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A Lexicog=hical Study of the PtolemaicTexts in the Temple of Edfa Ibesis submittedin accordance with the requirementsof the University

of Liverpool for the Degreeof Doctor of Philosophy by PenelopeWilson March 1991.



Abstract A LexicoUaphical Studyof thePtolemaic Textsin theTempleof Edfu - Penel= Wilson.

The thesis studies four thousandand sixty words which occur in different types of texts in the Temple of Edfu. 'rbe etymology and useof each word in the Egyptian languageis establishedfrom its earliest attestationup to the Edfu texts and then in dernotic and Coptic if appropriate.The words are exemplified with varied hieroglyphic writings reflecting the diverse orthographyof the Ptolemaic texts. The investigation aimed to show that although the texts were written in adead language',no longer spokenin Egypt, they continuedto be edited,compiled and composedby priest-scribeswho created 'new' words to add to the heightenedpoetic diction of the texts, and which were appropriatefor the ideological framework of the temple embodiedin the principles of 'Maat'- order and the continuation of the kingship. Though the words reflect a local Edfu mythology they also show the full integration of other theological systemssuch as thoseof Hermopolis and Heliopolis suggestingclose contact between the Housesof Life attachedto templesin the major religious centresof Egypt. The varied vocabulary of the texts and the amount of written material suggeststhat the priests who compiled the writings worked from texts which were carefully copied and emendedor edited within firm guidelines. Ile processwas continuous throughout the Late Period from which there is comparatively little temple evidenceand the Edfu texts attest to the transmissionof the texts throughout that time. Priestswho copied the texts also understoodthe languageand they were not only capableof further developmentof the orthographyand vocabulary of the texts but they also had the confidence to composetexts in the'dead' tongue. The way in which words amused -particularly in ritual offering texts - also shows the continuity in religious practice in Egyptian temples,with the by texts being editedand augmented an expandedvocabulary.Offerings are describedin more ancient varied forms using many different words in order that magically the ritual covers every possibility for example Seth is destroyedin every possible form by every possible meansof slaughter.The texts also have an artificial style and in somecasesa heightened'poetical'diction where by meansof paranomasiaand alliteradon the rituals not only are worthy for the gods to read and hear,but have a potent magical force to ensuretheir success., The study of individual words also revealsthe types of developmentthrough which they could go: intransitive verbs can also be used transitively, causativeswith an s-prefix continue to be formed and complementarynounsare derived from verbs or vice versa.

Acknowledgments Research thethesis for by wasfundedfor threeyears a grantfrom theBritish Academy. I wouldlike to thankmy supervisor Professor F.Shore his help especially demoticmatters, A. for in , andencouragementeverystage. at Themembers staff of theSchoolof Archaeology, Classics OrientalStudies havealways of and I offeredfriendlyencouragement in particular wouldlike to thankfor theloanof articles and Dr.C.J.Eyre,Dr.A.M.J.Tooley for otherassistanceW. A.Millard, Professor A.Kitchen, K. , Dr.P.Lawrence, C.Bennett for helpin all kindsof ways,some Mrs. beyondthecall of duty, Miss and P.Winker. Dr.R.J.Beynonnot only introduced to my Apple Mactinosh Plusbut allowedme to usethe me MicrobiologicalUser printerto print out thethesis Mr. Steven Downderof theAppleCentre, . LiverpoolUniversitykeptmy computer goingwhentheweightof Ptolemaic wordsprovedtoo much. TheFacultyof Arts andMYs. MacEwan theDepartment Ifistory alsodeserve thanks. A. my of of Ile EgyptExplorationSocietyawarded a studentship a SwanHelleniccruiseduringwhichI on me mademy first visit to theTempleof Edfu andsawthe textsin situ. TheMacGorians Douglases in haveprovidedanenvironment which I couldwork easilyandin and for I of this respect am gratefulto Miss A.Bawden removingBlakeduringthe final stages thethesis. in Finally, my family andrelations havealwaysprovidedsupport and especially nutritionalmatters I do in this instance would like to thankMr andMrs E.H.Dickinsonmostsincerely. perhaps not I of me realise fully the waysin which Mr.J.R.Dickinsonhasaffected duringthecourse my research haveassisted in everypossible but my debtto him is enormous. parents My way throughout me my and time at theUniversityof Liverpoolandwithouttheir generosity moralsupportI would neverhave It this stage. is to Mr. andMrs. D.Wilson at homein Durhamthat I offer all my love, reached and gratitude respect. drudge',but, whatever Johnson defineda lexicographer 'a harmless Dr.Samuel as elseI am ,I hopeI am neverharmless.


Acknowledgments ................................................ i

Contents Introduction Plansof Temple

iii - iv ................................................
................................................ v-


x1viii -I ................................................

Map of Egypt andKey ................................................ - iiii ii 3 vulture i reed ' arm w quail chick b foot P stool f homedviper m owl n water r mouth h shelter h twistedflax h placenta h animalbelly s bolt, cloth Ypool q hill k basket g pot stand t loaf of bread I tethering rope d hand
................................................ ................................................ ................................................ ................................................ ................................................ ................................................

1-52 ................................................ 53-242 ................................................ 243-348 ................................................ 349-533 ................................................ 534-619 ................................................ 620-698 ................................................ 699-707 ................................................ 708-870 ................................................ 871- 1020................................................ 1021-1071 ................................................
1072-1094 1095-1247 1248-1353 1354-1385 1386-1734 1735-1838 1839-1889

1890-1923 ................................................ 1924-1961 ................................................ 1962-2029 ................................................ 2030-2070 ................................................ 2071-2126 ................................................


d serpent

2127-2194 ................................................
................................. 2195-2198

Words cited erroneouslyby Wb Bibliography Abbreviations

2199-2246 ................................................
2247-2266 .................................................

Introduction The temple of Edfu is at the heart of the modem town of Tell Edfu, on the west bank of the Nile and the capital of the second nome of Upper Egypt. It was known as Apollonopolis Magna in Roman times and its Egyptian names were D.W in Vil documents (Coptic TB(J) and Bodt for religious .. building was excavatedby Mariette in about 1860, having been covered by the housesof purposes.71be the town's inhabitants, and the central stone temple is one of the best preservedin Egypt, lacking only some roof shrines.The surrounding complex of buildings beyond the stoneenclosurewall are however still buried under the modem town. Excavations to the south and west were carried out by the Institut frangais d'arch6ologie orientale from 1914 to 1933 and by a Franco-Polish mission from 1937-1939 The difficulty of excavation because of the proximity of modem dwellings, contrasted with the completeness of the temple and its inscriptions, and the resulting lack of an overall picture of the Edfu, meansthat the history and people at Edfu are considerably less well known ancient community at than their god.2 The site of the town was at the centre of an area of rich agricultural potential. The land for cultivation was six kilometres across at its widest point stretching 13 kilometres downstream to EI-Sayada and fifteen kilometres upstream to south of Nag el-Hasaya In ancient times a branch of the Nile flowed . 3 behind Edfu, irrigating a further expanseof land and contributing to the agricultural resources. The Wadi Abbad on the east bank gave connections with the gold mines of the easterndesert and the Red Seaand a trade route on the west bank brought Edfu into contact with the resourcesof Nubia. Edfu does to have been a significant town in the archaic -period, but in the Old Kingdom there is not appear town here, which reachedits apogeeof importance in the First IntermediatePeriod. evidenceof a walled The development of the town brought it into conflict with 1-fierakonpoliswhose governor Ankhtify for time controlled Edfu. The cult of Horus becameprominent at Edfu from the Middle Kingdom and it is a

listed in LA VI 327 nn.5-6 andalsoPM V 200-6. 1.Published accounts the excavations of from the Graeco-Roman 2. Somepapyrusdocuments period havebeenpublished: W.Speigelberg, Papyri Hauswaldt, Leipzig, 1913; B.Menu, Regusd6motiques Die Demotischen Gr6co-Romaines dEdfou, Hom.S.Sauneron pp.261-280. I provenant 3. For a diagram of the Edfu hinterland and descriptionof the townsite see M.Bietak, Urban Archaeologyand the 'Town Problem'. in Egyptologyand the SocialSciences, editedby K.Weeks, Cairo,1979p.110-114.


