古来第一遭 / 闯
入这片沉寂的穷溟。”

三、语形
同语音一样,语形即语言的拼写形式有时也具有意义,为不可译因素之一。文字形式的
翻译主要指文字游戏、回文、诗歌、广告等的翻译。文字游戏一般没有太大的意义,其目的在
于追求文字的声音或形式效果上。汉语里如“人曾为僧,人弗可以为佛。/ 女卑为婢,女又何
妨成奴。”,每一行的前两个字结合在一起就是最后一个字,如“人曾”构成“僧”,如果
翻译,这一语形特点就是译者应当努力再现的东西。许渊冲先生将其译为:” A Bud dhist
cannot bud into a Bud dha, / A maid en may be made a house maid.”。译文略去原文部分意思,
并通过拆字法 (如 Bud dhist),欲竭力求得与原文形似,但客观地说,译文没有原文形式结

40
构对称整齐。可见语形翻译至多只能勉强为之,要做到完全对应只能是一种梦想。
又如回文,同样是追求形式上的效果。英语里如”Able was I ere I was Elba”,”Was it a
cat I saw?”,”Madam, I’m Adam.”等,倒过来读和顺着读意思一样。汉语里也有回文,如“
上海自来水来自海上”,“可以清心也”等。特别是“可以清心也”,可以随意调换文字顺
序,如“以清心也可”,“清心也可以”,“心也可以清”,“也可以清心”,意思居然
相似,由此可见汉字的神奇。这样语形上的灵活性能在英语中再现吗 ?有人进行了尝试,将
其译为: Real nice refreshing cuppa tea / Nice refreshing cuppa tea real / Refreshing cuppa tea
real nice / Cuppa tea real nice refreshing / Tea real nice refreshing cuppa。译文有点勉强,意义有
点走样,行文也没有原文自然。当然,这不是译者的能力问题,而是语言提供的客观条件不
够。
诗之不可译,除了音律外,也指形式。形式对于诗歌非常重要,消解了形式的译诗至少
使人在视觉上不再承认它是诗。汉诗简约,惜字如金,如五言律诗,八行共四十个字,刘禹
锡用四十个仙人作比,不能有一个屠沽之流混杂其中,可谓一字有一字的用途,换一个就
使整首诗面目全非。更不用说翻译,既要再现原诗意象、声律,又要保持其简短紧凑的外形,
实在是万难。从汉诗英译实践看,主要是保留其意象,有时也能多少保存或补偿一些音律特
点,形式只能割爱。但也有例外。许渊冲英译的“千山鸟飞绝,万径人踪灭。”是少有的音、
形、意俱佳的翻译。译文为:”From hill to hill no bird in flight; / From path to path no man in
sight.”,押韵,字简,意丰,就汉诗英译而言真可谓是“佳译不常有,妙手偶得之”。英语
中还有非常注重视觉效果的“宝塔诗”和“具象诗” (concrete poetry),翻译这样的诗歌既
要达意又要象形,难度可想而知,这里不拟举例。

第二节 思维方式难点

英汉民族的思维方式差异在第二章进行了比较详细的归纳,主要包括形合与意合的差
异、焦点视与散点视的区别、客观与主观的对立以及在时空观念、心理、事理上的不同逻辑性。
思维方式差异必然反映在语言之中,因此给语言学习,翻译,以至跨文化交际带来困难。

一、表达方式
从某种意义上讲,思维方式即表达方式。在语言活动如语言学习和语际翻译中,人们会
发现某一语言的某些奇特的语言现象,刚接触该语言时非常不习惯,这是表达方式使然。例
如英语句子重主语,且多用物称主语;汉语句子轻主语,且多为人称主语,如:
(1)袭人道:“一百年还记着呢!比不得你,拿着我的话当耳边风,夜里说了,早起就忘
了。
“I’ll remember if I live to be a hundred!”said Aroma. “I’m not like you, letting
what I say go in at one ear and out at the other forgetting what’s said at
night by the next morning.”
(2)The bad weather prevented me from attending the meeting.
由于天气不好,我没去开会。
(3)Decision must be made very rapidly ; physical endurance is tested as
much as perception, because an enormous amount of time must be spent
making certain that the key figures act on the basis of the same information
and purpose.
必须把大量时间花在确保关键人物均已根据同一情报和目的行事,而这一切对身体的耐
力和思维能力都是一大考验。因此,一旦考虑成熟,决策者就应迅速作出决策。

41
例(1)原文的直接引语中没有任何主语,是典型的主语省略句,翻译时要根据英语的习惯
在适当的地方补上主语“我”(I)。例(2)原句主语是物(The bad weather),汉语一般不这样说
话,翻译时必须按译入语习惯调整主语。例(3)原文主语大多是物称,谓语多为被动语态形
式。在英语里,如果不知道动作执行者,必须用动作的承受者作主语,因此谓语动词必须用
被动语态。汉语则不然,不知道动作执行者,可用无主句。翻译此类英汉句子,要特别留心
主语和句型变换。
英语句子,如有些结构,说话含蓄、转弯抹角;汉语则直截了当,如:
(4)This is the last place where I expected to meet you.
我怎么也没想到会在这个地方见到你。
(5)I have read your articles. I expected to meet an older man.
看过你的文章,想不到你这么年轻。
英汉语词序有时不一样,也会使人感觉不习惯,如:
(6)Buckley was in a clear minority.
很明显,巴克利属于少数派。/ 巴克利显然属于少数。
(7)The little apprentice lived in mortal fear of his boss.
小学徒对老板怕得要死。
在正反表达形式上,英汉语也有差异。同一个意思,英语正面表达,汉语反面表达;
英语反面表达,汉语正面表达,如:
(8)He ‘s a good riddance. 他还是不在场的好。
(9)The ancient battlefield has become something holy. It was almost
untouched.
古战场成了圣地,它几乎保持着当年的风貌。
(10)我就愿意进当铺。
I wouldn’t mind going and doing the pawning.
(11)悔不该没有听他的话啊!
Oh that I had listened to him.
英汉语观察事物的角度和比喻联想不同,如:
(12)Her eyes are widely open. / 她圆睁双目。(英语注意上下眼皮的距离,汉语注
意其构形)
(13)Close the door behind you. / 随手关门。(着眼点不同,一在“you”,一在“手
”)
(14)lie on one’s back; lie on one’s stomach 仰卧;俯卧 (英语以背腹为基准,汉
语以面向为基准)
(15)as swift as an arrow / 快如闪电
(16)to drink like a fish / 牛饮
(17)like duck to water / 如鱼得水
英语重语言形式的衔接,如常用连词、介词、连系动词、分词、代词等,句子多为多枝共
杆式的树形结构或竹杆式的节节相套的环套结构;汉语重意义暗合,多省略,句子多为一
盘散沙式的流水句结构,如:
(18)It is a curious fact, of which I can think of no satisfactory explanation,
that enthusiasm for country life and love of natural scenery are strongest
and most widely diffused precisely in those European countries which have
the worst climate and where the search for the picturesque involves the
greatest discomfort.

42
欧洲有些国家,天气糟透,要找到景色如画的所在,这里的人们得辛苦一番。奇怪,他们
就喜欢过乡村生活,也最爱欣赏自然美景,而且这种情形在这里是个普遍现象。这是实情,
可我怎么也想不出令人满意的原因。
(19)曰:“马者,所以命形也;白者,所以命色也。命色者非命形也。故曰:白马非马。”
Because “horse” denotes the form and “white” denotes the color. What
denotes the color does not denote the form. Therefore we say that a white
horse is not a horse.
例(18)原文第一个 which 和 that 与 fact 相呼应,第二个 which 与 where 回指 countries,
这就使整个句子结构非常紧凑;例 (19) 原文多省略,没有主语,译文增加了 because 和 we
以使句子衔接紧密。
英语少重复,多用省略、替代或变换措辞;汉语则喜重复,如:
(20)Reading makes a full man;conference a ready man;writing an exact
man.
读书使人充实;讨论使人机智;写作使人准确。(原文两次省略 makes)
(21)Electrical charges of a similar kind repel each other and those that are
dissimilar attract.
同性电荷相斥,异性电荷相吸。(原文省略 charges 和 each other)
(22)He hated failure ; he had conquered it all his life ; risen above it ;
despised it in others.
他讨厌失 败 ,他一生中曾战胜 失 败 ,超越失 败 ,并且藐视别人的 失 败 。 (it 替代
failure)
(23)They never laugh when they ought to weep, or vice versa.
他们该哭的时候从来不笑 ,该笑 的时候从来不哭。(vice versa 代替 they never weep
when they ought to laugh)

二、叙事逻辑与推理模式
在时空观念、心理认知结构和事理逻辑上,英汉民族存在显著差异,反映在语言中则表
现为不同的结构模式。整体来看,英语叙事灵活,不像汉语那样严守自然时序,如英语里我
们既可以说 When I reached the station, the train had left. ,也可以说 The train had left when I
reached the station. ,汉语里只能说“我到车站时火车已经离开了”,却不可以说“火车已
经离开了,我到车站时”。下面英文原句在叙事结构上先说现在,再说过去,译成汉语时要
注意汉语对现实世界临摹性强的特点,调整时间顺序。
(1)She found herself minus the leg one week after consulting a doctor about
a persistent swelling she attributed to hard work and play in New York City—
it was an inoperable bone tumor. While it saved her life, an ensuing year of
chemotherapy reduced the once stunning model to a bald shadow of her
former self.
她腿上出现了一个持续不消的肿块,原以为是在纽约又工作又游玩累的,看医生之后才
知道是骨瘤,而且不宜手术。一周之后她便截去了那条腿。截肢虽然挽救了她的生命,但
接踵而来的长达一年的化疗使这位一度艳丽消魂的时装模特儿秀发脱落,枯瘦如柴,失
尽昔日风采。
(2)如果(在庙门口)看不见僧人,虎们就发出几声长啸,随着几阵风飞腾而去。
Sometimes, when they found no monks at the gate, they would whisk away
like the wind after uttering several thunderous roars.

43
英语复句常常重心在前,即把最重要的结论、结果、看法置于句首,而把论据、细节、推
论、原因放在句尾,汉语复句正好相反,如:
(3)Such is human nature in the West that a great many people are often
willing to sacrifice higher pay for the privilege of becoming white collar
workers.
许多人常常宁愿牺牲比较高的工资以换取成为白领工人的社会地位, 这 在 西 方 倒 是 人
之常情。
(4)I am lonely when I am overtired, when I have worked too long without a
break, when for the time being I feel empty and need filling up.
只有在我过于劳累,在我长时间无间断的工作,在我感到内心空虚,需要补充精神营养
的时候,我才感到寂寞。
(5)岳庙,西泠印社,曲院风荷,平湖秋月,花港观鱼,柳浪闻莺等风景 点,均在湖之
周围。
Famous beauty spots around West Lake include Yue Fei Temple, Xiling
Seal-engraving Society, Breeze-Ruffled Lotus at Quyuan Garden, Autumn
Moon over the Calm Lake, and several parks like “Viewing Fish at the Flower
Pond” and “Orioles Singing in the Willows”.

第三节 文化难点

中英文化存在着广泛的差异,在第一章我们已进行了详细的讨论。语言是文化的载体,
只要与语言打交道,就无法绕开文化因素。一些文化词语如成语、典故、俚俗用语,没有相关
的背景知识是无法理解的。还有一些为某一文化所独有的事物,在另一语言文化中没有对应
的语词,其翻译需要创造,困难更大。有时两种文化还会产生冲突,这又将译者置于两难的
境地。

一、文化词语的非完全对应
如果两种语言里的语词所表达的概念完全相同,翻译就会变成一件很容易的事情,译
者需要做的只是”一个萝卜一个坑”的工作,甚至可用机器来代劳。然而事实却是,任何语
言里,大部分词语,包括一些具有文化特色的词语,都是一词多义,往往对应别种语言中
的几个词,这就给译者的理解和选择带来很大的困难。例如汉语中表示官衔、职称的“副”
字,含义极其丰富,可用于任何表示副职的头衔,如“副主席”,“副省长”,“副检察
长”,“副科长”,“副团长”,“副董事长”,“副经理”,“副主任”,“副教授” ,
“副总工程师”,“副驾驶员”,“副研究员”,“副译审”等等。英美文化中也有副职,
却没有囊括一切副职、与汉语“副”字完全对应的词语,在不同的场合要用不同的词语表达,
如 vice, deputy, associate, assistant, second,而且有时副职不带“副”字,如 copilot([飞机的]
副驾驶员),还有带“副”字的不一定是副手,如 vice-Chancellor ,因 Chancellor 只是大学
的名誉校长,不管事,也不住在校区,负责大学实际工作的是 vice-Chancellor ,因此 vice-
Chancellor 表面是“副校长”,实际上是校长,一般译为“校长”。对于汉文化中如此众多
的副职,翻译时要具体问题具体分析。一般而言,行政副职可以用 vice 与 deputy,学术副职
可用 associate ,如 vice-chairman ( 副主席 ) , deputy county magistrate ( 副县长 ) , associate
professor of treatment (副主任医师),associate research fellow (副研究员),associate reviser of
translation (副译审)等等

44
二、文化空缺
不同的民族国家,由于各自的独特历史进程和地理环境,在衣食住行各个方面都存在
异文化所没有的事物。
(一)独有事物
关于英汉民族的独有事物,我们以衣食住行为例进行简单的探讨。第一是穿着。服装是
体现民族特色的一个重要方面。如中国人的旗袍,英美人就没有,英语里没有对应的词,便
采取音译,杜撰了一个词:cheongsam。又如中山装(Chinese tunic suit),因孙中山先生倡导
而流行,曾被称为“国服”,式样庄重而大方,为外国所无。中国人的棉袄与英美人的 coat
或 jacket 也不相同。
第二是食。英汉饮食文化的差异更大。中国有“馄饨”(wonton)、“锅贴”(guotie)、“粽子
”(zongzi)、“饺子”(jiaozi)、“豆腐”(toufu)等特色食品,英语里无一例外都采用音译,如
果外国人没见识过,不了解,就要加注,如“粽子”可如此注解:pyramid-shaped dumpling
made of glutinous rice wrapped in bamboo or reed leaves, usu. eaten during the Dragon Boat
Festival on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month。中国的“炒菜锅”与英美人的 pan 或 pot 也不
相同,pan 是平底浅锅,pot 则类似壶锅,英语也只好将中国的“炒菜锅”音译为 wok。同样,
西方也有很多食品为中国所无,如 salad——色拉、hamburger——汉堡包、pizza——比萨饼、
ham——火腿、cheese——奶酪、macaroni——通心粉、spaghetti——意大利式细面条等,只有
采取音译或意译。另外,中国的“白酒”不能译成 white wine。white wine 在英语里是“白葡
萄酒”的意思,“白酒”要译成 liquor 或 spirit。
第三是住。中国人过去住的是四合院 (shiheyuan / quadruple courtyard houses) ,堂屋
(living room / sitting room) 里放的是屏风 (pingfeng / Chinese folding screens) ,有钱人玩麻将
(mahjong) 、围棋 (weiqi / go) ,用的是宣纸 (rice paper) ,内堂上贴的是年画 (nianhua / Spring
Festival paintings) 和 水 墨 画 (Chinese inkwash paintings) , 大 门 上 贴 的 是 门 神 (door god
paintings 和对联 (antithetical couplet) ,逢年过节赶庙会 (temple fair) ,生了病吃中药 (Chinese
herbal medicine)或用针灸(acupuncture),这些都为西人所无。
第四是行。出行必须有车。但英语中却找不到一个与汉语“车”对应的词。据《现代汉语词
典》(1999:149),车指“陆地上有轮子的运输工具”,如火车、汽车、马车等。英语里虽然有
个 vehicle,却指任何有轮无轮的海陆空运输工具,如轮船、飞机。中国过去的地主官绅出门
有时坐轿子,“轿子”也是中国的特色事物,翻译采用意译法: sedan chair( 私家轿车 +椅
子)。另外,“舢板”过去在中国是靠近湖海的水上人家的行走工具,英语音译作 sampan。
(二)独有说法
有关社交礼仪的辞令,中西方说法不同。在中国,熟人隔了很长一段时间见面时会说“
好久不见”。英语里有个类似说法:long time no see,其源起难以确定,有人认为是借译自
汉语的“好久不见”,也有人认为 long time no see 中的 see 是 sea 的误写,原指水手长时间
不出海后再次出海时的说法。中国人见面时还喜欢说“辛苦了/你辛苦了/一路上辛苦了”,
英美人一般不这样说话,翻译时要视具体情形而定,如果对方是来自远方的客人,可译为 :
You must have had a tiring journey.或 You must be tired from a long trip?,如果对方完成了某件
事,可译为:Well done!或 That was a hard job.。
现代中国社会涌现出更多的有时代特色的话语,如“大字报” (dazibao) ,“大锅饭
”(communal pot),“五讲四美三热爱” (five emphases, four beauties and three loves) ,“新
长征突击手” (Pace-Setter in the New Long March) ,“三八红旗手” (March 8th Red Banner
Pacer-Setter),“联产承包责任制” (system of contracted responsibility linking remuneration to
output) , “ 三 包 ( 包 修 , 包 退 , 包 换 )”(the three guaranteed R’s : repair, replacement and
refund) , “ 三 个 代 表 ” (three represents) , “ 五 好 家 庭 ” (Five-Good Family) , “ 款 爷

45
” (tycoon / moneybag / fat cat) , “ 黑 哨 ” (black whistle / corrupt referring in football
match) , “ 打 假 ” (take strong measures against fake and shoddy products) , “ 煲 电 话 粥
”(make a marathon talk on the phone) 等等,因英语中没有现成的说法,译者应在理解其意
之后进行创造性的翻译。反之,对于英语中的独有说法(如 suicide bomb——“自杀炸弹”)
的翻译亦然。

三、文化冲突
(一)价值观念冲突
英汉民族经历的历史阶段不同,社会政治制度不同,因而对许多事物的理解也不相同,
有时甚至持对立的观点。在第一章英汉价值观念比较部分,我们曾提到 individualism 与“个
人主义”、privacy 与“隐私”两个例子。在英语文化中,individualism 与 privacy 均含褒义,
与对应的两个汉语词的内涵也略有不同;“个人主义”与“隐私”在汉语文化中含有贬义。
造成这种褒贬差异的关键,如前所述,在于英美文化重个人奋斗成功,实行的是资本主义 ,
私有财产神圣不可侵犯,而中国过去是大一统的国家,集体重于个人,个人无隐私权可言。
又如:propaganda 与“宣传”,前者在英语中是贬义词,后者在汉语中是褒义词。
(二)语言冲突
英汉两种语言由于音义上的错位,或者文化含义上的对立,使翻译稍不注意就会产生
文化冲突。以广告翻译为例。广告翻译常采用音译或意译。如中国有一种知名的牙膏品牌,叫
“芳草”牙膏,有人将“芳草”音译为 Fang Cao。不巧的是,Fang 恰好是英语的一个单词,
意思是“(蛇的)毒牙”。可以想象,西方人看了这样的翻译只会对“芳草”牙膏敬而远之。
又如“金鸡”(鞋油)、“白象”(电池)、“白翎”(钢笔)、“东风”(农业机械)等品牌,有人分
别意译为 golden cock,white elephant,white feather。不幸的是,cock 会使人联想到男人的
阳具,而 white elephant 隐含有“昂贵而又无用之物”之意,white feather 则寓意“胆小”。
由此可见,翻译应特别注意文化冲突,否则有可能给个人或公司带来严重后果。

第四节 非语言因素

翻译中涉及的意义,有字面意义,有字里含义包括文化内涵,有时意义则在字里行间,
有时又在字外。意义受到许多非语言因素的影响,主要包括文本语境和文化语境。文本语境
包括作者的创作意图,写作风格,作品中人物的语言风格、所处环境、心理状态,人物的性
格特征,人物间的关系,情景语境等等。文化语境包括作者的生活时代环境,作者的文化背
景,故事发生的时空背景等等。所有这些语境因素非原作中的一词一句所固有,但又无时无
刻不影响文本的所有内容。这些非语言因素是译者在理解原文过程中所不容忽视的。

一、文本语境
(一)人物性格特征
文学作品中的文字不少是用来塑造人物形象的。译者如果能在总体上把握人物在典型
环境中的典型性格,对理解和翻译当有助益。简·奥斯汀的《傲慢与偏见》中有这样两个句子:
(1)Elizabeth, however, had never been blind to the impropriety of her
father’ behavior as a husband. (p. 209)
(2)She represented to him all the improprieties of Lydia’s general behavior.
(p. 204)
例(1) 和(2)都用了 impropriety 一词,其基本含义是“不得体的举止,不正当的行为”,
在两个句子中分别用来描绘伊丽莎白的父亲贝内特(Bennet)先生和丽迪雅。如何翻译该词必

46
须结合人物的性格来分析。老贝内特是一家之主,聪明,含蓄,幽默,洒脱,但又怪僻,看
不起愚钝无知的妻子,常拿她开玩笑,挖苦她,使她在孩子们面前很没面子。聪明而又敏锐
的伊丽莎白早就注意到这点。丽迪雅则虚荣心强,无知,轻浮,十六岁就与人私奔,给家人
带来极大的耻辱。据此分析,impropriety 显然不能用同一个词来翻译。王科一先生准确地将
其分别译为“缺德”和“失检”:
(1)不过,伊丽莎白并不是看不出父亲这方面缺德。
(2)她把丽迪雅日常行为举止失检的地方,都告诉了父亲。
(二)作者的写作风格
写作风格可以从作品的题材、用字、表达、色彩中见出(张中楹,1961)。题材有正有反,
用字有难有易,表达有繁有简,色彩有浓有淡,译者要善于从原作中准确地抓住作者的风
格,并在译文中很好地表现出来。比如有这样一例:
(3)我以为世界之所以有待改进者,全因为这些奴才的缘故。
例 (3) 是半 文不 白的 汉语 ,张 培基 先生 注意 到了 这点 ,翻 译时 便用 了一 个古 体词
methink,译文如下:
(3)Methinks the world is very much in need of reform simply because of the
presence of these flunkeys.

二、文化语境
(一)作品的时空背景
有时,作品中的一词一句,人物的一言一行,离开了作品中故事发生的社会文化背景
就无从理解。如《傲慢与偏见》中有这样一个句子:
(4)Mr. Darcy bowed. (p. 21)
如果我们只是简单地将例(4)译成“达西先生弓了弓腰”,就没有把作者说这句话的真
正意图揭示出来。奥斯汀说这句话的目的是要表现达西的傲慢,因为在故事发生的时代,在
英国有这样的习俗,弓腰是一种谦恭地表示自己某种优越性的方式。这一背景信息必须在翻
译中以加注的形式传达给中国读者。
(二)作者的文化背景
作者在创作时与他的母语环境,如历史文化,时代政治背景,其他作品等等有着千丝
万缕的联系。译者必须追踪、厘定、捋清源文本所牵涉的各种关系,采取正确的翻译策略。有
这样一个汉语句子:
(5)1997 年,在海南发展银行同样面临支付困难的情况下,又把 28 家面临危机的城市
信用社接管下来,这更是雪上加霜。
作者是中国人,是在中国文化背景下说这句话,中国读者容易理解“雪上加霜” (使本
来就不好的情况更加恶化)。翻译时如果直译成 add frost to snow,不了解中国文化的英语读
者一定不知其所云,因为英语中没有类似的说法。要使译文意思明确,只有采用成语替换法,
以 rubbing salt on an open wound 译之,译文如下:
(5)In 1997, as the Hainan Development Bank got bogged down by the
difficulty of payment, it had to take over 28 tottering credit unions, and this
sealed its fate. It was like rubbing salt on an open wound.

47
第三章 汉英对译策略

从上面两章的讨论可以看出,英汉两种语言在表达方式、语言结构、文化背景上存在很
大差异,由此给翻译带来相当大的困难。正是因为这样或那样的疑难,自古以来的中外译者
总结出很多行之有效的翻译策略、技巧和方法,用以克服和跨越翻译的难关,搭建跨文化交
际的桥梁,为各民族文化的相互了解与沟通开辟坦途。英汉对译的基本技巧包括选词、替换、
增减、伸缩、分合、译借、直译与意译、保留与还原、加注以及标点符号的运用等十种方法。一方
面,这些方法有交叉重叠的地方,如保留原文属于译借的一种,在本书中单列是为了与还
原翻译法一起讨论,又如语法-词语转换从另一种视角看是增减法的一种;另一方面,这些
技巧可以进一步地细分,如替换可再分为替代与转换,而转换还可再分为词性转换、句子成
分转换、句式转换、语法-词语转换、修辞转换等。从翻译实践看,任何一件译作都是各种翻译
技巧综合运用的产物,有时甚至在翻译同一词语时也会涉及到几种翻译技巧的运用,有时
甚至难以分辨究竟用的是哪一种技巧。因此翻译技巧的划分和确定具有相对性。

第一节 选词

选词,即选义择词,贯穿于整个翻译的实际操作过程。这里的“词”指表达某一实体或
整体性概念的单词、词组和短语。“选义”是由人类语言的一词多义现象决定的。任何一种发
展完备的人类语言,其中的大部分词汇都是一词多义。例如英语的 dog,其普通词义是“狗
”,当然也可指人,在科技领域还可指“(机械)车床的夹头;止动器”、“(电子)无线电测
向器”、“(船舶)水密门夹扣”、“(天文)大犬座;小犬座”、“(气象)雾虹;小雨云”等等。
这里就有个辨义和确定词义的问题。人类语言还具有多词一义现象,即可用不同的词语表示
同一个意思,因此译者除辨义外还面临“择词”的问题。例如英语形容词 thin 的一个基本意
义是“瘦”,但在具体语境中受描述对象、情感、风格等因素的影响,可能会选用与“瘦”
同义的词语来翻译 thin,如用 a thin face 来描绘一个女性, thin 既可中性地译为“瘦削”,
也可褒义性地译为“清秀”,如果是描绘男性,还可译为“清癯”。
无论是“选义”,还是“择词”,都离不开上下文语境。英国翻译理论家纽马克 (Peter
Newmark ,1990:100) 说,没有词是完全孤立的 (No word is an island entire to itself.) ,词的
意义必然受到前后相邻词句的影响。我国学者王佐良先生也说,上下文不只是语言问题,说

48
话是一种社会行为,上下文实际上是提供了一个社会场合或情境,正是它决定了词义(罗
新璋,1984:829)。他还指出,一个词不仅有直接的、表面的、字典上的意义,还有内涵的、
情感的、牵涉许多联想的意义;一个词的意义有时不是从本身看得很清楚的,而要通过整篇
整段——亦即通过这个词在不同情境下的多次再现——才能确定。香港译界有句名言:词无
定译,说的就是同一个词在不同的语境中可能有不同的译法。
从词语与语境的关系看,有些词基本不受语境影响 (context-free),如意义相对固定单一
的专有名词、科技术语、数量词等;有些词则受语境制约(context-bound),如那些含有感情色
彩、价值判断且意义极为丰富的普通名词、形容词、动词、副词等。对于这些词语,先利用各种
手段确定其意,然后恰当措辞表达。这里介绍几种确定词义的方法。

一、通过搭配确定词义
词语搭配构成词组小语境,可以藉此确定相互间的意义,如:
(1)severe test 严峻的考验
(2)severe training 严格的训练
(3)severe reasoning 严谨的推理
(4)severe competition 激烈的竞争
(5)severe style 简朴的文体
(6)severe brake 急刹车
(7)severe radiation 强辐射
(8)severe load 过载/ 超载
(9)severe criticism 严厉批评
(10)severe pollution 严重污染
(11)打 铃 to ring a bell
(12)打 稻谷 to thresh rice
(13)打 败仗 to suffer a defeat
(14)打 老婆 to batter one’s wife
(15)打 地基 to lay the foundation
(16)打 家具 to make furniture
(17)打 毛衣 to knit a sweater
(18)打 井 to dig a well
(19)打 借条 to write an IOU
(20)打 篮球 to play basketball

二、通过语篇语境确定词义
句子是表意相对完整的语言单位,能够提供一定的语境信息;如果句内信息不足以确
定词义,则扩大到句群、段、段群、篇、章节、书的不同语篇层面去寻找破解词义的有关信息。
杨绛先生在她的文章《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》中,多处用到了“痴气”及与“痴”相关的词 组,
来描绘钱种书先生异于常人的脾性,在不同语境下其意多有不同。译者凌原先生根据具体情
况选用不同的英语词汇来翻译“痴气”及相关词组,请看以下诸例:
(21)钟书写完《围城》,“痴气”依然旺盛,但是没有体现为第二部小说。
After Chung-shu finished writing Fortress Besieged, his “eccentric” bent was
still going strong, but it failed to take form in a second novel.
(22)我觉得《围城》里的人物和情节,都凭他那股子痴气,呵成了真人真事。
It was those charming mischievous quirks of his that made it possible for

49
him to create the characters and plots for the novel and pass them off as
real people and real deeds.
(23)“高兴”也正是钱家所谓“痴气”的表现。
“Being funny” was another manifestation of his puckish bent in the eyes of
the Ch’iens.
(24)钟书的“痴气”也怪别致的。
Chung-shu’s sweet quirkiness is peculiarly his own.
(25)沦陷在上海的时候,他多余的“ 痴气”往往发泄在叔父的小儿小女、孙儿孙女和自己
的女儿阿圆身上。
When he was stranded in Shanghai, he would take out his pent-up eccentric
energy on Younger Uncle’s small children, grand children and Ah Yuan, his
own daughter…
(26 )这又是家人所谓“痴气”的另一种表现。
Such is still another manifestation of his puckish ways in the eyes of family
members.
(27)上课画《许眼变化图》,央女儿代摹《魔鬼遗臭图》,想来也都是“痴气”的表现。
I surmise that Chung-shu’s class drawings of “Changes in Xu’s Eyes” and his
pleading with his daughter to copy “A Fleeing Demon Leaves a Stink Behind
Him” were to him further examples of his charming idiosyncratic ways.
(28)钱家人常说钟书“痴人有痴福”,他作为书痴,倒真有点痴福。
The Ch’iens often said of Chung-shu, “A puckish fellow has his days.” As a
bookworm, he is indeed blessed in this regard.

三、通过常识判断确定词义
常识 (common sense / general knowledge about the world around us) 人人有,而且常识愈
丰富对翻译理解愈有用。很多老翻译家如吕淑湘、傅雷、杨宪益都强调翻译需要“杂学”。我
想,这“杂学”可以看作是比较“高级”的常识吧。请看下面一段关于铜质保温瓶结构的描
述:
(29)Another type is a double-walled copper vessel with the corresponding
surface scrupulously cleaned to achieve the high intrinsic reflectivity of
copper. A body of charcoal absorbent may be affixed to the outer wall of the
fluid container, where it is kept cold and helps to condense any gases
remaining in the vacuum space after it is evacuated and sealed off.
某译文:另一种类型是有双壁的铜容器,其相应表面洁净无疵以获得铜所固有的高反射
率。在流体容器的外壁可以粘着一层木炭吸附剂,它保持着低温并在容器抽空和密封后帮
助冷凝残留在真空空间的气味。
此句的翻译关键在于两个 it 的意思。根据上面的译文,两个 it 都指 fluid container。这显
然不对。从原文看,fluid container 明显指铜质保温瓶盛装液体的内筒,而内筒怎么能抽空
呢 ? 根据生活常识,保温瓶中要抽空的是内外夹层之间的夹套,即原文中的 the vacuum
space,因此第二个 it 应指 the vacuum space。再举一个简单一点的例子:She could knit when
she was seven.。句中的 knit,其基本意思是“编织”,但译文不能只说“织”或“编织”,
必须把动词的宾语补上,因为汉语里说“她七岁时就会(编)织”显得不够自然。那么“织”
什么呢?根据我们的生活经历,一般是织毛衣,而不是织麻袋什么的,因此原句可译为“她
七岁时就会织毛衣”。常识也包括一些很简单的科普知识。如果科技知识为大众所共有,那

50
就是利用科学背景知识来确定词义。

四、利用背景知识确定词义
理解一个词有时需要从文本以外去寻找相关信息,如上面的常识判断。在科学翻译中,
时常需要运用自然科学或社会科学或其他领域的背景知识来确定词义。如:
(30)Velocity changes if either the speed or direction changes.
velocity 和 speed 都可表示“速度”,前者具专技色彩,一般用于科技文献,后者语域
较宽,可用于科技或日常生活领域。如果将 velocity 和 speed 都理解为“速度”,原文表述
将失去意义,因此这里 velocity 和 speed 中必有一个词表示其他意义。物理学告诉我们,速
率是矢量,有大小又有方向,而速度是标量,有大小而没有方向。据此, velocity 是速度,
因为原文语境信息暗示它有方向(direction),speed 是速率。这样确定词义后原句可译为:“
如果(物体运动的)速率和方向有一个发生变化,则物体的运动速度也随之发生变化。”

五、利用逻辑判断和推理确定词义
在翻译实践中我们还可以利用逻辑学的有关知识,如矛盾律等来确定词义。如:
(31)Automobiles and trucks would be powered by quickly replaceable
electric batteries.
某译文:汽车和卡车则可以迅速替换的电池组作动力……
译文乍一看似乎没有问题,可是从逻辑的角度仔细思考,我们会发现,“汽车”和“
卡车”两个概念是蕴涵与被蕴涵的从属关系,即“卡车”包含在“汽车”之中。“汽车”是
属概念,“卡车”是种概念。译文犯了种属概念并列的逻辑错误。因此,必有一词的理解出
了问题。查词典,automobile 除了作“汽车”讲外,还可作“轿车”解。“轿车”与“卡车
”是对立概念,可以并列。再看一类似的例子:
(32)It caused devastation by burrowing and by devouring the herbage which
might have maintained millions of sheep and cattle.
它们在地下打洞,吞食掉本来可以维持数百万只牛羊的牧草,从而造成了破坏。
原文中的 cattle 有“牲畜”和“牛”二义,这里因与“羊”(sheep)对置,根据种属概念
不能并列的逻辑规则,cattle 只能作“牛”解。

【实例分 析】
(1)“Do you not want to know who has taken it?” cried his wife impatiently.
“You want to tell me, and I have no objection to hearing it.” (Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen)
“你难道不想知道是谁租去的吗?”太太不耐烦地嚷起来了。
“既是你要说给我听,我听听也无妨。”
[分析]一个“嚷”字恰到好处地表现出班纳特太太(Mrs Bennet)浅薄、缺少涵养的性格。
have no objection to 不译“不反对”,而译作“也无妨”,语气自然流畅,真如羚羊挂角,
丝毫看不出翻译的痕迹,同时还准确地传达出班纳特先生故意不紧不慢地逗他那急不可耐
的妻子的乐子的情景。
(2)”Is he married or single?”
“Oh, single, my dear, to be sure! A single man of large fortune; four or five thousand a year. What
a fine thing for our girls!”
“How so ?How can it affect them?” (Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen)
“有太太的呢,还是个单身汉?”
“噢!是个单身汉,亲爱的,确确实实是个单身汉!一个有钱的单身汉;每年有四五千镑的

51
收入。真是女儿们的福气!”
“这怎么说?关女儿们什么事?” (王科一 译)
[分析] a fine thing 译为“福气”比“好事”要自然贴切得多,很符合说话者的口吻。
(3)这是暴风雪欲来时的先兆。(郭沫若:《水墨画》)
All that foreboded a storm. (张培基 译)
[分析]“先兆”也可译为“foretold”,但没有“foreboded”准确,因为后者一般都针对不
好的事物。“先兆”的翻译还运用了词类转换法。)
(4)为了防备这骤然的黑暗,于是每晚以前,每个小家庭都在一两间屋里,点上一盏捻得很
暗的煤油灯。(冰心:《祖父和灯火管制》)
Hence, in anticipation of the sudden blackout at 9 o’clock, each small family would get a dimly-lit
kerosene lamp ready in a couple of their rooms. (张培基 译)
[分析]“防备”根据上下文转译为“预计”( anticipation),词性也由动词变为名词,
符合英语常以名词替代动词、多用名词的习惯。)
(5)这种浪漫谛克的回忆其实并不是发现了“儿时”的真正了不得,而是感觉到“中年”以后的
衰退。(瞿秋白:《“儿时”》)
As it is, the sentimental recollection marks his awareness of post-middle age decline rather than
his discovery of anything truly remarkable in the bygone days.(张培基 译)
[分析]译“浪漫谛克”,放着英语里的 romantic 不用,而选择 sentimental,是因为,虽
然中文的“浪漫谛克”音译自 romantic,但在此其意已稍有变化,不宜回译。sentimental 与
romantic 意思相似,但前者偏重于“伤感”,后者则偏重于“不切实际”。
(6)住在上海“弄堂房子”里的人对于月亮的圆缺隐现是不甚关心的。(叶圣陶:《看月》)
People living in the small alleyways of Shanghai pay little attention to the waxing and waning, or
the visibility, of the moon. (张培基 译)
[分析]“弄堂房子”为文化词语,可用 small alleyways, small lanes, small alleys 等意译之,
无须把“房子”也译出,因为按常识逻辑,人一般总是“住”在房子里的。此外,“隐现”
译为 visibility(可见度),采用了概括化译法,因为英语的 visibility 包含了“隐现”两种
意思。
(7)许久储蓄在心里的诗料,今晨在理发店里又浮上了心来了。(郭沫若:《白发》)
My long pent-up poetic emotion emerged again this morning at a hairdresser’s. (张培基 译)
[分析]根据其语境含义,“储蓄”转译为“被抑制的”( pent-up),“诗料”转译为
“诗情”(poetic emotion)。大作家、大诗人、大学者的文章之所以流传久远,一个重要原因
就是用词不守成规、不拘常轨。翻译却要最准确地传达词语的意义,只有按常规译,所以表
面上出现意义偏离的现象。这种偏离是翻译所容许的,因为译文偏离的是原文的表层意义,
趋向的却是原文的深层即真正的含义。王宏印在评析夏济安译爱默生的《论美》时就提到词义
的偏向技巧(《世界名作汉译选析》,2000:156)。
(8)偏偏你是女人,到什么地方都有顾虑。(谢冰莹:《黄昏》)
Now that, of all people, you are a girl, I’ll be full of inhibitions wherever we two go. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ] 这里“顾虑”不用 worry, anxiety, concern, misgiving, apprehension 等词翻译而用
inhibition,是因为它在此处的含义为“拘谨”、“不自在”。
(9)孩子们是可爱的,他们天真,坦白,热情,心理想到什么就说什么,没有丝毫虚伪,没
有丝毫勉强。(谢冰莹;《粉笔生涯》)
The kids are just lovely. They are naïve, candid and cordial. They speak straight from the heart,
without the slightest insincerity or reluctance. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文中的“虚伪”就是“不真诚”的意思,用“ insincerity”比用“ hypocrisy”翻

52
译要确切些,因为“hypocrisy”一词意义较泛,可以包括伪君子的各种特点。此译还运用了
反译法:肯定的表达形式变成了否定的表达形式。
(10)关于这事,我常自比为古时的皇帝,而把插在架上的书譬诸列屋而居的宫女。(夏丏尊:
《我之于书》)
This often prompts me to liken myself and the books on my shelves respectively to an ancient
emperor and his concubines housed separately in a row of adjoining rooms. (张培基 译)
[分析]“宫女”按字面,本可译作“court ladies”、“palace maids”,但此处实指妃子,因
此要译为“concubines”。
(11)在还乡的路上,母亲和父亲一再嘱咐我,“回到福州住在大家庭里,不能再像野孩子似
的了,一切都要小心。”(冰心:《祖父和灯火管制》)
While on the way home, my parents warned me again and again, “Since we’ll be living in a big
family in Fuzhou, remember always to behave properly and never act like a naughty child….” ( 张
培基 译)
[分析]“野孩子”不宜按字面译作“wild child”。这里的“野”指孩子“淘气”、“不听
话”,可译为“naughty”。
(12)可见当时嬉戏的光景了。这真是有趣的事,可惜我们现在是无福消受了。
That is a glimpse of those merrymaking scenes. It must have been fascinating, but unfortunately
we have long been denied.
[分析]“可见”二字不好译,若译为…can been seen,则是形似神离的翻译。“无福消受
”意译作 denied,则显得简洁而又切合英语的表达习惯。
(13)于是——洗手的时候,日子从水盆里过去,吃饭的时候,日子从饭碗里过去;默默时,
便从凝然的双眼前过去。
Thus -- the day flows away through the sink when I wash my hands, wears off in the bowl when I
eat my meal, and passes away before my day-dreaming gaze as I reflect in silence.
[分析]译文用三个近义词 flow away, wear off 和 pass away 翻译原文的三个“过去”。
(14)只有徘徊罢了,只有匆匆罢了……
Nothing but to hesitate, to rush.
[ 分 析 ] 译 者 这 里 选 用 hesitate 译 “ 徘 徊 ” , 而 不 是 字 面 意 义 更 接 近 的 pace up and
down,是经过深思熟虑之后作出的决定。他说:“‘徘徊’和‘匆匆’似乎是矛盾的,在
这里却摆到一起,不禁令人诧异。后半句马上做出解释,原来‘匆匆’的是时间,‘徘徊’
的是人心。推而广之,这就是物质和肉体的外在‘匆匆’与内心和精神的内在‘徘徊’之间
的冲突。基于这个分析,我用了 hesitate 而不是其他表面看来更接近原文的词来译‘徘徊’
”。(见朱纯深译朱自清《匆匆》)
(15)马路两旁,远近都立着灯窗明灿的别墅,向暗蓝的天空静静的微笑着。(艾芜:《冬夜》)
The street was lined with fine houses, their illuminated windows beaming quietly towards the dark
blue sky.(刘士聪 译)
[分析]这里译者将原文中的“微笑”译作 beam 而不是更常见的 smile,有他自己的考
虑。他说:“‘向暗蓝的天空静静的微笑着’,译成 beaming quietly towards the dark blue
sky,比较好,因为 beam 既有‘发光’的意思,又有‘微笑’的意思。”
(16)“一家人生了一个男孩,合家高兴透顶了。满月的时候,抱出来给客人看,——大概自
然是想得到一点好兆头。” (鲁迅:《立论》)
“When a baby boy is born to a family, there is immense joy in the whole household. When he is
one month old, they invite some people over for taking a look at him -- customarily, of course, in
expectation of some good wishes.” (张培基 译)

53
[分析]这里“男孩”实际指“男婴”,所以译作 a baby boy,当然也可译作 son。“合家
”的“家”译作 household 而非 family,是因为 household 除指 family 外,也可指同门同户
的人,甚至包括非亲属如仆人等。“好兆头”这里指那些客人的祝福,因此可译为 good
wishes / blessing / compliments / auspicious remarks 等。另外,要注意,汉语句子(在前文提
到主语的情况下)省略主语是经常的,而英文句子一般不能没有主语。所以,翻译句子“满
月的时候,抱出来给客人看”要增补逻辑主语。
(17)The sea changed, the fields changed, the rivers, the villages, and the people changed, yet
Egdon remained.( The Return of the Native , by Thomas Hardy)
沧海改易,桑田变迁,江河湖泽,村落人物,全有消长,但是爱敦荒原,却一直没有变化。
(张谷若 译)
[分析]原文中出现三次的 changed 分别被译成“改易”,“变迁”和“消长”。这种同
词异译一方面可以获得用词丰富变化的效果,另一方面是出于搭配的考虑。译文还运用了增
词法,sea(沧海),fields(桑田)以及 rivers(江河湖泽)的翻译均有增益。这种增益并非
毫无道理的随意增益,而是基于原作的。原作者托马斯 ·哈代的本意是说除了爱敦荒原外一
切都发生了变化。此外,增益也是为了符合汉语喜用双音字和四字格词组的习惯,对中国读
者来说,“沧海”与“桑田”要比“海”与“田”顺耳。
(18A)Many a dun had she talked to, and turned away from her father’s door; many a tradesman
had she coaxed and wheedled into good-humour, and into the granting of one meal more. (Vanity
Fair, by William Thackeray,下同)
她常常和逼债的人打交道,想法子打发他们回去。她有本领甜言蜜语地哄得那些做买卖的回
心转意,再让她赊一顿饭吃。(杨必译,下同)
(18B)She sat commonly with her father, who was very proud of her wit, and heard the talk of
many of his wild companions—often but ill-suited for a girl to hear.
她爸爸见她机灵,十分得意,时常让她和自己一起坐着听他那些粗野的朋友聊天,可惜他
们说的多半是姑娘们不该听的野话。
(18C)She had never mingled in the society of women; her father, reprobate as he was, was a man
of talent; his conversation was a thousand times more agreeable to her than the talk of such of her
own sex as she now encountered.
她从小不和女人往来。她的父亲虽然是个无赖,却有才华。利蓓加觉得他的谈吐比起现在女
人堆里听到的说长道短,不知有趣多少。
(18D)…and she had no soft maternal heart, this unlucky girl, otherwise the prattle and talk of the
younger children, with whose care she was chiefly entrusted, might have soothed and interested
her…
……按理说,听着孩子们咭咭呱呱,倒也可以消愁解闷。无奈她天生缺少母性……
[分析]例(18)原文四个 talk 分别被译成比较正式的“打交道”,非正式或口语化的“聊
天”、“咭咭呱呱”以及具有贬义色彩的“说长道短”。
(19)“难!”老师从眼镜圈外斜射出眼光来,看着我,说。(鲁迅:《立论》)
“That’s a hard nut,” said the teacher, giving me a sidelong glance over his glasses. (张培基 译)
[分析]“从眼镜圈外”存在方位歧义:是从眼镜上方,下方还是侧面?原文语境未明确
交代老师和“我”的位置。但从常识判断,在中国旧式教育的话语环境下,学生请教先生问
题,一般是先生坐着讲,学生站着听。因此,老师看学生一般是从眼镜上方,但是如果学生
站在先生侧面而不是正面,老师从眼镜边角看人的可能性更大。因此,张培基先生推荐了两
种译法翻译“老师从眼镜圈外斜射出眼光来”:giving me a sidelong glance over his glasses /
glancing at me sideways out of the corner of his glasses。

54
(20)路上,她一反常态,竟非常沉默。(于晓丹:《无题的风景》)
During the bus trip she was singularly quiet, not at all her usual self. (孙艺风 译)
[分析]这里不用 very 或者 extremely,而用 singularly,“竟”与“非常”的含义都表达出
来了。
(21)她十分熟练地领我走往那座高楼,眼睛习惯性地在楼下自行车堆里扫视了一遍。(于晓
丹:《无题的风景》)
She apparently knew her way well as we followed a winding path that led to a high-rise block, in
front of which, out of force of habit, she scanned a veritable jumble of bicycles. (孙艺风 译)
[分析]翻译“习惯性地”,本来一个 habitually 似乎也行,但不如相近的 out of force of
habit,其意为:习惯成自然,自动就这么做了,因为过去总这么做。此处用这个短语更贴切。
(22)她说:“门缝没有亮光。”(于晓丹:《无题的风景》)
She replied, ”Can’t see any light coming from under the door.” (孙艺风 译)
[分析]“门缝”翻译有讲究。过去的门是两扇,因此门缝指两扇门之间留出的间隙,我
们常说的“门缝里看人”,其中的“门缝”就是此意。但现代的门,特别是公寓的门,通常
是一块,能透出光亮的地方,可能性最大的是门的下部,因而“门缝”译作 from under the
door。
(23)八十年代,有一姑娘号召:1.70 米以下男人均为“残废”。于是全国未婚女青年纷纷揭
竿而起。(木木:《终生遗憾》)
In the 1980s, one young lady issued a public pronouncement dismissing all men under the height
of 1.70 metres as “handicapped”. It was met with an avalanche of responses from virtually all
unmarried women in the nation. (孙艺风 译)
[分析]译者选用 young lady 译“姑娘”的理由是,在某些西方女权主义者眼里, girl 一
词带有贬义色彩,故换用 young lady。
(24)我们说林译是“歪译”,可丝毫没有糟蹋他的意思;我们是觉得“意译”这名词用在林译
身上并不妥当,所以称它为“歪译”。(茅盾:《直译·顺译·歪译》)
When referring to Lin’s translations as “free”, we do not intend to disparage him in the least.
Nevertheless, the term ”free translation” is not exactly applicable to Lin, and as a result,
“distortion (in translation)” is our denomination of his translation. (孙艺风 译)
[分析]“糟蹋”虽然有侮辱之意,但这里不能直译成 insult,应该理解为小瞧他。用一个
正式的书面语 disparage 比较合适,表明作者的态度是诚恳的。
(25)当时《新青年》的编者陈仲甫先生也不赞成张先生此种“试验”,老实不客气给他改,改
了,张先生还是非常不高兴。(茅盾:《直译·顺译·歪译》)
The editor of New Youth at that time was Mr Chen Zhongfu, who disapproved of Zhang’s
“experiment”, and who made untrammeled revisions to the translation in question. Zhang was
understandably very upset with these revisions. (孙艺风 译)
[分析]“客气”与“不客气”与语境有着极为密切的关系。在汉语里随语境的不同,所
有的词可能完全互不沾边。在某种程度上,“老实”也是如此,这里就绝不是 honest 的意思,
只具有强调作用。“老实不客气改”可理解为:(我们的语内翻译就是)完全不受限制地改。
(26)现在,张先生大概已经抛弃了他的试验了罢,我可不十分明白,但是从这个故事就证
明了“直译”的原则并不在“字对字”一个也不多,一个也不少。(茅盾:《直译·顺译·歪译》)
Maybe Mr. Zhang has renounced his experiment now, though I am not so sure. But what this
anecdote proves is that the principle of “literal translation” does not entail “word-for-word
translation, not a word more, and not a word less.
[ 分析 ]“ 故事”在这里不能直译为 story 。 story 不一定是虚构的,也不自动等于 fiction

55
(当然 short story 一定是 fiction ),可以是对事情、事件的叙述,如: Let me tell you the
whole story(我把事情的始末告诉你)。同时 story 还可指新闻报道,说明有真实性,不是
杜撰的。茅盾讲的这件事,未必准确属实(没提供证据),所以用 anecdote 翻译。(孙艺风
译)

第二节 替换

一、替代
替换包括替代和转换两种方法。替代指的是用译入语中现成的说法替代原文中的说法。
翻译中使用替代法的原因是原语中某些词语、句式、表现法在译入语中空缺,只有通过变通,
才能传递原语信息。替代可分为语义性替代和语用性替代。
(一) 语义性替代
英汉语中有些表达法形式殊异,含义也不够显豁,但意义完全或基本相同。在这种情况
下,采用替代法可以很好地实现翻译“达”的目标,因为译文读者一看即懂。不过运用替代
法要注意文化因素,亦即不能用译入语中含有文化成分(如人名、地名、历史事件等)的词语
替换,不然就会歪曲原作的身份,例如我们不能用“说曹操,曹操到”替换英语的 Talk of
the devil and he is sure to come ,虽然二者意思一样,但英语历史文化里没有曹操这样的人
物,曹操为汉文化所独有。语义性替代一般用于语言或文化空缺的词语的翻译,如特有语词、
成语、谚语、典故、俗语等。语义性替代常常表现为一种文化词语的借用。下面略举几例。
(1)Swan song (典出西方古代传说,天鹅临死前的美妙歌声)---绝唱
(2)Mascot (英美蓝、足球比赛中穿奇装异服者)---吉祥物
(3)Let them eat cake. (18 世纪法国典故)---何不食肉麋
(4)Between cup and lip (出自希腊神话)---功败垂成之际
(5)Fig leaf (《圣经》典故)---遮羞布
(6)Ostrich-like---自欺
(7)Love me, love my dog---爱屋及乌
(8)A gentleman uses his tongue, not his fists---君子动口不动手
(9)风水轮流转---Every dog has his day.
(10)巧妇难为无米之炊---to make bricks without straw
(11)眼中钉---a thorn in the flesh
(12)新官上任三把火---New brooms sweep clean.
(13)脱胎换骨---to turn over a new leaf
(14)胸有成竹---to have a card up one’s sleeves
(15)竭泽而渔---to kill the goose that lays the golden egg
(二) 语用性替代
人类语言中,有些说法其意不在字表,而在其功能即语用意义上,如一些寒喧语、脏话
等。这样的词语无须直译,用译入语中语用功能对应的表达法代替即可,如:
(16)吃饭没有?---How are you? / Hi / Hello
(17)请慢走!---Good-bye / Bye / See you
(18)该死的!---Damn you!
(19)Blast you!---挨刀货!

二、转换
转换是翻译常用的方法之一。翻译中使用转换的原因是两种语言的语言系统、表达习惯

56
以及文学艺术传统存在差异。转换法包括词类转换、句子成分转换、句式转换、词汇-语法转换、
修辞转换等。
(一) 词类转换
英汉对译中运用词类转换大致有两个原因,一是两种语言的词类系统不完全对应。也就
是说,表示同一意义的语词的词性可能不一样,如“确信”在汉语里是个动词,而意义对
应的 sure, certain 则是形容词。又如汉语表示“超过”、“进入”、“穿越”只能用动词,而
英语除了动词外还可用介词 beyond, into, across 表示。一旦翻译这样的词语就会发生词类变
化。二是操这两种语言的人具有不同的用词倾向,中国人喜用动词和量词,英美人喜用名词、
介词、形容词。翻译中要做到合乎译入语的表达习惯,就必须进行词性转换,如将英语的名
词(特别是动词派生的名词)、形容词(动词派生或具有动作意味的形容词)、介词转类为汉语的
动词,反之亦然。例如:
(20)… and that government of the people, by the people, for the people,
shall not perish from the earth.
民有,民治,民享的政府将永存于世。
(21)We are enemies of all wars, but above all of dynastic wars.
我们反对一切战争,特别是王朝战争。
(22)The volume of trade has increased tremendously to the advantage of
both countries.贸易的剧增给两国带来了极大的好处。
(23)中国成功地爆炸了第一颗原子弹,在全世界引起了巨大的反响。
China’s successful explosion of its first atomic bomb caused tremendous
repercussion throughout the world.
(二) 句子成分转换
大多数情况下,英汉对译中句子成分的转换是由词类转换、表达法即词序转换、语态转
换等引起的,如:
(24)徐悲鸿画马画得特别好。(“画”为动词、谓语)
Xu Beihong’s drawings of horses are exceptionally good.(drawings 为名词,主
语)
(25)The illness kept him in hospital for five months. (him 作宾语)
他因病在医院住了五个月。(“他”作主语)
(26)Friction can be reduced and the life of the machine prolonged by
lubrication. (friction 与 the life of the machine 为主语,lubrication 为介词 by
的宾语)
润滑能减少摩擦,延长机器寿命。(“润滑”为主语,“摩擦”与“机器寿命”为宾语)
(三) 句式转换
句式转换追求的是功能对等,虽然翻译中原文句式变了,但语义和语用功能未变。如廖
承志先生的《致蒋经国信》中有这么一句:“咫尺之隔,竟成海天之遥”。新华社译文平铺直
叙:No one ever expected that a strip of water should become so vast a distance. 。张培基先生的
译文采用疑问式的感叹句,将作者蕴藏在文字背后的强烈感情很好地再现出来: Who
would have expected that the short distance between us should be keeping us poles apart!。
(四) 语态转换
英语,特别是科技英语,多用被动语态;汉语则多用主动语态,被动语态不常用,即
便是被动意义也常常用主动句来表达。例如,汉语里,我们常说“文章写好了”,形式上虽
然是主动语态,却含有被动意义,动词“写”前习惯性地省略了“被”字,因此翻译时要
译成英语的被动句:The article has already been finished.。英汉语的这一差异告诉我们,翻译

57
时要考虑语态是否需要转换,以便符合译入语的表达习惯。下面略举几例。
(27)A new instant NESPRAY has been put into the market in Hong Kong.
新配方雀巢即溶奶粉在港上市。(被动变主动,原文主语不变)
(28)Best surface finish is provided by machining methods, especially by
grinding.
用机械加工方法,特别是用磨削方法,可以获得最佳表面光洁度。(被动变主动,使用无
句,原文主语转换为宾语)。
(29)这座桥将在今年年底完成。
The construction of the bridge will be completed by the end of this year.
(汉语的隐形被动句转换为英语的显性被动句)
(30)希望你有机会来中国访问。
It is hoped that you will have a chance to visit China. (增补形式主语,主动变被
动)
(31) 中美已经建立了外交关系。
Diplomatic relations have been established between China and the United
States.(原文宾语转换为译文主语,加以强调,主动变被动)
(五)正反转换
人类自然语言的形式有两种:肯定和否定。同一个意思既可以用肯定形式正面表达,也
可以用否定形式反面表达。例如,在汉语里我们可以说“你说得很对”,也可以说“你说得
一点不错”。这里的“对”和“不错”,一个是正面表达,一个是反面表达。英汉语里都有
供反面表达的否定词语,如汉语的“不”、“非”、“无”、“未”等,英语的 not, no, never,
un-, non-, dis-等。值得注意的是,英语用肯定形式表达的意思有时转换成汉语的否定表达形
式会显得更自然,意思更清楚,反之亦然。翻译中的正反转换,就是将肯定形式的说法转换
为否定形式的说法,或者将否定形式的说法转换成肯定形式的说法,有些教材称之为“正
反译法”或“反译”,其目的是为了使译文意思清楚、表达自然。例如:
(32)That thermometer must be lying.
那个温度计一定不准。(肯定变否定)
(33)A: “Had you ever seen the man before then?”
B: “No, I hadn’t. He was a total stranger.”
甲:“你以前见过此人吗?”
乙:“没有。我根本不认识他。” (肯定变否定)
(34)Suddenly he heard a sound behind him, and realized he was not alone
in the garage.
他突然听到背后有声响,便立刻意识到车库里还有人。(否定变肯定)
(35)他七十五岁了,可是并不显老。
Her was 75, but he carried his years lightly. (肯定变否定)
(36)他的解释不能让人满意。
His explanation is far from satisfactory. (否定变肯定)
(六) 词汇-语法转换
英语重形合,汉语重意合,英语的语法形式与手段比汉语要丰富,很多英语语法结构
如时、体、态在汉语中空缺。而语法结构是有意义的。翻译英语特有的语法结构,必须借助于
汉语的词汇手段,有翻译教材把这种方法视为增词法。反过来看,汉语词汇手段表达的语法
意义可转换为英语相应的语法结构。例如:
(37)The old man said, “They say his father was a fisherman. Maybe he was

58
as poor as we are.
老头儿说:“听人说,从前他爸爸是个打渔的。他过去也许跟我们现在一样穷。”(原文划线
部分的时态意义分别转换为词汇“从前”,“过去”和“现在”)
(38)If the reaction took hours, and not seconds, the fuel costs would be
prohibitive.
假如这一反应需要数小时而不是几秒钟,那么燃料成本就太高了。(名词复数意义分别转
换为词汇“数”和“几”)
(39)This kind of steel is not corroded by air and water.
这种钢不会被空气和水腐蚀。(被动语态意义转换为词汇“被”)
(40)It would be absurd to deny the fact.
如果否定这一事实,那将是毫无道理的。(虚拟语气暗含的意义转换为词汇“如果”)
(41)在外面多跑跑也是好的,比在家里受闲气好多了。
Running around outside is much better than sitting at home being sniped at.
(词汇“受”转换为被动结构 being sniped at )
(6) 她是世界上最幸福的人。
She is the happiest person around world. (词汇“最”转换为形容词最高级词尾形
式-est)
(42)他一直在考虑这个问题。
He has been thinking of the problem. (词汇“一直在”转换为现在完成进行体结构
has been thinking of)
(七) 修辞转换
英语和汉语里的修辞格,有相同或相似的,如拟人,比喻,夸张,双关,排比,头韵
(汉语里叫双声)等,也有不同的,如英语的矛盾修饰法(oxymoron)、一语双叙法(syllepsis)等
汉语的重叠(叠字)、顶真、对仗、衬托、拈连等。即使修辞相同,也因为两种语言在音、形、义构
造上的不同,常常颇难传译。对于原文中的修辞手法,如若不能对等再现,译者常常将其转
换为另外一种修辞,以作补偿。例如:
(43)Then Lieutenant Grub launched into the old recruiting routine, “See,
save and serve! Hanigan, free tour to all the ports in the world. A fine ship
for a home. Three meals a day without charge… “
于是,格拉布上尉开始说起招兵的老一套了:“见见世面,攒点钱,为国家作贡献!汉尼
根,免费周游世界上所有的港口,一艘上好的船为家,一天三餐不要钱……”。
原文中的 see, save and serve 采用了头韵,即三个单词的词首辅音相同。头韵是英语的一
种常见修辞,如常用语 fair and foul( 好坏 ), safe and sound( 安全地 ) , bed and board( 食宿 ) ,
bag and baggage( 完 全 彻 底 地 , 连 同 全 部 财 物 ) , forgive and forget( 不 念 旧 恶 ) , time and
tide(时间,时候),tit for tat(针锋相对),sink or swim(不论好歹)、part and parcel(重要部分)等
等。汉语里与英语头韵对应的是双声,即一个词组中两个字的声母相同,如“忐忑” (tan
te) , “ 慷 慨 ” (kang kai) , “ 叮 咚 ” (ding dong) , “ 芬 芳 ” (fen fang) , “ 驰 骋 ” (chi
cheng),“坎坷”(kan ke)等。某种修辞为两种语言共有,并不意味着这种修辞任何情况下都
能对等直译。相对而言,在汉语里,押韵比双声更容易一些。上例译文用押尾韵法对原文难
以保存的头韵进行了补偿,即“面”、“钱”、“献”含有共同的韵母[ian]。
(八) 度量衡转换
原文中特有的度量衡单位一般要转换为国际通用或译入语通用的度量衡单位,当然也
可采用直译+注释或解释的方法。例如:
(44)It is about the size of a fist, weighs about 9-11 ounces and is placed

59
snugly between the lungs, a little more to the left than to the right.
心脏大小似一只拳头,重约 0.5 公斤,位于两肺之间,略偏左。
(45)长江大学位于长江中游的荆州古城,校园总面积 4,042 亩。
Yangtze University is located in the ancient town of Jingzhou in the
middle reaches of the Yangtze River, with the total area of about
660 acres. (“4,042 亩”也可采用直译+解释的方法译为“ 4,042 mu (about 660

acres)”)。
另外,有的翻译教材上提到的正反译法,即肯定表达法与否定表达法相互之间的转换,
属于表达方式转换,也是翻译转换法的一种。

【实例分 析】
(1A)A Bouquet for Miss Benson. (A Bouquet for Miss Benson by Paul Villard,下同)
送给卞老师的一束花伴 (李贻荫译,下同)
(1B) Miss Benson was the kindest, sweetest, most beautiful creature that ever walked the earth.
卞老师是世界上最亲切可爱、美得出奇的人。
(1C) Miss Benson would come in and sit down.
“Good morning, children.”
“Good morning, Miss Benson,” in unison.
卞老师进教师,坐下。“小朋友们早!”
“卞老师早!”全班齐声回答。
[分析]Miss Benson 不译“本森小姐”而译“卞老师”,是为了符合我国的文化习惯。
(2)曲曲折折的荷塘上面,弥望的是田田的叶子。叶子出水很高,像亭亭舞女的裙。(朱自清:
《荷塘月色》)
All over this winding stretch of water, what meets the eye is a silken field of leaves, reaching
rather high above the surface, like the skirts of dancing girls in all their grace. (朱纯深 译)
[分析]有翻译,就有丢失,如修辞及形象化语言里的生动性,成语典故、俚俗用语中的
文化内涵与风格等。因各民族语言修辞系统、思维及观察事物的方式、文化积累等方面的差异,
很难在译文中完全保存,有时甚至不得不作出牺牲,有用心的译者会费尽心机地为这种牺
牲作出补偿。例中原文的叠字,译者用英文的头韵(this winding stretch of water, what)进行
补偿。虽然这种补偿在多大程度上能弥补原文的韵味值得怀疑,但译者的努力应当肯定。
(3)Above them, her thick black brows slanted upward, cutting a startling oblique line in her
magnolia-white skin…(Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell)
……上面斜竖着两撇墨黑的蛾眉,在她那木兰花一般白的皮肤上,划出两条异常惹眼的斜
线。(傅东华 译)
[分析]用中国传统文学的特有词汇“蛾眉”译 brows,明显带有译入语文化的痕迹,是
一种归化式的替代。
(4)“老师,不会作的怎么办呢?”有位不知姓名的同学忽然这样问。(谢冰莹:《我爱作文》)
“Sir, what if it’s beyond my ability to do so?” a classmate, whose name was not personally known
to me, suddenly asked. (张培基 译)
[分析]“老师”在汉语文化里是一个表示尊敬的称呼,而英语里对应的词 teacher 还没有
变成像 Dr., Judge, Professor 等有尊敬含义的习用称呼,这里不如译作 sir 以求得语用上的对
等,且不考虑“老师”的性别。

60
(5)更有趣的,是当我们在槐树中间穿过时,好象另走进了一个草木青青的仙境,真正的桃
花源。(谢冰莹:《黄昏》)
What’s more, in passing through the locust trees, we often felt as if we had entered a fairyland
with lush greenery—a real Shangri-la. (张培基 译)
[分析]“桃花源”是个文化词语,来自于陶渊明的《桃花源记》,中国读者都很熟悉,知
道它指的是“与世隔绝的美好地方”,但对中国文化不了解的外国读者未必知道“桃花源
”的真正含义,因此不能直译。要么用直译加解释或注释,要么用意译。直译加解释或注释
的功用是有助于介绍文化背景,但却使阅读变得不畅和支离破碎;意译的缺陷是回避了原
文的文化信息,但传意明确易懂,使阅读流畅无阻。译者可根据自己的目的选用其一。上译
使用了意译,即借用译入语中意义对等的 Shangri-la(此词是英国作家詹姆斯 ·希尔顿[James
Hilton]的小说《消失的地平线》[Lost Horizon, 1933]中假想的喜马拉雅山山谷名,常用来表示
“僻静的美好的所在”)来翻译“桃花源”。翻译中使用平行替代法要注意所借用的词语不
应具有明显的译入语民族、地方或时代色彩。
(6)后来他的一个日本老师介绍他到青岛胶济铁路四方医院做主治医生,一直到 1937 年七
七事变以后,日本海军占领了青岛到济南的铁路沿线一带,他因为不能忍受日本浪人和军
人的气焰,便托故辞职回到上海。(冯亦代:《忘了过去就是犯罪》)
Later, through recommendation of a Japanese teacher of his, he became a physician in charge of
Qingdao Sifang Hospital affiliated to the Qingdao-Jinan Railway until after the outbreak of the
July 7 Incident of 1937, an incident staged by the Japanese imperialists in initiating their all-out
war of aggression against China. After the Japanese navy occupied our territory along the
Qingdao-Jinan Railway, he had no choice but to resign on a pretext and return to Shanghai
because he could no longer put up with the arrogance of Japanese ronin and armymen. ( 张培基
译)
[分析]“浪人”的翻译借用了源自日本的外来词“ ronin” ,此种替代指明了原词所指对
象的原籍。此词原指“日本失业武士”,后来指“为日本军国主义所利用的日本流氓或无业
游民”。另外要注意,“七七事变”的翻译增加了解释性文字“ an incident staged by the
Japanese imperialists in initiating their all-out war of aggression against China”。
(7)一般人对于时间的悟性,似乎只够支配搭船、乘车的短时间;对于百年的长期间的寿命,
他们不能胜任,往往迷于局部而不能顾及全体。(丰子恺:《渐》)
Ordinary people have only a superficial understanding of time. They seem to know it only as
regards such small matters as boarding a train or boat, but not in things concerning a lifetime.
They see the trees, but not the wood. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ] 原文的“迷于局部而不能顾及全体”在英语中有一个对等成语“ not to see the
wood for the trees”,这里稍作变动,这种替代法使译文生动、简洁、明了,比直译好。
(8)男人的是另一套,普通的方式,男人的谈话,最后不谈到女人身上便不会散场。(梁实
秋:《男人》)
Men, however, are different in their own way. They, as a rule, will never call it a day until their
conversation has covered something about women. (张培基 译)
[分析]“散场”的翻译借用了英语成语“call it a day”,其意为“收工”、“罢休”,显
得简洁自然。
(9)《今》-- The Living Present
[分析]译者张培基先生把李大钊的名作《今》的题名译为 The Living Present ,是借用了
美国著名诗人 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow(1807-1882)的著名诗篇 A Psalm of Life(《人
生颂》)中的词句。原诗有一段为:

61
Trust no future, howe’er pleasant!
Let the dead Past bury its dead!
Act, --act in the living Present!
Heart within, and God o’verhead!
郎费罗在此节诗中所表达的主旨与李大钊在《今》中所表达的思想完全一致,因此借用
诗句中的关键词 The Living Present 翻译“今”是恰当的。此译不仅加强了原文主旨,而且
译文读者读到此译,会自然联想到郎费罗的诗句,从而加深对原文的理解。
(10)《王若飞在狱中》-- Iron Bars But Not a Cage
[分析]译者丰华瞻先生在翻译《王若飞在狱中》书名时,未采用直译,而是选择了意译,
并借用了英国十七世纪诗人 Richard Lovelace (1618-1658)的名诗“To Althea from Prison”
中的词句, 将书名译为 Iron Bars But Not a Cage。原诗最后一节前四行如下:
Stone walls do not a prison make,
Nor iron bars a cage;
Minds innocent and quiet take
That for an hermitage….
丰先生为什么舍弃直译而选择意译呢?他说:“我们要考虑到,‘王若飞’这个名字
西洋人不会熟悉。‘在狱中’如译为‘In Prison’,西洋人看了会想到盗窃犯、杀人犯等(别
忘记,西洋小说描写强盗、杀人犯的不在少数)。因此,如直译书名,要造成误解。在这种情
况下,译者想出了一个出奇制胜的办法,把书名译为 Iron Bars But Not a Cage。意思是:监
牢的铁栅只能关住人的身体,不能关住人的心:身在囹圄,意志不变。这书名是根据一首英
诗而来的。……由于这首诗很有名,西洋读者看了 Iron Bars But Not a Cage,马上就会想到
这本书讲的是一个被关在监牢里的坚贞不屈的政治犯。这样,书名确切地点出了内容。虽然
字面上完全变换,但意义十分忠实。”(《翻译论集》,罗新璋编,pp.1000-1001)
(11)境内西湖如明镜,千峰凝翠,洞壑幽深,风光绮丽。(《人间天堂—杭州》,郭建中 译)
Hangzhou’s West Lake is like a mirror, embellished all around with green hills and deep caves of
enchanting beauty.
[分析]汉语喜用四字词组,汉语风景名胜介绍词藻华丽,而英语同类文章风格相对平
易,因此风格需要转换。在译文中,原文行文简练的风格(此风格为汉语四字词组所固有)
得以保存,这其中当然有信息 /形象的丢失,也有具体化为抽象。翻译意味着选择,选择必
然伴随信息的丢失,重要的是要“丢卒保车”。
(12)沿着草坪旁用卵石铺成的小径,走到“北海”跟前。(萧乾:《枣核》)
…walked along a cobbled footpath beside the lawn towards the miniature Beihai. (张培基 译)
[分析]汉语里,引号除了用来指明直接引语外,还用于暗示某个词在某种语境下脱离
其字面意义而具有别种含义。原文中的引号暗示这里的“北海”并非真的“北海”,而是缩
微的“北海”模型,因此,译者增用“ miniature”一词翻译引号所暗示的意义,这可视为标
点符号-词汇转换。
(13)接着,他又指着花园一角堆起的一座假山石说:“你相信吗?那是我开车到几十里以外 ,
一块块亲手挑选,论公斤买下,然后用汽车拉回来的。那是我们家的‘北海’。” (萧乾:《枣
核》)
Then he said pointing to a jumble of rockery standing in a corner of the garden, “Believe it or not,
the rocks, hand-picked by me, were bought by the kilogram. I drove dozens of kilometers away to
haul them back in my car. Look, that’s Beihai in our home.” (张培基 译)
[分析]疑问句“你相信吗?”转换为插入语“Believe it or not”(不论你相信与否)。
(14)你到底有灵感没有?(庐隐:《雷峰塔下》)

62
May your soul exist! (张培基 译)
[分析]这里“灵感”实指“灵魂”。从上下文看,作者是希望“你”有灵魂的。所以,
将原文的疑问句转换为译文的感叹句是符合作者本意的。
(15)烧山芋和热茶的香味,便一下子扑入你的鼻子。(庐隐:《雷峰塔下》)
Immediately your nose is filled with the aroma of hot tea and roast sweet potatoes. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文主语稍长,译者将原文主语和宾语调换位置。
(16)怕狗成了我的一种病。(巴金:《狗》)
I developed a canine phobia. / I developed a phobia about dogs. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文不宜按字面直译。这里,译文将原文中作定语的第一人称“我”用作译句的
主语。
(17)When he had reached the upper landing an impulsive sidewise glance assured him, more
clearly than before, of her uncommonly prepossessing appearance. (Jennie Gerhardt by Theodore
Dreiser)
他走到了楼梯顶,禁不住又回过头来侧眼看了看,这才看清她那非常动人的面貌。(傅东华
译)
[ 分析 ] 原文的主从句结构转换成了译语的并列结构,主句的物称主语 an impulsive
sidewise glance 和从句的人称主语 he 也因着这种转换统一为人称主语“他”,从而便于译
者按照中文的习惯表意行文。要注意的是,在句子主语的选择上,英语比汉语更经常地使用
物称主语,这给理解和翻译带来了困难。翻译英语的物称主语句子,必须考虑汉语多用人称
主语句式(或者人称主语省略句式)的特点,从原句中或者句外寻找合乎逻辑的人称主语 ,
或者使用省略句。
(18)I wasn’t certain that I saw a tear in her eye as Mother led me out of the room. (A Bouquet for
Miss Benson by Paul Villard)
我妈领我走出病房的时候,我仿佛看到卞老师的那只眼里正闪着泪花。(李贻荫 译)
[分析]表达方式转换,否定变肯定。
(19)I would sit squirming in my seat for the entire morning to keep from raising my hand. (A
Bouquet for Miss Benson by Paul Villard)
我常常一整个上午都憋在座位上扭来扭去,就是不举手。(李贻荫 译)
[分析] 表达方式转换,肯定变否定。
(20)看见狗我便站住,不再逃避。(巴金:《狗》)
Hence instead of shying away in fear, I stood confronting him. (张培基 译)
[分析]例中“不再”用“instead of”传译,原文的否定表达形式转换成译文的肯定表达
形式。此外,“in fear”是增词,原文虽无其词却有其意;原文的“看见”被省略,隐于译文
的字里行间。
(21)今晚若有菜莲人,这儿的连花也算得“过人头”了;只不见一些流水的影子,是不行的。
(朱自清:《荷塘月色》)
If there were somebody gathering lotuses tonight, she should tell that the lilies here are high
enough to “reach over her head”; but, one would certainly miss the sight of the water. (朱纯深 译)
[分析] 表达方式转换,肯定变否定。
(22)主人并不将我当人;他对他的叭儿狗还要好到几万倍……。(鲁迅:《聪明人和傻子和
奴才》)
译文一: My master treats me like dirt. He treats his Pekinese ten thousand times better… ( 张培
基译)
译 文 二 : My master doesn’t treat me like a human being. He treats his Pekinese ten thousand

