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CHEMISTRY
O-LEVEL 2012
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS SECTION A (50 marks)
1. The diagran below shows reactions involving dilute sulfuric acid. Six unknown substances A to F are shown. dilute sulfuric acid A F

salt +B + water

a blue solution forms a red solution forms

salt + hydrogen

salt + water

(a)

Using the letters A to F, (i) which substance is Universal Indicator? E (ii) which substance is carbon dioxide? B (iii) which substance is a metal? C (iv) [ which substance could be sodium hydrogencarbonate? A . ] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

(b)

F is an oxide of metal. Suggest a possible name of this substance. Copper(II) oxide [ ( ) ]

(c)

D can be used in titration with dilute sulfuric acid to produce the substances listed in the diagram above. What could be a possible name of D? [ Potassium hydroxide . ]

[1]

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2. The names and symbols of isotopes of some elements are given in the table below. name symbol Use the isotopes from the table to answer the questions below. (a) State the names of two isotopes that have the same number of protons in their atoms. CarboncarbonCarbon-12 and carbon-14 (b) State the names of two isotopes that have the same number of neutrons in their atoms. FluorineneonFluorine-19 and neon-20 (c) State the names of two isotopes that have 7 electrons in the valence shell of their atoms. [ (d) FluorineiodineFluorine-19 and iodine-131 ] [1] [1] [1] [1] fluorine19 carbon-12 iodine131 strontium90 neon-20 carbon-14 magnesium24

Which two isotopes form stable compounds that have ions of charge 2+? [ StrontiummagnesiumStrontium-90 and magnesium-24 ]

3.

Oxides of nitrogen in the stratosphere cause damage to the ozone layer and engines of aircraft are a source of oxides of nitrogen. (a) (i) Explain how oxides of nitrogen can be formed in the engine of aircraft. From internal combustion of nitrogen in air inside the engine under high temperature. temperature. (ii) Suggest a natural source of oxides of nitrogen in air. [ (b) During lightning activites ] [1] [2]

Nitrogen monoxide also damages the ozone layer through a two-step reaction. Step 1: Step 2: (i) + + + +2 [2]

State which element is oxidised in step 1 using its oxidation states. element : change in oxidation state : nitrogen / N from +2 to +4 +

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(b) (ii) Each nitrogen monoxide molecule can destroy thousands of ozone molecules. Using equations from both steps, explain this phenomenon. Each NO molecule in step 1 reacts to form one molecule of which in turn [2]

reacts to form back one molecule of NO. As such, each molecule of NO reacts with 2 molecules of more . and gets formed back into NO to further react continuously with

(c)

Oxides of nitrogen are removed in car exhaust by the usage of catalytic converters by reacting nitrogen monoxide with carbon monoxide. (i) Write a balanced equation for the reaction. + (ii) + [1] [1]

Gases that are harmful to the environment are still emitted from cars fitted with catalytic converters. Name one such gas and describe the problem it causes. Carbon dioxide. It is a greenhouse gas which causes global warming and the [ sea-levels, melting of polar caps which results to the rise in sea-levels, causing floods. / ]

4.

The diagram below shows the structures of ethanoic acid and ethanoyl chloride.

ethanoic acid (a)

ethanoyl chloride

Both compounds react with methanol to make the same ester. (i) Draw the structure of the ester. Ans: [1]

slanted] [Allow: -COO to be slanted] (ii) State the formula of the other produt formed when: 1. 2. methanol reacts with ethanoic acid: methanol reacts with ethanoyl chloride: [1]

[Does not accept compound names]

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(a) (iii) Give two uses of esters. [Avoid short unclear answers such as perfume and flavourings] (b) A homologous series contains a member known as ethanoyl chloride. (i) Give the name and structural formula of the next member of this homologous series. name : propanoyl chloride structural formula : [2] As food flavourings and in the manufacturing of perfumes. [1]

[Does not accept (ii)

] [1]

What is the general formula of the members of this homologous series?

