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GUIDED BY : AR.

NOMAN TARIQ

Submitted by Ramiz Khan Tariq Umar Bushra Shahwar

INTRODUCTION
Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to Carry electricity.It describes general aspects , as used to provide power in buildings and structures, commonly referred to as building wiring. Your home is wired with different types of wire. Each has its specific use to accommodate the load and conditions it is exposed to. Lets examine what each type is and how it is used in the homes electrical system.

WIRES
HISTORICAL NOTES: THE USE OF WIRE CAN BE TRACED AS FAR BACK AS 3000 B.C. WHEN METAL WAS HAMMERED INTO SHEETS THEN CUT INTO STRIPS AND AGAIN SHAPED TO FORM WIRES. DRAWING AS A METHOD OF PRODUCING WIRE STARTED IN EUROPE IN THE 13TH CENTURY. THE PROCESS IS CHARACTERIZED BY HAVING METAL DRAWN INTO SERIES OF HOLES. THE PROCESS IS DONE UNTIL DESIRED DIAMETER IS ACHIEVED.

IN 1831, ICHABOD CRANE, AN AMERICAN INTRODUCED DRAWING OF WIRE AS A MANUFACTURING PROCESS BY USING THE WATERWHEEL TO PROVIDE THE MECHANICAL POWER. THE PROCESS HE INTRODUCED HAS BEEN ADOPTED AS A METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING UNTIL TODAY.

THE USE OF WIRE AS A PRACTICAL MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTING ELECTRICITY HAD ESCALATED ESPECIALLY WITH THE INVENTION OF TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES.

ELECTRICAL WIRE IS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH ELECTRICITY IS CARRIED TO AND THROUGH EACH INDIVIDUAL HOME THAT USES ELECTRICAL POWER. IT IS MADE OF A METAL THAT EASILY CONDUCTS ELECTRICITY, USUALLY COPPER, IN A PLASTIC SHEATH CALLED AN INSULATOR. THERE ARE VARIOUS DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELECTRICAL WIRE, EACH SUITED TO CERTAIN LOADS AND CONDITIONS.

TRANSMITTING ELECTRICITY IS THE BASIC FUNCTION TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN MAKING WIRE AND CABLE PERFORM PROPERLY. METAL CONDUCTORS CARRY THE ELECTRONS WHICH IS GENERATED BY AN ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE.. THERE ARE THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF BASIC ELECTRICITY: 1. VOLTSTHE FORCE OF THE ELECTRICITY BEING GENERATED.INSULATION THICKNESS IS DETERMINED BY THE SPECIFIED VOLTAGE. 2. AMP!!THE ACTUAL QUANTITY OF THE ELECTRICITY BEING GENERATED. CONDUCTOR SIZE IS DETERMINED BY THE REQUIRED AMPACITY. 3. WATTSTHE TOTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE ELECTRICITY BEING GENERATED, I.E., POWER. WATTS = VOLTS X AMPS (W = V X A)

CONDUCTOR MATERIALS COPPER THE PRINCIPAL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR DUE TO ITS EXCELLENT CONDUCTIVITY AND REASONABLE COST.

ALUMINUM 61% THE CONDUCTIVITY AND .3027 TIMES THE WEIGHT OF COPPER. USED IN POWER CABLES, OVERHEAD (ACSR), AND SOME BUILDING WIRE.

COPPERWELD A THIN COATING OF COPPER FUSED TO A STEEL CORE. USED IN LINE WIRE, CABLE MESSENGERS AND STRANDED WITH COPPER FOR STRENGTH OR EXTENDING FLEX LIFE.

ALUMOWELD A THIN COATING OF ALUMINUM FUSED TO A STEEL CORE. USED IN LINE WIRE AND CABLE MESSENGERS.