63
times better. (张培基 译)
[分析] 译文一变肯定为否定,语气比正面翻译重一些,更接近原文的口吻。译文二直译,
语气显得平淡。
(23)庙门大开,僧人安然在庙内做他们的日课,也没有谁出去看虎怎样吃东西,即使偶尔
有一二和尚立在门前,虎们也视为平常的事情,把他们看作熟人,不去惊动,却斯斯文文
地吃完走开。(巴金:《虎》)
The monks usually left the gate wide open while peacefully engaged in their daily routine of
chanting Buddhist scripture inside the temple. Normally none of them came out to watch the tigers
eat. Sometimes, however, one or two monks did appear standing at the gate, but the tigers would
remain unalarmed and, taking the monks for their friends, did nothing to harm them. They just
kept on eating unhurriedly until they finished and left. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文中的分句“虎们也视为平常的事情”和短语“斯斯文文”的翻译都用了反
译法。此长句的翻译运用了不少翻译技巧。第一,分句译法,原文一个句子切分成四个句子
翻译;第二,主动/被动句的转换,“庙门大开”实为“庙门被大开”,为隐含被动句,一
般要译成英语的被动语态,这里译者为此分句安设逻辑主语“ The monks”,用主动语态处
理;第三,增词,“日课”的翻译用了增词法,增加了“ of chanting Buddhist scripture” ;
第四,意译,“不去惊动”按其本意译为“did nothing to harm them”。
(24)“….At our time of life it is not so pleasant, I can tell you, to be making new acquaintance
every day…” (Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen)
“……老实跟你们说吧,我们老夫妇活到这么大一把年纪了,哪儿有兴致天天去交朋结友…
…” (王科一 译)
[分析] 表达方式转换,否定变肯定。
(25)The astonishment of the ladies was just what he wished—that of Mrs. Bennet perhaps
surpassing the rest…(Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen)
果然不出他所料,娘儿们一听此话,一个个都大为惊异,尤其是班纳特太太,比谁都惊异
得厉害……(王科一 译)
[分析] 表达方式转换,肯定变否定。
(26)”…and, after all, Mrs. Long and her nieces must stand their chance, and therefore, as she will
think it an act of kindness if you decline the office, I will take it on myself." (Pride and Prejudice
by Jane Austen)
“……话说到底,郎格太太和他的侄女儿一定不肯错过这个良机。因此,要是你不愿意办这
件事,我自己来办好了,反正她会觉得这是我们对她的一片好意。” (王科一 译)
[分析] 表达方式转换,肯定变否定。
(27)“好,我去,我就愿意进当铺,进当铺我一点也不怕,理直气壮。”(萧红:《当铺》)
“Ok, I go. I wouldn’t mind (doing the pawning). I’m not afraid at all. I don’t see anything wrong
about it.” (张培基 译)
[分析]译者用反面着笔法(肯定变否定),将“我就愿意进当铺”和“理直气壮”分
别译作“ I wouldn’t mind” (我不介意(进当铺))和“ I don’t see anything wrong about it.
”(我不觉得进当铺有什么不好。)。
(28)其实,我知道,痛苦会永远地跟随着我的。(谢冰莹:《海恋》)
As a matter of fact, I know I can never steer clear of sufferings. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ] 原文的肯定形式“痛苦会永远地跟随着我的”变成了译文的否定形式“ I can
never steer clear of sufferings”,其中,“steer clear of”是成语,意为“避开”,用 never 有助
于加强原文语气。翻译中的反译法指将原文肯定的表达形式转换为译文否定的表达形式,或

64
者将原文否定的表达形式转换为译文肯定的表达形式。使用反译法的原因有以下几点: 1)
表达形式即“通顺“的问题。有时侯,译入语中没有原语的那种表达方式,或者说很难找到
对应的表达方式,在这种情形下,我们只有求助于反面着笔来表达原意,以使译文语言自
然流畅,避免诘倔聱牙、怪异的译文。2)语气、风格即“表达效果”的问题。有时译文采用正
反表达均可,但按原文表达形式直译,无法传达原文强调的口吻或简练的风格,只有从反
面行文才能做到。3)意思明了的问题。直译有时导致译文意思不清,反译反而能清楚达意。
(29)男人令人首先感到的印象是脏!(梁实秋:《男人》)
What strikes us first of all in men is their uncleanliness. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文的“脏”字在译文里被反弹琵琶地译为“ uncleanliness”,“dirtiness”当然也
可以,不过原文作者的本意似乎是强调“不干净”,因此反面着笔更忠实原义。
(30)后来他对这部小说以及其它“少作”都不满意,恨不得大改特改,不过这是后话了。(杨
绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》 )
Later in life, he became dissatisfied with this novel and the other works he had written when
young, and wanted very much to do them over again—but I won’t elaborate on that here. (凌原
译)
[分析]原文的“这是后话”采用反面着笔法译成“此处不详述”。
(31)Furthermore, they always gave out suddenly and at the wrong moment. (Jennie Gerhardt by
Theodore Dreiser)
不但此也,它们(纽子)在逃走之前不透一点消息,而且总是在不合时宜的时候儿。(吕淑
湘 译)
[分析] 表达方式转换,肯定变否定。
(32)I often stared in fascination at their leisurely twistings and turnings, when I should have been
listening to Father’s instructions about far different matters. (Jennie Gerhardt by Theodore
Dreiser)
我常常出神地看它们从容不迫地扭来转去,父亲对我说的是些什么全然没有听见。(吕淑湘
译)
[分析] 表达方式转换,肯定变否定。
(33)钟书特备长竹竿一枝,倚在门口,不管多冷的天,听见猫儿叫闹,就急忙从热被窝里
出来,拿了竹竿,赶出去帮自己的猫儿打架。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》 )
Chung-shu took to keeping a long bamboo pole, leaning against the door just in case. Whenever
he heard any feline noises he would hastily leave the warmth of his quilt no matter how cold it
was outside, and rush out to assist his cat in the fight. (凌原 译)
[ 分析 ] 在“热被窝”这个偏正结构中,“被窝”是信息中心,译文 the warmth of his
quilt 虽然没有改变原文的语言结构,即仍然是一个偏正结构,但却改变了原文的信息结构 ,
作为次要信息的“热”,成了译文词组的中心信息,而主要信息“被窝”则被作为次要信
息置于修饰语中。
(34)钟书一九七九年访美,该译本出版家把译本的《导言》给他过目,他读到这一段又惊又
笑,想不到调查这么精密。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》 )
In 1979, when the publisher showed this “Introduction” to Chung-shu during his visit to the
United States, he laughed in surprise upon coming across this passage—it never occurred to him
that the translator had done such thorough research on him. (凌原 译)
[分析]原文的并列结构“又惊又笑”转换成译文的动状结构 laughed in surprise。
(35)市属 3 市 2 县境内,北有超山,西有天目山。溯钱塘江而上,有富阳鹳山,桐庐瑶林仙
境、桐君山、严子陵钓台,建得灵栖三洞,新安江“千岛湖”等名胜,形成一个以西湖为中心

65
的广阔旅游区。(《人间天堂—杭州》,郭建中 译)
The beauty spots in the vicinity of Hangzhou form a vast area for tourists with West Lake at its
center. To the north of Hangzhou stands Chaoshan Hill, and to the west Mount Tianmu. Going up
the Qiantang River one finds oneself at Stork Hill near the Terrace where Yan Ziling, a hermit of
the Eastern Han Dynasty (25—220), loved to go fishing by the Fuchun River in Fuyang City.
Nearby are the Yaolin Wonderland in Tonglu County, Tongjun Hill and the three Lingqi Caves in
Jiande City, and finally the Thousand-Islet Lake at the source of the Xin’anjiang River.
[分析]表达方式转换,原文先分后总,即先细节后总结;译文则先总后分。
(36)”Can it be that I have a secret admirer?” she would ask.. (A Bouquet for Miss Benson by Paul
Villard)
她会问:“是不是有人喜欢我,又不肯说?”(李贻荫 译)
[分析] 表达方式转换,肯定变否定,这里的 secret admirer 不宜直译为“暗中的崇拜者
”。
(37)“我有什么办法,使年光倒流呢!” (庐隐:《异国秋思》)
What could I do to relive the old days? (张培基 译)
[分析]“使年光倒流”是汉语特有的说法,不宜直译,译出其意即可,即“我怎能重返
旧日呢!”,译文的句式也由原文的感叹句转换为疑问句。
(38A)Like every commander, Father expected instant obedience and he wished to deal with
trained troops. (Jennie Gerhardt by Theodore Dreiser)
跟所有的司令官一样,父亲盼望人家从命如流,而且愿意他指挥的是久经训练的队伍。(吕
淑湘 译,名词变动词)
(38B)She rather liked to embroider silk lambrequins, as a feat of womanly prowess, but her
darning of Father’s socks was an impatient and not-too-skillful performance. (Jennie Gerhardt by
Theodore Dreiser)
她宁愿绣绣绸缎桌布,显显她的本领,至于替父亲补袜,那是她既不耐烦也做的不挺好的
工作。(吕淑湘 译,名词转换为副词;动名词还原为动词)
(38C)In his wrath he would strike out harder than ever as he felt around for the sleeve. (Jennie
Gerhardt by Theodore Dreiser)
他一生气,两只胳膊冲击的更使劲。(吕淑湘 译,名词变动词)
(38D)When he put one on, he pulled it down over his head, and thrust his arms blindly out right
and left in a hunt for the sleeves. (Jennie Gerhardt by Theodore Dreiser)
父亲穿衬衫的时候,先往头上套,然后两只胳臂一左一右盲目地冲刺,寻找那两只袖子。
(吕淑湘 译,名词变动词)
[分析]在词性转换(就英译汉而言)上,名词变动词似乎有规律可循,须转类的名词
大都是些直接从动词转类或者派生而来的名词,翻译时还原成其对应的动词即可。另外,在
词性转换的同时,句子成分也常常发生变化。例如介词短语 in his wrath 在译文里扩展成一
个句子(“他一生气”),作为介词宾语的 wrath 因此转换为句子的谓语“生气”。
(39)这是独处的妙处;我且受用这无边的荷香月色好了。(朱自清:《荷塘月色》)
That is the beauty of being alone. For the moment, just let me indulge in this profusion of
moonlight and lotus fragrance. (朱纯深 译)
[分析]原文中的形容词“无边的”转译成名词 profusion 。此外,译文还运用了分句法
(原文一个句子分译成两个句子),增词法(增加 for the moment),成分转换(“我”由
主语变为宾语)。
(40)“No wonder the grass grows up between the flags, and cattle are the only hedge-

66
cutters.”(Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte)
“怪不得石板缝间长满了草,而且只有牛替他们修剪篱笆哩。”(杨苡 译)
[分析]复合名词 hedge-cutters 转换成了动宾词组“修剪篱笆”。
(41)…one may guess the power of the north wind blowing over the edge, by the excessive slant of
a few stunted firs at the end of the house; and by a range of gaunt thorns all stretching their limbs
one way, as if craving alms of the sun..(Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte)
从房屋那头有几棵矮小的枞树过度倾斜,还有那一排瘦削的荆棘都向着一个方向伸展枝条 ,
仿佛在向太阳乞讨温暖,就可以猜想到北风吹过的威力了。(杨苡 译)
[分析]原文的形容词+名词词组 excessive slant 在译文中转类为副词+动词词组“过度
倾斜”。
(42)…but his attitude at the door appeared to demand my speedy entrance, or complete
departure….(Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte)
……但是从他站在门口的姿势看来,是要我赶快进去,要不就干脆离开……(杨苡 译)
[分析]原文的形容词+名词词组转类为副词+动词词组。
(43)他不爱多说话,但常常微笑;那微笑是自然,温暖的。
He was a man of few words, but of all smiles. His smile was natural and friendly.
[分析]“多说话”译成 few words ,是正话反说,“常常微笑”译作 all smiles,是动词
词组变名词词组,而且句子成分也发生了变化。此外译文还有增词(a man)和分句译法。
(44)我悄悄地披了大衫,带上门出去。
Shrugging on an overcoat, quietly, I made my way out, closing the door behind me.
[分析]原文中的“带上门出去”在译文里颠倒了顺序,“出去”移到“带上门”之前 ,
因此其句子成分也随之变化。此外,此句翻译还应注意整体信息结构的安排。原文有三个动
词短语,表达三重信息,译成英语时一般只能选择其中一个动词作主句谓语动词,其他为
非限定动词,用分词、动词不定式、动名词等非限定动词词组或者其他手段表达。原句中的“
披了大衫”,“带上门”,“出去”,是按照自然顺序先后发生的三个动作,在信息的重
要性上居于同等地位,是汉语中所谓的“流水句”。把它们译成英文,译者便面临选择信息
重心的问题,因为英文只能有一个动词(当然一个以上的动词可以并列)作为全句的灵魂
即主要谓语动词,其他动词要退居其次,安排在从句或者非限定动词词组里。这里,译者把
“出去”理解为原文信息结构的核心,用作译文的谓语动词。
(45)这时候最热闹的,要数树上的蝉声和水里的蛙声,但热闹是它们的,我什么也没有。
The most lively creatures here, for the moment, must be the cicadas in the trees and the frogs in
the pond. But the liveliness is theirs, I have nothing.
[分析]在译文中,“这时候”和“最热闹的”颠倒了位置,以便获得与原文一样的口
吻和语感。词序调整法在本书中不作专门讨论。转换法中的“转”,广义上也包括词序调整。
(46A)No reflection was to be allowed now; not one glance was to be cast back; not even one
forward. (Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte)
眼前已不容许有什么深思熟虑了。既不能稍作一点后顾,甚至也没法作一点前瞻。(宋兆霖
译)
(46B)Not one thought was to be given either to the past, or the future. .(Jane Eyre by Charlotte
Bronte)
无论是对过去还是将来,我连想都不敢去想一下。(宋兆霖 译)
[分析]例(46A)和例(46B)的译文均采用了语态转换法,即英语的被动形式转换为汉语的主
动形式。
(47)立达不死,互生其实也便不死了。(朱自清:《哀互生》)

67
If Lida is kept alive, Husheng lives on. (刘士聪 译)
[分析]表达方式转换,否定变肯定。此外,译文还运用了增词法( if 为增词),借此将
原句隐含的逻辑关系外化)。
(48)Since all compounds are electrically neutral, there also must be a species in the oxidation-
reduction reactions that gains electrons.
因为一切化合物都不带电,所以在氧化还原反应中也一定有一种物质是获得电子的。
[分析]原文前半部分为肯定形式,在译文中转换为否定形式。

第三节 增减

翻译中的增减指的是词量的增减,是同原文相比的前提下译文词语数量的增加或减少。
具体的说,就是增词和减词。这里的“词”不一定指一个词,也包括片语甚至句子。就翻译
而言,原作的意义是不能随意增减的,否则就是不忠实。但文本的意义有个隐显的问题。有
些意义,对于原文读者是不言而喻的,无须明说,因而常常隐藏在字里行间或者文字背后
的文化语境里。例如“三个臭皮匠,合成一个诸葛亮”,其隐藏在字里行间的意义是“三个
臭皮匠”实指“三个臭皮匠”的智慧,其文化语境意义是“诸葛亮是智慧的化身”。又如英
语句子 It was Friday and soon they’d go out and get drunk. ,其中的 Friday 含有文化语境信息:
在英国每周周末的前一天即星期五发工资。这种文本隐含信息,不了解原语文化的一般译文
读者是不知道的,翻译时需要采用增词法化隐为显,如上两例可分别译为: Three cobblers
with their wits combined equal Zhuge Liang the master mind. 和“星期五发工资那天,这帮人
很快就去喝酒了。”
张培基先生在他的《英译中国现代散文选》译文注释中,每当运用增词法,总是指出“
原文虽无其词,却有其意”,这话道出了人类语言意义的隐含性。翻译中的增词还与语言本
身有关。英语中大量地使用冠词、介词、连词、代词等,汉语不用冠词,少用介词、连词和代词,
因此汉译英时需要增补这些词类,才符合英语的表达习惯。语际翻译是双向的,因此增减法
是可以相互转换的。例如汉译英需要增加冠词、介词、连词、代词等,反过来,英译汉时这些
词类就要省略,以符合汉语意合的习惯。无论是增词还是减词,要做到增词不增意,减词不
减意。古代文论家刘勰的“善删者字去而意留,善敷者辞殊而义显”,似乎可以作为增减法
所应遵循的原则。下面介绍几种常见的增减法类型。

一、 增词法
(一)表达增词
为表达自然而增词,如:
(1)I am looking forward to the holiday.
我正期待着假期的到来。
(2)Electricity is convenient and efficient.
电用起来方便而有效。
(二)语法增词
增加表达语法意义的词汇,如:
(3)I had known two great social systems.
那时以前,我就经历过两大社会制度。(时态增词)
(4)Flowers bloom all over the yard.
朵朵鲜花开满了庭院。(名词复数增词)
(5) Tilflin must be saying something right when he points out that the focus

68
is man’s adaptation to the environment.
梯夫林曾经指出关键在于人对环境的适应能力,他一定说对了。(语法逻辑增词,因动作
points out 逻辑上发生在过去,所以增译“曾经”)
(三) 逻辑增词
增加表达逻辑意义的词汇。逻辑意义包括句子或语篇成分间的逻辑关系以及凭借常识和
背景知识判断获得的意义,如:
(6)Reducing the current, we can correspondingly decrease the speed of the
motor.
如果减少电流,电动机的转速就会相应地降低。(逻辑关系增词)
(7)First you borrow, then you beg.
头一遭借钱,下一遭就讨饭。(常识逻辑增词)
(8)Magnetic measurements give no information about the extent of the
thermal area at depth. Volcanic rocks from inside the field were found to be
non-magnetic.
以前的调查表明,热田深处的火山岩为非磁性岩石,因此磁测工作不可能获得有关这个
地热区的范围的资料。(“以前”为时态增词,“因此”为语篇[句间]逻辑增词;此外,
译文还调整了句序;原文第一句表果,第二句表因,按汉语逻辑,应先因后果)
(四)句法增词
增加句法所要求的词语(成分),如:
(9)Better be wise by the defeat of others than by your own.
从别人的失败中吸取教训比从你自己的失败中吸取教训要好。
(10)亲不亲,一家人嘛。(柳青:《创业史》)
Relatives or not, we peasants are one family.
(五)语义增词
增加表示原文隐含意义的词语,如:
(11)牛郎织女
the Cow Herd and the Spinning Maid separated by the Milky Way--a couple
live in two separate places
(12)人与动物不同。
Humans are different from other animals.
(六)修辞增词
为语言的生动、有力、连贯而增词,如:
(13)It’s a bit fishy that she should have given away a villa like that.
那么好端端的一座别墅,她竟然白白地送了人,个中颇有蹊跷。
(14)Shakespeare’s boldness with regard to language is less conspicuous,
though no less real, in the instances I shall mention.
就我所举的例证而言,莎翁在文字方面之不拘一格诚然也属实情,却并非过分。
此外,翻译中的重复法,即原文中未重复的词语在译文中进行了重复,也可以看作是一种
特殊的增词。例如,He became an oil baron – all by himself.译为“他成为一个石油大王——
一个 白手起家的石油大王 ”,译文中重复的部分就是增词。

二、减词法
(一)省略冗余信息
(15)油嘴滑舌 a glib tongue

69
(16)取之不尽,用之不竭 inexhaustible
(17)不分青红皂白 to make no distinction between white and black
(18)树立新的劳动就业观念 to establish new concepts of employment
(19)不幸的是,中国似乎是在学习西方的样,如为了事业不结婚的人 越来越多,不要小
孩的越来越多,离婚的越来越多,年老的父母单独生活的越来越多。
Unfortunately, China appears to be following the West’s lead: the rising
number of career singles and childless families, the soaring divorce rates
and the growing number of elderly parents living alone.
(二)化显为隐,即将原文表层信息隐于译文深层
(20)活到老,学到老。Live and learn
(21)他长得很结实。He is quite strong.
(三)句法省略,即省略译文句法所不需要的成分
(22)But it’s the way I am, and try as I might, I haven’t been able to change
it.
但我就是这个脾气,虽然几经努力,却未能改变过来。
(23)When the conversation gets disagreeable, to say one word more is a
waste of breath.
话不投机半句多。
(四)修辞性省略,即为了译文表达的简练明确而省略词语
(24)She curtseyed again, and would have blushed deeper, if she could have
blushed deeper than she had blushed all the time.
她又行了一个屈膝礼,因为她的脸一直是涨得通红的,所以现在也不可能涨得更红了。

【实例分 析】
(1)但我没有买它,因为我知道,至少可以无条件地得到十本的。(谢冰莹:《饥饿》)
I didn’t buy it for I knew I was entitled as its author to at least ten complimentary copies. (张培基
译)
[分析]这里增加“as its author”,交代“无条件地得到十本”的原因。“外化”之意隐含
在原文的深层结构或者说上下文语境中。此外,“无条件”就是“免费赠送”,故译为
“complimentary”。
(2)像李白什么“黄河之水天上来”,又是什么“白发三千丈”,这在修辞学上就叫作“张喻”而
在不懂修辞学的人看来,就觉得李太白在吹牛了。(庐隐:《吹牛的妙用》)
The Tang poet Li Bai’s famous lines “The Yellow River comes from the sky” and “My white hair
of thirty thousand feet” are examples of hyperbole, which, to those who know little about the art
of rhetoric, may sound like a gross exaggeration on the part of the poet. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ] 英国翻译理论家乔治 · 斯坦纳 (George Steiner) 在其名作《通天塔之后》( After
Babel,2001:291)中说:“‘意义’本然地存在于原语文本的‘字词里边’,但是对于
原语读者来说,‘意义’显然远非字词的词典定义的总和。作为译者,他必须将字词隐含的
‘意义’,包括所指意义、暗指意义、推演意义、意图意义以及联想意义明确地表达出来。这
些意义隐藏在原文之中,只是由于它们对原语听者或读者来说是不言而喻的,因此没有明
说,或者没有完全说明白。原语读者对母语的那种熟悉程度,在很大程度上是潜意识的,具
有天然传承性和文化独特性;他与生俱来长时期地浸淫在母语的各种口语或书面语的适当
语境之中,并不断进行自我调节,从而使日常言说和书写上的用词经济以及语义固有的暗
含性成为可能。在翻译‘转换’过程中,各种意义所固有的属性,以及压缩进原文字词中的

70
多种、甚至是相互矛盾的意义所建构的语境,或多或少会有所丢失。因此,翻译的各种技巧
首先应当是解释性的,能够竭尽所能地说明和再现原作的语义属性。译者要努力展现‘文本
已有之存在’”。(’ Meaning’ resides ‘inside’ the words of the source text, but to the native
reader it is evidently ’far more than’ the sum of dictionary definitions. The translator must
actualize the implicit ‘sense’, the denotative, connotative, illative, intentional, associative range of
significations which are implicit in the original, but which it leaves undeclared or only partly
declared simply because the native auditor or reader has an immediate understanding of them. The
native speaker’s at-homeness, largely subconscious because inherited and cultural-specific, in his
native tongue, his long-conditioned immersion in the appropriate context of the spoken or written
utterance, make possible the economy, the essential implicitness of customary speech and writing.
In the transference’ process of translation, the inherence of meanings, the compression through
context of plural, even contradictory significations ‘into’ the original words, get lost in a greater or
lesser degree. Thus the mechanisms of translation are primarily explicative, they explicate (or,
strictly speaking, ‘explicitate’) and make graphic as much as they can of the semantic inherence of
the original. The translator seeks to exhibit ‘what is already there’.)
斯坦纳的这段话道出了人类语言的一个共性:在人类语言交际活动中,有些意义是隐
含的,或者说是附带的,不管说话者是否想说,此意义已在已说出或写出的语言之中,对
本族语的听者或读者来说,这种隐含或附带的意义是不言自明的,但对目标语的一般读者
来说不是。基于等量信息获得对等感受,译者在翻译活动中有必要采取诸如增词法之类的解
释性翻译技巧将原文隐含的信息,特别是文化信息“外化”,以使译语读者获取与原语读
者大致相当的信息。如上例中的“李太白”,国人一看到这三个字,潜意识会作出自动反应,
比如联想到他生活的朝代,他那些脍炙人口的诗篇,甚至他的独特的性格品性,虽然这一
切在阅读活动中一闪即逝,模模糊糊,但却实实在在构成了读者阅读感受的一部分。只有把
这种隐潜信息翻译出来,才有可能帮助译语读者得到大体相同的阅读感受。可见翻译中的阐
释是必要的。例中“李太白”的翻译可在音译前增补注释性文字 The Tang poet,以帮助译文
读者了解文化背景信息,即对原语读者而言是不言自明的信息。
(3)窗子的玻璃会随着时钟,自动调和射进室内的光线,窗子会随着明暗变换颜色…… (端木
蕻良:《黎明的眼睛》)
The window pane will, along with the tick-tick of the clock, automatically regulate light streaming
into the room and change its own colour according to interior illumination. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文的“随着时钟”实指“随着时钟的运转”,因此译文增加了拟声词“ tick-
tick”,以示此意。
(4)我们买了票走进公园,我还回过头去看小孩,他正拉着一个新的乘客昂起头跑开了。
(巴金:《一个车夫》)
While entering the park after buying the tickets, I turned round to take a last look at the boy.
Holding his head high, he was about to start running with a new customer on his vehicle. ( 张培基
译)
[分析]“last”为增词,原文字里行间有其意。
(5)飞机由一个熟悉的方向飞来了,洪大的震响惊动了当地的居民。(萧乾:《古城》)
A plane appeared out of the blue from a direction only too familiar to the local inhabitants, roaring
to the alarm of everybody… (张培基 译)
[分析]“out of the blue”、“to the local inhabitants”为增词,原文虽无其词却有其意。其中,
“out of the blue”为英语习语,意为“突然地”,借用来表达语境隐含之意。
(6)当时管原惠庆长老怀着对祖庭的崇高敬意,从寺中摘了一把栆子带回日本,经过精心培

71
育,长成一棵栆树。(常书鸿、李承仙:《五台名刹画沧桑》)
Having a deep respect for the founder, Master Sugehara picked a handful of dates from the date
tree in the monastery and took them to Japan. He planted the seed in his monastery, where with the
meticulous care it has grown into a big date tree. (郭建中 译)
[分析]“从寺中摘了一把栆子”实际上是说“从寺中的枣树上摘了一把栆子”,因此翻
译时应增译“the date tree”。
(7)回到旅馆,在沐浴后上床的时候,从远处的黑暗中传来了阵阵的犬吠声。古人说,深夜
犬吠若豹。(季羡林:《加德满都的狗》)
Back in the hotel, when I was getting into bed after a bath, I heard dogs barking again and again in
the distant darkness. It reminded me of the old saying, “A dog’s bark at dead of night resembles
that of a leopard.” (张培基 译)
[分析]例中两个句子意思似乎不够连贯,译者增加“ It reminded me of”承上启下,使译
文行文紧凑。
(8)In her face were too sharply blended the delicate features of her mother, a Coast aristocrat of
French descent, and the heavy ones of her florid Irish father. But it was an arresting face, pointed
of chin, square of jaw. (Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell)
原来这位小姐脸上显然混杂着两种特质:一种是母亲给她的娇柔,一种是父亲给她的豪爽。
因为她母亲是个法兰西血统的海滨贵族,父亲是个皮色深浓的爱尔兰人,所以遗传给她的
质地难免不调和。可是质地虽然不调和,她那一张脸蛋儿实在迷人得很,下巴颏儿尖尖的,
牙床骨儿方方的。(傅东华 译)
[分析]细心的读者会发现,译文比原文长了很多,原因是译者增加了不少词句,划线
部分是译者根据自己的理解增加的词句,是未超出原文意义的范围的合理增词。另外“质地
不调和”被译者重复使用了一次,目的是为了使上下文衔接自然流畅。
(9)“一个说:‘这孩子将来是要死的。他于是得到一顿大家合力的痛打。 ’ ” (鲁迅:《立论》)
“Still another, however, is given a sound beating by the whole family for saying,’ The child, like
all humans, will eventually die.’” (张培基 译)
[分析]若将“这孩子将来是要死的”直译为 The child will die ,原文真实含义反而未表
达出来。所以增词是把原文深层含义形诸译文表层,以防止译文读者产生误解。增词实际上
是要使译文获得深层次的“信”。
(10)那时候,件件都是“知”,你每天可以做大科学家和大哲学家,每天在发现什么新的现
象,新的真理。(瞿秋白:《“儿时”》)
In those early days, everything was new to us. Everyday we were something of a great scientist or
philosopher. Every day we discovered something new—new phenomena or new truth. ( 张 培 基
译)
[分析]“你每天可以做大科学家和大哲学家”并非事实陈述,“大科学家和大哲学家”
这里只是一种借用,喻指“发现现象和真理”,因此,原文字里行间含有“在某种意义上
”或“多少有点”之意,据此在译文里增加“something of”。此外,“知”译成 new 属于词
性转换。
(11)这样本是一个很平常的现象,但这个很平常的现象不就有点像欧洲中世纪的游吟诗人
(troubadour)的崇拜女性吗?(郭沫若:《菩提树下》)
This is no uncommon occurrence among chickens, but doesn’t it border on woman-worship as
expressed by the medieval troubadours in their amorous lyrics? (张培基 译)
[分析]原文中的“游吟诗人的崇拜女性”,从情理上讲,并非指游吟诗人这类人崇拜
女性,而是指他们的作品中普遍存在崇拜女性的思想。所以,译文添加 in their amorous

72
lyrics 是符合逻辑的。另外,个别作品中,作者有时给出了某个由外文而来的词的原文,如
人名、地名、书名等各种名称以及其他文化词语,放在该词后的括号内,翻译这样的词语时
将原文拿来即可,但要注意句法的变化,如单复数变化等。郭沫若的《菩提树下》就有两个这
样的词:游吟诗人(troubadour)和唐璜(Don Juan);冰心的《雨雪时候的星辰》也有两个:
维纳斯(Venus)与丘比特(Jupiter),这种回译,译词已在原文中,无须查书问人。
(12)如杜牧的《阿房宫赋》,韩愈的《祭十二郎文》等等,哪一篇不是短而充满了真情实感?
(冰心:《话说短文》)
Aren’t the essays in it, like Du Mu’s Rhapsody on Epang Palace and Han Yu’s An Elegaic Address
to My Nephew Shi’erlang, all short and yet full of true feelings? (张培基 译)
[分析]“《祭十二郎文》”的翻译增加了“My Nephew”(我的侄子)。
(13)上面这些话其实只有幼儿园的水平。(季羡林:《文学批评无用论》)
What I’ve said above is only skin-deep, of kindergarten level. (张培基 译)
[分析]“skin-deep”为增词,用以明示和加强“幼儿园的水平”的意义。
(14)我家是佃农,祖籍广东韶关客籍人,在“湖广填四川”时迁移四川仪陇县马鞍场。(朱德:
《母亲的回忆》)
I come from a tenant farmer’s family. My original family home was Shao Guan, Guangdong
Province, into which my ancestors had moved from another province as settlers. During the mass
migration of peasants from Huguang to Sichuan Province, my ancestors moved to Ma An Chang,
Yi Long County, Sichuan. (张培基 译)
[ 分 析 ]“into which my ancestors had moved from another province as settlers” ,
“ peasants” 等为增词,目的是为了把原文意思说清楚。
(15)低声吟着帘卷西风,人比黄花瘦之句,这个小小的灵宫,是弥漫了怅惘的情绪。(庐隐:
《异国秋思》)
My heart was filled with melancholy when I recited in a low voice the following lines of an
ancient Chinese poet:
When the west wind curls up the curtain,
I’m more frail than the yellow chrysanthemum. (张培基 译)
[分析]“帘卷西风,人比黄花瘦”的翻译最好交代出处,因为该出处,即“帘卷西风,
人比黄花瘦”的文化背景信息对于有文化的中国读者是不言而喻的,读到这个句子,人们
自然就会想到李清照,想到她的词《醉花阴》,而一般英语读者未必了解这种背景信息。为使
译文读者获取等量信息,增词交代背信息十分必要。译文增加的背景信息似乎可以更具体一
点:when I recited the following lines by Li Qingzhao, a famous Song-Dynasty Ci poetess 。此外,
译文还运用了倒译法(Reversing),即由句末译到句首,倒译法还可以是按照由句中至句
末至句首的顺序。运用倒译法是为了使译文符合译入语的行文习惯。就汉译英而言,汉语的
叙事逻辑一般是事实/论据 结论,而英语正好相反:结论 事实/论据。所以,碰到汉语的
事实/论据 结论的叙事逻辑结构,译成英语时要用倒译法。另外,原文的“灵宫”是“心
”的婉词,直译为 heart 即可。
(16)三潭印月、湖心亭、阮公墩三个小岛鼎立湖中。(《人间天堂—杭州》,郭建中 译)
The three islets named “Three Pools Mirroring the Moon”, “the Mid-Lake Pavilion” and “
Ruangong Mound” stand in the lake, adding much charm to the scene.
[分析]因“鼎立”这一文化专有项不宜直译。原文“鼎立”所展现的形象美感,译文通
过增词法加以补偿。
(17)突然想起采莲的事情来了。采莲是江南的旧俗。似乎很早就有,而六朝时为盛;从诗歌
里约略知道。(朱自清:《荷塘月色》)

73
Suddenly, something like lotus-gathering crosses my mind. It used to be celebrated as a folk
festival in the South, probably dating far back in history, most popular in the period of Six
Dynasties. We can pick up some outlines of this activity in the poetry. (朱纯深 译)
[分析]划线部分为增词,其意为原文深层所有。
(18)“不,不。”他接着咳嗽起来,要吐出的话,塞在喉咙里了。
“No, no,” he disagreed and began to cough, his words stuck up in his throat.
[分析]为译文前后衔接而增加 disagreed,所增意思隐含在原文语境中。
(19)他捶了几下胸口之后,兴奋的接着说道……
He patted his chest to ease off his coughing and went on excitedly…
[分析]译文增加 to ease off his coughing 交代隐含在原文话语语境里的“捶胸”之目的。
(20)What scrubbing, baking, errand-running, and nursing there had been to do she did.(Jennie
Gerhardt by Theodore Dreiser)
擦地板,烤面包,跑差事,喂孩子,哪一样都是她做的事儿。(傅东华 译)
[分析 ]scrubbing ,baking ,nursing 的翻译根据生活常识增加了受事宾语“地板”,“
面包”和“孩子”。在英语里这些信息可不必明说,是暗含的;在汉语里,从明确信息和语
势流畅两方面看,增加这些词都是必要的。
(21)The heaven being spread with this pallid screen, the earth with the darkest vegetation, their
meeting-line at the horizon was clearly marked. In such contrast the heath wore the appearance of
an installment of night which had taken up its place before its astronomical hour was come:
darkness had to a great extent arrived hereon while day stood distinct in the sky. Looking upwards,
a furze-cutter would have been inclined to continue work; looking down, he would have decided
to finish his faggot and go home. The distant rims of the world and of the firmament seemed to be
a division in time no less than a division in matter… ( The Return of the Native by Thomas
Hardy)
天上悬的既是这样灰白的帐幕,地上铺的又是那种最苍茫的灌莽,所以天边远处天地交接
的界线,显得清清楚楚。在这样的对衬之下,那片荒原看起来就好像是夜的前驱,还没到正
式入夜的时候就走上夜的岗位了;因为地上夜色已经很浓,天上却分明还是白昼。一个斫常
青棘的樵夫,如果往天上看去,就还想继续工作,如果往地下一看,他却又要决定束好柴
捆回家去了。(张谷若 译)
[分析]画线部分是译者根据自己的理解所增加的连词,译文各部分的关系因此变得更
加清楚明了,语意更加连贯。
(22A)”Is that his design in settling here?”
“Design? Nonsense, how can you talk so! But it is very likely that he may fall in love with
one of them, and therefore you must visit him as soon as he comes.” (Pride and Prejudice by Jane
Austen)
“他住到这儿来,就是为了这个打算吗?”
“打算!胡扯,这是哪儿的话!不过,他倒兴许看中我们的某个女儿呢。他一搬来,你就得
去拜访拜访他。” (王科一 译)
(22B)”I see no occasion for that. You and the girls may go, or you may send them
themselves,…”(Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen)
“我不用去。你带着女儿们去就得啦,要不你干脆打发她们自己去。”(王科一 译)
(22C)”It is more than I engage for, I assure you.” (Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen)
“老实跟你说吧,这不是我份内的事。” (王科一 译)
[分析]以上三例中的增词属于修辞性增词,主要是为了语言的生动,口吻的贴切自然。

74
(23)Distilled by the sun, kneaded by the moon, it is renewed in a year, in a day, or in an hour. .(
The Return of the Native by Thomas Hardy)
日光把它蒸腾,月华把它荡漾,它的情形一年一样,一天一样,一时一刻一样。(张谷若
译)
[分析]译文重复“一样”,以强调它(爱敦荒原)的变化。重复译法本书不作专门讨论,
仅作为一种特殊的增词看待。该方法的目的是为了使译文表达明了、自然、生动、有力。
(24)像今晚上, 一个人在这苍茫的月下,什么都可以想,什么都可以不想,便觉得是个自
由的人。(朱自清:《荷塘月色》)
As it is tonight, basking in a misty moonshine all by myself, I feel I am a free man, free to think of
anything, or of nothing. (朱纯深 译)
[分析]由于词汇的非完全对应以及句法上的差异,原文中重复的“什么”、“想”,在
译文中没有重复(“想”的翻译可以看作是一种间接重复,应重复的 think of 中的 think ,
根据英文句法要求被省略了),而原文中没有重复的 free, 根据行文的需要反倒重复了。
(25)去的尽管去了,来的尽管来着,去来的中间,又怎样的匆匆呢?(朱自清:《匆匆》)
Those that have gone have gone for good, those to come keep coming; yet in between, how swift
is the shift, in such a rush? (朱纯深 译)
[分析]译文倾注了译者的用心。原文“去来的中间,又怎样的匆匆呢?”看似简单,其
实不易翻译。译者利用省译、增词及英语的音韵手段很好地传达了原文“时间之匆匆”的主
旨。他说:“本句以排比加设问来带出整段对时光匆匆流逝的具体描绘。英译文选用
swift,shift,such,rush 这些词,意在通过短元音和爆破音、摩擦音的集中重复,影射匆匆
中的纷扰。”
(26)采菊东篱下,在这里,确是可以悠然见南山的;大概把“南”字变个“西”或“北”,也没
有多少了不得吧。(老舍:《想北平》)
An ancient Chinese poet by the name of Tao Yuanming says aptly in one of his famous poems,
“Plucking chrysanthemums under the eastern hedge, I calmly view the southern hills.” To adapt it
to life in Peiping, I might as well substitute the word ”western” or “northern” for the word
“southern” in the line.(张培基 译)
[分析]译文中划线部分为增词,介绍有关引用诗句”采菊东篱下”的背景信息。
(27)“先生!”他悲哀地说,眼泪联成一线,就从眼角上直流下来。(鲁迅:《聪明人和傻子
和奴才》)
“Sir!” said he sadly, tears trickling down from the corners of his eyes. (张培基 译)
[分析]因 trickling down 已有“一连串落下”或“一滴滴流下”之意,无须用 in a string
译“联成一线”,“直”也因此省去不译。另,“眼角”译为英文要加物主代词 his。
(28)这几天心里颇不宁静。(朱自清:《荷塘月色》)
It has been rather disquieting these days. (朱纯深 译)
[分析]译文虽无“心里”其词,却有其意。
(29)他东补西凑地为立达筹款子,还要跑北京,跑南京。(朱自清:《哀互生》)
To raise funds, he had to run many places, even as far as Beijing and Nanjing.(刘士聪 译)
[分析]原文的“东补西凑”隐含在译文的字里行间。省译是省词不省意,是将原文表层
意义“背景化”( backgrounding )或语境化(contextualized ),即隐入译文意义的深层结
构(underlying structure)中,所以省译其实是一种“隐译”( covert translation )。增译正
好相反,是将原文深层的意义即隐含意义“前景化”( foregrounding ),亦即置于译文的
表层结构之中。例中的 as far as 即是,原文虽无其词却有其意;此意义原语读者能够理解,
译语读者未必能懂,故需要“外化”。缘此,增词译法可看作是一种“显译”( overt

75
translation)。

第四节 伸缩

人们在日常交际和写作中使用语词并不“循规蹈矩”,严格按照辞典规定的意义用词,
不越雷池一步。相反,人们用词大胆灵活,全凭己意,这样就出现了词义的引伸以及修辞性
的用法。因此,理解词义必须借助语境,词典有时靠不住。中外许多学者都强调语境之于辨
义的重要性。英国语言学家弗斯(J. R. Firth)说:“任何一个词,用在一个新的语境中,就是
一个新词(Each word, when used in a new context, is a new word.)” 。也就是说,这个词在这个
语境中所具有的意义不一定是它在词典上的意义,也不一定是前人使用过的意义,词的使
用随时可以“破格”。
人类使用语言的灵活性决定了词语意义的伸缩性。词语意义的引伸包括由抽象、一般到
具体、特殊,或者由具体、特殊到抽象、一般。翻译有时需要对词语的意义作引伸处理,由此
产生了翻译的伸缩法,包括概括化和具体化两种。

一、概括化
概括化译法是指将原文中表示具体意义的特称词一般化或抽象化,很多情况下表现为
内涵缩小,外延扩大,例如:
(1)There is a mixture of the tiger and the ape in the character of the
imperialism.
帝国主义者的性格既残暴,又狡猾。
(2)The skin is a natural spacesuit of the human body.
皮肤是人体的天然保护层。

二、具体化
具体化译法是指将原文中意义过于抽象、模糊的词汇具体化、明确化,一般表现为内涵
扩大,外延缩小,如:
(3)There is more to their life than political and social and economic
problems; more than transient everydayness.
他们的生活远不止那些政治的、社会的和经济的问题,远不止一时的柴米油盐问题。
(4)While the artificial hand is considerably less useful than the natural one,
there may be some jobs that it can do with greater efficiency.
虽然机械手远比不上人手,但某些工作由机械手来做效率会更高一些。

【实例分 析】
(1)祖父、伯父母、叔父母和堂兄弟姐妹们,都没有把我当作野孩子,大家也都很亲昵平等,
并没有什么“规矩”。(冰心:《祖父和灯火管制》)
My grandpa, uncles, aunties and cousins never thought me a naughty child. We treated each other
lovingly and equally. There never existed anything like “family rules of good behavior”. ( 张培基
译)
[分析]“伯父母”、“叔父母”和“堂兄弟姐妹们”,若按其内涵直译为” father’s elder
brother and his wife”, “father’s younger brother and his wife”, “my brothers and sisters on
paternal side”, 不仅叠床架屋、噜苏累赘,也不合英语的表达习惯,可将“伯父母”、“叔
父母”拆分组合,概括地译为“uncles, aunties”,“堂兄弟姐妹们”用“cousins”翻译即可,

76
既自然又简洁,唯一缺憾是译文不如原文指称明确。另,“规矩”一词的翻译属于解释性翻
译。
(2)我们刚回老家,父母亲和他们的兄弟妯娌都有许多别情要叙,我们一班弟兄姐妹,也在
一起玩得正起劲,都很少在晚九点以前睡的。(冰心:《祖父和灯火管制》)
Having just set foot in our old home, we seldom slept before 9 o’clock in the evening. For it was
but natural that after the long separation, my parents enjoyed hearty chats about the old days with
their brothers and in-laws, and we kids of the younger generation played about together to our
heart’s content. (张培基 译)
[分析]“妯娌”指兄弟的妻子,这里概括地译为“in-laws”。译文还对原文句序进行了调
整,句子的首尾部分结合,中间部分作为原因置后,并用表示原因的连词 for 引导,符合
英语果前因后以及形合的特点。
(3)然人类中也有几个能胜任百年的或千古的寿命的人。那是“大人格”,“大人生”。他们能不
为“渐”所迷,不为造物所欺。(丰子恺:《渐》)
However, we do have among us a few who know how to correctly view life. They are great,
indeed! They refuse to be fooled by “gradualness” or the Creator. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ] 原文中的第二句“那是‘大人格’,‘大人生’”被概括化地译成“ They are
great, indeed!”(他们的确是伟大的!),句型也由陈述句变为感叹句。
(4)更何况结婚之后,“儿子要来”,在这世界人口过剩,经济恐慌,教育破产,世风不古的
时候,万一不慎,同兰姆所说的一样,儿子们去上了断头台,那真是连祖宗三代的楣都要
倒尽,那里还有什么“官人请!娘子请!”的唱随之乐可说呢?(郁达夫:《谈婚姻》)
What is more, after your marriage, your offspring will come to this world of themselves. And in a
world with overpopulation, economic crisis, education bankruptcy and deteriorating public
morals, they may, just as Charles Lamb says, through their own acts of indiscretion, be sent to the
gallows. With such a terrible misfortune befalling your family, how could you still have wedded
bliss to speak of ? (张培基 译)
[分析]这里“‘官人请!娘子请!’的唱随之乐”概括地译为“ wedded bliss”(闺房之
乐)。此外,“世风不古”意译为“deteriorating public morals”(日益败坏的公共道德)。
(5)这个地方是个长潭的转折点,两岸是高大壁立千丈的山,山头上长着小小竹子,长年翠
绿逼人。(沈从文:《鸭巢围的夜》)
This place, at a bend in a long lake, was flanked by high cliffs on the peaks of which grew small
bamboos, an enchanting emerald the whole year round. (戴乃迭 译)
[分析]原文很具体的数量词组“千丈”概略地译为 high。“千丈”在这里形容高,可用
high 意译之。
(6)他办立达便饮食坐卧只惦着立达,再不想别的。
When he was running Lida School, all his thoughts were on the school, whatever he did.
[分析]例中,“饮食坐卧”的理解无须坐实,实际上指“做一切事情”,因此译者将
其概略地译成 whatever he did,在意义深层上是忠于原文的。
(7)比如说你见了一个仰慕文人的无名作家或学生时,而你自己要自充老前辈时,你不用说
别的,只要说胡适是我极熟的朋友,郁达夫是我最好的知己,最妙你再转弯抹角的去探听
一些关于胡适郁达夫琐碎的轶事,比如说胡适最喜听什么,郁达夫最讨厌什么,于是便可
以亲亲切切的叫着“适之怎样怎样,达夫怎样怎样”,这样一来,你便也就成了胡适郁达夫
同等的人物,而被人所尊重了。(庐隐:《吹牛的妙用》)
Suppose you meet an unknown writer or a young student who worships men of letters and you
want to pretend to be a senior, all you have to say is that Hu Shih is a close friend of yours or that

77
Yu Dafu is your second self. And, what is better, you can try to find out by a roundabout way some
trifling personal anecdotes about the two celebrities, such as what Hu Shih best likes to know and
what Yu Dafu strongly dislikes, so that you can refer to them affectionately by their first names.
(张培基 译)
[分析]这里,“适之怎样怎样,达夫怎样怎样”主要是表达一种亲密无间的口气,因
此无须直译,可概括性译为“refer to them affectionately by their first names”。
(8)石子打在狗的身上,狗哀叫一声,似乎什么地方痛了。(巴金:《狗》)
It(The stone) hit him on the back. He let out a piteous cry apparently with pain and… (张培基 译)
[分析]例中“身上”具体地译为“the back”,较为符合实际情况。
(9)…even the trifling irregularities were not caused by pickaxe, plough, or spade, but remains as
the very finger-touches of the last geological change.(The Return of the Native by Thomas Hardy)
就是地面上极细极小的高低凹凸,也全不是犁、耙、锹、镐的工作,都只是最近一次地质变化
的抟弄揉搓,原模原样一直保留到现在。(张谷若 译)
[分析]原文抽象难懂的两个词 irregularities 和 finger-touches 具体译为“高低凹凸”与“
抟弄揉搓”。
(10)这几年投荒到都市,每值淫雨,听着滞涩鼓噪的调子,回念故乡景色,觉得连雨声也
变了。(唐弢:《故乡的雨》)
In recent years, living, as I do, in a big city remote from my old home, I invariably feel homesick
listening to the harsh, monotonous drip, drip, drip of the rain. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文的“调子”,隐指滴答滴答的雨声,译者具体化地译为“ drip, drip, drip” ,
使译文语言更为生动。

第五节 分合

翻译中的分合是指在表达过程中对原文的词、句、段进行切分与合并。运用分合法的原因
在于语言习惯不同,有时则是出于表意行文的需要。从词的搭配关系或修饰关系看,在英语
里某两个词能搭配在一起,到了汉语里,这同样的两个词放在一起就可能显得不自然,如
英语可以说 understandable pride,汉语却不能说“可以理解的自豪”。在这种情况下,为了
译文的自然流畅,就必须对原文词组进行切分或拆离。从句子看,英语喜用长句,汉语喜用
中、短句。一般情况下,英语的长句要切分成汉语的中短句。从段落看,太长的段落一般也需
要切分。合并法与切分法相对立而存在,与翻译中的许多其他方法一样,二者是可以相互转
化的。翻译学习者必须意识到翻译方法的可逆性,如词类转换,英译汉是名词变动词,那么
改变翻译方向将译文还原成英语,即汉译英时则是动词变名词。其他方法如增减、伸缩、分合
等在双向式的翻译活动中都是互逆的。英语的长句译成汉语用切分法,那么汉语的中短句译
成英语,则可用合并法。运用合并法要特别注意词、句、段之间的内在联系。

一、切分
(一)切分词组
(1)Chairman Mao might have spoken with understandable pride of his policy
of “self-reliance.
毛主席在谈到他的“自力更生”的政策时,也许有些自豪感,这是可以理解的。
(2)There is no folly and no crime of which a misled mob are not intrinsically
capable.
从本质上说,由蛊惑人心的宣传所煽动的一帮人是什么蠢事都干得出来的。

78
(二)切分句子
(3) In that infinitesimal fraction of time, inconceivable and immeasurable,
during which the first atomic bomb converted a small part of its matter into
the greatest burst of energy released on earth up to that time, Prometheus
had broken his bonds and brought a new fire down to earth, a fire three
million times more powerful than the original fire he snatched from the gods
for the benefit of man some five hundred thousand years ago.
在这难以想象、无法计算的刹那之间,普罗米修斯挣脱了身上的锁链,又把新的火种送到
人间。║这时第一颗原子弹把它的物质的一小部分化为地球上迄今所能释放出来的最大的
能量。║这个新火种与大约五十万年前普罗米修斯为了造福人类从天庭盗走的旧火种相比,
其威力要大三百万倍。
简单句有时也可切分,即在主位 /述位之间切分。主位是已知信息,常常是句子的主语,
其余部分为新信息。如果作主语的主位为无生命的事物,表示一件事,或者人的某种特征,
则可以独立地译为一个分句,如:
(4)Whether you go or not makes no difference to me.
无论你去还是不去,对我来说都无所谓。
(5)His generosity costs him a million dollars.
就因为生性慷慨,他才用掉了一百万美元。(主位/述位之间含有因果关系)
(三)切分段落
(6)Much of the problem is that we live in a passive age. To listen to a record
album, to sit through a movie, to watch a television show—all require
nothing of the cultural consumer, save his mere presence. To read a book,
though, takes an act of will on the part of the consumer. He must genuinely
want to find out what is inside. He cannot just sit there; he must do
something, even though the something is as simple an action as opening
the book, closing the door and beginning to read. In generations before my
own, this was taken for granted as an important part of life. But now, in the
day of the “information retrieval system,” such a reverence is not being
placed on the reading, and then saving, of books. If a young American
reads at all, he is far more likely to purchase a paperback that may be
flipped through and then thrown away. In a disposable age, the book for
keeping and rereading is an anchronism, a ponderous dinosaur in a
highspeed society. (Are Books an Endangered Species? , by Bob Greene)
问题主要在于我们是生活在一个被动的年代。听一套唱片,看完一场电影,瞧电视节
目——这些不需要文化消费者做任何事情,只要他在场就行。而读一本书就要求消费者方
面有毅力。他必须真正知道书里说了些什么。他不能仅仅坐在那里;他得做点事,即使这
事十分简单,只不过就是动手翻开书本,关上门,然后开始读。
对我前面历代的人们来说,读书天经地义是构成生活的一个重要组成部分。但是现在,
在这个“信息检索系统”的时代,读书和藏书已不能获得这种尊重。如果一位美国青年要读
书,他很可能去买一册简装书,这样一来就可以很快地翻完,然后把它扔掉。在一个讲求
把没有用物品处理掉的时代里,要保存和重读书简直是与时代格格不入的行为,就像个
笨重的恐龙在高速的社会里寸步难行。
(7)门铃一响,来了客人。从不谢客,礼当接待。忙把袜子穿上,整冠而出。来客红光满面,
一开口就知道是远客。他拿出一张名片:“我是 S 市文艺报记者,由 X 同志介绍来的。来

79
京开会,兼带访问在京名人的使命。已拜访过 Z 老、J 老。”
Suddenly the doorbell rang, announcing the arrival of a visitor. As Mr.
Huang had never refused any visitor before, this one should be received
with courtesy too. Quickly putting his socks back on and smoothing his hair,
he hurried to the door, and was encountered by a man with a fat glowing
face. By the first word he uttered, Mr. Huang was sure this man was from a
far-off place. He took out a calling card from his pocket and said:
“ I’m a reporter on the literature and Arts gazette of S city, and I’m here
to see you on Mr. X’s recommendation. I’ve come to attend a symposium in
Beijing and in the meantime I’m visiting some celebrities here. I’ve had the
honor of visiting respected Mr. Z and Mr. J.”

二、合并
(一)合词
合词法包括两种情形,一是相邻的两个词合二为一,一般为同义词合并,有时需要增
补程度修饰语;一是不相邻的两个词搭配在一起翻译,如:
(8)What can easily be seen in his poems are his imagery and originality,
power and range.
他的诗形象生动,独具一格,而且气势磅礴,则是显而易见的。
(9)Her son was wise and clever, but her daughter was silly and foolish.
她的儿子非常聪明,可她的女儿却很笨。
(10)深山中有一所古庙,几个和尚在那里过着单调的修行生活。(巴金:《虎》)
There was deep in a mountain an ancient temple where several pious
Buddhist monks lived a monotonous life. (张培基 译)
最后一例原文中的“修行”被移至“和尚”前面,因为“pious”不能修饰“life”。这里
“修行”若直译为“practicing Buddhism”,会使译句失去简洁流畅。
(二)合句
(11)于是工厂,商店,银行,夜总会,跑马场,赌场大量出现了。║在不到一百年的时
间里,上海就成了外国人在中国进行冒险、寻求浪漫生活的地方,
In less than a hundred years, Shanghai, teeming with factories, shops,
banks, night clubs, race-courses and casinos, became a place for foreigners
to seek adventure and romance in China.
(三)合段
(12) 蜀中山水,不知迷醉了多少古人和今人……
近年来,在四川北部南坪县境内,闪现出一颗五光十色的风光“宝石”,这就是人们
赞不绝口的“神话世界”九寨沟。它镶嵌在松潘、南坪、平武三县接壤的群山之中,面积约六
万公顷,距成都约四百公里。九寨沟,由树正群海沟、则查洼沟、日则沟三条主沟组成,海
拔平均在两千五百米左右。过去,沟中有九个藏族村寨,因此得名。
Sichuan Province in southwest China is renowned for its many
fascinating natural wonders which have attracted millions of travelers over
the centuries. The recent discovery of the scenic beauty of Jiuzhaigou (Nine-
Village Ravine) has added charm to the picturesque landscape. Known as
“China’s Fairland”, Jizhaigou is located in the hills along the borders of
Naping, Pingwu and Songpan counties, some 400 kilometers from Chengdu,

80
the provincial capital. Three scenic areas -- Shuzhengqunhaigou,
Zechawagou and Rizegou -- combine to make up the 60,000 hectares of
fairland, which is nearly 2,500 meters above sea level. Its name “Nine
Village Ravine” is supposed to be because Tibetans once inhabited nine
villages in the ravine.

【实例分 析】
(1)今晚在院子里坐着乘凉。忽然想起日日走过的荷塘,在这满月的光里,总该另有一番样
子吧。月亮渐渐升高了……(朱自清:《荷塘月色》)
Tonight, when I was sitting in the yard enjoying the cool, it occurred to me that the Lotus Pond,
which I pass by every day, must assume quite a different look in such moonlit night. A full moon
was rising high in the sky… (朱纯深 译)
[分析]第一句中“满月”的“满”字未译出,原因是从逻辑上讲, moonlit night 不能用
full 修饰,但在下句译出来了。注意英译文的措词与汉语的差异:“在满月的光里”译成了
in such moonlit night,当然亦可译为 in such bright moonlight。
(2)西湖名菜有南宋风味,载誉已久,其特点是用鲜活材料制成,保持原汁原味,美味可口。
(《人间天堂—杭州》,郭建中 译)
West Lake dishes, which originated in the Southern Song Dynasty(1127—1279), are famous for
their taste and flavor. With fresh vegetables and live fowl or fish as ingredients, one can savor the
dishes for their natural flavor.
[分析]“有南宋风味”译成 originated in the Southern Song Dynasty(1127—1279),既意思
明了又包含了原意。“保持原汁原味”没有译成 keep original sauce and flavor 而是译成了
one can savor the dishes for their natural flavor,这样较为自然流畅,符合英语习惯。
(3)它记载了大小水道一千多条,一一究源竟委,详细记述了所经地区山陵、原野、城邑、关
津的地理情况、建置沿革和有关历史事件、人物、甚至神话传说,繁征博引,是公元 6 世纪以
前我国最全面而系统的综合性地理著作。(陈桥驿:《我和水经注》)
Based on thorough investigations, the book records over 100 waterways, both big and small. It has
a recorded, detailed geographical account of the areas these waterways traversed, including hills
and mountains, plains and valleys, towns and cities, mountain passes and ferry crossings, with
their administrative changes, historical events, important figures, fairy tales and legends. Provided
with a sufficient amount of supporting materials, the book was the most comprehensive
geographical work in China before the 6th century. (郭建中 译)
[分析]长句化短,原文一句分译为三句。
(4)The dress set off to perfection the seventeen-inch waist, the smallest in three countries, and
tightly fitting basque showed breasts well matured for her sixteen years. (Gone with the Wind by
Margaret Mitchell)
她的腰围不过十七英寸,穿着那窄窄的春衫,显得十分合身。里面紧紧绷着一件小马甲,使
得她胸部特别隆起。她的年纪虽只十六岁,乳房却已十分成熟了。(傅东华 译)
[分析]原文一句被截短成三句。
(5)死了以后还能使人害怕,使人尊敬,像虎这样的猛兽,的确是值得我热爱的。 (巴金:
《虎》)
A fierce animal like the tiger, which continues to inspire us with reverent awe even after death,
really deserves our warm love. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ] 原文中的并列结构“使人害怕,使人尊敬”合并为汉语的偏正结构“ reverent

81
awe”,比较符合英语的表达习惯。
(6)美的山水孕育美的心灵,美的心灵创造出美的艺术。历来许多大诗人、大文学家、大艺术
家,多在杭州留下了不朽的篇章。(《人间天堂—杭州》,郭建中 译)
Hangzhou’s beauty has cultivated and inspired generations of artists: poets, writers, painters and
calligraphers, who throughout the centuries, have left behind immortal poems, essays, paintings
and calligraphy in praise of Hangzhou.
[分析]两句合成一句,通过具体化(“美”为“杭州之美”)和概括化(将“美的山
水”、“美的心灵”概括为一个“美”字)将第一句的两个并列分句合成为一个含有并列谓
语(cultivated and inspired)的简单句。“艺术”译成“艺术家(artists),是为了承前启后
而作的词义偏向。“篇章”二字译为 poems, essays, paintings and calligraphy,是为了与前面
的 poets, writers, painters and calligraphers 相呼应。
(7)这是一条幽僻的路,白天也少人走,夜里更加寂寞。荷塘四面,长着许多树,蓊蓊郁郁。
It(The small cinder path) is peaceful and secluded here, a place not frequented by pedestrians even
in the daytime; now at night, it looks more solitary, in a lush shady ambience of trees all around
the pond.
[分析]译文根据句间的意义与逻辑关系以及表达行文的需要将原文两个句子组合成一个
复杂句。
(8)没有月光的晚上, 这路上阴森森的, 有些怕人。今晚却很好,虽然月光还是淡淡的。
The foliage, which, in a moonless night, would loom somewhat frighteningly dark, looks very nice
tonight, although the moonlight is not more than a thin, grayish veil.
[ 分析 ] 除了合句译法外,译者还使用了多种翻译手段,如增词,隐译,具体化等。
foliage 属于增词,原文虽无其词却有其意;原文的“却”所明示的转折逻辑关系隐入译文
的主从句关系之中,为隐译;将原文意义概略化的形容词“淡淡的”具体形象地译为 a
thin, grayish veil ,是具体化,此译法明显受到中国文学对月光的典型描绘的影响,是翻译
主体间性(或者说互文性)的一个明证。原文第二句语序不合中国传统文法,有明显西化的
痕迹,翻译时可用直译。
(9)
[4]将太太置回家中后我才意识到我的悲哀,这一愤世之举不仅未了我“终生残废”而又
平添了“终生遗憾”,我从未享受过将男人坚定有力的胳膊窝勾着太太娇美柔滑的后脖子上
街遛弯的幸福。
[5]这一幸福对我来说不仅意味着双脚要离开这生我养我的土地,而且神圣的肚脐亦将
昭之于众。
[6]现在,每每出门,高扬的手臂牢牢地挂在太太肩头,其状如猴子紧紧扒着电杆,任
凭太太在马路上将我拖来拖去……(木木:《终生遗憾》,每段前数字为本书作者所加段落
序号)
[4]But only after the girl was enticed into matrimony did I begin to feel my self-inflicted
anguish. This over-reaction of mine not only failed to put an end to my “permanent handicap”, but
also gave me lifetime regret. I was deprived of the earthly pleasure of walking with my wife in the
street with my strong arm around her delicate neck because [5]it meant that my feet would be
lifted from the land that had nurtured me, and worse still, my sacred belly-button would be put on
public display.
[6]What happens now is that whenever we go out together, with my outstretched arms tightly
clinging to my wife’s shoulder, I am pretty much like a monkey hanging on to a wire pole,
allowing her to drag me along the street…. (孙艺风 译)

82
[分析]第[4][5]两段合为一段,第[6]段首通过加词(What happens now is that)起到承上
启下的作用。此外,第 [4] 段译文中的 self-inflicted 为原文深层之意。“幸福”具体译为
earthly pleasure,属于增词。

第六节 译借

译借,顾名思义,指翻译活动中的借用。借用的对象是彼有此无之物,即原语有译语无
的事物。借用包括借意、借形和借音。借意是翻译的常态,因为介绍译入语之所无,是作为跨
文 化 交 际 的 翻 译 活 动 的 主 要 任 务 。 例 如 汉 语 的 “ 一 国 两 制 ” 译 为 one country, two
systems,“四个现代化”译为 four modernizations,“长征”译为 the Long March,英语中
汉语过去没有的概念和事物如 democracy, science 和 telephone 分别译为“民主”、“科学”、
“电话”等等,都是借意式翻译,本书不拟讨论。
翻译中,有时译者直接将某词语移借过来,或者利用译入语的字词拟其声音。前者借原
语之形,是移植;后者借原语之音,是音译,均可视为借译。从翻译传意的角度看,借译实
际上是未译,邱懋如教授称之为零翻译。借译原因有三:一是原语某词含有丰富的文化内涵,
不易用一两个字词说清楚;二是原语词汇在译入语中已很流行,无须翻译;三是专名,作
为人或物的标记符号也不需要翻译。

一、移植
据《现代汉语词典》,移植有两义,一指“把播种在苗床或秧田里的幼苗拔起或连土掘
起种在田地里”,二指“将机体的一部分组织或器官补在同一机体或另一机体的缺陷部分
上,使它逐渐长好”(1999:1485)。这两条定义告诉我们,移植只是移动了事物的位置,事
物的原貌得以保存。翻译中的移植也应当如此理解,即将一词一语从一种语言移到另一种语
言,不改变其外形。但我国的翻译研究者一般都将移植理解为对译入语中没有的原语字词
(一般为文化词语))进行直译,如将 microwave 译为“微波”。这种观点欠妥,因为它与移植
的本义相悖。翻译中的移植不是直译,而是将原语的字词直接搬过来。这在英译汉中很常见,
如一些专名、缩略语、流行语汇等。移植又可分为部分移植和完全移植。
(一)部分移植
有些英语词汇搬到汉语中来,只保留了它部分的外形,一般是首字母,其余部分为汉
语,一般是概括该词的大意。部分移植实质上的移植与意译的结合。这种移植创造了当代汉
语的一大奇观:英汉杂交的语言现象。这一方面反映了全球化背景下英语对汉语的影响,另
一方面也说明汉语对外开放的态势和活跃的生命力。下面是当代汉语中相当活跃的部分移植
词语:
A 型血(blood type A),B 超(ultrasonic diagnosis B),BP 机(beeper),CT 扫描(computerized
tomography) ,卡拉 OK(karaoke) , IC 卡 (IC card) , IP 卡 (IP[Internet phone] card) , IT 产业
(IT [information technology] industry) ,PC 机 (personal computer) ,pH 值(pH value) ,T 恤
衫(T-shirt),X 光(X-ray)
(二)完全移植
汉语中从英语里完全借过来的词语主要是缩略语,如:
WTO(世界贸易组织) = the World Trade Organization
CEO / ceo(首席执行官) = chief executive office
CD(光盘) = compact disk
VCD(视频光盘) = video compact disk
DVD(数字视频光盘) = digital video disk

83
DNA(脱氧核糖核酸) = deoxyribonucleic acid
SOS(国际紧急求救信号) = save our ship
UFO(不明飞行物) = unidentified flying object
MP3(一种音频压缩标准) = Motion Picture Expert Group Layer 3
PK(单挑,一对一竞争) = player killing

二、音译
音译是利用译入语的语音资源仿拟原文字词的声音特征。同移植一样,音译也可分为部
分音译和完全音译。
(一)部分音译
部分音译多用于翻译含有两个部分的词或词组,其中一部分用音译,另一部分用意译,
如:
Internet( 因特网 ) , goldlion( 金利来 ) , Mastercard( 万事达卡 ) , ice-cream( 冰淇淋 ) , New
Zealand(新西兰),Kentucky chicken(肯特鸡),
(二)完全音译
完全音译适于专名以及译入语中空缺的词语的翻译,这些词语较少含有意义显著的词
素。源自汉语的英语音译词如:
kowtow( 磕头),sampan( 舢板),wok( 镬,锅 ),tea( 茶),wonton( 馄饨),cheongsam(旗袍),
yamen(衙门),toufu(豆腐),Oolong tea(乌龙茶),typhoon(台风),chopsuey(杂碎),lychee
/ litchi(荔枝),Confucius(孔子),Mencius(孟子)
源自英语的汉语音译词如:
尼龙(nylon),沙发(sofa),席梦思(simmons),西门子(siemmons),可口可乐(Coca Cola),
沃 尔 玛 (Wal-Mart) , 家 乐 福 (Carrefour) , 托 拉 斯 (trust) , 维 他 命 (vitamin) , 荷 尔 蒙
(hormone),盘尼西林(penicillin),尼古丁(nicotine),海洛因(heroin),吗啡(morphine),奎
宁(quinine),巧克力(chocolate,有音译作“朱古力” ),吉他(guitar) ,沙龙(salon),俱乐
部(club),雷达(radar),声纳(sonar)
完全音译词有时后面带有释义性的词语,如:
逻辑学(logic),芭蕾舞(ballet),高尔夫球(golf),爵士乐(jazz),比基尼泳装(bikinis),香宾
酒(champagne),啤酒(beer),拖拉机(tractor),汉堡包(hamburger),酒吧(bar,此音译词的
释义性词语“酒”在音译词“吧”之前,属于例外)
翻译实践中要避免滥用音译。例如武汉最大型的商场 Shopping Mall,放着现成的“购
物中心”,“购物广场”,“商城”等通俗的意译词语不用,而别出心裁地用“销品茂” ,
似乎不可取。这里提一个音译标准:人名、地名之类的专用名词,意义深奥难懂、无法用几个
字说清的术语概念以及在汉语中找不到对应物的文化词语等,可考虑音译;音译时译者不
能掺入个人感情和价值观念;音译词作为一种标记词一般不应具有意义,若是具有意义,
应与原词意义相一致,不容许随意增减或改变原义;应根据统一的译音表用规范的译音字
进行音译,以使译名统一。

【实例分 析】
(1)The order in which the different nucleic acids occur along the spiral staircase carries the genetic
information that enables the DNA molecule to assemble an organization around and reproduce
itself.
这些不同的核酸沿着螺旋式楼梯排列成的序列携带着基因信息,使 DNA 分析能围绕着它
聚集成一个有机体并自我复制。

84
[分析]DNA 为中国读者所熟悉,无须翻译,拿过来即可,这是科技专名的的移植。
(2)The success of the iMac has given birth to a successor – the portable iMac, known as iBook.
Imac 机的成功使其后继者--便携式 iMac 应运而生,该机通称为 iBook。
[分析] iMac 与 iBook 都是产品名,为苹果公司生产的电脑。商标、产品名称若是意思不
明确或很难用一两个字翻译,可考虑移植。
(3)With that windfall, Bakeland, his wife Celina (known as “Bonbon’) and two children moved to
Snug Rock, a palatial estate north of Yonkers, N. Y., overlooking the Hudson River.
有了这笔意外之财,贝克兰及其妻子塞丽娜(也称“夹心软糖” )和他们的两个孩子移居到了
Snug Rock,那是位于纽约州扬克斯北部的一处可以俯瞰哈得孙河的豪华别墅。
[分析] Snug Rock 为原文中所提别墅名,这是事物名称的移植。
(4)“I always take along a bag of frozen vegetables, “ says Jaskoll, 52, who is a teacher at the B-
school of Yeshiva University in New York and plays hoops once a week.
“ 我 常 常 带 着 冷 冻 的 蔬 菜 ,”52 岁 的 贾 斯 科 如 是 说 。 他 任 教 于 纽 约 Yeshiva 大 学 的 B-
school,每周打一次篮球。
[分析] Yeshiva 和 B-school 为大学及其所属学院名。组织单位名的移植应限制使用。
(4)Modern drugs like ibuprofen and naproxen can reduce swelling once the disease has set in.
诸如 ibuprofen 和 naproxen 之类的新药能够当即消除患者的肿块。
[分析] ibuprofen 和 naproxen 为药品名,可移植,也可意译为“布洛芬”和“萘普生”。
(5)GlaxoSmithKline is testing a drug called Dutasteride that can block nearly 100 percent of
dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a hormone byproduct that activates hair-loss genes.
GlaxoSmithKline 公司正在 试验 一种 叫做 Dutasteride 的药品,它可以 100%遏制二氢
化睾酮(DNT)——一种刺激脱发基因生长的荷尔蒙副产品。
[分析]GlaxoSmithKline 与 Dutasteride 均为专名移植。
(6) Hongo was born in the nearby town of Isen, home to the late Shigechiyo Izumi, who also held
the Guinness record as the world’s oldest person.
本乡出生在 Isen 附近的小镇,这里也是已逝的 Shigechiyo Izumi 老人的故乡,Izumi 老
人曾经是吉尼斯世界最长寿老人记录的保持者。
[分析]Isen 和 Shigechiyo Izumi 分别为地名和人名的移植。
(7) 以名胜说,我没有到过陶然亭,这多可笑!(老舍:《想北平》)
Just fancy that I have neglected to visit even Tao Ran Ting, a local scenic attraction! (张培基 译)
[分析]“ 陶然亭”利用汉语拼音音译为 Tao Ran Ting,也可音义结合译为 Taoran Pavilion。
(8) 她跟我逛龙树寺,回家就画这个手卷,我老太爷题两首七绝,有两首最好…… (钱钟书:
《围城》)
When we returned from a visit to the Dragon Tree Temple, she painted a scroll of it on which my
father inscribed two ch’i-chueh poems. The best two couplets were… (Jeanne Kelly & Nathan K.
Mao 译)
[ 分析 ]原文中的“七绝”为中国文化特有事物,较适合用音译。若意译为 verse form of
four lines with seven characters to a line which follows a very strict rhyme scheme and tonal
pattern,就失去了专名的简练。文化专有词语的一种翻译策略是音译+注释。上面“七绝”的
意译可作为注释置于页脚或文尾。另外,译文中的音译采用的是旧式的威妥玛-翟里斯拼音
法(Wade-Giles system),现已废弃,可用汉语拼音译为 qi-jue。
(9)”过奖,过奖!”方鸿渐本想说辛楣昨天早退,今天迟到,是学衙门里上司的官派,一转
念,忍住不说,还对辛楣善意地微笑。(钱钟书:《围城》)
“Thank you, thank you.” Fang Hung-chien had thought of saying that Hsin-mei’s early departure

85
and late arrival must be in the bureaucratic tradition of a yamen mandarin, but he changed his
mind and kept the thought to himself. (Jeanne Kelly & Nathan K. Mao 译)
[分析]“衙门”是中国文化特有的旧有事物,相当于现在的“行政机关”,音译既简洁又
保留话语的古旧韵味。
(10)然后岫烟也钓着了一个,随将竿子仍旧递给探春, 探春才递与宝玉。宝玉道:“我是要做姜
太公的。”便走下石矶,坐在池边钓起来,岂知那水里的鱼看见人影儿,都躲到别处去了。
(《红楼梦》第八十一回)
   When Hsiu-yen had followed suit and returned the rod to Tan-chun , she handed it to Pao-
yun. “I’m going to fish like Chiang Taikung ,”he announced as he walked down the stone steps
and sat down by the pool. But his reflection frightened the fish away.( Tr . Yang Xianyi & Gladys
Yang)
[分析]“姜太公”是什么人 ? 怎么译? 如何让英语读者领会其深层的文化蕴意 ? 译者先音
译“姜太公” , 然后加了脚注—— Chiang Shang of the eleventh century B. C. was said to fish
by the Weishui River (present Shensi), holding a line, with no hook or bait, three feet above the
water, and saying at the same time :“Whoever is ordained, come and take the bait . ”—— 以此介
绍有关文化背景,让英语读者充分了解“姜太公钓鱼,愿者上钩”这一古老说法的深刻内
涵,从而达到文化信息的移植。

第七节 直译与意译

有些词句的翻译方法很难归入其他翻译技巧,只有用直译和意译名之。直译与意译是一
个争论了几千年的问题,至今未有定论。据《现代汉语词典》,直译“指偏重于照顾原文字句
的翻译(区别于‘意译’ )”(1999:1615),也就是茅盾说的“不妄改原文的字句”;意译则
是“根据原文的大意来翻译,不作逐字逐句的翻译(区别于‘直译’)”(1999:1496)。

一、直译
直译一方面完全或基本保留了原语的外形,另一方面又完满地传达了原文的思想内容。
“完全或基本保留原语的外形”,从词的角度看,指直译保存了原文的所有字词或者核心
词汇(主要是实词);从句子的角度看,原文句型和结构基本未变。“完满传达原文的思想内
容”,指直译“能保留原文的情调与风格”(茅盾语)。直译较适合于翻译所涉两种语言表达
方式相同或相似的情形,如“我住在北京”可译为 I live in Beijing.。不过必须指出的是,直
译不等于逐字译,后者只是前者的一种形式即完全直译。逐字译在翻译中是存在的,碰到两
种语言表达方式完全相同的情形就可以用逐字译。例如:
(1)A:Still waiting here ? Seems you have waited a long time.
甲:还等在这儿? 好象你已经等了一长段时间了。
B:Have to wait. C told me he would come, and I have something to tell
him. It won’t wait.
乙:得等着。丙告诉我他会来的,而我有件事告诉他。那可不能等。
逐字译不是翻译的常态,是翻译中两种语言语法构造和表达方式偶合使然,因此不能
强求。当然,直译也并不等同于保存原语的表达方式。不保存表达方式,但原语核心词汇基
本保留的翻译也是直译,如 A good idea suddenly struck me.译作“我突然想到一个好主意”
和 lie on one’s back 译成“仰卧”,虽然转变了表达方式即改变了词序和句子成分,但原文
主要词语或关键词语都保存下来,我们仍然认为是直译即部分直译。所以,是否是直译,关
键在于原文核心词语是否保留。

86
二、意译
在直译和意译的选择上应遵循的原则是:能直译时便直译,不能直译时用意译,直译
为主,意译为辅,意译作为直译的补充。翻译中若能形义并存,何乐而不为?这既能保存原
文的形式,又能保全原文的内容。如果形义不能兼顾,则舍形取义,因为翻译主要是传意。
意译与直译的区别是原文形式基本消失,如圣经典故 fig leaf (无花果叶)译作“遮羞布”,
原文语言形式已荡然无存。意译较适合于翻译其意不在字表、含有言外之意的词句,即“翻
译四大疑难”一章中提到的“假朋友”。

三、直译+意译
翻译实践中,有经验的译者翻译方法烂熟于胸,并不拘守直译或意译,或者其他翻译
方法,而是笔随意走,神思合于作者,翻译文字若作者己出,分不清是直译还是意译。如著
名翻译家夏济安翻译美国作家爱默生《论美》(Beauty)最后一句:
(2)The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the blue
cast for their background, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and
every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost contribute something to
the mute music.
秃树熠熠生辉,如尖塔着火,霞光照处,东方一片蔚蓝,成为极妙的背景,然点点犹如
繁星,花朵谢落,败枝残干,风霜之迹斑斑,这一切都成了我面前无声的音乐。
译文精妙之处在于,达意不受原文形式羁绊,然仔细推敲,译文字字均有所本。难怪王
宏印先生赞叹式地发问:“这种基本与原文同步,却又通过局部变动,切分,变位,疏密
相间,错落有致的短语句子对应翻译法,究竟是直译乎,抑或是意译乎?”(2000:158)

【实例分 析】
(1)三月里刘熏宇君来信,说互生病了,而且是没有希望的病,医生说只好等日子了。
In March I heard from Mr. Liu Xunyu that Husheng was sick and hopelessly sick at that. The
doctor said there was nothing he could do but to wait for the day to arrive.
[分析]在汉语里,“等日子”是“等死”的委婉语,英语中的 the day 可指发生重大事
件的日子,死亡之日当然是重大的日子。将“等日子”直译成 wait for the day to arrive ,英
语读者借助语境能够理解。译文还运用了重复译法(sick 重复)。
(2)That afternoon, Gerald, his resistance worn thin, had set out to make an offer for Dilcey.(Gone
with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell)
郝先生吃逼不过,那天下午竟到那边商量去了。(傅东华 译)
[分析]his resistance worn thin 也可直译为“他的抵抗力几乎消磨殆尽”,但不免带有翻
译腔(translationese),不如意译为“吃逼不过”来得自然。另外,译者将原作中的人物名
一律归化成中国姓氏,如例中的 Gerald(O’hara ),被译作“郝嘉乐”,这里译者以“郝
先生”称之。
(3)树梢上隐隐约约的是一带远山,只是有些大意罢了。
Over the trees appear some distant mountains, but merely in sketchy silhouette.
[分析]这里的“大意”不作“大概意思”讲,意思比较笼统抽象,译者理解为“粗略
轮廓”(sketchy silhouette),为意译。
(4)世界上只有能憎的人才可以爱;爱憎没有定见,只是毫无作为的脚色。
In this world, only those who could hate could love. Those who did not know what to love and
what to hate were useless people.