possible the falcon god owed something to the previously dominant Horus of Nekhen (Merakonpolis)A In the 13th dynasty and the SecondIntermediate Period there is evidence for royal patronageof the god Horus which continued into the New Kingdom as attestedby blocks bearing the namesof kings Tuthmosis III and Hatshepsut.More substantial temple remains in the form such as Amenhotep 111, II III of the lower coursesof a pylon with the namesof Sed II, Ramesses and Ramesses indicate that the site upon which the present temple standsmust always have been the sacredtemple area, for the Ramessidepylon lies at right angles to the main Ptolemaic pylon. There are lesser remains from the Saite period, but the great black granite naos of Nectanebo II, at the heart of the standing temple, suggeststhe possibility that during this period an important temple building stood at Edfu. The extant temple was, according to its inscriptions, founded in year 10 of Ptolemy III Euergetes237 B. C. and the final decoration and hanging of the pylon doors was completed in 57 B. C. under Ptolemy XI Alexander 11and Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos.5 There were two stoppagesin work due to loss of royal control in Upper Egypt. In 206 B. C. Haronnophris (Hurgonaphor), a native Egyptian was by proclaimed 'king'at Thebesand he was succeeded Cha :)nnophris(201/200), their revolt lasting for 20 years until 186 B. C.6 There were further breaks in construction at Edfu during the unrest of the 160s and 130s B.C. which at least demonstratesthe strong links between the king and the principles and reality of temple building and decoration. The relative completenessof the temple itself and the wealth of its inscriptions have made Edfu. a focal point for studies into Egyptian temple ritual and Ptolemaic hieroglyphs, in particular. Further, the texts are easily accessiblein published form (cited throughout this study by volume number alone E) begun by M. de Rochemonteix 7 continued to completion by without preceding ,a project

4. Early developments by summarised Bietak,op.cit. andalsoB.Kemp,AncientEgypt - Anatomyof London 1989p.39 -41 and04 for references. a Civilization, , 5. For the inscriptionsseea translation IV 1-16and VII I- 10 by Wit in CdE 36 no. 71,1961 of briefly by Fairmanin ASAE 43,1943 p.56-97and no.72 p.277-320; historyof templeconstruction p.93 and S.Cauville, Edfou, Le Caire, 1984p.61-64 ; S.Cauville, D.Devauchelle,RdE 35,1984 p.31-55. 6. P.W.Pestman, Harmaachis Anchmachis, deuxrois indignesdu tempsdesPtoldmdes, CdE 40, et 1965p.157-170; K. Vandorpe,The Chronologyof the Reignsof Hurgonaphor and Chaonnophris, CdE 61,1986 pp.294-302. f 7.1849-1891 for his career- Dawson Uphill, Who WasWho in Egyptology,London, 1972 and ,


9 E.Chassinat,8 and now revised and correctedby S.Cauville and D.Devauchelle. The texts are printed in the extensive font of the Imprimerie de Hnsfitut frangais d'archaeologieorientale in CairolO which, though adequateand detailed enough for certain signs, do not reproduce precisely the highly detailed carving of the actual inscriptions. For the sake of consistency and time the study relies upon the published texts, and it was only possible to collate texts from available photographs rather than from the actual temple walls. Further the texts now also, mostly, lack their colour which may have had somebearing upon the understandingof the inscriptions.1I Scholars who have studied the temple and its texts have had different areas of emphasis in their investigations made possible by the vast amount of available textl2, and the diverse nature of those texts. 13 The kaleidoscope of approaches,from the complete structural and architectural view of the temple, to a room or chamber in the temple, to one type of scene throughout the temple, to each individual hieroglyphic sign gives information about religious beliefs and ideas, cult rituals, the use of religious systemsand an overall picture of Egyptian conceptsconcerning their gods and how they were 14 served. The texts contain words so far only attestedin this temple and some am not recordedin the Worterbuch or other diction, aries and lexicographical studies.Work in this field is continuous and as more texts

p.250 ; Le Temple dEdfou 1,1892. 8.1868-1948 for his career -Dawson and Uphill, op.cit. p.61-62 Wu texts .... probably the most , magisterial publication ever produced by a single Egyptologist', Le Temple dEdfou, Tomes H to VIII 1 ; however see review by A. Egberts in Bibliotheca Orientalis, 47 No. 1/2, Jan-Maart, 1990 85 pp. 102-107 with corrections. 10. Catalogue de la forite hieroglyphique de l'imprimerie de H. F.A. 0. . nouvelle Mtion, Cairo, 1983. 11. Chassinat notes.where signs are different from the published version, errors in the carving and tracesof colour on the walls. 12. over 3,000 printed pages (d)k complete bibliography of studies is not available, but the bibliography of S.Cauville in Essai 'snrlla thdologie du Temple d'Horus A Edfou, Le Caire, 1987 p.251-262-covers many of the most important works. For individual lines - J-C. Grenier, Temple Ptoldmaiques et Romaines, R6pertoire Bibliographique, Index des citations 1955-1974 incorporating the work of N. Sauneron 1939-1954, , Le Caire 1979. 14. The monumental study by M. Alliot, Le Culte dHorus A Edfou au temps de Ptoldmdes two , volumes, Cairo, 1954 provides an extensive survey of the cult of Horus ; S.Cauville, Essai sur la th6ologie du Temple d'Horus A Edfou , Cairo, 1987 investigates the theological systems in the temple.

andIX to XIV (plates). TempledEdfou 1,revisedin four fasiclesandTomeII, revisedin twOfaicles andTomeXV,


15 their component arestudied, so vocabularies comeunderscrutiny. However,there hasbeenno completestudy of the building blocks of the texts - the individual for Ptolemaic dictionaryto incorporate 'Ptolemaic' words.A project hasbeenproposed a separate all words16andalsofor a complete translation theEdfu texts, 17 which is currentlyunder, studyand of way.Thethesis will not includeeverysingleword used Edfu - theconstraints time andresources at of precludethis - but it providesthe first all-embracing studyof wordsand how they are usedat Edfu, examiningdifferenttypesof textsand so usinga broadbaseof information.Eachentry is concerned in the with establishing earliestuseof the word and its latestoccurrence the Eg"tian language, to provide a temporalframeworkfor the history of the word, so that in somecasesit is possibleto follow the useof a word from the Old Kingdomthroughto Coptic.Ile etymologyof eachword is if in is established possible, changes its usearenotedandreasons why oneword ratherthananother 4%
particular sentenceor context may be indicated. The inclusion of the demotic form of the word,

if one exists, is to indicate if that word is in use in the language spoken in Egypt at the time the texts were inscribed on the temple walls. 7be core of this study is the boxes of hieroglyphic index slips held in the archives of the School of Archaeology, Classici and Oriental Studies, University of Liverpool. They were compiled over a number of years, originally by Professor Aylward M. Blackman, Brunner Professor of Egyptology 1934-1948 and then Emeritus Professor at Liverpoool University 1948-1956,18 and then by his colleague and successorProfessor Herbert W. Fairman, Brunner Professor of Egyptology 1948-1974. 19 Upon the the death of Fairman in 1982, many of his papersand the boxes of index slips were left to the University as a bequest. The slips had formed a working index for the texts of Edfu and Dendera, which were the subject of studies by Blackman and Fairman alone and in collaboration. Blackman had a lifelong interest in Egyptian religion and ritual, resulting in his contributions to the

RdE 29,1977 pp.5-13 ; RdE 30,1978 pp.10-21and or some'new' wordsseeAndreu-Cauville, invaluable Meeks,AnndeLexicographique, D. 1977,1978 and 1979. 16.F.Daumas, Projetd'un dictionnaire dgyptienptol6maique, depen&ntto Acts Ist ICE pp.145-147, someextentuponthecompletion thepublicationof Dendera templeandalsoPhilae. of 17.D.Kurth, GM 92,1986 pp. 93L andpersonal (date 26/3/87). communication 18.Dawsonand Uphill, op.cit. pp.29-30andobituaryby H.W.Fairmanin JEA 42,1956 pp.102-4. 19. Obituaryby A.F.Shorein JEA 70,1984 pp.123-127.


Hastings Encyclopedia2O and articles about the daily ritual in Edfu temple.21 In his lifetime, Fairman significan tly advanced Ptolemaic studies with his two main contributions to reading Ptolemaic hieroglyphic signs and understandingtheir values22 Together they collated and published the Morning Hymn to Horus, translatedand explained "Me Myth of Horus of Behdet!and the ritual of 'Driving the Calves' and showed that the cerern 'onies for the dedication of the temple were directly . funerary rite of the Opening of the Mouth. 23 They elucidated many obscure passages, related to the bringing to light 'new' words and opening the way for the study of texts hitherto considered to be 'difficule. After the death of Blackman, Fairman continued to contribute to Ptolemaic studies and those he taught to read the late temple texts. His papersreflect his wide influence for they encouraged the years and the boxes of index slips were of great contain correspondence with eminent scholarsover assistancein providing references in answer to queries. It is clear from his papers that Fairman was book about the whole temple and its rituals and in particular the offering of Maat was contemplating a high among his interests24Though an invaluable help to Fairman for examples of words, the index slips were never intended to be a systematicand comprehensivesurvey of the temple vocabulary, or to

form thebasisof a dictionaryor similarwork, for theydo not covereveryword in the templeand

Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics - Priest and Priesthood (Egypticin) Vol. X