CONDUCTOR TERMINOLOGY
GAUGE A SYSTEM FOR SPECIFYING WIRE SIZE. THE AMERICAN WIRE GAUGE (AWG), ALSO KNOWN AS BROWN & SHARPE GAUGE, IS USED FOR COPPER. AN INCREASE OF THREE GAUGE NUMBERS:

MCM - AN OLDER TERM USED TO DENOTE 1,000 CIRCULAR MILS. (A CIRCULAR MIL IS A UNIT OF AREA, EQUAL TO THE AREA OF A CIRCLE WITH A DIAMETER OF ONE MIL WHICH IS ONE THOUSANDTH OF AN INCH).

KCMIL - NEWER TERM USED TO DENOTE 1,000 CIRCULAR MILS. CM (CIRCULAR MIL) A SYSTEM FOR SPECIFYING WIRE SIZE BY CONDUCTOR AREA.CIRCULAR MILS ARE OBTAINED BY MULTIPLYING THE INDIVIDUALWIRE DIAMETER IN INCHES BY 1,000, SQUARING THE RESULT, ANDMULTIPLYING BY THE NUMBER OF WIRES.

IACS (INTERNATIONAL ANNEALED COPPER STANDARD) A STANDARD OF COPPER CONDUCTIVITY OBTAINED BY SPECIFYING RESISTIVITY AND TEMPERATURE.

WIRE COATINGS
APPLIED OVER CONDUCTORS TO PREVENT SOME INSULATIONS FROM ATTACKING OR ADHERING TO COPPER.ELIMINATES DIFFICULTIES IN SOLDERING AND PREVENTS DETERIORATION OF COPPER AT HIGHTEMPERATURES. ARACON METAL CLAD FIBERS CLEAN AGENTS DRYFILM LUBRICATION PRODUCTS HYTREL TPC-ET THERMOPLASTIC POLYESTER ELASTOMER KAPTON POLYIMIDE FILMS KEVLAR ARAMID PULP OASIS COMPOSITE FILMS ZYTEL NYLON RESIN

TINNING DESIGNATIONS BARE COPPER UNCOATED COPPER. TIN COPPER COPPER COATED WITH TIN BY RUNNING THROUGH A POT OF COMMERCIALLY PURE TIN, THEN THROUGH WIPING DIES. (2 MG./ SQ. IN. FREE TIN MIN.) TINNING PREVENTS INSULATION FROM ATTACKING COPPER, ELIMINATES DIFFICULTIES IN SOLDERING AND PREVENTS DETERIORATION OF COPPER AT HIGH TEMPERATURES. HEAVY TIN BY RUNNING THROUGH A POT OF COMMERCIALLY PURE TIN THEN THROUGH WIPING DIES. (4MG./SQ. IN. FREE TIN MIN.) THE PURPOSE OF THIS IS TO FURNISH A CONDUCTOR WHICH WILL BOND UNDER INDUCTION HEAT AFTER INSULATION. THE TIN ON THE INDIVIDUAL STRANDS FLOWS, UNDER HEAT, RESULTING IN A SOLID MASS AT THE POINT DESIRED. BARE COPPER OVERTINNED UNCOATED STRANDED CONDUCTOR RUN THROUGH A TIN POT, WITH THE EXCESS TIN BEING BLOWN AWAY BY AIR. THIS RESULTS IN LIGHT BONDING FOR HIGHER FLEX LIFE BUT LOWER BOND STRENGTH.

STRANDING THE TWISTING TOGETHER OF SMALL WIRES TO FORM A SINGLE LARGER CONDUCTOR. USED TO PROVIDE FLEXIBILITY, EASE OF HANDLING AND VIBRATION RESISTANCE. BUNCH STRAND A CONDUCTOR FORMED BY THE SIMPLE TWISTING TOGETHER IN ONE DIRECTION OF MANY SMALL WIRES GENERALLY USED IN FLEXIBLE CORDS, CONSTANT FLEXING CONTROL CABLES AND EXTRA-FLEXIBLE LEAD WIRES.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WIRE AND CABLE


WIRE BEARS HIGH VOLTAGE AND CURRENT CAPACITY. CHANCES OF SHORT-CIRCUIT ARE COMPARATIVELY HIGH. CABLE MADE UP OF COPPER WIRING OF VERY LOW VOLTAGE. CHANCES OF SHORT-CIRCUIT IS REAL LOW.