87
[分析]例中“爱憎没有定见”被译者理解为“不知道爱什么恨什么”,其翻译属于意
译。
(5)我和他并没有深谈过,但从他的行事来看,相信我是认识他的。(朱自清:《哀互生》)
Though I never had a chance to talk with him very closely, I was convinced that I understood him
from the way he carried himself and conducted matters. (刘士聪 译)
[分析]译者认为,从上下文看,这里的“行事”应包括“为人”和“行事”两个方面 ,
因而将其译为 carried himself and conducted matters,属于直译+意译。
(6)他性情本有些狷介,但为了立达,也长去看一班大人先生,更常去看那些有钱可借的老
板之类。
He was by nature an honest man, but for the sake of Lida, he had to go and see important people,
bosses and others from whom he hoped to borrow money.
[分析]“大人先生”译作 important people,属于概括式的意译。
(7)有一回他本可留学去,但丢不下立达,到底没有去。
Once he could have gone to study abroad, but he did not go in the end because he could not tear
himself away from the school.
[分析]“丢不下”译作 could not tear himself away from(难以切断同……的关系),为意译。
(8)他办立达这么多年,并没有让多少人知道他个人的名字。
Though he was head of the school for so many years, he never tried to make his name known to
the public.
[分析]“办”译为 was head of,属于转换表达方式的意译。
(9)他走了几步,回头看见我,说,“进去吧,里边没人。” (朱自清:《背影》)
After a few steps, he looked back at me and said, “Go back to your seat. Don’t leave your things
alone.” (张培基 译)
[分析]有时,一个词、一种表达法的意思从字面是看不出来的,其意在言外,此所谓翻译
中的“假朋友”。“假朋友”意义的隐蔽性程度不一,有的梢加思考就可以从字面猜出,有
的非查词典或请教专家或操母语的人不可。“假朋友”的意义有两种,一种约定俗成,意思
虽隐蔽而固定;一种为语境所予,没有了特定语境,此隐蔽意义就不存在。上例中的“里边
没人”,这里不能直译,否则,说话者的真正意思将无法传达出来。车厢里是有人的,不过,
是其他乘客,若直译,将与事实不符。这里,说话者的本意是“车厢里没人照看你的行李,
防备有人顺手牵羊”,因此译作“ Don’t leave your things alone”。此例给我们的启示是,动
手翻译之前,首先应当确定所译对象有无字面之外的意思,即特殊情景中的功能意义,若
无,可考虑采用直译(有时要调整语序),若有,就要意译。
(10)近几年来,父亲和我都是东奔西走,家中光景是一日不如一日。(朱自清:《背影》)
In recent years, both father and I have been living an unsettled life, and the circumstances of our
family going from bad to worse. (张培基 译)
[分析]“东奔西走”不宜直译,因为直译不能达意。其意从字面很容易看清楚,指“四
处奔波劳累,不能过安定的日子”,据此译者将“东奔西走”译为“ living an unsettled
life”。
(11)试问吾人说“今”说“现在”,茫茫百千劫,究竟哪一刹那是吾人的“今”,是吾人的“现在
”呢?(李大钊:《今》)
It is hard to tell which moment in the ups and downs of life is our present or now. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ] 译者根据上下文将“茫茫百千劫”理解为“无数人生起伏变化”,译作 in the
ups and downs of life。此外,还有句式转换:疑问句变陈述句。
(12)屈原的《离骚》,永远使人人感泣。(李大钊:《今》)

88
Li Sao, authored by Quan Yuan, will continue to touch a deep chord in the heart of every reader
through all ages. (张培基 译)
[分析]“感泣”译作 touch a deep chord,属于意译。
(13)此派人唯一的希望在复古。(李大钊:《今》,张培基 译)
They place their only hope on turning the clock back to days of old. (意译)
(14)我第一次观场,看见那野蛮的奋斗,听见那震耳的“呼声”,实在不惯;心理常想:这
真是罗马时代的角抵和斗兽的遗风,很不人道的。(胡适:《我对于运动会的感想》)
At first I just couldn’t get used to the rough play and deafening roar, inwardly calling it an
inhuman modern version of the bloody fights of men with men or with wild animals in the arena
of the Roman amphitheater. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ]“ 遗风”译为 modern version ,是意译。“罗马时代”与“角抵”分别译作 in the
arena of the Roman amphitheater 和 the bloody fights of men with men or with wild animals ,属
于增词性意译。
(15)几天不见肉,他就喊“嘴里要淡出鸟儿来!” (梁实秋:《男人》)
They will complain like hell after a couple of meatless days. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ]“ 嘴里要淡出鸟儿来!”是汉语特有的说法,读过古代经典的读者可能会想到
《水浒传》,想到李逵。这样的语言,意在言外,不宜直译。
(16)我在车上坐定了,用安闲的眼光看车夫。我不觉吃了一惊。在我眼前晃动着一个瘦小的
背影。我的眼睛没有错。拉车的是一个小孩,我估计他的年纪还不到十四。(巴金:《一个车
夫》)
Seating myself leisurely, I was surprised when my eyes fell on the swaying thin back of the
rickshaw boy. Oh my, it’s a small kid! He must be no more than fourteen. (张培基 译)
[分析]原句中的“我的眼睛没有错”是不能直接译成“ My eyes were not incorrect”的,
否则就会闹笑话。此类句子属于一种语言文化里的特殊的习惯表达法,意不在字表,因此不
能直译,要意译。若此种习惯表达法运用了修辞手法,可用其它修辞手段弥补原语的语言感
染力。上面译文用“Oh my”译“我的眼睛没有错”,稍稍增强语气,但与原意协调,在许
可的范围内。文学翻译是原著在另一种语言文化的再生,适度的“创造”有助于延长原著的
生命,给读者提供精美的精神食粮。
(17)他拉起车子向前飞跑。他全身都是劲。(巴金:《一个车夫》)
He took hold of the shafts and started running ahead—the very picture of unflagging energy. ( 张
培基 译)
[分析]“他全身都是劲”意译为“the very picture of unflagging energy”。
(18)你要船,找运输行,或者自己到码头上去找,找着了,言明价钱,多少钱坐到汉口,
每块钱花得明明白白。(叶圣陶:《我坐了木船》)
All you need to do is contact the transport company, or go direct to the wharf to look for a wooden
boat. Once you have located it, you will know what the fare is from Chongqing to Hankou, and
every dollar will be paid for what it is worth, no more, no less. (张培基 译)
[分析]“每块钱花得明明白白”,意即“每块钱都花得值得”,被意译为“ every dollar
will be paid for what it is worth, no more, no less”。
(19)我心中不起一切杂念,大约历一刻钟之久,才回转身来。(叶圣陶:《看月》)
I stood lost in reverie. It was not until fifteen minutes later that, turning round…(张培基 译)
[ 分析 ]“ 不起一切杂念”不指“没有不相干的想法”而指“心中一片空明”,故译 I
stood lost in reverie。
(20)它们高、低、宏、细、疾、徐、作、歇,仿佛曾经过乐师的精心训练,所以这样的无可批评,

89
踌躇满志,其实他们每一个都是神妙的乐师;众妙毕集,各抒灵趣,哪有不成人间绝响的
呢。(叶圣陶:《没有秋虫的地方》,张培基 译)
Their performance, with a voice high or low, sonorous or piping, quick or slow, sustained or
suspended, is flawless and skilful, as if they had undergone thorough training under a music
master. In fact, each and every one of them is a consummate music master all by itself. As a
constellation of fine artists, they each give full play to their unique talent. No wonder their
performance has reached the peak of artistic perfection.(划线部分为意译)
(21)虽然这些虫声会引起劳人的感叹,秋士的伤怀,独客的微喟,思妇的低泣;但是这正
是无上的美的境界,绝好的自然诗篇,不独是旁人最喜欢吟味的,就是当境者也感受一种
酸酸的麻麻的味道,这种味道在一方面是非常隽永的。(叶圣陶:《没有秋虫的地方》)
It makes toilers sigh with feeling, old forgotten scholars grieve over their luckless past, lonely
travelers murmur moodily and solitary women weep silent tears. All that makes for the highest
state of beauty on earth and natural poetry of super excellence. Not only does it intrigue onlookers,
but also brings a bitter feeling to the party concerned. Such a feeling is, to a certain extent, of
profound significance. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文中的“劳人”,“秋士“,“独客”,“思妇”分别指“劳苦的人”,“
士之暮年不遇者”,“怀念丈夫远行的妇女”,采用意译或直译+意译。
(22)“老师有封建思想,她不跟我们男生玩。” (谢冰莹:《粉笔生涯》)
“Our teacher’s a slave to old conventions,“ they grumbled. “She ‘s so stand-offish towards us
boys.” (张培基 译)
[分析]这里“封建思想”的意义具体化了,指“旧习俗”、“旧的清规戒律”,更具体
点说,指孔子所谓的“男女授受不亲”的思想,因此不宜直译为“ feudalistic-minded”,可
译为“old conventions”。
(23)并排的五六个山峰,差不多高低,就只最西的一峰戴着一簇房子,其余的仅仅只有树 ;
中间最大的一峰竟还有濯濯地一大块,像是癞子头上的疮疤。(茅盾:《雾》)
The five or six peaks forming the front row were about the same height . The westernmost one had
on top a cluster of houses while the rest were topped by nothing but trees. The highest one in the
middle had on it a large piece of barren land, like the scar on a favus-infected human head. ( 张培
基 译)
[ 分析 ]“ 癞子头”为汉语特色词汇,可根据其含义意译为“ a human head affected with
favus”或“a favus-infected human head”。
(24)“先生,我住的只是一间破小屋,又湿,又阴,满是臭虫,睡下去就咬得真可以。”(鲁
迅:《聪明人和傻子和奴才》,)
“Sir, I live in a run-down small hut which is wet, dingy, stinking and full of bedbugs. They bite me
all over when I lie down to sleep.” (张培基 译)
[分析]“真可以”这里不能作字面理解,而是“浑身都被咬了”的意思。此外还要注意,
汉语是一种意合语言,句中常有很多省略。而汉语的省略跟英语的省略不一样。也就是说,
汉语能省略的地方,英语不一定能省略,反之亦然。翻译时,要注意英汉语的异同,包括在
省略方面的异同。例句中,“又湿”的前面省略了“它(小屋)”,翻译时可用 which 引导
的定语从句表达这一后续的补充成分(汉语口语中多见这种补充性的后置修饰成分,可用
英语的定语从句译之),以符合英语句子成分衔接紧凑的形合特点。“睡下去就咬得真可以
”前省略了“我”,该句为被动隐含句,“咬”字前省略了“被”字,此句可译成被动句 ,
也可按上面译文,调整表达法,将主语(“我”)和宾语“臭虫”)对换,译成主动句,
用“臭虫”(They)作主语似乎更好,因为这样翻译,与前句更连贯,衔接更紧。

90
(25)有钱时我分些给穷朋友用,或者跑到馆子里大吃大喝一顿,或者买许多我爱吃的虾米、
牛肉干、鸭肫肝和糖果回来;穷困时,就一个人跑去马路上喝西北风,躲在亭子间喝自来水,
或者索性蒙在被子里睡两天,看看有趣的小说,以消磨这可怕的长日。(谢冰莹:《饥饿》)
When I have money, I’ll share it with friends in need, or go to a restaurant to eat and drink to my
heart’s content, or buy and bring home many things I like to eat, such as dried shrimps, dried roast
beef, salted duck’s gizzard and liver, candies. When I’m broke, I’ll go strolling around the streets
alone on an empty stomach, or shut myself up in my small room with nothing to eat, or lie in bed
sleeping for a couple of days or reading an interesting novel, just to while away the terrible long
days. (张培基 译)
[分析]像“喝西北风”这种中国特色的词汇,其意不在字表,直译会引起译语读者的
误解,不如意译其真实含义:“on an empty stomach”。
(26)昨朝我一人在松林里徘徊,在一株老松树下戏筑了一座沙丘。(郭沫若:《墓》)
Yesterday morning, while wandering about alone in a pine forest, I amused myself by piling up a
small sandhill under an old pine tree. (张培基 译)
[分析]“戏筑了一座沙丘”意为“堆起一座沙丘以自娱”,据此译为“amused myself by
piling up a small sandhill”。
(27)啊,你年青的,年青的,远隔河山的姑娘哟,飘泊者自从那回离开你后又飘泊了三年 ,
但是你的慧心替我把青春留住了。(郭沫若:《白发》)
O young lady, you young lady of the distant land, I have been leading a wandering life for another
three years since I saw you last, but it is your feeling heart that has been the cause of my sustained
youth. (张培基 译)
[分析]“慧心”本为佛教用语,指能领悟佛理的心,这里可按“温柔体贴”、“富有同
情心”解,译作“feeling heart”或“tender heart”。
(28)像我这样一个贫寒的人,或者只有在北平能享受一点清福了。(老舍:《想北平》)
Peiping is probably the only place for a man of limited means like me to live an easy and carefree
life in. (张培基 译)
[分析]“清福”这里作“清闲而无忧虑”解,意译为“ an easy and carefree life” 或“a life
free from worries and cares”。此外,译文还运用了词序调整法。
(29) 可是要结婚,第一要有钱,第二要有闲,第三要有职,这潘驴……的五个条件,却也
很不容易办到。(郁达夫:《谈结婚》)
But, to get married, you need to have five prerequisites, namely, money, leisure, employment,
good looks and potentness, of which all are not always available. (张培基 译)
[分析]“潘驴”源自《金瓶梅》第三回。其中王婆提到“偷情”的五项要件:第一要潘安
的貌;第二要驴大行货;第三要邓通般有钱;第四要青春少小;第五要闲工夫。“潘安的貌
”和“驴大行货”正是“潘驴”所暗示的两个基本条件,这里分别译作“ good looks” 和
“potentness”。
(30)一个人,哪怕他的脾气有如虎狼那么凶暴,我相信如果长住在海滨,一定会变得和羔
羊一般驯良……(谢冰莹:《海恋》)
A person with a terrifying hot temper will become, I believe, as meek as a lamb after a long stay
by the seashore. (张培基 译)
[分析 ]“ 哪怕他的脾气有如虎狼那么凶暴”译为“ with a terrifying hot temper” ,要比直
译成“with a temperament as fierce as that of a tiger or wolf” 简洁,从全句行文看,主谓衔接
更紧凑。不足之处是牺牲了原文的形象。
(31)人类这个东西,就这么奇怪,无论什么事,你若老老实实的把实话告诉他,不但不能

91
激起他的共鸣的情绪,而且还要轻蔑你冷笑你,假使你见了那摸不清你根底的人,你不管
你家里早饭的米是当了被褥换来的,你只要大言不惭的说“某部长是我父亲的好朋友,某政
客是我拜把子的叔公,我认得某某巨商,我的太太同某军阀的第五位太太是干姐妹”,吹起
这一套法螺来,那摸不清你的人,便贴贴服服的向你合十顶礼,说不定碰得巧还恭而且敬
的请你大吃一顿燕菜席呢?(庐隐:《吹牛的妙用》)
Man is a queer animal. Suppose you tell someone the plain truth about a certain matter without
holding anything back, he will probably laugh at you scornfully instead of returning a congenial
response. On the other hand, suppose, penniless as you are, you brag unabashedly to somebody
who knows little about, “Minister So-and-So is a good friend of my father’s,” ”Politician So-and-
So is my grandpa’s sworn brother,” ”I know a certain business tycoon very well,” or “My wife is a
nominally adoptive sister of a certain warlord’s fifth concubine.” The listener will adore you like a
deity or may even, at an opportune moment, respectfully treat you to a big dinner featuring edible
bird’s nest! (张培基 译)
[分析]“ 你不管你家里早饭的米是当了被褥换来的”被译成“ penniless as you are” ,如
果译成“ though you may be so hard up as to have to pawn your bedding for money to buy rice
for cooking the congee you eat for breakfast”,就会显得拖泥带水,啰啰唆唆。
(32)我的记忆力使我回到十二年前跟着大家大呼大喊的时候,我很想再有同样的机会使我
弹去一点“老态”。(胡适:《我对于运动会的感想》,张培基 译)
That reminds me of how twelve years ago I joined the football crowds in giving loud yells. I’m
looking forward very eagerly to the new opportunity for me to regain some of my youthful spirit.
(划线部分为意译)

第八节 保留与还原

保留与前面提到的移植既有联系,又有区别。保留有三层含义,一是指将原文中关键的
或作为例证的一词、一句、一部分原封不动地搬到译文中;二是指原文中的一些在全世界范
围内或译入语国家通行的字母、数字、公式等科技符号保留下来;三是指原文中用的本身就
是译入语,无须翻译,搬到译文中即可。如果保留的原语字词在译入语中固定并通行起来,
就成为移植。保留仅具有临时性,其异体形式只暂时留存于译文之中,在译入语中不通行。
如英语移植词 WTO,保留原语外形,可在汉语中通行使用。而译文中临时保留的词语,如
Bill Gates,则不能在汉语中通行使用。
原文中出现的用原语表达的词句,如果来自译入语或其他语言,翻译时要还原成这种语
言,如人名、地名、著名人物的话语等。

一、保留
(一)翻译中大段保留原文,一般出现在学术写作中,而且原文后一般都附上翻译,如:
(1)Between the symbol and the referent there is no relation other than the
indirect one, which consists in its being used by someone to stand for a
referent. Symbol and Referent, that is to say, are not connected directly
(and when, for grammatical reasons, we imply such a relation, it will merely
be an imputed, as opposed to a real, relation) but only indirectly round the
two sides of the triangle. (M of M. p. 17)(符号与所指对象之间除了间接关系之外
没有相联的关系,这种间接关系就是符号被用来代表所指。这就是说,符号与所指不是直
接相关的——即使出于语法上的考虑暗示有这样的关系时,那也只是沿三角形的两条边

92
延伸,产生间接关系。)(刘宓庆 用例)
此段文字摘自刘宓庆的《翻译与语言哲学》(2001:249),若译成英文,保留其英文部
分即可。
(二)保留原文中的字母、数字、公式等国际通用符号,如:
(2)If someone is chronically calcium or vitamin D deficient, their bones
gradually get weaker.
如果人长期缺钙或缺维生素 D,骨头就会逐渐变得脆弱。
(3)For instance, Fermat showed that the graph of ax +bxy +cy + dx +ey
+f=0 is always an ellipse, hyperbola, parabola, or one of their degenerate
forms.
比如,费尔马指出,方程 ax +bxy +cy + dx +ey +f=0 的图像总是一个椭圆、双曲线、
抛物线或是它们的某种不完全形式。
(三)保留原文中使用的译入语,如:
(4)但康河的精华是在它的中流,著名的” Backs”,这两岸是那几个最蜚声的学院的建筑。
从 上 面 下 来 是 Pembroke , St. Katherine’s , King’s , Clare , Trinity , St.
John’s 。(徐志摩:《我所知道的康桥》)
But the real essence of the River Cam lies in its middle reaches, the famous
“Backs”. On both sides of the river here, are the buildings of several famous
colleges. From the uppermost section moving downriver, there are
Pembroke, St. Katherine’s, King’s, Clare, Trinity and St. John’s. (Robert Neather
译)
(5) 她叫一个学生把三个人称多少数各做一句,那学生一口气背书似的说:“ I am your
husband. You are my wife. He is also your husband. We are your husband,
--”全课堂笑得前仰后合,孙小姐愤然出课堂。(钱钟书:《围城》)
When she asked one student to make a sentence in each of the three
persons singular and plural, the student rattled off in one breath as if
reciting, “I am your husband you are my wife he is also your husband we
are your husbands –“ The whole class roared with laughter, and Miss Sun
stalked out in a rage. (Jeanne Kelly & Nathan K. Mao 译)

二、还原
原文中需要还原的词语一般是译入语中的专名,如人名、地名等;有时是译入语民族中
某个著名人士的话语;有时是普通词语;有时是译入语中那些通过文化交流在原语中安家
落户的成语,如:
(6)伦敦,巴黎,罗马与堪司坦丁堡,曾被称为欧洲的四大“历史的都城”。(老舍:《想北
平》)
London, Paris, Rome and Constantinople are known as the four major
“historic capitals” of Europe. (张培基 译)
(7)王尔德有一次对韩黎说:“我认得不少人,满怀光明的远景来到伦敦,但是几个月后
就整个崩溃了,因为他们有回信的习惯。”(余光中:《尺素寸心》)
…while Oscar Wilde remarked to Henley: “I have known men come to
London full of bright prospects and seen them complete wrecks in a few
months through a habit of answering letters.” (David Pollard 译)
需要特别指出的是,原作中出自非原语的、翻译过来的直接引语,不能采用回译(back

93
translation),因为正如《尺素寸心》的译者 David Pollard 所说,被引之文一般都“措辞很妙”,
唯一的办法就是找出原文,即采用还原法。思果先生举了一个例。他在审定某书的译稿时,
碰到这样一句:Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.(Confucius)。译者将其译为:
“坚守忠实和真诚为首要的原则。”(孔子),译文很忠实,很准确。但孔子是这样说的吗?
显然不是,孔子用的是很古的文言文。记录孔子论述的是《论语》。思果先生告诉我们,原 话
在《学而》篇,原文总共只有三个字:“主忠信”。国内很多学者如翁显良、思果等都强调引
用语的还原之难,一方面在于被引用的著作篇幅巨大,一方面有时根本就难以确定引用源。
因此,碰到来自其他语言(非原语)的引用语的翻译时,译者必须手勤、嘴勤、脑勤。
人名的翻译不能简单地采用音译。如果译者想当然,一切都采用回译,就有可能闹笑话。
比如孟子的英文名 Mencius ,国内有译者居然译为“孟修斯”!有些中国人如港台及海外
华人,既有汉名又有英文名,相互之间并非标准音译。如有这样一个英文标题:Henry Lee:
United States’ 21st-Century Sherlock Holmes。翻译时如果不细察,极有可能将 Henry Lee 译为
“亨利·李”,其实这是著名美籍华人、犯罪学家李昌钰的英文名!有很多著名人士的中文
名与英文名不一致,如霍英东 (Henry Fok) ,董建华 (Tung Chee-hwa) ,何厚华 (Edmund Ho
Hau Wah) ,曾荫权 (Tsang Am-kuen, Donald) ,陈方安生 (Chan Anson) ,靳羽西 (Yue Sai Kan)
等,翻译时要特别注意。另外,有些外国友人、汉学家如陈纳德 (Claire Chennault)、李约瑟
(Joseph Needham)、费正清(John King Fairbank)、高本汉(Klas Bernhard Johannes Karlgren)等,
以及中国科学院外籍院士如司马贺 (Herbet A. Simon),雷文(Peter H. Raven) ,葛守仁(Ernest
S. Kuh),高琨(Charles K. Kan),朱棣文 (Steven Chu)等有地道的汉名,翻译时也要注意,
最好是老老实实地找出原名。
还有一种是普通词语的还原,主要是代名词和代动词还原成其所指代的名词和动词,
以及省略成分的还原。后一种还原也可看作句法增词,在“增减”技巧部分已作讨论。例如:
(8)This group of operations will indicate the characteristics of machine too
necessary for their completion.
这个工序组会显示完成这些工序所需要的机床的特性。(their 指 operations)
(9)Both human and cow milk are naturally spiced with a small amount of
morphine…
人乳和牛乳均含有少量吗啡……(human 后省略了 milk)
成语的翻译有时也需要还原或回译。汉语中有不少借自英语的成语,如“酸葡萄
” (sour grapes) 、“穿梭外交” (shuttle diplomacy) 、“强权政治” (power politics) 、“王牌
”(trump card)、“死硬派”(die-hards)、“蓝图”(blue-print)、“冷战”(cold war)等等。英语借
自汉语的成语则凤毛麟角,似乎只有 lose face(“丢脸”)。这种语言借用中的不平衡主要是文
化交流中强势文化与弱势文化的不平等造成的。外来的成语,一般都是采取直译的方式,因
此用回译法即可,如“黄金时代”→Golden Age,“铁幕” →iron curtain,“热线”
→hot line,“实力地位” →position of strength,“谁笑到最后,谁笑得最好”
→He who laughs last, laughs best.等等。有些直译的成语,回译时要注意形式的正确性,
不能机械地回译,如“鳄鱼的眼泪”(crocodile tears),回译时不用所有格形式,“特洛
伊木马”(the Trojan horse),回译时不要添加 wooden,“火中取栗”,除了直接对应的
to pull the chestnut out of the fire,还有 cat’s paw。不过外来成语翻译最保险的
办法还是还原法,即老老实实找出原来的成语。

【实例分 析】
(1)他除了为赚钱而吃苦努力外,他是一个“伊比鸠派”,他要享受。(梁实秋:《男人》)
They are Epicureans obsessed with pleasure-seeking except when they have to toil strenuously for

94
money. (张培基 译)
[分析]“伊比鸠派”由“Epicurean”音译而来,翻译时还原成“Epicurean”即可。
(2)她会打走队的鼓,会吹召集的喇叭。知道毛瑟枪里的结构。(冰心:《梦》)
She learnt how to beat the drum for soldiers marching in parade and blow the bugle for fall-in. She
was familiar with the mechanism of a Mauser. (张培基 译)
[分析]“毛瑟枪”由英语专有名词 Mauser 音译(“毛瑟”) +意译(“枪”)而来,汉
译英时还原即可。
(3)鸽子一群一群地飞着,在罗马的古堡上飞着,当但丁第一次和碧蒂利采相遇的时候,鸽
子就在那儿飞着。(端木蕻良:《耐力》)
Pigeons fly in flocks. They hover over the ancient castles in Rome. In fact, they have been
hovering over them ever since Dante first met Beatrice. (张培基 译)
[分析]“但丁”、“碧蒂利采”还原为“Dante”、“Beatrice”。还原法要求译者有广博的中
外文化知识,如著名的人物、作品、历史事件、地名、风物、节日等各种名称。
(4)恺撒死了,但是他有武功;哥伦布死了,但是他有胆量。大和魂毁灭了,这回留下些什
么呢?我无法来叙写我的愤恨。(唐弢:《书愤》)
Caesar is no more, but he is remembered for his brilliant military exploits. Columbus is no more,
but he is remembered for his great courage. When yamato-damashii is rooted out, what will it
have left behind? I cannot tell you enough how indignant I am. (张培基 译)
[分析](“大和魂”为委婉语,指日本军国主义宣扬的“日本魂(精神)”,这里不
用“the soul (spirit) of Japan”而是还原为日语“yamato-damashii”,以委婉对委婉。“恺撒”、
“哥伦布”的翻译亦为还原法。
(5)塘中的月色并不均匀;但光与影有着和谐的旋律,如梵阿铃上奏着的名曲。
The moonlight is not spread evenly over the pond, but rather in a harmonious rhythm of light and
shade, like a famous melody played on a violin.
[分析]“梵阿铃”是英语单词 violin 的音译,翻译时将其还原成 violin 即可。译文还运用
了成分转换法,原文中的一个句子“光与影有着和谐的旋律”在译文里转换成了一个介词
短语 a harmonious rhythm of light and shade,显然是出于行文上的需要。
(6)转过身来,忽然眼花缭乱,屋子里的别的东西,都隐在光云里;一片幽辉,只浸着墙上
画中的安琪尔。(冰心:《笑》)
As I turned round, my eyes suddenly dazzled before the bright light and could not see things
distinctly. Everything in the room was blurred by a haze of light except the angel in a picture on
the wall. (张培基 译)
[分析]“安琪儿”音译自英语 angel,翻译时回译为 angel 即可。
(7)荷指着说:“你看维纳斯(Venus)升起来了!”我抬头望时,却是山路转折处的路灯。我怡
然一笑,也指着对山的一星灯火说:“那边是丘比特(Jupiter)呢!”(冰心:《雨雪时候的
星辰》)
She exclaimed pointing to something afar, “Look, Venus is rising!” I looked up and saw nothing
but a lamp round the bend in a mountain path. I beamed and said pointing to a tiny lamplight on
the opposite mountain, “It’s Jupiter over there!” (张培基 译)
[分析]“维纳斯”和“丘比特”分别为 Venus 和 Jupiter 的音译词,作者在原文中已作交
代,翻译时拿来即可。
(8)华盛顿·欧文是一个独身的男子,但《见闻短记》里的一篇歌颂妻子的文章,却写得那么的
优美可爱。同样查而斯·兰姆也是个独身的男子,而爱丽亚的《独身者的不平》一篇,又冷嘲
热讽,将结婚的男女和婚后必然的果子——小孩们——等,俏皮到了那一步田地。(郁达夫:

95
《谈结婚》)
Washington Irving was a confirmed bachelor, but in his Sketch Book there is an article extolling
the wife as a graceful and lovely life-long partner. Charles Lamb, also a single man, in A
Bachelor’s Complaint of the Behavior of Married People, one of his essays signed “Elia”, speaks
mockingly of married people with their inevitable postnuptial fruits—the children. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文中的专名,包括人名(“华盛顿·欧文”和“查而斯·兰姆”)、笔名(“爱
丽亚”)、文章名(“《独身者的不平》”)、书名(“《独身者的不平》”)等,由英语音译
或意译而来,翻译时要还其本来面目。
(9)Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the
men who made them have disappeared without trace.
石头是不会腐烂的,所以很久以前的工具保存了下来,尽管制造这些工具的人们的尸骨早
已消失得无踪无影。
[分析]原文中的代词 them 既不指代 men ,也不指代 bones ,而是指代 tools ,翻译时为避
免歧义将 them 还原为 tools。
(10)Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint, because this is easier
to shape than other kinds.
然而,幸运的是,古代人用石头,特别是燧石制造工具,因为隧石比其他东西容易成形。
[分析]为了避免歧义,翻译时将指示代词 this 还原为 flint。
(11)The specific gravity of steel is 7.8, of lead 11.4 and of aluminium 2.6.
钢的比重为 7.8,铅(的比重)为 11.4,铝(的比重)为 2.6。
[分析]原文中两次省略 the specific gravity of 和 is。翻译时,省略部分可还原后译出,也可
保留原文省略式,译文意思仍然清楚明了。
(12)The heart can be safely opened and its valves repaired.
心脏能安全地打开,其瓣膜能安全地修复。
[分析] valves 后省略了谓语部分 can be safely,应还原后译出。
(13)“他来,我真的欢迎!说他武装到了牙齿,看看他的牙齿能不能耕地?”
“I am glad to see him if he does come! He may be armed to the teeth, but I’d like to see how well
he can bite the dust with them!
[分析]汉语里的“武装到牙齿”,借译自英语,还原为 be armed to the teeth 即可。
(14) ……他只好硬着头皮,装出也不在乎的态度,实际上是勉勉强强地给她牵着鼻子走。
…he had no alternative but to brazen it out and pretend that he did not care, either, though the fact
of the matter was that he was being reluctantly led by the nose.
[分析]“被牵着鼻子走”是借自英语的成语,翻译时还原为 led by the nose。
(15)原来被捕的同志全押在这里,像沙丁鱼罐头一样,挤的紧紧的。
Here the captured comrades were jammed together like sardines.
[分析]“像沙丁鱼罐头一样”借译自英语的 like sardines,翻译时需要还原。
(16)Harald had lost face in his dealings with Norway.
哈拉尔德在和挪威打交道时丢了脸。
[分析]英语成语 to lose face 来自汉语,翻译时可还原成“丢脸”/ “失面子”。
(17)日本的刽子手可以拿忠君爱国作挡箭牌,掩盖他们的兽行,但受日本侵略的中国人民
却是永远不会忘记的。(冯亦代:《忘了过去就是犯罪》)
No matter how hard the Japanese butchers may try to gloss over their wartime savagery in
the name of patriotism or loyalty to the Mikado, the people of China will never forget their past
crimes. (张培基 译)

96
[分析]“忠君”的“君”还原为日语词“Mikado”(天皇),是词义的具体化。

第九节 标点符号的运用

翻译不能忽视标点符号的运用。标点符号的运用包括三层意思:省略原文标点符号,
增加原文没有的标点符号以及更换原文标点符号。其中标点符号的省略和增加具有互逆性,
即同一个句子的翻译,英译汉时增加标点符号,那么反过来汉译英时则省略标点符号。

一、省略原文标点符号
标点符号的省略较常见于合句译法,如:
(1)He was very clean. His mind was open.
他为人单纯而坦率。(省略句号)
(2)If we do a thing, we should do it well.
我们要干就干好。(省略逗号)

二、增加原文没有的标点符号
标点符号的增加多用于分句译法,如:
(3)Ricci stood ready to undertake the work for which all his past life he had
been preparing.
利马窦用了过去全部光阴,准备着要做的工作,现在随时可以动手了。
(4)They remarked now he took a different seat from that which he usually
occupied when he chose to attend divine worship.
他往常做礼拜的时候,总坐在固定的座位上,可是那天他们发现他不坐老座位了。
有时增加标点符号则是从修辞角度考虑,如使译文更加流畅、自然,或者强调某个成
分等,如:
(5)The snow falls on every wood and field, and no crevice is forgotten; by
the river and the pond, on the hill and in the valley.
雪,在四处飘落着。雪花撒在树上,撒在田野;撒在河边、湖畔、山上、谷底 -- 没有一条岩
缝墙隙里不飘满雪花。(将原文中梗滞行文的部分置于增加的破折号之后)

三、更换原文标点符号
改换标点符号分三种情况。一是英汉语中特有的标点符号在翻译中一定要进行转换。汉
语中的书名号、顿号、句号以及省略号与英语不同。英语书名一般用斜体或采用实词大写法
或用下划线;英语没有顿号,用逗号代替顿号的功能;英语省略号只有三个点,汉语则有
六个点。二是有时某一标点符号为两种语言共有,但翻译时因为某种目的而将它改换成另
一标点。三是将标点符号转换为语词。例如:
(6)他喜欢读杨宪益先生翻译的《红楼梦》 。
He enjoys reading A Dream of Red Mansions translated by Mr. Yang
Xianyi.(去掉书名号,改用斜体)
(7)我将听不见人们的真正声音,所能听见的都是低微的、柔婉的、畏葸和娇痴的、唱小旦
的声音:“万岁,万岁,万万岁!”这是他们的全部语言:“有道明君!伟大的主上啊!”这就
是那语言的全部内容。
I would not be able to hear their real voices; all I could hear was their low,
soft, timid and silly shouts of “A long life, a long life and a long long life”,

97
like the faint singing of young maids in Peking opera. All they could say was:
“our enlightened king, our great lord.” This was all they could utter. (逗号变
成了分号,顿号变成了逗号,感叹号变成了逗号或句点)
(8)我并不以为我的儿子会是一无所知、一无所能的白痴;但纵然是一无所知一无所能的
白痴也仍旧是太子或王子。
I would not believe my son was an ignorant and worthless idiot but, even if
he were, he would still be the prince or the crown prince. (顿号用 and 替换,分
号改为逗号,此外译文还采用了省略法)

【实例分 析】
(1A)I can say to you, without any flattery, that the Chinese way of cooperations is more inventive
and fruitful than others.
我可以对你说——我这样说没有任何奉承之意——中国的合作方式比别国的合作方式更有
特色,更有成果。
(1B) But in three hours we reached our destination, Vladimir prison.
但三小时后我们就到了目的地——弗拉基米尔监狱。
(1C) But having considered realistically, we had to face the fact that our prospects were less than
good.
但是现实地考虑一下,我们不得不正视这样的事实:我们的前景不妙。
(1D)This, of course, includes the movement of electrons, which are negatively charged particles.
当然,这包括电子(带负电的粒子)的运动。
[分析] 英语中的同位语、插入语、定语从句(或其它嵌入成分),一般情况下是对先行成分
进行重述或作进一步的解释或补充说明,二者之间的衔接关系属于详述( elaboration),英语
中常用逗号来连接,有时则不用标点符号。汉译时为了更明确有效地表达这种逻辑关系,
译者可以用破折号、冒号及括号等来充当衔接手段,将原句的逻辑和信息层次表达得更明
白。上面例(1A)用两个破折号将插入成分与句子其余部分隔开,例(1B)用一个破折号引导同
位语,例(1C)用冒号引导同位语从句,例(1D)用圆括号将非限制性定语从句与主句隔开。
(2)张小姐不能饶恕方鸿渐看书时的微笑,干脆说:“这人讨厌!你看他的吃相多坏!”全不像
在外国住过的。他喝汤的时候,把面包与蘸!
Miss Chang, who could not forgive Fang Hung-chien for his smile while reading the books,
replied simply, “He’s obnoxious! Did you see the way he ate? Does he look like someone who’s
ever been abroad! When he drank his soup, he dipped his bread in it!
[分析]原文第二个感叹号变成了问号,因为译文用一个修辞性问句翻译原文感叹语气,
然后用一个问句代替原文的陈述句,句号则变成了感叹号,以加强语气。
(3)The researchers then examined cells extracted from the hippocampus, a brain region vital to
memory and learning.
接着研究人员检测了取自海马(一个对记忆和学习至关重要的大脑部位)的细胞。
[分析]译文将原文的一个附加信息置于圆括号里,从而突出了原文的核心信息,而且
也更加流畅。
(4)一切机关里,上司驾驭下属,全用这种技巧,譬如,高松年就允许鸿渐到下学年升他为
教授。
The heads of organizations always use this kind of play to “drive” their subordinates, such as the
way Kao Sung-nien had promised Hun-chien a full professorship for the next semester.
[分析]译者用双引号将 drive 括起,因为这里译者欲做到与原文字面对应,但英语 drive

98
又没有汉语“驾驭”在此语境中的意思,只有用双引号以示为修辞性用法。
(5)Suppose this belief to be a self-deception, as we have seen that Hobbes and Leibnitz suggest it
may be, “a deceiving of mankind by God himself”, as Edwards accuses Lord Kaimes of
maintaining, still this instinctive belief in the power of moral choice in itself constitutes a
powerful motive.
我们试将这种“信仰”认做是一种“自我欺骗” (正如霍布斯与莱布尼兹所说的那样);或者,
将这种“信仰”认做是“上帝对人的欺骗” (正如爱德华兹指控英国神学家凯姆斯勋爵所主张
的那样),则这种本能的信仰——相信我们能在善恶之间进行选择——仍构成我们行为中的
一种强烈的动机。
[分析]既要依循原文语序,又要表达流畅,只有改变或增加标点符号。译文中两个插入
的圆括号部分都是为了分别交代引语的出处或背景。句中插入破折号则是为了对文中某一
部分(in the power of moral choice)进行解释和说明。
(6)他殉了自己的理想,是有意义的。 (朱自清:《哀互生》)
He had died for his ideal—a meaningful death. (刘士聪 译)
[ 分析 ] 译文运用了原文所没有的破折号。当然也可用非限制性定语从句 which was
meaningful 翻译后半句。
(7A)Is ‘Globalizing’ Help or Hurting?
全球化:幸耶不幸?
(7B)Pollution Is a Dirty Word
污染——一个肮脏的字眼
[分析]例(7)两个例子均为标题,译文分别运用了冒号与破折号。在标题翻译中,标点用
得恰当,可使所译标题更简洁、明白、晓畅,更能抓住读者的注意力。总之,翻译中决不能
忽视标点符号的运用。关于标点符号的重要性,前苏联学者布拉果夫说:“标点符号就是
标出思想,摆正词和词之间的相互关系,使句子易懂,声调准确。”

第十节 加注法

意义的隐含性与不言自明性是人类语言的普遍现象,例子随处可见。如汉语成语“牛
郎织女”,中国人因其文化背景,立刻就能想到夫妻之间或男女朋友之间天各一方的分离,
无须明说,而不了解中国文化的外国读者则无从了解这层含义;同样,对于不了解西方文
化的中国读者来说,英语成语“阿喀琉斯之踵”(” Achilles’ heel”)的含义也不显豁。日
前有媒体报道中国观众看不懂美国大片《特洛伊》中刀枪不入的希腊大英雄阿喀琉斯为什么
会被人一箭射死。其原因很简单,就是我国观众缺乏英美观众都熟悉的“阿喀琉斯之踵”
的文化背景知识。
日常生活的文化知识共同体以及更高层次的学术与科技知识共同体都可能导致人们的
言语交际出现意义缺省现象。鉴于意义的隐含性,斯坦纳(2001:291)认为,翻译主要是
一种阐释(explicate/explicitate),是把原文内隐的意义尽可能地说清楚。阐释的方法主要

添加注释。加注分三种:夹注,脚注和尾注。加注的对象原则上是读者理解时感到困难的词
语,主要是原语文化(或其他文化)的特有事物,以及普通读者不熟悉的专门技术词语。
夹注置于正文之中,用括号括起来。夹注适于用来翻译信息重要且其解释简短的文字。
使用夹注不能打断译文读者阅读的流畅性。脚注置于页脚,较便于读者参考阅读。尾注置于
译文之后,较适于注释很多的长篇大著的翻译。例如:
(1)Today, except for rare occasions, nobody still sticks to Roman Striking,

99
not even in the homeland of the Roman Empire.
今天除了极个别场合外,没有人再坚持使用“罗马式鸣钟法”( 十八世纪以前的一种报时
法,用高低二钟响铃:高音铃一响表示一点,两响表示两点,等等;低音铃一响表示五
点,两响表示十点)。即便是在罗马帝国的诞生之地,也不再坚持这种旧式的报时法。
(刘宓庆 用例)
(2)他看了《易经》的卦词纳闷,想莫非媳妇要难产或流产,正待虔诚再卜一卦,突听儿子
没头没脑的来一句,吓得直跳起来:“别胡说!孩子下地没有?” (钱钟书:《围城》)
He looked disconsolately at the words of the I Ching divination lot, thinking
that it must mean his daughter-in-law would either have a difficult birth or
else a miscarriage. Piously, he was just about to cast another lot when he
heard his son’s outburst. He jumped with fright, “Don’t talk such nonsense!
Has the child been born?” (Jeanne Kelly & Nathan K. Mao 译)
译者对原文中的“《易经》” (I Ching) 作了尾注: The Book of Change: a work of great
antiquity which was used as a book of divination. It has two parts, one of which is an omen text
giving rhymed interpretations of ordinary country omens and bearing some resemblance to
peasant lore of other countries. The other part of the text is a divination manual containing
formulae such as those that have been deciphered on the oracle bones and tortoise shells.

【实例分 析】
(1)每一个城楼,每一个牌楼,都可以从老远就看见。(老舍:《想北平》)
Each gate tower of the city wall and each pailou (decorated archway) can be seen from afar. (张培
基 译)
[分析]“牌楼”的翻译采用音译+文内注。
(2)不过在中国,文字里有一个“秋士”的成语,读本里又有着很普遍的欧阳子的秋声与苏东
坡的《赤壁赋》等,就觉得中国的文人,与秋的关系特别深了。(郁达夫:《故都的秋》)
However, judging from the Chinese idiom qiushi (autumn scholar, meaning an aged scholar
grieving over frustrations in his life) and the frequent selection in textbooks of Ouyang Xiu’s On
the Autumn Sough and Su Dongpo’s On the Red Cliff, Chinese men of letters seem to be
particularly autumn-minded. (张培基 译)
[分析]“秋士”是古汉语,指“士之暮年不遇者”。译者用音译 +文内注的方法译之:
qiushi (autumn scholar, meaning an aged scholar grieving over frustrations in his life)。此外,原
文中的“秋声”婉指“《秋声赋》”,不宜直译。
(3)我确也手痒,但以我的身份,容易写成钟书所谓的“亡夫行述”之类的文章。(杨绛:《记
钱钟书与〈围城〉》 )
To tell the truth I had been itching to do this very thing, but worried it could end up reading like an
ornate piece “in memory of my late husband” (despite Ch’ien Chung-shu being still very much
alive). (凌原 译)
[分析]译文中的 my late husband 容易使英语读者造成钱钟书不在人世的误解,而作者写
此文时,钱先生仍健在,因此需要作注,以消除译语读者的误解。
(4)我也常得亲近父亲的许多好友,如萨镇冰先生,黄赞侯先生。(冰心:《我的童年》)
I also had the opportunity of meeting many good friends of my father’s, among them Mr. Sa
Zhenbing and Mr. Huang Zanhou.
译文脚注:
Sa Zhenbing(1858-1952), a native of Fuzhou, received naval training in Great Britain at an early

100
age and later held important naval and government posts until he resigned in 1927 to show his
displeasure at the dictatorial rule of Chiang Kai-shek. After the founding of the People’s Republic
of China in 1949, he was assigned to key government positions.
Huang Zanhou, alias Huang Zhongying, also from Fuzhou, was the first Naval Minister of the
Republic of China. (张培基 译注)
[分析]原文中提到的人名需要作注,汉语读者也不一定了解他们。
(5)我虽然不像岂明老人那样额其斋曰:“苦雨”,天天坐在里面嘘气,但也的确有点“深恶
而痛绝之”的念头。(唐弢:《故乡的雨》)
Indeed, I dislike rain with no less intensity than the elderly gentleman Qi Ming, who sits about
moaning about the wet weather all day in his study, over the doorway of which hangs a horizontal
board bearing an inscription in his own hand, “Distressing-Rain Study”. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ]“ 岂明”是我国现代散文作家周作人的字,可用音译 + 脚注法翻译。脚注为: Qi
Ming is the literary name of the famous modern prose writer Zhou Zuoren(1885-1967)。此外,全
句采用倒译法,先译后半句,再译前半句;“额其斋”、“苦雨”的翻译采用了增词法,增
加了“over the doorway”和“Study”,使意思清楚明了。
(6)有人说瞎掰,你天津卫千多年没出过一个状元,到清政府废除科举,天津就没一个人上
过金榜,所以直到如今天津的文庙不能开正门,你说寒碜不寒碜。(林希:《天津闲人》)
Some may say this is sheer twaddle. Over a thousand years, Tianjin hasn’t produced a Number
One Scholar. Up to the time when the Qing government abolished the imperial examination
system, not a single person from Tianjin had ever found his name on the list of successful
examination candidates. So even today due to this disgrace the Confucian Temple in Tianjin can’t
open its main gate. Isn’t it humiliating? (孙艺风 译)
[分析]译者对原文中的文化词语“状元”加了尾注: A title of distinction awarded to the
person who attained the best result in the highest imperial examination.

第四章 语用翻译:技巧综合运用

101
在第三章,我们分别探讨了英汉对译的一些基本技巧。只要稍微留意,大家会发现,许
多实例的翻译运用了不止一种翻译技巧。翻译实践中篇章书文的翻译,不可能只运用某一种
翻译技巧,而是各种技巧的溶合运用。就各种翻译技巧本身而言,一是不能将它们孤立起来,
把它们看成是各不相干的东西;二是有些翻译技巧,如增减、分合、伸缩等,具有可逆性,
如某个句子的英译汉用增词法,那么译文回译时便用减词法,学习翻译一定要注意翻译活
动的双向性(two lines);三是要有很强的技巧意识,特别是在翻译学习的初阶,要有意识地
运用各种翻译技巧来翻译词、句、段。随着实践经验的增长,技巧的运用便会从有意识变成潜
意识,亦即自动化,译技也就逐渐熟练起来。
翻译除了第二章讨论的意义、表达方式、文化等基本难点外,在实践中还有一些具体的困
难,如修辞格的翻译、成语的翻译、颜色词的翻译、临时杜撰词语的翻译、长句的翻译、诗歌等
文学语言的翻译,等等,都不是一、两种翻译技巧所能解决的,也不是一朝一夕能学会和掌
握的,必须要下苦功经过长期的实践锻炼才能学好。这些专项翻译,都有一些基本规律可循,
下面择要作粗浅介绍。

第一节 句子翻译

一、定语从句的翻译
在本书第一章,我们曾讨论英汉语中定语位置的异同。英语的定语多后置,其中就包括
定语从句。汉语没有定语从句,定语一般要前置;前置定语一般为词或词组,偶尔也可能是
句子,如“我国目前实行的是一对夫妻只生一个孩子的政策”,其中的定语“一对夫妻只
生一个孩子”是一个句子。由于汉语中没有定语从句,翻译英语的定语从句时就无法做到以
定语从句译定语从句的等值转换。翻译实践证明,英语的定语从句,除了转换为汉语的前置
定语外,还有其他有效的翻译方法。下面略作归纳。
(一)前置法
前置法指将英语的定语从句置于被修饰对象(先行词)的前面。该方法适于翻译英语中词
量少、信息简约的定语从句,其原因是汉语的定语一般都不宜太长,长了就不自然了。例如:
(1)The people who worked for him lived in mortal fear of him.
在他手下工作的人对他怕得要死。
(2)Those who sacrifice themselves for the people’s cause are the real
heroes of history.
为人民事业牺牲自己的是历史上真正的英雄。
(3)“How could a great paper like the Washington Post, full of brilliant editors,
get so involved in its own conceit and arrogance as to pursue a story which
its own staff was saying was fabricated from the beginning?”
像《华盛顿邮报》这样一家拥有许多出色编辑的大报,为何自以为是、高傲自大到如此地步,
竟然追求一篇连自己编辑部的人员从一开始就认为是虚构的报道?”
(4)Last night I saw a very good film, which was about the French revolution.
昨晚我看了一部关于法国革命的精彩电影。
(二)重复法
重复法指重复先行词,构成两个或两个以上的以先行词为中心词的同位词组,以便切
短定语从句,平匀而自然地分配定语修饰语。例如:
(5)I want a man who will throw his hat over the Chindwin and then lead his
troops after it.
我要的是这样一个人,一个能在钦敦江破釜沉舟并率部过江的人。

102
(6)He is a man who thinks by himself and is quite equal to important tasks
at the critical moment.
他是一个有主见的人,一个在关键时刻堪当重任的人。
(三)并置法+重复法
碰到过长的定语从句,不宜采用前置法,可采用并置加重复的翻译方法。并置,就是在
保持定语从句原有位置的前提下提升其句法地位,使它与主句地位相等,成为并列分句或
者独立句。使用并置法,要求重复先行词来翻译关系代词或关系副词(有时需要在先行词前
加“这”、“那”等限定词),其原因是关系代词或关系副词在定语从句中充当某个成分,
若不译关系代词或关系副词,独立成并列分句或并列句的定语从句的意思就会不完整。当然,
有时侯关系代词的翻译不一定要重复先行词,亦可用代词或副词“他”、“他们”、“它”、
“她们”、“这”、“这些”、“那”、“那些”、“(在)这里”、“(在)那里”、“这时”、“那
时”、“此刻”等。其实这也是一种间接重复。例如:
(7)He unselfishly contributed his uncommon talents and indefatigable spirit
to the struggle which today brings those aims within the reach of a majority
of the human race.
他把自己非凡的才智和不倦的精力无私地献给了这种斗争,这种斗争今天已使人类中大
多数人可以达到这些目标。
(8)The man whom I saw yesterday, who is extraordinarily fat, and in whom
everybody would be interested, is a foreigner.
我昨天看到一个人,胖得出格,人人都会注意他,原来是个外国人。
(9)The cook turned pale, and asked the housemaid to shut the door, who
asked Brittles, who asked the tinker, who pretended not to hear.
厨子的脸色变得苍白,要女仆把门关上,女仆叫布立特尔关,布立特尔又叫补锅匠关,
而补锅匠装着没听见。
(10)I love China which is vast in territory, rich in natural resources and large
in population.
我爱中国,这里地大物博,人口众多。
(四)合并法
合并法指将主从句合二为一。此方法适于翻译主句信息结构比较简单的句子。例如:
(11)There is a man downstairs who wants to see you.
楼下有人要见你。
(12)“We are a nation that must beg to stay alive,” said a foreign economist.
一位外国经济学家说道:“我们这个国家不讨饭就活不下去。”
(五)转换法
转换指将定语从句转换为其他从句,如原因状语从句、条件状语从句、时间状语从句等。
从语境的意义逻辑关系看,有些定语从句并不表示修饰关系,而是表示原因、条件、目的、让
步等状语关系,国内有学者把此类定语从句称之为具有状语职能的定语从句 (adverbial-
attributive clauses)。翻译此类定语从句可采用转换法。例如:
(13)He liked his sister, who was warm and pleasant, but he did not like his
brother, who was aloof and arrogant.
他喜欢妹妹,因为她热情乐观;他不喜欢哥哥,因为他冷漠高傲。(表示原因)
(14)For any machine whose input force and output force are known, its
advantage can be calculated.
任何机器,若已知其输入力和输出力,则可求出其机械效益。(表示条件)

103
(15)The thief, who was about to escape, was caught by the policemen.
小偷正要逃跑时,被警察抓住了。(表示时间)
(16)I knocked at the door of the red house, which opened right away.
我敲了敲那座红房子的门,那门立即就开了。(表示结果)
(六)逆序法
逆序法就是先译句子的后部,再译句子的前部,即将定语从句置于主句之前。此方法适
于翻译主句在句首且带有总结性质的句子。例如:
(17)It was a real challenge that those who had learned from us now excelled
us.
过去向我们学习的人,现在反而超过了我们。这对我们确实是一个鞭策。
(18)The acid test is expected to come today or early next week when a bill
goes before the U. S. Congress for approval of the sale of US$ 60 million
worth of spare parts to Taiwan.
出售价值六千万美元零件给台湾的法案将在今天或下周初提交美国国会批准,届时将会
面临严峻的考验。
(19)Yet he failed somehow, in spite of a mediocrity which ought to have
insured any man a success.
按理说,他这样的庸才,正该发迹才是,可是不知为什么,只是不得意。

【实例分 析】
(1)If she did not speak with Rebecca on the tender subject, she compensated herself with long and
intimate conversations with Mrs. Blenkinsop, the house keeper, who dropped some hints to the
lady’s-maid, who may have cursorily mentioned the matter to the cook, who carried the news, I
have no doubt, to all the tradesmen.
她不好和丽贝卡谈这个难于出口的问题,只好和管家娘子白兰金索泊太太亲密地长谈了好
几回。这个管家娘子露了些口风给上房女佣人。上房女佣人也许略微对厨娘说了几句。厨娘一
定又去告诉了所有那些做买卖的。
[分析]本例使用了多种翻译技巧。就全句而论,翻译基本按照原文顺序,将一句切分为
四句,采用的是顺序译法和分句法。就定语从句的翻译来看,用的是“并置法+重复法”。
其他方法有:一、省略法,如 if 略去未译;二、增词法,如 conversations 的词尾复数形式译
为“好几回”;三、词类转换,如原文的形容词 long、intimate 和名词 conversations 分别转换
为副词和动词,而 long、intimate 的翻译还涉及到词序调整的方法;四、意译,如插入语 I
have no doubt 译为“一定”,此译还可视为反译法,即否定变肯定。此例中的词类转换代表
了英译汉中词类转换的一种规律,即当形容词 +名词词组中的名词转类为动词时,前面的
形容词修饰语必须相应地转类为副词。依此类推,在副词+动词(或动词+副词)词组中,如果
动词转类为名词,则副词修饰语必须相应地转类为形容词,如 to prepare meticulously 可译
为“精心的准备”。
(2)Rods and wires shall have a smooth finish, free from surface imperfections, corrosion products,
grease or other foreign matter which would affect the quality of the weld.
焊条与焊丝应该表面光洁,不能有表面缺陷和锈垢、油脂以及其它杂质,因为它们会影响焊
接质量。
[分析]原文中的定语从句与主句之间实际上是一种因果关系,所以翻译时将定语从句
转换为原因状语从句。
(3)He was not at ease with those who made diplomacy their profession, particularly ambassadors.

104
他同那班以外交为职业的人,特别是大使们搞不来。
[分析]译文利用前置法翻译限制性定语从句。
(4)He took the idea to Admiral King, who liked it and ordered a secret study made to see if it
could be done.
他把这种想法向金海军上将汇报。金将军对这种想法很感兴趣,命令进行秘密研究,看看是
否可行。
[分析]译文运用并置+重复法翻译非限制性定语从句。
(5)He said that this was a good suggestion, which he would look into.
他说这个建议很好,他一定会加以研究。
[分析]译文运用并置法翻译非限制性定语从句,未重复先行词。
(6)Anyone who thinks that rational knowledge need not be derived from perceptual knowledge is
an idealist.
如果以为理性认识可以不从感性认识得来,他就是一个唯心论者。
[分析]译文将定语从句转换为条件状语从句。
(7)Yonder are the misses Leery, who are looking out for the young officers of the heavies…
那边是里瑞家的小姐们正在望眼欲穿地等待着重炮队里的年轻军官。
[分析]译文运用主从句合并法翻译定语从句。
(8)All that live must die.
有生必有死。
[分析]译文用主从句合并法翻译定语从句。
(9)There is in fact a strong likelihood that the Administration will preside over a $ 100-million-
plus budget deficit in the current fiscal year, putting its promise to balance the budget by fiscal
1983--which begins in only twenty months --firmly out of reach.
美国政府将要在本财政年度应付一亿美元以上的预算赤字,这样就使其诺言—平衡 1983
年财政年度(再过 20 个月才开始的年度)—根本无法实现。这是极有可能的事。
[分析]原文的定语从句是补充说明,信息不太重要,翻译时可将其置于圆括号内。
(10)No oil spill ever caused suffering on a par with today’s civil war in Yugoslavia, which is a
minor episode in human misery.
任何石油溢出造成的灾难也无法同今天南斯拉夫内战(它不过是人类苦难中的一段小插曲)
相比拟。
[分析]译文用圆括号将定语从句括起,说明该定语从句作为解释性文字在全句信息结
构中不是很重要。

二、被动语态的翻译
(一)英汉被动句的异同
英汉语都有被动句,都有被动意义需要表达。但汉语被动句的使用相对说来比英语要少。
例如《水浒传》,据有人统计,仅仅用了 120 个被动句。被动意义的表达在两种语言里可明可
暗。汉语里表示被动,主要靠词汇,如”被”,”受”,”让”,”叫”,”为”,”予以
”等。英语表示被动意义有个专门的结构: (subject +) be + v-ed (+ by sth.) 。其中,主语
(subject)是受事者;助动词 be 有各种形态变化;动词是及物动词或者是不及物动词 +介词构
成的及物动词词组; by 引导动作的实施者,有时可以省略。隐形被动,即不用被动标记词
或被动结构的被动句,英汉语里都有,如汉语里的”饭烧熟了”、”会场已布置好”、”海
水不可斗量”,其实是” 饭被烧熟了” 、”会场已被布置好”、”海水不可被斗量”等。英
语里许多形式上是主动的句子,实际上表示被动的意义,如:

105
(1) The match lights easily. 这火柴容易划着。
(2) The cow milks well. 这头母牛出奶率高。
(3) This poem reads well. 这首诗读来顺耳。
(4) Some kinds of food soon spoil. 有些食品容易变质。
(5) The window won’t shut. 这窗户关不上。
英语中隐形被动句的主语一般是物,具有某些内在的特征,能够使动词所表示的动作
得以实现或难以实现;动词一般为及物动词,这里却用作了不及物动词,时态也多为一般
现在时。另外要注意的是,英语隐形被动句一般不能转换为被动句,如果变为被动句,句子
的意义会发生变化。试比较:
(6) His novels don’t sell. / His novels are not sold.
他的小说销路不好。/ 他的小说没有卖掉。
(7) The middle house won’t let. / The middle house will not be let.
中间的房子租不出去。/ 中间的房子不会出租。
上面两组暗被动和明被动的根本区别在于暗被动所表达的意思是由主语的内在特质所
决定的,而明被动所表达的意义则是由外因决定的。例如第一组例子中的前一句,他的小说
之所以销路不好,根源在于小说本身的质量;而后一句,他的小说之所以没有卖掉,可能
是出版者销售不力等外部原因。
(二)英语被动语态的功能
1. 强调动作的承受者
受事者作为主语,出现在话语主题的位置上,因而得到强调,如:
(8) My mobile phone was stolen.
我的手机被人偷走了。(强调偷的是手机,而不是别的什么东西)
2. 强调施事者
在有上下文语境的情况上,由 by 引导,可以强调动作的执行者,如:
(9) Who invented the telephone?
It was invented by Graham Bell.
电话是谁发明的?格雷汉姆·贝尔。
3.隐藏施事者
有时说话或写文章,不知道施事者是谁,或者不想提到施事者,可用被动语态达此目
的,如:
(10) Leather tawing was first introduced in Italy in the 7th century.
硝皮技术于公元七世纪首先传到意大利。
(11) The window was broken.
窗户破了。
4. 衔接上下文
说话或写作时,说话人或写作者有时不想变更话题主语。这个主语可能是某些动作的执
行者,同时也是另外一些动作的承受者。就第二种情形而言,动词谓语只有用被动语态,如:
(12) The word “plastic” comes from the Greek word “plasticos” and is used
to describe something which can be easily shaped.
“塑料”一词来自希腊语词“plasticos”,用来指易于成形的东西。
(13) Many advances in computer technology took place in the twenties after
1950. They are generally classified into four stages or generations.
在 1950 年之后的二十年内,电脑技术获得了长足进展,一般被划分为四个阶段或四代。
5. 使表述客观

106
被动语态使表述较为客观,使读者或听者觉得某一观点是大家而非某个人的观点。这一
功能以及强调受事者和隐藏施事者的功能使被动语态在科技文体中得到广泛地运用。试比较:
(14) I think that he is an honest man. / It is thought that he is an honest
man。
我认为他是个老实人。/ 大家都认为他是个老实人
6. 使说话礼貌
被动句有时比主动句委婉、客气,因此显得礼貌:试比较:
(15) You are requested to give a performance. / We request you to give a
performance.
请你来个节目。/ 我们要你表演一个节目。
(16) Where can you be reached? / Where can I reach you?
在什么地方可以找到您?/ 我在什么地方可以找到你?
(三)被动语态的翻译方法
1. 转换
转换的第一层含义是语态转换,即被动变主动,将被动句转换为隐形被动句,原文主
语不变。汉语中多隐形被动句,因此该方法比较适于英语被动语态的汉译。例如:
(17) The sense of inferiority that he acquired in his youth has never been
totally eradicated.
他在青少年时代留下的自卑感,还没有完全消除。(“消除”之前隐去了”被”字)
(18) When rust is formed, a chemical change has taken place.
当锈产生时,就发生了化学反应堆。
(19) His pride must be pinched.
他这股傲气应该打下去。
转换的第二层含义是成分转换,主要指原文主语转换为宾语,译文的主语可以是英语
被动结构中 by 之后的行为主体,也可以是句中其他成分,还可以是句外的、符合逻辑的事
物。例如:
(20) Friction can be reduced and the life of the machine prolonged by
lubrication.
润滑能减少摩擦,延长机器寿命。
(21) Agricultural technique spreading centers have been set up everywhere
in that province, helping farmers to do their work in a more scientific way.
该省已普遍成立了农技推广中心,帮助农民以更加科学的方法种田。
(22) To explore the moon’s surface, rockets were launched again and again.
为了探测月球表面,人们一次又一次地发射火箭。
2. 使用特殊结构
英语中有一个常用的被动句型:It is said (thought, reported, etc.) that…。该句型的汉译可
借助于某些固定的表达法,如”据说(据+动词)”、”大家/人们/有人认为(大家/人们/有人+动
词)”,以及无主句或主动句等。例如:
(23) It was reported that probes were being made in each of those cities,
but officials refused to confirm the story.
据报道,侦察工作已在那些城市里进行,但官员们拒绝证实这条消息。
(24) It’s believed that her plans for a movie career had all been merely a
pipe dream.
有人说她那些当明星的计划全都是些非非遐想罢了。

107
(25) It has been found that science and technology constitute a primary
productive force.
实践证明,科学技术是第一生产力。
3. 使用无主句
汉语中大量使用无主句或主语省略句。英语被动句中如果没有点明行为主体,翻译时可
采用无主句。例如:
(26) Much is left to be desired.
有许多需要改进的地方。
(27) Children should be taught to tell the truth.
应该教导儿童讲老实话。
(28) Power would be gotten if there were money to get it with.
有了钱,就会以钱谋权。
4. 使用”是”字句
有些英语被动句可译为汉语的”是”字句,即使用”……的是…”或”……是……的
”句型。例如:
(29) Poets are born, but orators are made.
诗人是天生的,而演说家则是后天造就的。
(30) Barrymore then continued his walk down the alley. Sir Charles’ body
was found at the end of it.
然后巴里莫尔继续沿着小巷走下去。查尔斯爵士的尸体就是在小巷的尽头找到的。
(31) The first explosive in the world was made and used in China.
世界上最早的炸药是在中国制造和使用的。
5. 译为汉语被动句
用汉语中表示被动意义的词语如”被”,”为……所……”,”叫”,”遭受”,”
加以”,”予以”等翻译英语的被动结构。例如:
(32) The company was enjoined from using false advertising.
这家商号被禁止使用虚假的广告。
(33) I was seized with sadness as I thought of how the ancient city had been
spared during the Second World War and now might be destroyed by the
impending riot.
我想到这座城市在第二次世界大战时得到幸免,而现在却要遭到即将来临的暴乱的破坏,
内心感到悲伤。
(34) The details of the façade will be further fitted up to match the interior.
铺面将进一步加以装修,使之与室内装饰浑为一体。
(35) In his late thirties he was almost knocked down in his despondency of
the unsuccessful career.
近四十岁时,由于事业上的挫折,他几乎为失意所毁。

【实例分 析】
(1)As oil is found deep in the ground, its presence cannot be determined by a study of the surface.
Consequently, a geological survey of the underground rocks structure must be carried out. If it is
thought that the rocks in a certain area contain oil, a “drilling rig” is assembled. The most obvious
part of a drilling rig is called “a derrick”. It is used to lift sections of pipe, which are lowered into
the hole made by the drill. As the hole is being drilled, a steel pipe is pushed down to prevent the

108
sides from falling in. If oil is struck a cover is firmly fixed to the top of the pipe and the oil is
allowed to escape through a series of valves.
因为石油深埋在地下,靠研究地面,不能确定石油的有无,因此,对地下岩层结构必须进
行地质勘探。如果认为某地区的岩层含有石油,那就在该处安装“钻机”。钻机中最显眼的部
件叫做“井架”。井架用来吊升分节油管,把油管放入由钻头打出的孔中。当孔钻成时,放入
钢管防止孔壁坍塌。如发现石油,则在油管顶部紧固地加盖,使石油通过一系列阀门流出。
[分析]原文为科技文体,连续使用了十四个被动结构。译文主要采用无主句、主语省略
句以及隐形被动句翻译原文的被动语态。
(2)Opinions grounded on prejudice are always sustained with the greatest violence.
植根于偏见的主张总是靠无所不用其极的暴力来维持。
[分析]原文的谓语动词 sustain 转换为汉语的”靠”,翻译方法为动词转换。”靠”译自
with,是介词转类为动词。
(3)Many strange new means of transport have been developed in our century, the strangest of them
being perhaps the hovercraft.
在本世纪,人们发明了许多新奇的交通工具,其中,最新奇的也许要数气垫船。
[分析]译文采用语态转换和成分转换的方法翻译原文的被动语态:被动变成了主动,
主语变成了宾语,并增加了逻辑主语”人们”。
(4)Most of the questions have been settled satisfactorily; only a few questions of secondary
importance remain to be discussed.
大部分问题已经圆满解决了,只剩下几个次要问题需要讨论。
[分析]原文两个被动句都转换为主动句,即被动隐含句,译文中”解决”和”讨论”
两个动词前的”被”字根据汉语习惯被省略。
(5)He was regarded as a Republican by everybody, even though he had always thought of himself
as an “Independent”.
所有人都把他看作共和党人,尽管他一直认为自己是”无党派人士”。
[分析]译文采用了成分转换的方法。原文的主语和宾语在译文中刚好颠倒了位置,同时
译文还使用了”把”字句。
(6)The walls were covered with old pictures of Eton and Cambridge, with framed photographs of
Sir Percy’s father being introduced to King George V, of Sir Percy with Nehru…
墙上挂着伊顿公学和剑桥大学的旧照片,是老波西晋见乔治五世国王以及波西爵士本人和
尼赫鲁合影……
[ 分 析 ] 译 文 通 过 转 换 动 词 翻 译 原 文 的 被 动 语 态 , 即 将 were covered with 和 being
introduced 分别转换为”挂着”和” 晋见”,以符合汉语的表达习惯
(7)At a crucial meeting of the Committee of Imperial Defence convened by Asquith on 23 August,
it became clear that the War Office, with the advantage of the military general staff initiated by the
War Secretary Haldane after 1905, was far better prepared and had much clearer ideas than
Admiralty.
8 月 23 日,在由阿奎斯召集的帝国国防委员会的一次重要会议中,作战局由于在 1905 年
霍尔丹出任作战大臣后重视军队参谋的作用,比海军部准备得更充分,思路也更清晰。
[分析]译文将原文的被动结构 was far better prepared 转换为汉语的主动形式”准备得更
充分”。注意有些行为动作,英语中习惯用被动结构表达,汉语则用主动形式。
(8)The inhabitants of the ‘Fish Pond’ were hated by the Beresfordians.
“鱼塘派”的人受到”贝派”人的敌视。
[分析]译文用汉语被动词语”受到”直译原文的被动语态。

109
(9)The Opposition, led at first by pacifist George Lansbury, cut little political ice and, even when
he was replaced by Attlee, who had served in the First World War, it remained divided and
confused.
而反对党,由和平主义者乔治·兰斯伯里领导,在政治上几乎不起作用,即使由参加过第一
次世界大战的艾德礼作领袖,仍然处于分散混乱的状态。
[分析]译文利用汉语介词”由”,将原文的两个被动结构转换为主动形式。
(10)New ways are being found in making use of the smoke that keeps coming out of the factory
chimneys.
正在探索新的途径来利用工厂烟囱中不断冒出的烟气。
[分析]译文用无主句翻译原文的被动结构,同时被动结构中的主语也转换成宾语。

三、汉语特殊句型的翻译
汉语中有些常见句型,如”是”字句、”得”字句、”把”字句、”搞”字句等,其翻译
没有、也不可能有固定的公式可以套用,如汉语的判断词”是”不一定总是翻译成英语的系
动词 be。但是,通过纷繁的译例,我们仍然可以探索出翻译这些句型的有效方法和策略。
(一) “是”字句的翻译
“是”字句在汉语中占有相当的比例,但并非所有的”是”都是判断词,因此不能机械
地用英语的连系动词 be 来翻译,必须结合语境含义译之。汉语中的”是”可表示等同、类属、
特征、存在等意义;”是……的”含有被动意义;与”才”、”就”、”正”等连用表示强调;
”是”还可以表示一种直观表象或结果。下面介绍一些”是”字句的翻译方法。 。
1. 译为英语连系动词 be
(1) 改革是振兴中国的唯一出路,是人心所向,大势所趋,不可逆转。
Reform is the only process through which China can be revitalized, a process
which is irreversible and which accords with the will of the people and the
general trend of events.
(2) 武汉是湖北省的省会,是华中地区工业、金融、商业、科学、文化教育中心。
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei Province. It is the center of industry, finance,
trade, science, culture and education in the central areas of the country.
(3) 汉正街原来是破旧、窄小的一条旧街。
The Hanzheng Street was originally a narrow, shabby street.
(4) 那年月,有钱人是天天过年。
In those years, the rich people’s extravagance was such that everyday was
a Spring Festival.
(5) 是党和政府的正确方针和政策,促进了广大农村的经济繁荣。
It is the correct principles and policies of our Party and Government that
have promoted the economic prosperity of China’s vast rural areas.
2. 省略”是”字
(6) 武汉是长江中下游地区的特大城市,是湖北省的政治、经济、文化、科技中心。
Wuhan, a metropolis situated in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River,
is the political, economic, cultural, scientific and technological center of
Hubei Province. (译文利用同位语,将第一个”是”省略)
(7) 中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,社会生产力水平总的还比较低。
As the largest developing country in the world China has a relatively low
level of productive forces on the whole.

