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XY DNG M HNH M PHNG H THNG IU KHIN SVPWM TRONG CC H TRUYN NG IN TRN CC PHNG TIN ON TU IN

KS. TRN VN KHI PGS. TS. L MNH VIT B mn K thut in Khoa in - in t Trng i hc Giao thng Vn ti Tm tt: Bi bo trnh by mt cch thc mi xy dng m hnh m phng h thng iu khin SVPWM trong cc h thng truyn ng in s dng trn cc phng tin on tu in, to tin nn tng v l lun v cng c cho vic nghin cu, kho st cc c tnh iu khin ca cc h truyn ng in xoay chiu ba pha ng dng trn cc on tu in tin tin. Summary: The article presents a new strategy to model and simulate the SVPWM control system using for electric driven control systems on electric trains. The result will be basic theory and effect tool for researching about three phases electric driven systems on the modern electric trains.

I. M U ng c khng ng b hin c s dng ph bin trn cc phng tin giao thng vn ti, cc m hnh m phng h truyn ng ng c khng ng b 3 pha cng c cp nhiu, thm ch u c sn trong th vin dng sn ca phn mm Matlab/Simulink. Tuy nhin l nhng m hnh dng sn ch m phng c nhng c tnh c nh dng sn, n khng cho php tham chiu sa i hoc th nghim nhng c tnh iu khin khc. Vic xy dng m hnh m phng h iu khin truyn ng in trn cc phng tin on tu in l mt vn cn thit to nn tng c s cho vic nghin cu, kho st cc c tnh iu khin ca h thng. Bi bo trnh by cch xy dng m hnh trn phn mm Matlab/Simulink ca h thng iu khin SVPWM ng dng trong cc h truyn ng in s dng trn cc phng tin on tu in tin tin. II. NGUYN TC V THUT TON SVPWM A. Nguyn tc SVPWM Vc t khng gian in p stator ca ng c khng ng b xoay chiu c nh ngha theo biu thc: Uout = 2(VAN + VBN.ej2/3 + VBN.ej4/3)/3 Trong : VAN, VBN, VCN l cc in p pha ca ng c. (1)

ng c khng ng b trn cc on tu in s c cp ngun bi mch nghch lu ngun p, dng in u ra ca mch nghch c nhiu thnh phn sng hi bc cao gy mo dng tn hiu v lm cho m men trn trc ng c b dao ng - nh hng n cht lng ngun cp cho ng c. Mch nghch lu ngun p nh ch ra trn hnh 1 c 6 IGBT v 8 trng thi lm vic khc nhau. Cu trc 8 vc t in p nh minh ha trn hnh 2.

Hnh 1.

Hnh 2.

Theo nguyn tc cng vc t, vc t in p stator Uout trong bt k chu k chuyn mch no cng u c th c tnh bi hai vc t in p c bn tng ng vi hai ch chuyn mch lin k ca cc IGBT: Uout = (TkUsk + Tk+1Usk+1 + T0U000 + T7U111)/T (2)

Trong T l chu k chuyn mch v bng vi chu k sng mang, Tk, Tk+1 tng ng l thi gian thc hin ca Usk, Usk+1; T0, T7 l thi gian thc hin cc U000, U111. B. Thut ton SVPWM Nh quan st trong hnh 2, T v Uout nm trong gc phn su th nht c th c biu din:
T = T + T + T 1 2 0 U =T U / T+T U out 1 0 2 60

(3)
/T

Trong T l chu k sng mang ca PWM, T1, T2 tng ng l thi gian thc hin cc vc t in p U0 v U6. Cc vc t in p Valfa v Vbeta ca vc t in p Uout trong h ta - c biu din:

V = T U / T + T U cos( / 3) / T 1 0 2 60 0 alfa V = T U sin( / 3) / T 2 60 beta

(4)

T (1) chng ta thy rng U0 = U60 = 2Vdc/3, do vy (4) s tr thnh:


/ 2V T = 3TV 1 alfa dc T = 3TV /V 2 beta dc T = T -T -T 1 2 0

3TV / 2V beta dc

(5)