WIRES

SYSTEM OF WIRING
Materials for wiring interior electrical systems in buildings vary depending on: Intended use and amount of power demand on the circuit Type of occupancy size of the building National and local regulations Environment in which the wiring must operate. Wiring systems in a single family home or duplex, for example, are simple, with relatively low power requirements, infrequent changes to the building structure and layout, usually with dry, moderate temperature, and non-corrosive environmental conditions. In a light commercial environment, more frequent wiring changes can be expected, large apparatus may be installed, and special conditions of heat or moisture may apply.

Heavy industries have more demanding wiring requirements, such as very large currents and higher voltages, frequent changes of equipment layout, corrosive, or wet or explosive atmospheres. In facilities that handle flammable gases or liquids, special rules may govern the installation and wiring of electrical equipment in hazardous areas.
Wires and cables are rated by the circuit voltage, temperature rating, and environmental conditions (moisture, sunlight, oil, chemicals) in which they can be used. A wire or cable has a voltage (to neutral) rating, and a maximum conductor surface temperature rating. The amount of current a cable or wire can safely carry depends on the installation conditions.

SYSTEM OF WIRING
Wooden casing and capping wiring PVC sheathed wiring. Lead sheathed or sheathed wiring. Conduit wiring

a) Surface or open types b) Recessed or concealed or underground types.

Types of wiring 1 .TRIPLEX WIRE


It is an aerial cable that the utility company uses to feed the power pole. This wire ties to the wires sticking out of the weather head.

2. MAIN FEEDER WIRES


These wires are usually type THHN wire and are rated for 125% of the load required. These are usually black insulated wires coming out of the service weather head

3. PANEL FEED WIRES


These wires are also type THHN, like the main feeders. A typical 100-amp service would have a #2 THHN set of wires. They would then be rated at 125 amps. This would protect the wires if the amperage was a full 100 amps.

4. NON-METALLIC SHEATHED WIRE


This wire, commonly called Romex, is a plastic coated wire that has either two or three conductors and a bare ground wire. This is the typical wiring used in most homes. The rating for this wire is either 15 amps, 20 amps, or 30 amps, depending on the installation.

5. Single Strand Wire


When your home is piped, youll have to have another type of wire. Single strand wire is insulated and many of these can be pulled into the same pipe. Normally, youll be using THHN wire for this installation.

PLAN

INTRODUCTION OF CABLES
A CABLE IS MOST OFTEN TWO OR MORE WIRES RUNNING SIDE BY SIDE AND BONDED, TWISTED OR BRAIDED TOGETHER TO FORM A SINGLE ASSEMBLY, BUT CAN ALSO REFER TO A HEAVY STRONG ROPE. IN MECHANICS CABLES, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS WIRE ROPES, ARE USED FOR LIFTING, HAULING AND TOWING OR CONVEYING FORCE THROUGH TENSION. IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING CABLES ARE USED TO CARRY ELECTRIC CURRENTS. AN OPTICAL CABLE CONTAINS ONE OR MORE OPTICAL FIBRES IN A PROTECTIVE JACKET THAT SUPPORTS THE FIBRES.

Electrical cables
ELECTRICAL CABLES MAY BE MADE MORE FLEXIBLE BY STRANDING THE WIRES. IN THIS PROCESS, SMALLER INDIVIDUAL WIRES ARE TWISTED OR BRAIDED TOGETHER TO PRODUCE LARGER WIRES THAT ARE MORE FLEXIBLE THAN SOLID WIRES OF SIMILAR SIZE. BUNCHING SMALL WIRES BEFORE CONCENTRIC STRANDING ADDS THE MOST FLEXIBILITY. COPPER WIRES IN A CABLE MAY BE BARE, OR THEY MAY BE PLATED WITH A THIN LAYER OF ANOTHER METAL, MOST OFTEN TIN BUT SOMETIMES GOLD, SILVER OR SOME OTHER MATERIAL. TIN, GOLD, AND SILVER ARE MUCH LESS PRONE TO OXIDATION THAN COPPER, WHICH MAY LENGTHEN WIRE LIFE, AND MAKES SOLDERING EASIER. TINNING IS ALSO USED TO PROVIDE LUBRICATION BETWEEN STRANDS. TINNING WAS USED TO HELP REMOVAL OF RUBBER INSULATION. TIGHT LAYS DURING STRANDING MAKES THE CABLE EXTENSIBLE.