110
(8) 工业企业效益差是当前许多矛盾的症结所在。
All the contradictions existing in industrial enterprises today boil down to
scanty economic returns.
(9) 邓小平同志强调指出,社会主义阶段的根本任务就是发展生产力。
Comrade Deng Xiaoping stresses the cardinal task for the socialist stage as
developing the productive forces.
(10) 社会主义制度的确立、巩固和发展,体现了中国现代社会运动的客观规律,是中国
历史上最伟大、最深刻的变革。
The establishment, consolidation and development of the socialist system
constitutes the objective law of the movement of China’s modern society,
and the greatest and deepest change in China’s history.
3. 译为被动语态
(11) 革命者是杀不完的。
Revolutionaries can never be wiped out.
(12) 这双皮鞋是定做的。
This pair of leather shoes are custom-made.
(13) 这种装置在机械表制造工业中是很需要的。
This kind of device is much needed in the mechanical watch-making
industry.
4. 根据”是”的实际意义翻译
(14) 春秋战国时期,楚国是疆域最辽阔的诸侯国,加上历时八百多年,楚国文化成为中
华民族文化的重要组成部分。
During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States, Chu occupied
a vast territory and lasted hundreds of years so that Chu Culture became an
important component part of the Chinese Culture.
(15) 创新是一个民族进步的灵魂。
Innovation sustains the progress of a nation.
(16) 这是大势所趋,人心所向。
This represents the general trend of development and the common
aspiration of the people.
(17) 澳门问题的圆满解决,是中葡两国关系史上的一个重要里程碑。
The successful settlement of the Macao question marks an important
milestone in the annals of Sino-Portuguese relation.
(18) 对外国东西不加分析地一概排斥,和对外国东西不加分析地一概照搬,都不是马克
思列宁主义的态度。
Neither the indiscriminate rejection of everything foreign, nor the
indiscriminate imitation of everything foreign has anything in common with
the Marxist attitude.
(19) 这个增长速度是指导性的,是就全国来说的。
This growth rate serves as a guide which applies to the country as a whole.
5. 译为 but it is (was)…
(20) 这个故事好是好,就是长了点。
It is a good story all right, but it’s a bit too long.
6. 用 there be 结构翻译表示”凡是”的”是”字

111
(21) 是重活,他都抢着干。
Whenever there’s a tough job, he is always the first to do it.
(二) “得”字句的翻译
汉语结构助词”得”一般用在动词或形容词之后,连接补语成分,表示能力、可能性、
结果、程度等。汉语的”得”字,可根据其语法功能,利用英语的词法或句法手段翻译。
1. 用情态助动词翻译”得”字
英语的情态助动词 can, could, be able to 可以表示能力; may, might, can, could 表示可能
性,因此可以利用它们来翻译表示能力或可能性的”得”字。例如:
(22) 她的英语讲得好。
She can speak English well.
(23) 你干得了这件事吗?
Can you do it?
(24) 他看得出两者的差别。
He was able to see the difference between the two.
(25) 这么多,吃得完吗?
也许吃得完。
Could we eat up this all?
We might eat it up.
2. 用词法手段翻译”得”字
英语的后缀-ible, -able 构成的词语可以表示能力或可能性,因此也可利用这类词翻译”
得”字。例如:
(26) 有些星星肉眼都看得很清楚。
Some stars are quite visible to the unaided eye.
(27) 这个人靠得住吗?
Is the man reliable ?
(28) 这个道理讲得通。
The reason is acceptable.
3. 用固定结构翻译”得”字
当”得”字表示结果或程度时,可利用英语中表示相同意义的固定结构如 so …that 等
来翻译。例如:
(29) 地板霉烂得有许多地方不能再擦洗了。
The floors were in so rotten a condition that many of them could not be
scrubbed.
(30) 不要高兴得忘乎所以。
Don’t be so happy as to forget everything.
(31) 天气闷热得大家喘不过气来。
It was such a hot and stuffy weather that people were out of breath.
(32) 这些苹果酸得不能吃。
These apples are too sour for eating.
(33) 他壮实得在冬天不需穿棉袄。
He is physically strong enough to wear no cotton-padded jacket in winter.
(34) 他逗得孩子乱叫。
He teased the child until he began howling.
4. 省略”得”字

112
有时,”得”字无需翻译,只需翻译”得”字位于其中的短语即可。例如:
(35) 他们俩人很合得来。
Both of them got well along with each other.
(36) 学生们听课听得很入神。
The students listened to the lecture attentively.
(37) 想得倒妙
to have a bee in one’s bonnet
(38) 你来得正是时候。
You came in the nick of time.
(39) 游客们玩得很开心。
The visitors had a wonderful time.
(40) 这件事情做得非常出色。
It’s exceedingly well done.
(41) 他饿得发晕。
He fainted from hunger.
(三) “把”字句的翻译
同汉语”是”字句一样,”把”字句也是汉语的一种常见句型。汉语中的”把”字主要
起引导受事者的作用,语态形式上表现为主动式,因此使汉语减少了被动句的使用频率,
很多被动意义都可借助”把”字句来表达。”把”字”常与表示人的生理或心理状态的词语,
如”忙、累、急、气”等搭配,引导表示结果的补语;”把”字可与”一”、”当作”、”给”
等连用,构成”把……一……”、”把……当作……”、”把……给……”句型;”把”可
用于句首建构祈使句。”把”字的翻译要兼顾其语法及语义功能以及英语的表达习惯。
1. 省略”把”字
(42) 我错把她当作她的孪生妹妹了。
I mistook her for her sister.
(43) 他的话几乎把我给气疯了。
What he said almost made me go mad.
(44) 房地产商人把沿海滩的空地全部抢购一空。
The real estate businessmen took up all the land available along the beach.
(45) 今天是什么风把你给吹来的?
What has brought you here today ?
(46) 把你的东西统统给我搬出去。
Get all your things out of here.
2. 译为被动句
(47) 大风把那些树都吹倒了。
Those trees were blown down by the strong wind.
(48) 他所做的一切把我感动得流下了眼泪。
I was moved to tears by what he had done.
(49) 把这些救灾物资送到洪灾区是当前的第一要务。
It is currently the first and foremost thing that these disaster-relief supplies
should be dispatched to the flood-stricken areas.
(50) 隆隆的大炮声把傀儡军吓坏了。
The puppet soldiers were frightened to death by the rumbling of cannons.
(四) “搞”字句的翻译

113
目下,”搞”字在汉语里的流行之势,使有人发出”怎一个’搞’字了得”的感叹。关
于”搞”的妙用,作家孙绍振说:“搞字的功能可分为两类:丑的则遮蔽,不丑的则美化 ;
可谓有美皆备,无丽不臻。”鉴于”搞”在汉语中倍受青睐这一语言事实,其翻译就成为绕
不过去的问题。”搞”字意思之丰富,用得之活,不是汉语的”做”所能望其背项的,如果
不考虑风格和情感,倒有点像英语的 do,几乎是个”万能”动词。”搞”字的翻译,应当
具体问题具体分析,弄清其在具体语境中的具体含义,然后再选择恰当的词语译之。
1. 译为动词或动词短语
“搞”最常见的意义是”做”、”干”、”弄”、”从事”、”进行”等,因此可用 do,
get, make, work, practise, engage in, go in for 等来翻译。例如:
(51) 搞字对字的翻译常常是行不通的。
It is often unacceptable to do a word-to-word translation.
(52) 这事没啥搞头。
There’s no point in doing that.
(53) 中国现在实行对外开放、对内搞活的政策。
China is now implementing the policy of opening to the outside world and
invigorating the domestic economy.
(54) 他俩合起来搞我。
The two of them joined in making things difficult for me.
(55) 我们想搞水果蔬菜生意。
We are thinking of starting up in the fruit and vegetable trade.
(56) 他一心要把对手搞臭。
He is bent on discrediting his opponent.
(57) 这事只能搞好,不能搞坏。
You must make the thing a sure success. It brooks no failure.
(58) 此人专会暗中搞鬼。
The man is good at scheming.
(59) 他正在搞对象。
He is keeping steady company.
(60) 领导干部不能搞特殊化。
Leading cadres should not seek for personal privileges.
(61) 搞马克思主义,不搞资本主义。
Practise Marxism rather than capitalism.
(62) 现在很多青年人搞个体经营。
Many young people are now embarking in private enterprises.
(63) 搞经济协作区,这个路子是对的。
It is the right thing to establish economic cooperation between developed
and less developed areas.
(64) 我们可以鼓励、劝告台湾首先跟我们搞“三通”:通商、通航、通邮。
We can encourage and persuade Taiwan first to have “three links”: link of
trade, travel and post.
(65) 不搞争论,是我的一个发明。不争论,是为了争取时间。
It was my idea to discourage contention, so as to have more time for action.
(66) 不搞改革,不坚持开放政策,我们制定的战略目标就不可能实现。
We cannot reach our strategic goal unless we carry out reforms and adhere

114
to the open policy.
(67) 工人们正在大搞技术革新。
The workers are making technical innovations.
(68) 轮番提价势必影响经济和社会稳定,搞得人心惶惶。
This kind of price spiral will endanger economic and social stability and give
rise to panic.
2. 译为其他词类
(69)---你们在搞什么名堂?
What are you up to ? (“搞”译为副词短语 up to)
(70)---我们的国家大,人口众多,经济落后,农业要搞上去,最重要的还是要调动农民
的积极性,自力更生,艰苦奋斗。
Agricultural advance in so vast a country, with such a large population and
backward economy as in China, requires above all else mobilizing the
initiative of peasants to work hard and self-reliantly. (“搞”译为名词 advance)
3. 省略“搞”字
(71) 我们确定搞两个开放:一个是对内开放,一个是对外开放。
We have decided on an open policy in two respects: namely, to open up
both externally and internally.
(72) 但我的事现在搞得满城风雨,人人皆知了。
But there had been too much publicity about my case.
(73) 过去实行”闭关自守”政策,结果搞得”民穷财困”。
We pursued the policy of “self-seclusion” in the past, resulting in “the
destitution of the people and exhaustion of the financial resources”.
(74) 我们必须一心一意搞建设。
We must concentrate on economic development.
(75) 这工作不好搞。
This is a difficult job.
4. 译为被动句
(76) 能不能尽快把科技搞上去,这是一个关系到社会主义全局,关系到我们国家命运与
前途的大问题。
Whether science and technology can be pushed forward as quickly as
possible is a question of vital importance for socialist construction as a
whole and for the destiny and future of our country.
(五) 汉语外位语的翻译
汉语句子中,有种成分,独立于句外,同时又与句中某个成分指同一事物,这种成分
叫做外位语。汉语中使用外位语是为了强调某一信息,同时也使句子结构简化,层次分明。
英语中虽然没有外位语,却存在类似的思维方式。因此,外位语的翻译可借助英语的某些表
达手段。
1. 合并法
汉语的外位语,常常与句子的主语指同一事物,因此可以两者合并,即用外位语充当
句子的主语,而将作主语的代词”这”省略。例如:
(77) 国家的统一,人民的团结,国内各民族的团结,这是我们事业必定要胜利的基本保
证。(《毛泽东选集》五卷,363 页)
The unification of our country, the unity of our people and the unity of our

115
various nationalities are the basic guarantees for the sure triumph of our
cause.
2. 分句法
将外位语从句子中独立出来,单独成句。例如:
(78) 健全自己身体,保持合理的规律生活,这是自我修养的物质基础。(周恩来:《我的
修养要则》)
Keep fit and lead a reasonable and regular life. This is the material basis for
self-accomplishment.
3. 使用非限制性定语从句
可以将外位语作为主句,而将句子剩余部分转换为非限制性定语从句。例如:
(79) 百花齐放,百家争鸣,这是促进艺术发展和科学进步的方针。
Let a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend,
which is the policy for promoting progress in the arts and sciences.
4. 结构调整
使用动词不定式或名词性从句翻译外位语,并将其置于句尾,然后用形式主语 it 对应
原句主语”这”。例如上面的方法二和三中的例子可译为:
(80)It is the material basis for self-accomplishment to keep fit and lead a
reasonable and regular life.
(81) It is the policy for promoting progress in the arts and sciences to let a
hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend.
结构调整还可以是将主语”这 (些)”省略,用原文的表语作主语,而用外位语作表语。例
如:
(82) 工厂、铁道、枪炮等等,这些是物质条件。
The material conditions are factories, railways, firearms, artillery, and the
like.

【实例分 析】
(1)现在中国市场有两个显著特点:一方面是农产品比较丰富;另一方面是农产品价格上涨
幅度大。
At present, there are two conspicuous characteristics of the market of China. On the one hand,
there are quite abundant agricultural products available. On the other hand, the prices of the
agricultural products are rising at an extremely high speed.
[分析]原文为”是”字句,第一个”是”用 there be 翻译,第二个”是”被省略。
(2)这个病人的死,毫无疑问是医生的治疗不当造成的。
There is no doubt that the patient has died of the doctor’s improper treatment.
[分析]原文的”是”字被省略,代之充当谓语的是由名词转类为动词的”死(于)”。
(3)满屋都是烟--连他衣服上都是烟味。
Smoke filled the room -- even his clothes smelled of smoke.
[分析]原文的两个”是”根据其实际意义分别译为 fill 和 smell of。此外,原文前半部的
翻译还运用了词序调整法(inversion)。
(4)最后的邮递时间是晚上七点,你现在骑车去还来得及。
The last post is at seven p. m. You can still make it if you go by bike.
[分析]原文为”得”字句。”来得及”作为一个整体被译成 make it。
(5)这是件细活,来不得半点马虎。

116
It’s a delicate job that demands great care.
[分析]”来不得”作为整体意译为 demand。
(6)他手里的钱,来得容易去得快,都胡吃海喝了。
The money he had got so easily was all squandered speedily on wining and dining.
[分析]”来得容易去得快”被从中央切断,然后分别与句子前后两部分结合后再进行翻
译。
(7)真是来得早,不如来得巧,快上桌来喝两杯吧!
What beautiful timing! Sit down at the table and have your drinks!
[分析]”来得早,不如来得巧”和”真是”一起,被译成 What beautiful timing!。
(8)在这个场景中,成功的人物造型和声、光、电效果的巧妙配合,把武则天得意忘形的心理
状态表现得淋漓尽致,众花神无奈遭贬也描写得惟妙惟肖。(“《镜花缘》宫游记”,载《今日
中国》1995 年第 7 期)
This scene is a successful combination of animation and sound effects, plus lighting, and portrays
most vividly what makes Wu Zetian dizzy with success. Even the scene of demoting the Flower
Goddesses is remarkably true to life. (China Daily, No. 7, 1995)
[分析]用一个及物动词 portrays 翻译原文的”把……表现”。
(9)你要调动组长的积极性分头管,不能什么事情都由你一把抓。
Encourage the team leaders to take their respective responsibilities. You just can’t attend to
everything by yourself.
[分析]”一把抓”作为整体被译成 attend to。
(10)我这么大一把年纪还能瞎说话?
Is a man of my age likely to tell a lie?
[分析]”一把”在译文中被省略,也就是说,隐入 a man of my age 的深层结构之中。翻
译中有隐有显,隐即将原文被省略的表面信息隐入译文语境之中,显即将原文语境信息通
过增词外显于译文字面。
(11)他思想搞通了,精神也就愉快了。
Once he straightened out his ideas, he became cheerful again.
[分析]”搞通”根据其实际含义译为 straightened out。
(12)我们绝不能重复回到过去那样,把经济搞得死死的。
We should never go back to the old days of tramping the economy to death.
[分析]”搞得死死的”,根据其具体内容被译为 tramping … to death。
(13)他的父母几乎同时死去,这是很可怕的。
It is dreadful that her father and mother died almost at the same time.
[分析]译文采用结构调整法翻译原文的外位结构。也就是说,外位语译为名词性从句,
置于句末,用形式主语 it 翻译原文的”这”。
(14)抗战胜利的果实应该属于人民,这是一个问题,但是,胜利果实究竟落到谁手,能不
能归于人民,这是另一个问题。
That the fruits of victory of the War of Resistance should go to the people is one thing, but who
will eventually get them and whether they will go back to the people is another.
[分析]译文整体上按照原文顺序翻译,两个外位语被译成名词性从句作主语,而原文
的主语”这”被省略。此翻译方法属于合并法。

四、长句的翻译
相对而言,英语长句多一些,而且多为主从复杂句;汉语则多用中、短句,即使是长句,

117
也多为并列结构。长句的翻译,首先必须对英汉句式的特点了如指掌,这样才能在表达时能
够按照译入语的句子逻辑组织行文。翻译长句的难点在结构上,在句子各部分的关系上。只
有捋清各种关系,才能创造连贯、紧凑、流畅的译文。刘宓庆先生(1998:188)把英语句子的
翻译切分为以下六个步骤:

第一步:紧缩主干 ●析出 SV—SVO—SV.IO.DO 等


●识别谓语形态,确定时态、语态、语气
第二步:辨析词义 ●识别其他词语形态及其语法关系
●判断词义,确定词义
第三步:区分主从 ●识别修饰语与被修饰语,主句与从句
●判断各成分之间的内在联系
第四步:捋清层次 ●推断句子思维逻辑发展的形式及重心
第五步:调整搭配 ●按汉语习惯形成主谓宾配列及各式搭配
●调整各层次语序,捋顺表达法
第六步:润饰词语 ●炼词,炼句
●考虑文体的适应性,并作出调整
前四步构成理解阶段,后两步为表达阶段的主要任务。第一步是分析句子结构;第二步
是理解并确定词义,包括词语的各种语法形态;第三步是找出句子各成分之间的各种关系 ;
第四步是抓住句子思想的发展脉络、模式和中心;第五步是按照汉语句子的逻辑重组译文;
第六步是检查译文,考察选词是否得当,行文是否自然,文体是否得体等。下面以一个英语
长句为例,对以上六个步骤的操作进行具体说明。
(1) But when society places hundreds of proletarians in such a position that
they inevitably meet a too early and an unnatural death, one which is quite
as much a death by violence as that by the sword or bullet; when it deprives
thousands of the necessaries of life, places them under conditions in which
they cannot live—forces them, through the strong arm of the law, to remain
in such conditions until that death ensues which is the inevitable
consequence -- knows that these thousands of victims must perish, and yet
permits these conditions to remain, its deed is murder just as surely as the
deed of the single individual; disguised, malicious murder, murder against
which none can defend himself, which does not seem what it is, because no
man sees the murderer, because the death of the victim seems a natural
one, since the offence is more one of omission than of commission.(《英汉翻
译教程》,张培基等编,p.159)
该句共有 154 个单词,是名副其实的长句。第一步是分析句子结构。全句的主句是 its
deed is murder ,属于 SVP 句型;主句前面有两个并列的由 when 引导的时间状语从句,这
两个由 when 引导的时间状语从句中又含有自己的从句。具地说,第一个 when-从句含有一
个由 that 引导的结果状语从句和一个由 which 引导的定语从句;第二个 when-从句含有两个
由 which 引导的定语从句,一个由 until 引导的时间状语从句以及一个由 that 引导的宾语从
句。主句之后有两个由 which 引导的定语从句,一个由 what 引导的宾语从句,三个分别由
because 和 since 引导的原因状语从句。
第二步是辨析并确定词义。诸如像 proletarian, ensue, malicious 之类的词可以通过词典解
决。但 omission 和 commission 两个词,仅靠词典是不够的,读者必须在语境信息的基础上
充分发挥主观能动性去理解。查《牛津袖珍英汉双解词典》,omission 有”省略,遗漏”之意,

118
commission 有”犯罪”之义。后者多少还适合语境,前者与语境似无联系,因此需要仔细琢
磨。Omission 这里实际上指的是资本主义社会对穷人的死活冷漠视之的不作为。
第三步是判断句子各成分之间的关系。就上例而言,是各成分之间的修饰关系、指代关
系和逻辑关系。第一个 when-从句中的 one 是同位语,指前面的 an unnatural death;第二个
when- 从句中的主语 it 指 society ;两个破折号后的动词 forces 与 places 的主语是 it ,即
society ; until 状语从句中的关系代词 which ,代指前面的 that death ; disguised, malicious
murder 是主句的表语 murder 的同位语,而 disguised, malicious murder 之后的 murder 是连续
的同位语,藉此使说话的语势加强;最后的两个关系代词 which 均指 murder。
第四步是把握句字思想发展的线索及重心。作者首先指出资本主义社会无产者大量死亡
这一悲惨事实。这种死亡虽然不是刀剑所致,却与其并无二致,因为资本主义社会剥夺了广
大无产者的基本生活资料。作者由此得出结论:这种死亡无异于谋杀,并指出这种谋杀的本
质:隐蔽、恶毒、是一种不作为的罪行。句子的重心是 its deed is murder。
第五步是考虑表达时是否需要调整搭配。该例翻译可按原文顺序翻译,无须作大的调整。
第六步是炼词炼句、考虑风格的适切性。Arm 可译为”铁腕”,omission 和 commission 则可
译为”不作为”与”作为”。文字风格采用书面汉语即可。经过这样一番理解与推敲,就有
可能形成如下译文:
但是,如果社会把千百个无产者置于这样一种境地,使他们不可避免地遭到过早的非
自然的死亡,如同被刀剑或枪弹所惨杀一样;如果社会剥夺了成千上万的人的生活必需品
把他们置于不能生存的境地,利用法律的铁腕强迫他们处于这种境地,知道不可避免的结
局 -- 死亡的来临,而且社会也知道这成千上万的人一定会死亡,但又听任这种情况存在下
去;那么这也是一种谋杀,和个人进行的谋杀完全一样,只不过这是一种隐蔽的、恶毒的谋
杀,没有人能够防御,而且看起来又不象是谋杀,因为这种罪行是一种不作为,而不是一
种作为,谁也看不到谋杀者,被杀的人看起来好象是自然地死去的。(张培基等 译)

【实例分 析】
(1)Mrs Crisp was summoned from Buxton, and abruptly carried off her darling boy; but the idea,
① ②
even, of such an eagle in the Chiswick dovecot caused a great flutter in the breast of Miss

Pinterton, who would have sent away Miss Sharp, but that she was bound to her under a forfeit,
④ ⑤
and who never could thoroughly believe the young lady’s protestations that she had never

exchanged a single word with Mr. Crisp, except under her own eyes on the two occasions when

she had met him at tea. (Vanity Fair, by William Thackeray)
克里斯泼太太得到消息,连忙从勃克思登赶来,立刻把她的宝贝儿子带走。平克顿小姐想到
① ②
自己的鸽笼里藏了一只老鹰,不由得心慌意乱,若不是有约在先,真想把她赶走。那女孩子
③ ⑤ ④
竭力辩白,说她只在平克顿小姐监视之下和克里斯泼先生在茶会上见过两面,从来没有跟

⑥ ⑦
说过话。她虽然这么说,平克顿小姐仍旧将信将疑。(杨必 译)

119

[分析]原文是一个长句,不算标点符号,有 89 个单词。这样的长句在英语文学作品中
并不少见。但汉语句子一般不会这样长。这就要求译者将原句分译成几个句子。此外,受思维
方式影响,英语句子的逻辑发展与成分的排列组合有时同汉语存在差异。这要求译者必须按
照汉语的思维方式重新组合原文信息,因此,语序调整是长句翻译的一种惯常技巧。结合例
句来说,原文一个句子被切分成四个句子;原句后半部分的语序作了一定幅度的调整,如
标号所示。
( 2 ) From a little after two o’clock until almost sundown of the long still hot weary dead
September afternoon they sat in what Miss Coldfield still called the office because her father had
called it that -- a dim hot airless room with the blinds all closed and fastened of forty-three
summers because when she was a girl someone had believed that light and moving air carried heat
and dark always cooler, and which ( as the sun shone fuller and fuller one that side of the house)
because latticed with yellow slashes full of dust motes which Guentin thought of as being flecks of
the dead old dried paint itself blown inward from the scaling blinds as wind might have blown
them.(Absalom, Absalom! by William Faulkner)
在那个漫长安静炎热令人困倦死气沉沉的九月下午从两点刚过一直到太阳快下山他们一直
坐在科德菲尔德小姐仍然称之为办公室的那个房间里因为当初她父亲就是那样叫的 -- 那是
个昏暗炎热不通风的房间四十三个夏天以来几扇百叶窗都是关紧插上的因为她是个小姑娘
时有人认为光照和流通的空气会把热气带进来而幽暗却总是比较凉快,这房间里(由于房
屋这一边太阳越晒越厉害)显现出一道道从百叶窗缝里漏进来的黄色光束那上面充满了微
尘在昆丁看来这是年久干枯的油漆的碎屑是从起了鳞片的百叶窗上刮近来的就好象是风把
它们吹进来似的。(李文俊 译)
[分析]原句共有 121 个单词,其主要成分是 they sat, 其他都是附加成分,从句共有十
个,其中表语从句一个,宾语从一个,状语从句五个,定语从句两个。李文俊先生认为,作
者福克纳之所以用这样的长句,是为了给读者一种特殊的历史感、沉重感和窒息感。长句在
福克纳作品中经常出现,最长的一句据说出现在《去吧,摩西》(Go Down, Moses)中,
有六页之多,有人将其戏称为 life sentence(生命一样长的句子/终生监禁)。福克纳为什么
要用长句?他说,他“把想一切都讲出来……在一个大写字母和句号之间……把一切都灌
注在一句话里 -- 不但包括现在而且包括它依赖的整个过去和一秒一秒不断进逼着现代的过
去。”(《哥伦比亚美国文学史》, p.741)李先生认为长句的使用能体现福克纳作品繁复
(luxuriance and elaborateness)的风格。他翻译这个长句从内容到形式都做到与原文一致,
在形式上,原文只有一个逗号,一个破折号和一对圆括号,译文也只在同样的地方用了一
个逗点、一个破折号和一对圆弧,既未增加必要的标点,又未进行必要的语序调整,目的就
是要制造原文欲传递的那种“令人昏昏欲睡、难以支撑的效果”。
(3) As far then as Mr. Wordsworth in his preface contended, and most ably contended, for a
reformation in our poetic diction, as far as he has evinced the truth of passion, and the dramatic
propriety of those figures and metaphors in the original poets, which, stript of their justifying
reasons and converted into mere artifices of connection or ornament, constitute the characteristic
falsity in the poetic style of the moderns; and as far as he has, with equal acuteness and clearness,
pointed out the process by which this change was effected and the resemblances between that state
into which the reader’s mind is thrown by the pleasurable confusion of thought from an
unaccustomed train of words and images and that state which is induced by the natural language
of impassioned feeling, he undertook a useful task and deserves all praise, both for the attempt and
for the execution. (Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Biographia Literaria, p.188)

120
过去那些具有独创性的诗人,总是有感而发,绝不作无病呻吟,运用修辞比喻总是恰到好
处,充分发挥其艺术效果,而在现代诗人的作品中,修辞比喻已失去其存在的合理依据,
仅仅成为连缀或装点词句的手段而已。华兹华斯先生在其序言中令人信服地表达了这一看法,
并明确而深刻地指出这一变化是如何发生的,指出现代诗歌运用词语和意象络绎不绝,已
到了出格的地步。这一方面给读者以感官的愉悦,同时也造成他们思想上的混乱,使他们产
生错觉,以为这就是抒发激情的自然语言。华兹华斯先生一针见血地指出,这种矫揉造作的
文风在现代诗歌中表现尤为突出,因此主张对诗歌语言的措辞进行改革。他在自己的诗歌创
作中身体力行,进行了改革尝试。总之,华兹华斯先生做了一件很有意义的工作,值得高度
赞扬。
[分析]英语原文的逻辑推理模式是结论-证据-结论,即开头部分和结尾部分是结论,中
间部分是证据。按照汉语先证据、后结论的逻辑叙事模式,翻译要对原文进行调整、重组。译
文按照证据-结论-证据-结论的线索对原文进行了重组;打乱了原文分句结构,分译成几个
部分;适当增加了一些词语,以明原文的深层之意,使译文明白易懂,层次分明,结构紧
凑自然。
(4) I was glad of it: I never liked long walks, especially on chilly afternoons: dreadful to me was
the coming home in the raw twilight, with nipped fingers and toes, and a heart saddened by the
chidings of Bessie, the nurse, and humbled by the consciousness of my physical inferiority to
Eliza, John, and Georgiana Reed. (Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte)
这我却很喜欢:我从来不愿意走远路,尤其是遇着很冷的下午,薄暮寒光中,散步归来,
手脚的冰凉,奶妈贝西的臭骂,已经够我害怕,而我的身体的孱弱,比不上伊理西,左珍
纳,约翰,他们三个,更使我自惭形秽了。(伍光建 译)
[分析]原文中间部分的 dreadful to me was the coming home in the raw twilight… 为倒装句式,
译文还原成正常句式,表达显得更为自然。从属成分 saddened by…和 humbled by…,作为
heart 的后置修饰语显得过长,被译者一分为二,翻成汉语的短句,读来流畅自然。用“自
惭形秽”译 humbled by the consciousness of 则显得简洁贴切。
(5)抗战八年,中国人死了二千多万,单是南京屠城就杀害了三十万,而且大都是老弱妇孺,
日本军人犯下的弥天大罪有事实为证,特别是那些亲身参加杀戮、活埋、奸污、残害的凶犯,
时至今日,他们天良发现承认了自己的罪行并表示忏悔,这又岂是那些军国主义残余分子
和政客所能掩盖抹杀的。
During the eight-year War of Resistance Against Japan, Japanese troops killed a total of more than
20 million Chinese. In the Rape of Nanking alone, they slaughtered as many as 300,000, most of
them old and weak and women and children. The monstrous crimes of the Japanese military have
been evidenced by hard facts. And what’s, some Japanese ex-soldiers who took in massacres,
brutal acts of burying people alive, rapes or murders, have now been aroused by conscience to
confess their crimes and show repentance. Could all that be covered up or blotted out by remnants
of the Japanese militarists and a handful of Japanese politicians?
[分析]原文长句被分译成五个独立的句子。“事实”的翻译增补了“hard”一词,这一原
文中隐性的意义显性化,目的是为了强调事实确凿、不容分辩。
(6)至于那些想喝一杯的,发了烟瘾得靠靠灯,船上烟灰又翻尽了的,或一无所为,只是不
甘寂寞,好事好玩想到岸上去烤烤火谈谈天的,便莫不提了灯,或燃一段废绳子,摇晃着
从船头跳上了岸,从一堆石头间的小路径,爬到半山上吊脚楼房子那边去,找寻自己的熟
人,找寻自己的熟地。(沈从文:《鸭巢围的夜》)
Those who wanted to drink or smoke by the lamp, and when the fire on the boat had burned to
ashes or there was nothing to do, if lonely or eager for a bit of fun they would go ashore to sit by a

121
fire and chat, taking the lantern from the mast or lighting a strip of old hawser with which they
jumped unsteadily ashore to take the path through rocks to the stilt-houses halfway up the cliff, in
search of an old friend or familiar house. (戴乃迭 译)
[分析]全句共 120 字,是汉语中不多见的长句。汉语的长句翻译,在不影响原意的情况
下一般采用分译法,即一句分译成几句,也可用英文长句翻译,因为英文中多长句。以长句
译长句,要注意英汉长句结构的差异。汉语长句结构松散,多为按照自然心理时序发展思想
的流水句,英语则主从有序,一环套一环。因此,以英语长句译汉语长句,首先必须确定原
文信息重心,以之为主句,然后按英语思维方式重组原文信息。上例译文选取原文四层信息
中的第二层为重心,比较合理,因为各层描写的集中点正是“岸”(the place)。

第二节 常见修辞格的翻译

一、比喻
比喻(Figure of speech)无处不在,为各语言文化所共有。据《现代汉语词典》,比喻指”
用某些有类似点的事物来比拟想要说的某一事物,以便表达得更加生动鲜明”(1999:66)。
比喻有四个要素:本体 (tenor ,被比喻的事物 ) ,喻体 (vehicle ,作比喻的事物 ) ,比喻词
(comparative word / indicator of resemblance ,标明比喻的词)和相似点(point of resemblance,
本体和喻体共有的特点 )。汉语的比喻分为明喻、暗喻和借喻,英语中与之对应的分别是
simile、metaphor 和 metonymy。这里主要讨论明喻和暗喻的翻译。汉语的明喻与英语的 simile
非常相似,比喻的四要素必须俱全,比喻词汉语主要有”像”、”似”、”仿佛”等,英语
主要是 like、as、as if / as though。明喻相对说来比较容易翻译,一般采用直译,但有一种特殊
的英语 simile,即不用比喻词 like 和 as 而用 what、than 和 and 的 simile 的翻译要特别注意,
下面略举几例。
(1) Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body. ( Sir Richard Steel)
阅读之于思想,如同锻炼之于身体。
(2) A home without love is no more than a body without a soul.
没有爱的家庭无异于没有灵魂的身体。
(3) Truth and roses have thorns about them.
真理如玫瑰,全身都带刺。
汉语的暗喻和英语的 metaphor,使用频率很高,但比明喻更难理解和翻译。暗喻的特点
是不用比喻词,且有时只出现本体,这就使得比喻和被比喻的事物不能一目了然。就暗喻的
类型而言,英汉语有相同之点,也有不同之处。英语的 metaphor 大致可分为三类:一是”A
is B”结构,二是”N1 of N2”结构,三是只出现本体。例如:
(4) All the world’s a stage, and all men and women merely players. (William
Shakespeare) (把 world 比作 stage,把 men 和 women 比作 players)
整个世界是座舞台,男男女女,演员而已。
(5) With this faith we will be able to hoe out of the mountain of despair a
stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling
discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. (把 despair
比 作 mountain , 把 hope 比 作 stone , 把 our nation 比 作 jangling discords , 把
brotherhood 比作 beautiful symphony)
抱有这个信念,我们就能从绝望之山凿出希望之石。抱有这个信念,我们就能把我们民族
聒耳的噪音变成一部歌颂手足之情的美妙交响曲。
(6) The boy wolfed down the food the moment he grabbed it. ( 把 boy 比 作

122
wolf,但喻体 wolf 没有出现)
那男孩子一把抓过食物,狼吞虎咽般地吃了下去。
(7) She has a photographic memory for detail. (把 her memory 比作 camera,但
喻体 camera 没有出现)
她对细节有照相机般的记忆力。
汉语的暗喻大致也有三种,一是判断结构”甲是乙”,二是本体与喻体同时出现,但
没有判断词,三是偏正式的状语+中心语结构即状中结构,如:
(8) 薛蟠也假说来上学,不过是”三天打渔,两天晒网”……也不曾有一点儿进益。(《红楼
梦》)
Xue Pan had hastened to register himself as a pupil. His school-going was,
needless to say, a pretence – “One day to fish and two days to dry the net”
as they say -- and had nothing to do with the advancement of learning. (杨
宪益,戴乃迭 译)
(9) 潭西南而望,斗折蛇行,明灭可见。(柳宗元:《小石潭记》)
Viewed from the southwest, the pond sometimes zigzags like the shining Big
Dipper and sometimes winds gloomily like a long creeping snake.
(10) 她们一窝蜂地挤拢来,每人盛一碗,就四散地蹲伏或者站立在路上和门口吃。(夏衍:
《包身工》)
They crowded strenuously around like a swarm of bees, each ladling out a
bowl of meagre porridge, and then scattered , having their meal by
crouching or standing at the pathway or the doorway.
暗喻翻译的方法包括直译、直译+注释、转换、意译等。英汉语中共有的”A 是 B”隐喻结
构比较适合用直译;带有文化内涵的习语型比喻可采用直译 +注释;不适合直译的暗喻,
可考虑转换为明喻,转换的另一层含义是改变比喻形象即喻体;放弃比喻修辞,译其意义。
例如:
(11) 何等动人的一页又一页!这是人类思维的花朵。(徐迟:《哥德巴赫猜想》)
What inspiring chapters! They are the flowers of the human brainwork. (直译)
(12) Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. (William B.
Yeats)
教育不是注满一桶水,而是点燃一把火。(直译)
(13) “难道这也是痴丫头,也像颦儿来葬花不成?”因又暗自笑道:”若真是葬死, 可谓’
东施效颦’了,不但不为新奇,而且更为可厌。” (《红楼梦》)
“Can this be another absurd maid coming to bury flowers like Daiyu?” he
wondered in some amusement. “If so, she’s Tun Shih imitating Hsi Shih,
which is not original but rather tiresome.”
Note: Hsi Shih was a famous beauty in the ancient kingdom of Yue. Tung
Shih was an ugly girl who tried to imitate her ways. (杨宪益,戴乃迭 译,直译
+注释)
(14) New York was never mecca to me. And though I have lived there more
half my life, you won’t find me wearing an “I love New York” T-shirt.
纽约对我来说绝不是麦加。虽然我已经在这里住了大半辈子,你却不会看到我穿上一件”
我爱纽约”的 T 恤衫。
注释:麦加(Mecca)位于沙特阿拉伯西部,伊斯兰教徒的朝圣地,后此专有名词普通化,
意义引伸为”众人渴望去的地方”。 (直译+注释)

123
(15) 一些人清醒,多数人被蒙蔽,少数是右翼骨干。(《毛泽东选集》五卷,432 页)
Among the members of these parties some keep their heads, many are
deceived, and a small number make up the nucleus of the right wing. (原文
的喻体”骨干”转换为 nucleus)
(16) Hold fast to dreams,
For if dreams die,
Life is a broken-winged bird
That cannot fly. (Langston Hughes)
紧紧抓住梦想吧,
如果梦想死亡,
生命就像折翼的鸟儿,
再也不能飞翔。(增加比喻词”像”,变隐喻为明喻)
(17) 咱穷人,土地就是根本,没有土地,就站不住脚跟呀! (梁斌:《红旗谱》)
Land is vital to poor folk like us. Without land, we’re done for ! (“站不住脚跟
” 意译为 be done for[完蛋])
(18) The enemy’s Achilles’ heel was his harbour defense.
敌人的致命处在海防。(原文喻体”Achilles’ heel”意译为”致命处”)

【实例分 析】
(1)月光如流水一般,静静地泻在这一片叶子和花上。薄薄的青雾浮起在荷塘里。叶子和花仿
佛在牛乳中洗过一样;又像笼着轻纱的梦。(朱自清:《荷塘月色》)
The moon sheds her liquid light silently over the leaves and flowers, which, in the floating
transparency of a bluish haze from the pond, look as if they had just been bathed in milk, or like a
dream wrapped in a gauzy hood. (朱纯深 译)
[分析]短短一行文字连续用了三个明喻,可谓比喻密集。在比喻的翻译策略选择上,译
者第一个用意译,第二、三个用直译。原因可能是第一个比喻译文读者较难理解,直译反而
会破坏原文“月光静泻”的意境,不能表达作者的真实本意。sheds her liquid light silently 的
翻译大概是为了兼顾文本本意和读者接受的一种妥协式翻译。此外,译文还使用了合句译法,
以及词性转换(原文形容词“薄薄的”转译成了名词 transparency)。
(2)树缝里也漏着一两点灯光,没精打采的,是渴睡人的眼。
Through the branches are also a couple of lamps, as listless as sleepy eyes.
[ 分析 ] 原文的暗喻“是渴睡人的眼”译成了明喻 as listless as sleepy eyes 。译文用 a
couple of lamps 来译“一两点灯光”,似乎未完全传达原意。原文并不是说树缝里漏出一两
盏灯而是一两束光线,因而似可译作 one or two rays of lamplights。
(3)他像一只斗败的公鸡似的垂头丧气。
He was shaken and unnerved like a defeated fighting cock.
[分析]原文明喻”像一只斗败的公鸡似的”直译为 like a defeated fighting cock。
(4)他本人是泥菩萨过河,自身难保。
He can’t save himself any more than a clay idol can save itself while swimming across a river.
[分析]原文暗喻”他本人是泥菩萨过河”,意译为 He can’t save himself any more than a
clay idol can save itself。
(5)他清清楚楚地看见一条丁字街,横在他眼前。
He saw distinctly the cross-road ahead of him.
[分析]原文的暗喻”丁字街”翻译时省略了形象性的喻体”丁字”,只译其意义。这是

124
省略(减词)与意译相结合的翻译。
(6)把个赵寡妇在屏风后急得像热锅上的蚂蚁一样。
All this made Zhao the widow behind the screen as frantic as an ant on a hot furnace.
[分析]原文明喻”像热锅上的蚂蚁一样”的翻译采用直译 +转换,原喻体”锅”转换为
furnace (炉)。
(7)Marriage is a book of which the first chapter is written in poetry and remaining chapters in
prose. (Beverley Nichols)
结婚,是一本第一章以诗写成,其余各章则以散文写就的书。
[分析]原文的 metaphor 是”A 是 B”结构,其翻译用的是直译法。
(8)After that long talk, Jim became the sun in her heart.
那次长谈之后,吉姆成了她心目中的太阳。
[分析]原文的 metaphor ”Jim became the sun in her heart”直译为”吉姆成了她心目中的太
阳”。
(9)She found the keys she had lost last month, which was like a bolt from the blue.
她找到了上个月她丢失的那串钥匙,她真是喜出望外。
[分析 ]原文明喻 which was like a bolt from the blue 中的 a bolt from the blue 指令人吃惊
的好消息或坏消息,这里意译为”喜出望外”。
(10)I was not Pygmalian; I was Frankenstein, and my monster has me by the throat.
我不是皮格马连,我成了弗兰肯斯坦了。魔鬼卡住了我的脖子。
注:皮格马连,希腊神话中的塞浦路斯国王。他爱上自己所雕的少女像。弗兰肯斯坦,英国
女作家玛丽·雪莱同名小说中的生物学研究者。他创造了一个怪物,而自己被它所毁灭。
[分析]原文的 metaphor 涉及到两个中国读者不熟悉的人名,直译之外须作注释。

二、拟人
拟人(Personification)是英汉语共有的修辞现象,是一种将物当作人来描写的修辞手法。
拟人本质上也是一种隐喻,即以人的身体部位或特征作为喻体或相似点的隐喻。拟人大致可
分为四种类型:以动物拟人,以植物拟人,以无生命的事物拟人以及以抽象概念拟人。例如:
(1) It is useless for the sheep to pass resolutions in favor of vegetarianism
while the wolf remains of a different opinion. (W. R. Inge)
当狼依然持有不同意见之时,群羊要通过赞成素食主义的决议案也是无济于事的。 (以动
物喻人)
(2) 老蝈蝈大约有什么心事,一大早就躲在树叶下唱,那调子显得深沉而悠远。 (张炜:
《秋天的思索》)
It seems that the old cicada takes something to heart, singing in the leaves
of the tree in the early morning. The long, long melody runs deep down into
our heart. (以动物拟人)
(3) A tree whose hungry mouth is prest
Against the earth’s sweet flowing breast;
A tree that looks at God all,
And lifts her leafy arms to pray. (Joyce Kilmer)
树那饥渴的嘴唇紧紧贴住
大地乳汁甘美的胸脯;
它整天仰望着上帝,
举起枝叶繁茂的手臂祈祷。(以植物拟人)

125
(4) 他对沾满露水的青草瞥了一眼 -- 青草也对他挤了挤眼。
He glanced at dew-covered grass, and it winked back at him. (以植物拟人)
(5) The clock on the wall ticked loudly and lazily, as if it had time to spare.
Outside the rattling windows there was a restless whispering wind. The
room grew light and dark, and wonderous light again, as the moon played
hide-and-seek through the clouds.
挂钟懒洋洋地嘀嗒嘀嗒地响,声音那么大,好象时间很充裕。窗户格格作响,外边不停地
刮着风,像在低声耳语。月亮在云层中捉迷藏时,房间里忽明忽暗,不时出现奇光。(以无
生命的事物拟人)
(6) 群山肃立,江河挥泪,辽阔的祖国大地沉浸在巨大的悲痛之中。(《敬爱的周恩来总理
永垂不朽》电影解说词)
The mountains are standing in solemn silence; the rivers are shedding bitter
tears; our motherland is soaked in enormous grief. (以无生命的事物拟人)
(7) A lie can travel half way around the world while the truth is putting on its
shoes.
当真理刚刚穿上鞋子,谎言就可能已经走了半个世界。(以抽象概念拟人)
(8) 这里叫空洞抽象的调子少唱,有些同志却硬要多唱。这里叫教条主义休息,有些同志
却叫它起床。(毛泽东:《反对党八股》)
We emphasize that there should be less empty and abstract talk, but some
comrades are unwilling to give it up; we stress that there should be no
dogmatism, but some comrades insist on practising it. (以抽象概念拟人)
拟人的翻译可采用直译、意译、转换(如转换为明喻等)等方法。

【实例分 析】
(1) 每条岭都是那么温柔,虽然下自山脚,上自岭顶,长满了珍贵的林木,可谁也不孤峰突
起,盛气凌人。(老舍:《小花朵集》)
All the ridges were so amiable. None of them stood above the others with arrogance, though their
slopes were fully covered with precious trees.
[分析]原文拟人修辞”温柔”、”盛气凌人”采用直译法。此外,译文还运用了分句法
和句序调整。
(2) 细雨如丝,一棵杨梅树贪婪地吮吸着春天的甘露。它们伸展着四季常绿的枝条,一片片
狭长的叶子在雨雾中欢笑着。(王鲁彦:《我爱故乡的杨梅》)
A waxberry tree is greedily sucking the spring rain which is like fine threads. Its evergreen
branches stretch out, each long and narrow leaf smiling in the smoky rain.
[分析]原文的拟人修辞”贪婪地吮吸”和”欢笑” 均采用直译。第二句的翻译转换了
句子成分。
(3) 说它贪玩吧,的确是呀,要不怎么会一天一夜不回家呢?可是,它听到老鼠的一点响动 ,
又是多么尽职。(老舍:《猫》)
The cat is excessively fond of playing around. Yes, it is. Don’t you remember that it once played
around and did not go home for one day and one night? Anyhow, it will fulfil its duty the moment
it hears the slightest sound made by a mouse.
[分析]原文拟人修辞”贪玩”、”尽职”采用直译。第一句的问句部分的翻译用了增词
法,以使行文连贯、流畅。
(4) 草长莺飞二月天,拂堤杨柳醉春烟。(高鼎:《村居》)

126
Grass growing and orioles flying about in February days,
I’m intoxicated under the bank-kissing willow trees.
[分析]原文”醉”字用直译,尾韵在译文中也基本再现出来。
(5) The sun kisses your skin with glowing warmth. The light sea breeze plays with your hair.
日益暖和的太阳亲吻着你的肌肤。轻柔的海风戏弄着你的头发。(直译)
(6) At last the bee fell sufficiently confident to attempt a trial fight.
终于,蜜蜂觉得有充分信心可以作一次试飞了。(直译)
(7) Culture is not satisfied till we all come to a perfect man. It knows the sweetness and light of
the few must be imperfect until the raw and unkindled masses of humanity are touched with
sweetness and light.
在我们大家都成为完人之前,文化是不会满意的。文化懂得在人类未开化和未觉醒的广大群
众还未享受快乐和光明之前,少数人享有的快乐和光明必然是不完美的。
[ 分析 ] 译文除了采用直译法翻译原文中的拟人之外,还运用了还原法,即将 It 还原为
Culture 之后翻译,有些教材称之为重复法。
(8) May is a boy with a fishing rod walking to the pond on Saturday morning, and young
sweethearts strolling along the pond on Saturday nights.
五月是一个手持钓鱼竿在周末早晨走向池塘的男孩,也是周末晚上沿池塘漫步的情侣。(直
译)

三、夸张
夸张(Hyperbole),即夸大其词或言过其实,为英汉语所共有。夸张的主要特点是通过反
常识或非逻辑手段以取得强烈的修辞效果。从制造夸张的手段看,英汉夸张同中有异,异中
有同。例如,英汉夸张都使用数词,但汉语多用”三”、”九”之类的数字,英语多用
ten(s)、hundred(s)、thousand(s)、million(s)之类的大数单位。英汉语夸张还常常与其他修辞格混
合生成,如汉语夸张与明喻、暗喻等结合,英语夸张与明喻、隐喻、一笔双叙等混成。英语夸
张还充分利用语法手段,如虚拟语气、形容词的比较级和最高级等。汉语则利用感叹句。夸张
的翻译一般采用直译,以保存表达的生动性和强烈的效果,有时也可采用意译。下面略举几
例。
(1) 九死一生
to escape by the skin of one’s teeth / narrow escape from death (意译)
(2) 九牛二虎之力
strength of nine bulls and two tigers -- herculean effort (直译+解释)
(3) 多么让人心碎的事!
What a heartbreaking thing! (直译)
(4) 我从乡下跑到京城里,一转眼已经六年了。(鲁迅:《一件小事》)
Six years have passed by in a twinkle since I came to the capital city from
the countryside. (直译)
(5) A drop of ink may make a million think. (George G.. Byron)
一滴墨水写成的文字可让千万人思索。(直译)
(6) Noise proves nothing ; often a hen who has merely laid an egg crackles
as if she had laid an asteroid. (Mark Twain)
嗓子大证明不了什么事情:只生下一只鸡蛋的母鸡也常会咯咯叫,像是生下小行星似的。
(直译,原文夸张与明喻、幽默结合)
(7) She has more goodness in her little finger than he has in his whole body.

127
她小手指中的美德比他全身的美德还要多。(直译)
(8) Miss Bolo went straight home in a flood of tears and sedan chair.
(Charles Dickens)
波洛小姐泪如泉涌,坐了轿子径直回家了。(用汉语现成的”泪如泉涌”翻译”a flood of
tears”,此为替代;汉语中没有的修辞一笔双叙 in a flood of tears and sedan chair 分开翻译
此为分译)

四、拟声
模拟人或事物声音特征的词叫做拟声词 (Onomatopoeia) ,这是人类语言共有的现象,
是词汇产生的途径之一。英汉语中存在大量模仿人类、动植物、事物声响的拟声词。下面进行
粗略分类。
(一)拟声词的类型
1.模仿人类发出的声响
呸 (boo) , 咦 , 啊 (Oh / Ah) , 喔 , 唉 , 哟 , 哇 (wow) , 哎 哟 / 啊 唷 (ouch / ow) , 阿 哈
(aha),嘘(sh),嗯(ahem),呃啾;hurrah(呜啦),giggle(咯咯笑),patter(嗒嗒地疾行), clap(啪
啪地拍掌)
2.模仿动物发出的声响
汉语 英语 汉语拟声词 英语拟声词
狮 lion 吼 roar, howl
虎 tiger 啸 howl, roar
象 elephant 吼叫 trumpet
狼 wolf 嗥 howl
狗 dog 汪汪叫 bark, wowwow, yap,
yelp
狐 fox 叫 yelp, bark
猫 cat 咪咪叫/喵喵叫 mew, miaow, miau,
meow
鼠 mouse 吱吱叫 squeak, peep
猪 pig 咕噜叫/哼哼叫 grunt, squeal
熊 bear 叫 growl
猿 ape 啼/啸 gibber
猴 monkey 吱吱叫 screech, gibber
公牛 bull 哞哞叫 bellow, low
母牛 cow 哞哞叫 low
小牛 calf 哞哞叫 bleat
水牛 buffalo 哞哞叫 boo
骆驼 camel 叫 grunt
鹿 deer 鸣 call, bell, bellow
羊 sheep, goat 咩咩叫 baa, bleat
马 horse 嘶 neigh, whinny
驴 ass, donkey 叫 bray, hee-haw
兔 rabbit 叫 mumble
公鸡 cock 喔喔叫 crow, cock-a-doodle-
doo
母鸡 hen 咯咯叫 cackle, cluck
小鸡 chicken 叽叽喳喳 cheep
鸭 duck 嘎嘎叫 quack

128
鹅 goose 嘎嘎叫 cackle, gaggle
鸽 dove, pigeon 咕咕叫 coo
斑鸠 turtle-dove 啾啾 wail
天鹅 swan 鸣,叫 chant, cry
乌鸦 crow, raven 哇哇叫 caw, croak
鹧鸪 partridge 咕咕叫 call
鹦鹉 parrot 叫 prat, squawk
孔雀 peacock 鸣 scream
云雀 lark 鸣,叫 sing
喜雀 magpie 喳喳叫 chatter, clatter
麻雀 sparrow 叽叽喳喳 chirp
夜莺 nightingale 鸣,叫 warble
画眉 mavis 鸣,叫 quaver
布谷 cuckoo 鸣,叫 cuckoo
白鹤 crane 唳 whoop
燕 swallow 叫 chirp, twitter
海鸥 gull 叫 mew
鹰 eagle 叫 scream
雁 wild-goose 叫 honk
鲸 whale 叫 blow
蛙 frog 呱呱叫 croak
蟾蜍 toad 鸣,叫 shriek
蛇 snake 咝咝声 hiss
蜜蜂 bee 嗡嗡声 buzz, hum
黄蜂 wasp 嗡嗡声 hum
蟋蟀 cricket 唧唧叫 chirp, chirrup
蝉 cicada 鸣,叫 chirp, chirrup
甲虫 beetle 叫 drone, boom
蚱蜢 grasshopper 鸣,叫 chirp
蚊 mosquito 嗡嗡声 hum, buzz, drone
树叶 tree, leaf 飒飒声 rustle

3.模仿事物发出的声响
汉语 英语
当啷 clank, clang
当当 rattle
叮当 jingle, jangle, tinkle
咚咚 rub-a-dub, rat-tat, rat-a-tat
梆梆 rat-tat
咕咚 thud, splash, plump
哗啦 crash, clank
嘎吱 creak
喀嚓 crack, snap
潺潺/淙淙 murmur, babble
咕嘟 babble, gurgle
嘟嘟/呜呜 toot, hoot
扑通 flop, thump, splash

129
扑哧 titter, snigger, fizz
轰隆 rumble, hum
汩汩 swish
滴嗒 tick

(二)拟声词的语法功能
汉语拟声词多为形容词,有时也用作动词,与”声”、”响”等词连用,可构成名词词
组,与”地一声”(有时不需要)搭配可构成句子谓语的状词,其性质类似于副词。相应地,
汉语拟声词在句中可充当独立成分、谓语、定语、状语、宾语等,其中以独立成分居多。例如:
(1)哈哈哈,这不要紧! (独立成分)
Ha! Ha! Ha! What does it matter?
(2) 秋风飒飒。(谓语)
The autumn wind is soughing in the trees.
(3) 嗞嗞的声响(定语)
sizzling sound
(4) 突然他听到门”吱”地一声开了,他弟弟走了近来。(状语)
Suddenly he heard the door creak and saw his brother enter.
(5) 敲了两下门,心上还突突直跳。(状语)
He knocked twice at the gate, his heart thudding violently.
(6) 天空中划过一道成 V 字形的白色闪电,紧接着传来一声霹雳,然后是深沉的隆隆雷
声。(宾语,定语)
White jagged lightning, followed by the brazen clash and deep rumble of
thunder.
英语拟声词可用作名词、动词、副词和感叹词,在句中可作主语、谓语、宾语、补语和状语。
现以英语拟声词 bang 举例说明。
(7) The angry husband shut the door with a bang. (名词,补语)
生气的丈夫砰地把
(8) My heart is banging in my ears. (动词,谓语)
我听见自己的心脏在砰砰地跳动。
(9) The drunken drivers drove bang into the store windows. ( 副词,状语)
醉醺醺的司机开车砰地撞进了商店的橱窗。
(10) “Bang! Bang!” shouted the boys in imitation of gunfire. (感叹词,宾语)
男孩们高喊”砰!砰!”模仿着枪声。
(三)拟声词的翻译
1.直译
直译法分两种情形:一是英汉语中存在对应的拟声词的情形,可用拟声词译拟声词;
二是译入语中不存在对应的拟声词,以音译法直译,即创造新的拟声词。例如:
(11) “Sssh!” cautioned the giant, placing a forefinger to his lips… (Tarzan, 电
影《人猿泰山》)
“嘘——!” 巨人把食指放在唇边警告道……
(12) “呃啾”!的一声响,爱姑明知道是七大人打喷嚏了,但不由得转过眼去看。 (鲁迅:
《离婚》)
“Ah-tchew!”
Thought Aigu knew it was only Seventh Master sneezing, she could not help

130
turning to look at him.
2.意译
意译法也分两种情形:一是用译入语中意义近似的拟声词翻译拟声词;二是减词,即
隐去拟声词,只译其意义。例如:
(13) “得,得,得”,坚硬的路面上响着连接不断的马蹄声。
A hammering clatter of hoofs is beating the hard road.
(14) “哥哥哟!”笼里的鹦鹉一声怪叫。
“My dear!” squawked the parrot in the cage.
(15) The train puffed toward Tokyo from Shendai.
火车从仙台开往北京。
3.转换
转换包括拟声词的词性和句子成分的转换,二者在翻译过程中一般同时发生,如:
(16) 北风吹得呼呼的。
A north wind is whistling. (形容词变动词,补语变谓语,采用近似拟声词意译)
(17) 卜卜卜 -- 机关枪的声音又跟着来。(茅盾:《子夜》)
The staccato chatter of a machine-gun was heard again. (原文作独立成分的拟
声词变为译文的主语)
拟声词的翻译要特别注意语境。同一个拟声词在不同的情形下,翻译可能会不一样,不
能按照上面提供的英汉对应拟声词表死译。例如英语拟声词 rumble 在 Thunder rumbled in the
distance. / The cart rumbled past. / His stomach rumbled emptily.三个句子中就要分别译成汉语
的”隆隆”、”轱辘”以及”咕咕”。

【实例分 析】
(1)记得六七年前初来上海读书,校里的功课特别忙,往往自修到午夜;那年偏又多雨,淅
淅沥沥,打窗飘瓦,常常扰乱我看书的情趣。(唐弢:《故乡的雨》)
I remember when I first came to Shanghai to attend school six or seven years ago, I used to be so
very busy with my homework that I often had to sit up late into the night. As it happened to be a
rainy year, I was often disturbed by the pitter-patter of rain beating down against the window and
roof. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文的拟声词“淅淅沥沥”,被译成英语拟声词“pitter-patter”。
(2)A humming bee hummed, a cow-bell tinkled, while some suspicious cracklings told of a
secretly reconnoitering squirrel. (Jennie Gerhardt by Theodore Dreiser)
一个蜜蜂营营的叫,一个牧牛铃叮当的鸣,同时有一种可疑的悉索声,报告一只松鼠正在
秘密侦察。(傅东华 译)
[ 分析 ] 原文重复的拟声词 hum ,在译文中被一个重复的拟声词”营营”替代,还有
tinkle 和 cracklings 的翻译都保存了原来的句子成分,以意义近似的拟声词译之。
(3)How the devil can I sew on a button with this gibbering and buzz in my ears?(Life with Father
by Clarence Day)
耳朵里只听见叽哩呱喇,营营嗡嗡,你叫我怎么钉纽子?(吕淑湘 译)
[分析] gibbering 和 buzz 分别译为”叽哩呱喇”和”营营嗡嗡”,是以近义的拟声词译拟
声词。
(4)一个身穿和服的中年男人,脚上穿着木屐,“提塔提塔”的来了。(庐隐:《异国秋思》)
Then we noticed a middle-aged man in kimono and clogs clattering up to eye us closely. (张培
基译)

131
[分析]“提塔提塔”译成 clattering,此外译文还有增词(we noticed 和 to eye us closely)和
减词(“脚上”)。
(5)……骨头已青;佗用力刮骨,悉悉有声。(罗贯中:《三国演义》)
He found the bone much discoloured, but he scraped it clean. “Hsi, hsi,” went the knife over the
surface.
[分析]原文拟声词”悉悉”,在译入语中没有对应的拟声词,因此译者创造了一个新词
hsi。
(6)外面打地基的小工们聚集在一起,迎着阳光由远处”哼哼唷,哼哼唷”地又以整齐严肃的
步伐迈到楼前。(曹禺:《日出》)
… and outside the window the labourers working on the foundations of the new building have
already assembled and now, with the sun on their faces, they are coming closer and closer with
grave, rhythmical tread, their “hung-hung-yow, hung-hung-yow” sounding in the distance.
[分析] 由于“哼哼唷”为汉语特有,译者新创拟声词“hung-hung-yow”。
(7)连夜雨雪,一点星光都看不见。(冰心:《雨雪时候的星辰》)
It had been snowing all night, not a single star in sight.(张培基 译)
[ 分析 ] 此例不属于拟声词的翻译,而是有关音韵的翻译问题。 night 与 sight 押脚韵,
single,star,sight 押头韵。原文无此音韵,乃锦上添花之功,属于可遇不可求的神来之译笔。
翻译中允许适当地增加音韵,同样也允许适当地添加拟声词,以使译文生动活泼,如 The
child fell into the water.可译为”小孩扑通落到水中去了”。只是要注意,添加的拟声词应为
原文语境所有,否则不能添加。

五、双关
(一)双关语的类型
据《现代汉语词典》,双关(Pun)指“用词造句时表面上是一个意思,而暗中隐藏着另一
个意思”(1999:1180)。表面意义为明义,隐藏意义是暗义,英汉语都有双关,都是利用双
重情景实现双重意义的表达;同时制造双关的手段也很相似,主要是同音异义双关和同形
异义双关。例如:
(1) 西边日出东边雨,道是无晴却有晴。(“晴”音若”情”, 同音异义双关)
In the east the sun is rising;
In the west rain is falling;
Can you see if it’s fair or foul? (张其春 译)
(2) 此次亚洲杯中国队打好了自不必说,即使把名次打得” 七上八下”,但”预防针”打了 --
练兵嘛,主要是”比作风”,成绩不重要。(同形异义双关,即成语喻义和字面意义双关)
It is the wish of all Chinese people that China’s men’s football team can play
well in the Asian Cup. It doesn’t matter even if the performance of the team
is not so good as is hoped because word has been given in advance that the
competitive spirit is more important than the result.
(3) You earn your living and you urn your dead. (同音异义双关)
人们谋求生计,火化死者。
(4) An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his
country.
大使是为了本国利益而在国外撒谎(或居住)的诚实人。(同形异义双关,lie 可作”居住”
或”撒谎”双重理解)
(二)双关的翻译

132
1.直译
双关含有双重意义即明义和暗义,一般不适合直译。若要直译,须将两重意思和盘托出。
有时择其一种翻译,另一种意义紧随其后,置于圆括号内。例如:
(5) Perhaps from some vague rumour of his college honours, which had
been whispered abroad on his first arrival, perhaps because he was an
unmarried, unencucumbered gentleman, he had been called the Bachelor.
(Charles Dickens: The Old Curiosity Shop)
也许是因为他初来时大家交头接耳说他在大学里有过学位,也许是因为他是一位没有结
婚、无拘无束的绅士,他便被称为光棍学士。
(6) Judge: “What made you think that you could park your car there?”
Tourist: “Well, there was a big sign that read: ‘Fine for Parking’.”
法官:”你怎么想到了把车停在那里?”
游客:”喔,那里有个大牌子,上面写着’停车的好地方(此处停车罚款)’。”
2.译明义法
只译双关语的明义,暗义略却不译,如:
(7) 我说你们没见过世面,只认得这果子是”香芋”,却不知盐课林老爷的小姐才是真正
的”香玉”呢! (曹雪芹:《红楼梦》,杨宪益 译)
It is you who are mistaken. You have seen too little of the world to
understand. The daughter of our respected salt commissioner Lin is also a
sweet potato. She is the sweetest sweet potato of them all. (译文只译了明义
”芋”,未译暗义”玉”)
3.译暗义法
(8) “娘,他们……是要剥我们中国人的脸皮啊,你知道吗?”
骄阳下,柳树上,回答他的是一片”知了,知了”的蝉声。(毛炳甫:《剥皮香蕉》)
“Mother, what they asked me to do was not …but to lose face for all
Chinese! Don’t you see ?”
In the scorching sun, from the willow tree, came the confirming reply of the
cicada’s chirrup: ”see, see…” (”知了,知了”本为无意义的拟声词,这里被作者
赋予”知道,明白”之意义)
4.补偿
从符号学的意义观看,双关是一种语言的内部意义即同一语言系统的语词在音、形、义
上的联系。不同的语言系统具有各自的语言内部意义体系。大多数情况下,双关是不可译的,
但可以利用译入语的其他修辞手段给以弥补。例如上面的”道是无晴却有晴”被译成 Can
you see if it’s fair or foul?,就利用英语的头韵(fair or foul)对双关的损失进行了补偿。下面再
举一例。
(9) 胡太太叹了口气,看见胡国光还是一肚子心事似的踱方步。
“张铁嘴怎么说的?”胡太太惴惴的问。
“很好,不用担心了。我还有委员的福分呢!”
“么事的桂圆!”
“是委员!从前行的是大人老爷,现在行的是委员了!你还不明白?” (茅盾:《动摇》)
Madame Hu gave a sigh and watched her husband anxiously pacing about
as before.
“What did Chang Tieh-tsui say?” she asked timidly.
“He gave me very good news. We need not look for trouble, I have the

133
possibility of being a member of a Committee!”
“What’s a common tea?” asked the wife, who only vaguely caught the
sound.
“A committee! Lords and esquires are out of date, and the prevailing
nomination is to a committee. Don’t you still understand?” (钱歌川 译)
原文的谐音双关在译文中巧妙地再现出来,但意义已发生变化:”桂圆”竟然成了”
普通茶”(common tea)!真可谓译事有得必有失,”此事古难全”!
5.加注
由于两种语言内部意义的差异,在译文中将双关语的双重意义天衣无缝地表达出来,
常常是不可能的。为了帮助译入语读者了解原作双关语的内涵,译者只有借助于注释。可以
是译明义法+注释,也可以是译暗义法+注释,还可以是意译+注释。例如:
(10) The professor rapped on his desk and shouted, “Gentlemen, order!”
The entire class yelled, “Beer!”
教授敲击讲台并大声说:”先生们,安静!”
全班大声回应道:”啤酒!”
注释:order 既可理解为”安静”,也可理解成”点菜(吃的、喝的均可)”。教授的本意显然
是前一意义,这是明义。学生却故意理解为后一种意义,因而才有点啤酒的回答。(译明义
法+注释)
(11) Diner: “Waiter, this soup is spoiled.”
Waiter: ”Who told you?”
Diner: “A little swallow.”
食客:“服务员,这汤坏了。”
服务员:“谁说的?”
食客:“一只小燕子。”
注释:swallow 既可作”吞,咽”讲,又可理解成”燕子”。显然,食客说 A little swallow
的本意是”喝了一小口”,这是明义。听者或读者当然也可理解为”一只小燕子”,这是暗
义。只有理解为暗义,这则对话才能产生幽默感。(译暗义法+注释)
(12) We must all hang together, or we shall all hang separately. (Benjamin
Franklin)
如果我们不团结在一起,我们将一个个被绞死。
注释:hang 这里有”团结”和”绞死’两重意义,为同形同音异义双关。(意译+注释)

【实例分 析】
(1)一个学生的家长又将向他诉苦,“毕业,毕我的业!” (师陀:《邮差先生》)
A father would grumble to him again about his own student-son, “Hum, to see him finish school…
I’ll be finished myself!” (张培基 译)
[分析]原文“毕业,毕我的业!”是双关语,意即“等他毕业,我就完蛋了”。译者选
用“finish”表达“毕业”和“完蛋”的双关义。此外,“ Hum”为增词,表达原文字里行间
说话者的不满情绪。
(2)”妈妈,你放心,两个奶哥哥都交给我,你从小奶的儿子,你还有什么不知他那脾气的。
拿着皮肉,倒往那不相干的外人身上贴。可是现在放着奶哥哥,那一个不比人强,你痛顾照
看他们,谁敢说个不字,没的白便宜了外人。——我这话也说错了。我们看着是’外人’,你
却看着’内人’一样呢。” (曹雪芹:《红楼梦》)
“Leave your two boys to me, Nannie. I’ll look after them! You know all about Lian’s little ways

134
because you nursed him when he was a baby: he’ll give the dearest thing he has to some nobody
he’s picked up outside, yet his own two foster-brothers who are much nicer young men than any of
his favourites he neglects completely. If only you would take a bit of interest in them, Lian, you
wouldn’t hear a word of complaint from anyone, instead of wasting your kindness on those—little
male misses of yours! I shouldn’t have called them “misses” , though you treat the misses as your
missus and give me the miss! (杨宪益 译)
[ 分析 ] “ 内人”为双关语,既可指”妻子”,又可指”自己人”。译文用 male misses,
misses, missus, miss 的重复以补偿原文双关的丢失。译文中的 give me the miss 意为”把我忽
略”。
(3)Women have a wonderful sense of right and wrong, but little sense of right and left. (Don
Herold)
女性对善与恶具有惊人的感觉,但对左和右则感觉甚微。
注释:该句借双关语讽刺女性方向感差,开车左右不分。
[分析] right 为同形异义双关,译文采用意译+注释法。
(4)”My Faith is gone!” cried he, after one stupefied moment. “There is no good on earth; and sin
is but a name. Come, devil, for to thee is this world given.” (Nathaniel Hawthorne: Young
Goodman Brown)
“我的费丝完了!”他呆了一刹那,大叫起来,”在人世间没有善,而罪恶只不过是一个空名
而已;来吧,魔鬼,这世界是属于你的。”
注释:Faith 为 Goodman Brown 的妻子的名字;作为普通名词 faith 有”信仰、忠诚”之义。
Brown 虔诚信教,祈求上帝保佑其妻子不死。岂知上帝不灵,其妻最后病故。他便喊出了”
My Faith is gone!”(“我的信仰完了!”),这是句充满悲愤和绝望的双关语。
[分析]双关语的翻译一般都需要解释。例如上面的译文,只译了 Faith 的明义,不作解
释,仅凭译文,我国读者是无法了解 Faith 的双关意义的。

第三节 文化翻译

一、成语的翻译
在本书前面的有关章节中,我们在讨论翻译的文化难点以及替代法和还原法两种技巧
时,就涉及到成语(习语)的翻译。成语的翻译既关乎文化背景知识的理解,又牵涉到翻译策
略和技巧的运用,是英汉对译的一大难点,下面进行粗略的探讨。
(一)汉、英习语文化的相似性
国俗语义学的创立者王德春先生认为,词语的国俗语义 (即文化意义) 在跨文化言语交
际中呈现出同异并存的现象;但异是绝对的、无条件的,同则是相对的、有条件的。汉英习语
文化的“同”更多地表现在其转喻的意义上而非语言外形和表述方式上。任何习语都包含以
下三要素::语言外壳,表达方式,本义。有些习语还有转义即比喻意义。汉英习语文化的相
似性包括形义和表达方式完全相同或基本相同的各类习语。在汉语和英语中,形义(包括喻
义) 完全相同的习语为数极少,但并非没有。这种全同性反映了两个民族在对自然现象、人
类社会的理解和意义抽象上的高度一致,是人类逻辑思维共性的体现。例如,汉语里的“浑
(混) 水摸鱼”,比喻乘混乱的机会攫取不正当的利益。英语习语 to fish in muddy / troubled
water,意为 to take advantage of troubled or uncertain condition for personal profit。二者从语言
外形到喻义都惊人地相似。又如“晴天霹雳”,喻指突然发生令人感到意外的震惊事件。英
语里也有一个完全对应的习语 a bolt from the blue,意为 sth. unexpected and unpleasant。两者
唯一的差异是正式的等级不同。“晴天霹雳”较为正式, 而 a bolt from the blue 为非正式用语。