(iii)

As the size of the molecules in the homologous series increases, the physical properties changes. Describe the trends in two properties as the sizes increase. As the molecular size increases, the melting and boiling points of the substances Increases. increases. Increases. As the molecular size increases, the density of the substances increases. Accept: viscosity - viscosity increases - less flammable [Do not accept any chemical properties] State your two properties clearly and avoid joining two points into one sentence.

[2]

5.

The diagram below shows a cooling pack that contains a small bag of solid ammonium nitrate surrounded by a bag of water. water

solid ammonium nitrate

When the pack is squeezed, the small bag will break open and result in a reaction between ammonium nitrate and water. This reaction is endothermic and the bag becomes very cold. (a) Given that the become cold. is positive, suggest why this endothermic change cause the water to [1]

During reaction, ammonium chloride takes in heat from the surrounding which results water, in the decrease of temperature of water, hence the bag becomes cold..

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(b) The reaction produces ammonium nitrate solution as shown by the equation below. ( )+( ) ( ) +2 / [3]

Complete the energy profile diagram using the axes provided, clearly indicating the reaction energy. enthalpy change and the activation energy enthalpy activation energy ( )+( ) reaction enthalpy change, + ( )

progress of reaction [1M1M[1M-correct shape with product written 1M-activation energy shown with one arrowhead in 1Mbold] the right direction 1M-enthalpy change including the word reaction as it appears in bold] (c) (i) Ammonium nitrate, which is made from ammonia, is also used as a fertiliser. Complete the table below. gas nitrogen hydrogen source liquefied air / air crude oil method of production fractional distillation cracking [2]

[Note spelling of liquefied does not accept fractional distillation for crude oil] (ii) Crops need the nitrogen content found in fertilisers such as ammonium nitrate for healthy growth. 50kg of ammonium nitrate was found in some fertilisers. Calculate the mass of nitrogen in this fertiliser. (1kg 1000g) Ans: Mr of 80 , Mass of nitrogen in ,

[3]

17,500g

[Accept answer as 17.5kg marks deducted if working did not indicate conversion of kg to g indicate clearly the formula] (c) (iii) Fertilisers that contain ammonium nitrate are slightly acidic, hence calcium carbonate are usually added to soil to reduce the acidity. However, calcium hydroxide should not be used. Explain why. base, Calcium hydroxide, which is a base, will react with ammonium nitrate and result in the reduction of the composition by mass of nitrogen in the form of ammonia [1Mthe 1M[1M-suggest reaction in the form of ammonium compound + base 1M-nitrogen content decrease due to ammonia produced and escaped] surrounding. released into the surrounding.

[2]

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6. The table below shows the trends of the melting points and boiling points of Group I and Group VII elements. element lithium Group I sodium potassium chlorine bromine iodine melting point/ 181 98 64 1 1 7 114 boiling point/ 1347 883 774 34 59 184

Group VII

(a)

(i)

The elements in Group I and Group VII have different trends in melting points and boiling points. Describe the trends down each group. I, The melting point and boiling point decreases down Group I, but the melting point and boiling point increases down Group VII. VII.

[2]

(ii)

The melting point and boiling point of sodium is higher than that of chlorine. Explain this phenomenon using concept from bonding. Sodium is a metal with metallic structure where positive metal ions and sea of delocalised' electrons are held by strong electrostatic forces and a huge amount of energy is required to overcome to change state. However, chlorine has simple molecular structure where molecules are held by weak intermolecular forces and only a small amount of energy is required to overcome to change state. Hence, sodium has a higher melting and boiling point than chlorine.