Cables and electromagnetic fields funda


ANY CURRENT-CARRYING CONDUCTOR, INCLUDING A CABLE, RADIATES AN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. LIKEWISE, ANY CONDUCTOR OR CABLE WILL PICK UP ENERGY FROM ANY EXISTING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD AROUND IT. THESE EFFECTS ARE OFTEN UNDESIRABLE, IN THE FIRST CASE AMOUNTING TO UNWANTED TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY WHICH MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT NEARBY EQUIPMENT OR OTHER PARTS OF THE SAME PIECE OF EQUIPMENT; AND IN THE SECOND CASE, UNWANTED PICKUP OF NOISE WHICH MAY MASK THE DESIRED SIGNAL BEING CARRIED BY THE CABLE, OR, IF THE CABLE IS CARRYING POWER SUPPLY OR CONTROL VOLTAGES, POLLUTE THEM TO SUCH AN EXTENT AS TO CAUSE EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTION.

THE FIRST SOLUTION TO THESE PROBLEMS IS TO KEEP CABLENGTHS IN BUILDINGS SHORT, SINCE PICK UP AND TRANSMISSION ARE ESSENTIALLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE LENGTH OF THE CABLE. THE SECOND SOLUTION IS TO ROUTE CABLES AWAY FROM TROUBLE. BEYOND THIS, THERE ARE PARTICULAR CABLE DESIGNS THAT MINIMIZE ELECTROMAGNETIC PICKUP AND TRANSMISSION. THREE OF THE PRINCIPAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES ARE SHIELDING, COAXIAL GEOMETRY, AND TWISTED-PAIR GEOMETRY.

Shielding

SHIELDING MAKES USE OF THE ELECTRICAL PRINCIPLE OF THE FARADAY CAGE. THE CABLE IS ENCASED FOR ITS ENTIRE LENGTH IN FOIL OR WIRE MESH. ALL WIRES RUNNING INSIDE THIS SHIELDING LAYER WILL BE TO A LARGE EXTENT DECOUPLED FROM EXTERNAL ELECTRIC FIELDS, PARTICULARLY IF THE SHIELD IS CONNECTED TO A POINT OF CONSTANT VOLTAGE, SUCH AS EARTH. SIMPLE SHIELDING OF THIS TYPE IS NOT GREATLY EFFECTIVE AGAINST LOW-FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELDS, HOWEVER - SUCH AS MAGNETIC "HUM" FROM A NEARBY POWER TRANSFORMER. A GROUNDED SHIELD ON CABLES OPERATING AT 2.5 KV OR MORE GATHERS LEAKAGE CURRENT AND CAPACITIVE CURRENT, PROTECTING PEOPLE FROM ELECTRIC SHOCK AND EQUALIZING STRESS ON THE CABLE INSULATION.