135
汉语和英语里结对成双的习语还有“趁热打铁”—— to strike while the iron is hot,“骑虎难
下”——to ride the tiger,“随波逐流”——to go with the tide 等等。
在汉英习语中,形义基本相同者占有相当比例。这类对应习语的特征表现为喻义完全相
同,语言外形稍有差异。例如,“破釜沉舟”源于《史记·项羽本纪》,比喻断绝退路,决一死战。
to burn one’s boat 同为典故,讲的是罗马皇帝凯撒率兵渡过意大利中部的卢比孔河 (the
Rubicon) 后烧掉所有船只,自绝后路。两者喻义完全相同,都有“下定最大决心”之意,只
是在语言外形上英语习语没有“破釜”的意象。“胆小如鼠”和 as timid as a rabbit 喻义和表
达方式完全相同,差别在于比喻结构中的喻体,一为“鼠”,一为“兔”。这类习语可列出
很多,如 slippery as an eel ——溜滑得像泥鳅,like a cat on hot bricks ——像热锅上的蚂蚁,
to drink like a fish ——牛饮,to laugh off one’s head ——笑掉大牙,Talk of the devil, and he
will appear ——说曹操曹操到,等等。形义基本相同的另一种情形是语言外形相同,喻义稍
有差别。如 in the same boat,喻指同处于某一困境,口语色彩浓厚;“同舟共济”为书面语,
比喻同心协力共渡难关。
(二)汉、英习语文化的差异性
中英两国在地理气候、社会历史、宗教信仰、风土人情等方面存在诸多差异,并反映在习
语中。以宗教信仰为例,汉语里有许多习语出自佛、儒、道文化,如佛教的“逢场作戏”,“
看风使舵”,“佛口蛇心”, 儒家的“君子成人之美,不成人之恶”,“富贵不能淫 , 贫
贱不能移,威武不能屈”,道家的“魔高一尺,道高一丈”等。英语民族多为基督徒,因而
不少习语来自《圣经》,如大家熟悉的 apple of one’s eye, to wash one’s hands of,to turn a
deaf ear to,an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth ,the salt of the earth,Judas kiss 等。且拿
“佛口蛇心”与 Judas kiss 作对比分析。前者典出《五灯会元·净慈昙密禅师》:“诸佛出世,
打劫杀人,祖师西来,饮风放火,古今善知识佛口蛇心,天下衲僧自投笼槛。”喻指嘴上说
得好听,心地极其狠毒。Judas kiss 出自《马太福音》26 章 48 节:Now His betrayer had given
them a sign, saying,“Whomever I kiss, He is the One; seize Him. ” (那出卖耶酥的给了他们一个
暗号, 说: “我吻谁, 谁就是他。你们可以拿住他。”) 。后用“犹大之吻”比喻貌似亲善实际阴
险。二习语由于不同的文化渊源而义同形殊。这是习语文化差异性的一种表现形式,此外还
有形义皆异,形同义反等。英国是个四面环海的国家,海运业发达。因而,英语里有许多关
于 ship,sea,water 的习语,如 when one’s ship comes home, 大致相当于汉语习语“衣锦
还乡”。在古代中国,科举制度发达,金榜题名是穷读书人入仕腾达的唯一途径。俗有“三
年清知府,十万雪花银”之说。那些衙门老爷老来辞官卸甲,哪一个不是身裹绫罗,车载金
银珠宝,荣归故里。而过去英国人发财的一大途径是海上抢劫和海外殖民掠夺。当船归来之
日,即是金银满舱,发财暴富之时。可见,习语蕴藏着丰富的民族文化内涵。这样义同形殊
的汉英习语数量颇多,如对牛弹琴—— to cast pearls before swine ,树倒猢狲散—— Rats
desert a sinking ship,半斤八两——six of one and half a dozen of the other,张三、李四或王五
——any Tom , Dick or Harry 等等。
汉语和英语中有一部分习语语言外形不同,喻义也不完全对应。例如 apple of one’s
eye,有人译作“掌上明珠”。“掌上明珠”比喻深受钟爱的人,如晋·傅玄《短歌行》有:“
昔君视我,如掌中珠;何意一朝,弃我沟渠。”后来,此习语喻义缩小,多指极受父母珍爱
的儿女。apple of one’s eye 除了喻指“极为珍视的人”之外,还可指“瞳孔,瞳仁”。to kill
two birds with one stone 与“一箭双雕”在语义上也不完全对应。前者意为 to do two things,
achieve two objectives, by means of a single action ( 做一件事达到两个目的 ):而“一箭双雕”
除了此义外,还指射箭技术高超。to kill two birds with one stone 在语义上更接近另一汉语习
语“一举两得”。在汉英习语系统中,个别习语在语言外形上惊人地相似,而喻义却正好相
反。这类习语最易迷惑读者和译者,需要特别注意。例如,to have a bone in one’s throat 与“

136
骨鲠在喉”,前者为口语,是一种幽默语言,意为 a feigned excuse for keeping silent( 不愿发
言之借口)。而后者意思正好相反,比喻心中有话,不说出来不痛快。
习语文化空缺指习语所反映的文化在对方文化系统中不存在。例如,the Trojan horse 与
“木牛流马”,前者源自古希腊文化。在特洛伊战争中,希腊士兵藏于木马腹中,混入特洛
伊城作为内应。“木牛流马”典出《三国演义》,是诸葛亮为运送粮草所设计的能自动行走的
工具。同为木马,渊源不同,功用不同,一个有喻义(特洛伊木马喻指内部的破坏集团),一
个无喻义。
(三)习语的翻译
如何传递习语中的文化信息是一个很复杂的问题。就拿直译来说。A rolling stone gathers
no moss(滚石不生苔) 是本杰明·富兰克林的名言,揭示的是自然界的真理,即使是逐字照译
到汉语中,中国读者很容易就能悟出其中的哲理。而 the Trojan horse 的汉译“特洛伊木马”
同样是直译,汉语读者却不能直接从字面了解它的文化内涵。中国读者通过注释才知道它的
真正含义并逐渐接受了它。可见,同为直译,有的习语的文化内涵可以被表现,有的却不能。
对于 the Trojan horse,如果我们舍其形,取其意,该习语的文化特色将丧失殆尽。所以,意
译照样行不通。“特洛伊木马”已经融入汉语文化这一事实说明直译加注翻译法是传译文化
色彩浓厚的习语的一种妥协手段。下面谈谈习语翻译的具体方法。
1.直译
汉语文化是一种强势文化,具有化异能力,能够容纳差异性。对于文化意蕴浅显、反映
客观真理、夸张比喻型习语,不妨采用直译,将其移植到译入语中,如上文中的 A rolling
stone gathers no moss。又如 to laugh off one’s head 与 to look for a needle in a haystack,有人竭
力地把它们向汉语归化,认为“ to laugh off one’s head ,笑掉的就应该是‘大牙’ 而不是
‘脑袋’,to look for a needle in a haystack ,就不是‘草堆觅针’而是‘大海捞针’。”这
种观点值得商榷。笔者以为,归化译法具有存在的价值,主要适用于实物名称的翻译,如
black tea 译入汉语,就应当是“红茶”而不是“黑茶”,英国人以茶叶的颜色取名,中国
人以茶水的颜色取名。实名乃约定俗成,翻译应以译入语实名体系为参照。否则,容易造成
名称混乱,使译语读者摸不着头脑。反过来,汉语“红糖”译入英语应为 brown sugar 而非
red sugar,道理一样。
文化习语的翻译一般不宜采用归化译法。如“目不识丁”,对于其中的“丁”字,有人
主张采用引借法翻译,认为“‘丁’表示识字初阶,可以借用英语的 ABC”。笔者不敢苟同。
其一,丁字象形,反映的是汉民族独特的语言文化,不宜隐去不译;其二,若用 ABC 替代
“丁”字,汉语习语的客籍不显;其三,英语的 ABC 与“丁”字的含义也不完全对等。在
所有汉字中,丁字是最易识之字。“目不识丁”形容人一字不识。而英语里的 ABC,其意一
为代表 26 个英语字母,如 She already knows her ABC;二为表示某门学问的基础知识,如
classes in the ABC of cooking (烹饪入门课程) 。“目不识丁”可采用直译加括注法翻译,将
“丁”字移植到英语中去: One does not recognize 丁(The Chinese character 丁 is the easiest to
recognize for the Chinese)。
人类的逻辑思维方式大体一致。人人都有喜怒哀乐,只是各民族的语言表达方式有时不
太一致。同为描写大笑,中国人说“笑掉大牙”,英国人说“笑掉脑袋”。二者同为违反逻
辑的夸张表达法,互为移植,读者能够理解和接受,同时也保持了客籍标记。同理,to look
for a needle in a haystack 译作“草堆觅针”而非“海底捞针”。再如比喻类习语,中国人形
容胆小说“胆小如鼠”,英国人则说“胆小如兔” (as timid as a rabbit)。鼠兔本性胆小,汉
英民族对此当无异议。因此,翻译时利用双方现存习语互换喻体即可。这样,中国人一见到
“胆小如兔”,就知道它是英语习语;英国人见到 as timid as a mouse,知道它是汉语习语。
2.直译+注释

137
直译加注本质上还是文化移植,它既保留了原习语的外形,又交待了习语的文化背景
及文化意义。汉语和英语中与人名、地名和历史事件有关的习语都可采用这种译法,如 to
meet one’s Waterloo, Achilles’heel, as poor as Job, Judas kiss 等等。as poor as Job 可译为“穷得
像约伯”,并注;约伯是《圣经》中的人物,善忍,上帝为了考验他,让他从极富变为极穷。
Achilles’heel 直译为“阿基里斯的脚踵”,并注;典出希腊神话。传说阿基里斯除脚踵外全
身刀枪不入。因此,“阿基里斯的脚踵”就成了“致命弱点”的代名词。
汉语里的类似习语如“塞翁失马,焉知非福”,“姜太公钓鱼,愿者上钩”,“项庄
舞剑,意在沛公”,“愚公移山”等不采用直译加注法,外国读者难明其意。譬如“姜太公钓
鱼,愿者上钩”,比喻心甘情愿上圈套。不了解中国历史文化的西方人不知道姜太公为何许
人。因此,有必要在直译后加脚注或尾注;Chang Sheng of the eleventh century B. C. was said
to fish by the Weishi River ( present Shensi), holding a line with no hook or bait, three feet above
the water and saying at the same time,“Whoever is ordained, come and take the bait. ”(杨宪益译)。
3.直译+解释
直译加注是翻译中的下下之策,因为它有一个最大缺点,不方便读者阅读。读者要透彻
领悟原习语文化,必须暂时抛开正文去看脚注或文后注。而直译加解释翻译法可以避免这种
缺 点 , 它 既 保 存 了 原 习 语 的 本 来 面 目 , 又 传 达 了 它 的 文 化 意 义 。 如 to carry coals to
Newcastle,可译作“把煤运到纽卡斯尔——多此一举”。译者无须对纽卡斯尔作注,读者
从译文字面就能猜出纽卡斯尔必为煤产地。A skeleton in the cupboard 译作“橱柜里的骷髅—
—见不得人的丑事”,Pandora’s box 译作“潘多拉的匣子——祸患之源”等等。
此法亦适用于某些汉语习语。例如,“临时抱佛脚”可译作 to embrace Buddha’s feet in
one’s hour of need——to seek help at the last moment ; “ 五 十 步 笑 百 步 ” 译 作 one who
retreats fifty paces mocks one who retreats a hundred——the pot calls the kettle black ;“月下
老人”译作 the Old Man of the Moon——the god who unites persons in marriage 等。
4.增词法
增译与直译加解释不同。直译加解释是点明习语的整个喻义。增译是对习语中某个成份
或者隐含成份的补充说明,有时是为了符合译入语的表达习惯。例如, flesh and blood 译作
“血肉之躯”,in two minds 译作“三心二意”,to ride the tiger 译作“骑虎难下”。同样,
“牛郎织女”,“三个臭皮匠,合成一个诸葛亮”分别译作 the Herd Boy and the Spinning
Maid separated by the Milky Way 和 Three cobblers with their wits combined would equal Zhuge
Liang the master mind。
5.套译
汉英习语互译,还可以套用相互的表达方式,以保持习语特色。例如,“说曹操 , 曹操
到”可套 Talk of the devil , and he will (is sure to ) appear ,译作 Talk of Tsao Tsao, and he will
(is sure to) appear ; “ 鱼 米 之 乡 ” 可 套 用 land of milk and honey , 译 作 land of fish and
rice;“落汤鸡”和“落水狗”可套用 wet as a drowned rat ,译作 wet as a drowned chicken /
dog;“树倒猢狲散”可套用 Rats desert a sinking ship,译作 Monkeys desert a falling tree。
反过来,英语习语 to lead a dog’s life 可套用“过牛马不如的生活”,译作“过 (猪) 狗
不如的生活”; stubborn as a mule 可套用“犟牛”,译作“犟骡”; to spend money like
water 可套用“挥金如土”,译作“花钱如水”等等。我们认为,套译是习语文化翻译一个
行之有效的办法。
6.意译
上面介绍的翻译方法都与直译有关。站在保持习语本来面貌的立场,译者必须牢记:能
直译时且直译。当然,直译诸法不可能解决习语文化翻译的所有问题,有时需要意译,因为
传递习语的文化意义始终是第一位的,而直译有时做不到。例如,“喜糖”和“泰山”反映

138
中国人的婚俗文化,如果直译为 happy sugar 和 Mount Tai / taishan,外国人会不知所云。“
喜糖”是结婚时招待亲友的糖果,据此可意译为 wedding candy。这里的“泰山”也不是山
东的那个泰山,而是岳丈的别称,应意译为 father of one’s wife 。此外,习语翻译还可运用
语义替代法和还原法,前面已经讨论,这里不再赘述。
总之,习语翻译切忌望文生义。译者必须深入到习语所产生的历史文化背景中去,探寻
它的历史发展轨迹,抓住它的本义、衍生意义和比喻意义。然后,尽可能神形兼备地译出其
文化韵味。习语翻译提倡“拿来主义”。吸取异文化的精髓,增强本民族文化的生命力,是
每个译者的责任。

【实例分 析】
(1)这并不是“人心不古”,实可以说是人生的悲剧。人到成年以后,彼此都有生活的重担须
负,入世既深,顾虑的方面也自然多起来,在交际上不许你不计较,不许你不打算,结果
彼此都“勾心斗角”,像七巧板似地只选定了某一方面和对方去结合。(夏丐尊:《中年人的
寂寞》)
Though this is not necessarily due to “degeneration of public morality”, I do have good reasons to
call it the tragedy of life. People at middle age, with the heavy burden of life and much experience
in the ways of the world, have more scruples about this and that, and cannot choose but become
more calculating in social dealings till they start scheming against each other. They always keep a
wary eye, as it were, on each other in their association. (张培基 译)
[分析]“人心不古”、“勾心斗角”为意译。“像七巧板似地只选定了某一方面和对方去
结合”则按“人们在交往中相互提防,互存戒心”进行意译。
(2)钱钟书在《围城》的序里说,这本书是他“锱铢积累”写成的。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围
城〉》 )
In his preface to Fortress Besieged, Ch’ien Chun-shu says he wrote the book by “putting bits and
ends together”. (凌原 译)
[分析]据《现代汉语词典》,“锱”和“铢”均为古代重量单位,“锱”为一两的四分
之一,“铢”为一两的二十四分之一。“锱铢”合用表示少量的钱或很小的事,这里译者采
用意译。
(3)戏曲里的插科打诨,他不仅且看且笑,还一再搬演,笑得大跌。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与
〈围城〉》 )
He would laugh when taking in impromptu comic gestures and remarks during a drama, and be
beside himself with joy when repeatedly reliving what he had seen. (凌原 译)
[分析]在译文里,“插科打诨”被意译为“即兴的幽默(搞笑)动作和言语”。
(4)”不要动声色,不要打草惊蛇。”邓秀梅低声地、机密地说道……(周立波:《山乡巨变》)
“Don’t say anything about it; we mustn’t beat the grass and startle the snake, “ said Teng Hsiu-mei
in a confidential tone.
[分析]”打草惊蛇”意思浅显,译文用直译法翻译。
(5)什么红白喜事,讨媳妇,死了人,大办其酒席,实在可以不必。(《毛泽东选集》第 5 卷,
470 页)
When people wear red or white, that is, at weddings or funerals, the practice of giving lavish feasts
can well be dispensed with.
[分析]“红白喜事”的意思,在下文中有解释,读者易懂,因此译文基本采用直译。若
是孤立地出现,最好意译为 weddings or funerals。
(6)你不是听过这句话吗?一个和尚挑水喝,两个和尚抬水喝,三个和尚没水喝。(艾芜:《百

139
炼成钢》)
Didn’t you ever hear the saying? A lone monk brings his own bucket of water to drink, two monks
carry their bucket of water jointly, but when three monks are together, there is no water at all.
[分析]”一个和尚挑水喝,两个和尚抬水喝,三个和尚没水喝”采用直译+增词的译法。英
语中有个意义相近的习语: One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy ,因此也
可采用语义替代法翻译。
(7)“……我说二三百两银子,你说二三十两!’戴着斗笠亲嘴,差着一帽子’ !……”(吴敬梓:
《儒林外史》)
“When I say two or three hundred taels, you say twenty or thirty! It’s like kissing in straw helmets
—the lips are far apart!…”
[分析]“戴着斗笠亲嘴,差着一帽子”采用的是直译 +意译相结合的翻译方法,前半部
分为直译,后半部分为意译。直译和意译结合翻译成语很常见,如“瞎子点灯白费蜡”,“
事后诸葛亮”,“不到黄河心不死”可分别译为 as useless as a blind man lighting a candle, to
be wise after the event, Until all is over ambition never dies. 。这三个成语采用直译的部分是“
瞎子点灯”、“事后”、“心不死”,剩余部分采用意译,其中前两个成语的翻译还采用了
词序调整法,即成语的前后两部分颠倒了顺序,以符合英语的表达习惯。
(8)One way to prevent the EC from becoming a modern tower of Babel would be to make English
the Community’s sole official language.
防止欧洲共同体成为现代的通天塔的一个办法,将是使英语成为共同体唯一的官方语言。
[分析]圣经典故 tower of Babel(巴别塔)这里采用意译法。
(9)The laboratory was for him an ivory tower where he could pursue his love of theoretical
science in perfect contentment.
对他来说,实验室是他的象牙塔,在那里他可以称心如意探索理论科学。
注释:ivory tower 为圣经典故,喻指远离日常生活现实的所在,如文学的、艺术的、科学
的想象和抽象理论世界。
[分析] ivory tower 的翻译采用了直译+注释。
(10)When he came back to England at the end of that year, the scales began to fall from his eyes.
那年底回到英国时,他才开始擦亮眼睛,把事情看得清楚一些。
[分析] the scales began to fall from his eyes 为圣经典故,意思是”恍然大悟”。译文采用意
译。
(10)A man of good character wears Joseph’s coat just as Joseph defied the temptation of
Potiphar’s wife.
品德高尚的人拒绝女性的诱惑,正如约瑟夫拒绝波提乏妻子的诱惑一样。
[分析] to wear Joseph’s coat 为圣经典故,这里意译为” 拒绝女性的诱惑”。圣经传说
中的 Joseph ,很像我国古代的传说人物柳下惠,坐怀不乱。约瑟夫为埃及法老的护卫长
Potiphar 的管家。一天,趁丈夫不在,波提乏的妻子引诱约瑟夫并抓住他的衣服,后者拒绝
诱惑,挣脱着从屋里跑了出来,但衣服落在波提乏妻子手上。后来就用 to wear Joseph’s coat
表示”拒绝女人的引诱”。
(11)”You are the Hand they have sent to Coventry, I mean?” said Bitzer… Stephen answered “Yes,
“ again. (Charles Dickens, Hard Times)
“我想问问,你是不是那个被大家排挤的’人手’?”毕周说……。斯梯芬又回答说”是的”。
[分析]to send sb. to Coventry 为英语口语成语,意思是”排斥某人”、”与某人断交”,
此处为意译。
(12)This is the last straw. He was throwing up her lawless girlhood love to her as an offense.(

140
Theodore Dreiser, The Titan)
她再也忍受不下去了,因为他责备她少女时期的狂妄爱情是一种犯罪。
[分析] the last straw 是英语成语 It is the last straw that breaks the camel’s back.的关键部分,
可以代表该成语,单独使用,意思是”使人忍无可忍的最后一件事”、”导火索”。这里是
根据原文语境含义意译。

二、颜色词的翻译
(一)颜色词的类型
英汉语中有大量的颜色词(color terms),足以展现我们生活于其中的多姿多彩、五光十
色的世界。就英汉语而言,颜色词可分为两大类:简单颜色词与复合颜色词。简单颜色
词指那些表示客观世界中基本颜色的泛称词 (general terms) ,主要包括红 --red ,蓝 --blue ,
黄--yellow,绿--green,黑--black,白--white。复合颜色词指那些处于各种简单颜色词交界面
并以某种简单颜色词为主色的特称词(specific terms),主要是实物颜色词(即表示某一事物
颜色的词)。下面是简单颜色词与各自的复合颜色词构成的颜色词语义场。

简单颜色词 复合颜色词
红色 (red) ruby (深红),crimson (紫红),cheery (樱桃红),scarlet (鲜红),sanguine
(血红),cerise (亮红),maroon (茶色),rosy (玫瑰红),coral (珊瑚色)
蓝色 (blue) azure (天蓝),cerulean (深蓝),sapphire (蓝宝石色),lapis lazuli (天青石
色),indigo (深紫色),turquoise (蓝绿,湖蓝)
黄色 (yellow) lemon (淡黄),canary (鲜黄),gold (金黄),ocher (赭黄),saffron (橘黄),
flaxen (浅黄), blond (金黄)
绿色 (green) chartreuse (黄绿),lime (酸橙色),olive (橄榄色),verdant (翠绿),jade
(翡翠色),emerald (祖母绿)
黑色 (black) jet (黑玉色),raven (乌黑),ebony(乌木色),inky (墨黑),sable (黑貂皮
色),swarthy (黝黑),murky (漆黑)
白色 (white) ivory (象牙色),snowy (雪白),silvery (银白),milky (乳白), ashy /
ashen (灰白),pale / pasty (苍白),grizzled / hoary (灰白),bleached (漂
白),leaden (深灰色),alabaster (雪白),pearly (珍珠白)

通过英语语料库调查发现,合成颜色词的使用频率并不高(诗歌文本除外)。日常写作中,
复合颜色一般由简单颜色词+前置修饰语来表达。例如 cherry,azure,inky,ivory 等实物颜
色词可分别由 bright red,sky-blue,deep black,pure white 等简单颜色词词组代替。
(二)英汉颜色词的语法功能
从语法功能和句法功能看,英汉颜色词主要用作名词、形容词和动词。相应地,它们在
句中充当主语、宾语、定语和谓语等。例如:
(1) 在中国传统文化里,红色代表喜庆。
In traditional Chinese culture red symbolizes celebration and jubilation.
(2) 白发三千丈,缘愁似个长。
My whitening hair would make a long long rope, yet could not fathom all my
depth of woe.
(3) 春风又绿江南岸
The spring breeze greenizes the land south of the Yangtze River again
(4) My love is like a red red rose.
我的爱人像一朵红红的玫瑰。

141
(5) Her face reddened.
她的脸红了。
(三)英汉颜色词的文化内涵
从意义看,英汉颜色词在所指意义上基本一致,但在文化含义上差异较大。下面对 red /
红色,green / 绿色,yellow / 黄色,blue / 蓝色,white / 白色,black / 黑色等简单颜色词在
英汉两种文化中的不同含义略作探讨。
“红色”在汉语文化里表示喜庆、好运,如”红榜”(honor roll)、”红运”(good luck)、”
红利”(dividend)等。Red 在英语里则有”危险”、”暴力”、”血腥”之意,如 red battle(血
战),red ruin(火灾),Red Scare(红色恐怖)等。
“ 绿色”在汉语里的文化内涵不显著,可以象征春天、生命、朝气等,在”戴绿帽子
” be a cuckold / to have an unfaithful wife) 一词里则含有贬义。在英语里,green 则可表示
(to
“嫉妒”、“无经验的”、“财力、金钱”(因为美钞是绿色),如 green-eyed(眼红的),
green-hand(生手),green power(财团)等。
“黄色”在汉语文化里过去与皇帝有关,因为皇帝的衣服是黄袍 (yellow robe)、黄马褂
(yellow mandarin jacket)。在现代汉语中则表示淫秽,如“黄色电影”(blue films)、“黄色新
闻”(sex news),”黄色录像”(pornographic video),”黄色文学”(pornography)。Yellow 在
英语中表示“胆小”、“卑鄙”,也可作为特定事物的标记,如 a yellow dog(卑鄙的人),
a yellow-livered person (胆小鬼), yellow pages (黄页,指电话号码薄), Yellow Book
(黄皮书),yellow boy(金币,俚俗用语)。
“蓝色”在汉语里没有文化内涵。Blue 在英语里可表示”忧郁、沮丧”、”下流、淫秽”、”
高贵的、贵族的”、”出人意料的”等意思,如 to feel blue(感到沮丧),blue talk(下流言论),
blue blood 贵族血统,out of the blue(意想不到),once in a blue moon(千载难逢)等。
“白色”在汉语里主要表示”丧葬”、”纯洁”,如”白喜事”,”白璧无瑕”;此外
还象征反动,或表示不添加任何东西,或表示徒劳,或表示错写错拼等,如”白色恐怖
” (White Terror) ,”白开水” (plain boiled water) ,”白饭” (plain cooked rice) ,”白搭
” (no use) ,”白白” (in vain) ,”白费” ( to be of no avail) ,”白字” (wrongly written or
mispronounced character)等。White 在英语里面除表示”纯洁”外还可表示”善意的”、”昂
贵而无用的”、”胆小的”等意义,如 a white lie(善意的谎言),white elephant(昂贵而又无
用之物),white-livered(胆怯的),white coffee(加牛奶的咖啡)等。
“黑色”在汉语传统文化里与丧葬有关,此外还表示”坏、邪恶”,如”黑心肠” (evil
mind),黑幕”(inside story),”黑手”(evil blackstage manipulator)等。Black 在英语里表示”
不吉利”、”暗淡”、”愤怒”等意思,如 Black Friday(=Good Friday, 黑色星期五 / 耶稣受
难日),black sheep(害群之马),black future(暗淡的前途),to look black at someone(怒目而视)
等。
(四)颜色词的翻译方法
1.直译
如果英汉语的颜色词表达的意思相同,则用直译。例如:
(6) 红旗
red flag
(7) red ink
赤字
(8) He is a tall, burly fellow with long hair and more white than black to his
eyes.
他是个身材高大、长头发、眼球白多黑少的人。

142
(9) 他穿一身浅灰色底子淡蓝色条纹的西装,打着一条玫瑰红的领带。
He was dressed in a European-style suit of a pale-grey material with pale-
blue stripes and a rose-red tie.
2.意译
如果原文颜色词的意思,在译入语中无法用颜色词表达时,则省略颜色词,译其意义。
例如:
(10) 红豆
love pea
(11) in the black
赢利
(12) 我们的工夫全白搭了。
Our efforts were all wasted.
(13) A: “She looks blue today. What’s the matter with her?”
B: “She is in holiday blue.”
甲:“她今天显得闷闷不乐,出了什么事?”
乙:“她得了假期忧郁症。”
3.转换颜色词
当原文颜色词的意义在译入语里用另一种颜色词表达时,就需要转换。例如:
(14) 黄色录像
blue video
(15) brown sugar
红糖
(16) 封面和封底是重磅的米色道林纸,边上打了两个眼。
The covers were of heavy weight, buff-coloured calendered paper with two
holes punched in the edges.
(17) He is a green-eyed monster.
他是个好眼红的人。

【实例分 析】
(1)从严冷枯黄的北方归来,看到展现在我眼前的青山碧水,红花绿叶,使我惊讶而欢喜!
(冰心:《我的父母之乡》)
Having returned from the bitter cold North with its drab and dried up vegetation, I was amazed
and delighted when greeted by the charming scenery of sapphire mountains and emerald rivers as
well as red flowers and green leaves. (张培基 译)
[分析]例中颜色词的翻译运用了两种方法:用英语颜色词直译;用实物颜色词翻译。“
枯黄”的“黄”,“红花绿叶”的“红”、“绿”,直接译为 drab(灰黄色的), red 和
green;“青山碧水”的“青”、“碧”,则分别用实物颜色词 sapphire(青玉/蓝宝石)和
emerald(绿宝石)翻译,一来避免了翻译用字( green)的重复,同时也加强了修辞效果。
此外,“枯黄”译为 drab and dried up ,构成头韵,加强了音效,颇见译者弃 yellow 而用
drab 的苦心与匠心。
(2)蔷薇的花色还是鲜艳的,一朵紫红,一朵嫩红,一朵是病黄的象牙色中带着几分血晕。
(郭沫若:《路畔的蔷薇》)
They (roses) were still fresh in colour. One was purplish-red, another pink, still another a sickly
ivory-yellow slightly tinged with blood-red. (张培基 译)

143
[分析]“紫红”和“血晕”分别直译为“purplish-red”、“blood-red”,“嫩红”的“嫩”
未译出,由“pink”暗示,“病黄的象牙色”分拆重组为“sickly ivory-yellow”。
(3)我携着三个孩子在屋后草场中嬉戏着的时候,夕阳正烧着海上的天壁,眉痕的新月已经
出现在鲜红的云缝里了。(郭沫若:《暮》)
While my three kids, accompanied by myself, were frolicking about on the meadow behind our
home, the sky above the distant edge of the sea was aglow with the setting sun and the crescent
new moon was already peeping out from behind the scarlet clouds. (张培基 译)
[分析]“鲜红”译为“scarlet”,也可用 bright red,但没有前者简练。
(4)房客的家属们哭着诉说着,向我的祖父跪了下来,于是祖父把两匹棕色的马从车上解下
来还了回去。(萧红:《永远的憧憬和追求》)
The tenant’s family came to see grandpa and, dropping to their knees, tearfully related their
troubles. Grandpa unharnessed the two chestnut horses and returned them to the tenant. ( 张培基
译)
[分析]“棕色”译作了实物颜色词“chestnut”。
(5)炭火也正旺,映着那黑色人变成红色,如铁的烧到微红。
…the charcoal was cackling away too and casting a ruddy glow over the dark man, so that he
looked like iron that had turned a faint red.
[分析]原文三个颜色词”黑”、”红色”、”微红”,均采用直译,分别译为 dark,ruddy
和 faint red。此外,译文还增加了拟声词 cackle,造成一种声色和谐感。
(6)Lend you 5 dollars! Do you see any green in my eye?
借 5 美元给你!你以为我就这么容易上当吗?
[分析]” Do you see any green in my eye?”为英语戏谑性口头语。Green 连同整个句子一起采
用意译。
(7)My finger was caught in the crack of the door, and got pinched black and blue.
我的手指夹在门缝里,压得又青又紫。
[分析]按照汉语表达习惯,blue 转换为”紫”。
(8)Whenever anyone teased John about his weight, he saw red.
每当有人对约翰的体重开玩笑时,他就大发雷霆。
[分析]注意英语成语 to see red ,不要想当然地译为”眼红”,它是”发怒”的意思,
借喻公牛见到红色的东西就要狂怒,应采用意译。
(9)A blank, my lord. She never told her love,
But let concealment, like a worm i’ th’ bud
Feed on her damask cheek. She pined in thought;
And, with a green and yellow melancholy
She sat like patience on a monument. Smiling at grief…
(William Shakespeare: The Twelfth Night)
是片空地。她没有透露她的爱意,却让这秘密,像蓓蕾中的害虫,吃她淡红的面颊来养生。
相思使她憔悴,疾病和忧愁折磨着她。像墓碑上头的忍耐,她坐着,看着悲伤微笑。
[分析]” with a green and yellow melancholy”不宜直译为”带着又绿又黄的忧郁”,因为
汉语中的”绿”和”黄”没有”忧郁”之意,只有意译。
(10)I’ll say yon grey is not the morning’s eye.
‘Tis but the pale reflex of Cynthia brow.
(William Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet)
就说那忧郁不是黎明的眼睛,只是月桂暗淡的反映。

144
[分析] grey 与 pale 分别意译为”忧郁”和”暗淡”。

三、文化词语的翻译
每一种语言文化都有自己独特的事物和概念,反映在语言中就是那些负载文化内涵的
词语。关于文化翻译之难,我们在第二章已略作讨论。前面有关成语典故、颜色词的翻译,本
质上也属于文化翻译的范畴。下面我们对文化词语的主要翻译方法作简要介绍。
(一)直译
在文化交流日益频繁的今天,人们对异文化的了解在不断加深。对于某些文化词语,可
以采用直译,译入语读者能够接受、理解,且不会产生误解。例如 a stick-and-carrot policy,
没有必要意译为”软硬兼施”或”恩威并施”,直接译成”胡萝卜加大棒政策”,意思清
楚明了,新鲜生动,还保持了原文特色。
(二)直译+注释
直译最大的优势是能够保持原作的丰姿,其缺点是有时译文意义不够明了。直译加注既
能保持原作语言形式,又能帮助读者了解文化词语的背景和含义,因此是翻译文化词语的
一种重要方法。例如:
(1)O heart, lose not thy nature; let not ever. The soul of Nero enter this firm
bosom. (William Shakespeare: Hamlet,朱生豪 译)
心啊!不要失去你的天性之情,永远不要让尼禄的灵魂潜入我这坚定的胸怀。
注释:尼禄,曾谋杀其母。
如果没有注释,中国读者不禁会问:“尼禄是谁 ?”有了注释,再结合语境,读者便可
理解莎翁使用 Nero 一词的意图:哈姆莱特既恨其母亲负情负义,却又不愿亲手弑之。
(三)直译+解释
注释虽然能比较详细地介绍词语的文化背景,但却打断了读者流畅的阅读。若欲避免此
种弊端,可在正文中添加简练的解释性词语来替代注释,如:
(2) Now he was his valet, his dog, his man Friday. (W. M. Thackeray: Vanity
Fair,杨必 译)
如今便成了他的听差,他的狗,他的忠仆星期五。
man Friday 本是笛福的小说《鲁宾逊漂流记》中主人公的忠仆的名字,这里被萨克雷借
过来用在自己的作品中。man Friday 早已进入英语词典,成为”忠仆”的代名词。译者在直
译”星期五”之前添加了释义性的”忠仆”二字,既简洁又明了。
(四)意译
有时直译颇费笔墨,同时还要加注释。权衡利弊,得不偿失,不如意译来得简洁明了。
例如”辛亥革命”,如果直译,会涉及到中国的传统纪年法,这就需要作注。权衡得失,不
如用意译,译作 the 1911 Revolution (Against Qing Dynasty)。行文简练,是许多老翻译家追
求的目标,如张培基先生,同样也应该成为翻译学习者努力以求的目标。

【实例分 析】
(1)作八股文,作试帖诗,莫非也是趣味么?(梁实秋:《学问与趣味》)
Was he motivated by his personal inclination while learning to write stereotyped essays and poems
prescribed for the imperial civil service examinations? (张培基 译)
[分析]“八股文”、“试帖诗”,是古代科举考试所规定的严格僵死的写诗作文格式,
为汉语特有词汇,翻译时须用释义法将其含义交代清楚。
(2)父亲因为事忙,本已说定不送我,叫旅馆里一个熟识的茶房陪我同去。(朱自清:《背
影》)

145
Father said he was too busy to go and see me off at the railway station, but would ask a hotel
waiter that he knew to accompany me there instead. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ]“ 茶房”旧时指旅馆、餐馆、轮船等内的服务员,现已废弃使用,可用 waiter /
attendant / boy 等译之。此外,“at the railway station”是根据上下文增加的词语。
(3)我看见他戴着黑布小帽,穿着黑布大马褂,深青布棉袍,蹒跚地走到铁道边,慢慢探身
下去,尙不太难。(朱自清:《背影》)
I watched him hobble towards the railway track in his black skullcap, black cloth mandarin jacket
and dark blue cotton-padded cloth long gown. He had little trouble climbing down the railway
track… (张培基 译)
[分析]“马褂”为中国特有事物,与英语文化中的“ jacket”有点相似,所以这里意译为
“ mandarin jacket”(中国式夹克)。
(4)见面时点头或握手,有事时走访或通信,口头上彼此也称“朋友”,笔头上有时或称“仁
兄”,诸如此类,其实只是一种社交上的客套,和“顿首”“百拜”同是仪式的虚设。(夏丐尊:
《中年人的寂寞》)
We may be on nodding or hand-shaking terms, call each other “friend”, sometimes write to each
other with the salutation of “Dear So-and-So”, etc., etc. All these are, in fact, nothing but civilities
of social life, as hypocritical as the polite formula dunshou (kowtow) or baibai (a hundred
greetings) used after the signature in old-fashioned Chinese letter-writing. (张培基 译)
[分析]“顿首”、“百拜”为中国旧式书信中的客套话,这里采用音译并用括号附上解
释性文字)
(5)真正的朋友,恐怕要算“总角之交”或“竹马之交”了。(夏丐尊:《中年人的寂寞》)
Real friendship between two persons originates perhaps from the time of life when they were
children playing innocently together. (张培基 译)
[分析]“总角之交”、“竹马之交”这里为意译。
(6)我跟着祖父的妾宋姨太太寄寓在杭州的花牌楼,间壁住着一家姚姓,她便是那家的女儿,
她本姓杨,住在清波门头,大约因为行三,人家称她作三姑娘。(周作人:《初恋》)
I was living with grandpa’s concubine Song in our temporary home in Hua-Pai-Lou, Hangzhou.
The little girl was our next-door neighbour Yao’s daughter. She had originally been the daughter of
a Yang family in Qing-Po-Meng-Tou. As she was the third child of the family, people called her
San-Gu-Niang. (张培基 译)
[分析]原文中有不少具有中国特色的词汇,如“妾”,“姨太太”,“花牌楼”,“
清波门头”,“行三”,“三姑娘”等。这里,地名“花牌楼”,“清波门头”以及称呼语
“三姑娘”采用音译,其中前二者作为地名标记词虽然字面或有意义,音译即可,无须注
释,而作为称呼语的“三姑娘”,意义明显,须加注,原注为 A Pinyin transliteration of the
Chinese characters meaning Third Daughter,也可在音译后用圆括号将 Third Daughter 括起来
对其释义。“妾”为意译,“姨太太”略去未译,“行三”的翻译用了增词法。
(7)我回来看祖父,这回门前吹着喇叭,幡杆挑得比房头更高,马车离家很远的时候,我已
看到高高的白色幡杆了,吹鼓手们的喇叭怆凉的在悲号。(萧红:《祖父死了的时候》)
On my next return home, I found musicians blowing the suona horn at the gate and funeral
streamers hanging high above the housetop—so high that I had seen them from afar when I was
arriving in the carriage. My carriage pulled up amidst the mournful blare of the suona. ( 张培基
译)
[分析]原文中的“喇叭”实指“唢呐”。译文“suona horn”,前半部为音译,后半部为
意译。

146
(8)在这小城里他兼任邮务员,售票员,但仍旧有许多剩余时间,每天戴上老花眼镜,埋头
在公案上剪裁化样。(师陀:《邮差先生》)
Working in a small town as postman-stamp seller, he still had lots of spare time. Every day he
would sit bending over his desk scissor-cutting flower patterns, wearing a pair of glasses for
farsighted old people. (张培基 译)
[ 分析 ] 原文中的“老花眼镜”即“远视眼镜”,这里解释性地翻译为“ glasses for
farsighted old people”。
(9)他在学校的时候,先生问他:“直隶省的西边是哪一个省?” 胡适:《差不多先生传》)
One day in school, the teacher asked him, “Which province borders Hebei on the west?” ( 张培基
译)
[分析]“直隶”是旧省名,大致与现在的河北省对应,所以可以用后者代替前者,如上
译。当然也可用直译+注释。翻译具有时代性。对于旧有事物,外国读者不一定知道,有时甚
至连本国读者也不一定了解,因此翻译也有时代问题。
(10)有人问:世界上什么东西的力气最大?回答纷纭的很,有的说“象”,有的说“狮”,有
的开玩笑似的说:是“金刚”,金刚有多少力气,当然大家全不知道。(夏衍:《野草》)
Someone asked, “What has the greatest strength on earth?” The answers varied. Some said, “The
elephant.” Some said, “The lion.” Some said jokingly, “ The fierce-browed guardian gods to
Buddha.” But nobody of course could tell how strong the guardian gods were supposed to be. ( 张
培基 译)
[分析]“金刚”是“金刚大力士”的略称,相传为如来佛座下的护法天神,常怒目作勇
猛之状。译者将其意译为“fierce-browed guardian gods”。
(11)和尚最大的努力,是否认现世界而求未来的涅槃,但他若不曾了解现世,他又怎能勘
破现世,而跳出三界外呢?(庐隐:《恋爱不是游戏》)
Buddhist monks exert every effort to renounce this life in favor of future nirvana. But, without a
full knowledge of this life, how could they see through the vanity of human society and make a
clean break with this mortal world ? (张培基 译)
[分析]“现世”、“涅槃”、“三界”均为佛教用语,分别指“今生”、“悟道的最高境
界或僧人逝世”、“众生所住的世界”。“现世”和“三界”采用意译:this life;this mortal
world。“涅槃”译作 nirvana,是以音译词译音译词。
(12)再说天津爷们儿从来没把状元看得有什么了不起,好汉子讲的是独霸一方,状元郎不
就是给皇帝老儿做驸马吗?没劲,认皇后作丈母娘,这姑爷准不好当。(林希:《天津闲人》)
But then, no one in Tianjin cared much about scholars. If you were a big shot of the day, you had
your own territory to rule. What was so special about Number One Scholar? You might end up
being the emperor’s son-in-law, which could hardly be fun. It wasn’t exactly exciting either to
have the empress as your mother-in-law. (孙艺风 译)
[分析]原文中的文化词语基本上都采用意译。
(13)说不中听的话,天津卫出混混、出青皮。有这么回事没有?有。这用不着捂着瞒着,天津
混混有帮有派,打起架来不要命,最能耐的叫“ 叠”了,一双胳膊抱住脑袋,曲膝弓背侧躺
在地上,任你乱棍齐下,血肉横飞,打烂了这边,再翻过身来让你打那边,不许叫喊,不
许咬牙,不许皱眉头。(林希:《天津闲人》)
To put it bluntly, Tianjin produces good-for-nothing loafers and hooligans. Is that so? Oh, yes.
There is no need to say less than the truthful. Tianjin hooligans, organized and grouped, would
risk their necks in scrimmages. Their most peculiar practice is called “folding”: while holding
your head in your arms, you lie on your side with knees bent, and no matter how unsparingly they

147
bludgeon you, with blood gushing and spouting in every direction, you are not supposed to
scream, or even utter a sound. In addition, you should neither clench your teeth nor frown. When
one side of your body is thoroughly battered, you turn around to expose the other side. ( 孙艺风
译)
[ 分析 ] 原文中的文化词语均用意译,此外要注意原文的“能耐”译成 peculiar 而非
capable。
(14)但在黄昏里看来如一种奇迹的,却是两岸高处去水已三十丈上下的吊脚楼。(沈从文:
《鸭巢围的夜》)
What we could make out in the dusk, though, was amazing—about three hundred feet up the cliff,
high above the water, was a cluster of houses on stilts.(戴乃迭 译)
[分析]各民族语言的单位量词是一种文化专有项词语,其翻译可有异化和归化两种策
略。异化翻译即文化词语的直译,常常需要加注,以帮助译入语读者理解文化词语的背景和
含义。归化翻译法,是一种文化词语的解释性翻译。具体到单位量词,一般采用量词转换法,
即用译入语的量词替换原语的量词,与之搭配的数词也随之改变,如上例。吊脚楼的翻译是
一种意译,即译出其真实本来意义。
(15)一九五七年春,“大鸣大放”正值高潮,他的《宋诗选注》刚脱稿,因父病到湖北省亲,
路上写了《赴鄂道中》五首绝句,现在引录三首……(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》 )
In spring 1957, the political campaign to “speak out and air views in a big way” was on the
upsurge, and Chung-shu had just completed his Annotations on Selected Song-Dynasty Poems. On
his way to Hubei, where his father had fallen ill, he wrote five jueju poems under the title “On My
Way to Hubei.” Here are three of them… (凌原 译)
[分析]“大鸣大放”和“绝句”分别为“文革”词语和中国传统文学用语,它们的翻译
采用了增词法,分别增加了 political campaign 和 poems。
(16)供他阅读的书,好比富人“命中的禄食”那样丰足,会从各方面源源不断供应(除了 下
放期间,他只好“反刍”似的读自己的笔记,和携带的字典)。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》)
The books available to him have been as abundant as the “stipend and food destined for the rich”,
as they have always come in a constant supply from all quarters. (The lone exception was when he
was being “re-educated” in the countryside during the “cultural revolution” years, his supply of
new books was cut off, and all he could do was mull over his notebooks and read the dictionaries
he had brought along.) (凌原 译)
[分析]“下放”为“文革”词语,这里采用了意译
(17)钟书变着法儿,或作手势,或用切口,诱他们说出来,就赖他们说“坏话”。 (杨绛:
《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》 )
Chung-shu would resort to a variety of antics, and gesticulations alternating with deceit, to trick
them saying things. And when they did he would accuse them of “talking dirty”. (凌原 译)
[分析]据《现代汉语词典》(修订本,1999),“切口”指帮会或某些行业中的暗语。译
者采取省译法,略去未译。
(18)他没想到我的脸皮比宣纸还吃墨,洗净墨痕,脸皮象纸一样快洗破了,以后他不再恶
作剧,只给我画了一副肖像,上面再添上眼镜和胡子,聊以过瘾。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围
城〉》 )
He had not expected that the skin on my face would be more absorbent than xuan paper, and my
poor skin had to be nearly rubbed off before I managed to wash it clean of the ink. Afterwards he
gave up that prank altogether, but instead painted a portrait of me and added glasses and a
moustache just to satisfy his carving for mischief. (凌原 译)

148
[分析]译者翻译“宣纸”采用了音义合译法,即前半部分用音译,后半部分用意译。
(19)钟书说,那都是他父亲训练出来的,他额角上挨了不少“爆栗子”呢。(杨绛:《记钱钟
书与〈围城〉》,凌原译 )
According to him, he learned this skill from his father, though in the course of it his forehead had
had its fill of his father’s hard knuckling. (意译)
(20)原来他家祖坟下首的一排排树高大茂盛,上首的细小萎弱。上首的树当然就代表长房了。
伯父一次私下花钱向理发店买了好几斤头发,叫一个佃户陪着,悄悄带着钟书同上祖坟去 ,
把头发埋在上首几排树的根旁。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》 )
As it happened, of the rows of trees planted by his family’s ancestral grave, those at the lower end
were tall and luxuriant, while those at the upper end, which represented the eldest son’s fortune,
were small and weak. Eldest Uncle secretly bought several jin of hair from a barbershop, and, in
the company of a farmhand, took Chung-shu to the ancestral grave and buried the hair by the roots
of the trees at the upper end of the rows. (凌原 译)
[分析]属于中国家族文化的三个词“祖坟”、“长房”和“伯父”均采用意译,而属于
中国传统度量衡单位的“斤”则采用音译。这里需要指出的是,“斤”可以采用音译,但须
加注,可以是夹注,脚注,或尾注,以帮助译语读者了解“斤”的重量概念。
(21)他有时不按父亲教导的方法作古文,嵌些骈骊,倒也受到父亲赞许。(杨绛:《记钱钟
书与〈围城〉》 )
Sometimes, when writing classical Chinese, he eschewed the method his father had taught him
and began to use ornate antithetical or parallel constructions—to the delight and approval of his
father. (凌原 译)
[分析]“骈骊”为中国古典文论词语,指“文章的对偶句法”(《现代汉语词典》,970
页)。译者采用了意译法。
(22)我大笑,是惊喜之余,不自禁地表示“我能拆穿你的西洋镜”。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围
城〉》,凌原译 )
I laugh because , to my pleasant surprise, I am able to tell him, despite myself, “I can see through
your tricks.” (意译)
(23)他写过一首七律《古意》,内有一联说……
In Classical Meanings, a qilu poem with seven characters to a line and a strict tonal pattern and
rhyming scheme, he wrote…
[分析]”七律”的翻译采用了解释性翻译,未用夹注形式。
(24)这是七月下旬,合中国旧历的三伏,一年最热的时候。(钱钟书:《围城》)
It was toward the end of July, equivalent to the “san-fu” period of the lunar calendar—the hottest
days of the year. (Jeanne Kelly & Nathan K. Mao 译)
[分析]”三伏”采用音译。下文已点明其意,无须进一步解释。
(25)我和钟书讲,如果她皮肤白腻而头发细软乌黑,浅紫的麻纱旗袍换成线条柔软的深紫
色绸旗袍,可以变成一个美人。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》,凌原译 )
I once suggested to Chung-shu that she could have been a beauty if she had fair skin and soft jet-
black hair and had been wearing a deep-purple silk cheongsam with soft curves instead of that one
made of linen. (划线部分为意译)
(26)苏小姐的丈夫是另一个同学,小说里乱点了鸳鸯谱。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》, 凌
原译)
Miss Su’s husband is based on another real-life schoolmate—the novel just put the two unlikely
partners together in wedlock. (划线部分为意译)

149
(27)伯父中了秀才回家,进门就挨他父亲一顿打,说是“杀杀他的势气”;因为钟书的祖父
虽然有两个中举的哥哥,他自己也不过是个秀才。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》,凌原译 )
Once, when Eldest Uncle came home after passing the county-level imperial examination, his
father gave him a spanking simply to “deflate his pride”; behind the incident was the fact that,
despite having two elder brothers who had both passed the provincial-level imperial examination,
Chung-shu’s grandfather had merely been a successful candidate for the county-level exam. (划线
部分为意译)

第四节 临时杜撰词语的翻译

临时造词,英语里叫做 nonce word。据《牛津英语辞典》,nonce word 指在某一特定场合


所杜撰的词语 (a word coined on a specific occasion) ,如 ventripotential (=big-bellied ,大腹便
便的),twi-thought(=vague thought,不明朗的想法 ),bananaphobia(香蕉恐惧症),touch-me-
not-ishness(别碰我),witchcraftical(有魔法的)等等。这些词语,没有被英语词典收录,也就
是说,没有被大众接受,只是说话者或写作者即兴之作,随着时间的流逝,很快就会消失。
碰到这类词语的翻译,可采用直译或者意译,也可利用译入语的语言资源创造新词,如梁
启超先生杜撰的”兴趣主义”,完全可以利用英语构词法译作 interest-ism。

【实例分 析】
(1)原来当我在大一时,就兼了两班中学国文;说起来真太冒险了,自己还是个刚跨出中学
不久的乡下姑娘,去教那些又高又大的北方青年,怪不得他们要叫我“孩子先生”了。
That was because while I was a first-year student at the university, I concurrently taught Chinese
at two middle schools. Just imagine a country girl fresh from middle school having the audacity to
teach those husky young northerners! They certainly had every reason to call me “Child Teacher”.
[分析]“孩子先生”为作者的临时造词,这里直译即能明确表达原意。
(2)他姓差,名不多,是各省各县各村人氏。(胡适:《差不多先生传》)
His surname is Cha and his given name, Buduo, which altogether mean “About the Same”. ( 张培
基 译)
[分析]”差不多”,作为人名,世上并无其人,是作者的杜撰。这里采用直译(音译)加解释
的翻译方法。
(3)例如,梁任公先生就说过:“我是个趣味主义的人,倘若用化学化分‘梁启超’这件东西,
把里头所含一种原素名叫‘趣味’的抽出来,只怕所剩下的仅有个零了。”(梁实秋:《学问与
趣味》)
For example, the distinguished scholar Liang Qichao once said wittily, “ I always stand for
interest-ism. If you broke down Liang Qichao’s stuff into its component parts, there would be
nothing left except an element named ‘Interest’.” (张培基 译)
[分析]“趣味主义”不见于汉语,是作者的临时造词,英语中也没有现成的对等词语,
翻译时可借用英语的构词法”词根(interest))+后缀(-ism)”,创造新词 interest-ism。
(4)林氏是不懂“蟹形文字”的,所有他的译本都是别人口译而林氏笔述。(茅盾:《直译·顺译·
歪译》)
Lin had no knowledge of any European languages whose letters were no more than “squiggles” to
him. All of his translations were done after they had been orally translated by others. (孙艺风 译)
[分析]”蟹形文字”是作者模仿”楔形文字”临时创造出来的,译文采用的是意译法。
(5)伯父用绳子从高处挂下一团棉花,教钟书上、下、左、右打那团棉花,说是打“棉花拳”,

150
可以练软功。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》 )
Eldest Uncle would hang a cotton ball from a high place and teach him how to punch at it from all
directions—according to him, cotton boxing helped hone one’s soft kung fu techniques. (凌原
译)
[分析]“棉花拳”直译为 cotton boxing。此外,译文还运用了概括化译法,将“上、下、左、
右”译成“from all directions”。
(6)至于点金银行的行长,“我你他”小姐的父母等等,都是上海常见的无锡商人,我不再一
一注释。(杨绛:《记钱钟书与〈围城〉》 )
As for the president of Dianjin Bank, the parents of Miss Me-You-Him and the other characters in
the novel, I will not deal with them one by one, for all of them are Wuxi merchants commonly
found in Shanghai. (凌原 译)
[分析]“点金银行”和“我你他”小姐的翻译分别采用了音译法和直译法。
(7)我们起初不知道他的名字,在背后都叫他” 徐三下”。因为不管谁犯了错儿,他一律用那
根一尺长、二寸厚的木板,打三下手掌;错儿大重打,错儿小轻打。他只打左手,右手打肿
了不就不好写字了?(刘厚明:《徐三下老师》)
At first we didn’t know what his given name was but behind his back we gave him the nick name,
“Xu San Xia”, or Xu Three Strokes. Whatever anybody did wrong, Mr. Xu always used a ruler,
one foot long and two inches wide, to strap us three times, never more, never less. If the “crime
were considered serious, he hit us heavily, but if it were a trivial mistake, he would hit lightly. He
always made sure to hit us on the left hand; after all, if the right hand were swollen, how could we
write ? (陈家宁,Elizabeth West 译)
[分析]原文中的临时造词”徐三下”,采用音译加解释的翻译方法。此外,译文还增加了
never more, never less,用以翻译”一律”。
(8)Women still are used as decorations or “sex-objects” to sell a product; observers call this kind
of advertising “sexploitation”.
现在妇女仍然作为推销产品的点缀之物,或曰“性对象”。观察们称这种广告为“性剥削”。
[分析] “sexploitation”为临时造词,由 sex+exploitation 混合而成,英语中叫做 portmanteau
word(混合词),在此处根据所构成的两个词的意思直译即可。

第四节 语篇翻译

从实践的角度看,无论是学习翻译理论,还是学习翻译技巧,其终极目标都是为语篇
翻译服务的。语篇可以是一篇文章,也可以是一部著作,其翻译涉及到技巧的综合运用。语
篇的翻译要特别注意文体,注意语言文字的风格,要译什么像什么。例如文学文体与科技文
体不一样,科技文体与法律文体也不一样。文学、科技、法律文本一般篇幅较长,我们选段探
究翻译技巧的溶合运用。广告、说明文、旅游文等篇幅短小,我们将对整个文本进行探讨。

一、段落翻译
(一)文学文本选段
1. 英译汉
下面是美国作家布拉德伯利的著名科幻作品《华氏 451 度》中的片段,以及苗怀新先生
的译文。苗译毫无斧凿之痕,恰如其分地再现了原文的神韵,读来使人觉得”译文仿佛是原
作者的中文写作”(傅雷语)。
【原文】

151
The autumn leaves blew over the moonlit pavement in such a way as to make the girl who
was moving there seem fixed to a sliding walk, letting the motion of the wind and the leaves carry
her forward. Her head was half bent to watch her shoes stir the circling leaves. Her face was
slender and milk-white, and in it was a kind of gentle hunger that touched over everything with
tireless curiosity. It was a look, almost, of pale surprise; the dark eyes were so fixed to the world
that no move escaped them. Her dress was white and it whispered. He almost thought he heard the
motion of her hands as she walked, and the infinitely small sound now, the white stir of her face
turning when she discovered she was a moment away from a man who stood in the middle of the
pavement waiting.
……
Montag shook his head. He looked at a blank wall. The girl’s face was there, really quite
beautiful in memory: astonishing, in fact. She had a very thin face like the dial of a small clock
seen faintly in a dark room in the middle of a night when you waken to see the time and see the
clock telling you the hour and the minute and the second, with a white silence and a glowing, all
certainty and knowing what it has to tell of the night passing swiftly on toward further darkness
but moving also toward a new sun. (Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury)
【译文】
秋风吹落叶,卷过月光流照的人行道,袅袅婷婷的一位姑娘仿佛并未移步,而是乘风
履叶,若飞若扬。她低着头,望着脚下随风转的乱叶;颜容瘦削而洁白,温柔之中含有渴望,
显出一种不知疲倦地探索一切的神情,一种近乎惊异的神情,一双黑眼睛好象时刻注视着
世界,观察着人间的变动;一身素服,走起路来瑟瑟如私语。蒙特咎似乎连她双手摆动的声
音也能听见,甚至听到她微微转过脸来时很轻很轻的声音:她已经发现自己距离在人行道
中间止步的男人不过咫尺之遥。
……
蒙特咎摇摇头。注目粉墙,他仿佛看见那姑娘的肖相;真奇怪,印在他脑海里的肖像
的确很美。容貌那么清秀,就象半夜醒来时在黑暗中隐约可见的小小的钟面,报告时刻的钟
面:它皎洁而安静,深知时间在飞驰,深信黑夜虽则越来越深沉,却也越来越接近新生的
太阳。
【分析】 1953 年,布拉德伯利写下著名的反乌托邦小说《华氏 451 度》。该小说讲述了 在
未来社会人们受着独裁者的统治,独裁者取消言论出版自由,下令烧毁全部书籍,一切阅
读和收藏书籍的行为都将被视为非法并且将引来杀身之祸。此书是一位专司焚书的消防队员
蒙特咎(Guy Montag)心路历程的记录,讲述了他如何由以焚书为乐而变成爱书人,并且
在其善良秀美的妹妹(作品女主人公)的感召下省悟并积极投入反抗运动的故事。
第一段意境很美,语言上的最大特点是移就修辞 (transferred epithet,或称转移修饰)的
运用,如 gentle hunger,tireless curiosity,pale surprise,white stir 等。移就指将本该用来修
饰某类名词的修饰语移用来修饰按常理不能修饰的另一类名词,如汉语的”幸福水”,英
语的 cool support of water ,”幸福”本应修饰人,这里却移用来修饰”水”,同样 cool 本
应修饰 water,这里却移用来修饰 support。英汉语虽然都有移就修辞格,但移用习惯不完全
相同。 tireless curiosity 译为”不知疲倦的好奇”还勉强可以接受,而 gentle hunger 、 pale
surprise、white stir 译为”温柔的饥饿”、”苍白的惊奇”、”白色的骚动”,就几乎没有任
何可接受性。译者翻译这几个短语时运用了不同的翻译技巧。gentle hunger 的翻译采用了增
词法,译为” 温柔之中含有渴望”,hunger 的翻译属于选词技巧,因为此处指”精神上的
饥饿”,所以译为”渴望”。tireless curiosity 的翻译运用了减词法,译为”不知疲倦地……
”, curiosity 在”探索一切”里有照应,所以未译出,下一句的 look 译为”神情”,与”

152
不知疲倦地……”自然地联成一体,这是合句译法。 pale surprise 只译 surprise(惊异),是因
为前面对 pale(脸色苍白)已作交代:颜容瘦削而洁白;本句翻译的巧妙还在于重复”神情”
二字,与上句紧密地联系在一起。white stir 中的 white 指头转过来时白晰的脸色,stir 指头
的转动动作。由于这两个词的意思在上下文中都有交代,译者略去未译,以使措辞精炼,行
文简洁。
文学语言多用修辞性语言,出人意表的语言,以吸引读者的眼球,抓住读者的心。翻
译文学语言,首先必须透彻地领悟其意,然后再选用译入语的文学语言译之。原文第一句的
seem fixed to a sliding walk, letting the motion of the wind and the leaves carry her forward 译为
” 仿佛并未移步,而是乘风履叶,若飞若扬”,真正是抓住了原作的神髓,了无翻译痕迹,
跟文学创作并无二致。第一段末句的 a moment away 是作者用时间概念表达空间概念的非常
规文字,译者用”一箭之遥”翻译,忠实贴切。
第二段的长句的翻译颇见匠心。苗译基本按照原文顺序,将全句切分成七个部分,充
分利用汉语的短句,读来同样有原文那种一气呵成的感觉。when 所引导的时间状语从句内
容过多,不宜用”当……的时候”翻译。港台翻译名家余光中和思果两位先生就反对一看到
when 就”当,当,当”的。苗译利用重复法,把繁复的信息安排得清通妥贴。例如,通过重
复”钟面”,把主从句的有关信息很自然地融为一体,同时也保持了原文语序;”深知”
和”深信”是一种变换措词式的间接重复,把一个长长的 what 从句译得从容自然。重复法
比较适合翻译修饰语过多的结构,可以化长为短,理顺表达;从文学翻译的角度看,重复
还能增强语势,比较有文学味道,不信试读这样一句翻译:“雪,在四处飘落着。雪花撒在
树上,撒在田野里,撒在河边、湖畔、山上、谷底……” (原文是:The snow falls on every
wood and field, and no crevice is forgotten; by the river and pond, on the hill and in the
valley.) 。telling you the hour and the minute and the second 译为”报告时刻”而非”告知你几
时几分几秒”,用的是概括法。此译充分考虑了语言的简练,也更像文学语言。white silence
为移就修辞,译者用一个”而”字将其巧妙地译为”皎洁而安静”,这是增词。
2. 汉译英
钱钟书先生的《围城》于 1979 年由 Jeanne Kelly 和 Nathan K. Mao 译成英文。该译本忠实
而准确。下面的选段是《围城》第六章的开章第一段。
【原文】
三闾大学校长高松年是位老科学家。这“老”字的位置非常为难,可以形容科学,也可
以形容科学家。不幸的是,科学家跟科学不大相同;科学家像酒,愈老愈可贵,而科学像女
人,老了便不值钱。将来国语文法发展完备,终有一天可以明白地分开“老的科学家”和“
老科学的家”,或者说“科学老家”和“老科学家”。现在还早得很呢,不妨笼统称呼。高
校长肥而结实的脸像没发酵的黄面粉馒头,“馋嘴的时间”(Edax vetustas)咬也咬不动他,
一条牙齿印或皱纹都没有。假使一个犯校规的女学生长得很漂亮,高校长只要她向自己求情
认错,也许会不尽本于教育精神地从宽处分。这证明这位科学家还不老。他是二十年前在外
国研究昆虫学的;想来三十年前的昆虫都进化成为大学师生了,所以请他来表率多士。他在
大学校长里,还是前途无量的人。大学校长分文科出身和理科出身两类。文科出身的人轻易
做不到这位子的。做到了也不以为荣,准是干政治碰壁下野,仕而不优则学,借诗书之泽,
弦诵之声来休养身心。理科出身的人呢,就完全不同了。中国是世界上最提倡科学的国家,
没有旁的国度肯这样给科学家大官做的。外国科学进步,中国科学家进爵。在国外,研究人
情的学问始终跟研究物理的学问分歧;而在中国,只要你知道水电,土木,机械,动植物
等等,你就可以行政治人——这是“自然齐一律”最大的胜利。理科出身的人当个把校长,
不过是政治生涯的开始;从前大学之道在治国平天下,现在治国平天下在大学之道,并且
是条坦道大道。对于第一类,大学是张休息的靠椅;对于第二类,它是个培养的摇篮——只

153
要他小心别摇摆得睡熟了。
【译文】
KAO SUNG-NIEN, the president of San Lu University, was an “old science scholar.” The
word “old” here is quite bothersome. It could describe science or it could just as well be
describing a scientist. Unfortunately, there is a world of difference between a scientist and science.
A scientist is like wine. The older he gets, the more valuable he is, while science is like a woman.
When she gets old, she’s worthless. Once mandarin grammar reaches its full development, the
time will come when “old science scholar” can be clearly distinguished from “scholar of old
science” or one will say “science old scholar” or “old science scholar”. But as it’s still too early
for that yet, a general term of reference will have to do in the meantime.
Kao Sun-nien’s fat but firm face was like an unleavened millet-flour steamed bread.
“Voracious time” (Edax vetustas) could not make a dent on it. There was not a single tooth mark
or crease. If a coed who had violated a school rule were extremely pretty, President Kao would
only want her to beg for mercy and admit her mistake before him; then perhaps he would not carry
out the law to the fullest extent but would let her off with a light punishment. This proves that this
scientist wasn’t old yet. Twenty years ago he studied entomology abroad. Apparently the insects of
twenty years ago had evolved into university students and professors, and so he had been invited
to act as an “example to scholars”. As a university president, his prospects were unlimited.
University presidents fall into two categories—those from the liberal arts and those from the
natural sciences. Those from liberal arts rarely accede to this position, and when they do they
don’t look upon it as an honor, since they probably came to it after having been turned out of
public office. Failing as an official, they turn to scholarly pursuits, cultivating mind and body with
the riches of the classics and the sounds of music and chanting. For those from the natural
sciences, the situation is quite different. China is the greatest promoter of science of any country in
the world; no other governmental body is willing to offer high posts to scientists. As Western
science moves forward, Chinese scientists move upward. In the West, scholarship devoted to the
study of human sentiments and to the study of nature’s laws have always been kept separate. In
China, however, one need only have a knowledge of hydroelectrics, civil engineering, mechanics,
plant and animal technology, and so on, to be able to run public affairs and govern people. That is
the greatest triumph of the “uniform law of nature”. For someone from the natural sciences to be a
university president is merely the beginning of a career in government. Heretofore, the way of
great learning lay in ruling the country and pacifying the land; now ruling the country and
pacifying the land lies in the Way of University (literally, great learning), which in addition is wide
and open. For the former category, a university is a rocking chair for resting; for the latter, it is a
cradle for nurturing -- as long as the person takes care not to rock himself to sleep.
【分析】译文主要运用直译,其他翻译技巧如下:
(1)分译法。原文是一个长段,讲了三层意思:对”老科学家”这个词的讨论;高松年的外
表及品性;大学校长及大学之道。译者根据这三层意思把原段切分为三段。
(2)移植法。原文的 Edax vetustas 被保存在译文中。 《围城》中有许多来自英语及其他语言的 词
语,译者都保存下来,用斜体标示。
(3)加注法。译文运用了夹注和尾注。原文双关语”大学”,译者选取一种意思(University)翻
译,另一种意思用夹注说明: literally, great learning。译者还用尾注对”大学” (暗指我国古
代经典《大学》)一词进行了解释:From The Great Learning (Ta hsueh), one of the Four Books
read by all educated Chinese. It contains short philosophical sections from the Book of Rites (Li

154
chi) on key Confucian ideas.。
(4)意译。”咬也咬不动他”,”不尽本于教育精神”,”诗书之泽”,基本上都是按其大
意翻译。

(二)科技文本选段
1. 英译汉
下面是世界著名的英国物理学家斯蒂芬·霍金的文章《生命起源及人类的未来》的第一段
和翟玉章先生的译文(见《英语世界》,2000 年第 10 期,91-92 页)
【原文】
By far the most complex systems that we have are our own bodies. Life seems to have
originated in the primordial oceans that covered the Earth four billion years ago. How this
happened we don’t know. It may be that random collisions between atoms built up
macromolecules that could reproduce themselves and assemble themselves into more complicated
structures. What we do know is that by three and a half billion years ago the highly complicated
molecule DNA had emerged. DNA is the basis for all life on Earth. It has a double helix structure,
like a spiral staircase, which was discovered by Francis Crick and James Watson in the Cavendish
lab at Cambridge in 1953. The two strands of the double helix are linked by pairs of nucleic acids
like the treads in a spiral staircase. There are four kinds of nucleic acids. I won’t try to pronounce
their names because my speech synthesizer makes a mess of them. Obviously it was not designed
for molecular biologists. But I can refer to them by their initials, C, G, A, and T. The order in
which the different nucleic acids occur along the spiral staircase carries the genetic information
that enables the DNA molecule to assemble an organism around it and reproduce itself. As the
DNA made copies of itself there would have been occasional errors in the order of the nucleic
acids along the spiral. In most cases the mistakes in copying would have made the DNA unable to
reproduce itself. Such genetic errors, or mutations as they are called, would die out. But in a few
cases the error or mutation would increase the chances of the DNA surviving and reproducing.
This natural selection of mutations was first proposed by another Cambridge man, Charles
Darwin, in 1857, though he didn’t know the mechanism for it. Thus the information content in the
sequence of nucleic acids would gradually evolve and increase in complexity. (The Origin of Life
and Future of Humans, by Stephen Hawking)
【译文】
迄今为止,我们所拥有的最复杂的系统是我们的身体。生命看来似乎起源于 40 亿年前
覆盖着地球的原始海洋。这是怎样发生的,我们不知道。可能是原子之间的无序碰撞产生了
大分子,这些大分子能复制自己并聚集成更加复杂的结构,我们确实知道的是,35 亿年前,
高度复杂的分子 DNA 就出现了。DNA 是地球上所有生命的基础。它有像螺旋式楼梯一样的双
螺旋结构,这一点是由弗朗西斯·克里克和詹姆斯·沃森于 1953 年在剑桥的卡尔文实验室
里发现的。这个双螺旋结构的两股之间是由成对的核酸联结的,它们就像螺旋式楼梯中的
踏步板。共有四种核酸。我就不说它们的名字了,因为我的语言合成器会把它们弄乱的。显
然它不是为分子生物学家设计的。但我可以用它们的首字母来指代,即 C、G、A 和 T。这些不
同的核酸,沿着螺旋式楼梯排列成的序列携带着基因信息,使 DNA 分子能围绕它聚集成一
个有机体并自我复制。DNA 自我复制时,偶尔会在核酸的螺旋序列上出错。大多数情况下,
复制中的错误会使 DNA 自我复制终止。这些基因错误(通常叫做突变)会自行消失。但在少数
情况下,错误或突变会增加 DNA 存活和自我复制的机会。突变的自然选择是由另一个剑桥人
查尔斯·达尔文于 1857 年首先提出的,尽管他并不知道其机制。核酸序列中的信息含量就

155
这样逐渐进化并越来越复杂。
【分析】科技翻译的首要原则是准确,包括概念、原理、逻辑关系等。此外,还必须了解科
技语体的特点,使所译之文有科技语言的味道。科技语体主要是描述事物规律的一种语体,
要求概念准确,判断严密,推理周密。科技汉语最明显的特点是大量运用术语、符号、公式和
图表;句式平整,变化少,多用无主句;一般不用修辞格式;语言平实,多采用客观性描
述方式。科技英语与科技汉语的特点大致相似,但也有自己的特色。在词法上,科技英语大
量使用复合词、缩略词和高度专业化的技术词汇;从语法方面看,名词化结构(即含有名词
化动词的结构)、一般现在时和被动语态用得多;在句法上,科技英语广泛地使用长句和复
杂句,句子主语多为无生命的事物;从修辞方面看,科技英语忌用带感情色彩的形容词和
各种修辞格,注重衔接与连贯。不过科普英语常常平易、亲切、自然,如爱因斯坦和霍金的作
品。上例译文运用的技巧有:
(1)选词。billion 一词有”十亿”或”万亿”两种意思。在英国英语中,billion 可作”万亿”
讲。霍金是英国人,这里 billion 是”万亿”吗?通过常识判断,billion 这里只能作”十亿”
解,因为地球总共只有五十亿年的历史。
(2)分译法+重复法。原文第四句的定语从句,通过重复”这些大分子”,与主句分开,独立
成句。
(3) 脚注。原文中的 DNA, Francis Crick, James Watson, speech synthesizer, natural selection of
mutations,译者利用脚注对它们进行了解释,如 DNA 的注释为:=deoxyribonucleic acid 脱
氧核糖核酸。
(4)夹注。对于原文解释性的同位成分 or mutations as they are called,译者以夹注形式安排在
译文中,以使行文流畅。用夹注翻译文本正文文字,仅适于不重要的信息。
2. 汉译英
下面是陈亮、张耿民、王鸣生的论文《非定向氧化锌纳米线阵列的场发射》(见《北京大学
学报》2005年第5期)的摘要及其英译。
【原文】
  使用热蒸发的方法在硅基底上制备了非定向氧化锌 (ZnO) 单晶纳米线阵列。经过热蒸发
之后,在硅基底上形成一层均匀分布的 ZnO 点。在这些 ZnO 点上生长出非定向的 ZnO 纳米
线阵列,其中的纳米线直径大约在 10 到 20 nm 之间。考虑到实用,在制备样品的过程中硅
基底的温度始终保持在 500 ℃以下。然后测量了这些非定向 ZnO 纳米线阵列的场发射特性。
在 515 V·μm- 1 场强下得到了 10μA·cm- 2 的场发射电流密度;同时使用透明阳极技术观察
了其场发射中心的分布。
【译文】
An array of non-aligned monocrystalline zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) is fabricated on a
silicon substrate by thermal evaporation. The non-aligned ZnO NWs in the array are
approximately 10 ~ 20 nm in diameter. During the fabrication, the temperature around the
substrate is lower than 500℃, which is conducive to practical application. Field emission is
available from these ZnO NWs. The electric field that extracts 10μA·cm- current density is
measured to be 515 V·μm- 1. Moreover, the emission site distribution (ESD) is also studied and
the field emission is found from the whole sample surface, suggesting that the screen effect is
almost avoided.
【分析】观察原文不难发现,科技汉语喜欢用以动宾结构为主干的无主句。摘要中的五个
句子均为无主句。第一、三句为动-宾结构;其余皆为状-动-宾结构。这是科技汉语典型的句式
结构。其翻译多利用英语的被动语态,将宾语转换为主语,译为主谓结构,或者译为主-系-
表结构。上面的译文使用了五个被动结构和四个主-系-表结构。译文略有疏漏,未译第二句;

156
”在 500 ℃以下”译为 lower 500℃,漏掉了 than,译文中的 than 为本书作者所加。

(三)法律文本选段
1. 英译汉
下面是 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 中第三条之八及其汉译。
【原文】
Any clause, covenant, agreement in a contract of carriage relieving the carrier or the ship
from liability for loss or damage to, or in connection with, goods arising from negligence, fault, or
failure in duties and obligations provided in this article or lessening such liability otherwise than
provided in these rules shall be null and void and of no effect.
【译文】
运输契约中任何条款、约定或协议,凡是解除承运人或船舶由于疏忽、过失或未履行本
条款规定的责任和义务,因而引起货物或关于货物的灭失或损害责任的;或在本公约规定
以外减轻这种责任的,都应作废或无效。(见罗新璋编《翻译论集》1021-1022 页)
【分析】法律文件的翻译,”严谨”为第一要著。文字稍有出入,就会影响到有关方面的
权利和义务。文学文本可有多个译本,法律文本则只能有一个译本,否则易生争端。翻译法
律文书,一要理清线索,二要措辞严谨、尽量使用法律套话,三是不能省略关键词语。下面
我们围绕这三点讨论原文的理解与翻译。
原 文 运 用 了 一 连 串 并 列 词 组 , 可 将 其 分 组 如 下 : (1)clause, covenant or agreement,
(2)carrier or ship, (3) for loss or damage, (4)to or in connection with, (5)negligence, fault or
failure, (6)duties and obligations, (7)null and void and of no effect, (8)relieving…from or
lessening such liability。这些并列词组有的叠床架屋,啰唆累赘,如 null and void 已表示:”无
效”,却还要加个 of no effect;有的则是套话。原文信息看来繁杂,主线其实比较简单:指
出凡是 relieving the liability 和 lessening such liability 的 clause 是 null and void 的,其他都是
附加的条件。
从翻译措辞看,有些词的理解和翻译要特别注意。carrier 有很多意思,用在不同领域意
思不一样,如作为日常生活用语是”搬运工人”,用到各专业领域中则是 (1)”媒体”(计算
机用以记录数据的),(2)”载体”(用于装接大规模集成电路的多层印制电路板 ),(3)”载波、
载波电路”(无线电用),(4)”载流子”(半导体用),(5)”托架”(机械用),(6)”运输机”(航空
用),(7)”运载火箭”(航天用),(8)”搬运汽车”(交通用),(9)”航空母舰”(海军用),(10)”承
运人” (法律合同用 ) 等等。这里根据原文主题,应选择”承运人”。 carriage, relieve, loss,
fault, failure, provide 不能像日常英语那样译作”马车”、”减轻”、”丢失”、”错误”、”
失败”、”提供”,应使用法律语言,分别译作”(货物)运输”、”解除”、”灭失”、”过
失”、”未履行”、”规定”。此外,在译文中,clause 和 article 均译作”条款”,其实二者
有细微的区别,如果二者用在一起,article 比 clause 要低一个等级,指条款下面的细目。
在原文词语的增减上,意义重复的、重要的并列成分,不能合二为一,如 duties and
obligations 和 null and void and of no effect 不能为了精炼而译为”义务”和”无效”,而应
当全部保留,用变换措辞的方式译为”责任与义务”、”作废或无效”,因为这就是法律英
语语言的特色。
2. 汉译英
下面是全国人大常委会于 1990 年颁布的《中华人民共和国领事特权与豁免条例》第十一
条及其译文。
【原文】
第十一条 领事信使必须是具有派遣国国籍的人,并且不得是在中国永久居住的。领事信使

157
必须持有派遣国主管机关出具的临时信使证书。领事信使人身不受侵犯,不受逮捕或者拘留。
临时领事信使必须持有派遣国主管机关出具的临时信使证明书,在其负责携带领事邮袋期
间享有与领事信使同等的豁免。商业飞机机长或者商业船舶船长受委托可以转递领事邮袋,
但机长或者船长必须持有委托国官方证明文件,注明所携带的领事邮袋件数。机长或者船长
不得视为领事信使。经与中国地方人民政府主管机关商定,领事馆可以派领馆成员与机长或
者船长接交领事邮袋。
【译文】
Article 11 The consular must be of the nationality of the sending Country and shall not be a
permanent resident of China. The consular courier must be provided with a courier certificate
issued by the competent authorities of the sending Country. He shall enjoy personal inviolability
and shall not be subject to arrest or detention. Consular couriers ad hoc must be provided with
certificates of courier ad hoc issued by the competent authorities of the sending Country, and shall
enjoy the same immunities as the consular courier while undertaking the carrying of the consular
bag. A consular bag may be entrusted to the captain of a commercial aircraft or a commercial ship.
He must be provided with an official document issued by the consigning Country indicating the
number of packages constituting the bag, but he shall not be regarded as a consular courier. By
arrangement with the competent authorities of the appropriate Chinese local people’s government,
the consulate may send its members to receive the consular bag from the captain of the aircraft or
of the ship delivering the bag.
【分析】法律是一种强制性的规定,表现在语言上是汉语多用”必须”,英语多用 shall
和 must 。法律语言措辞严谨正式,如上面条例原文最后一句用”商定”,而不是”协商”,
一字之差,意义大有分别;条文中表示选择的地方,不是用”或”,而是用”或者”,以
显正式和庄重。英语也一样,”商业飞机或商业船舶”没有简略性地译为 a commercial
aircraft or ship ,而是不厌其烦地分译为 a commercial aircraft or a commercial ship ,其中的
”飞机”不用 plane 而用 aircraft,以避免歧义。译文中的 Country 大写是为了强调”派遣国
”。”不受逮捕或者拘留”的”不受”译为 be not subject to 是地道的法律用语。此外,法律
翻译还应注意文头格式。下面是以上文件的文头部分及其翻译:
〖名 称〗中华人民共和国领事特权与豁免条理
〖颁布单位〗全国人大常委会
〖颁布日期〗19901030
〖实施日期〗19901030
〖文 号〗中华人民共和国主席令第三十五号
〖分 类〗条例
Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Consul Privileges and Immunities
Order No. 35 of the President of the People’s Republic of China

Promulgation date: 30th October 1990


Effective date: 30th October 1990
Promulgated by: The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress
Adopted by: The 16th session of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People’s
Congress

二、篇章翻译
(一)说明文

158
说明文是说明事物的情况或道理的文章。这里我们主要探讨说明实用文 -- 说明书的翻
译。说明书是关于物品的用途、规格、性能和使用法的文字说明。说明书的翻译必须严谨,要
采用全译手段,不能采用编译、摘译等变译手段。 《楚天都市报 》(见 2004 年 12 月 20 日第 8 版)
就曾报道,一种由荷兰进口的治疗抑郁症的药品的中文说明书在翻译时略去了”药效性质
”、”药动力性质”以及”注意事项”中的一些细节。当有位病人服用该药过量,医生需要
从说明书中知道这种药的分布、转化机理、再对症进行抢救时,却找不到这些省略了的信息,
幸亏后来找到英文说明书,才避免悲剧发生。
说明书的范围比较广,不限于物品说明,如专利说明书,实验操作说明书等等。说明文
与科技语体有重合的地方。但是所有类型的说明书有一个共同点:把要说明的对象说清楚。
英汉说明书既有相同点,又有不同之处。例如,英汉说明书多用祈使句,多用简短的句式结
构。但英语除了使用主语省略的祈使句外,还大量使用被动语态、情态动词、虚拟语气等。而
且受写作传统的影响,英汉说明书的结构也不完全相同。对于相同部分,最好按照译入语的
习惯,采用归化法翻译;对于不同的、多出来的部分,决不能省略,必须一字不漏地直译。
一句话,要想译好说明书,必须全面透彻地了解译入语中相同类型的说明书的文体与结构
特点,然后按照这些特点,将原文准确而贴切地译出。下面结合具体实例讨论说明文的翻译。
1. 英译汉
下面是 USB Flash Disk 的说明书及其汉译(个别地方有变动)。
【原文】
USB Flash Disk
User’s Manual
1. USB flash disk performance
1.1 USB 1.0 / 1.1 or 2.0 compliant, hot plug & play.
1.2 No external power is required, powered by USB bus directly.
1.3 High capacities.
1.4 Tightly compatible between different operation systems.
1.5 Electronic storage device, no mechanical components, shake protection, electromagnetic
wave protection.
1.6 Write / delete protection switch.
1.7 More than 10 years data retention.
1.8 High transferring rate (30 times the rate of floppy driver) .
1.9 Easily portable.
2. System requirements
2.1 Computer system requirement
IBM PC / AT or compatible desktop or Mac computer with USB port
2.2 Operation system requirement
Windows 98 SE
Windows ME
Windows 2000
Windows XP
Mac OS 9. X or above
Linus Core 2.4 or above
3. Software installation
3.1 Driver installation for Windows 98 SE
3.1.1 Be sure your computer supports USB port.