Gi s bit cc vc t in p Valfa v Vbeta. T1 v T3 tng ng vi thi gian thc hin ch chuyn mch (100) v (110) c th tnh c. Nu T1 = T2 th cc khong thi gian thc hin Taon, Tbon v Tcon ca cc IGBT nhnh cu trn ca mch nghch lu c th c tnh:
T = (T -T -T ) / 4 aon 1 2 T =T +T / 2 aon 1 bon =T +T / 2 T con bon 2

(6)

Mt cch tng t, cc khong thi gian Tk v Tk+1 tng ng thc hin cc vc t Usk v Usk+1 ca Uout trong cc gc phn su khc c th c tnh t (4) nh sau:
sin|k/3|-V cos|k/3|| T =( 3T/V )|V k dc alfa beta =( 3T/ V )|V cos|(k-1)/3|-V sin|(k-1)/3|| T k+1 dc beta alfa

(7)

Cc khong thi gian thc hin Taon, Tbon, Tcon c tnh ton t (6) v (7). T hnh 4 ta thy cc trng thi chuyn mch lin k ch khc nhau mt v tr chuyn mch, iu gip cho gim thiu c tn hao trng thi chuyn mch ca ton b mch nghch lu trong qu trnh lm vic.

Hnh 3. Dng sng PWM gc phn su th nht.

Hnh 4. Dng sng PWM cc gc phn su.

III. M HNH V M PHNG H THNG SVPWM ng c khng ng b 3 pha s dng truyn ng ko cc phng tin on tu in c cp ngun t cc mch nghch lu ngun p, dng in p u ra c dng l sng ch nht, khng phi dng sin. Tn s v b rng ca sng ch nht s thay i theo thi gian thc. V vy h bin tn - ng c khng ng b l mt h phc tp. V vy vic xy dng m hnh v thc hin m phng nghin cu cc thuc tnh iu khin l mt iu ht sc quan trng v cn thit. A. Xy dng m hnh SVPWM Trnh t xy dng m hnh SVPWM trong Matlab/Simulink c tin hnh nh sau: 1. Xc nh gc phn su ni vc t in p quay Uout ang thc hin
V =V beta ref1 = ( 3V V ref2 alfa V = ( 3V alfa ref3

-V )/2 beta +V )/2 beta

(8)

Nu Vref1 > 0 th a = 1, ngc li th a = 0; Nu Vref2 > 0 th b = 1, ngc li th b = 0; Nu Vref3 > 0 th c = 1, ngc li th c = 0. S ch gc phn su ca Uout c th c tnh l: N = a +2b + 4c M hnh tnh ton gc phn su ca Uout minh ha nh trn hnh v 5.

Hnh 5.

2. Tnh ton X,Y v Z X, Y, Z c th c tnh ton nh sau:


X = 3TV /V beta dc / 2V + 3TV / 2V Y = 3TV alfa dc beta dc Z = -3TV + 3TV / 2V alfa beta dc

(9)

M hnh tnh ton X, Y, Z minh ha nh trn hnh 6.

Hnh 6.

Thi gian thc hin cc vc t in p lin k trong cc gc phn su khc nhau c tnh ton t cc biu thc (7) v (9) nh ch ra bng 1.
Bng 1. Tnh T1 v T2 t X, Y v Z Gc phn su T1 T2 1 -Z Y 2 Y -X 3 Z X 4 -X -Z 5 X -Y 6 -Y Z

M hnh tnh ton T1, T2 c thc hin s dng khi chc nng multi - switch, nh ch ra trn hnh 7.

Hnh 7.

Khi on tu t ngt tng tc hay gim tc, vc t in p s tng t ngt v c th vt qu gi tr ln nht vc t in p mong mun Vmaxref, khi in p dy cp cho ng c s khng cn dng sin na v s c cc nh nhp nh. V vy khi:
V2 + V2 > Vref max alfa beta
V alfa V beta

th

Vref max Vref 2 + V2 alfa V alfa beta Vref max Vref 2 + V2 beta V alfa beta

V cn thit phi gii hn phm vi ca T1 v T2. Khi T1 + T2 > T/2, th: T1 = T1.T/(T1 + T2) T2 = T2.T/(T1 + T2) Thi gian thc hin cc vc t in p trn 3 pha s c tnh theo biu thc (6), m hnh tnh ton Taon, Tbon, Tcon c minh ha nh trn hnh 8.