Manufacturing process of cables


STRANDING (CONDUCTOR) BUNCHING INSULATION GROUP PAIRING LINING UP LAYING UP / TAPING ARMOURING (LT POWER / CONTROL AND OTHER CABLES) SHEATHING / JACKETING

Classification of Electrical cable


BASIC CABLE TYPES ARE AS FOLLOWS: SHAPE RIBBON CABLE ON THE BASIS OF CONSTRUCTION COAXIAL CABLE MINERAL-INSULATED COPPER-CLAD CABLE TWINAX CABLE FLEXIBLE CABLES NON-METALLIC SHEATHED CABLE (OR NON-METALLIC BUILDING WIRE, NM, NM-B) METALLIC SHEATHED CABLE (OR ARMOURED CABLE, AC, OR BX) MULTICORE CABLE (CONSIST OF MORE THAN ONE WIRE AND IS COVERED BY CABLE JACKET) SHIELDED CABLE SINGLE CABLE (WIRE) TWISTED PAIR TWISTING CABLE

Colour identification of cores of non-flexible cables


PROTECTIVE OR EARTHING WITH YELLOW STRIPES 1) NEUTRAL OF A.C. SINGLE OR THREEPHASE R OF 3-PHASE A.C. CIRCUIT PHASE Y OF 3-PHASE A.C. CIRCUIT PHASE B OF 3-PHASE A,C. CIRCUIT POSITIVE OF D.C. 2-WIRE CIRCUIT NEGATIVE OF D.C. 2-WIRE CKCUIT OUTER (POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE) OF POSITIVE OF 3-WIRE SYSTEM GREEN AND YELLOW OR GREEN BLACK RED YELLOW BLUE RED BLACK RED RED

MIDDLE WIRE OF 3-WIRE D.C. BLACK NEGATIVE OF 3-WIRE D.C. CIRCUIT BLUE FUNCTIONAL EARTH-TELECOMMUNICATION CREAM

Coaxial cable
COAXIAL DESIGN HELPS TO FURTHER REDUCE LOW-FREQUENCY MAGNETIC TRANSMISSION AND PICKUP. IN THIS DESIGN THE FOIL OR MESH SHIELD HAS A CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION AND THE INNER CONDUCTOR IS EXACTLY AT ITS CENTRE. THIS CAUSES THE VOLTAGES INDUCED BY A MAGNETIC FIELD BETWEEN THE SHIELD AND THE CORE CONDUCTOR TO CONSIST OF TWO NEARLY EQUAL MAGNITUDES WHICH CANCEL EACH OTHER. THE CENTRE CONDUCTOR IS MADE OF ELECTROLYTIC GRADE SOLID COPPER FREE FROM ALL IMPURITIES AND DEFORMITIES TO ENSURE BETTER SIGNAL TRANSMISSION.

THE CONDUCTOR IS INSULATED WITH FOAM DIELECTRIC MADE OF POLYETHYLENE INJECTED WITH NITROGEN GAS, WHICH IS SUPERIOR AND ALSO ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY THAN CHEMICAL FOAM. THE DOUBLE SCREEN OF SPECIAL COMPOSITE TYPE BONDED ALUMINIUM FOIL AND SPECIAL GRADE ALUMINIUM ALLOY BRAIDING OF 60% COVERAGE ENSURES LOW LOSS IN SIGNAL QUALITY, ADDITIONAL MECHANICAL STRENGTH AND RESISTANCE TO OXIDE FORMATION IN TROPICAL WEATHER CONDITION.

Technical details of coaxial cables


Construction Parameters Center Conductor Nom. Diameter. (mm) Dielectric Nom. Diameter. (mm) Outer Conductor 1st Shield 2nd Shield Min. Coverage (%) Jacket Nom. Diameter. (mm Bending 'radius (mm) RG 11F RG6F Solid bare copper 1.63 Foam PE 7.11 Al-Foil Bonded Al-Alloy Braiding 60 Solid bare copper 1.02