159
3.1.2 Be sure the USB ports work correctly.
3.1.3 Start up Windows 98 SE, then insert the driver disk into the floppy driver.
3.1.4 Plug the USB Flash Disk into the USB port of your computer. The system will detect it
and prompt to set up drivers; do as the system requires.
3.1.5 After having finished the driver installation and restart the system, you could find a new
driver icon named Removable Disk on My Computer.
3.2 Driver installation for Windows ME / 2000 / XP and Mac OS
3.2.1 Be sure you computer supports USB port.
3.2.2 Be sure the USB ports work correctly.
3.2.3 Insert the USB Flash Disk into USB port of the computer. The system would set up the
driver automatically. After that, you will find a new driver icon named Removable Disk or Local
Disk on My Computer. It is just the UBS Flash Disk. In general the UBS Flash Disk is the last
driver of operation system.
4. Notices
4.1 You can not plug out the USB Flash Disk until the indicator is blinding slowly.
4.2 The USB Flash Disk is online and ready while the indicator is blinking slowly. Otherwise the
USB Flash Disk is in a read / write processing and can’t be plugged out from the computer while
the indicator is blinking rapidly. The indicator light is off while the USB Flash Disk is offline or
the computer is in sleep.
4.3 Please wait 5-10 seconds between two plugging in / out.
5. Accessories
5.1 USB Flash Disk.
5.2 Installation Disk.
5.3 Connecting cable.
5.4 User’s manual.
5.5 Neck strap.
【译文】
USB Flash Disk
使用说明书
一、 USB Flash Disk 的主要 特性:
1. 采用 USB 1.0 / 1.1 或 2.0 接口,支持热拨插,即插即用。
2. 无须外接电源。
3. 容量大。
4. 适用多种操作平台。
5. 电子储存介质;无机械部件;抗震,抗电磁干扰。
6. 带有写保护功能。
7. 保存数据安全、长久(10 年)。
8. 读写速度快,存储速度约为软盘的 30 倍。
9. 方便携带。
二、系 统要求
1. 硬件要求带 USB 接口的 IBMPC/AT 及兼容机,笔记本电脑,MAC 等。
2. 操作系统要求
WIDOWS 98 / SE / ME / 2000 / XP,MAC 8.6,LINUX CORE 2.4 及以上版本。
三、程 序安装

160
1. WINDOWS 98 / SE 操作系统
1) 确认计算机具有 USB 接口。
2) 确认计算机的 USB 控制器工作正常。
3) 插入 USB Flash Disk 驱动程序安装盘,安装驱动程序。
4) 把 USB Flash Disk 插到 USB 接口,系统自动安装。
5) 安装完后,在”我的电脑”里会出现一个”可移动磁盘”的盘符。
2. WINDOWS ME / 2000 / XP , MAC 以上版本操作系统
1)确认计算机 USB 接口。
2)确认计算机 USB 控制器工作是否正常。
3)把 USB Flash Disk 接到 USB 端口即可,无须安装驱动程序。
四、特 别说明
1. 拨插 USB Flash Disk 必须等到指示灯停止闪烁时才能进行,以免数据丢失和操作系统失
效。
2. 指示灯慢闪,表示 USB Flash Disk 已经连接上,并处于等待状态;指示灯快速闪烁,表
示正在进行数据的读写,此时不可拔下 USB Flash Disk ;指示灯熄灭时,表示处于闲置状
态。
3. 两次拔插时间间隔 5-10 秒。
五、装 盒清单
1. USB Flash Disk 一台
2. 驱动程序安装盘 一张
3. USB 电缆 一根
4. 使用说明书 一份
5. 吊绳 一条
【分析】译文所采用的翻译技巧有:
(1) 移植。原说明书中的专名 ( 包括缩写 ) 、阿拉伯数字均未翻译,直接移植到译文中,如
USB1.0/1.1 等。
(2)选词。原文的 compliant 和 port,没有按其常规意义译为”顺从的”、”港口”,而是根据
说明书的主题即 U 盘说明书,统一译为”接口”。第一部分第三句的 high,根据汉语习惯
译为”大”而非”高”,同时还调整了词序。第一部分第八句的 high 译作”快”,第九句
的 easily 译作”方便”。3.1.2 中的 ports 没有像其他地方那样译成”接口”,而是译作”控
制器”。
(3)语态转换。原文中的被动语态在译文里基本上都译成了主动语态,一般为无主句,如第
一部分第二句前半部分为被动结构,译作”无须外接电源”,后半部分省略未译。
(4) 词性转换。第一部分 shake protection 中的 protection 译为”抗”, more than ten years’
retention 中 的 retention 译 为 ” 保 存 ” , 都 是 名 词 转 类 为 动 词 ; tightly compatible 中 的
compatible 译为”适用”,easily portable 中的 portable 译为”携带”,则是形容词转类为动
词。
(5)省略法。译文对原文中那些不言而喻的、不重要的信息都删掉了,如 3.2.3 部分,除一、二
句保留外,其他句子都删掉了。
(6)增词。说明书末尾部分的翻译增加了”一台”、”一张”等数量词。
2. 汉译英
下面是中国剃须刀十大知名品牌之一的飞科 (FLYCO) 电动剃须刀的使用说明及其英译
(见飞科电动剃须刀说明书,英译文有较大改动)。
【原文】

161
重要提 示
■ 在使用产品前请仔细阅读本使用说明书。
■ 请勿用水冲洗剃须刀。
■ 确保剃须刀及“L”型插头的干燥。
■ 外刀网构造极薄,并经精密加工,请勿用力挤压或与坚硬物品碰撞,否则会损伤外刀
网。以至损伤皮肤。
■ 刀具是有使用期限的,为保持良好的剃须性能,我们建议您定期进行更换。
■ 所需更换的飞科刀网可到附近百货商店或飞科特约维修店购买。
■ 请妥善保管本使用说明书,用以今后参考。
充电
■ 充电时开关必须处于关闭状态。
■ 让产品在 5℃至 35℃之间的地方进行充电。
■ 本产品适用电压为 AC220V/50Hz。
■ 为不影响产品的使用寿命,请在电池完全充满电后从插座上取下,电池用完后再充电 ,
并不要让剃须刀充满电后连续接通着电源。
■ 先将“L”型插头的尾端插入剃须刀插孔内,然后将插头插入电源插座内,此时指示灯
会亮(图 1,2)。
■ 剃须刀正常充电时间为 8 小时,充满电后最长剃须时间约为 30 分钟。
■ 充电后将“L”型插头收藏好,以便下次使用。
进行剃 须
■ 切勿让水或其他液体进入电动剃须刀。
■ 将开关键往上推,便可开动剃须刀。
■ 让剃须刀头在皮肤上成 90 度逆着胡须生长方向缓慢移动,并作出平直迂回的移动。
■ 在干燥的脸上进行剃须效果最佳,因此在洗脸前或洗脸一段时间后进行剃须。注意您的
皮肤需要一段时间去习惯这个飞科剃须系统。
■ 颈部的毛发同样可以剃掉。
■ 关掉剃须刀;然后把防尘盖盖上,以防止损坏。
■ 当刀头有损坏时请不要进行剃须,以免损坏您的皮肤。
为了保持最理想的剃须效果,每年替换剃须刀刀网一次。
清洁
■ 关闭剃须刀。
■ 为保持剃须刀良好的剃须性能,我们建议您定期清洁刀具。
■ 手捏外刀网的外架两侧,取下外刀网,用清洁刷清除胡须粉末。
■ 清洁完毕后,按相反顺序装回刀网。
更换剃 须刀刀网
如每日使用剃须刀的话,为保持剃须刀良好的剃须性能,我们建议每年更换一次刀网。
■ 取出外刀网。取下外刀架,移动外刀网,使其从框中托出(图 7)
■ 更换外刀网。手捏外刀网的塑料边条两侧,轻轻向内送入,直至与外刀网架配合紧密
(图 8)
■ 更换内刀刃。手捏外刀网的外架两侧将外刀网取下,用力拿紧内刀刃的两端,将内刀刃
从剃须刀内垂直拉出。要更换新内刀刃时,手持刀刃两端将内刀刃插入直至固定为止
(图 9,10)。
注意内刀刃内部有弹簧,请勿丢失。
拆卸电 池

162
■ 本机器里面设有的电池含有污染环境的物质,倘若到时您想要扔掉此机器时,请卸掉
电池并将它交给一些正式的收集点。
■ 您本人也可以卸掉剃须刀里面的电池(图 11)。
■ 在卸掉电池之前,确保电池无电,若电池有余电,打开机器直到发动机停掉为止。
■ 将电池卸掉。
■ 在卸掉电池之后,绝对不能将机器再与电源插座连接。
【译文】
Important Instructions
■ Please read the guidebook carefully before using the shaver.
■ Please don’t wash the shaver with water.
■ Be sure to keep the shaver and the L-shaped plug in a dry condition.
■ The outer blade net is very thin, and it is produced through precision processing. So, don’t
squeeze it or crash it with something sharp and hard. Otherwise, the outer blade net will be
damaged, and thus it may hurt your skin.
■ The shaver blade has a limited service life. In order to keep its good shaving performance, you
are advised to replace the blade regularly.
■ The FLYCO blade net that needs replacing can be bought in nearby department stores and
FLYCO special maintenance shops.
■ Please take good care of the guidebook for future reference.
Charging
■ The switch of the shaver must be turned off when the shaver is charged.
■ Charge the shaver at the temperature of 5℃--35℃.
■ The applicable voltage is AC220v/50Hz.
■ To guarantee the normal service life of the shaver, please take it off from the wall socket when
the battery has been fully charged, and re-charge the battery when it is completely empty. Do
not keep connecting the battery with the power supply after the charging is finished.
■ At first insert the L-shaped plug into the shaver’s jack, and then insert it into the socket of the
power supply, and the indicator light begins to work (Fig. 1,2).
■ The normal charging will take 8 hours, and the longest service time of the shaver is 30
minutes when the battery is fully charged.
■ After the charging is finished, keep the L-shaped plug well for use next time.
Shaving
■ Do not let water or any other liquid enter into the shaver.
■ Move the switch button upward to start the shaver (Fig. 3)
■ Place the shaver blade at 900 on the skin and move it back and forth evenly and slowly against
the beard growing direction (Fig. 4).
■ The best effect of shaving will be obtained when the skin is dry, so please shave before or
some time after you wash your face. It will take some time for your skin to get used to the
FLYCO shaving device.
■ The hair on the neck can also be shaved in this way.
■ Turn off the switch of the shaver, and cover it with the dustproof cover to avoid damage (Fig.
5).
■ Don’t shave when the blade net is damaged because it may hurt your skin.
Replace the blade net every year to keep the best shaving effect.

163
Cleaning
■ Turn off the switch of the shaver.
■ You are advised to clean the shaver regularly to keep its good performance.
■ Pinch both sides of the outer blade net, take off the outer blade net and clean it with the
cleaning brush.
■ After cleaning it, put the outer blade net in the original place the other way round (Fig. 6).
Replacement of the Blade Net
■ If you use the shaver every day, please replace the blade net every year to keep the shaver’s
good shaving performance.
■ Remove the outer blade net. Remove the outer blade frame, move the outer blade net gently
and let it go off from the frame (Fig. 7).
■ Replace the outer blade net. Pinch both sides of the outer blade net’s plastic edge, and put it
down gently until it matches the outer blade frame tightly (Fig. 8).
■ Replace the inner blade. Pinch both sides of the outer blade net to remove the outer blade net
and hold both ends of the inner blade tightly and pull the inner blade out of the shaver
vertically. When you are installing the new inner blade, hold both ends of the blade and insert
the inner blade into its frame until it has been fixed (Fig. 9, 10)
Attention: Do not lose the spring inside the inner blade.
Disposing of the Battery
■ The battery used in this shaver contains the material that will pollute the environment. If you
need to throw away the shaver, please get the battery out of the shaver and send it to some
official collection center.
■ You yourself also can get the battery out of the shaver (Fig. 11).
■ Before removing the battery, you must be sure that the battery has no remaining electricity. If
there is remaining electricity, turn on the switch of the shaver until the motor stops.
■ Remove the battery.
■ After removing the battery, you should never connect the device with the socket of the power
supply.

(二)旅游文
中英旅游文,受其写作传统的影响,存在基本差异:汉语文字华丽,英语文字朴素。翻
译时必须考虑这一差异。何志范先生对中英旅游文的翻译有一段精彩的议论:”一篇中文旅
游文章,在描绘一景点或某一壮观活动时,往往文采奕奕,婆娑多姿,华丽词藻娓娓动听 ,
有时竟贯穿全文。然而我们在阅读英美旅游文时,这类现象并不多见,此时,译者可根据外
国读者的习惯,把中文堆砌的词藻用简洁明快的英文表达出来。适当调整词语,力求保持原
作韵味,做到忠而不泥,活而不滥,贵在句炼词精。殊不知,过多的修饰语会失之于累赘沉
重,译文令人厌读,达不到我们宣传旅游景点的目的,岂非弄巧成拙 ?”(见乔萍等编《散文
佳作 108 篇》,180 页)。何先生虽然谈的是旅游文的汉译英,我们却可以从中受到启发,那
就是在做旅游文的英译汉时,要考虑汉语读者的审美期待和口味,将平易的英文尽量译得
有文采一点。
1. 英译汉
下面是 INFO NIAGARA 网站(见 http://www.infoniagara.com/attractions) 对世界著名的尼
亚加拉大瀑布所作的简略介绍。后面的译文为本书作者试译。
【原文】

164
There is something about Niagara Falls, Canada that appeals to the lover, daredevil and poet
in everyone. Over the years Niagara Falls has evolved from a strategic military post to a
prosperous trade centre, and finally into a world class year-round travel destination.
Nature has left an indelible mark on the Niagara region. The Canadian Falls, with a height
of 54 metres (177 ft), and the American Falls, at 56 metres (184 ft) high, are true wonders of
nature. Royalty, poets, and celebrities have all come to Niagara to experience its awe
inspiring wonders.
【译文】
加拿大境内的尼亚加拉大瀑布,魅力绝伦。每一位游客,来到这里,观瀑布磅礴气势,
必会豪情大发,兴踏平天下险阻之意念;览奇丽景色,诗情勃发,欲讴歌大自然鬼斧神工 ;
流连忘返,喜爱之情顿生。历史上,尼亚加拉大瀑布,曾为战略要地,后来成为繁荣的商品
集散地,最后发展成为世界一流的、人人向往的旅游胜地,常年游客不断。
尼亚加拉大瀑布是大自然母亲在尼亚加拉地区留下的永恒印迹。加拿大境内的瀑布高
54 米;美国境内的瀑布高 56 米。在这里,大自然展露出她瑰丽的奇观。王室贵冑,文人骚
客,名流显要,无不慕名而来,体验瀑布的惊心动魄,领悟瀑布的无上妙谛。
【分析】总体来看,英语旅游文体风格朴实,重在事实描述,即便使用”丽词”,也是
偶尔为之,上例即是明证。汉语旅游文体,词藻华丽,甚至不惜堆砌词语。翻译须充分考虑
这一差异。上面的译文,在原文偶用丽词之处,顺着原文的意义线索,大势铺张华词丽语,
以求得与汉语同类文本之近似,译法已似译写。运用的主要技巧有:
(1)具体化。something 具体译为”魅力绝伦”。
(2)词序调整。Niagara Falls, Canada 译为”加拿大境内的尼亚加拉大瀑布”,进行了词序调
整。
(3) 意译。原文第一句中的定语从句和最后一句的翻译,特别是 lover, daredevil, poet, awe,
inspiring 等词的翻译,是根据语境含义的扩充式翻译,添加了译者的想象,从某种意义上
看,这是译写。
(4)分译。a world class year-round travel destination.一分为二,译作”世界一流的、人人向往的
旅游胜地,常年游客不断”。
2. 汉译英
下面的旅游景点介绍及其英译文选自胡述主编的《奇山异水张家界》(湖南人民出版社,
2003 年,个别地方略有变动)。
【原文】
中国张 家界
张家界是 1988 年 5 月 18 日经国务院批准建立的省辖地级市,辖管永定、武陵源两区和
慈利县、桑植县。张家界市位于中国湖南西部,其气候属中亚热带原型季风湿润气候,年平
均气温 16℃,全市总面积 4536 平方公里,总人口 154 万人,居住有汉族以及土家族、苗族、
白族等少数民族。
由中国第一个国家森林公园张家界、天子山自然保护区和索溪峪自然保护区三大板块组
成的核心景区叫武陵源。这里保持着长江流域五千年以前原始的、古朴的自然风貌。自然景观
兼有泰山之雄、桂林之秀、黄山之奇、华山之险。境内“奇峰林立,怪石嶙峋,树茂林丰,溶
洞群布,沟壑纵横,溪水潺潺,珍禽竞翔,奇花争妍,藏峰,桥,洞,湖于一体,汇名山
大川之大成。”著名园林学家,清华大学朱畅中教授誉为“天下第一奇山。”
张家界在二十世纪八十年代初为世人所认识。张家界以独特的自然风貌和原始神韵,一
展雄姿,就成为遐尔闻名的旅游胜地。 1982 年被国务院批准为中国第一个国家森林公园。
1998 年 10 月,国务院公布武陵源为国家重点风景名胜区。 1992 年 12 月 7 日,联合国教科

165
文组织世界遗产委员会批准将武陵源作为世界自然遗产列入《世界自然遗产名录》 。2000 年
12 月,武陵源同时获国家 AAAA 级质量认证,并捧回”全国文明风景名胜区”金牌。 《国 际
自然与自然资源保护联盟技术评价报告》中指出:”武陵源在风景上可以和美国西部的几个
国家森林公园及纪念物相比。武陵源具有不可否定的自然美。因为它拥有壮丽而参差不齐的
石峰,郁郁葱葱的植被以及清澈的湖泊、溪流”。
张家界市旅游资源丰富,除张家界核心景区外,周边景区丰富多彩。市境内有雄伟壮观
的天门山,浪漫而刺激的茅岩河漂流,有江南名刹——普光禅寺,有亚洲第一洞——九天
洞。有贺龙元帅等历史名人故居,还有当地古朴的民族风情和那惊世骇俗的张家界硬气功,
使中外游客兴趣盎然,流连忘返。
经过二十多年的努力,全市已开发旅游区 (点)12 个,建成游览线 20 多条,建成景区游
道 300 多公里和景区索道两条。张家界火车站已与国内 10 多个大、中城市开通了旅游列车。
张家界机场与国内 20 多个大、中城市开通了航班。张家界的邮电通讯已达到国内先进水
平。全市有饭店 400 多家,床位总数达 3 万多张,其中星级宾馆 20 余家。全市有为旅游服务
的旅行社 50 多家。
随着张家界知名度不断提高,张家界的旅游事业不断发展,旅游设施不断完善。张家界
的各族人民正从封闭走向开放,正在加快步伐走出国门,走向世界。
朋友,张家界欢迎您!
【译文】
Zhangjiajie, China
Zhangjiajie was approved as a prefectural city on May 18, 1988 by the State Council with the
jurisdiction over Yongding and Wulingyuan districts and Cili and Sangzhi counties. The city is
situated in the west of Hunan Province, covering an area of 4,536 square kilometers with the total
population of 15,240,000, and here live some nationalities of Han, Tujia, Miao and Bai. Its climate
belongs to a subtropical monsoon humid climate and annual average temperature is 16℃.
The main scenic spot is Wulingyuan consisting of Zhangjiajie National Park, Tianzi
(Emperor) Mountain Natural Reserves, and Suoxi Gully Natural Reserves, which still preserve the
features of primitiveness, simplicity and nature of Yangtze Valley 5,000 years ago. The natural
scenery can equal Mount Tai in magnificence, Guilin in elegance, Mount Huang in uniqueness and
Mount Hua in precipice. Professor Zhu Changzhong, a famous horticultural expert at Qinghua
University, once highly praised it as “Number One Miracle Mountain in the World” for its
uniqueness of all famous mountains and valleys with the combination of lofty peaks, bridges,
caves and lakes; within sight are the forested stone peaks and steep cliffs, densely growing jade-
green plants, birds soaring and flowers in full blossom, and the stone caves, valleys and streams
which can been seen all over the forest park.
Zhangjiajie got known to the world in the 1980s, and has become a famous tourist spot for its
uniqueness of natural features and primitive charm. In 1982, it was granted the name “the First
National Forest Park” by the State Council. In October 1998, Wulingyuan was listed as one of the
key historical scenic spots by the State Council. On December 7, 1992, it was put into the World
Natural Heritage Catalogue by the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO, and in December
2000, certified the State AAAA Quality and awarded a golden medal of “the State-level Civilized
Scenic Resort”. It was pointed out in the Technical Appraisal Report by the Alliance of
International Nature and Natural Resources Protection that Wulingyuan can be comparable with
some national natural reserves in the western part of the United States of America. Indeed,
Wulingyuan has indelible natural beauty for its innumerable fantastic rock formations, luxuriant

166
green plants and clear lakes and streams.
Zhangjiajie City boasts abundant tourist resources, such as Tianmen Mountain, romantic and
exciting drifts on Maoyan River, Puguang Temple -- a famous Buddhist temple in southern China,
Jiutian Cave—the number-one cave in Asia and here is the former residence of Marshal He Long.
And what’s more, visitors both abroad and at home are extremely attracted by the simple folk
customs and Zhangjiajie hard Qigong performance. Apart from all these, there are some other
neighboring scenic spots.
After more than 20 years’ development, there are now 12 scenic spots, 30 tourism routes,
300-kilometer-long tourism road and 2 cableways. Zhangjiajie railway station is linked with more
than 10 large and medium-sized cities by passenger trains and its airport is connected with more
than 20 cities by flight routes. Its telecommunications and postal service are well developed,
reaching the advanced level of the country. In this city there are more than 400 hotels with the
total number of 30,000 beds, among which more than 20 are star hotels, and also more than 50
travel agencies here.
Zhangjiajie now is becoming well known to the world so as to improve the development of
tourism and the facilities for tourism of Zhangjiajie. Zhangjiajie people are carrying on the reform
and open policies and trying their best to play an important role in the world tourism.
Welcome to Zhangjiajie.
【分析】译文所运用的翻译技巧有:
(1)省略法。第一段第一句为”是”字句,”是”字省略未译;同一句中的”省辖”因为有
暗示,也被省略。此外,下文中一些华丽的词藻,如”怪石嶙峋”、”惊世骇俗”、”兴趣盎
然,流连忘返”等都基本上略去。
(2)分句与合句。第一段第二句较长,译文切分为两个句子翻译,并对句序进行了调整。第二
段一、二句合为一句,第二句用一个非限制性定语从句表达。第二段的最后两句存在因果关
系,译者果前因后地将其合译为一个长句。
(3)选词。第二段第三句”兼有”译为 can equal,第四段首句增加动词 boast,都显得比较贴
切。
(4)夹注。”天子山”的”天子”的翻译采用音译+释义的办法,释义紧随音译,放在圆括号
内。
(5)词序调整。第二段的”泰山之雄”,”桂林之秀” , “黄山之奇”,”华山之险”(包括其
中的”泰山”、”黄山”、”华山”),第四段的”江南名刹——普光禅寺”,”亚洲第一洞
——九天洞”等的翻译,根据英文习惯调整了词序。
(6)转换。一是语态转换。原文第三段的六、七句,第四段的末句,第五段第二句等,由主动
语态转换为被动语态。二是直接引语转换为间接引语。原文第三段的直接引语被译为间接引
语。三是逻辑转换。原文第六段首句各部分为并列关系,在译文中转换为目的关系。
(7)意译。第六段最后一句为意译。

(三)广告
广告是利用传播媒介把有关商品、劳务的信息传递给人们的一种方式。广告一词,源自
拉丁文 advertere,意为”注意”、”诱导”等。广告包括”不以经营为目的”和”以经营为
目的”的广告两大类。前者包括政府、政党、宗教、文化、社会团体及个人等的公告、声明、启事
等;后者包括生产、商业、服务行业等经营者的声明、启事、商品及劳务介绍等。商品广告只是
广告的一种。但是它在现今的市场经济和商品社会中占据主导地位。现在广告一词通常指以
经营为目的的广告。

167
现代商业广告,内容庞杂,种类繁多。这里我们只讨论以语言为载体的商品广告。从语
言形式看,无论汉语还是英语,商品广告多为短语型和句子型,偶尔也以段群构成的语篇
形式出现。商标品牌多为名词短语,为商品设计的宣传口号多为短语或句子。广告语言有一
个显著特点:顺口、易记、醒目且具有煽情(即劝说)功能。此外,广告语言还挖空心思地利用
各种修辞格以达到生动活泼、好记、抓人眼球的目的。广告的翻译,既要注意广告语言自身的
特点与功能,同时还要注意英汉语言文化方面的差异。例如商标,作为商品符号,其翻译成
功与否,直接关系到商品国际营销战略的成败,具有举足轻重的作用。广告的翻译,要以译
入语读者为中心,因为他们是潜在的顾客,而顾客就是上帝。也就是说,广告翻译必须考虑
译入语的语言习惯、价值观念、审美取向、消费心理以及其他传统文化积淀,一切以译入语读
者的接受能力和语言文化期待为转移。广告的翻译不能死守传统的”忠实”观念不放,要把
重心放在广告的功能亦即广告设计者的良苦用心的传译上。因此,广告的翻译,应以功能对
等为原则,既可采用传统的全译的方法,也可采取译写、仿译等变译策略。
就实现广告自身的目的——打动消费者、使他们下定购买产品或消费服务的决心而言,
译者不妨摆脱原文字词的束缚、采取灵活翻译的策略,做到在语用功能上对等即可。例如百
事可乐公司的英文宣传广告是:
“Give up my Pepsi? Don’t even think about it.”
BE YOUNG
HAVE FUN
DRINK PEPSI
考虑到直译难以在中国消费者中引起强烈反响,百事可乐公司对英文广告进行了二度
创作,并在春节这一中国传统佳节的有利时机推出:
新事可乐 旧事可乐 小事可乐 大事可乐 祝您百事可乐!
广告设计者结合中国民族文化心理巧妙地将商品名”百事可乐”溶入广告,使之具有
了”事事开心,万事如意”的新的内涵。这样的广告理所当然能取悦我国消费者,实现其目
的。这是典型的仿译。
从语言的角度看,广告翻译首先必须表达准确。例如北京亚运会有这样一则英汉对照公
益广告:
“争取运动成绩与精神文明的双丰收。”
For a good harvest both in sports and morals.
译文对原文”运动成绩”和”精神文明”的理解不够正确,因而表达上用 sports 和
morals 翻译,就显得措辞不当。用 harvest 译”丰收”,是语用失误,因为英语中的 harvest
一般指收成,”丰收”这里却是比喻用法。正确的翻译应当是 For better athletic records and
sportsmanship (程镇球译)。广告翻译还必须语言明晰,不能让人产生误解。例如在国内某机
场候机大厅有这样一则英汉并行的公益广告:
为了您和大家的健康,吸烟请到吸烟区
For your and others’ health, the passengers who smoke, please go to the smoking area.
英译文含有歧义:”为了健康,欢迎候机乘客吸烟”。因此也就未能实现广告的功能。
广告翻译还要注意措辞文明优美。例如著名品牌 Coca Cola 就曾译为”啃蜡蝌蝌”,如此大
倒胃口、使人生厌的译文只会拉大商品与顾客的距离。语言的文化含义也是广告翻译必须注
意的一个问题。如汉语中的著名商标名称”芳草”、”白象”、”金鸡”,若译为 Fang Cao,
White Elephant, Golden Cock ,不仅对产品起不到宣传作用,反而对其形象有损害作用,因
为 Fang Cao 中 的 Fang 有 ” 毒 牙 ” 之 意 , White Elephant 表 示 ” 昂 贵 而 无 用 之 物 ” ,
Golden Cock 中的 Cock 还指男性生殖器。因此广告翻译要求译者要特别小心谨慎,注意译文
字词是否有消极的联想意义。

168
最后,消费者的文化心理也是广告译者需要考虑的因素。对于译入语文化心理的判断失
当有可能导致国际营销战略的失败。相反,如果判断正确,对产品的销售将有莫大助益。例
如某国外洗发香波,利用某些消费者的逆反心理,将产品取名为 Poison(毒药)。而当此产品
销往中国时,该公司考虑到中国女性比较传统,很少追求刺激和野性风情,便根据 Poison
的发音译为”百爱神”,顺应汉语读者的文化习惯,从而赢得了市场。下面对两例英汉广告
作简略分析。
1. 英译汉
To smoke or not to smoke, that is a question.
吸烟,还是不吸,这是个问题。
【分析】这是一则香烟广告,运用了仿拟修辞,仿拟的是莎士比亚笔下人物哈姆莱特的
名言:To be or not to be, that is a question. ,非常贴切形象地描绘了吸烟者进退两难的心理
境况。翻译用直译即可,但我国不了解西方文化的读者从译文中很难读出原广告的用典,可
适当加注。
2. 汉译英
要想皮肤好,早晚用大宝。
A fair skin now? Dabao knows how.
【分析】上面是一则著名的电视广告,几乎每天都可以从电视里听到。该广告有两个特点:
一是”好”、”宝”押韵;而是”早晚”为双关语。杨全红先生(2003:73)介绍了好几种译
文 : Applying “Dabao” morning and night: It makes your skincare a real delight. / “Dabao”
morning and night makes your skincare a real delight. / To gain an ideal complexion? Use
“Dabao” with no hesitation. / To change your skin from good to better, you have to wear “Dabao”
sooner or later. / Dabao, today’s makeup for tomorrow’s skin / A fair skin now? / Dabao knows
how. / With “Dabao” morning and night, sooner or later your skin will highlight.
如果翻译钻进了”不译双关不罢休”的死胡同,原广告的翻译不可能有理想的译文。我
们之所以选择译文 A fair skin now? Dabao knows how.,是因为它简短、上口、易记,符合广
告语言的风格特征。至于”早晚”的双关意义,已包含在译文的想象空间里。广告当然力求
直白,但也容许留给顾客一定的想象空间。

(四) 散文
散文翻译,相对于其他体裁,要容易一些,基本没有什么不可克服的困难。翻译散文应
当遵守全译的程序,灵活运用翻译技巧,做到形散而神不散。
1. 英译汉
【原文】
Love Is Not like Merchandise
By Sydney J. Harris

A reader in Florida, apparently bruised by some personal experience, writes in to complain,


“If I steal a nickel’s worth of merchandise, I am a thief and punished; but if I steal the love of
another’s wife, I’m free.”
This is a prevalent misconception in many people’s minds – that love, like merchandise, can
be “stolen.” Numerous states, in fact, have enacted laws allowing damages for “ alienation of
affections.”
But love is not a commodity; the real thing cannot be bought, sold, traded or stolen. It is an
act of the will, a turning of the emotions, a change in the climate of the personality.

169
When a husband or wife is “stolen” by another person, that husband or wife was already ripe
for the stealing, was already predisposed toward a new partner. The “lovebandit” was only taking
what was waiting to be taken, what wanted to be taken.
We tend to treat persons like goods. We even speak of children “belonging” to their parents.
But nobody “belongs” to anyone else. Each person belongs to himself, and to God. Children are
entrusted to their parents, and if their parents do not treat them properly, the state has a right to
remove them from their parents’ trusteeship.
Most of us, when young, had the experience of a sweetheart being taken from us by
somebody more attractive and more appealing. At the time, we may have resented this intruder –
but as we grew older, we recognized that the sweetheart had never been ours to begin with. It was
not the intruder that “caused” the break, but the lack of a real relationship.
On the surface, many marriages seem to break up because of a “third party.” This is,
however, a psychological illusion. The other woman or the other man merely serves as a pretext
for dissolving a marriage that had already lost its essential integrity.
Nothing is more futile and more self-defeating than the bitterness of spurned love, the
vengeful feeling that someone else has “come between” oneself and a beloved. This is always a
distortion of reality, for people are not the captive or victims of others – they are free agents,
working out their own destinies for good or for ill.
But the rejected lover or mate cannot afford to believe that his beloved has freely turned
away from him -- and so he ascribes sinister or magical properties to the interloper. He calls him a
hypnotist or a thief or a home-breaker. In the vast majority of cases, however, when a home is
broken, the breaking has begun long before any “third party” has appeared on the scene.
【译文】
爱情不 是商品
西德尼·J·哈里斯

佛罗里达州有位读者显然在个人经历上受过创伤,他在来信中说:“如果我偷走了五
分钱的商品,我就是个贼,便要受到惩罚,但是如果我偷走了别人妻子的爱情,我却不会
有事儿。”
这是许多人心目中普遍存在的一种错觉--爱情,像商品一样,可以”偷走”。实际上,
许多州都颁布了法令,允许索取”情感转让”赔偿金。
但是爱情并不是商品;真情实意不可能买到,或出卖,或交换,或偷走。爱情是自愿
的行为,是感情的转向,是个性发挥上的变化。
当丈夫或妻子被另一个人”偷走”时,也就意味着丈夫或妻子已经具备了被偷走的条
件,已经有了接受新伴侣的思想准备了。这位”爱匪”不过取走了等人取走、盼人取走的东
西。
我们往往待人如物。我们甚至说孩子”属于”父母。但是,谁也不”属于”谁。人都属
于自己和上帝。孩子是托付给父母的。如果做父母的不善待他们,州政府有权取消父母对孩
子的托管身份。
我们当中多数人年轻时都有过恋人被某个更有迷人、更有魅力的人夺走的经历。那时那
刻,我们兴许怨恨这位不速之客 --但后来长大了,也就慢慢地认识到心上人原本就不属于
自己。并不是不速之客”导致”了恋爱双方的决裂,而是他们之间缺乏牢固的关系。
从表面上看,许多婚姻似乎是因为”第三者”的出现才破裂的。这不过是一种心理上
的幻觉。另外那个女人,或者那个男人,无非是作为借口,用来解除早就出现裂痕的婚姻罢

170
了。
因失恋而痛苦,因别人”插足”于自己与心上人之间而图报复,不过是显示自己极端
无能的无用之举。这种事一直歪曲了事实真相,因为谁也不是谁的俘虏或牺牲品--人都有自
主行事的权利,不论命运是好是坏,都由自己来做主。
但是,遭离弃的情人或配偶不愿相信他的心上人是自愿背弃他的 --因而他归咎于插足
者心术不正或迷人有招。他把他叫做催眠师、窃贼或者破坏家庭的人。然而,从大多数事例看,
一个家庭的破裂,是早在”第三者”出现之前就开始了的。(韩瑷明 译,个别地方有变动)
【分析】原文对恋爱婚姻中第三者插足的问题进行了探讨,观点独到,发人深思。译文运
用的翻译技巧主要有:
(1)减词法。a nickel’s worth of merchandise 中的 worth 无须翻译,因为”五分钱的商品”本身
就说明了商品的价值。
(2)直译法。原文中有几个词,如 alienation of affections, stolen, lovebandit, belong, cause, third
party, come between,要么表示强调,要么意义不在字面,因此都加了双引号。但其意易懂 ,
译者连同标点符号一起,直译过来。
(3)意译。ripe 译为”具备了……的条件”, predisposed 译为”有了……的思想准备”, real
译为”牢固”, self-defeating 译为”无能”, lost its essential integrity 译为”早已出现裂痕
”等,都根据上下文在意义上进行了引伸。
(4)增词法。在 alienation of affections 之前增加了”索取:”,以免译文令人费解;the break(第
6 段)的翻译增加了”恋爱双方”,以使意思清楚明了。
(5)选词。第三段的 act 译作”行为”,不译为”行动”,更自然;第五段的 them 译作”孩
子”,不译为”他们”,意思更清楚;第六段的 ours 译作”自己”,不译为”我们”,表
达更自然;always 译作”一直”,不译为”总是”,似乎更切近作者的本意。
2. 汉译英
【原文】
盼 头
杨 航

细娃盼过年,大人盼开春。儿时,对于大人的盼是不能理解的,但过年,对我来说,可
是一年的大盼头了。过年,不但好玩,且有肉吃,那气氛是迷人的。年一过,又盼日子快些
流,好流来又一个春节。
在盼中,日子真的流得飞快,转眼上了小学。继而初中,然后高中,最后是大学;盼的
欲望更加强烈,盼的内容也越渐丰富了;盼有好成绩毕业,盼有一份好工作,盼事业有成 ,
盼挣钱替父母分忧,盼有一个好爱人……不知不觉,天天踩着盼的台阶而上,自己也竟成
了一个大男人,一个挣钱养家糊口的忙碌人了。
生活开始变得复杂。然而,无论自己变得是否庸俗,变得伟大,盼头依然天天有;盼信
件,盼稿件被采用,盼发奖金,盼某事有满意结果,盼一次聚会、一次旅行……人就在盼中
找到了依托。
没有盼头的日子是苍白不可想象的。人,得天天有点什么盼头,生活才不至于暗淡。有
了盼头,会觉得太阳每天都是新的。不管是盼梅止渴,还是画饼充饥,它都会激励你不停手
中的桨,去追逐哪怕一星微小的光。
土地去掉水份,就成了沙漠;人没有盼头,还剩什么 ?小盼头支撑人的一天,大盼头支
撑人的一生。
人,是决不能没有盼头的。
【译文】

171
Something to Look Forward to
By Yang Hang

Little children look forward to the arrival of lunar New Year, adults to that of spring. When a
child I couldn’t understand what the elders hoped for. But New year’s Day was always the greatest
red-letter day of the year, for it meant the nicest food as well as a lot of fun, which was really
fascinating. As soon as the festival was over, another one was my dream and I wished time flew as
fast as possible.
Days spent in expectation come and go really very fast. Very soon I finished primary school,
went to junior and senior middle school, and finally to college; with ever greater desire for more
varied things: for graduation with honours, for an ideal job, for a successful career, for more
earning to share my parents’ burden, for a satisfactory wife… Climbing the upward steps of hope I
had become a fully grown man before I was aware of it, a busy breadwinner with a family on my
hands.
Life began to show its various facets. Whether I have turned more vulgar or great, I have
always something to look forward to. It may be arrival of a letter, publication of an article, the
bonus-distributing day, a gratifying result of something, a get-together or a pleasure trip…. Such
expectations serve as a prop to a person’s faith in life. A day without hope would be unimaginably
pale. There must be something to look forward to each day to brighten one’s life and keep it out of
shadows. To a person cherishing hopes every morning rises a new sun. Even if it is a fantasy or an
illusion, so long as it shows a ray of hope it still urges you on in pursuit of that little sparkle
without letup.
Deprived of moisture content, soil turns into desert. Deprived of hope, what is there left to a
person? A small hope sustains a person for a day, a great one for a lifetime.
Human beings cannot do without something to look forward to. (陈文伯 译)
【分析】原文虽短,却简练有力地道出了希望(即盼头)之于人生的意义。译文运用的翻译
技巧有:
(1)伸缩法。第一段的”大盼头”具体明确地译为 the greatest red-letter day(最重要的节日),
这是意义的缩小即具体化译法。”有肉吃”的翻译正好相反,采用伸展词义的方法,将其译
为 the nicest food,这是概括化译法。
(2)选词。原文第一段两处”大人”,译者采用变换措辞的方法分别译作 adults 和 elders。”盼
”字在不同的地方分别译为 look forward to, dream, desire, faith 等。译文中”过年”的”年”
都译作(lunar)New Year,目的是避免不明中国习俗的外国人引起误解。其实,中国的”春节
”现在为越来越多的外国人所了解,译作 Spring Festival 也未尚不可。第三段的”复杂”不
译作 complex,而译为 various facets,是从全段考虑,下文谈的都是具体内容,这里的”复
杂”实际上指生活的方方面面。其他如”旅行”译为 a pleasure trip 而不是 a trip,”聚会”
译为 get-together 而不是 meeting 等,都是为了强调其快乐的因素,不然就不会成为盼的对
象。
(3) 合并法。第二段的” 继而初中,然后高中,最后是大学”合并译为 went to junior and
senior middle school, and finally to college 。”变得庸俗,变得伟大”译为 turned more vulgar
or great,也是合并法。
(4)句子结构调整。原文第一段流水句式的并列结构”过年,不但好玩,且有肉吃,那气氛
是迷人的”,转换为英语的主从结构,将第二个小句”那气氛是迷人的”译为英语的非限
制性定语从句。第四段的并列词组”苍白不可想象”转换为”副词 +形容词”的偏正结构

172
unimaginably pale,相应地,”不可想象”也由形容词变为副词。
(5)转换句子成分。第四段的”有了盼头,会觉得太阳每天都是新的”,是个无主句,译成
英文,必须有主语。译者将原文的宾语”太阳”作为译文的主语,并将汉语的小句”太阳是
新的”紧缩为一个名词词组”a new sun”。此外还增译了 to a person。
(6) 成语翻译:意译 + 增词法。原文两个成语”望梅止渴”、”画饼充饥”,分别译作 a
fantasy, an illusion ,都是意译,后面还增译了 so long as it shows a ray of hope ,以使前后逻
辑贯通,因为这两个汉语成语有消极意义,与整篇文章主题不够协调。这里有必要指出的是,
成语的翻译,如果作者或说话人重在其比喻意义,而非字面意义,不妨用意译。

(五)诗歌
诗歌作为一种文学体裁,历史最为悠久,如我国的《诗经》,希腊的荷马史诗等。同其他
文学体裁相比,诗歌具有自己独特的品质,即抒情性、音乐性以及语言的高度凝炼和概括性。
关于诗歌的翻译,我们反对”不可译”论。对待诗歌翻译的正确态度应是,有些诗可译,有
些诗不可译;即便是”不可译”的诗歌中也有可译的成份。诗之可译,是为实践证明了的,
匈牙利诗人裴多斐的中文译诗”生命诚可贵,爱情价更高。若为自由故,二者皆可抛。”,
曾经鼓舞无数青年人投身到革命的洪流中去。
相对说来,自由体诗和散文诗较易翻译,律诗难译。就诗歌的元素而论,意象完全可以
传译;声律只能部分地再现;而形式特征几乎无法保存。例如汉语的律诗,文字整齐,格律
严密,每句中用字平仄相间,上下句中的平仄相对,有”仄起”与”平起”两式,如五律
仄起式和七律平起式的格式为:
五律仄起式
仄仄平平仄,平平仄仄平。
平平平仄仄,仄仄仄平平。
仄仄平平仄,平平仄仄平。
平平平仄仄,仄仄仄平平。
七律平起式
平平仄仄仄平平,仄仄平平仄仄平。
仄仄平平平仄仄,平平仄仄仄平平。
平平仄仄平平仄,仄仄平平仄仄平。
仄仄平平平仄仄,平平仄仄仄平平。
汉语是声调语言,英语是语调语言。英语没有平上去入四声变化,只有轻重(长短)音,
用轻重音替代平仄,翻译实践证明不可行,因为英语无法做到在完满传达意象的前提下像
汉语那样用字简练。有译者提出以步代顿(律诗一字或两字一顿),即用英语中长短音构成的
音步来对应汉语律诗的顿,这种译诗方法比较可行。诗歌翻译中不可译的因素,除了形式和
音韵外,还包括某些修辞手段如双关等。汉诗中的”西边日出东边雨,道是无晴却有晴”中
的双关,不作注释是无法传达的。总之,翻译诗歌,应当”译诗像诗”;不能舍本逐末,以
牺牲原作的意象和神韵为代价,来获取声律和形式上某种程度的保留;应该把”意美”放
在首位,”音美”次之,最后是”形美”。下面从英汉语中分别选取一首诗歌作粗浅的分析。
1. 英译汉
【原文】
She Walks in Beauty
George G. Byron

She walks in beauty, like the night

173
Of cloudless climes and starry skies;
And all that’s best of dark and bright
Meet in her aspect and her eyes;
Thus mellow’d to that tender light
Which heaven to gaudy day denies.

One shade the more, one ray the less,


Had half impair’d the nameless grace
Which waves in every raven tress,
Or softly lightens o’er her face;
Where thoughts serenely sweet express
How pure, how dear their dwelling place.

And on that cheek, and o’er that brow,


So soft, so calm, yet eloquent,
The smiles that win, the tints that glow.
But tell of days in goodness spent,
A mind at peace with all below,
A heart whose love is innocent.
【译文】
她走在美的 光影里
乔治·G·拜伦

她走在美的光影里,好象
无云的夜空,繁星闪烁;
明与暗的最美的形相
交会于她的容颜和眼波,
融成一片恬淡的清光——
浓艳的白天得不到的恩泽。

多一道阴影,少一道光芒,
都会损害那难言的优美;
美在她缕缕黑发上飘荡,
在她的腮颊上洒满柔辉;
愉悦的思想在那儿颂扬
这神圣寓所的纯洁高贵。

那脸颊,那眉宇,幽娴,沉静,
情意却胜似万语千言;
迷人的笑容,灼人的红晕,
显示温情伴送着芳华;
和平的、涵容一切的灵魂!
蕴蓄着真纯爱情的心田!
(杨德豫 译)

174
【分析】拜伦(1788-1824)是与雪莱齐名的革命浪漫主义诗人。She Walks in Beauty 是一首
抒情短诗,意境和语言已臻至美之境,实属不可多得的上乘之作。杨德豫先生的译文很好地
再现了原诗的语言美、音韵美和意境美。原诗由三个诗节(stanza)构成,每节六行;全诗押韵
格式为 ababab, cdcdcd, efefef;每行诗的音步格式为最常见英诗格式之一——四音步抑扬格
(iambus)(其他三种是扬抑格[trochee]、扬抑抑格[dactyl]和抑抑扬格[anapaest])。
译诗在形式上与原诗对应:三个诗节,每节六行,奇偶行交错排列,每行长度与原诗
相似。从音韵格律看,译文尾韵格式大体与原诗一致。译者用四顿对应原诗的四音步,如第
一句:”She walks / in beau / ty, like / the night ;她走在/美的/光影里,/好象”,从而求得与
原诗在节奏上相仿佛。但原诗的长短(轻重音)格式在翻译中无法完满地再现。汉语中有平仄。
清人李渔在《闲情偶寄》中说:“字有四声,平上去入是也,平居其一,仄居其三,是上去
入三声皆丽于仄。”也就是说,阴平为平,阳平、上声、去声皆为仄。但是,汉语四声发音时
间长度相等,与英语轻重音不一样,而且在翻译实践中要做到平仄与轻重音完全对应非常
困难,这是英汉诗歌对译中的不可译因素之一。妥协的办法是用汉诗的顿对应英诗的音步,
也能获得诗歌的音韵美。
从语言的选择和和意境的表现上看,译诗可以说与原诗近似,无须赘述。下面就译诗所
运用的微观技巧作一归纳。
(1)标点符号的运用。译文用了一个破折号,两个感叹号,为原文所无。
(2)意群切分组合。根据表达需要,译者对原诗中的个别地方进行了意群重组,如第一行的
the night 移入下一行,第十四行的 so soft, so calm,移到上一行。
(3)增词。beauty 的翻译增译了”光影”。第十四行的 yet eloquent 独立成行,增译了”情意”。
(4)减词。第二行的 clime(天气)被省略,因为”无云的”已暗示其意;第八行的 half 也被省
略。
(5)具体化。第三行的 all 具体译为”形相”。
(6)词义偏向。第六行的关系代词 which 本指 tender light,这里却译作”恩泽”,是词义偏向。
词义偏向是译文语境和表达的需要。
(7)反译法。deny 译作”得不到”,是正话反说。
(8)词序调整。One shade the more, one ray the less 译作”多一道阴影,少一道光芒”,是词序
调整。
(9)重复法。第九行的关系代词 which,采用重复先行词 grace(“优美”)的办法,译作”美”。
2. 汉译英
【原文】
静夜思
李 白

床前明月光,
疑是地上霜。
举头望明月,
低头望故乡。
【译文】
Night Thoughts
Li Bai

The bright moon shines on the bed foot around.


Can it be instead the frost on the ground?

175
Lifting my head, I look at the bright moon;
Dropping it, I thinking of my homeland soon.
(刘重德 译)
【分析】无论五律七律,律诗的汉译英要做到同原诗一样简洁几乎不可能。汉语律诗,全
为实词,每一个词都有它的用处,毫无水份可挤。英诗少不了虚词,否则也就不像意义连贯
的英文。再者,英语单词长短不齐,不像汉字短而整齐,无形之中也增加了译诗诗行的长度。
笔者曾见过非常简练的译诗片段 (不是全诗 ),那是许渊冲先生译的”千山鸟飞绝,万径人
踪灭”。其英译文为:From hill to hill no bird in flight / From path to path no man in sight。无论
是在选词上(如用 hill 而不用 mountain),还是在句法结构上 (不用完整句),译者都尽力使译
文简练,同时又能完美地再现原诗意境,但总体感觉还是没有原诗精炼。
刘重德先生的译文,较原诗行稍长,是因为用了八个无法减省的冠词和介词。在押韵格
式上,原诗为 aaba 式,译诗为 aabb 式,虽然不完全对应,但仍然有韵,有律诗的味道,符
合刘先生”译诗用韵”的一贯主张,而且译诗中为押韵而增加的词语如 around 和 soon ,
皆为原文语境所有,丝毫未损害原诗的意义,也就是说,译诗在用韵的同时,也做到了在
意义上对作者完全忠实。
汉诗英译还有两个困难:一是动词时态不明显,二是诗歌的话语主体不明确。我们认为,
只要没有很明显的时间和主体暗示,时间一般为现在时,表示诗人一般的感受,诗中缺省
的主体就是诗人自己。上面的译诗就是按照这个思路处理译文中的动词时态和人称主语的。
译诗所用技巧主要有:
(1)增词。第一行的 around 和第四行 soon 为增词,原诗虽无其词却有其意,增词的目的是
为了押韵。另外,增加主语 I,点明诗歌的主体。
(2)动词时态。译诗所有动词均用一般现在时,因为原诗的感兴是由某一具体事件触发的
”即时即事即兴可以多次出现的经常性行为”(刘重德,2003:88)。
(3)代词重复法。原诗重复了”头”,译诗用 it 代替重复,这正好符合汉语倾向于重复名词,
而英语多用代词替代被重复的名词的语文习惯。

第五节 专八译文选析

全国英语专业八级考试翻译部分所占比重较大,不容忽视。这里介绍一种应对策略:阅
读-腹译法。阅读包括三次阅读:略读,跳读,精读。首先进行略读,了解所译语篇的大意,
标出语言难点,如陌生词语、专名、术语、图符、修辞等。然后进行跳读,在语篇语境下理解所
标记的语言难点的确切含义,并选择正确的翻译策略。例如修辞格的翻译,是采用直译,直
译+注释,转换即用其他修辞补偿,还是舍弃修辞手法意译。第三次阅读为精读,了解所有
词句的准确含义,同时注意词句的组合方式,决定是否需要对词句的顺序进行调整。在确定
了所有词句的意义和翻译技巧之后,然后将全文腹译一遍,注意句段的衔接与连贯。句段之
间可能需要增加衔接词语。同时要注意句意的连贯。如果发现某句与上下文意思不连贯,就
要考虑此句的理解是否有误。然后将腹译成文。腹译成文是译文润色提炼的过程,包括选词
炼句,即选择较为贴切的词语和简练生动自然的语句。最后进行校对,检查译文语法如标点
符号、大小写、时态、语态等是否有错误。下面选取 1996 年以来的八篇翻译原题及其译文(见
http://www.hienglish.org/tem8/tem-8.htm 网站),分析各种翻译技巧的综合运用。为了方便讨
论,我们将原文所有句子都标上了序号。

一、1996 年汉译英原文
[1]在巴黎,名目繁多的酒会,冷餐会是广交朋友的好机会。[2]在这种场合陌生人相识,

176
如果是亚洲人,他们往往开口之前先毕恭毕敬地用双手把自己的名片呈递给对方,这好像
是不可缺少的礼节。[3]然而,法国人一般却都不大主动递送名片,双方见面寒暄几句,甚
至海阔天空地聊一番也就各自走开,只有当双方谈话投机,希望继续交往时,才会主动掏
出名片。[4]二话不说先递名片反倒显得有些勉强。
参考译文
In Paris, cocktail parties and buffet receptions of different kinds offer great opportunities for
making friends. On such occasions, strangers may get to know each other. If they are Asians, they
will, very respectfully and with both hands, present their calling cards to their interlocutors before
any conversation starts. This seems to be the required courtesy on their part. The French, however,
usually are not so ready with such a formality. Both sides will greet each other, and even chat
casually about any topic and then excuse themselves. Only when they find they like each other
and hope to further the relationship will they exchange cards. It will seem very unnatural to do so
before any real conversation gets under way.
【译文分析】原文第一句中的“酒会”译作 cocktail parties(鸡尾酒会),是具体化译法,
比 wine parties 要准确自然。“冷餐”可译为 cold meal,但“冷餐会”却不可译作 cold meal
party,只能译作 buffet reception 或 buffet party,专名的翻译往往不能照字面直译。“是”字
句的翻译,要准确理解“是”字的确切含义,此处为“提供”之意,所以译文用 offer。原
文第二句被分译成两句,其中“对方”按照语境意义被具体地译为 interlocutors(交谈者);
on their part(在他们看来)为增词,原文虽无其词却有其意。“法国人一般却都不大主动递送
名片”译为 The French usually are not so ready with such a formality,是概略化译法,以避免
重复 present their calling cards to their interlocutors before any conversation starts ,因此译文显
得简洁而自然。“各自走开”译为 excuse themselves( 借故离开 ) ,是意译,当然也可译为
simply walk away。最后一句的翻译首尾颠倒,进行了句序调整。

二、1996 年英译汉原文
[1]It should have been easy. [2]They were battle-tested veterans with long ties to Reagan and even
longer ties to the Republican party, men who understood presidential politics as well as any in the
country. [3]The backdrop of the campaign was hospitable, with lots of good news to work with:
America was at peace, and the nation’s economy, a key factor in any election, was rebounding
vigorously after recession. [4]Furthermore, the campaign itself was lavishly financed, with plenty
of money for a top-flight staff, travel, and television commercials. [5]And, most important, their
candidate was Ronald Reagan, a president of tremendous personal popularity and dazzling
communication skills. [6]Reagan has succeeded more than any president since John F. Kennedy in
projecting a broad vision of America -- a nation of renewed military strength, individual initiative,
and smaller federal government.
参考译文
这应该不是件难事。这都是些跟着里根多年、久经沙场的老将,他们跟共和党则有更深
厚的渊源,是这个国家里最熟悉总统政治的人。竞选的背景也很有利,也很多好消息可供炒
作。例如,美国上下一片和平,美国经济这一竞选要素也在经过一段时间的衰退之后开始强
劲反弹。此外,这次竞选本身得到了慷慨资助,因此有充裕的资金用于组织一流的竞选班子、
支付巡回演讲和电视广告的费用。而最重要的一点是,他们的候选人是罗纳德·里根,他可
是位极具个人魅力和沟通技巧的总统。自约翰·F·肯尼迪总统以来,里根是最成功地勾勒出
美国蓝图的总统:一个军事力量复兴、富有个人进取心、联邦政府得以精简的国家。
【译文分析】原文第二句 battle-tested veterans 中的 battle 和 veterans 皆为比喻用法,翻译

177
不能死扣字眼,译文译其喻义。第三句的 backdrop 相当于 background;campaign 这里根据
上下文是“竞选”而不是“战役”; hospitable 的基本词义是“殷勤的,好客的”,译文将
其引伸为“有利”;to work with 具体地译为“炒作”,准确而生动。nation’s economy 不要
译作“国家经济”或“民族经济”,可译为“国民经济”,译文具体地译为“美国经济”。
第四句的 top-flight 意为“第一流的”;staff 结合语境应是“竞选班子”,而不是“参谋”
或“参谋部”或“行政人员”;travel 这里指总统竞选中候选人为拉选票而进行的巡回演讲;
commercials 指电视台或电台播放的商业广告,译文选意择词都很准确。最后一句的 smaller
federal government ,若直译为“更小的联邦政府”,会显得词不达意,译文调整其词序,
意译为“联邦政府得以精简”,道出作者本意。

三、1997 年汉译英原文
[1]来美国求学的中国学生与其他亚裔学生一样,大多非常刻苦勤奋,周末也往往会抽
出一天甚至两天的时间去实验室加班,因而比起美国学生来,成果出得较多。 [2]我的导师
是亚裔人,嗜烟好酒,脾气暴躁。[3]但他十分欣赏亚裔学生勤奋与扎实的基础知识,也特
别了解亚裔学生的心理。[4]因此,在他实验室所招的学生中,除有一名来自德国外,其余
5 位均是亚裔学生。[5]他干脆在实验室的门上贴一醒目招牌:“本室助研必须每周工作 7 天,
早 10 时至晚 12 时,工作时间必须全力以赴。” [6]这位导师的严格及苛刻是全校有名的,
在我所呆的 3 年半中,共有 14 位学生被招进他的实验室,最后博士毕业的只剩下 5 人。
[7]1990 年夏天,我不顾别人劝阻,硬着头皮接受了导师的资助,从此开始了艰难的求学
旅程。
参考译文
Like students from other Asian countries and regions, most Chinese students who come to pursue
their further education in the United States work on their studies most diligently and assiduously.
Even on weekends, they would frequently spend one day, or even two days, to work overtime in
their laboratories. Therefore, compared with their American counterparts, they are more
academically fruitful. My supervisor is of Asian origin. He is addicted to alcohols and cigarettes,
with a sharp temper. Nevertheless, he highly appreciates the industry and the solid foundational
knowledge of Asian students and has a particularly keen insight into what Asian students have on
their mind. Hence, of all the students recruited into his laboratory, except for one German, the
other five were all from Asia. He even put an eye-catching notice on the door of his lab, which
read, “All the research assistants of this laboratory are required to work 7 days a week, from 10:00
a.m. to 12:00 p.m.. Nothing but work during the working hours.” This supervisor is reputed on the
entire campus for his severity and harshness. During the 3 and a half years that I stayed there, a
total of 14 students were recruited into his laboratory and only 5 of them stayed until they
graduated with their Ph.D. degrees. In the summer of 1990, ignoring the dissuasions from others, I
accepted my supervisor’s sponsorship and embarked on my difficult journey of academic pursuit.
【译文分析】原文第一句中的“求学”可用 to make one’s studies, to make one’s further
study 或 to pursue one’s further education 翻 译 ; “ 亚 裔 学 生 ” 除 了 用 students from Asian
countries and regions,还可用 students of Asian origin / descent,或者直接用 Asian students 翻
译;“刻苦勤奋”译文用了两个同义词 diligently and assiduously 来加以强调;“周末”可
说 on weekends,也可说 at weekends;“加班”除用 to work overtime 外,还可用 to work an
extra shift 或 to work in extra hours 翻译;“成果出得较多”可译为 to make more academic
achievements, to produce more academic fruits, are academically more fruitful / productive ;译
文采用切分法将第一句译成两个独立的句子。

178
第二句的“导师”可用 tutor, adviser 或 supervisor 翻译;“嗜烟好酒”最好用英语平行
结构翻译,可译为 to be addicted to alcohols and cigarettes / (alcoholic) drinking and smoking ,
其中的“酒”此处指含有较高酒精度的饮料,不能用 wine(葡萄酒),只能用 alcohol / spirits
/ liquor ;“脾气暴躁”根据译文句法要求,可灵活地译为介词短语 with a sharp / irritable
temper , 形 容 词 hot-tempered / quick-tempered / short-tempered , 动 词 短 语 have a violent /
fiery / bad temper 等;第三句的“勤奋”可用 diligence / hard work / industry;“扎实”可用
firm / solid ; “ 心 理 ” 除 像 译 文 那 样 意 译 为 what students have in their mind , 还 可 用
psychology / mentality / mind。
第四句的动词“招”可译为 admit / enroll / recruit 。第五句的“干脆”可用 even 或
simply ;“醒目的招牌”可译为 an eye-catching notice 或 a striking signboard ;“助研”译
文译为 research assistant ,切合原意;“全力以赴”可选择 to do one’s best / utmost, to spare
no effort , to go all out , to exert oneself , to make all one’s effort 等;译文在此句的直接引语之
前增加 which read,以加强上下文的衔接与连贯。第六句的“严格”可用 strictness / severity /
rigidity / inflexibility 等;“苛刻”可用 harshness / hardness / ruthlessness 等;“在我所呆的 3
年半中”被译作 During the 3 and a half years that I stayed there ,其中的 that-从句不好解释,
可改译为 During the 3 and a half years of my staying there。
最 后 一 句 的 “ 不 顾 别 人 的 劝 阻 ” 可 选 用 ignoring the dissuasions from others, despite
others’ remonstrations, regardless of others’ admonishments ;“硬着头皮”在译文中被省略,
若要翻译,可借助英语习语 to burn one’s boat, to steel oneself, 或用副词 desperately 意译,或
直译为 to toughen one’s scalp ;译文在句子结构的安排上,利用现在分词短语将此句前半部
分译为次要成分,而将后面两个小句作为句子主要成分并置。

四、1997 年英译汉原文
[1]Opera is expensive: that much is inevitable. [2]But expensive things are not inevitably the
province of the rich unless we abdicate society’s power of choice. [3]We can choose to make
opera, and other expensive forms of culture, accessible to those who cannot individually pay for it.
[4]The question is: why should we? [5]Nobody denies the imperatives of food, shelter, defence,
health and education. [6]But even in a prehistoric cave, mankind stretched out a hand not just to
eat, drink or fight, but also to draw. [7]The impulse towards culture, the desire to express and
explore the world through imagination and representation is fundamental. [8]In Europe, this desire
has found fulfillment in the masterpieces of our music, art, literature and theatre. [9]These
masterpieces are the touchstones for all our efforts; they are the touchstones for the possibilities to
which human thought and imagination may aspire; they carry the most profound messages that
can be sent from one human to another.
参考译文
聆听歌剧,无疑昂贵至极。但是,昂贵的事物并非必定属于富人的范畴,除非我们放弃
社会的选择权。我们可以选择去使歌剧以及其他某些昂贵的文化形式也能为那些不具备个人
支付能力的人所享受。但问题是,我们有必要这么做吗?没人会否认食物、居所、防护、健康
与教育的不可或缺性。但即便是在史前时代的洞穴中,人类伸出手来,早就不单纯是为了吃、
喝或搏杀,而且亦进行绘画创作。人类对于文化的冲动,通过形象思维和再现手段来表现并
探索世界的欲望,乃亘古有之。在欧洲,这一欲望在我们的音乐、艺术、文学和戏剧杰作中寻
找到了其实现形式。这些杰作构成了我们全部努力的试金石。作为试金石,它们能衡量出人
类的思想和想象力所可能企及的程度。它们携带着最寓意深刻的主题,可在人类彼此间相互
传递。

179
【译文分析】原文第一句的 that much 实际上指 that much money,意思是“听歌剧所需要的
那一大笔钱”,译文采用省略法(即减词法)将其略去未译。第二句的 province 在这里不表示
行政单位“省”,而是指“范围”,相当于 area / field / sphere。第三句原文有一个结构要看
清楚,即 to make sth. accessible to someone ,意为“使某人能够接触到某物”,切不可孤立
地将 make 理解为“制造”;此句表达方式与汉语不太相同,有必要进行词序调整,似可
译为:“我们可以选择让那些个人不具备支付能力的人能够享受歌剧以及其他昂贵的文化
形式”,上面的译文中此句按原文顺序译出,表达不够流畅自然。
原文第五句的 imperatives 相当于 necessities ,意为“必须的东西”,译文译为近义的“
不可或缺性”。第六句的 draw,此处指“绘画”,进一步的意思是“艺术创作之类的文化
活动”,译文采用增词法将 draw 译为“绘画创作”,以明示后一层含义。第八句易懂,译
文按原文顺序译出,很自然,其颇见匠心之处是将 found fulfillment 译为“找到了其实现形
式”。最后一句的翻译,译文一分为三,译成三个独立的句子;其中第二个分句的翻译需要
调整词序,因为其表达方式比较独特。由此我们似乎可以总结出一条规律:当两种语言的表
达方式差异较大时,就要考虑翻译时是否需要调整语序。译文末句中的“最寓意深刻”不太
自然,可改为“寓意最为深刻”。