293,302 in 2 A.M.Blackman,Episodes the EgyptianDaily TempleLiturgyi JMEOS 1918-1919 27-53 pp. King of Egypt'sGraceBeforeMeat,JEA 31,1945p. 57 ff e Inscriptionsof the 22. H.W.Fairman,Noteson the AlphabeticSignsEmployedin the Ilieroglyphic Templeof Edfu, ASAE 43,1943 pp.193-310and An Introductionto the Studyof PtolemaicSigns andTheir Values,BIFAO 43,1945 pp.51-138. in 23. A. M.Blackman H.W.Fairman,A Groupof TextsInscribed theFaq. of the Sanctuary on ade and 1941pp.397-428; The Myth of Horusat Edfu Gregoriana, theTempleof Horusat Edfu, Miscellanea I, JEA 21,1935 pp.26-36 ; II, JEA 28,'1942 pp.32-38 ; III, JEA 29,1943 pp.2-36 ; IV, JEA 30, 1944 pp.5-22 with Additions and Corrections,JEA 30,1944 pp.79-80 -The Significanceof the Ceremony bw bbsw in the Temple of Horus at Edfu, JEA 35,1949 pp.98-112 ; JEA 36,1950 63-81 ; The Consecration an EgyptianTemple According to the Use of Edfu, JEA 32,1946 of pp. pp.75 ff. in 24. All theEdfu Maatofferingsaretranslated the MSS collectionand eachis individually indexed in Fairman alsointerested the'Sacred in Marriage,the festivals described a setof indexcards. was and ' in the temple (resulting in his article in BJRL'-37, 1954-5 pp.165-203)and the temple 'drama' in College,Chester culminatifigin the play The Triumph of Horuswhich wasperformedat Padgate 1972.

their coverageof texts is patchy.25 The study of the texts usesthe slips as a basis and also relies on the referencesfrom the Worterbuch Belegstellen volumes which refer only to Volumes I and 11of Chassinafs publication and other texts published elsewhere up to that time.26 The index slips provide often no more than a word and a reference for it - sometimes there is a little more text, a note on the location of the text and rarely there is a discussion of the word or referenceto (i study of it. Where appropriate theseare noted under each entry. The ten boxes of slips27 were firstly sorted and arranged alphabetically as they had not been organised in a systematicway, and from thesea working list of words and referenceswas made. Each word was studied in more detail to establish etymologies, 'dates' for words and to note their orthographies and use within the context of the sentencesand texts in which they appearedon the temple walls. In the caseof offering rituals - the item offered or function performed were studied as a group to establish the extent to which words were copied between texts and also more generally to note that they shared the samereligious symbolism as far as their inclusion in the temple texts was concerned. The study is not intended to be grammatical, the basic work still being that of Junker8 though the is noted if appropriate and if it deviates significantly from the usual Middle grammar of the texts Egyptian. The aim is to concentrate on the words of the texts to discover if their use provid es any how the texts in Ptolemdic, and by extension Roman, temples were written in the first clue as to how they were edited for inscription upon temple walls and perhaps also how the texts found place, their way onto the wall from original text on papyrus to inscription on stone. The stages in development of the individual words show their'historicar transmission,at least in theory, and the

25. All Mut texts are included as are the publishedtexts,but the 'Geographical' texts, and some , k%rjt rAkfiTipfthirm namVIe, = rjunrit at all. Vurther,bothFirman and Blackmanmusthaveretainedin their memories locationsof examples painstalcingly or searched the themto a slip for the indexbox. out required as references needed withoutcommitting i 26. E.Naville, TextesRelatifsau Mythe d'Horusrecueillesdansle Templed'Edfou,Gentve et Bale, 1870 ; Brugsch,. ThesaurusInscriptionum Aegyptiacarum,Leipzig, 1883 ; K.Piehl, Inscriptions hidroglyphiquesrecueillies en Europe ct en tgypte, 1884-1903; J.Dilmichen, Geographische Ins -hriften altAgyptischer Denkmaler vols. 1865-1885 AlulgyptischerKalenderinschriften 4 1866 ; AltAgyptische Tempelinschriften, vols. 1867 amongothers. 2 , 27. Containingan estimated 32,000slips in 10 woodenboxes. 28. H.Junker,Grammatik DenderatexP- Leipzig, 1906. der L ,


use of words in the context of the Edfu texts is an important factor in this. The context of a word may not only be the type of text in which it is used, but also its position on the wall of the temple, or its use in a particular part of the temple. Words have both a temporal and spatial context and this study recognizesthe interaction of words from different levels of thoseareas. Since the suggestion of the existence of the 'temple grammar', that is that temples were built and inscribed according to certain rules and prescribedregulations,29 the texts of Ptolema1cand their texts Roman temples are no longer regardedas unoriginal, stale, pale imitations of earlier periods, but show the triumph of text transmission and the complex mechanismof mythological integration which was by the composersof the writings. 30 achieved All the texts inscribed on the walls at Edfu were written there between 237 and 57 B.C. eriod of

180 years. This precision makesits possible to discern which words were current in the vocabulary of W" those who compo sed the texts and , unlike other templeswithffidfti could be compared- for example Dendera, Philae, Kom Ombo Esna - it has a relatively short period of construction and inscription. , The construction of the temple does not extend into the Roman era as at Dendera3l and Philae, and Ptolemaic period - so that in many ways it is regardedas the leader was completed wholly within the Upper Egyptian temples whose texts provided the standardsfor the temples which of this series of followed. Parts of Edfu temple can be datedmore precisely, narrowing down the date for different areasbecause there were a number of phasesof construction . The nucleus of the temple - the sanctuary, its side first hypostyle hall, the hall of offerings , hall of the gods - was begun in 237 B. C. and chapels, the dedicated in 142 B. C. (Ptolemies IV to VIII). The Pronaoswas addedbetween 140 and 124 B.C. was (Ptolemy VIII) and the Court, the enclosurewall and pylons were constructedbetween .

du 29. The phrase'grammaire temple'wascoinedby P.Derchainin CdE 37, Nr. 73,1962 p.33 ff. and des in Rdflexionssur la d6coration pyl6nes', BSFE46,1966 pp.17-24. Zeit, 30. E.Winter, Untersuchungen den AgyptischenTemplereliefsder Griechisch-Romischen zu Wien, 1968and reviews: P.Derchain,RdE 22,1970 pp.242-3 ; J.Gwyn.Griffiths in JEA 56,1970 228-230-; J-C. Goyon, CdE 45 Nr.89,1970 pp.98-102 (among others which summarisethe pp. historicalapproach the studyof theLate temples) alsoE. Winter, WeitereBeobachtungen to and zur Zeit du 'grammaire temple'in der griechisch-romischen in Tempelund Kult AA 46, Wiesbaden,1987 pp. 61- 76. 31. At Denderathe decoration the templewasbeginningjust as it was endingat Edfu, Fairman, of ASAE 43,1945 p.194.


1 116 and 57 B.C. (Ptolemy IX to Ptolemy XII)32. The temple inscriptions are published from the inside of the temple out, working in a roughly chronological fashion from the sanctuaryin Volume I to the pylons in Volume VIII and it is noticeable that the quality of the carving of the texts deteriorates over that time, and also the pylon texts tend to be written in complex hieroglyphs and have more errors than the clearer,more accurateearlier texts. Di=Qsition of the Texts in the temple and in the Publicatien 33

Naos Sanctuary 'CouloirMyst6riuex' Chamber cloth of Hall of theEnnead Chamber the Crypt of Chapelof the Crypt Vwt-sr Chapel Mesen of Chapelof Khonsu Chapel Hathor of Chapel 11irone Re of of

19-11 Room 15 Y Room21 Room20 Room 19 Room 17 Room 18 Room 16 Room 22 Room 23 *,'Room 24 112-51(int.), 52-88(exL),Niles (319-326). 189-117; 1327-344; 1345-356 1118-136 1137-155 1156-174 1175-201 1203-225 1227-245 1247-264 1265-280 1281-299

(Osiris-Sokar Chambers)

Chapel of Mehyt or Room of the Ibrone, Room 25 Hall of associated gods Chapel of Mn

Room 11 Room 12 Room 13

1357-385 1387-408 1409-436 1437-445

Hall of the Food Altar

'Pure Placeor place of robing Room 14

32. Basic outline : Fairman,BJRL 37,1954-5, p. 167, more detailed analysis with historical ' by 'A in consequences S.Cauvilleand D.Devauchelle RdE 35,1984 pp.31-55and noteby A.Egberts, Noteon the Building Ifistory of theTempleof Edfu, RdE 38,1987 pp.55-61. 33. Numberingfollows that of Sauneron Stierlin in Edfouet Philae,Paris, 1975 which is based and , on that of Fairmanpp.36-37.