Hnh 8.

3. M hnh xc nh trnh t pht xung iu khin ng - m cc chuyn mch cng sut Sng mang (dng sng tam gic) vi mt tn s khc c s dng so snh vi Taon, Tbon, Tcon, ty vo tng quan gi tr ca cc i lng iu khin ng m cc IGBT. Bin ca sng mang biu din chu k iu bin, tn s ca sng mang xc nh tn s chuyn mch ca cc IGBT, trong ng dng m phng cp trong bi bo chu k sng mang ly gi tr l T = 0,0004s. M hnh minh ha trn hnh 9.

Hnh 9.

4. M hnh mch nghch lu Mc d c rt nhiu cc kiu chuyn mch bn dn cng sut c sn trong th vin ca matlab nh IGBT, MOSFET, tuy nhin tc m phng ca cc mch nghch lu s dng cc thit b ny rt chm. ci thin tc m phng, mt cch tng ng vi nguyn tc lm vic ca cc chuyn mch cng sut trong cc mch nghch lu, y ta s dng mt thit b tng ng l ideal switch. Su IGBT trong mch nghch lu c thay th bng 6 ideal switch, nh ch ra hnh 10.

Hnh 10.

B. Xy dng m hnh tnh ton v p t lut iu khin v/f Nh chng ta u bit c tnh ca ng c khng ng b 3 pha c dng cng, vi yu cu c tnh truyn ng rt mm p ng ph hp vi dng sc ko on tu. lm c iu thng thng s dng phng php iu khin vvvf, tun theo lut iu khin v/f. M hnh tnh ton v p t lut iu khin minh ha trn hnh 11.

Hnh 11.

C. M phng SVPWM Vi cc khi chc nng xy dng trn, tng hp li c m hnh SVPWM hon chnh nh minh ha trn hnh 12. Hnh 13 minh ha dng sng Ualfa, Ubeta khi tc ng c l 1500 v/p. Hnh 14 minh ha kt qu tnh ton v tr v th t cc gc phn su m vc t in p quay Uout thc hin. Hnh 15 minh ha dng tn hiu Taon, Tbon v Tcon. Hnh 16 minh ha tn hiu PWM cc gc phn su khc nhau. Hnh 17 minh ha dng tn hiu pha in p u ra mch nghch lu cp cho ng c. Hnh 18 minh ha dng sng in p dy gia hai pha a - b. Hnh 19 minh ha s thay i dng sng in p mong mun p theo lut vvvf khi tc ng c thay i t 500 v/p ln 1500 v/p.

Hnh 13.

Hnh 14.

Hnh 15.

Gc th nht

Gc th hai

Gc th ba

Gc th nm Gc th su Gc th t Hnh 16. Dng tn hiu PWM cc gc phn su khc nhau

Hnh 17. Dng sng in p pha

Hnh 18. Dng sng in p dy Uab

Hnh 19. Dng sng in p Valfa v Vbeta khi tc thay i t 500 v/p ln 1500 v/p

Hnh 12. M hnh m phng h thng SVPWM

IV. KT LUN Vi mt cch thc mi, m hnh h thng iu khin SVPWM c xy dng s dng phn mm Matlab/Simulink, chng ta hon ton c kh nng t b sung tham s ca i tng iu khin (ng c in ko), nhng b iu chnh dng in, tc v v tr theo vng kn hay vng h to nn c h iu khin hon chnh, qua c th t do b sung thm m phng nhng tnh nng iu khin khc nh iu khin chng trt, gia tc, gim tc,... Thng qua nhng tnh nng v kt qu minh ha, m hnh s l mt cng c rt hu ch cho vic nghin cu cc h truyn ng in xoay chiu 3 pha ng dng trn cc phng tin giao thng in.

Ti liu tham kho

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