[3]

[To include structure/bonding(forces of attraction)/energy required; deduction of at least 1M for any missing component.] (b) The densities of chlorine and bromine at room temperature and pressure is provided. element chlorine bromine density (g/cm3) . 3 3.12

A student states that: The difference in the molecular mass of chlorine and bromine is insufficient to account for the difference in their densities. (i) Explain why the student is correct. Density, which is the mass per unit volume of a substance, is also dependent on volume. Hence, for chlorine is a gas but bromine a liquid at room temperature and states, pressure, therefore the molecules take up different volume in different states, resulting resulting in difference in densities. [Suggestion of volume as a factor and the difference in states at r.t.p] [2]

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(ii) What is the main reason for the difference in densities of the two substances? Chlorine, with its molecules much further apart than those of bromine due to the difference in states, has a lower mass per unit volume. (c) (i) Explain the meaning of the term . [1] [1]

It represents that a substance is made up of 2 atoms chemically combined together. [Not accepted: missing molecule or chemically combined] (ii) Draw a dot-and-cross diagram of a chlorine molecule, showing only the valence shell. Key: : electrons of : electrons of other [1]

(d)

Sodium and chlorine react together to form sodium chloride. Describe what happens when an atom of sodium and an atom of chlorine react to form ions. Your answer may include a diagram. lose an electron

[2]

Na

nobleAns: Each atom of sodium loses its one valence electron to obtain stable noble-gas configuration chlorine, and this is transferred to an atom of chlorine, such that the gaining of an electron allows noblechloride ion. chlorine to obtain stable noble-gas configuration to form a chloride ion.

End of Section A

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7. Industrial Electrolysis of Brine Brine is a concentrated solution of sodium chloride, containing about 25% by mass of sodium chloride. Electrolysis of brine produces chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide. Industrial electrolysis of brine used to be carried out in mercury cells but is now mostly carried out in membrane cells. The diagrams below show how the two types of cells work. cells

mercury cell

membrane cell

The sodium and mercury mixture flows into another tank which is not shown where sodium reacts with water to make sodium hydroxide and hydrogen.

Positive sodium ions move through the membrane but negative ions and water molecules cannot.

The membrane cell allows sodium hydroxide and chlorine to be produced in the same cell. Without the membrane, the sodium hydroxide would not be pure because it would contain chloride ions. One other problem that the membrane cell solves is that it keeps the chlorine gas and hydroxide ions separate. Chlorine and hydroxide ions react together which would reduce the amount of chlorine gas made and create more impurities in the sodium hydroxide. The table below shows some information of the two types of cell. mercury cell overall energy consumption (kWh per tonne of chlorine) 1 tonne = 1, , g purity of sodium hydroxide produed concentration of sodium hydroxide produced other points (a) (i) 336 high purity 5 % concentration mercury is toxic and must be removed from spent brine membrane cell 275 high purity 35% concentration low maintenance costs

Explain why it is important that the negative ions do not pass through the membrane in the membrane cell. chlorine. hydroxide Ans: During brine electrolysis, one of the key products is chlorine. Allowing hydroxide ions to pass through decreases the concentration of ions at the positive terminal, hence increasing the chances of discharge of ions which forms oxygen gas that contaminates the chlorine gas collected. Thus purification of chlorine gas is necessary. Likewise, the presence of ions further reduces the amount of chlorine gas forms due to reaction between chlorine and . With ions moving to the negative to terminal, it acts as impurity in sodium hydroxide as it results to the formation of sodium chloride. electrolysis, chloride. As sodium hydroxide is another key product of this electrolysis, further purification is required to obtain pure sodium hydroxide. [Focus on importance of obtaining pure chlorine and sodium hydroxide. Avoid fully lifting off from passage]

[3]

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(a) (ii) It is an advantage that negative ions do not pass through the membrance. Describe other advantages of using membrane cell instead of mercury cell. produced, kWh For the same mass of chlorine produced, membrane cell consumed 61 kWh energy lesser than that of mercury cell. Also, membrane cell does not contain any toxic substances such as mercury which requires additional process of removal. The membrane cell has a lower maintenance cost. [Deduction of marks if only one advantage is given; separate each point clearly] [Not accepted: It uses lesser energy and has low maintenance costs] (iii) Give a disadvantage of using membrane cell over mercury cell. diluted, The sodium hydroxide obtained is more diluted, giving rise to only 35% concentration as compared to the 5 % concentration in mercury cell. (b) Calculate the energy consumption of the membrane cell per mole of chlorine gas produced. Ans: Ans: No. of moles of chlorine = =
.