Hall of Offerings

Room 9

1447-505 1507-533 1535-546 1577-583 1547-576 1585-592 111-136 11137-146 11147-187 11189-230 11231-267 11269-299 1111-328 111329 338 111339-351 IV I- 393 VI I- 340 VI328

Room10 Antechamber Western of stairway, Weststairway Antechamber Eastern stairway of Eaststairway Antechamber Hall of FoodAltar to Hall Second Hypostyle WestDoor of temple EastDoor of temple Laboratory Chamber theNile of Treasury Pronaos, First HypostyleHall Houseof Morning Library Room 5 C E Room 6 Room 7 Room 8 Room2 Room 3 Room4

Exterior of NaosandPronaos X Interior of Enclosure Wall Court 1 X

from Connecting doorsandpassages Court Wall Exterior of Enclosure in Connecting wall passage enclosure Pylon Gate SouthTemenos

V 329 - 402 VII 1 -332 VI 341 - 352 VIII I- 149 VIII 151- 170

The outline enables positionof a text to be roughly identified either from a reference the suchas I 327,11 (Room 25) or from a descriptionsuchas SokarChamber(Room 17 or 18). The templeis to orientationfrom descriptions locationsof of alignedwith the sanctuary the north,so that compass on as text are straightforward Scenes the wall arearranged follows from the groundupward: reed .


decoration, soubassement, registers 1,2,3 and so on, architrave, corniche34. T_y1jes Texts of The main body of texts at Edfu are ritual offering texts, where the king offers an object to the god or gods, or performs some service for him. These can be subdivided into broad types of offering funerary and mortuary offerings (48 examples); kingship rituals (177 examples) ; food offerings (322) ; purification, libation and liquid offerings (414) ; offerings of symbols (Maat for example) and cosmic rituals (218); rites of adoring god (73) ; specific rituals for a goddess(146) ; specific rituals for a god (30) ; protection rituals (120)35 - many of these overlap becausethey all share the common purposeof showing the establishmentand maintenanceof Maat, or guaranteeingthe legitimacy of the kingship so that he is able to care for the gods and provide for them in the temple. They also include rituals from the 'Daily Temple Culf of attending to the god. Certain other texts appearin the temple and can be conveniently referred to as groups: Cosmozonical Texts VI 181-185 ; 36 Donation Texts : VII 215 - 251.37 Processionsof minor god with offerings: 1565-567; 11189-96and 147-151 ; IV 42-49; and 194-201 ; VI 223 - 227 ; VIII 68-76. Festival texts; V 29-35 ; 124-136 ; 343-4 ; 346-360 ; 394-40138 , list of festivals 1359. Geographic processions (the nomes of Egypt and their land, canal and pehu are brought with their 1329-344 ; 11 173-4 ; IV 20-42 and 170-194 ;V 12-28 and 105-124 ; VI 19-48 VI offerings) : 193-213.39 41 40.1118-9 and 32-34 ; VI 328-331 ; VIII 147-148 and also the Eon-gargoyletexts. Guardian gods Hymns: The Morning Hymn to Horus 114-1842; Good Year hymn VI 93.9943; Table god Hymn

Edfou VolumeI pp. i- xvi. 34. Basedon Chassinat, du 35. Based the figuresandtypologyof Cauville,Essaisur la th6ologie TempledHorus AEdfou, on Cairo, 1987pp.VIII - IX n.I. 36. E.A.Reymond, 1969. The Mythical Origin of theEgyptianTemple,Manchester, 37. D.Meeks,Le grandtextesdesdonations templed'Edfou,Cairo, 1972. au 38. Alliot Le Culted'HorusAEdfouau tempsde Ptoldm6es, Cairo 1954,Vol. 11. , 39. P.Derchain,Un Manuelde geographie liturgique A Edfou, CdE 37, No.73 1962pp.31-65and , H.Beinlich,Die spezfischen SAK 7,1979 pp.11-22. OplerderOberagyptischen Gaue, 40. J.-C.Goyon,Les Dieux-gardiens la gense temples, Cairo,1985. des et 4 I. Wit, Les Inscriptions Lions-Gargouilles, des CdE 29, No.57,1954 pp.2945. 42. Blackman Fairman,MG 1941,pp.397428. and ,


VI 152-15644 ; SakhmetLitany VI 263-26945 ; Sayings of Re chant VH 28-42. Instructions to priests: 1414 ; 111360-362;V 392-3 VI 346-746. Ka and Hemsut processions: 11196-102 and 152-158 VIII 112-117. List of gods at Edfu : 1122-25 ; 152-53 ; 180 also VI 48-54 ; VI 228-234. Myth of Horus. Myth of the Winged Disk. the Struggle Between Horus and Seth: VI 60 90; 109 136; 213 -223A7 Names of Horus New Year Texts 1118-20. 1553-556 and processionof priests at the New Year festival to the temple roof :1

537-544 1556-564 ; 1567-576.48 Nile processions: 1319-326.1465-470 ; 1580-583 ; IV 332-339 VIII 31-32 50-51 ; 59-60. Temple Descriptions and dedication texts : 1327-328 ; 1345-347 1348-355 119-12 ; IV 1-2049 ; IV 327-331 *V 1-10 ;V 304-304 ; VI 5-18 ; VI 169-173 ; VI 318-327 ; VII 1-27 49 ; VIII 67-68. Various : benu bird and falcon texts VIII 106-8 ; 144-146 ; Filling the Eye ritual VIII 135-137 ; Moon texts and the hours of the day 111207-229.

43. P.Germond, Invocations la BonneAnn& autempledEdfou, Geneva, Les A 1986. 44. Blackman, The King of Egypt'sGraceBeforeMeat,JEA 31.1945 p. 57 ff 45. P.Germond, Sekhmet la Protection Monde,Geneva, 1. du 198 et 46. Fairman Scene theOffering of Truth in theTempleof Edfu in MDAIK 16,1958p.86-92. of ,A 47. Blackman Fairman,seen.23. and 48. Alliot, Cultel pp.33IFf.. 344ff. 49. Cde Wit, Les Inscriptionsd6dicatoires TempledEdfou, CdE 36, N0.71,1961 pp.56-97and du CdE 36, No.72 1961pp.277-320.


Statostical Analy5l& Total number of words OK Pyr. MK CT Mod NK BD Late GR Error 526 814 568 31 100 492 81 148 831 18 % lKr category

12.95 20.05 13.99


2.46 12.12 1.99 3.64

20.47 0.44

Not Wb




Words Occurring in Dernotic and Coptic Total of words occurring in demotic only and at Edfu Total of words occurring in Coptic only and at Edfu: 137 103 3.37% 2.54% 14.56%

Total of words occurring in both demotic and Coptic and at Edfu 591

Total of wordsattested from demoticandCopticandat Edfu : 831


xvi ;

Statistical Survey
A statistal analysisof the wordsin the studyshowsthat from a total of 4060 separate entries,11 % are not attested the W6rterbuch(andthis doesnot includeextensions the useof verbs- for in in intransitiveverbsbecomingtransitive)and20.5 % areattested the first time in Egyptian for example from GR templetextsonward.Overall,therefore, almosta third of all wordsin the studyareattested for the first time in Egyptianfrom asearly as the Edfu texts,which represents total of 1282words. a The statistic could be usedto indicatea hugeincrease in'text compositionand writing during the Ptolemaic period on the part of the priest scribesin the temples, who may havederivedwordsfrom time. The textsin the the spokenlanguage usedthemin hieroglyphictextsfor the first attested and is templeare written in Middle Egyptianwhile the spokenlanguage demotic.The term demoticis also used of the script which can be used to write Middle Egyptian texts, for examplefunerary 50 (medical)andreligioustextsboth in hieroglyphicscript texts. The vocabulary funerary, of magical is anddemoticscriptandlanguage likely to havehavebeenin usem'Egyptianfrom theearlieststages 51 in .demotic. hieroglyphicword alsoattested of the language, it is rare to find a newly attested and in While statisticscanbe usedto indicatebroadtrendsor patterns a set of results,in the caseof the Edfu vocabulary thereareotherimportantfactorswhich mustbe takeninto consideration. Firstly, the extantstonetemplewalls at Edfu andcontemporary templetownsin UpperEgypt,are buried underthe mud brick the last phaseof templebuilding at thosesites,which wassubsequently houses the growing town. The later buildings ensured that the templetexts survivedto a much of greater extent than either temple walls of earlier times or even contemporarypapyrus texts Statistically, one would expectto find many words attestedfor the first time from thesetemples, The because muchtext,relativeto earlierperiodshadbeenpreserved so well preserved. and so simply to of to exactdegree which the factorof preservation text affectsthe statisticis impossible determine, Louvre E 3452,Diss. Chicago,1979 '-7he DemoticMortuary Papyrus 50.For example Mark Smith, pp. andcomments 246-7. 51. sbsb in dernoticand Coptic-;p'i demotic; dp't demotic.