Foam PE 4.57 Al-Foil Bonded Al-Alloy Braiding 60

PVC Black/White PVC Black/White 7.25 10.30 70 60

Multicore Flat Cables


THE PVC INSULATED AND SHEATHED MULTICORE FLAT CABLES ARE USED FOR GIVING ELECTRICAL CONNECTION TO THE SUBMERSIBLE PUMP MOTORS. THESE ARE MANUFACTURED KEEPING IN MIND THE SEVERE, TOUGH AND DIFFICULT CONDITIONS IN WHICH THEY HAVE TO OPERATE. THE SLOT AVAILABLE IN THE TUBE WELL BEING NARROW THE SHAPE OF THE CABLES HAS TO BE SUITED FOR SUCH AN APPLICATION. THESE CABLES CONFORM TO AND ARE MARKED IS 694: 1990. MANUFACTURED FROM BRIGHT-ANNEALED 99.97% PURE BARE COPPER CONDUCTORS THESE CABLES HAVE LOW CONDUCTOR RESISTANCE. THE INNER CORES ARE INSULATED WITH A SPECIAL GRADE PVC COMPOUND. THE TOUGH OUTER PVC JACKET PROTECTS IT FROM OILS, GREASES, VARIOUS CHEMICALS AND ABRASIONS, THEREBY GIVING LONG LIFE AND ELECTRICAL SAFETY

SPECIAL FEATURES: XLPE INSULATION Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulated Electric or XLPE Power Cables possesses excellent electrical, mechanical and heatresistant properties. It has an advantage over paper insulated cables because of its easy maintenance. ratings of HT XLPE cables given in the different tables are based on the following assumptions
i) Maximum conductor temperature for conditions operation 90 deg C

ii)
iii) iv) v)

Ambient air temperature


Ground temperature Thermal resistivity of soil Depth of laying (to the highest point of the cables laid direct in the ground)

40 deg C
30 deg C 150 deg cm/Watt 90 cm

LT POWER CABLE

(UO/U) - ISI MARKING IS: 1554 (PART I), WITH OR WITHOUT HEAT RESISTANT (HR) OR FIRE RETARDANT LOW SMOKE (FRLS) PROPERTIES - SCREENING CAN BE PROVIDED IF DESIRED - CONFORMS TO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS SUCH AS IS: 1554 (PART I) CONFIGURATION SINGLE CORE CABLES > 1000 SQ MM MULTI-CORE CABLES > 630 SQ MM. CONDUCTOR - ALUMINIUM OR COPPER - SOLID OR STRANDED - CIRCULAR - COMPACTED - SECTOR-SHAPED. MECHANICAL PROTECTION - GALVANIZED STEEL WIRE, STRIPS OR DOUBLE HELICAL STEEL TAPE - ALUMINIUM WIRE ARMOUR FOR SINGLE-CORE CABLES - INNER AND OUTER SHEATH - BLACK PVC OR ANY COLOUR AS PER CUSTOMERS REQUIREMENT

- PVC/XLPE INSULATION FOR POWER TRANSMISSION UPTO 1100 VOLTS

PVC Flexible Cables


PVC INSULATED L. T. LIGHT DUTY CABLES ARE AS PER IS: 694 AND ARE SUITABLE FOR FIXED WIRING AND FLEXIBLE OPERATIONS. THE CABLES ARE SUITABLE FOR USE ON AC SINGLE PHASE OR THREE PHASE (EARTHED OR UNEARTHED) SYSTEM FOR RATED VOLTAGE UP TO AND INCLUDING 1100 VOLTS. CONDUCTOR: THE MOST ACCEPTABLE METALS FOR CONDUCTORS ARE COPPER AND ALUMINIUM DUE TO THEIR HIGHER CONDUCTIVITY AND DUCTILITY. AS COPPER HAS GOT HIGHER AFFINITY FOR SCULPTURE, IT CORRODES IN THE ATMOSPHERE WHERE SULPHUR FUMES ARE PRESENT. IN THESE CONDITIONS TINNED COPPER SHOULD BE USED

TECHNICAL INFORMATION
INSULATION: THE PVC COVERING OVER CONDUCTOR IS CALLED INSULATION AND PROVIDED BY EXTRUSION PROCESS. THE INSULATED CONDUCTOR IS CALLED A CORE. LAYING UP: IN CASE OF MULTI CORE CABLES THE CORES ARE LAID UP WITH SUITABLE LAY.
SHEATH: THE PVC COATING ON CORE AND ON LAID UP CORES IN CASE OF MULTI-CORE CABLES IS CALLED SHEATH. AS PER IS-694 IT SHOULD BE OF TYPE ST-1 PVC COMPOUND AS PER IS-5831.IT IS SUITABLE FOR 70 C CONTINUOUS OPERATION. DELIVERY LENGTH: THE CABLES ARE GENERALLY DELIVERED IN 90 METERS COILS WRAPPED WITH POLYETHYLENE AND PACKED IN CARD BOARD BOXES. THE BIGGER SIZE CABLES ARE SUPPLIED ON WOODEN DRUMS.