[2]

[1]

[2]

= . Energy consumed per mole

mol ( . = 275 = .195 kWh (3sf) )

M1

M1

[Deduction of marks for wrong or missing units and wrong significance given] (c) (i) Write the overall equation for the reaction in the membrane cell. [1]

( ) ( ) [Not: question] paragraph 1 of question] (ii)

( )

( ) as in does not link to (ii); clues from

Calculate the maximum mass of sodium hydroxide that can be produced from 1tonne of concentrated brine. = 25% = .25 = = From equation, ratio moles Max. mass of 2 . = ( . = ( . 94 = 17 94 ( mol ) ) ) M1 : : : 2 . mol ( .
.

[3]

Ans: Mass of No. of moles of

) M1

. .

= .

mol

M1

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8. Nine experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of using different catalysts on the rate of reaction. The table below shows the time taken for the reaction to end when different metal compounds were used as catalysts. experiment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (a) catalyst temperature at beginning / 19 2 19 2 19 2 19 19 19 time taken for reaction to end /second 45 22 26 46 45 22 15 26 46 [1]

( ( ( (

) ) ) )

Explain why it is important to record the temperature at the start of the reaction. experiment. To ensure the variable is a constant for a fair experiment. temperature [Accept: for the same temperature experiments are used during comparison of results]

(b)

Using the information in the table, explain how it shows that metal compounds in Group I and II are less effective as catalysts than those of transition metals.

[2]

( ) starting Ans: For the same starting temperature of 19 , compounds such as and require 45s and 46s respectively for complete reaction, but those of transition metal ) and ( ) require only 15s and 26s respectively for compounds such as ( complete reaction, indicating that reactions containing transition metal compounds as catalyst faster, are faster, hence they are more effective catalysts than compounds of Group I and II. must [Data analysis: values and comparison of datas must be clearly indicated. Accept using 2 (c) The experiments contain ions of two different iron. (i) Give the formulae for the two ions. and (ii) ions [1] ( ) . by conversion] ) takes [1] ]

Explain which ion of iron is the more effective catalyst. ions. ions. By conversion, for the same temperature at 19 , a longer time for reaction to end as compared to that of [ ( ) takes 2 .9s to end reaction using temperature of 19 temperature (

(d)

A student wrote this conclusion: The type of anion in the catalyst compound does not affect The reaction the rate of reaction (i) Use the results in the table to explain whether you agree with the students conclusion. I agree. and ( ) when used at a temperature at 19 and when used at a give rise to [2]

the same time taken of 26s, and temperature of 19 [ (ii)

give rise to the same time taken of 45s.

; for disagree no marks is awarded] awarded] [1]

Predict the time taken when iron(III) chloride was used. 15s

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9. The order of reactivity of four metals W, X, Yand Z was determined by carrying out some experiments as shown by the table below. metal W no experiment carried out reaction occurs reaction occurs reaction occurs metal X no reaction occurs no experiment carried out no reaction occurs no reaction occurs metal Y no reaction occurs reaction occurs no experiment carried out no reaction occurs metal Z no reaction occurs reaction occurs reaction occurs no experiment carried out [2]

solution of W nitrate solution of X nitrate solution of Y nitrate solution of Z nitrate (a)

Place the metals in decreasing order of reactivity. W, Z, Y, X

(b)

State and explain what you would see when metal Z reacts with hydrochloric acid. hydrogen, Metal Z decreases in size while effervescence forms. Z is more reactive than hydrogen, hydrochloric acid. hence it displaces hydrogen from hydrochloric acid. [Not accepted: hydrogen gas forms]

[2]

(c)

More experiments were conducted to include metal M into the list. The experiments included reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid with samples of the metals. The conclusion was that metal M is the fourth most reactive metal. Describe the experiments that were carried out. Your answer should include: the experiments that were done using dilute hydrochloric acid and the metals, the measurements taken, how the results showed that metal M is the fourth most reactive metal.