though it may be high. Secondly, the extensivepublication of thosetexts has ensuredthat a large body of words is available for study, and almost three quartersof the texts were published after the Wrterbuch was completed,so that again one should expect a certain amount of 'new' words. Subsequentand continuing publication of other earlier material might be expectedto reduce the number of 'Graeco-Roman'words.52 In this context a complete index of vocabulary in Underworld Literature, in the Ramesside Inscriptions Historical53 and Religious, for the 11ibisTemple texts and for demotic 54 religious and magical texts would provide valuable comparison with the Edfu texts. Thirdly, among the vast amount of material not representedin Egyptological records, and,which have significance for the Ptolemaic and Roman temples, are the temples of the 21st to 30th dynasties those of the Persian occupation in Egypt. The relatively complete temples of Edfu, Dendera, and Philae.. have nothing comparable in terms of text except for portions of the Karnak complex and the Abydos Temple of Seti I from the New Kingdom and the temple of 11ibis in Kharga oasis from the Persian period. The New Kingdom temples show some of the ritual offerings found at Edfu but they have very little text accompanying the scenes- so that the abundant vocabulary is not present.During Late Period in Egypt, and especially from the 25th dynasty, there was an upsurge of interest in the Egypt's past and a desire, particularly on the part of of rulers whose positions were not secure,to copy 55 kind of archaic legitimacy to the present. the authentic styles and texts of the Past to give some 0 , There are cnly smaa traces QfyastbjjjjdjnZ,, vo&s whichhav e,nots ury 1ved complete ir ffis period at , the centresof Tanis, Sais, Buto, Memphis itself and even at Edfu, Dendera, Philae

52. The publicationand studyof the Coffin Texts hashad a similar result of bringing to lightnew' knownanearlierattestation. wordsandof giving wordsalready 53. Currentlybeingprepared Profesor A.Kitchen by K. 54. A supplement Erichsen's'Demotisches Glossar'is currentlybeing prepared Chicago[R.K. to at Ritner, The Chicago Demotic Dictionary :A StatusReport in ed. S.P. Vleeming, Aspects of Deiiiotic Uxicography, Ieuven, 1991pp.145-149.

55.For theEgyptian Egypt- Anatomy a Civilazation, viewof tht past'ordef, B.Kernp,Andent, of Undrin, 19%9 20-21. pp.


the and Esna. Only the temple of Hibis has anything approaching- preservedform of Edfu, and amountsof text, which by no meanscopious,at least attestto the continuedcompilationOf texts 56 Thereis evidencefor earlier Late Periodand in sucha comparatively remoteplace. evenat this templesomekind of latershrineor templebuildingsat Edfu andonewouldexpect aftertheRamesside templewould be built by -a king who wantedto patronisethe importantcult of Horus here.Such buildings may haveprovidedtexts and vocabularywith which the Edfu texts cannotbe compared because that their predecessors longer exist. It hasbeensuggested the Late Periodrepresents a no whenpriestsbeganto collect all their movetowarda culminationof religiousideasandexpression, and religious ideas and put it into a complex but coherentform which explained mythological Egyptian'world-view' - the importance the kingship,the maintenance Nlaatandthe positionof of of the gods in the cosmos.The increasingforeign influencesin the country are cited as one of the for this move toward 'codification' to protect Egyptian thought from the influence or reasons 57 foreign systcm. The priests of the Ptolemaicand Roman periods were superimpositionof a for traditionwhich hadexisted hundreds yearsso thattheEdfu textsusethevocabulary of continuinga 58 LatePeriodandmayhaverecovered fromevenearlierperiods. of the words in Egyptianhieroglyphictextsand that no The statisticalresultsshowthe remarkable consistency to field of 'literature!wasexcludedfrom providing vocabularyfor templetexts.'Mere seems be no dichotomybetween 'religiousand'seculae texts.20 %.of wordsoccurfrom thePyramidTextsonward further 13 % from theOld Kingdom,therefore third of all wordsat Edfu havebeenin usefrom a anda periodis vital for our the theOld Kingdom.Theperiodbetween Old KingdomandtheGraeco-Roman 'mythological' texts.If a corpusof specialist of of understanding the transmission 56. The temple,dedicatedto Amun, was begununder Darius 1 (521 - 486 B.C.) , completedby H Nectanebo andhadadditions madeto it by someof thePtolemies. in Tempelnund Papyrider MythischeMotive und Mythenbildung den Agyptischen 57. H.Stemberg, 1985p. XVII with reference an unpublished Zeit, to Griechisch-R(imischen Wiesbaden, thesisof , Religion,Gottingen,1981. der F.Junge- Die Endsituation Agyptischen 58. For examplea few words are attested Edfu and in the PyramidTexts only : m3s . mds both at b'b' 'knife'and perhaps meaning -I


words is assumedto exist, which were used originally to write the Pyramid texts, and these words appear in significant numbers in Graeco-Roman texts, then even allowing for coincidence, the 'mythological' vocabulary must have continued to be used in the intervening period. New' vocabulary would be introduced when the texts were reedited for the Coffin Texts or for the New Kingdom Underworld Literature, and they are addedto the corpus and usedover time, so that by Graeco-Roman times the priest-scribeshave a huge vocabulary at their disposal from which to choosewhen they edit the texts for the temple walls, other buildings or even papyri. The copying of older texts in Egypt is attested from both documents and monuments - perhaps with the use of 'pattern' books - and variations in the copies indicate that changesin texts were madeby personal choice on the part of the 59 scribe.

in A surveyof the number wordsat Edfu whichareattested Copticand/ordemoticindicates a that of total of 20.5 % (831) of the words at Edfu appearin either or both Coptic and demotic,and the majority of the 831 words are attestedin both Coptic and demotic. In some respectsthe total is but depends percentage lessthanmayhavebeenexpected suchananalysis uponthematerialalready published therearealmostcertainlyfurtherexamples whichcanbe addedto thetotal.Ibis is vividly shown as more demotic texts are edited, especiallythoseof a more specialistnaturesuch as the Among thesea Medical Book' provides Fayumtemplearchivenow in Viennaand CopenhagenO in plant names(P.Vindob. D 6257)61,a book of regulationsfor building a temple equivalences terms(P.Vindob D 6319A)62. Demoticbooksof the deador funerary containstemplearchitectural of and textsusethesamevocabulary their earliercounterparts provideexamples termsknownfrom as 63 hieroglyFhic texts,but written in demotic. Votive artefacts connected with temples,
59. W. Schenkel, Zur Frage der Vorlagen spAtzeitlicher 'Kopien', in Fs.Otto, Wiesbaden 1977 , pp.417-441. 60. Described by E.Reymond,Ancient Hermetic Writings, Wien 1977 and A. Volten, The Papyrus Collection of the Egyptological Institute of Copenhagen, 'Archiv Orientalni 19,1951 pp.70-74. 61. E.A. E.*Reymond, A Medical Book From Crocodilopolis, Wien 1976. 62. E.A. E.Reymond, Ancient Egyptian Hermetic Writings, Wien 1977. 63. for example G.Mbller, Die Beiden Totenpapyrus Rhind des Museums zu Edinburg, Leipzig, 1913 ; M. Smith, Demotic Papyri III - The Mortuary Texts of Papyrus BM 10507, London 1977 - listed by M. Smith, The Demotic Morutuary Papyrus Louvre E.3452; PhD Chicago University, 1979.

xx i

64 in particular a group of objects from Dendera, also use the languageof the temple texts and provide demotic examples of hieroglyphic words - the most striking example being a bronze tablet with the title of a priest who was responsible for the sgmo 'cult spear' at Edfu. Demotic is the vernacular language which is contemporary with the Edfu texts and if the need arose to express a cult object in demotic script the scribe can easily do so - there seemto be no constraints and 'sacred' vocabulary is rendered without difficulty in the 'seculae script. The exchangebetween dernotic and hieroglyph also operatesthe other way in the caseof the Donation texts, where words which are only used in demotic are written in hieroglyphs as the need arises - for example gt 'a well', di 'a type of land! c f. dni 'dyke for land demarcation'. The Coptic script, the Greek alphabet with extra signs from demotic, may have come into existence primarily to write magical and medical texts in order that the spells and recipes in them could be 65 As-an example P.BM 10808 66 is an pronounced correctly and retain their magical potency. Egyptian text written in 'Coptie script and it contains many terms common to the Edfu temple texts. The majority of words which occur at Edfu and then in the later stagesof Egyptian are words which known from the Old and Nfiddle Kingdoms and represent a core vocabulary of words in use are throughout the language. Some of the terms change their meaning slightly over time , for example the basic meaning'to go round' becomes'to charin'in demotic and Coptic and ptr'to see' plir with becomes'to dream'. and others, especially nouns, retain the sameuse. 20.5% of the total number of terms at Edfu are words which are only attested from the Graeco-Romantemples onwards. Dendera seemsto sharemuch of the Edfti vocabulary and it seems likely that as more researchis undertakeninto- the comparative texts of Philae, Esna, Kom Ombo the Mammisi of Dendera,Edfu and Philae, the Ptolemaic and Roman buildings at Karnak andThebes