Single Core Flexible Cables


THESE SINGLE CORE FLEXIBLE CABLES ARE USED FOR WIRING IN CONTROL PANELS, MACHINES AND VARIOUS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN SMALL, MEDIUM AND LARGE INDUSTRIES. MANUFACTURED FROM BRIGHT-ANNEALED 99.97% PURE BARE COPPER CONDUCTORS THESE CABLES HAVE LOW CONDUCTOR RESISTANCE. THESE WIRES ARE INSULATED WITH A SPECIAL GRADE PVC COMPOUND FORMULATED AND MANUFACTURED IN-HOUSE WHICH IS IMPERVIOUS TO WATER, OIL, GREASE, ACIDS, ETC. AND ARE TOUGH TO PROTECT FROM ANY MECHANICAL ABUSES.

Technical Data
Working voltage Upto 1100 V

Temperature range
Sizes Color codes Specification Packing

-15 deg C to +70 deg C


0.5 to 50.0 sq mm with ISI mark70.0 to 240 sq mm generally conforming to IS 694 Red, Yellow, Blue, Black, Grey, White, Pink, Green, Violet, Brown, Orange IS 694:1990 BS 6004:1991 and BS 6500:1990 also available In 100-meter coils. Higher sizes on drums

Heavy Duty Armoured And Unarmoured Cables


ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR PVC INSULATED, INNER SHEATHED UNARMOURED & PVC SHEATHED CABLES CONFIRMING TO IS : 1554 (PART - I) AMENDED UPTO DATE 1.1 KV SINGLE CORE 1.1 KV TWIN CORE 1.1 KV TWIN CORE 1.1 KV THREE CORE 1.1 KV THREE CORE 1.1 KV 3 CORE 1.1 KV 3 CORE 1.1 KV FOUR CORE 1.1 KV FOUR CORE

WIRE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Wiring safety codes are intended to protect people and property
from electrical shock and fire hazard Safety glasses or goggles should be worn whenever power tools are used, especially if you wear contact lenses. Make sure the power is off at the breaker box before doing any electrical work Always work in a dean, dry area free from anything wet. Wires should only be connected at accessible junction boxes. Never splice wires together and conceal them within a wall without a junction box.

Never attempt to strip wires with a knife. Aside from endangering your fingers, you will nick the wire metal, which will create an electrical hazard. Ground fault circuit interrupter outlets should be used under damp conditions (basements, bathrooms, outdoors, etc.), as required by the National Electric Code.
Don't create fire hazards by overloading an outlet or an extension cord. Avoid electrical shock by mapping and marking your switch and outlet boxes. Put the map on the door of the main power service panel. Leave a warning message that you are working on the circuit at the service panel, and tape the circuit breaker in the off position. With a fuse box, take the fuse out.

Never change the size of a fuse or breaker in a circuit.


Always correct the problem that caused a fuse or circuit breaker to blow before replacing the fuse or circuit breaker. Replace wiring that shows signs of fraying or deterioration. Avoid breaking your knuckles by bracing the powerful right-angle drill so that it cannot spin around if it gets stuck while drilling. Before working with wires or electrical connections, check them with a voltage tester to be sure they are dead. Plumbing and gas pipes are often used to ground electrical systems. Never touch them while working with electricity.

REFERENCES
National Building Code-2005 (India) WIKIPEDIA http://paramountcables.com/HomePage.htm Fact_Sheet_Wire_Cable_India_2012 http://www.kaydourcables.com/enquiryform .php