五、1998 年汉译英原文
[1]这次到台湾访问交流,虽然行程匆匆,但是,看了不少地方,访了旧友,交了新知 ,
大家走到一起,谈论的一个重要话题就是中华民族在 21 世纪的强盛。[2]虽然祖国大陆、台
湾的青年生活在不同的社会环境中,有着各自不同的生活经历,但大家的内心都深深铭刻
着中华文化优秀传统的印记,都拥有着振兴中华民族的共同理想。 [3]在世纪之交的伟大时
代,我们的祖国正在走向繁荣富强,海峡两岸人民也将加强交流,共同推进祖国统一大业
的早日完成。[4]世纪之交的宝贵机遇和巨大挑战将青年推到了历史前台。[5]跨世纪青年一
代应该用什么样的姿态迎接充满希望的新世纪,这是我们必须回答的问题。
参考译文
The current visit to Taiwan for exchange, brief and cursory as it is, has enabled us to see many
places, to visit old friends while making new acquaintances. Whenever people gather together, an
important topic of discussion has been how the Chinese nation can become prosperous and
powerful in the 21st century. Although the young people on the Mainland and in Taiwan live in
different social environments, with their individually different experiences of life, in the innermost
recesses of their hearts are wrought an indelible mark by the fine traditions of the Chinese culture.
They all cherish the same ideal to rejuvenate the Chinese nation. In this great epoch at the turn of
the century, our motherland is developing toward greater prosperity and powerfulness. People
across the Taiwan Straits are bound to strengthen their exchanges and will mutually promote the
earliest possible achievement of the great cause of reunification of the motherland. The precious
opportunities and the tremendous challenges at the turn of the century have pushed the young
people to the foreground of the historical stage. At this transitional phase between the two
millennia, in what way the young generation should embrace the forthcoming new century replete
with hopes is a question to which we have to seek an answer.
【译文分析】原文第一句“访问交流”,为并列关系,译文中转换为目的关系,合理而
自然;“行程匆匆”中的“行程”不必翻译,“匆匆”根据译文句法需要可选用 hasty /
hurried / brief / cursory / in a hurry / in a haste / in a rush ;“新知”译为 new acquaintances 比
new friends 更准确,而且也避免了重复 friends ;“强盛”可用 strength and prosperity 或
prosperity and powerfulness;整个句子结构 (关键在“虽然行程匆匆”上 )的安排可有三种选

180
择:第一种是按原文顺序翻译,如上面的译文,但要注意汉语是意合的语言,语句之中常
有缺省信息,有时甚至难以确定所缺省的信息;第一句中的“访问交流”,从逻辑上看,
不是动词“看”、“访”、“交”的主语,上面的译文按句子所隐含的意义增加了 has
enabled us to,从而使句意连贯,符合英语的表达习惯。第二种选择同样按照原文句序,将
“虽然行程匆匆”译为定语从句 which is in a rush;英语中的定语从句,除了表示限定功能
外,还具有状语的职能,表示原因、让步、转折、条件、目的等关系。第三种是改变句序,将“
虽然行程匆匆”移到句首,译为 Although it is brief and cursory。上面的译文将第一句分译成
两个独立的句子,而时间状语从句 while making new acquaintances 语法上有问题,动词
making 按英语语法规则分析,其主语是 The current visit ,这是不合逻辑且违背语境的,
making 的逻辑主语应是“我们”,因此 while making new acquaintances 可改为 and to make
new acquaintances。
第二句的“环境”可选用 environment / context / milieu 等;“内心”可译为 at the
bottom of one’s heart / at the depth of one’s heart / in the innermost part of one’s heart;“铭刻”
可用 engrave / inscribe / bear firmly,译文用 wrought (work 的古体过去分词形式),并在“印
记”前增译了 indelible(不可磨灭的);“拥有”可用 cherish 或 share,不要用 own, possess,
因为“拥有”的宾语是抽象的“理想”;“振兴”除了用 rejuvenate ,还可用 invigorate /
revitalize / vigorously develop 。第三句的“世纪之交”可选用 at the turn of the century, at the
trans-century / cross-century time, at the transitional stage between the two centuries 等;“海峡
”译文通过增词具体地译为 the Taiwan Straits;“早日完成”的翻译译文增加了 possible 一
词,兼顾了英语重客观的特点,显得比较自然。第四句的“历史前台”译文具体地译为
foreground of the historical stage,foreground 和 stage 还可分别换用 forefront 和 arena。最后一
句 的 “ 世 纪 之 交 ” , 译 文 结 合 语 境 具 体 地 译 为 at this transitional phase between the two
millennia(千年之交);“用什么样的姿态”,译文模糊地(即概略地)译为 in what way,当然
也可译为 with what attitude 或 with what posture ;“迎接”译文译作 embrace,显得既恰当
又生动,也可用 meet, greet 或 welcome,那就一般化了。

六、1998 年英译汉原文
[1]To speak of American literature, then, is not to assert that it is completely unlike that of Europe.
[2]Broadly speaking, America and Europe have kept step. [3]At any given moment the traveler
could find examples in both of the same architecture, the same styles in dress, the same books on
the shelves. [4]Ideas have crossed the Atlantic as freely as men and merchandise, though
sometimes more slowly. [5]When I refer to American habit, thoughts, etc., I intend some sort of
qualification to precede the word, for frequently the difference between America and Europe
(especially England) will be one of degree, sometimes only of a small degree. [6]The amount of
divergence is a subtle affair, liable to perplex the Englishman when he looks at America. [7]He is
looking at a country which in important senses grew out of his own, which in several ways still
resembles his own — and which is yet a foreign country. [8]There are odd overlappings and
abrupt unfamiliarities; kinship yields to a sudden alienation, as when we hail a person across the
street, only to discover from his blank response that we have mistaken a stranger for a friend.
参考译文
那么,要谈论美国文学,倒并非意欲断言,它与欧洲文学全然大相径庭。广而言之,美
国与欧洲一直同步发展,协调一致。在任何一个特定的时刻,旅行者在两地均能目睹同一样
式的建筑实例,相同款式的服饰,书架上相同的书籍。在大西洋两岸,思想如同人员与货物
往来一样自由交流,尽管有时会略显迟缓。当我提及美国式的习惯、思想等概念时,我意欲

181
在“美国式的”这一词汇之前加上某种限定,因为欧美(尤其是英美)之间的差异往往只是
程度上的差异而已,并且有时候仅仅只是微乎其微的一点程度差异而已。差异的多寡是件极
为微妙的事情,这极容易使一个英国人在审视美国时大惑不解。他所审视的那个国家,从某
些重要的意义上来说,诞生于他自己的国家,并在某些方面仍与他自己的国家相差无几—
—然而,它却实实在在是一个异邦。两者间存在着某些古怪的交替重迭,以及令人甚感突兀
的陌生感;亲缘关系已让位于一种突如其来的异化与疏远,这种情景仿佛就像我们隔着马
路向另一个人打招呼,结果却从这个人漠无表情的反应中发现,我们原来竟将一个陌生人
误认为我们的熟人。
【译文分析】原文第五句中的 I intend some sort of qualification to precede the word 是一个翻
译难点,其中的 the word 指代不够明显,由于整个语篇围绕英美差异,特别是英美文学差
异,而且谈论的对象是美国,所以从语境信息看,这里的 the word 当指 American ,而
qualification 这里相当于 something that modifies or limits ,即“限定”。第六、七两句中的
amount, look at, foreign country,译文分别译作“多寡”、“审视”和“异邦”,选词精当,
但 in important senses 直译作“在某些重要的意义上来说”,则不够自然,不合汉语习惯,
似可改译为“从某些重要的方面来看”。第八句的 abrupt unfamiliarities 译作“令人甚感突兀
的陌生感”,其中的 abrupt 译为“突兀”,准确而自然,若照搬其词典译文“突然”,则
与“陌生感”搭配不自然; kinship yields to a sudden alienation 是整个语篇的第二个翻译难
点,其中的 kinship 和 alienation 必须结合有关英美概况的历史知识理解,才能把握全句的
含义:美利坚合众国是在原英国建立的十三个殖民地基础上形成的,早期两国关系亲近,
随着历史的发展,美国在文化特征上已逐渐远离英国,形成了影响力更大的熔炉文化;
blank 译为“漠无表情”,也是译文的一个亮点。

七、1999 年汉译英原文
[1]温哥华(Vancouver)的辉煌是温哥华人智慧和勤奋的结晶,其中包括多民族的
贡献。加拿大地广人稀,国土面积比中国还大,人口却不足 3000 万。[2]吸收外来移民,是
加拿大长期奉行的国策。[3]可以说,加拿大除了印第安人外,无一不是外来移民,不同的
只是时间长短而已。温哥华则更是世界上屈指可数的多民族城市。[4]现今 180 万温哥华居
民中,有一半不是在本地出生的,每 4 个居民中就有一个是亚洲人。[5]而 25 万华人对温
哥华的经济转型起着决定性的作用。[6]他们其中有一半是近 5 年才来到温哥华地区的,使
温哥华成为亚洲以外最大的中国人聚居地。
参考译文
The glory of Vancouver has been achieved through the wisdom and the industry of the Vancouver
people, including the contributions of many ethnic groups. Canada, sparsely populated, has a
territory larger than that of China, but its population is only less than 30 million. Consequently, to
attracting immigrants from other countries has become a national policy long
practiced/followed/cherished by Canada. All Canadians except the American Indians, so to speak,
are foreign immigrants, differing only in the length of time they have settled in Canada.
Vancouver, in particular, is one of the few most celebrated multi-ethnic cities in the world. Among
the 1.8 million Vancouver residents, half of them are non-natives and one out of every four
residents is from Asia. The 250,000 Chinese there have played a decisive role in the
transformation of Vancouver's economy. Half of them have come to settle in Vancouver over the
past five years only, rendering Vancouver the largest area outside Asia where the Chinese inhabit.
【译文分析】第一句中“温哥华”的翻译,是直接将原文中的 Vancouver 移植到译文中,
本 书 称 为 译 借 法 ; “ 是 ” 字 句 的 翻 译 , 译 文 按 其 实 意 译 为 achieve ; “ 民 族 ” 可 用

182
nationality 或 ethnic group 翻译,但后者更为恰当,可以避免引发歧义和误解,因为“在国
际法律用语中,nationality 同 nation 一样,具有‘主权’含义,表示个人和群体的国籍归属
”(谌华玉,2005:152)。第二句的安排是将前面的小句作为次要成分,用过去分词短语
表达,后面两个小句作为并列的主要分句处理。第二句和第三句之间,隐含有因果关系,因
此译文增加了衔接性的关联词 consequently。汉语各句子之间、句内各小句之间的逻辑关系多
通过意合暗示,译成英语一般要表面化,因为英语重形式衔接。第六句中的“不是本地出生
的”,译文通过转换表达方式译为 non-natives。最后一句中的“最大的中国人聚居地”,似
乎是说“人口最多的地方”,而不是“面积最大”,因此可改译为( rendering Vancouver)
a place (outside Asia) where the largest number of Chinese people inhabit。

八、1999 年英译汉原文
[1]In some societies people want children for what might be called familial reasons: to extend
the family line or the family name, to propitiate the ancestors; to enable the proper functioning of
religious rituals involving the family. [2]Such reasons may seem thin in the modern, secularized
society but they have been and are powerful indeed in other places.
    [3]In addition, one class of family reasons shares a border with the following category,
namely, having children in order to maintain or improve a marriage: to hold the husband or
occupy the wife; to repair or rejuvenate the marriage; to increase the number of children on the
assumption that family happiness lies that way. [4]The point is underlined by its converse: in some
societies the failure to bear children (or males) is a threat to the marriage and a ready cause for
divorce.
  [5]Beyond all that is the profound significance of children to the very institution of the family
itself. [6]To many people, husband and wife alone do not seem a proper family —they need
children to enrich the circle, to validate its family character, to gather the redemptive influence of
offspring. [7]Children need the family, but the family seems also to need children, as the social
institution uniquely available, at least in principle, for security, comfort, assurance, and direction
in a changing, often hostile, world. [8]To most people, such a home base, in the literal sense,
needs more than one person for sustenance and in generational extension.
参考译文
在某些社会中,人们希望拥有孩子是出于所谓的家庭原因:传宗接代,光宗耀祖,讨
好祖辈,使那些涉及到家庭的宗教仪式得以正常进行。此类原因在现代世俗化的社会中似显
苍白,但它们在其他地方曾一度构成并确实仍在构成强有力的理由。
  此外,有一类家庭原因与下列类别不无共通之处,这便是:生儿育女是为了维系或改
善婚姻:能拴住丈夫或者使妻子不至于无所事事;修复或重振婚姻;多子多孙,以为家庭
幸福惟有此法。这一点更可以由其反 面得到昭示:在某些社会中,无法生儿育女(或无法
生育男孩)对婚姻而言是一种威胁,还可作为离婚的现成借口。
  后代对于家庭这一体制本身所具有的深远意义远非如此。对许多人来说,夫妻两人尚不
足以构成一个真正意义上的家庭——夫妻需要孩子来丰富其两人小天地,赋予该小天地以
真正意义上的家庭性质,并从子孙后代身上获取某种回报。
  孩子需要家庭,但家庭似乎也需要孩子。家庭作为一种社会机构,以其特有的方式,至
少从原则上说,可在一个变幻莫测、常常是充满敌意的世界中让人从中获取某种安全、慰藉、
保障,以及价值取向。 于大多数人而言,这样的一个家庭基础,即使从其表层意义上来
讲,也需要不止一个人来维持其存在,并使其世代相传,生生不息。 
【译文分析】原文第一句 to extend the family line or the family name 中的 the family line or

183
the family name 含义相同,利用汉语现成的成语“传宗接代”译之即可,译文却分开来翻
译,将 to extend the family name 译为“光宗耀祖”,属于不合理的增词,应删掉。英译汉时
适当地运用汉语成语,能是译文简洁、生动、有力,但成语的使用不能像脱缰的野马,任意
为之,译者稍不注意,就会歪曲原义,因此成语要慎用。第二句中的 thin 译为“苍白”,与
“原因”搭配,不够自然,可选用“牵强”、“勉强”、“不够充分”等与“理由”搭配。
第三句中的 share a border with, maintain, hold, occupy, repair, rejuvenate ,译文分别译作
“与……不无共同之处”、“维系”、“拴住”、“使……不至于无所事事”、“修复”、“重
振”,还有下一句中的 ready cause 译为“现成借口”,都属于选词佳例。第五句的翻译采
用了倒译法,既从句尾译到句首,有时还可以是从句子中间译到句尾,再译到句首。第六句
的 circle 具 体 译 为 “ 两 人 小 天 地 ” , 准 确 而 贴 切 ; to gather the redemptive influence of
offspring 译为“从后代身上获取某种回报”,正确地传达的原意,因为 redemptive(补偿的,
回报的)从后文看似乎暗指“子女赡养父母”之类的事情。最后一句中的 in the literal sense
的翻译,译文增译了“即使”,以使行文语气流畅。

翻译 练习
第一部分 句子翻译
1. 选词
(1) In every Chinese city, we got into the streets, shops, parks, theatres, and restaurants.
(2) The levels of voltage, current, and power are, on their own, not sufficient for demarcation.
(3) Mr. Collins seemed likely to sink into insignificance; to the young ladies he certainly was
nothing.
(4) As he said this, she could easily see that he had no doubt of a favorable answer. He spoke of
apprehension and anxiety, but his countenance expressed real security.
(5) I was in several minds how to dress myself on the important day, being divided between my
desire to appear to advantage, and my apprehensions of putting on anything that might impair
my severely practical character in the eyes of the Misses Spenlow.
(6) She watched him grow and develop day by day and it was a never-ending wonder as he
began to walk and talk and reason.
(7) Sorrow came -- a gentle sorrow -- but not at all in the shape of any disagreeable consciousness
-- Miss Taylor married. It was Miss Taylor's loss which first brought grief. It was on the wedding-
day of this beloved friend that Emma first sat in mournful thought of any continuance.
(8) Della finished her cry and attended to her cheeks with the powder rag.
(9) Twenty dollars a week doesn't go far. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated.
(10) Don't expect comfort. You've just got to be thankful if we get a bed to sleep on and a roof
over our heads.
(11) In practice, the selected interval thickness is usually a compromise between the need for a
thin interval to maximize the resolution and a thick interval to minimize error.
(12) Among the most productive contributions the broader international community can now make
to rebuilding economic strength in East Asia is to assist these countries to develop their economic
and financial policy, management and governance capacities.
(13) When the history of the Nixon Administration finally written, the chances are that his Chinese
policy will stand out as a model of common sense and good diplomacy.
(14) The issue of insanity as a defense in criminal cases is at the interface of medicine, law and
ethics.

184
(15) I think your suggestion will work.
(16) The frontier forces had to operate against the invaders.
(17) The simplest way to succeed in business is to buy low and sell high.
(18) We express our gratitude for the outstanding and challenging speech of Mr. Smith.
(19) As a demanding boss, he expected total loyalty and dedication from his employees.
(20) The show ran 120 performances.
(21) 如在解释上遇有分歧,应以英文本为准 。
(22) 除法律或外 界 条 件 不 允 许 的情况之外,承包商应严格按合同施工和竣工,并改 正 工
作中的任何缺陷,达到工程师满意的程度。
(23) 虽然不能说只要努力就一定会成功,但努力是决不会完全白费的。
(24) 她既不当面恭维人家,也不背后说人坏 话。从这两点来说她是值得称赞的。
(25) 中国人口的 80%在农村,如果不解决 80%的人的生活问题 ,社会就不会是安定的。
(26) 这手表是两年前在瑞士买的。走得很准 ,从来没有快过或慢过 。
(27) 互相尊重的精神是 我们今天文化合作的基础 。
(28) 他确实是个急性子 。
(29) 我会重新考虑 我的结论。
(30) 人们都在讲南北问题很突出,我看这个问题就是发展问题。

2. 替换
(1) Her well-remembered cable of dark-brown hair was partially coiled up in a mass at the back of
her head, and partly hanging on her shoulder, the evident result of haste. (词性转换)
(2) A study of the letter leaves us in no doubt as to the motives behind it. (词转换性)
(3) The warmth of the summer months, the amount of rainfall and the gentle slopes of the
land have made settlement and cultivation possible over large parts of the continent.( 词性转换,
结构转换)
(4) His weariness and increasing heat determined him to sit down in the first convenient shade.
(词性转换,结构转换)
(5) Independent observers have commented favorably on the achievements you have made in this
direction. (词性转换)
(6) No wonder that the sight of it should send the memories of quite a number of people of the
old generation back 36 years ago. (词性转换)
(7) Ideally, one day, researchers will know enough about the genesis of earthquakes and the nature
of particular faults to predict quakes directly. (词性转换)
(8) Millions of the people in the mountainous areas are finally off poverty. (词性转换)
(9) Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and
digested.(语态转换,变被动句为主动句即被动隐含句)
(10) In case it is necessary, a great part of the heat developed due to friction may be carried off
by means of circulating water or air blasts. (语态转换,利用”把”字句)
(11) The opportunities for the future are virtually unlimited, as long as competition in the
software industry is strong. (语态转换,利用”是”字句)
(12) The oldest Oxford racket had been elbowed out by the black markets in Woodbines, toffees,
tomatoes. (语态转换,结构、成份转换)
(13) You don't grow the grain you eat and you don't make the clothes you wear. (表达方式转换)
(14) Petra had become the leader of the girls as soon as she snapped out of her original depression

185
at coming to Prague. (表达方式转换)
(15) Bitterness fed on the man who had made the world laugh. (表达方式转换)
(16) If children are so well able to learn their mother tongue, it is precisely because they plunge
themselves into the sea of language instead of reading a few textbooks only. (逻辑关系转换)
(17) You can mass-produce … incredible quantities of facts and figures. You cannot mass-produce
knowledge, which is created by individual minds, drawing on individual experience, separating
the significant from the irrelevant. (逻辑关系转换)
(18) It is a good workman that never blunders.(正反说法转换)
(19) Keep off the lawn! (正反说法转换)
(20) The Craustons and the Finchleys were in the main a thorn in the flesh of the remainder of
the elite of Kycurgus—too showy and too aggressive.(成语翻译:语义替换)
(21) 他长期以来习惯于在最后一分钟作出决定。(词性转换)
(22) 这份报纸的社论说,拒不解决夫妻分居两地的问题,是同中央的精神背道而驰的。 (词
性转换)
(23) 我今天所说的话不足以表达 我内心的情感。(词性转换)
(24) 我既不喝酒,也不抽烟 。(词性转换)
(25) 他酷爱古典音乐。(词性转换)
(26) 越南战争不断地消耗 着美国的资源。(词性转换)
(27) 只有认识落后,才能改变落后。(语态转换)
(28) 用机械加工方法,特别是磨削方法,可以获得最佳表面光洁度。(语态转换)
(29) 语言这东西,不是随便可以学好的,非下苦功夫不可。(表达方式转换)
(30) 不搞改革,不坚持开放政策,我们制定的战略目标就不可能实现。(表达方式转换)
(31) 他从容不迫,和蔼可亲。(表达方式转换)
(32) 现在,人们已经明白,如果食物中缺少了一些重要成分,即使其中不含有任何有害物
质,也会引起严重疾病。(表达方式转换)
(33) 该厂产品的主要特点是工艺精湛,经久耐用。(词性转换,表达方式转换)
(34) 中国人民正在中国共产党的领导下,团结一致地进行着伟大的社会主义建设。 (表达方
式转换)
(35) 生活中既有悲剧,文学作品就可以写悲剧。(表达方式转换)
(36) 她,一个瘦弱多病的女孩子,以坚强的毅力写出了一部部催人奋进的小说。 (表达方式
转换)
(37) 他决不会说这样的话。(正反说法转换)
(38) 使我们失望的是他不顾大局。(正反说法转换)
(39) 只有大胆地、破釜沉舟 地跟他们拼,还许有翻身的那一天。(成语替代)
(40) 打狗看主 面。反正不想多和朱延年往来了,但是,还有徐义德哩,他可是台面上的人
物啊。(成语替代)

3. 增减
(1) She had treated him with interest, with encouragement, with malice, with indifference, with
contempt. (逻辑增词)
(2) A nearby object falling into a black hole is never heard from again. (表达增词)
(3) Richmond Park was full of reminiscences, many going back to early childhood. (语义增词)
(4) She had beckoned him and yawned at him and beckoned him again and he had responded
often with bitterness and narrowed eyes. (语义增词)

186
(5) Suddenly an idea mingled with the alcoholic fumes that distributed his brain. It was apparently
of a jocular nature, for he felt impelled to slap his leg again and cram his fist into mouth. ( 语义增
词)
(6) As historians thus came to know more about these collections they applied to their owners for
permission to work in them, not always successfully. (逻辑增词)
(7) To help myself live without fault, I made a list of what I considered the 13 virtues. These
virtues are (1) Temperance, (2) Self-control, (3) Silence, (4) Order, (5) Firmness, (6) Saving, (7)
Industry, (8) Honesty, (9) Justice, (10) Cleanliness, (11) Calmness, (12) Morality, (13)
Humbleness. (语义增词,表达增词)
(8) I looked about me. Rain, wind, and darkness filled the air; nevertheless, I dimly discerned a
wall before me and a door open in it. (语义增词)
(9) Courage in excess becomes foolhardiness, affection weakness, thrift avarice. (句法增词)
(10) One interesting study was successfully done with chimps. Six chimps were trained to operate
a special vending machine. One ripe grape came out for each while token put into the slot. ( 表达
增词/增加量词)
(11) -- observing the deer as their behavior changed from more activity in summer and fall to less
as winter progressed, followed by an increase again in the spring as the snow melted. (语义增词)
(12) Earl and I decided to walk our dog. Somehow our path took us toward the park, across the
footbridge high above the rolling waters of the Los Angeles River. It is like a dream to me now,
floating through my mind in slow motion. Many children were playing close to the waters. ( 语义
增词)
(13) With this in mind, he decided to revive scholasticism as an academic lark to challenge the
Sputnik-panicked classrooms of America. (语义增词)
(14) This power is strong enough to shatter complacency. (语义增词)
(15) Spring has so much more than speech in its unfolding flowers and leaves and the coursing of
its streams, and in its sweet restless seeking! (语义增词)
(16) A soldier must obey orders. (省略冠词)
(17) When the pressure gets low, the boiling point becomes low. (省略动词)
(18) Never trouble yourself with trouble till trouble troubles you. (省略名词)
(19) Where there is a will, there is a way.(省略连词)
(20) The joint decision to build the Tunnel was announced by President Francois Mitterrand and
Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in a ceremony at Lille on 21 January. (省略介词)
(21) 请在 5 号前通知我下星期六你是否出席为我们前任校长举行的欢送会。(增加介词短语)
(22) 学而时习之,不亦悦乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?(增加形容词、副词和介词短语)
(23) 虚心使人进步,骄傲使人落后。(增加连词)
(24) 结婚大办酒席,实在可以免去了。(增加概括性词语)
(25) 这个小男孩饭前总要洗手,然后用餐巾纸擦干。(增加物主代词,连词和宾语)
(26) 老虎和猫同科。(增加冠词)
(27) 我不觉得用英语与外国人交谈有什么困难。(增加形式宾语 it)
(28) 不入虎穴,焉得虎子。(增加主语和表示条件的连词)
(29) 我们说,长征是历史记录上的第一次,长 征 是宣言书,长 征 是宣传队,长 征 是播种
机。(省略名词)
(30) 他连续讲了两小时的法语,没有出现任何的错误。(省略动词)
(31) 学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。(省略连词)

187
(32) 问今是何世,乃不知有汉,无论魏晋。(省略助词)
(33) 生活在四川的十几个民族,各有不同的文化和风俗,成为巴蜀歌舞取之不尽 ,用之不
竭的创作源泉。(省略意义重复的词语)
(34) 她的朋友们听到她家中的困难情况后,都主动伸出援助之手。(省略范畴词语)
(35) 人非圣贤 ,孰能无过。过而 改之,善莫大焉。(将原文某些词语隐入译文深层)
(36) 她父亲是一位有名望的教授,但我没有从他父亲身上 看到故作姿态的学者派头。 (将原
文某些词语隐入译文深层)
(37) 大家都被他那种吹毛求疵的做法激怒了。(省略动词)
(38) 药理学家们正在认真研究这种药的过敏反应。(省略范畴词语)
(39) 你应该改掉你那种蛮干作风。(省略范畴词语)
(40) 那所大学里的学生任何越轨行为都受到了处罚。(省略范畴词语)

4. 伸缩
(1) There is no provocation for such an angry letter.
(2) Fatty’s Restaurant had become an institution in his life in the last seven years
(3) The trunk was big and awkward and loaded with books. But his case was a different
proposition.
(4) The invention of machinery had brought into the world a new era -- the Industrial Age. Money
had become King.
(5) The wedding, which Heyward still remembered with pride, was attended by a Who’s Who of
Boston Society.
(6) Brain drain has been Egypt’s Number One concern -- as a matter of fact it has become an
epidemic in that area of the world.
(7) Saudi Arabia has had problems with Iraq and South Yemen but he tried hard to remain in touch
with leaders of both states.
(8) The US bureaucracy has somehow managed to survive two centuries of tinkering by members
of Congress and often hyperactive presidents.
(9) Nancy Seaver was a fixture at Mets games in her school days.
(10) Teachers are always complaining that monitors are not as helpful as they used to be as a result
of peer pressure.
(11)一日,他正和秦老坐着,外边走进一个人来,头带瓦楞帽,身穿青布衣服。
(12)其他条件相同,铁比铝热得快。
(13)硬金属可以很容易用砂轮磨削。
(14)为防止人畜触电,高压电一般采用高架线传送。
(15)心脏是人体最重要的器官,如果它停止跳动,死亡随之即来。
(16)正是男性的精子决定受精卵发育成男孩或女孩。
(17)防盗报警器是一种能在小偷行窃时发出警报的装置。
(18)铸造是把原材料加工成成品的最简便方法。
(19) 显然,对于那些因妻子的生理问题不能生育的夫妇来说,“试管”婴儿是一种补救办
法。
(20) 遇到花明柳媚的时节,把一乘牛车载了母亲,他便戴了高帽,穿了阔衣,执着鞭子,
嘴里唱着山歌,在乡村镇上,以及湖边到处玩耍,惹的乡下孩子们三五成群跟着他笑,他
也不放在意下。

188
5. 分合
(1) Our little romantic friend formed visions of future for herself. (切分单词)
(2) There is in his study a considerable provision of works of light literature of the 19th century,
both in the English and French languages. (切分单词)
(3) The Chinese seemed justifiably proud of their economic achievements. (切分单词)
(4) He had left a note of welcome for me, as sunny as his face. (切分词组)
(5) The Congressman tends to be very interested in public works-such as new government
buildings, water projects, military bases -- that will bring money to the area or improve living
conditions. (切分词组)
(6) Daybreak comes with thick mist and drizzle. (切分单句)
(7) Helen March picked up the telephone seconds after the first ring and sounded puzzled when
Alan asked for Joan. (切分复句)
(8) This suggestion was made today by the influential New York Times which predicted a 'change
of topic' at the forthcoming meeting, with emphasis shifting from armament limitation to human
rights. (切分复句)
(9) Sometimes Mrs. Cross would be walking around in the big kitchen watching him eat. ( 切分单
句)
(10)The dust, the uproar and the growing dark threw everything into chaos.(切分单句)
(11)Careful cyclists are in less danger than is commonly believed. (切分单句)
(12)His weariness and the increasing heat determined him to sit down in the first convenient
shade. (切分单句)
(13)To allay the public alarm, General Howe issued a proclamation on the 27th, promising the
strictest regularity and order on the part of his army, with security of person and property to all
who remained quietly at home, and pardon to those under arms who would promptly return to
their obedience.(切分长句)
(14)The big question of China's goal in Korea and the bigger question of how far it will go to
achieve it will be answered within two weeks. (切分长句)
(15) His father had a small business in the city of Pisa. This city is in the north of Italy near the
sea. (相邻单句合并)
(16) Home after seven years. Home. The word had meant so much to him.. (相邻单句合并)
(17) He was very clean. His mind was open. (相邻单句合并)
(18)She is very busy at home. She has to take care of the children and do the kitchen work. ( 相邻
单句合并)
(19) When I negotiate, I get nervous. When I get nervous, I eat.(主从复合句合并)
(20)When we praise the Chinese leadership and the people, we are not merely being polite. ( 主从
复合句合并)
(21)天气寒冷,河水都结冰了。(合并)
(22)理论必须密切联系实际,这是我们应当牢记的一条原则。(合并)
(23)他在战斗中表现突出,受到连长的表扬。(合并)
(24)看门人惊呆了,喘着粗气,摇摇晃晃地走下楼梯。(合并)
(25)还是热,心里可镇定多了。凉风,即使是一点点,给了人们许多希望。(合并)
(26) 人民的觉悟是不容易的,要去掉人民头脑中的错误思想,需要我们做很多切切实实的
工作。(分译)
(27)我们的目的一定要达到,我们的目的一定能够达到。(分译)

189
(28)我们的革命已经获得全世界广大人民的同情和欢呼,我们的朋友遍布全世界。(分译)
(29) 我们恢复和采取这些贸易方式的原因很简单:我们出口商品就是为了我们国外客户消
费方面的需要。(分译)
(30) 这次大会充分发扬了民主,大家心情舒畅,生动活泼;真正开成了一个团结的大会,
胜利的大会。(分译)

6. 译借
(1) Assuming you find hair transplants as distasteful as we do, the best bet is Rogaine (minoxidil),
Propecia (finasteride), or both. (移植)
(2) 以华人传统把“福”字倒过来贴来说:对中华文化有认识的人一看便知道是“福到”的
意思。(移植)
(3) The third floor housed a sauna, a massage parlor, and a mixed-gender bathhouse.(音译)
(4) Pizza came to the U.S. with Italian immigrants; the first U.S. pizzeria opened in 1905, and
pizza became one of the nation's favourite foods after World War II. It is now popular worldwide.
(音译)
(5) During the year, following careful evaluation, the Group has terminated the licensing
agreements with the licensors of Japanese cartoon characters “Doraemon” and “Sanrio”, and
shifted the focus of this division from being a licensee to becoming a licensor to capitalise on the
Group’s own brand “Robbi the bunny”.(移植+音译)
(6) Nylon is made from air, coal and water.(音译)
(7) Illegal street heroin is usually only 2-5% pure; unwitting injection of relatively pure heroin is a
major cause of overdose, resulting in depressed respiration, coma, and death. (音译)
(8) 中国旗袍 ,雍容华丽。(音译)
(9) 他能凭经验预测出台风 。(音译)
(10) "你后日也不必来,你要心中不安,你今日就给我磕了头去。"(音译)

7. 直译与意译
(1) We had to contend with a foe armed to the teeth. (直译)
(2) Following the rule of an eye for an eye will only lead to further tragedies. (直译)
(3) Get out, don't shed crocodile tears to me; you know you are really glad they've met with
misfortune. (意译)
(4)One man’s meat is another man’s poison. (意译)
(5)Every cloud has a silver lining. (意译)
(6) Finally she played her trump-card and threatened to resign. (意译)
(7)”’人为财死,鸟为食亡’,你晓得么子?”陈妈说道。(直译)
(8)医生说他的病没治了,只有等日子了。(直译+意译)
(9)正如外交部发言人所说的,解铃最好还是系铃人。(意译)
(10) 鸿渐四点多钟回家,老妈子一开门就嚷:“大少爷来了,太太,大少爷来了,不要去
请了。” (直译+意译)

8. 保留与还原
(1)For the technically minded, the iBook has a carrying handle so it doesn’t need a carrying case, a
full sized keyboard, 300-megahertz PowerPC G3 processor, a built-in CD-Rom, a 3.2-gigabyte
hard disk drive, a 56K modem and other features. (保留)

190
(2)In this same period, Cavalien (1598-1647) found the area under the curve y = xn for n = 1, 2,
3…, 9 by a method the length of whose computations grew rapidly as the exponent increased. ( 保
留)
(3)以华人传统把“福”字倒过来贴来说:对中华文化有认识的人一看便知道是“福到”的
意思。但是翻译成英文后,它可能成为这样一个冗长的句子:
   The Chinese character “ 福” means luck and prosperity, and is commonly pasted inverted
on the walls because the Chinese word for “inverted” is “ 倒” which has the same pronunciation
as Chinese word for “arrived”. Thus, this practice is used to symbolize the arrival of luck and
prosperity in one's home.
  要准确并清楚地了解自己的文化,对那门语言有所认识还是最好的方法。(保留)
(4) "In this age when information technology is developing at Breakneck speed, the economy is
going global and research in life sciences has also taken off, do the thoughts of Confucius and
Mencius still have a place in society?"(还原)
(5)Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. (Confucius)(还原)
(6) What we are today comes from
our thoughts of yesterday,
and our present thoughts build our life
of tomorrow:
Our life is the creation of our mind.(Buddha) (还原)
(7) 从技术角度看,克隆 人类可能吗﹖(还原)
(8) 他是 1928 年被三K党 杀害的,当时我们住在南方。(还原)
(9) 现实生活使他摆脱了乌托邦 的思想。(还原)
(10) 在去北京的火车上我们大家挤在一起,像沙丁鱼 似的。(还原)

9. 标点符号的运用
(1)Sergeant: Atten-shun!
Major: As you were! Does any man here have a complaint? Any complaints, private?( 使用破折
号)
(2)Catherine coloured, and said, “I was not thinking of anything.”(逗号变冒号,句点变句号)
(3)The bookstore does not sell children’s books.(省略单引号)
(4)Have you read Hamlet by Shakespeare?(使用书名号,去掉斜体)
(5)这是我妹夫的信。(增加连字符,用单引号译”的”)
(6)他得到他应该得到的处分。(使用破折号)
(7)他这么做可以说是“孔夫子面前卖文章”。(去掉双引号,增加逗号)
(8)我们要实事求是,实事就是客观存在的事物。(变逗号为句号,增加双引号)
(9)他学习的课程是《基础物理知识》 《平面三角》和《作文》 。(去掉书名号,变顿号、句号为逗

号和句点)
(10)我不管!谁收了人家的东西谁跟人家走!(变感叹号为句点)

10. 加注法
(1) Its crenellated brick walls and 20 towers were built in the 15th century by Italian architects.
The palaces, cathedrals, and government buildings within the walls encompass a variety of styles,
including Byzantine, Russian Baroque, and Classical.
(2) The Chaplinesque humor of these young boys sneaking out to explore the World Cup finals or

191
reading soccer magazines instead of studying their religious texts reminds me of "Our Gang"
episodes where Spanky and Alfalfa get caught in the travails of boyhood distractions that made us
all laugh.
(3) Despite his looks he's said to be something of a Don Juan.
(4) One day, sleepless and deep in debt in suburbia, living the American Dream, they decide that
the answer to their financial problems is to find a way to get rich quickly.
(5)At last the days of his trial come to an end. Job is restored to the full possession of his former
riches.
(6)唐小姐下去接,到半楼梯,念头一转,不下去了,吩咐佣人去回话道:“小姐 不舒服,
早睡了。”
(7)周经理见了他,皱眉道:“你怎么一回事?我内人在发肝胃气,我出门的时候,王妈 正
打电话请医生呢。”
(8)他们到了辛楣所住的亲戚家里,送进名片,辛楣跑出来,看门的跟在后面。辛楣满口的
”嫂夫人 劳步,不敢当”。
(9)那几个新派到安南或中国租界 当警察的法国人,正围了那年轻善撒娇的犹太女人在调情。
(10)方鸿渐为这事整天惶恐不安,向苏小姐谢了又谢,反给她说“婆婆妈 妈”。

第二部分 篇章翻译
1. 汉译英


贪 心
狮子在树下抓到一只正在睡觉的兔子,正想饱餐一顿,却又看到一只鹿从旁边经过,
又贪心地丢下兔子去追鹿。
狮子追了很远,可是还是让鹿逃跑了,于是又赶回树下,但野兔早已不见踪影了。 狮
子很懊恼地说:“我真是活该,因为贪心,反而两头落空。”」
人生也常是如此。做许多事不能持之以恒,三心两意,一会儿想做这,一会儿又想做那,
到时候也是两头落空。
——不能从失败中记取教训的人,他们的成功之路是遥远的。


钥 匙
一把坚实的大锁挂在大门上,一根铁杆费了九牛二虎之力,还是无法将它撬开。 钥匙
来了,他瘦小的身子钻进锁孔,只轻轻一转,那大锁就“啪”地一声打开了。
铁杆奇怪地问:“为什么我费了那么大力气也打不开,而你却轻而易举地就把它打开
了呢?” 钥匙说:“因为我最了解他的心。”
每个人的心,都像上了锁的大门,任你再粗的铁棒也撬不开。唯有关怀,才能把自己变
成一只细腻的钥匙,进入别人的心中,了解别人。
——唯有穿鞋的人,才知道鞋的哪一处挤脚。


心 魔

192
一名僧人与一名妇人同舟,忍不住多看几眼。 妇人嫌其无礼,怒命随从打之。 僧人只
好闭目。及至岸边,妇人又命打。
僧人问:“如今何罪?”
妇人说:“你现在闭了眼睛,正可以肆无忌惮地想我﹗”
其实该打的不是那僧人,而是那妇人。
心中有鬼,见人都是鬼;心中有魔,见人都是魔﹗
——恨能挑起争端,爱能遮掩一切过错。


上海自行车三厂,生产驰名中外的凤凰牌自行车。年产 335 万辆,年出口 122 万辆,畅
销全国和世界上 80 多个国家和地区。凤凰牌自行车有 16、20、24、26、27、28 英寸六大系列,
分为普通、轻便、运动、赛车、特种车等类型 140 余种花色品种。凤凰牌自行车七次荣获全国第
一,PA18 型和风细雨 6 英寸系列荣获国家银质奖。凤凰牌自行车是中国自行车行业中唯一
荣获国际明星奖的产品,上海自行车三厂也是国内自行车行业中第一个国家一级企业。凤凰
将更好地为您服务。


领袖素质比形象更重要
吴作栋总理在国庆群众大会演讲中谈到接班人,坦率指出在民众眼中,李显龙副总理
的形象过于严肃,不苟言笑,他希望李副总理多展露自己亲善温和的一面。
吴总理的意思是要指出领袖的亲和力的重要性,而亲和力往往表现在人民对领袖与民
相处的观感与印象。
政府领袖与民间沟通交流的管道是双向的。亲民形象能使政策更容易传达,政策能更全
面地推行;另一方面,亲民形象能“广直言之路,启进善之门”,广泛而不同的民意,有
助于为政者对情势全面的了解,亲民的形象能使民意的反馈更为通畅。
不过,公众形象固然重要,但受民众欢迎与否,从国家长远利益的角度看,并不比为
政者的内涵与才能更具决定性,这当中有主次之分。
比如一幅画作,镜框装裱的优劣往往会直接影响赏画人的观感,但这观感是一时的,
可以重新改造,最终价值的肯定还在画作的实质内涵。
为政者的内涵,包括道德的理念与修养,体现在对国家使命的承担与政治奉献,加上
对理想的坚持,远虑深谋,不轻易因眼前的波折而有所迷失;才能是以学识为基础,加上
经验的累积,在瞬息万变的今天,还要有预见社会发展的疏漏而知所纠偏的洞察力与勇气。
内涵素养与才学历练绝非一时之间可以营造的,是一点一滴,一针一线,实实在在的。
公众形象设计师可以替你塑造你喜欢的形象,但形象师却无法替你塑造你所必须具备的,
经得起考验的内涵与才能。
政治我是外行,上述观感不是源自政治专著、学者理论。今天资讯科技发达,远在天边
的事,就像发生在眼前。通过电脑网络、电视媒体,我们有机会清晰地看到周遭地区的政治
动向,正面而具启发性的例子很多。
但为了个人或政党的利益,将宝贵的资源、时间、精力耗费在顶牛抬杠,行径荒诞不经
的,时有所见。
这常令人发出惊叹 :“还好我们的政治领袖不是这样的!”“还好这事件不是发生在新
加坡!”

193
有不同地域的活灵活现的政治事例作为参照比对,顺着这条思路,自然衍生出对理想
政治人物的诉求。这是我观感的来由。
新旧交替,新领导人难免要重新适应;同样的,民众对新领导人也有一个调配的过程。
方向一致,抱以宽容谅解的心境,这不是一道难关。 (彭世灼 著)


“陪读妈妈”赔上青春
随着越来越多的中国孩子来新加坡求学,“陪读妈妈”已逐渐成为新加坡社会的一个
特殊群体。尽管社会对她们的褒贬不一,但由她们的经历引伸出的对新加坡教育的思考却更
发人深省。
的确,作为中国学生出国留学的选择地,新加坡有其独特的优势:法律健全,环境优
美,社会治安良好,双语社会,华人居多,生活容易适应,又允许妈妈陪读。但实际情况如
何,新加坡真的是教育天堂吗?
中国学生大多是通过新加坡设在中国的中介公司介绍来新。来新前,中介公司的宣传天
花乱坠:负责为孩子安排学校,妈妈很容易找到工作,足够支付孩子的学费,而且还会有
剩余。
可来新后的实际情况如何?中介不仅迟迟不介绍学校,多数妈妈只得自己找学校,还
要支付额外的费用,而且政府对陪读妈妈的工作准证控制严格,她们从国内带来的生活费
花完了,想回国,回不去;留下来,生计问题迫在眉睫。真是欲哭无泪!
于是,出现了被逼无奈从事按摩业的陪读妈妈。尽管这部分人只是少数,而且绝大多数
都是实出无奈而为之,但陪读妈妈却因此被另眼相看,从而使她们在新加坡的生活更加艰
辛。
追根朔源,这些问题的产生在很大程度上与中介的误导有关。既然新加坡政府希望开放
留学市场,尤其是希望吸引更多的中国学生前来,就应当首先规范这一市场,使之不枉“
法律健全”社会之美名。
试想,如果中介公司能够公正、客观地介绍新加坡的求学和生活情况,或者干脆把门槛
设得高一些,让希望来新求学的孩子和妈妈们根据自己的实际情况做出选择,有些经济条
件不富裕的家庭可能就会在权衡利弊之后,作出明智的选择。
虽然这样做可能会使新加坡损失一些经济上的收入,但由此而产生的社会问题却会减
少许多。这难道不是一种对己对人负责任的做法吗?
再者,友善的态度是迎客的先决条件。对于多数陪读妈妈来说,这里没有家的感觉,缺
乏人情味,很难交到朋友,生活平淡。新加坡人好像总是对她们有所防范,新加坡社会不能
带给她们温暖,她们感觉孤立、无助,很难融入当地人的生活圈子。
之所以会产生这些感觉,与许多新加坡人对陪读妈妈抱有的偏见不无关系。为什么新加
坡社会不能给这个群体以公正的评价?新加坡政府既然让这些人进来,为什么不给她们提
供一个公平竞争的工作机会?其实,她们中的许多人在国内有自己的事业,而且有一定的
能力和学术训练,只要新加坡政府开绿灯,她们是非常愿意以己之所长,换取社会对她们
的认可。
“十年树木、百年树人”。教育本身就是一项长期的工程,短期行为根本无法留住人,更
无法留住人才。难怪许多陪读妈妈刚来新加坡时,还有留下来的想法,但一段时间之后却改
变初衷,不选择留在这里。这样的转变难道不发人深省吗?(张莹 著)

194

华人姓名与文化认同
如果名字只是一个代号,使用上的方便与否就成了最重要的考量。取一个容易记,符合
整体感觉的名字,以便能在社交场合与人沟通,进出别人记忆的门窗,是命名的出发点。
偏偏华文名老爱附带一长串的期待和意义,甚至承载了父母看待生命的某种隐喻和记
忆,名字不但是一种人格的基本态度,还可能引伸成为安身立命的价值,变成一个沉重的
负担。对一些华人来说,不为孩子取华文名,反而省去不少麻烦。
据《海峡时报》的一项调查,越来越多本地孩童仅用洋名,而省略了华文名字,相信这
样的趋势有其形成的背景。
正如我们不容易辨别或记牢马来和印度同胞的名字,华文名字的发音也让人费神记忆,
特别是对外国人和异族朋友,要把两三个只有音符而没有关联、意义的单字拼凑起来,并不
容易。
反过来说,如果华人只取一个熟口熟面的洋名,图方便顺手,那么,也的确太小觑自
己的传统了。
虽然我们在形式上已经超越身体发肤受之父母的狭隘观念,然而,在精神上,祖先长
辈的地位还是高高在上的,社会和家庭结构对我们而言,还是有某种约束与传承的意义,
而名字正是此一精神价值的延续和象征。
过去华人讲究名、字、号等不同称呼,的确相当复杂。可是,如果连简单直接的三两个字
也嫌麻烦累赘的话,新一代父母对文化的认同肯定出了偏差,其他华人社会相信也不会谅
解本地华人处理姓名的草率方式。
倘若父母连这一点微弱的传承都不再坚持,以任何理由把华文名字也从孩子身上根除,
在一个快速消化和消费的时代,剩下的会是什么呢?
急于丢弃自己姓名的现象相信和过去崇洋媚外的想法没有关系。也许是英语在商业和实
用价值方面的优势,使部分华人在观念上矮化了华文的地位,也分不清文化和语文的认同
关系。他们以为口操标准英语就等同了解了西方文化,甚至在情感上也只以新加坡为基地,
和华族文化、历史、传统划清界线,认定英语能够完全应付个人的生活和生存需要。
华文名字对某些人来说,也许是老土和保守外衣。对一个在电脑上只以字母和数字为代
号的新资讯公民来说,有没有华文名真的不是那么重要。
这样的想法相信应该是存在的。加上部分年轻一代因种种因素,把学习华文也视为苦差,
为下一代取华文名这类的事,对他们而言,情感上很不情愿,现实生活也觉得没有必要。最
根本的是,不取华文名没有任何实质上的损失,而现实的利害关系,正是一部分人赖以判
断事物的基础。连带的,抽象的文化、传统、认同等课题,就变得陌生而遥远,甚至产生一种
莫明的恐惧排斥心态。
少为孩子取一个华文名,看似简单,其实,别有用心。


匆匆
燕子去了,有再来的时候;杨柳枯了,有再青的时候;桃花谢了,有再开的时候。但是,
聪明的,你告诉我,我们的日子为什么一去不复返呢?--是有人偷了他们吧:那是谁?
又 藏 在 何 处 呢 ? 是 他 们 自 己 逃 走 了 吧 : 现 在 又 到 了 哪 里 呢 ?
我不知道他们给了我多少日子;但我的手确乎是渐渐空虚了。在默默里算着,八千多日子
已经从我手中溜去;像针尖上一滴水在大海里,我的日子滴在时间的流里,没有声音,也

195
没 有 影 子 。 我 不 禁 头 涔 涔 而 泪 潸 潸 了 。
去的尽管去了,来的尽管来着;去来的中间,又怎样地匆匆呢?早上我起来的时候,小
屋里射进两三方斜斜的太阳。太阳他有脚啊,轻轻悄悄地挪移了;我也茫茫然跟着旋转。于
是--洗手的时候,日子从水盆里过去;吃饭的时候,日子从饭碗里过去;默默时,便从
凝然的双眼前过去。我觉察他去的匆匆了,伸出手遮挽时,他又从遮挽着的手边过去,天黑
时,我躺在床上,他便伶伶俐俐地从我身上跨过,从我脚边飞去了。等我睁开眼和太阳再见,
这算又溜走了一日。我掩着面叹息。但是新来的日子的影儿又开始在叹息里闪过了。
在逃去如飞的日子里,在千门万户的世界里我能做些什么呢?只有徘徊罢了,只有匆匆
罢了;在八千多日的匆匆里,除徘徊外,又剩些什么呢?过去的日子如轻烟,被微风吹散
了,如薄雾,被初阳蒸融了;我留着些什么痕迹呢?我赤裸裸来到这世界,转眼间也将赤
裸 裸 的 回 去 吧 ? 但 不 能 平 的 , 为 什 么 偏 要 白 白 走 这 一 遭 啊 ?
你 聪 明 的 , 告 诉 我 , 我 们 的 日 子 为 什 么 一 去 不 复 返 呢 ?
1922 年 3 月 28 日 (朱自清 著)


我 可 能 是 天 津 人
还是从火车上说起吧!大约在我四岁多的时候,我坐过火车。当时带我坐车的人,是我的
舅舅,叫张全斌。我记得那时我的打扮挺滑稽的,穿着蓝布大褂、小坎肩,戴瓜皮小帽。那时
候,小孩子打扮成那个样子,够不错了。在我的童年中,也就只有过这么一次。在火车上,
因为小,没坐过火车,也很少见过家里以外的人,觉得挺新鲜。也许人在幼年时代终归想要
些温暖吧!那时舅舅抱着我,哄着我,我觉得很温暖。一路上吃了半斤炒栗子,睡了一会儿
觉,就到了北京。根据这个情况,现在估计起来,我可能是从天津来的。我现在对我原来的
父母还有个模糊不清的印象,父亲、母亲的形象还能回忆起一点儿,但很模糊。究竟家里姓
什么?哪里人?不知道。我只知道自己的生日和乳名。生日是自己长大以后听家里大人说的,
是农历十月十五酉时生人。所以我的乳名叫 "酉",北京人爱用儿化韵,前面加个小,后面
加"儿",就叫"小酉儿"。关于我个人的历史情况,我就知道这一些,再多一点都记不起来了。
(侯宝林 著)


这次长江流域的水灾是 44 年来最严重的。官方的数字表明已有 2000 多人死亡,1380 万
人被迫离开家园。占中国总耕地面积 3%的 450 万公顷的农作物被毁。工厂被迫停工,产量受
到影响。客运和货运也被迫中断。在未来的许多岁月里,人民都会感受到洪灾对中国经济的
总体影响。尽管损失如此严重,举国上下,展开与洪水的斗争是非常值得称赞的。在抗洪斗
争中,中国人民显示了令人叹服的守堤防洪的能力。例如这次国家调动了 160 万军队去帮助
守护大堤,将被洪水淹没地区的百姓迁走。事实上,差不多有数百万平民百姓参加了这一人
类巨大的斗争。

2. 英译汉


An Englishman who had just landed in China entered a restaurant to appease the pangs of

196
hunger. Unfortunately he knew no Chinese and the waiter knew no English; so they were both
thrown on mother wit. John Chinaman articulated “Bowwow”, to which John Bull moved his head
from right to left. Then the waiter said “Quack, quack!”, to which the customer moved his head
from sky to earth, and the inner man was soon satisfied.


A college professor was one day nearing the close of a history lecture and was indulging in
one of those rhetorical climaxes in which he delighted when the hour struck. Thus students
immediately began to slam down the movable arms of their lecture chairs and to prepare to leave .
The professor, annoyed at the interruption of his flow of eloquence, held up his hand:
“Wait just one minute, gentlemen, I have a few more pearls to cast.”


The Transmission of Flowers
Multimedia artist Tan Swie Hian recently donated more than 6,000 of his collection of books,
manuscripts, artworks and artifacts to the new National Library. When the new National Library is
completed, a section will house “The Tan Swie Hian Collection”. This is the speech Mr Tan gave
at the donation ceremony.
Giving is a way of sharing. The fragrance wafts far and wide when the flowers are passed
round. And certainly, as Hada Bejar said, “The fragrance always stays in the hand that gives the
rose.” I have decided to donate my whole collection of books, manuscripts, artworks, and artifacts
to the new National Library.
This is in line with the objective of the My Library Movement launched today: to do my
humble part to help bring knowledge to life, making it real and inspiring for all Singaporeans.
Knowledge is a living thing to be shared among people, as it does not belong to a dusty shelf. And
shared joy is double joy.
I have 6000 books. Many a volume has a story behind it. The thin copy of the thesis on
Baudelaire's Cat, jointly written in French by Roman Jakobson and Claude Levi-Strauss, which I
had been searching for years, was found in a small bookshop in Paris. The now defunct Methodist
Bookstore in Singapore helped me get most of the English translations of Kierkegaard's works. By
the Side of Mr. Gandhi, a biographical account by Gandhi's only Chinese disciple, Shanti Zeng,
who was a first-generation Singaporean journalist, was eventually autographed by the author
during my first and last meeting with him. A friend flew in from Indonesia bringing to me the
poetry of Chairil Anwar. I bought the autobiography of Ravi Shankar in India. My many trips to
China enabled me to collect such extremely rare and ancient publication as the Yuan/Ming edition
of Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi. And anthologies of poet friends Henri Michaux,
Eugene Guillevic, Marin Sorescu, and Ya Xuan.
Among the donated items, there are also artworks of artist friends such as Arnaud
d'Hauterives, Wu Guan Zhong, and Pratuang Emjaroen; calligraphy by Fan Zeng Xiang, Qi Bai
Shi, and Li Ke Ran; a photo by Chin-San Long; three seals by Master Hong Yi; a Song Yue-Ware
celadon Avalokitesvara figurine; a Tang ink-slab and an extra large ink-stick made by the greatest
ink maker of the Ming Dynasty, Cheng Jun Fang.

197
When the truck carrying my whole collection was pulling out of the carpark of my studio, Ms
Jennifer Yin of the NLB urged me to quickly take a last look at it. Suddenly I felt somewhat sad to
part with the collection I have put together following forty years of efforts, love, and passion. But
it was like marrying off my beautiful daughter. Knowing that she was off to a great family, I felt
relieved.
When Somerset Maugham decided to quit writing, he thought to himself,“Thank God, I can
watch a sunset without having to think how to describe it. I meant never to write another book.” It
is not yet my case. “The Tan Swie Hian Collection” in the new National Library will be a space
where I'll meet young Singaporean artists, writers and public members, discussing with them how
not to fall asleep when the sun rises.(By Tan Swie Hian )


Becoming bilingual in an English-speaking environment
More and more English-educated Chinese Singaporean parents are becoming increasingly
conscious of the importance for their children to be proficient not only in the all-important English
language, but also in Chinese.
The emergence of China as a potential political and economic superpower has driven home to
them that, becoming bilingual will not only enhance their children's employment prospects, but
also make them a man of two cultures.
This drastic change in these Chinese Singaporeans' perception of the usefulness of Chinese is
quite remarkable.
Not so long ago, they would be proud to proclaim that they knew only English and some
even felt somewhat contemptuous of the Chinese culture.
Today, many are regretting for not being bilingual. As if to redeem themselves, some have
become ardent supporters of Chinese art and culture. They also visit China regularly in order to
imbibe its splendors and rich heritage.
It is common knowledge that, to master any language, especially one's mother tongue, one
must begin from childhood. But there are challenges and impediments for children of English-
speaking homes to surmount in their journey towards bilingualism.
Take my family as an example. While my wife and I are products of English education, we
had some grounding in Chinese which we kept up in our working life. But the language of
communication in our home is predominantly English.
We are gratified that our three children had between eight and 11 years' Chinese schooling
before switching over to English medium schools.
Their foundation in Chinese has become an asset in their adult life. They can hold their own
in the spoken language, but would find it hard to compose a business letter in Chinese through
lack of usage.
We have a grandson who will be two years old shortly. His parents have given my wife and
me the unenviable task of making him bilingual. It is a very tough assignment, as we are with him
only a couple of hours on most days.
For the rest of the time, he is being subjected to English sounds by his busy parents and his
most devoted maternal grandparents.
Fortunately, our perseverance is beginning to pay dividends. After eight months of coaxing

198
him to get accustomed to hearing Mandarin sounds, he can now quite comfortably identify
common everyday objects and numerals in fairly distinct Mandarin, much to our unconcealed
delight.
Letting him listen to Chinese nursery songs has helped in his learning process.
A recent authoritative British study has shown that a Mandarin speaker would utilise both
lobes of his brain to comprehend the language, while an English speaker would use only one. It
also claims that children in bilingual homes are more likely to develop their minds more
vigorously, after they have attained proficiency in both languages.
Another US study finds that for a child to benefit most from language learning, he should
start before reaching three years old. Thereafter, his linguistic abilities would decrease as he gets
older.
As the educational experts believe that bilingualism helps stimulate a child's intellectual
development, discerning Singaporean parents should take note of this sound advice.
Like it or not, bilingualism is here to stay. A good knowledge of English, coupled with a firm
grounding in one’s mother tongue, will provide a much needed cultural ballast for Singaporeans to
take their deserved place under the sun. (By Lam Pin Foo)


Banning not a cure-all
SINGAPORE has stern laws and rules to regulate people's lives, not even sparing their trivial
mischief. Accustomed to the system, Singaporeans have become apprehensive about anything
banned by law, because any violation—either a crime or a mere blunder—will incur sure penalties
with little room for mitigation.
However, I applaud the reasonable reply by the National Parks Board to a suggestion that
dogs be banned from the Botanical Gardens. The Board reassured park-visitors of their basic
rights, declaring that it would not forbid them to bring along their pets.
It is true that discipline and order are essential to a gracious society, and strict rules are
needed to ensure that people behave well. Yet the best guarantee for civilised conduct lies rather in
good habits of the population.
In Singapore, penalties are stipulated for any undesirable act causing harm or trouble in
traffic, public health, environment and public order. One can find warning signs everywhere, such
as "Smoking is strictly forbidden", "No littering", "No sitting on the fence", "Jaywalking is
prohibited", "Penalties for damaging plants", and "No noise". This has become a feature of
Singapore's social culture.
No doubt, through interactions among themselves, most Singaporeans have formed habits of
civilised conduct. Yet the long years of rule by law have made them dependent on decrees and
bans to know their Dos and Don'ts. Hence the call for banning dogs from a park and for restricting
the import of pets.
Except for bans, restrictions and fines, is there really no other way to instil public-
mindedness in the population? To bring about a gracious society with good citizens, must the
legislative mechanism be given such dominance that a new law is called for whenever problems
crop up?
In fact, persuasion and edification would do well to aid judicial measures in building a

199
gracious society with public-minded citizens. A people who are tolerant, open-minded and
reasonable would be a surer guarantee for such a society.
To govern with the right extent of tolerance is an art. Confucius (551-479 BC) once praised
Zichan, a contemporary statesman, for his wise policy on running the State of Zheng. "By
tempering penalty with mercy, and adding sternness to clemency," remarked the philosopher, "he
achieved moderation in governance."
If the past can serve as a guide today, I believe people would comply more willingly if harsh
bans and tactful handling were to balance and complement each other. This would be more
welcome and effective than resorting to bans and fines.
Severe punishment is necessary, of course, for serious evil-doings that disrupt public security
and order, including felony and commercial crimes. Yet it is risky to restrict all activities of the
population by introducing law after law.
Too much restriction may cause pressure, tension and lasting apprehension not only in the
relations among individuals, but also in those between citizens, society, and the state.( By Tan Ai
Hua)


Democracy
We received a letter from the Writers’ War Board the other day asking for a statement on
“The Meaning of Democracy.” It presumably is our duty to comply with such a request, and it is
certainly our pleasure.
Surely the Board knows what democracy is. It is the line that forms on the right. It is the
don’t in the don’t shove. It is the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly
trickles; it is the dent in the high hat. Democracy is the recurrent suspicion that more than half of
the people are right more than half of the time. It is the feeling of privacy in the voting booths, the
feeling of communion in the libraries, the feeling of vitality everywhere. Democracy is a letter to
the editor. Democracy is the score at the beginning of the ninth. It is an idea which hasn’t been
disproved yet, a song the words of which have not gone bad. It is the mustard on the hot dog and
the cream in the rationed coffee. Democracy is a request from a War Board, in the middle of a
morning in the middle of a war, wanting to know what democracy is.


STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in
privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment, and
disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one;
but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best, from those that are
learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is
affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. They perfect
nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need
pruning, by study; and studies themselves, do give forth directions too much at large, except they
be bounded in by experience. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise
men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above

200
them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted;
nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be
swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in
parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and
attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that
would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books, else distilled books
are like common distilled waters, flashy things.
Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And
therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need
have a present wit: and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know, that he
doth not. Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtitle; natural philosophy
deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in mores. Nay, there is no
stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of the body,
may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs
and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man's wit be
wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never
so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study
the Schoolmen; for they are cyminisectors. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one
thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers' cases. So every defect of the
mind, may have a special receipt (Of Studies, by Francis Bacon)


Sonnet 18
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,


And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd

But thy eternal summer shall not fade


Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;
Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou growest:

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,


So long lives this and this gives life to thee.
(By William Shakespeare)

201

Between two tall gateposts of rough-hewn stone (the gate itself having fallen from its hinges
at some unknown epoch) we beheld the gray front of the old personage terminating the vista of an
avenue of black ash trees. It was now a twelve month since the funeral procession of the venerable
clergyman, its last inhabitant, had turned from that gateway towards the village burying-ground.
The wheel-track leading to the door, as well as the whole breadth of the avenue, was almost
overgrown with grass, affording dainty mouthfuls to two or three vagrant cows and an old white
horse who had hiss own living to pick up along the roadside. The glimmering shadows that lay
half asleep between the door of the house and the public highway were a kind of spiritual medium,
seen through which the edifice had not quite the aspect of belonging to the material world.
Certainly it had little in common with those ordinary abodes which stand so imminent upon the
road that every passer-by can thrust his head, as it were, into the domestic circle. From these quiet
windows the figures of passing travelers looked too remote and dim to disturb the sense of
privacy. In its near retirement and accessible seclusion it was the very spot for the residence of a
clergyman, a man not estranged from human life, yet enveloped in the midst of it with a veil
woven of intermingled gloom and brightness. It was worthy to have been one of the time-honored
parsonages of England in which, through many generations, a succession of holy occupants pass
from youth to age, and bequeath each an inheritance of sanctity to pervade the house and hover
over it as with an atmosphere.(Nathaniel Hawthorne: Preface to Mosses from an Old Manse)


Beauty
The simple perception of natural forms is a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in
nature is so needful to man, that in its lowest functions, it seems to lie on the confines of
commodity and beauty. To the body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or
company, nature is medicinal and restores their tone. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the
din and craft of the street and sees the sky and the woods, and is a man again. In their eternal calm,
he finds himself. The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as
we can see far enough.
But in other hours, Nature satisfies the soul purely by its loveliness, and without any mixture
of corporeal benefit. I see the spectacle of morning from the hilltop over against my house, from
daybreak to sunrise, with emotions which an angel might share. The long slender bars of cloud
float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. From the earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent
sea. I seem to partake its rapid transformations; the active enchantment reaches my dust; and I
dilate and conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap
elements! Give me health and a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn
is my Assyria; the sunset and moon-rise my Paphos, and unimaginable realm of faerie; broad noon
shall be my England of the senses and the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of mystic
philosophy and dreams.
Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the charm, last
evening of a January sunset. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink
flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness, and the air had so much life and sweetness

202
that it was a pain to come within doors. What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning
in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakespeare could not reform
for me in words? The leafless trees become spires of flames in the sunset; with the blue east for
their background, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered stem and stubble
rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music. ( Excerpts from Nature, by Ralph
Waldo Emerson)

第三部分 英语专业八级考试翻译原题
1)2000 年
● 汉 译 英
世界上第一代博物馆属于自然博物馆,它是通过化石、标本等向人们介绍地球和各种生
物的演化历史。第二代属于工业技术博物馆,它所展示的是工业文明带来的各种阶段性结果。
这两代博物馆虽然起到了传播科学知识的作用,但是,它们把参观者当成了被动的旁观者。
世界上第三代博物馆是充满全新理念的博物馆。在这里,观众可以自己去动手操作,自
己细心体察。这样,他们可以更贴近先进的科学技术,去探索科学技术的奥妙。中国科技馆
正是这样的博物馆!它汲取了国际上一些著名博物馆的长处,设计制作了力学、光学、电学、
热学、声学、生物学等展品,展示了科学的原理和先进的科技成果。
● 英 译 汉
If people mean anything at all by the expression “untimely death”, they must believe that some
deaths are on a better schedule than others. Death in old age is rarely called untimely—a long life
is thought to be a full one. But with the passing of a young person, one assumes that the best years
lay ahead and the measure of that life was still to be taken. History denies this, of course. Among
prominent summer deaths, one recalls those of MariLarry Monroe and James Deans, whose lives
seemed equally brief and complete. Writers cannot bear the fact that poet John Keats died at 26,
and only half playfully judge their own lives as failures when they pass that year. The idea that the
life cut short is unfulfilled is illogical because lives are measured by the impressions they leave on
the world and by their intensity and virtue.

2)2001 年
●汉译英
乔羽的歌大家都熟悉。但他另外两大爱好却鲜为人知,那就是钓鱼和喝酒。晚年的乔羽
喜爱垂钓,他说,“有水有鱼的地方大都是有好环境的,好环境便会给人好心情。我认为最
好的钓鱼场所不是舒适的、给你准备好饿鱼的垂钓园,而是那极其有吸引力的大自然野外天
成的场所。” 钓鱼是一项能够陶冶性情的运动,有益于身心健康。乔羽说:“钓鱼可分三个
阶段:第一阶段是吃鱼;第二阶段是吃鱼和情趣兼而有之;第三阶段主要是钓趣,面对一
池碧水,将忧心烦恼全都抛在一边,使自己的身心得到充分休息。”
●英译汉
Possession for its own sake or in competition with the rest of the neighborhood would have
been Thoreau’s idea of the low levels. The active discipline of heightening one’s perception of
what is enduring in nature would have been his idea of the high. What he saved from the low was
time and effort he could spend on the high. Thoreau certainly disapproved of starvation, but he
would put into feeding himself only as much effort as would keep him functioning for more
important efforts.
Effort is the gist of it. There is no happiness except as we take on life-engaging difficulties.

203
Short of the impossible, as Yeats put it, the satisfaction we get from a lifetime depends on how
high we choose our difficulties. Robert Frost was thinking in something like the same terms when
he spoke of “The pleasure of taking pains”. The mortal flaw in the advertised version of happiness
is in the fact that it purports to be effortless.
We demand difficulty even in our games. We demand it because without difficulty there can
be no game. A game is a way of making something hard for the fun of it. The rules of the game are
an arbitrary imposition of difficulty. When someone ruins the fun, he always does so by refusing
to play by the rules. It is easier to win at chess if you are free, at your pleasure, to change the
wholly arbitrary rules, but the fun is in winning within the rules. No difficulty, no fun.

3) 2002 年
●汉译英
大自然对人的恩赐,无论贫富,一律平等,所以人们对于大自然,全都一致并深深地
依赖着。尤其在乡间,上千年来人们一直以不变的方式生活着种植庄稼和葡萄,酿酒和饮酒,
喂牛和挤牛奶,锄草和栽花:在周末去教堂祈祷和做礼拜,在节日到广场拉琴、跳舞和唱歌;
往日的田园依旧是今日的温馨家园,这样,每个地方都有自己的传说,风俗也就衍传下来。
●英译汉
Winners do not dedicate their lives to a concept of what they imagine they should be, rather,
they are themselves and as such do not use their energy putting on a performance, maintaining
pretence and manipulating others. They are aware that there is a difference between being loving
and acting loving, between being stupid and acting stupid, between being knowledgeable and
acting knowledgeable. Winners do not need to hide behind a mask.
Winners are not afraid to do their own thinking and to use their own knowledge. They can
separate facts from opinions and don’t pretend to have all the answers. They listen to others,
evaluate what they say, but come to their own conclusions. Although winners can admire and
respect other people, they are not totally defined, demolished, bound, or awed by them.
Winners do not play “helpless”, nor do they play the blaming game. Instead, they assume
responsibility for their own lives.

4) 2003 年
●汉译英
得病以前,我受父母宠爱,在家中横行霸道,一旦隔离,拘禁在花园山坡上一幢小房
子里,我顿觉打入冷宫,十分郁郁不得志起来。 一个春天的傍晚,园中百花怒放,父母在
园中设宴,一时宾客云集,笑语四溢。我在山坡的小屋里,悄悄掀起窗帘,窥见园中大千世
界,一片繁华,自己的哥姐,堂表弟兄,也穿插其间,个个喜气洋洋。一霎时,一阵被人摈
弃,为世所遗的悲愤兜上心头,禁不住痛哭起来。
●英译汉
. In his classic novel, “The Pioneers”, James Fenimore Cooper has his hero, a land developer,
take his cousin on a tour of the city he is building. He describes the broad streets, rows of houses,
a teeming metropolis. But his cousin looks around bewildered. All she sees is a forest. “Where are
the beauties and improvements which you were to show me?” she asks. He’s astonished she can’t
see them. “Where! Why everywhere,” he replies. For though they are not yet built on earth, he has
built them in his mind, and they are as concrete to him as if they were already constructed and
finished.

204
   Cooper was illustrating a distinctly American trait, future-mindedness: the ability to see the
present from the vantage point of the future; the freedom to feel unencumbered by the past and
more emotionally attached to things to come. As Albert Einstein once said, “Life for the American
is always becoming, never being.”

5) 2004 年
●汉译英
在人际关系问题上,我们不要太浪漫主义。人是很有趣的,往往在接触一个人时,首先
看到他或她的优点。这一点颇像在餐馆里用餐时的经验,开始吃头盘或冷碟的时候印象很好。
吃头两个主菜时也是赞不绝口。越吃越趋于冷静,吃饱了这顿宴席,缺点就都找出来了。于
是,转喜为怒,转赞美为责备挑剔,转首肯为摇头。这是因为,第一,开始吃的时候你正处
于饥饿状态,饿了吃糠甜加蜜,饱了吃蜜也不甜……
●英译汉
I am lonely when I am overtired, when I have worked too long without a break, when for the
time being I feel empty and need filling up. And I am lonely sometimes when I come back home
after a lecture trip, when I have seen a lot of people and talked a lot, and am full to the brim with
experience that needs to be sorted out.
Then for a while the house feels huge and empty, and I wonder where my self is hiding. It has
to be recaptured slowly by watering the plants and, perhaps, by looking again at each one as
though it was a person.
It takes a while, as I watch the surf blowing up in fountains, but the moment comes when the
world falls away, and the self emerges again from the deep unconscious, bringing back all I have
recently experienced to be explored and slowly understood.

6) 2005 年
●汉译英
一个人的生命究竟有多大意义,这有什么标准可以衡量吗?提出一个绝对的标准当然
很困难;但是,大体上看一个人对待生命的态度是否严肃认真,看他对待劳动、工作等等的
态度如何,也就不难对这个人的存在意义做出适当的估计了。
古来一切有成就的人,都很严肃地对待自己的生命,当他活着一天,总要尽量多劳动、
多工作、多学习,不肯虚度年华,不让时间白白地浪费掉。我国历代劳动人民以及大政治家、
大思想家等等都莫不如此。
●英译汉
It is simple enough to say that since books have classes – fiction, biography, poetry – we
should separate them and take from each what it is right that each should give us. Yet few people
ask from books what books can give us. Most commonly we come to books with blurred and
divided minds, asking of fiction that it shall be true, of poetry that it shall be false, of biography
that it shall be flattering, of history that it shall enforce our own prejudices. If we could banish all
such preconceptions when we read, that would be an admirable beginning. Do not dictate to your
author: try to become him. Be his fellow-worker and accomplice. If you hang back, and reserve
and criticize at first, you are preventing yourself from getting the fullest possible value from what
you read. But if you open your mind as widely as possible, then signs and hints of almost
imperceptible fineness, from the twist and turn of the first sentences, will bring you into the
presence of a human being unlike any other. Steep yourself in this, acquaint yourself with this, and

205
soon you will find that your author is giving you, or attempting to give you, something far more
definite. The thirty-two chapters of a novel – if we consider how to read a novel first – are an
attempt to make something as formed and controlled as a building: but words are more impalpable
than bricks; reading is a longer and more complicated process than seeing. Perhaps the quickest
way to understand the elements of what a novelist is doing is not to read, but to write; to make
your own experiment with the dangers and difficulties of words. Recall, then, some event that has
left a distinct impression on you – how at the corner of the street, perhaps, you passed two people
talking. A tree shook; an electric light danced; the tone of the talk was comic, but also tragic; a
whole vision, an entire conception, seemed contained in that moment.