Period,in Glimpsesof Ancient 64. A.F.Shore, Votive Objectsfrom Dendera the Graeco-Roman of . Egypt pp.138ff. Agyptemund Die Texteals Zeugnisse Beziehungen der 65.5eeH.Satzinger, altkoptischen zwischen Griechen in ed. P.Nagel, Graeco-Coptica : Griechen und Kopten im byzantin Agypten, 1984pp.137-146. Halle-Wittenberg, Papyrus 66. J.Osing,Der spAtAgyptische BM 10808, Wiesbaden 1976.


and also into the Nubian temples of Kalabsha, Dakke, Debod - the texts at Edfu will be seento be part of a network of temple construction and developmentstretching over hundredsof years and over the whole of Egypt. Of course the emphasisin each temple is slightly different depending upon the temple god and the vocabulary of the texts will be affected as a result. Edfu is concerned with the triumph of Horus over Seth and establishing Maat therefore there are a high proportion of scenes showing the destruction of Seth requiring many variant terms for 'to kilr 'to slay' and the weapons used to achieve this end and for every conceivableform of Seth and Apopis. At Denderathe emphasis is on the goddessHathor - her pacification her identification with Maat - but both temples overlap in their concerns and reflect the basic Egyptian ideology. Both temples use a common vocabulary and sometimes the sametexts. This would be expectedat Edfu and Den dera becausethey are so closely linked - but even farther afield at Kom Ombo, Philae, Esna and Thebes the common purpose results in a common vocabulary which is modified according to the specific requirements of each temple. Contact between the temples would have been close, particularly in areaswhere land was owned by the god of another temple much further away, and even allowing for natural human quarrels and between foundations67, the scribes or priests of the Houses of Life would have animosity communicated. is not discern ble nor is the extent to which temple 'schools' The extent of such communication , libraries but the gods themselvesare known to have visited each other and workshops guarded their their respective houseswould meet. Provided those who entered and on such occasions the priests of purified in the correct manner it may have the buildings around the temple were serving priests and 68 In order to preserve the integrity of the been possible for them to consult copies of the sacredrolls. document scribes would be continually copying and recopying all or part of it - so that original master the Housesof Life were producing copies for their use and perhapsalso for the use of other

67.Thedisputebetween priestsof Hermonthis priestsof Pathyrisconcerning ownership the the of and in of recorded a dossier a fertile pieceof landandan additionalplot of landresultedin violent clashes documents[T.C.Skeat, Greek Papyri in the British Museum Volume VII, The Zenon Archive, London, 1974',Papyrus 2188]. 68. A 'literary' precedent this occurson the FamineStela, whereImhotep, for entersthe 'Mansionof the Net! at Hermopolis to consult the b3w-r' 'sacredbooks' in the 'Mansion of Life' Stela line,5 P.Barguet, St6lede la FamineA S6hel,Cairo, 1953p.17. La


temples. Only by close communication and consultation of temple rolls could the whole ideological system be harmonised and maintained throughout Egypt . In this way traces of the Heliopolitan and Hermopolite schools are mingled with the Edfu systemand incorporate the Osirian system. It is likely that the impetus for the overall system came from what was perceived to be the main religious centre of the day, Heliopolis or Karnak for example, and certainly in Ptolemaic Egypt the king himself is unlikely to have had any control over the texts in temples - though the Ptolem4ticdecreesestablisheda royal interest in the temples. It is unclear, however , whether or not the main religious centres imposed their will on outlying areasand exercised any kind of monitoring of Housesof Life and the texts which they copied.

The vocabularyat Edfu is not an homogenous group of words for the texts cover a numberof differenttypesso that specialist of vocabularies couldbe listedfor certaincategories text: to textsfrom the laboratory'and copiesof them,in the recipesfor makingsubstances be usedin the in elsewhere templecontainthe names plants,resins,incenses mineralswhich do not appear and of in the templeor are unattested any other text (thoughthe Egyptiansmay havebeenuncertainof the identity of someof the substances); of broughtby countries places unattested containthenames minerals textsdescribing minerals and the elsewhere; the termsfor the describing inundation manyvariantwordsfor the flood andcomplementary texts use impuritieswhich theyremove; texts describingthe produceof eachnomeand its landsusevarianttermsfor grains,flowers,fruits, fowl andanimalswhicharefoundthere; plants,offerings, requirenounsfor 'column'and'heaven' textswritten on the frisesof the columnsof thePronaos with for 'to carry'Aolift' 'to hold'. verbs appropriate Suchgroupsof words'are mainly nounswhich aremorelikely to occurin word lists which couldbe consultedduring the compositionof the texts. Ilie ritual texts in the temple also need specialist of vocabularies consisting nounsandverbs, for "ample: -


killing of Sethian opponents requires words for Seth, Apopis and their cohorts and verbs describing the killing action. Maat offerings - variant words for 'throae, metaphorsfor Maat and verbs of offering to accompany them. Vingship rituals words for ruling, nouns for symbols of kingship - crowns, sceptres,the testament, -

the king in his palace,the uraeuskd eyesof god. Food offerings have variant terms for bread, cakes,beer, wine, water, milk, meat cuts birds, grains, , vegetationPurification rituals have nouns for the substances which purify and verbs for the action of purification. Offerings of adornment need the appropriate vocabulary to show the purpose of the offering, be it cloth, an amulet, cosmetics. The rituals then will use certain types of vocabulary so that the role of the ritual is clearly defined even if it is expressedin different forms. Other specialisedterms are neededat Edfu: in the poetical description of the warship of Horus Behdet each part of it is named and praised in a metaphor. This text requires technical nautical terms and follows the tradition of careful descriptions of boats as found in the Coffin texts and Book of the Dead. The mythology and cosmogony of Edfa require words which would not be expected to be used for example : lb tyw 'creator beings' M3 'ancestoe , i3wty 'harpooner' Wb tyw pure elesewhere, , ancestors' Ibb 'winged beetle' si3 falcon, and there are also local terms - sm3t , sbn. rbyt , Opt-rby! and 03p-iwtyw 'necropolis of Edfu'. There are also words which are not exclusive to

Edfu, but the temple provides perhaps the earliest example, especially words for Seth Ijnp sndmti , dr 'red one'wr 'great one' dns 'heavy one! . qm3 , dn' , 11dy, mdy , nhs as the hippopotamus , , btm 'destroyer'. as the crocodile ib 'ox', qmw as the turtle t-rs, Xt3 'hidden one'- or Apopis , sbbty , sbty, smsty. i

The Geographical texts of the couloir mysterieux.lists for each nome the name of its principal shrine, the canal and pchu there, the name of the sacred barque, the sacred serpent who controls the


flood in the canal, the priest and priestess,the taboo of the god, the relic of Osiris kept in the nome . the name of the sacred tree, important festivals of the nome - and mostly the terms are different. A version on papyrus also exists, perhaps representing one of the standard works 'in the temple library. 69

Among the words at Edfu are somewhich are attestedearlier, perhapsrarely and then they are next attested at Edfu, tacitly implying that the term existed either in other texts, now lost , or in the spoken languageand was more frequently used than might be thought. Pyramid Texts : m3s 'knife' mds 'knife', iwn 'wind' (and in other GR temples) ; bIbI 16 bathe , in'. I

Old Kingdom Texts : snbtboae ; by-mbt 'tool of the north'. Medical Texts : often namesfor plants and substances recur at Edfu nirw'flowers, also wdd'to bum', bsw'mould, fungus!, wnw 'child'. Literary Texts : ibin 'make go slowly' (Peasant) ; db fisherman (Peasant)- dbb 'to fish! (Edfu) m3o 'open space'(Tale of the Herdsman); mm 'giraffe (Shipwrecked Sailor). Coffin Texts : imrt lioe', whm 'to bum', 3f3f 'to ed, ns 'knife', wprt 'haie., Middle Kingdom Tombs : bng3 'type of bird' (Beni Hasan) - also in Coptic, Opg 'to dance' (Beni Hasan): Onbn'to measure (el Bersheh). Such a group provides an interesting set of words, but it is always subject to the publication of new k3p meaning 'crocodile! was originally attestedfrom P.Prisse 9,3 and the Edfu texts where examples. it occurs often asa word for the crocodile form of Seth, then at Kom Ombo where Up refers to Sobek, With the publication of the Red Chapel of Hatshepsut at Karnak Up here provides a clear eightee nth dynasty example. There are also words which might be expected to have been attested earlier such as jlnmt-wrt i3gwt 'drug', but

#straineedhnt'prow of ship% t3w'sacrificial animal'andexamples may yet be found. , Papyrus, 69. Petriein Two HieroglyphicPapyrifrom Tanis,The Geographical London,1889.