[3]

Ans:

Place metal W in excess to dilute hydrochloric acid in a conical flask connected to a graduated gas syringe as shown in the diagram to the left. The volume of gas collected is measured per second until the reaction stops. The time in which volume of gas first remains constant is noted and recorded in a table below. Repeat the process by changing the metals to X, Y, M and Z respectively. hydrochloric acid added to: Y M 22s 26s

W Time taken when volume remains constant 1 s

Z 12s

metal, produced. The more reactive the metal, the shorter the time it takes to reach constant volume of gas produced. Hence, from the table, W is the most reactive metal and Z, which does not react with the acid, is the least reactive metal. The order of reactivity in decreasing order is as such: W, Z, Y, M and X where M metal. is the fourth most reactive metal.

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(d) The five metals above: W, X, Y, M and Z can be extracted from their ores using the following methods: Two of the metals are extracted by electrolysis. Metal M and one other metal are extracted by carbon reduction. One of the metals occurs uncombined. (i) Suggest which is the other metal that is extracted by carbon reduction. Explain your reasoning. metals Ans: Metal Y. From reactivity, metals which are less reactive than carbon can be obtained by carbon reduction. For W and Z are the most reactive metals that can only be extracted electrolysis, M, by electrolysis, Y and M, the 3rd and 4th most reactive metals in the list, must be below carbon in the reactivity series. Suggest the name of metal M. (Av Iron / Tin (Avoid choosing lead)

[2]

(ii)

[1]

OR
9. Fractions of crude oil can be cracked to form smaller molecules. There are 2 types of cracking processes: steam cracking and catalytic cracking. (a) Steam cracking requires a temperature of about 7 . This process breaks larger molecules into smaller ones. Dodecane is a straight chain alkene with the formula . When one molecule of dodecane is cracked, two possible products are hexane, and one other compound. (i) Hexane is also a straight chain alkene. Draw the structure of hexane and give the name and structure of the other compound. Other product name : butene structure :

[2]

Ans: Hexane structure

(ii)

Describe a simple test that can be used to distinguish between hexane and the other product, Add aqueous bromine into each of the two substances separately in the absence of rays. butane, ultraviolet rays. The redbrown solution decolourises in butane, but solution hexane. remains redbrown in hexane. [Must include redbrown solution decolourises]

[2]

(b)

Catalytic converter can be carried out at a lower temperature of approximately 5 . The catalysts used are usually powdered alumina and silica. This process produces branched chain alkanes. Petrol containing branched alkanes burns more smoothly and leads to more complete combustion.

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(i) Draw the structure of a branched chain isomer of hexane. Accept any: [1]

(b)

(ii)

Write an equation for the complete combustion of hexane.

[1]

(iii)

Explain why incomplete combustion in car engines is undesirable. It produces carbon monoxide which, when inhaled, binds with haemoglobin in produces red blood cells and prevents blood from transporting oxygen to body, resulting in death. brain damage and even death.

[1]

(iv)

Explain why the catalysts are made to be in powdered form. Powdered catalysts have smaller volume, hence larger total surface area for higher chance of contact with reactant particles such that more particles can start energy. reaction at a lower activation energy. [Not accepted: collision theory]

[1]

(c)

There is a large demand for molecules in crude oil that can be used as petrol. Both cracking processes are important to ensure that the demand is met. Explain how cracking helps to meet such demand for petrol. Cracking breaks down larger fractions such as bitumen that has very little demand but high supply into smaller molecules like petrol that has a very high demand. As such, the oil. the demand can be met without the constant need to extract more crude oil.

[2]

End of Section B