7) 2006 年
●汉译英
中国民族自古以来从不把人看作高于一切,在哲学文艺方面的表现都反映出人在自然
界中与万物占着一个比例较为恰当的地位,而非绝对统治万物的主宰。因此我们的苦闷,基
本上比西方人为少为小;因为苦闷的强弱原是随欲望与野心的大小而转移的。农业社会的人
比工业社会的人享受差得多;因此欲望也小得多。况中国古代素来以不滞于物,不为物役为
最主要的人生哲学。并非我们没有守财奴,但比起莫利哀与巴尔扎克笔下的守财奴与野心家
来,就小巫见大巫了。中国民族多数是性情中正和平、淡泊、朴实、比西方人容易满足。
●英译汉
I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the
most grievous kind. We have before us many, many months of struggle and suffering.
You ask, what is our policy? I say it is to wage war by land, sea and air. War with all our
might and with all the strength God has given us, and to wage war against a monstrous tyranny
never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.
You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: It is victory. Victory at all costs--victory
in spite of all terrors--victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is
no survival.
Let that be realized. No survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British
Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge, the impulse of the ages, that mankind shall move
forward toward his goal.
( 翻 译 练 习 材 料 主 体 部 分 来 源 于
http://202.203.16.100/englishonline/wsjs/Ss/GraduatEnglish,http://www.zaobao.com/bilingual,
http://www.hienglish.org/tem8/tem-8.htm 等网站)

206
参考 译文
第一部分 句子翻译
1. 选词
(1) 在中国,我们每到一个城市,就逛大街,逛商店,逛公园,上剧场,下饭馆。
(2) 仅凭电压的高低 ,电流的强弱和功率的大小 尚不足以区别开来。
(3) 柯林斯先生似乎落得无足轻 重了。在年轻小姐们看来,他的确微不足 道。
(4) 她不难看出,他说这些话的时候,自以为肯定能得到一个满意 的答复。因此虽然他嘴里
说自己又担忧又焦急,但脸上却流露出一副稳操胜 券的神气
(5) 在那个重大的日子里究竟穿什么衣服,我心里七上 八下 ,老拿不定 主意 ,因为我一方
面想要仪 容 整齐 ,风度 翩 翩 ,而另一方面,我又害怕,惟恐我的穿着在斯潘娄姐妹眼里 ,
会有损我特别讲究实际的品格。
(6) 在她们的眼皮底下,他一天天长大起来。看着他蹒跚学步,咿呀学语,逐渐懂 事,她们
天天都 感到惊喜 不已 。
(7) 悲愁,一种淡淡的 悲愁,终于来临了,但并不是以任何令人不快的形式出现的。泰勒小
姐出嫁了。正是泰勒小姐的离去才第一次带来了惆怅。也正是在这位密友举行婚礼的那天,
爱玛才第一次独坐良久,愁思绵绵。
(8) 德娜哭过之后,在脸颊上扑了些粉。
(9) 一星期 20 美元是不经用 的。开销总是比她预算的多。
(10) 别指望有什么舒服的地方。咱们能找到房子,有张床睡觉,就谢天谢地了。
(11) 为保证最大分辨率必须选用薄层,为使误差最小,却须选用厚层,实际上通常选用介
于两者之间的最佳 厚度。
(12) 现在,为了恢复东亚经济实力,整个国际社会所能做的最富成就的贡献就是:帮助这
些国家制定 经济和金融政策,提高经营管理能力。

207
(13) 将来撰写尼克松政府的历史时,他的对华政策可能成为通情达理 和善于处理外交事务
的样板。
(14) 刑事案件中以精神错乱为理由进行辩护,这个问题涉及到医学、法律、伦理道德等三方
面问题。
(15) 我看你的建议行得通 。
(16) 边防军不得不对入侵敌人作战。
(17) 生意成功最简单的途径就是贱买贵卖。
(18) 我们对史密斯先生非常出色而又发人深省 的演说表示感谢。
(19) 他是个苛刻的老板,要求手下的人对他忠心耿耿,鞠躬尽瘁 。
(20) 这出戏连续演出 120 场。
(21) In case of any divergence of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.
(22) Unless it is legally or physically impossible, the contractor shall execute and complete the
work and remedy the defects therein in strict accordance with the contract to the satisfaction of
the engineer.
(23) We can't say that you will surely succeed if only you make efforts, but you can be sure that
your efforts will never be entirely in vain.
(24) She doesn't flatter anyone in his presence nor speak ill of anyone behind his back.
Considering these two points, she is praiseworthy.
(25) 80% of China's population lives in the rural areas. There will be no social stability unless
their daily needs are met.
(26) I bought this watch in Switzerland two years ago. It keeps good time; it never loses or gains.
(27) The framework of mutual respect sustains our cultural cooperation today.
(28) Indeed he has a short temper.
(29) I’ll challenge my own conclusion.
(30) People are saying that the North-South question is very serious. I think it is a question of
development.

2. 替换
(1) 她那一头令人魂牵梦萦的深棕色秀发一部分挽成髻子垂在脑后,还有一部分则散批在肩
上,显然 是由于匆忙的缘故。
(2) 研究 过那封信,我们毫不怀疑此信是别有用心的。
(3) 由于夏 季 温 暖 ,雨 量 适 宜 ,山 坡 平 缓 ,人们已经有可能在这个大陆的大部分地区 定
居和耕作 。
(4) 他疲惫 不堪 ,天气也 越来越热 ,于是他决定一找到舒适的阴凉处就坐下休息。
(5) 有独立见解的观察家们对你们在这方面取得的成就给予了很好的 评价。
(6) 难怪老一辈的许多人见了 这个就会想到 36 年前的往事。
(7) 最理想的情况是,有朝一日研究人员能够对地震的成因及具体断层的性质有 足够 的 了
解,从而能够直接预报地震。
(8) 千百万山区人民终于摆脱 了贫困。
(9) 书有浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则需咀嚼消化。
(10) 必要时,可用循环水或喷气器把摩擦产生的大部分热量带走。
(11) 只要软件行业竞争激烈,未来的各种机会简直是无限的。
(12) 专卖伍德拜茵牌香烟、太妃糖和西红柿的黑市已挤垮了牛津这一历史最久的非法交易点。
(13) 你吃的粮食不是你种的,你穿的衣服不是你做的。

208
(14) 佩德拉到布拉格来,原是满怀抑郁,如今开心起来,就立即成为女孩子们的领袖。
(15) 这位曾使全世界发出笑声的人自己却饱含辛酸。
(16) 孩子们之所以能把自己的母语学好,恰恰是因为他们投身于语言的海洋之中,而不单
单是读几本教科书而已。
(17) 你可以大批制造……数量惊人的事实与数字,但不可能大批生产知识,因为知识是个
人头脑用个人经验,经过去伪存真后创造出来的。
(18) 智者千虑,必有一失。
(19) 请勿践踏草坪!
(20) 克伦斯顿家和芬琪雷家,是莱科格斯其余有地位的人的眼中钉——太喜欢出风头,太
气焰逼人。
(21) He has long been used to last-minute decisions.
(22) The paper said editorially that it is against the guideline of the Central Committee of our
Party to refuse to solve the problem of husband and wife living in two separate places.
(23) What I say today is only an inadequate expression of what I carry in my heart.
(24) I am no drinker, nor smoker.
(25) He is an ardent lover of classic music.
(26) Vietnamese War is a drain on American resources.
(27) Only when the backwardness is perceived can it be changed.
(28) Best surface finish is provided by machining methods, especially by grinding.
(29) The mastery of a language is not easy and requires painstaking efforts.
(30) We can't reach our strategic goal unless we carry out reform and adhere to the open policy.
(31) There was no haste or restlessness in his manner but a poised friendliness.
(32) Nowadays it is understood that a diet without anything harmful may result in serious disease
if certain important elements are missing.
(33) The products of this factory are chiefly characterized by their fine workmanship and
durability.
(34) Led by the Chinese Communist Party, the Chinese people, united as one, are engaged in the
great task of building socialism.
(35) Tragedies can be written in literature since there is tragedy in life.
(36) A thin and weak girl susceptible to disease, she wrote one inspiring novel after another with
her strong will.
(37) He was the last man to say such things.
(38) To our disappointment, he failed to take the overall situation into account.
(39) All you can do is to burn your boat and fight them in the hope that one day you’ll come out
on top.
(40) Nevertheless, “love me, love my dog”: although he had no desire to have anything more to
do with Zhu Yan-nien it would not do to forget the existence of Xu Yi-de, who really was a force
to be reckoned with.

3. 增减
(1) 她对他时而 兴致勃勃,时而 极力挑逗,时而 恶意作弄,时而 又无动于衷,时而 还对他
满脸的鄙视。
(2) 附近的天体一旦落入黑洞,就销声 匿迹,永 无踪影 。
(3) 里士满公园的景物 处处使人想起了往事,许多往事一直可以追溯到幼年时代。

209
(4) 她高兴时 就对他招招手,不高兴时 就对他打哈欠,再高兴时 就再对他招手。他呢,就
常常含着辛酸,半闭着眼睛去应付。
(5) 他醉意未消,脑子里突然冒出了一个念头。这个念头显然带有玩笑性质,他禁不住拍了
一下大腿,接着就把拳头塞进嘴里,免得笑 出声来 。
(6) 这样一来,由 于 历史学家得以更多地知道这些收藏文档,他们就能向那些文档的所有
者请求允许利用它们,虽然并非总是如愿以偿。
(7) 为使自己生活不犯错误,我制定了自认为可行的十三条守则。这些守则是:1. 节制饮食 ,
2. 自我克制,3. 沉默寡言 ,4. 有条不紊,5. 坚定信念 ,6. 勤 俭 节约,7. 工作 勤奋,8. 老
老实实,9. 办事 公正,10. 衣履 整洁,11. 平心静气,12. 品行高尚,13. 谦虚恭顺。
(8) 我环顾四周,只见雨在下,风在刮,周围一片 黑暗。不过我隐约看到前面有一堵墙,
墙上有一扇门。
(9) 勇敢过度,即成蛮勇;喜爱过度, 即成 溺爱;勤俭过度, 即成 贪婪。
(10) 曾经对黑猩猩成功地进行了一项 有趣的实验,实验对六只黑猩猩进行训练,让它们操
纵一台专用售货机,往投币孔里塞入一枚白色筹码可得到一颗热葡萄。
(11) -- 观察鹿是如何从夏季的活动频繁状态慢慢 进入冬季的不频繁状态的,而到冰雪逐渐
融化的春季时,它们的活动又是如何增多起来的。
(12) 我和艾勒决定把狗带出去溜溜,不知不觉朝公园走去,公园就在小桥那边,桥下很深
的地方,汹涌的洛杉矶河水滚滚流过。现在回想起来,就仿佛是一场梦,当时的情景还在脑
海里缓缓流动。那一天 ,许多小孩在靠近水边的地方玩耍。
(13) 考虑到这一点,他便决定重新搬出中世纪 经院哲学 的一套来开个学术性玩笑,向惊恐
于苏联第 一颗 人造卫星的美国课堂教育发出挑战。
(14) 这种力量足以打破自满情绪。
(15) 春花绽放,绿叶吐芽,春水奔流,春天欢腾地、无休止地追逐着,这一切比语言丰富
得多。
(16) 军人必须服从命令。
(17) 气压低,沸点就低。
(18) 不要自寻麻烦。
(19) 有志者事竟成。
(20) 一月二十一日,弗朗索瓦 ·密特朗总统和玛格丽特·撒切尔首相在里尔举行的一次仪式上
宣布了联合修建英法隧道的决定。
(21) Kindly inform me by the 5th whether you will attend the farewell party to be given on the
next Saturday in honor of our former president.
(22) To learn and at due times to repeat what one has learnt, is that after all a pleasure? That
friends should come to one from afar, is this not after all delightful?
(23) Modesty helps one to go forward, whereas conceit makes one lag behind.
(24) The practice of giving lavish feasts at weddings can well be dispensed with.
(25) This little boy always washes his hands before meals and then dries them with napkins.
(26) The tiger and the cat belong to the same family of animals.
(27) I don’t think it difficult to speak to a foreigner in English.
(28) If one does not enter the tiger’s den, how can he get a tiger’s cub?
(29) We answer that the Long March is the first of its kind in the annals of history, that it is a
manifesto, a publicity team, a seeding-machine.
(30) He has been speaking in French for two hours without any mistakes.
(31) Learning without thought is vain. Thought without learning is idle.

210
(32) They enquired about the politics of the day, ignorant of the establishment of the Han Dynasty,
and of course of the later dynasties that had succeeded it
(33) The nationalities in Sichuan maintain different cultures and customs, which provide the
inexhaustible source of folk songs and dances.
(34) After her friends heard about her family difficulties, they offered her a helping hand.
(35) To err is human and to mend is a supreme merit.
(36) Her father is a famous professor, but I can't find any scholarly pretence in him.
(37) All the people were exasperated by his fault-finding.
(38) The pharmacologists are making a careful study of the allergy of the medicine.
(39) You should get rid of your foolhardiness.
(40) All the irregularities of the students in that university resulted in punishment.

4. 伸缩
(1)写这样一封生气的信简直毫无道理 。
(2)去费迪餐厅就餐,七年来已成为他生活中惯常的事情 。
(3)那个箱子又大又笨重,装的全是书,不过他随身带的箱子却是另一回事 。
(4)机器的发明使世界进入了一个新纪元即工业时代,金钱成了主宰一切的 权威 。
(5)参加婚礼的有波士顿社会名流,赫华德想到这次婚礼时,仍然感到非常得意。
(6)人才外流不仅是埃及的首要问题 ,而且是世界那一地区很普遍的严 重问题 。
(7)沙特阿拉伯与伊拉克和南也门之间早有纠葛,但他仍竭尽全力与两国领导人保持接触。
(8)美国政府的行政管理机构总算经受住了两百年来国会议员和常常是不安职守 的总统们那
种东一榔 头西一棒 子的调整改革。
(9)南希·斯弗尔在学生时代就是麦兹队比赛时场场必 到的球迷 之一。
(10)教师们一直在抱怨说,那些品学兼 优可以帮 助老师维 持班级秩 序、辅导 低年级同 学
的学生 也不像以前那么得力了。
(11)One day he was sitting in Old Qin’s cottage when a man wearing a bailiff cap and blue cloth
gown came in.
(12)Other things being equal, iron heats up faster than aluminium.
(13)Hard metals can be easily cut with grinding wheels.
(14)High voltage current is usually carried by overhead wire system so as to prevent living things
being electrocuted.
(15)The heart is the body’s most vital organ; if it stops working, death soon follows.
(16)It is the father’s sperm which determines whether the fertilized egg will develop into a boy or
a girl.
(17)A burglar alarm is a device for giving warning that thieves are trying to enter a building.
(18)The shortest distance between raw material and a finished part is casting.
(19)Obviously, the “test-tube” baby is a help to couples who can’t have children because of
physical problems in the woman.
20)In the fresh and flowering spring he would take out his mother out in a buffalo cart, and,
dressed in his high hat and loose gown, flourishing the whip and singing songs, would drive all
over the countryside and around the lake. Small groups of village children would tag after him,
laughing; but he did not mind them.

5. 分合

211
(1) 我们的小朋友一脑袋幻想,憧憬着美好的未来。
(2) 在他的书房里有不少 19 世纪的文学作品,有英文的,有法文的,都是些轻松读物。
(3) 中国人似乎为他们在经济上取得的成就而自豪,这是合乎情理的。
(4) 他留下一封信,对我表示欢迎,那信写得热情洋溢,一如其人。
(5) 议员一般对兴建公共工程很感兴趣,因为这样一来就能为本地区开辟财源或改善生活条
件。这类工程包括新的办公大楼、水利设施及军事基地等等。
(6) 黎明时分,大雾弥漫,细雨蒙蒙。
(7) 电话铃响过几秒钟之后,海伦·玛奇拿起话筒。听到艾伦问起琼,她的声音流露出迷惑的
语调。
(8) 这个建议是有影响的"纽约时报"今天提出来的。该报预言,即将举行的会议 '议题会有改
变',侧重点会由武器限制问题转到人权问题。
(9) 有时克罗斯太太会一面在大厨房踱来踱去,一面看他吃饭。
(10) 烟尘滚滚,人声嘈杂,夜色愈深,一切都陷入混乱之中。
(11) 只要小心谨慎,骑摩托车并不像一般人所想象的那样危险。
(12) 天气愈来愈热,他也感到疲倦。因此,他下定决心,一遇到方便的阴凉处,就坐下来休
息。
(13) 为了安定惶惶不安的民心,豪将军在二十七日发出通告,宣布英军将严守纪律,秋毫
无犯;凡安分守己呆在家中者,可保证其人身和财产安全;凡武装作乱者,只要立即重新
归顺,可以既往不咎。
(14) 中国在朝鲜的目标是一个大问题。中国为了达到这个目标准备走多远,这是一个更大的
问题。这两个问题的答案都将在两周内揭晓。
(15) 他的父亲在意大利北部近海的比萨开小铺。
(16) 家,阔别了七年的家,这个字对他多亲切呀!
(17) 他为人单纯而坦率。
(18) 她在家很忙,又要看好孩子,又要下厨。
(19) 我在谈判时总是有些紧张。紧张时我就吃点东西。
(20) 我们对中国领导人和中国人民的赞扬不仅仅是出于礼貌。
(21)It was so cold that the river froze.
(22)That theory must go hand in hand with practice is a principle we should always keep in mind.
(23)He was commended by the company commander for his distinguished performance in the
battle.
(24)The janitor staggered down the stairway, stunned and gasping.
(25)It was still hot but everyone felt much better, for the breeze, though slight, brought them hope.
(26)The political awakening of the people is not easy. It requires much earnest effort on our part to
rid their minds of wrong ideas.
(27)Our goal must be attained. Our goal will be attained.
(28)Our revolution has won the sympathy and acclaim of the people of all countries. We have
friends all over the world.
(29)The reason why we have restored and adopted these trade practices is very simple. Our export
commodities are for the use and consumption of our foreign customers.
(30)The conference has given full expression to democracy; the atmosphere has been lively and
the delegates have enjoyed ease of mind. Ours has indeed been a congress of unity, a congress of
victory.

212
6. 译借
(1)如果你像我们一样,认为头发移植手术令人厌恶,最好的办法是使用 Rogaine (minoxidil)
或 Propecia (finasteride),或是二者并用。
(2)Take, for instance, the Chinese tradition to paste the word “ 福 ” upside-down. Anyone
familiar with Chinese culture knows that it means “福到”.
(3) 三楼有一间桑拿房 、一间按摩室和一间男女混合的浴室。
(4) 比萨随着意大利移民引进美国;1905 年第一家美国比萨饼店 开业了,第二次世界大战
后比萨成为全美国最喜爱的食物之一。上面的馅料还可以加上一些不寻常的食物,如牡蛎
和菠萝。
(5) 经过周详研究之后,集团已于本年度终止与日本卡 通 品牌多啦 A 梦( Doraemon )和
Sanrio 产品的特许经营协议,并由特许经营人变为经营权出让人,以集团自创品牌小兔亚
比(Robbi the bunny)为主力。
(6) 尼龙 是由空气、煤和水加工制成的。
(7) 街头上非法贩卖的海洛 因常只有 2~5%的纯度,瘾者如果意外注射了相当纯的海洛 因
便会导致过量,其主要症状为重度呼吸抑制,严重者甚至会昏迷至死。
(8) The Chinese cheongsam looks rich and magnificent.
(9) He can detect a typhoon by rule of thumb.
(10) "In fact, there's no need for you to come yourself the day after tomorrow. You can kowtow to
me now, if that will make you feel better."

7. 直译与意译
(1) 我们必须同武装到 牙齿 的敌人斗争。
(2) 依循以眼还 眼的规则只会造成更多的悲剧。
(3) 走开,别在我面前假惺惺的了;你自己明白,对他们遭到不幸你是暗自高兴的。
(4) 各有所爱。/ 利于甲未必利于乙。
(5) 祸中必有福。
(6) 最后她使出了绝招,扬言要辞职。
(7)”Men die for wealth, birds die for food; are you so ignorant?” retorted Mother Chen.
(8)The doctor said he was mortally ill and had to wait for the day to arrive.
(9)As the spokesman of our Ministry of Foreign Affairs pointed out: “It is better for the doer to
undo what he has done….”
(10)Hung-chien arrived at his parents’ home some time after four o’clock. As soon as she opened
the door, the old maidservant yelled, “Eldest Young Master is here! Madam, Eldest Young Master
is here! No need to invite him here any more.”

8. 保留与还原
(1) 从技术的角度来看, iBook 有手提 (所以无须手提箱 ) ,它还有全规格键盘、 300 兆赫的
PowerPC G3 处理器、内置式光驱、3.2G 的硬盘驱动器、56K 调制解调器及其他特点。
(2)同一时期,卡瓦列里(1598-1647)求出了曲线 y = xn ( n = 1, 2, 3……9)下的面积,所用方法
的计算过程随着指数的增长而迅速增长。
(3)Take, for instance, the Chinese tradition to paste the word “ 福 ” upside-down. Anyone
familiar with Chinese culture knows that it means “ 福到” . But when the meaning is explained
through English translation, it may become a long and tedious sentence such as this:
The Chinese character “ 福” means luck and prosperity, and is commonly pasted inverted

213
on the walls because the Chinese word for “inverted” is “ 倒” which has the same pronunciation
as the Chinese word for “arrived”. Thus, this practice is used to symbolise the arrival of luck and
prosperity in one's home.”
  To have a good grasp of one's culture, learning its language is the best way.
(4) 孔 子 和孟子 的思想进入现今资讯科技高速发展,经济走向全球化,生命工程也已起步
的新世纪时代,究竟还有没有用?
(5)主忠信。(孔子)
(6)欲知前世因 / 今生受者是 / 欲知来世果 / 今生作者是 / 一切唯心造(佛陀)
(7) From the standpoint of technology, is it possible to clone humans ?
(8) He was murdered by the Ku-Klux-Klan, back in 1928, when we lived in the south.
(9) The actual life disillusioned him of utopia.
(10) All of us were packed like sardines in the train to Beijing.

9. 标点符号的运用
(1)中士:“立正——。”
少校:“稍息!你们当中有谁要诉诉苦,有何苦处要说,二等兵?”
(2)凯瑟琳脸上一红,说道:“我什么也没想。”
(3)这家书店不卖儿童书籍。
(4)你读过莎士比亚的《哈姆莱特》吗?
(5)This is my brother-in-law’s letter.
(6)He received what he deserved -- punishment.
(7)In so doing, he was, so to speak, displaying his knowledge before Confucius.
(8)We must seek truth from facts. By “facts” we mean objective reality.
(9)The courses she took were Basic Physical Science, Plane Trigonometry and Composition.
(10)I don’t have any part of them. If you want his things, you marry him.

10. 加注法
(1) 它的雉堞状的砖墙和二十座塔楼是 15 世纪的意大利建筑师建造的。大墙内的宫殿、教堂
和政府建筑包含了各种风格,包括拜占庭式[1]、俄罗斯巴洛克式[2]以及古典式的。
注释:
[1] 拜占庭式:欧洲一种比较讲究装饰的建筑风格,源于东罗马帝国 (即拜占庭帝国),圆顶,
雄伟壮观。
[2] 巴洛克式:十七世纪欧洲流行的一种过分雕琢的建筑风格,宏大豪华,巍峨壮观。
(2) 这些男孩把宗教经文抛到一边,悄悄溜出去”钻研”世界杯决赛,或者浏览足球杂志,
其卓别林式[1]的幽默,使我想到《咱们一帮人》中斯班基和阿尔法尔法参与男孩子们瞎胡闹
的那些搞笑情节。
注释:
[1] 卓别林式的:出自英国著名喜剧表演艺术家查理·卓别林创造的喜剧形象。喻指滑稽可笑
却心地善良的喜剧角色,或卓别林式的幽默。
(3) 尽管他其貌不扬,但据说是个很得女人欢心的风流荡子[1]。
注释:
[1] 唐璜:源自英国浪漫主义诗人拜伦所写长篇叙事诗《唐璜》。该作品中的唐璜是个专门 玩
弄女性的风流浪子。后喻指玩弄女性的花花公子。
(4) 一天,当人们在债务泥潭的边缘挣扎而无法人睡时,他们便做起美国梦 [1],认定解决他

214
们财务问题的方法就是快点发财。
注释:
[1] 美国梦,即美国式的民主与自由。不依赖世袭的物质条件和社会地位,白手起家的个人
奋斗精神。
(5)最后考验约伯[1]的日子到了尽头,约伯恢复了从前所有的财富。
注释:
[1]约伯,《圣经》中人物,极为富有,并且具有忍耐精神。
(6)She went downstairs to answer the phone, but half down the stairs she changed her mind,
stopped and instructed her maid to say, “ Young Lady[1] isn’t feeling well and has gone to bed.”
Notes:
[1]Term of address of a servant for the young mistress of the house. The daughter of the family is
usually identified as “Hsiao-chieh (young lady) to and by the servants.
(7)When Manager Chou saw him, he asked with a frown, “What’s with you? My wife’s having a
gastric attack. When I left the house, Mama Wang[1] was calling the doctor.”
Notes:
[1]Maidservants are usually addressed as “Mama” this or that.
(8)When they arrived at the home of the relatives with whom Hsin-mei was staying and sent in
their card, Hsin-mei came running out with the doorkeeper behind him, saying, “Sister-in-law [1],
how nice of you to come. I’m honored.”
Notes:
[1]The Chinese “sao fu-jen,” a proper term of address for a friend’s wife.
(9)The Frenchmen, newly commissioned to serve as policemen in Vietnam or in the French
Concession in China[1], had gathered around and were flirting with a coquettish young Jewish
woman.
Notes:
[1]A reference to the French Concession in Shanghai, an area outside the jurisdiction of the
Chinese.
(10)This incident left him fearful and uneasy for the rest of the day. He thanked her again and
again, only to have her call him “Granny.” [1]
Notes:
[1]The original reads “p’o-p’o ma-ma,” an expression which describes a fastidious “granny-type”
person, very much interested in minor or unimportant details.

第二部分 篇章翻译参考译文
1. 汉译英参考译文


Greedy
A lion caught a sleeping rabbit under the tree. While planning to have a great meal, he saw a
deer passing by. Out of greediness, the lion gave up the rabbit and turned to the deer.
He chased a long way but the deer escaped. Therefore, the lion hurried back to the tree just to
find that the rabbit had disappeared.
The lion said regretfully, " I've got what I deserved, and fell between two stools because of
greediness.

215
Life is always like that. People are unable to do things perseveringly but half-heartedly and
shilly-shally. They will end up falling between two stools.
For those who cannot learn from failure, they are far away from success.


The Key
A door was locked by a firm big lock. An iron stick was unable to open it up even with all his
efforts. Instead, the key, with his tiny body, went inside the lock hole with just a slight turning that
made the lock open up with a click.
The iron stick asked queerly, "Why can't I open the lock up with all my efforts but you do
that easily?" The key replied, " It's because I understand his heart most."
Everyone's heart is just like a locked door. No matter how thick the iron stick is, you cannot
open it up. You can turn into a delicate key only with your concern, to enter the heart of others and
to understand them.
Only those who wear the shoes will know what's wrong with the shoes.


The Devil of the Heart
A monk was in the same ship with a woman and could not help casting several looks at her.
The woman ordered her follower to beat the monk because of his rudeness. So the monk closed
his eyes. After they landed, the woman ordered beating the monk again.
The monk then asked, "What's wrong with me?"
The woman said, " You can think of me indulgently and recklessly with your eyes closed!"
In fact, it was the woman but not the monk who deserved the beating.
The devil in your heart will make everyone in your eyes turn into a devil too!
Resentment provokes quarrels, but love can hide all faults.


The Phoenix bicycles manufactured by Shanghai No. 3 Bicycle Factory have good reputation
both at home and abroad and sell well all over China and in more than 80 other countries and
regions. The factory’s annual output is 3.35 million bicycles, of which 1.22 million are exported.
To serve customers better, the factory has developed more than 140 styles of 16-, 20-, 26-,
27-, and 28-inch bicycles in ordinary, light-roadster, sport, racing and special categories. Phoenix
bicycles have won first prize in the national Quality Competition seven times. Model PA18 and
the 26-inch series were awarded the national Silver Medal. Phoenix is the only Chinese bicycle
that has won the international Star Prize, and the factory is a first-grade state enterprise.


Leadership is more important than image
In his National Day Rally Speech, Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong gave a candid assessment

216
of his successor.
The public persona of Deputy Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, he said, is that of a no-
nonsense, uncompromising and tough minister. He hopes DPM Lee would let his softer side show,
he said.
  Mr Goh's intention was to highlight the importance for a leader to be approachable.
  Very often, whether a leader is seen as such is a result of the perception by the masses of how
he relates to and mingles with the people.
  A two-way communication exists between government leaders and the people.
  A leader who has an image of being close to the people can get them to better understand and
accept a new policy. On the other hand, the people will be encouraged to speak their minds when
the leader is open to constructive suggestions. The public will be a lot more forthcoming with their
views.
   Feedback on a wide range of issues will in turn help the government keep its fingers on the
pulse of the people.
  While the public image of a leader is important, whether or not he is popular, in the long-term
interests of the nation, is much less crucial than whether or not he is capable and competent.
   For instance, a painting with an inferior frame often has a direct and negative impact on the
viewers' opinion of the artwork. But such an impression is not permanent and can be changed with
a better frame. The true worth of the painting will depend ultimately on whether it is indeed a
masterpiece.
  The qualities of a leader, including moral character and self-cultivation, is shown in his sense
of mission and political commitment to the nation. He must be farsighted, must persevere in what
he believes in and not be sidetracked by temporary setbacks.
    Knowledge is the basis of a leader's ability and experience is the sum of precious lessons
learnt over time. But to keep up with the fast-changing world, a leader also needs to have the
foresight to predict what may go wrong as well as the courage to correct it.
  The expertise and experience of a leader cannot be gained overnight. They are acquired over
a period of time and are genuine qualities that cannot be faked.
  A spin doctor can help a leader create an image that will appeal to the people, but cannot turn
the leader into one who has the required ability and competence to lead.
   I am no expert on politics and I have not drawn my observations from books on politics or
theories by academics.
    With advances in information technology, we are now able to see clearly for ourselves
political developments in the region via the Internet and television coverage, as if they are
happening right before our eyes.
   While there are many positive lessons to be gained, it is also not uncommon to see political
leaders, for personal or party interests, wasting precious resources, time and energy squabbling or
behaving in an absurd manner.
  Singaporeans who witness all these often exclaim: “Luckily our leaders are different! Luckily
this did not happen in Singapore!”
   Political events in different places have served as a point of reference for us to understand
what qualities we should look for in a leader. They have also prompted me to express my views.
It is inevitable that a new leader needs to make adjustments in a political succession. The
people will also need time to get used to a new leader. With a consensus on the way forward and a

217
tolerant and understanding attitude, this should not be a problem.( Translated by Yap Gee Poh)


The plight of “study mamas”
With more Chinese children coming to study in Singapore, a unique community of women
known as “pei du ma ma”, which, loosely translated, means “study mamas”, has emerged here.
They are here to keep their children company.
Singaporeans have responded to their presence with mixed reactions. They have been
commended by some and condemned by others. What is more important, however, is what their
experiences say about the education industry here.
    Singapore no doubt presents unique advantages as a choice for Chinese students keen to
study overseas.
   It is a Garden City with an efficient judicial system and an orderly society. It has a bilingual
policy and Chinese are the majority. Life here is easy to get used to and, what's more, their
mothers are allowed to come here to be with them.
  Most Chinese students who wish to come to Singapore rely on recruitment agencies in China
set up by Singapore companies to make the arrangements.
    The agencies will invariably make all kinds of promises. They claim they would find the
right school for the kids and that it would be easy too for the mothers to find jobs here. Not only
would they earn enough to pay for the school fees of their children, but they would probably also
be able to afford some savings.
   Once they arrive in Singapore, the “study mamas” quickly find out that life is not a bed of
roses.
  When the agencies fail to keep the promises, they end up looking for the schools themselves,
not to mention having to pay additional fees.
   Besides, it is difficult for them to look for employment due to the government's strict work
permit policy.
   They soon run out of money and find themselves in a fix -- they have neither the means to
return to China nor the funds to continue living in Singapore.
   As a result, some “study mamas” are driven by circumstances to become masseuses. Even
though they are a minority, people have begun to look down on the entire community, making life
even more difficult for these women.
  The root of the problem lies with the agencies which provide misleading information.
    Since the Singapore government hopes to attract more overseas students here, especially
those from China, it should start regulating the industry and live up to its reputation of being a
society governed by fair and strict laws.
   The agencies should provide accurate information on the school system and life here, or just
raise the requirements. This will help many less well-off families make informed and probably the
correct decision after careful consideration.
  This may lead to a loss of revenue for Singapore but it will also mean fewer social problems.
And isn't it a much more responsible way of doing things?
   Visitors to Singapore should be made to feel welcome. But most “study mamas” do not feel
at home here. They find it hard to make friends as people are often aloof and life is thus boring.

218
Singaporeans also seem to be on guard against them. They feel lonely and helpless and unable to
become part of the local community.
  These feelings probably stem from the prejudices Singaporeans have against “study mamas”.
Why can't the society treat them fairly? Since the government allows them to come here, why not
allow them a chance to take up employment as well? Indeed, many of them who have left their
careers behind are competent in their own fields of training.
    Given the green light, they will be most willing to prove their competence to gain the
recognition of society.
    Education is a long-term process. Short-term measures will not be able to keep foreigners
here, let alone foreign talents.
It is no wonder that many “study mamas” have changed their minds about staying here. Is
there not a lesson that we can learn from? (Translated by Yap Gee Poh)


To Chinese, names are not mere codes
If a name is a mere code, the ease of use should be the key in deciding a suitable choice.
Picking one that is easy to remember, sounds right, helps facilitate communication at social
gatherings and others to recall you will be the factors to consider.
But Chinese names invariably connote a long list of ideas and expectations; some even carry
the parents’ memory of, and metaphor for, life. A name not only conveys a basic attitude and
character, but can also be a value statement for one to succeed in life and make a name for
himself.
In short, it can turn out to be a tremendous burden. This is why some Chinese parents are
happy to do away with the trouble of giving their children Chinese names.
A recent survey by The Straits Times showed that a growing number of children have only
English names. The reasons behind the trend are worth examining.
The pronunciation of Chinese names can be tricky -- much like the way Chinese find it tough
to distinguish and remember the names of their Malay or Indian friends. A Chinese name, which
strings together two or three different words that may not be related can be a tongue-twister for
foreigners or friends from other ethnic groups.
Still, if Chinese resort to some over-used English names for the sake of convenience, we are
not doing justice to our tradition.
While we have grown out of the parochial view of absolute obedience to parents, we still
hold our ancestors and elders in high regard. The society and family remain significant in terms of
exercising some restrictions over us and providing us a sense of continuity -- and Chinese names
are the symbols and manifestation of such cultural values.
Ancient Chinese were rather particular about names. They could be known by more than one
name and nicknames as well. Naming was truly a complicated process then.
But if new generations of parents find even two or three Chinese words troublesome,
something must have gone wrong in the way they perceive our cultural identity. Other Chinese
communities will probably be puzzled by the casual way Chinese Singaporeans treat Chinese
names.
When parents do not even insist on maintaining this tradition and are happy to get rid of

219
Chinese names for their children for whatever reasons, what will we have left in a fast-changing
consumer society?
The strong desire to drop Chinese names is probably unrelated to the mentality in the past to
fawn over things foreign. The dominance of the English language in business and daily life has
likely caused some Chinese to look down on the status of the Chinese language.
They have also failed to see the link between culture and language. They believe that a
perfect command of the English language equals a good understanding of the Western culture.
They are even convinced that the English language is all that is needed to survive and thrive. To
them, Singapore is only a base and they will have nothing to do whatsoever with Chinese culture,
history and tradition.
Some find Chinese names old-fashioned and outdated. In fact, to someone who is IT-savvy
and recognizes only English letters and numbers on a computer, not having a Chinese name is no
big deal.
I believe this is the way some people look at the matter. Furthermore, for various reasons, the
young find learning the Chinese language an unpleasant task. When they become parents, they
would be very reluctant emotionally to give their children Chinese names which have little
practical value in real life.
The more fundamental reason is that one has nothing to lose by not having a Chinese name.
And for many, material gain is the basis by which things are judged and measured. Issues such as
culture, tradition and identity, which are abstract, are strange and far-fetched and may even evoke
in them a sense of fear and resistance.
Not to give a child a Chinese name is a simple act that speaks volumes. (Translated by Yap
Gee Poh)


Rush
Swallows may have gone, but there is a time of return; willow trees may have died back, but
there is a time of regreening; peach blossoms may have fallen, but they will bloom again. Now,
you the wise, tell me, why should our days leave us, never to return? -- If they had been stolen by
someone, who could it be? Where could he hide them? If they had made the escape themselves,
then where could they stay at the moment?
I do not know how many days I have been given to spend, but I do feel my hands are getting
empty. Taking stock silently, I find that more than eight thousand days have already slid away
from me. Like a drop of water from the point of a needle disappearing into the ocean, my days are
dripping into the stream of time, soundless, traceless. Already sweat is starting on my forehead,
and tears welling up in my eyes.
Those that have gone have gone for good, those to come keep coming; yet in between, how
swift is the shift, in such a rush? When I get up in the morning, the slanting sun marks its presence
in my small room in two or three oblongs. The sun has feet, look, he is treading on, lightly and
furtively; and I am caught, blankly, in his revolution. Thus -- the day flows away through the sink
when I wash my hands, wears off in the bowl when I eat my meal, and passes away before my
day-dreaming gaze as I reflect in silence. I can feel his haste now, so I reach out my hands to hold
him back, but he keeps flowing past my withholding hands. In the evening, as I lie in bed, he

220
strides over my body, glides past my feet, in his agile way. The moment I open my eyes and meet
the sun again, one whole day has gone. I bury my face in my hands and heave a sigh. But the new
day begins to flash past in the sigh.
What can I do, in this bustling world, with my days flying in their escape? Nothing but to
hesitate, to rush. What have I been doing in that eight-thousand-day rush, apart from hesitating?
Those bygone days have been dispersed as smoke by a light wind, or evaporated as mist by the
morning sun. What traces have I left behind me? Have I ever left behind any gossamer traces at
all? I have come to this world, stark naked; am I to go back, in a blink, in the same stark
nakedness? It is not fair though: why should I have made such a trip for nothing!
You the wise, tell me, why should our days leave us, never to return?
March 28, 1922(朱纯深 译)


I Might Have Come from Tianjin
Let me begin with my trip on a train. When I was about four years old I had traveled by train.
The man I traveled with was my uncle Zhang Quanbin. I still remember how funny I looked the
way I was dressed -- in a blue cloth gown with a short sleeveless jacket over it and a skullcap on
the head. In those days it was good enough for small kids to be dressed like that. However, it was
my only experience to boast about in my childhood. As I had never traveled by train or met
anyone outside my family before, I felt everything on the train was new to me. Probably in
childhood, one always needs some comfort. Sitting in my uncle's lap, being humored all the way, I
was very happy. We ate half a jin of roast chestnuts, had a nap and soon arrived in Beijing. With
the hints mentioned above I assume I might have come from Tianjin. Even today I can recollect
what my own parents looked like but, of course, my impression is blurry. As for what my family
name was and where my parents came from, I really don't know. I only remember my birthday and
my infant name. I was told about my birthday by my foster-parents when I grew up. I was born in
the "you" period (between 5 - 7 p.m.), 15th of the 10th lunar month. So I was named You. Prefixed
with xiao -- young, and suffixed with a diminutive er -- an intimate way of addressing young and
small things by Beijingers, my name, therefore, became Xiao You'r. This is all I know about my
childhood and beyond that I do not remember much else. ( 刘 士 聪 译 )


The floods in the Yangtze River basin are the worst in 44 years. Official figures indicate that
more than 2,000 people have been drowned and 13.8 million have been driven from their homes.
Crops have been destroyed on 4.5 million hectares, 3 percent of China’s total cropland. Industrial
output has suffered as factories have had to shut. The transportation of goods and people has been
disrupted. The overall effect on China’s economy will be felt for many months. Despite the serious
damage, China deserves a lot of credit for the nationwide effort to deal with flooding, during
which the Chinese have demonstrated a remarkable capacity for shoring up dikes and protecting
themselves from flooding. For example, 1.6 million troops have been mobilized to help protect the
dikes and to move people out of areas being flooded. Literally millions of civilians are involved in
this enormous human effort.

221
2. 英译汉参考译文


一个刚在中国登岸的英国人,因为肚子饿得发慌,便走进了一家餐馆。不幸的是,他不
懂中文,而那个堂倌又不懂英文,因此他们只有凭借天生的智慧来进行交流。那个堂倌说“
汪汪”,英国人听了直摇头。接着,那个堂倌又说“嘎嘎”。那位顾客听了点头不已。不久那
个内在的人[1]就感到满足了。
注释:
[1]”内在的人”为幽默说法,指胃袋。


一天,一位大学教授在他的历史课接近尾声的时候,正津津乐道于修辞学上的一种层
进法。这时,下课铃响了。因此,学生们开始劈哩叭啦地合上座椅的活动把手,并准备离开。
这位教授,对学生们打断他口若悬河的演讲感到非常恼火,便举起手来,说道:
“诸位,请稍等片刻,我还有几颗珠子要投呀[1]!”
注释:
[1]此处包含有一个《圣经》成语”把珍珠抛在猪面前”(to cast pearls before swine),即”对牛
弹琴”。这里,教授把学生比作蠢猪,不会欣赏他精彩的演讲。


花朵传送
多元艺术家 陈瑞献把 6000 册藏书,数十本创作手稿和数十件艺术珍藏品捐献给新建
的国家图书馆;新馆落成后将特设“陈瑞献藏室”展示。这是他在珍藏捐赠仪式上的讲词。
给予是分享的一种方式。花朵让人传送,花香扩散愈远。诚如贝嘉所说:“花香常留在
送出玫瑰的人手中。”我决定把我收藏的全部书籍、手稿、艺术品以及工艺品都捐赠给新建的
国家图书馆。
这符合今天发布推行的“我的图书馆计划”的宗旨:尽我的一点绵力,参与把知识带
入生活,使之成为所有新加坡人都可得到启发的现实。知识是可供分享的活体,它不属于尘
封的书架。分享的欢喜是加倍的欢喜。
我有 6000 本藏书。许多书的背后都有一段故事。雅各生和利维斯·史特劳斯以法文合著
的有关波特莱尔的诗《猫》的薄薄一本评论,我寻搜多年,最后才在巴黎的一家小书店找到。
已经停业的新加坡一间卫理书店,帮我买到大部分齐克果著作的英译本。
《在甘地先生左右》是甘地的唯一华人弟子曾圣提撰写的传记,作者是新加坡第一代新
闻记者,我在与他第一次也是最后一次的会面时请他在书上签了名。我的一位友人特从印尼
给我带来凯里尔·安华的诗集。我在印度购得拉维·桑卡的自传。多次造访中国,我得以收藏至
为稀罕的古籍,如元明间刻本,朱熹撰写的《四书集注》。还有我的诗友亨 利·米梭,纪亦维,
马林·索列斯库以及痖弦的诗集。
在捐赠的藏品中,也有艺术家朋友如奥得里夫、吴冠中和柏拉衷的画作。有樊增祥、齐白
石和李可染的书法;一张朗静山的摄影;三方弘一大师的印章;一尊宋越窑青瓷观音像;
一方唐砚以及一方由明代最伟大的制墨家程君房特制的御墨。
当装载着我所有的收藏的大卡车,正开出我画室的停车场时,国家图书馆管理局的殷

222
玲催我再看一眼。我猛省我用 40 年的心血和热爱征集的藏品将离我而去,一时我有点感伤。
然而,这就像把漂亮的女儿嫁出去一样。一想到她嫁了一户好人家,我也就感到释然。
当毛姆决定封笔,他对自己说:“老天,这下我可以欣赏日落,而不必去想该怎样来
描写了。我的意思是说,不再写书了。”这还不是我的情况。设在新国家图书馆的“陈瑞献藏
室”,将是我会见新加坡年轻艺术家、作家和公众的一个空间,用来跟他们讨论当太阳升起
时,该怎样才不会睡着。 (潘正镭 译)


在英语的环境里掌握双语
越来越多受英文教育的新加坡华人父母,已经意识到孩子在掌握不可或缺的英文的同
时,也通晓华文的重要性。
中国崛起成为政治和经济超级强国的巨大潜能,让他们充分理解到孩子掌握双语的好
处——既能增加他们的就业机会,也能让他们接触和熟悉东西方两种不同的文化。
这些人对华文的态度几乎完全转变,对华文的功能也完全改观,改变不可谓不快。曾几
何时,他们还非常骄傲地宣称自己只懂英文,一些甚至对华族文化抱着鄙视的态度。
很多人已经开始后悔没有学好双语。或许是为了弥补过去所不珍惜的,一些人已开始积
极支持华族文化和艺术。他们也不时走访中国,欣赏壮观的自然风景和认识丰富的文化遗产。

众所周知,要掌握任何一种语文,特别是母语,必须从小就开始学习。因此,在以英语
为沟通用语家庭里成长的孩子,在掌握双语的道路上,必须克服许多困难和阻碍。
以我自己的家庭来说,我和太太都受英文教育。不过,我们的华文有一些基础,也一直
努力维持我们的华文根底。但是,英语却是我们在家中沟通的主要用语。
我们的三个孩子是在接受了 8 至 11 年左右的华文教育后,才转入英文源流学校,对此
我们感到非常欣慰。
他们的华文基础在他们长大成人后,成为一项重要的资产。他们完全有能力用华语同他
人沟通,不过,因为疏于练习,要用华文书写商业信件便力不从心。
我们有一个就快两岁的孙子,他的父母给了我和我太太一分艰难的差事——教育他掌
握双语。这可不是一件容易的事,我们和他在一起的时间,多数时候不超过两三个小时。其
他时候,他所听到的全是他忙得不可开交的父母,还有非常疼爱他的公公和婆婆所说的英
语。
幸好,我们锲而不舍的努力总算慢慢有了点成绩。我们非常开心,经过 8 个月的时间,
他已经比较习惯听华语,也能够以相当准确的发音,用华语说出一些日常用品的名称和数
目字。
让他多听些华文儿歌,对他的学习过程也大有帮助。
根据英国最近的一项调查,理解英语时只需用左脑的颞叶,要理解华语却需要同时使
用左右脑的颞叶。调查也指出,来自双语家庭的孩子,在掌握了两种语文后,脑部活动有可
能会更活跃。
另一项美国的调查显示,孩子在三岁前开始学习语言效益最大。年纪越大,掌握语言的
能力相对的也越低。
教育专家相信双语能力能够激励孩童的智力发展。这一点家长们应该注意。
无论如何,我们的双语政策将不会改变。在掌握英文的同时,如果也有坚固的母语基础,
新加坡人将有扎实的文化根基,在瞬息万变的环境里稳步前进。 (叶琦保 译)

223

不要样样都“禁”!
长期生活在一个严刑峻法,连一点一滴的生活细节都有法规约束的国家里,对任何明
文禁止的行为,特别敏感。因为只要稍不小心,事不管大小,一旦违例,必定受到制裁,没
有任何回旋的余地。
针对国家公园局答复有关“禁止携狗进入植物园”的建议,确定不会禁止公众携狗进
入植物园,并对该局合理的回复,晓以游园者的基本权利,我深表赞同。
要维系一个优雅的社会,需要的是纪律和秩序。实行严格法治,对人的行为进行调整和
规范,并由此培养出人们讲秩序,守纪律的习惯无疑是最有效的途径。
在新加坡,任何制造交通,卫生、环境、治安事故等不良行为,都会受到处罚。因此,诸
如“禁止吸烟”、“禁止乱丢垃圾”、“禁止坐矮墙”、“禁止横越马路”、“禁止损坏树木
”、“禁止喧哗”等等的警示,已成为一种突出的文化现象。
无可置疑,大部分的新加坡国民在公共生活中互相影响和互相监督,已经自发地养成
文明习惯,讲秩序,守纪律。然而,长期的法治生活,铸造了新加坡人特有的素质,凡事都
要通过法规和社会政策引导,如建议“禁止携狗进入植物园”、“严格限制宠物狗入口”等
等。
难道除了从严、从禁、重罚之外,就不能培养人们的社会责任?一发现问题就立即号召
立法,把任何生活细节都归纳入法规的范围,法律意识高乎一切,难道就是优化社会环境
和养成良好的公民素质的唯一方法?
优雅的现代精神文明的发展,在以社会法治化和秩序化为主导的过程中,配合相应的
道德感化,并提倡行为文明和公共精神。具有宽和、容忍和讲理的品德,更能保证和推进社
会精神文明的发展。
掌握“宽”的尺度是一门学问。“宽以济猛,猛以济宽,政以是和”是孔子赞赏政治家
子产“对严厉辅以宽容,对宽容辅以严厉”的治国主张。古为今用,如果能出色地协调“严
厉”与“宽容”,平衡两者,付诸实践,岂不比动辄运用法制权利、非禁不可、不罚难行的
处理方式,更得民心?
当然,在治理危及公共秩序、重大刑事或种种商业犯罪方面,实行严查重办,重罪重罚,
不得手软;但把人的一切行为限制在一定的秩序之内,动不动就制定新的法律条规,对人
的行为进行限制,可能会造成日常生活中,人与人之间的关系,个人与社会、与国家的关系,
都因为种种过度的行为规范,造成心理压迫,惶惶不可终日。


民主
前几天,我收到“作家战争部”的来信,要求对“民主的意义”做出表述。大概满足这
种要求是我们的义务吧,肯定是我们的乐趣。
战争部肯定知道民主是什么意思。民主是大家都没有什么特权,是大家都不能侵害别人
的权利,是藐视自吹自擂的大人物,是看不起绅士达贵,是认为政府中多半人在大多数时
间内还是正确的,是享有绝对隐私权,是大家都平等自主,都自由竞争。民主是言论自由,
是精华、是关键,是大家都还认可的思想,是没有遭到违背的誓言,是可以使平淡事物变得
有趣的东西。战争部竟然在战争中提出民主是什么意思,真是滑稽可笑。(张德禄, 刘汝山
确译)

224

读书足以怡情,足以博彩,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其博彩也,最
见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判
别枝节,然纵观统筹、全局策划,则舍好学深思者莫属。读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛
则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹
如自然花草,读书然后知如何修剪移接;而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。有
一技之长者鄙读书,无知者羡读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书之智
不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。读书时不可存心诘难作者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不
可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,
有只须读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦
可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏、
淡而无味矣。 
读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常作笔记者须记忆特强,不常讨
论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。读史使人明智,读诗使人灵
秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩:凡有所学 ,
皆成性格。人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之
运动除之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑术利头脑,诸如此类。如智力不集中,
可令读数学,盖演题须全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辨异,可令读经院哲学,盖
是辈皆吹毛求疵之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。如此头脑
中凡有缺陷,皆有特药可医。(王佐良 译)


莎士比亚十四行诗第十八首
译文一 译文二
夏日怎能与你譬喻比拟 我该把你比拟做夏天吗?
你的可爱温和夏日难及 你比夏天更可爱,更温婉:
五月花蕾恶风吹袭落地 狂风会把五月的娇蕊吹落,
夏日租约倏忽转瞬到期 夏天出租的期限又太短暂:

有时天眼高灼炎炎难耐 有时天上的眼睛照得太热,
更见乌云常蔽金色面容 他金色的面容常常变阴暗;
古今红颜难逃红颜色衰 一切美的事物总不免凋败,
命运无常季候欺凌作弄 被机缘或自然的代谢摧残:

你的永恒夏日却将长存 但你永恒的夏天不会褪色,
美貌红颜必也永世不减 不会失去你所拥有的美善,
死神难夸你为地府美人 死神也不能夸说你在他阴影里徘徊,
因你芳名已成不朽诗篇 当你在永恒的诗行里与时间同久长:

除非人世已经灭绝无生 只要人们能呼吸或眼睛看得清,
此诗必将永传与汝永恒 此诗将永存,并且赐给你生命。

225

一条大路,两旁白蜡树成林,路尽头可以望见牧师旧宅的灰色门前,路口园门的门拱
已不知在哪一年掉了下来,可是两座粗石雕成的门柱还巍然矗立着。旧宅的故主是位德高望
重的牧师,现已不在人世,一年前,他的灵柩从园门里迁出,移向村中的公墓,也有不少
人执绋随行。园门里的林荫大路和宅门前的马车道,杂草蔓生,偶尔有两三只乌鸦飞来,随
意啄食[应是“两三头失群的母牛”——本书作者注 ],在路旁觅食的那头老白马,也可以
在这里吃到几口可口的美餐。宅门和公路之间,都是隐约朦胧的树影,远远望去,似乎人鬼
异世,这座旧宅也不是属于这个世界的了。通常贴近路旁的住宅房子,看上去总是亲切近人,
行人路过,似乎觉得伸进头去即可看到家庭融融之乐,这座宅子的气象,可大不相同。这里
环境十分幽静,从窗子望去,一片静穆,即使有人路过,也象是模模糊糊,隔了一个世界 ,
不足以扰乱宅内的宁静。这样一个地方,离开村子不远,又如此僻静,正是适合于牧师的住
宅,牧师先生不能远离人群,可是他虽结庐人境,他生活的周围似乎罩上一层明暗夹杂的
墓,其神秘不是凡人所能测窥的。一座房子能够成为世代相传牧师之家,是很幸运的。那位
任圣职的屋主,在这里从青春住到老年,再将房子传给下一代的牧师,自有一种圣洁之气 ,
四周弥漫,上下笼罩,与俗人之所居,也就大异其趣了。(纳撒尼尔·霍桑:《古屋杂忆》,
夏济安译)


自然万物的形体,以无我的直觉观之,都是可喜的。自然界的种种形体和种种活动的影
响,对于人生都是必需的,就其顶粗浅的作用来说,似乎只限于实用的审美的两者之间的
范围。人假如朝夕营营,为俗务所累,或者惯与俗人交游,觉得身心受到束缚,一旦回到自
然界去,自然就可以发挥它医疗的妙用,恢复身心的本来真如。商人和律师走出纷扰的世街,
搁下处世的机心,抬头看见天空树木,就会觉得他的人性又恢复了。在自然界永恒的寂静之
中,他悟到了自己的本来面目。我们如要保持眼睛康健,视野一定要广阔。只要我们的眼睛
能看得远,我们就永远不会疲劳。
但是即使在我们并不觉得疲劳的时候,自然也总是悦目赏心的;我们之喜欢自然,和
我们身体所受的实惠无关。从我家外面的山顶上向外望去,从日出到日落,每天美景不断,
我飘飘然有出世之感,大约天使所感觉到的也不过如此。条条纤云在绛色霞光中飘荡,如海
中游鱼一般。我从地上望去,好象是从岸上遥望寂静的大海。天色瞬息变幻,我似乎也参与
其事;自然界生动的魔力,接触到我的四肢百骸;我觉得我的生命扩张,同朝风混成一片。
自然界用些许简单的风云变幻,竟然就使我们有超凡入圣之感!我只要有健康的身体和自
由自在的一天光阴,我就可使帝王的赫赫威严为之黯然失色。朝霞灿烂如锦,那就是我的亚
述帝国;夕阳西落,明月从东山顶上升起,那就是我的百福赐和不可思议的仙子之乡;昊
昊阳午,那就是我的英国灯-- 常识和理智的故乡;神秘的黑夜就是我的德国 -- 神秘哲学和
梦想的国土。
昨天黄昏,我又观赏了一次日落美景,时虽冬令正月,但景物不减春秋,只是下午人
的灵智不顶清明罢了。西方云散,纷纷化为绛色碎片,其色调之柔和,非言辞所可表达;空
气清新,充满了活力,回到屋子里来,真成了受罪。大自然有什么话要对我说呢?磨坊后面
的山谷,安闲中有无限生机,虽荷马或莎士比亚重生,也不能将它化为文字 -- 这里面难道
就没有意义吗?霞光照处,秃树皆熠熠如尖塔着火,东方一片蔚蓝,成为极妙的背景;花
朵谢落,然点点犹如繁星;败枝残干,风霜之迹斑斑 -- 这一切都构成了我面前无声的音乐。
(爱默生:《论美》,节选自《论自然》,夏济安 译)

226
第三部分 英语专业八级考试翻译原题参考译文
1)2000 年
●汉译英参考译文
The first generation of museums are what might be called natural museums which, by means
of fossils, specimens and other objects, introduced to people the evolutionary history of the Earth
and various kinds of organisms. The second generation are those of industrial technologies which
presented the fruits achieved by industrial civilization at different stages of industrialization.
Despite the fact that those two generations of museums helped to disseminate scientific
knowledge, they nevertheless treated visitors merely as passive viewers.
The third generation of museums in the world are those full of wholly novel concepts. In those
museums, visitors are allowed to operate the exhibits with their own hands, to observe and to
experience carefully. By getting closer to the advanced science and technologies in this way,
people can probe into their secret mysteries.
The China Museum of Science and Technology is precisely one of such museums. It has
incorporated some of the most fascinating features of those museums with international
reputation. Having designed and created exhibits in mechanics, optics, electrical science,
thermology, acoustics, and biology, those exhibits demonstrate scientific principles and present the
most advanced scientific and technological achievements.
●英译汉参考译文
说起“早逝”,人们或有所指。他们定然相信有些人死亡的时刻更为适宜。寿终正寝不
能称作未尽天年—长寿即意味着生命的圆满。但英年早逝则会引发感慨:美好年华未竟,评
说尚待时日。
然而历史并非如此。提及英年早逝,人们自会忆起玛丽莲·梦露及詹姆士·迪恩斯。两人生
命虽短,却照样圆满。诗人约翰·济慈年仅 26 岁便溘然长逝,作家们对此深感惋惜。他们中
仅有半数人诙谐地认为,设若他们也死于这一年龄,其一生可视为失败。视英年早逝为不圆
满,这一观念有悖于逻辑,因为衡量生命的尺度乃是留给世界的印记,是生命的力度及其
美德。

2)2001 年
●汉译英参考译文
In his later years, Qiao Yu has developed a special fondness for fishing. He asserts: “Mostly
speaking, a place with water and fish must necessarily be blessed with a nice setting, which in
return keeps people in good mood. I believe that the optimum fishing places are not those
commercial fishing centers which provide the fishermen with all the conveniences and where fish
are kept hungry for ready capture, but those naturally-formed places in the wilderness which exert
a special appeal.” According to him, fishing can constitute an activity conducive to the cultivation
of one’s temperament and to one’s health, at once physical and psychological. Qiao Yu claims:
“Fishing can be divided into three stages. The first stage consists of mere fish-eating; the second a
combination of fish-eating and the pleasure of fishing; the third primarily the pleasure of fishing
when, confronted with a pond of clear water, one puts aside all his troubling vexations and
annoyances and enjoys the total relaxation both mentally and physically.”
●英译汉参考译文
  梭罗所理解的“低层次”,即为了拥有而去拥有,或与所有的邻居明争暗斗而致拥有。
他心目中的“高层次”,则是这样一种积极的人生戒律,即要使自己对自然界永恒之物的

227
感悟臻于完美。对于他从低层次上节省下来的时间和精力,他可将其致力于对高层次的追求。
勿庸置疑,梭罗不赞成忍饥挨饿,但他在膳食方面所投入的精力仅果腹而已,只要可确保
他能去从事更为重要的事务,他便别无所求。
  殚精竭虑,全力以赴,便是其精髓所在。除非我们愿意直面那些需要我们全身心投入的
艰难困苦,否则便不会有幸福可言。正如叶芝所言,除却某些不可能的情形,我们于人生中
所获取的满足皆取决于我们在多高的境界中选择我们所愿意面对的艰难困苦。当罗伯特·弗
罗斯特言及“以苦为乐”时,他内心所思,大体如此。商业广告中所宣扬的那种幸福观,其
致命的缺陷就在于这样一个事实,即它宣称,一切幸福皆唾手可得,不费吹灰之力。
  即便于游戏之中,我们也需要有艰难困苦。我们之所以需要它,因为假若没有困难,便
断无游戏可言。游戏即是这样一种方式,为了享受其中的情趣而人为地使事情变得不那么轻
而易举。游戏中的种种规则,便是将困难武断地强加于人。当有人将情趣摧毁殆尽时,他总
是因为拒不按游戏规则行事而使然。这犹如下棋;如果你随心所欲、心血来潮地去更改那些
全然武断的游戏规则,这样去赢棋当然会更加容易。但下棋的情趣则在于,应在规则的限定
范围内赢取胜利。一言以蔽之,没有艰难,断无情趣。

3) 2002 年
●汉译英参考译文
The bounty of Nature is equal to everyone, rich or poor, and therefore all men are strongly
attached to her. This is particularly true in the rural areas, where people have kept the same
lifestyle for a millennium or so. They plant crops and grapevines, brew wine to drink, feed cows to
milk, and weed the gardens to grow flowers. They go to church at weekends, and they meet in the
square on holidays, playing the violin, singing and dancing. The age-old land remains the same as
their family hearth. Each place boasts its folklore and thereby social customs go down. ( 邵志洪
译)
●英译汉参考译文
想象中自己应该是什么样子,成功者没有将生命耗费在这种空想上,相反,他们活得
有个性,因此无须绞尽脑汁、矫揉造作,也没有将他人玩弄于股掌之上的欲望。他们知道,
真心关爱和虚情假意之间,真傻与装傻之间,真才和蠢才之间界限分明。成功者无须面具掩
藏自我。
成功者勇于独立思考,敢于展示才华。他们能将事实和观点区分开来,不假装什么都懂。
他们听人进言,并对其所言作出判断,然后得出自己的结论。
尽管会钦佩、尊敬他人,但他们不完全受其摆布,不怕其造谣中伤,不为其所羁绊,不
受其威慑。成功者不会表现出无助,也不怨天尤人。相反,他们对生活尽职尽责。

4) 2003 年
●汉译英参考译文
Before I was taken ill, I had been a spoiled child of my parents, getting things my way in the
family. Once isolated and confined to a small house on the slope of the garden, I suddenly found
myself in disfavor and my wings clipped. One spring evening, with myriads of flowers in full
bloom in the garden, my parents held a garden party in honour of many guests, whose arrival at
once filled the place with laughing chats. In the small house on the slope, I quietly lifted the
curtain, only to be met by a great and prosperous world with my elder brothers and sisters and my
cousins among the guests, all in jubilation. All at once, seized by a fit of forlorn rage, I could not
help bursting into tears. (邵志洪,孙静,李静 译)

228
●英译汉参考译文:
在其经典小说《拓荒者》中,詹姆士·菲尼莫尔·库柏让主人公,一个土地开发商,带着
他的表妹参观正在承建的一座城市。他描述了宽阔的街道,林立的房屋,热闹的都市。他的
表妹环顾四周,大惑不解。她所看见的只是一片树林。”你想让我看的那些美景和改造了的
地方在哪儿啊?”她问道。他对表妹看不到那些东西,感到很吃惊。”哪儿?到处都是啊!”他答
道。虽然那些东西还未建成在大地上,但他已在心中将它们建好了。对他来说,它们都是实
实在在的,宛如已经建成竣工了一样。
库柏在这里阐明的是一种典型的美国人特性:着眼于未来,即能够从未来的角度看待
现在;可以自由地不为过去所羁绊,而在情感上更多地依附于未来的事物。正如阿尔伯特 ·
爱因斯坦曾经说过的那样,”对美国人来说,生活总是在发展变化之中,从来不会静止不
变。”

5) 2004 年
●汉译英参考译文
We should not be too romantic in interpersonal relations. Human beings are interesting in that
they tend to first see good in a new acquaintance. This is like dining in a restaurant. You will be
not only favorably impressed with the first dish or cold dishes, but also profuse in praise of the
first two courses. However, the more you have, the more sober you become until the dinner ends
up with all the flaws exposed. Consequently, your joy would give away to anger; your praises to
criticism or even fault-finding; and your nodding in agreement to shaking the head. What accounts
for all this is, in the first place, you are hungry when you start to eat. As the saying goes, “Hunger
is the best sauce”, and vice versa. (邵志洪 译)
●英译汉参考译文:
只有在我过于劳累,在我长时间无间断的工作,在我感到内心空虚,需要填补的时候,
我才寂寞。而有时在我巡回演讲后回家时,在我见到了许多人,讲了许多话,且经历多得需
要清理时,我才寂寞。
于是,有那么一小会儿,感觉房子又大又空,我都不知道我的自我藏在哪儿了。于是,
我会给植物浇浇水,或者将它们再挨个儿瞅瞅,好象它们是人一样。这样我才慢慢地重新找
回自我。
好大一会儿,我看着水浪从喷泉中喷涌而出,但只有当世界在我身边逐渐消逝时,那
一刻才会到来,自我又从内心深处的无意识中冒出来,带来我最近的种种经历,让我探究 ,
慢慢领会。

6)2005 年
●汉译英参考译文
What is the significance of life? Is there any gauge to measure it? It would be very difficult,
of course, trying to advance an absolute standard. However, the significance of one’s existence can
more or less be evaluated by examining his attitude toward life and work.
Since ancient times all people of accomplishment are very serious about their lives. While
they are alive, even if there is only one day left to live, they try to work as hard as they can and
learn as much as possible, never letting a single day slip by without any gain. This is true of the
working people as well as of the great statesmen and great thinkers in our history. (刘士聪,段
钨金 译)
●英译汉参考译文:

229
书既然有小说、传记、诗歌之分,就应区别对待,从各类书中取其应该给予我们的东西。
这话说来很简单。然而很少有人向书索取它能给我们的东西,我们拿起书来往往怀着模糊而
又杂乱的想法,要求小说是真实的,诗歌是虚假的,传记要吹捧,史书能加强我们的偏见。
读书时若能抛开这些先入之见,便是极好的开端。不要对作者指手画脚,而要尽力与作者融
为一体,共同创作,共同策划。如果你不参与,不投入,而且一开始就百般挑剔,那你就无
缘从书中获得最大的益处。你若敞开心扉,虚怀若谷,那么,书中精细入微的寓意和暗示便
会把你从一开头就碰上的那些像是山回水转般的句子中带出来,走到一个独特的人物面前。
钻进去熟悉它,你很快就会发现,作者展示给你的或想要展示给你的是一些比原先要明确
得多的东西。不妨先来谈谈读小说吧。一部长篇小说分成 32 章,是作者的苦心经营,想把它
建构得如同一座错落有致、布局合理的大厦。可是,词语比砖块更难捉摸,阅读比观看更费
时、更复杂。了解作家创作的个中滋味,最有效的途径恐怕不是读而是写;通过写亲自体验
一下文字工作的艰难险阻。回想一件你记忆犹新的事吧。比方说,在街道的拐弯处遇到两个
人正在谈话。树影婆娑,灯光摇曳,谈话的调子喜中有悲。这一瞬间似乎包含了一种完整的
意境、全面的构思。

7)2006
●汉译英参考译文
Since ancient times the Chinese nationalities have never considered human beings to be
superior to every other species. As is reflected in Chinese philosophy, literature and art, in the
natural world human beings occupy a positioning proportion to all other creatures and the former
does not absolutely dominate the latter. Therefore, generally speaking, we Chinese feel depressed
less often and less severely than people in the West, for the intensity of one’s depression literally
changes along with the magnitude of one’s desire and ambition. As people in an agricultural
society enjoy much fewer comforts than those in an industrial society, they have fewer desires or
wishes. Besides, ancient Chinese always took it as their most fundamental philosophy of life that
one should not merely be confined to material pursuits, or be kept in bondage by material things.
It is quite true that there are misers in China. But Chinese misers prove less miserly and less
ambitious when they are compared with those misers and careerists described by Moliere and
Balzac. Being very mild-tempered, most of the ethnic groups in China live a simple life without
worldly desires. In comparison with Western people, the Chinese people are easily satisfied.
●英译汉参考译文:
除了苦干、流汗、流泪、甚至流血,我别无所能。我们所面对的是一种最痛苦的磨难,是
历时数月之久的斗争和苦难。
  你们会问,我们的对策是什么?我认为是从地面,海上和空中发动的一场战争,一场
竭尽我们所能,竭尽上帝所赐予我们的全部力量的战争,一场与人类罪行簿上所记载的最
黑暗,最悲哀的恶魔暴政相抗争的战争。
  你们还会问, 我们的目的是什么?我可以用一个词来回答,那就是胜利,——付出任
何代价的胜利,不顾任何恐怖的胜利。没有胜利就没有生存。
  我们必须意识到这一点:没有胜利,就没有大英帝国的存在, 就没有大英帝国所代表
的一切的存在, 就没有愿望的存在, 就没有时代理想的存在, 就没有朝着人类目标的迈
进。
( 部 分 参 考 译 文 来 源 于
http://202.203.16.100/englishonline/wsjs/Ss/GraduatEnglish,http://www.zaobao.com/bilingual,
http://www.hienglish.org/tem8/tem-8.htm 等网站)

230
参考文 献

巴尔胡达罗夫. 语言与翻译[M]. 蔡毅编译. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,1985. 1


蔡基刚. 英汉·汉英段落翻译与实践(第二版)[M]. 上海:复旦大学出版社,2002
陈定安. 英汉比较与翻译(第二版)[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2000
谌华玉. 关于族群、民族、国籍等概念的翻译与思考[J]. 读书,2005,11
陈宏薇. 汉英翻译基础(第八版)[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2003
陈羽纶. 英语世界[M]. 北京:商务印书馆,2000,10
邓炎昌,刘润清. 语言与文化[M]. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1989
范守义. 模糊数学与译文评估[J]. 中国翻译》,1987,4
范仲英. 实用翻译教程(第五版)[M]. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2000
冯庆华. 实用翻译教程(第三版)[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2003
冯文池. 英汉语主要构词方法对比[J]. 华东理工大学学报(社会科学版),1995,2
桂乾元. 为翻译正名――兼论翻译的本质[J]. 语言与翻译,1995,4:59
郭建中. 当代美国翻译理论(第二版)[M]. 武汉:湖北教育出版社,2002
郭著章,李庆生. 英汉互译实用教程(第七版)[M]. 武汉:武汉大学出版社,2000
韩其顺,王学铭. 英汉科技翻译教程(第十五版)[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2003
胡述. 奇山异水张家界[M]. 长沙:湖南人民出版社,2003
黄杲炘 . 诗未必是在“翻译中丧失掉的东西”——兼谈汉语在译诗中的优势 [J]. 外国语,
1995,2

231
季羡林. 漫谈东西文化[J]. 中华文化论坛,1994,1
金惠康. 跨文化交际翻译[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2003
李冀宏. 英语常用修辞入门[M]. 上海:世界图书出版公司,2000
李伟国. 辞海新知(第七辑)[M]. 上海:上海辞书出版社,2001
李亚丹. 英译汉名篇欣赏[M]. 武汉:湖北教育出版社,2000
李运兴. 语篇翻译理论(第二版)[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2003
廖七一. 当代英国翻译理论[M]. 武汉:湖北教育出版社,2001
刘宓庆. 文体与翻译[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,1998
刘宓庆. 文化翻译论纲[M]. 武汉:湖北教育出版社,1999
刘宓庆. 翻译与语言哲学[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2001
刘重德. 文学翻译十讲(第五版)[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2003
刘重德. 西方译论研究[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2003
吕瑞昌等. 汉英翻译教程(第三十四版)[M]. 陕西人民出版社,2005
罗新璋. 翻译论集[M]. 北京:商务印书馆,1984
毛荣贵. 新世纪大学英汉翻译教程(第三版)[M]. 上海:上海交通大学出版社,2003
钱钟书. 围城[M]. Jeanne Kelly & Nathan K. Mao 译. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2003
乔萍等. 散文佳作 108 篇(汉英·英汉对照)[M]. 南京:译林出版社,2002
单其昌. 汉英翻译技巧(第三版)[M]. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1999
沈苏儒. 论信达雅——严复翻译理论研究[M]. 北京:商务印书馆,1998. 120. 131
思果. 翻译研究[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2001
思果. 翻译新究[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2001
思果. 译道探微[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2002
司显柱. 朱莉安·豪斯的“翻译质量评估模式”批评[J]. 外语教学,2005,3
司显柱. 功能语言学视角的翻译质量评估模式—兼评 <孔乙己>英译本的翻译质量 [J]. 解放军
外国语学院学报,2005,5
宋天赐等. 英汉互译实用教程(第三版)[M]. 北京:国防工业出版社,2002
田传茂. 谈译者的三种精神[J]. 语言与翻译,2001,1
田传茂,许明武. 习语文化与翻译[J]. 荆州师范学院学报,2001,1
王宏印. 世界名作汉译欣赏[M]. 上海:上海交通大学出版社,2000
王宗炎. 介绍赵元任:译文忠实性面面观[J]. 中国翻译,1981,1
翁显良. 意态由来画不成?[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,1983
吴景荣,程镇球. 新时代汉英大词典[M]. 北京:商务印书馆,2000
吴龙辉等. 鲁迅全集[M]. 乌鲁木齐:新疆人民出版社,1995
夏廷德. 从道安的“五失本”重新审视翻译的本质[J]. 外语与外语教学,2003,7
徐盛桓. 译文质量评估的数学模型[J]. 华南师范大学学报(社会科学版),1987,4
徐惟诚. 中国大百科全书[M]. 北京:中国大百科全书出版社,2000
杨平. 名作精译[M]. 青岛:青岛出版社,2003
杨全红. 汉英词语翻译探微[M]. 上海:汉语大词典出版社,2003
杨自俭. 关于中西文化对比的几点认识[J]. 外语与外语教学,1999,10
叶苗. 论非语言因素语境在文学翻译中的作用[J]. 中国翻译,2000,4
张培基等. 英汉翻译教程(第二十二版)[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,1997
张培基. 英译中国现代散文选(第四版)[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2002
张培基. 英译中国现代散文选[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2003
章振邦. 新编英语语法教程(第五版)[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2004

232
赵彦春. 关联理论与翻译的本质——对翻译缺省问题的关联论解释 [J]. 四川外语学院学报,
2003,3
赵振才. 科技英语翻译与逻辑[J]. 中国翻译.,1986,3
中国社会科学院语言研究所词典编辑室. 现代汉语词典[M]. 北京:商务印书馆,1999
周新. Generation X 究竟怎么译为好?[J]. 中国翻译,2001,5
朱耀先. 浅谈中西文化差异与翻译[J]. 中国翻译,1997,4
Bell, Roger T. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice[M]. London and New York:
Longman, 1991
Blake, Robert. Winston Churchill[M]. 张翀译. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2002
Newmark, Peter. About Translation[M]. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1993
Nida, E. A. Language, Culture, and Translating[M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language
Education Press, 1993
Steiner, George. After Babel[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2001
http://www.chinafanyi.com
http://www.florachow.com/content/story
http://www.tefl.com.cn/fanyi/ecdata
http://www.zaobao.com/bilingual
http://202.203.16.100/englishonline/wsjs/Ss/GraduatEnglish
http://cynkc.eol.com.cn/20040929/3117035_2.shtml
http://www.hienglish.org/tem8/tem-8.htm

233