'NeV Words at Edfu A survey of the words attestedeither at Edfu alone or for the first time from Edfu revealspatternsin the types of words found. WeapQns Most striking is the abundance 'new'words for 'knife', derived from an earlier verb to of slaughter used in texts for the slaughter of foes or animals : ngnt knife (nkn 'to injure) ; in knife (inin to slay) ; bbyt knife (bbi, bbhb 'to divide, chop up'), 'jit knife ('dt 'to massacre' (also noun)), w9m. knife (w9rn 'to kill) ; bbnt knife ftn 'to slay) or vice versa, a verb 'to slay'derived ,

from the killing implement : m3s to slay (m3s 'knife') ; b3gs to cut, slay (b3gst 'knife). Columns Words for columns derived from verbs meaning 'to raise, liff and used in column texts iwht (iwh 'to carry, raise) ; rmn (rmn 'to beae ); bn (bn plant). Throne. Chair. Couch used in the texts on the outside of the enclosure wall with the formula wnn KING Or throne Previously unattested terms supplement older words (such as p, bbdt 4t' . , mn-bit, hdm) -new' words: ", "m , bkr . bt-n-wrd for example. -

Road. Way used in processional texts : unattestedw1l3t b3mt and Odr used with w3t, mtn. . Male Member is denoted by a variety of metaphorical terms : wb3 'the openee ; wd3 'healthy' b'w. 'nb 'limb of life'; nfr 'beautiful'. There is also a group of words which may be termed metaphorical orpoetic'in origin: iwn-4" lun iwn-m-pt

the moon -,3pd-ib 'bird heart'a wine; iw4 'to mourn' from iwb 'to flood; rejoices =

heaven - blue dye plant; words for milk denoting its qualifies - lmnw 'hidden' , 'nb. w3s colour of 'life and power; bnrw 'sweetness', bdw'white'; beer - wnf Joy'; water whm-'nt which repeats

life'; words for offerings denoting their qualities - ibt-nbb 'substanceof eternity' (an oil) ; Vbt pure cloth ; h3-snd bread of reverence; b pwt diadems of all the king's domain Other terms describe an aspect of something : wr hippopotamus - Great One ; dns hippoptamus Heavy One n' lion - Who drives away ; bbsw birds - stars ; wd3t road - safe way ; brt high inundation wrm height of flood - roof ; pb3 harpoon blade - Which splits open ; b'yt primeval

mound - That Which Appears (glorious).

Sources For the Vocabul=

of the Edfu Texts.

Texts with mythological information can be considered as source material for rituals and rites at Edfti, and a number of exampleshave survived: The Papyrus Jumilhac (Louvre E 17110) 70: a copy made at the end of the Ptolemaic period and demotic glosses dating to the same period or slightly later. It is an anthology of provided with information about the 17th and 18th Upper Egyptian nomes and their gods, but though it has vignettes they are not ritual offering scenes. The Saft el Henneh Naos7l : from the reign of NectaneboII, contains a hymn and short text about the gods at Saft el Henneh. Naos72: from the sanctuaryof the 20th Lower Egyptian nome, contains a 'Ptolemaic' The EI-Arish text about Soped. Papyrus Salt 825 (BM 10051)73 -: Ptolemaic copy of a text written between the reigns of Psammetichus I and Alexander, containing rituals from the House of Life, prophylactic rites and be comparable to the rituals in the Mehyt rituals for the mummy of Khenty-Amentiu, which may Chamber at Edfu (Room 25).74 :-

75 : book containing rituals to be recited at the Tomb of Osiris at Papyrus N 3176 (S) Louvre Karnak. A New Kingdom text but copied in the Late Period. 76 :a 5th or 4th century B. C. copy of an old ritual modified in the New. P.Brooklyn 47.218.50 Heliopolitan ritual for the affirmation of the kingship. later influences Kingdom, with .A (P.BM 10188) 77 :a collection of religious works, perhaps intended for a temple P.Bremner-Rhind including songs of Isis and Nephthys, Ritual of Bringing in Sokaris, Book of Overthrowing library,

Paris1961andalsoin LA. IV 708-712. Jumilhac, 70. J.Vandier,Le Papyrus London,1887; alsoG.Roeder, Naville, The Shrineof Saftel Henneh theLand of Goshen, and 7 1. E. CGC Naos,J.E. 70021pls.17-33a. 72.1h E.Naville, The Mound of the Jew and the City of Oniasand F.D. Griffith, 'Ibe Antiquitiesof London,1890. Tell el Yahudiyeh, 1965. 73. P.Derchain,P.Salt 825, Brussels, by 74. Suggested S.Cauville,BIFAO 821982p.105-125. 75. P.Barguet,Le PapyrusN.3176 (S) du mus6edu Louvre, Cairo, 1962, pp.59-60 ; pp. -especially viii- ix. 76. J-C.Goyon,Confirmationdu pouvoirroyal au Nouvel An, Cairo, 1972. in (P. Brussels, 1933andtranslated JEA Bremner-Rhind BM 10188), The Papyrus 77. R.O.Faulkner, 166-185; JEA 24,1938 pp.41-53. 22,1936 pp.121-140;JEA 23,1937 pp.10-16-and


Apopis and Names of Apopis which shall not exist. A colophon is dated to Year 12 of Alexander II (c.312-11 B.C.). The Book of Overthrowing Seth, contained in P.Louvre 3129 col. B. 39 - E,42 and P.BM 10252 Col. 13,1-18,278 written in Year 15 of Nectanebofor the Osiris Temple at Abydos. Such texts provide the genre of text which appears at Edfu and researches in magical texts, purification rituals79, and anything of this nature will be directly comparable to the Edfu material, if not in directly copied blocks of text, then certainly in the style of the text and in its vocabulary. Established types of texts, such as sun hymns, hymns to Thoth, hymns to the Nile inundation and also the Pyramid Texts, Coffin texts and 'Book of the Dead' can provide points of direct comparison Edfu examples.80 It is only in texts in other Graeco-Roman temples where there is direct with evidence of the copying of certain texts, especially the geographical processions around the soubassementof the walls81 and in texts from the time of Ptolemy XII on the pylon at Philae82.

Not only the vocabulary in the texts is comparablebut their organisation and content. If the existence of 'pattern books' is proven by the later texts, the temple House of Books lists the names of books known from other texts and if the vocabulary shows the continuity of the language used in the texts then the method of transmission of the Edfu texts can be demonstrated more certainly. A date of composition for those texts would, however, be unrealistic becausethe Edfu texts represent a final stage in a long and cumulative process of compilation, composition and editing. It is not simply a copying of 'ancient' texts, but they are supplementedwith words current in the languageand

by 78. Published S.Schottin UrkundenVI. 79. cp Berlin P.13242purification of the king in a Memphite temple, S.Schott,Die Reinigung in Pharaos einemMemphitischen Tempel,NAWG Nr. 3,1957 ppA5-92. 80. The offering of the psg-kfaccurately suchas evenancientsources refersto the old rite, perhaps the Pyramid Texts were comparedand consulted,Van Walsem, OMRO 59/60,1978-9 p.206 ; Pyr.376bwas found to be very closeto 111130,14-15 indicating a link perhapsthroughfunerary A. faithfully from theOld Kingdomonwards, Grimm,Ein Zitat riteswhich werecopiedandre-copied in RitualtextdesHorus-Tempels Edfu, GM 3,1979 ausdenPyramidtexten einemPtolem1ischen von pp.35-46. Gaue,SAK 7.1979 pp.11-22using 81.5ce Beinlich, Die spezifischen Opfer der Oberagyptischen Kom Ombo Opet (Thebes), Medamoud, texts from Edfu - main templeand Mammisi, Dendera, Un liturgiqueAEdfou,CdE 37 Nr.73,1962 pp-31-65alsoDerchain, Manuelde gdographie Procession Kas,PhiU 1 91 - 98 = VIII 82. Filling the Eye text Phild 1 104-108= VIII 135-137; of 112-117; Destruction Enemies, Phild 125 ff. = VIII 117-118. of


words with a pseudo-etymology which augment and explain in a more poetic language the meaning and underlying implications of the texts. The multititude of metaphorical or euphemistic terms endows the texts with a heighteneddiction which is directed toward the goal of securing NWt and the lasting legitimate rule of the Horus-king, especially at Edfu. While the physical performance of the temple cult provides the bodily needsof the sacredfalcon and the god, the texts provide the magical requirements which through their multiplicity of expression cover all possibilities. If the offerings

fail, the textsprovide them,being inscribedin hard,enduringstone and provisionis madefor the -forcesin everyimaginable form. destruction enemy of The conservatism the Egyptianideologyis shownby the lack of Greekinfluencesin the texts, of Iq-wr ccpyupoq 'silver' entering the vocabularyof the temple textsbut only only the term , ,
becauseit had been usedfrom the Persianperiod and had no'foreign'connotations. I


Aspectq or Word Use Each text is, in theory, composed by the lector-priest (the king or his scribe), who shares itsunderlying meaning with the god. This sharing of knowledge unites the god and his priest more closely together as the joint-sharers of knowledge and makesthem party to the 'hidden' message the of 'god's words. By the sametoken, those outside the temple and beyond the boundariesof-Maat would be unable to know the meaning of the texts and therefore to take advantage of them for their own benefit. This idea of knowledge, which excludes the uninitiated, is the basis of 'power magic', whereby knowledge sharedby only a few, is usedfor their advantageand gives them power over those who do not have that knowledge. In our own culture puns appearin incantations and spells said to be usedfor black and white magic. The danger here is that the ultimate aims of the westernand Egyptian systemsare different. Western magic aims to harnesssupernatural and occult forces or spirits in the hands of a magician who can then control the course of events for evil or for good purposes.Egyptian magic acknowledgesdivine power, accepts its existence and control over the world and only the king or those who know the 'divine words'and how to use them, can share in it and so maintain the world order by removing the forces of chaos.In the end Egypt benefits and through her, her gods so that the magical power comes full circle with Egypt and the king acting as a transformer, so that the divine magical power is into material benefits by the abolition of physical and ethereal threats. One system converted representspersonal power, the other is concernedwith cosmic power. The very sharing of secretsand 'hidden knowledge'has connotations of secretsocieties,initiation into by ritual and the implication that the knowledge which is sharedis dangerousif misusedor can them be shared by those who are united by a common secret which if widely known would bring only The sharing of a common secret gives each shameand disgrace on the members of the group or SeCt. knower of it power over his sharer - power which could conceivably be used to good or ill -for example to advancea fellow Mason, or to blackmail. 'SecreLs'and'hidden knowledge! therefore have implications of being bad or dangerous even the early Christians were persecutedby the successful allegations of human sacrifice and cannibalism brought against them. The Gnostic sects insisted on the power of 'knowing' and its roots can be seen in nelief Ancient Egyp in the power -of


knowledge. The ideaof 'hiddenknowledge'being in guarded Egyptiantemples keptfrom thosewhoarenot to and know it by thepriestsof thetemples voicedby Greekwriterswhentheycameinto was contactfor the first time with a religioussystem with which theywerecompletely they unfamiliar.Because werenot allowed accessto the temples,whosepriests had strangecustomsand whosegods looked even stranger,they assumed there was somehiddenknowledgeor power guardedby the temples.The preoccupation the medievalmind with the powersof darkness of saw the Egyptiansas holdersof ancientknowledge given themby thegodsandkept from the initiated.From the EgyptianpoinWiew between andmanperhapswqs aluoI5 based theservice therelationship god to on rendered thegodby his servant,the chief man,the king - and it is an honourthey neverrelinquished aboveall it set for them apartfrom the rest of Egyptians,maintainingtheir political position by emphasising the that 4epended The templeis the means showingthat well being of the cosmos of uponthat relationship. this is so.The texts,thescenes the architecture thebuilding areconcerned with the bondbetween of , godandthe king, do ut des- heserves god so thatEgyptis ordered, Nile is high, thefields and the the animalsareabundant heretainshis position.The textsreiterate bondin everygroup,in every this and in in ritual offering scene, eachsentence, the useof eachword ,- and punsshowthe intimatelink the sharingof knowledge.Written in hier'oglyphs, writing of the gods,readby a few priests,in the theorythe king and his scribes the divine books- the textsare the mediumof communication and of theword playsandpunsaretheaffirmationof mutualunderstanding. It is likely that therewasno encouragement Egyptians teamhieroglj FlisandtheEgyptianof for to for the temple texts, because there was no necessity it. As long as the Housesof Life instructed the the of of generations priest-scribes transmission textswasassured, templecontinued employed and from contactwith god - at festivalshe appeared for peopleon its lands.Peoplewerenot discouraged all to see,albeit in a shrine,they could cometo the temenos gatefor oracularpronouncements, they featuringthe god, if they worked his fields, they probablytold eachother storiesfor entertainment direct helptheyhadtheir ancestor household needed and gods.Therewasno needfor themto interact with any temple god, it was the duty of the 'king', there was no need to exclude them from the knowledge, because did not needto know it. they


Punning and Paranomasia is Punning83 knownErorn earliest the corpus religioustexts- thePyramidTexts- andit continued of to be an importantfeatureof funeraryandtempletexts,until the endof theEgyptianlanguage when Coptic magicaltextscontinued tradition.The Edfu textsmakeextensive of punsby relating the use but One two or morewordswhich soundthesame havedifferentmeanings. of the aimsof word play is to increase magicalpotency thetextswhich aredirectedat the templegod andhis retinueof the of all gods.In orderfor the magicof thepun to work, thegodunderstands thewordsinvolvedin thepun the terms ideas theyembody. andsees meaning theinter-related of and In order to achievepunning successfully, at Edfu, the composer the text must havea wide as of of understanding the way in which similar soundingwords actually differ, and then be able to in or construct sentences phrases which theycanbe usedwithout makingthe sentence unintelligible. Therearedifferentdegrees puns; themoststraightforward of word play is to choose termand type of a is thenuseit in a sentence with a word which mayderivefrom it, so that a doubleemphasis givento fn' Xn' gn' 'the lion repelsSeth'(the one who the phrasemakingits meaningclear.For example in repels,repels, the one who is repelled)IV 111,6 bbb bftyw M bbt 'destroythe enemies the The slaughter place'1560,13-14. pun canalsogive to orpseudo-etymology the a spurious meaning

1459,11 ; Aturri is tm-blw : tnmm beer comes from Tnmmt, the beer goddess secondword limbs' heresuggesting nameof Aturn himself means'the completeone!IV 25,5. In the completeof are juxtaposed: idmi dmi r b'w Idemi cloth related rarer casestwo words which are not perhaps to the body' (of the god) 1289,10. Infrequentlya phrasecan havetwo different meanings cleaves depending how it is read,eachof which are valid in the contextof the whole text and this is the. on most subtle kind of word play : the phrase'pr WAR rn dbbw can mean'supplying the Eye of Horus with its parts' or 'supplyingEgypt (readW3.dt) with its requirements' - where the double impliesthatEgyptcanbeequated entendre with theEye of HorusVII 247,10-11. 83.For wordplay from theearliest Wortspicledes EgyptianTexts: Sander-Hansen, phonetischen Die liltesten Agyptischen, Acta Orientalia 20,1948 pp.1-22; S.Morenz, Wortspicle in Agypten in Fs. Johannes Jahn,Leipzig, 1957pp.23 ff (reprinted Religionund Geschichte E.Blumenthal in and ed. S-Herrmann, ' 1: Wien, 1975pp.331 ff. ) ; LA VI Wortspiel 1287-129 Derchain-Urtel,Esna: Schrift und 'Spiel',GM 27,1978 pp.11-21.


Sometermssoundthe same(homonyms) havecompletelycontradictory but for meanings, example Idt 'to be safe'andalso 'to destroy: the sunbarque(m'ndt) at night m Idt is safe,Apopisis m 'dt destroyed. Punningis also usedto give divine justification to namesor epithetsand in particular to place 84 71iis occursmost clearly in the Myth of Horus, wherethe aim is to show that townsof names. hold a placein theHorus Egypthaveplayeda role in the Struggle HorusagaintSeth,andtherefore of cult, for examplethe town of Dmit is wherethe barques the godslanded(dmi) VI 21,6-7.This of for in methodaccounts a pseduo-mythological for placenames Edfu especially, Edfu (120) is way at the place whereHorus punished(db3) Seth; it is also st-wnp 'the place of Piercing'where Seth (wnp)., wasstabbed

Visual puns - both the written form and vocalised form of a word are of equal importance in giving the sentenceor phrasean addedeffectiveness.Signs used to write words could be chosenwith care and the form of some words representedthe same magical power to the eye as the sound does to the ear. For example at Edfu : Sn"'Sk S 3 -: falcon, a benu bird and a jackal are used to write nirw a

'gods'reflecting three forms of deity found at Edfu 1413,1416. The forms of the sign can be important 7107101 n-noo enduring for eternity takes w3o The

the appearanceof the phrase. interspersing tall signs with short signs M 87,14account of

to their use in writing certain terms : the heraldic plants of symbolic meaning of signs gives rise Upper and Lower Egypt are used to write t3wy TY Two Lands'; a cow is used to write nb

is primarily Nbwt 'Golden One. 85 becauseHathor, the cow goddesspar excellence, Play upon the form and and meaning of words as used at Edfu are also common to the Old Testament,for example, showing not perhapsa direct link in the composition of religious material

in 84. M-T. Derchain-Urtel,Wortspielezu 'Ort' und Bewignung Edfu und Dendera,Fs. A. dolphe Gutbub,Montpellier 1984pp.55-60. incriptionsdesgrandstemplesde 1)endereh dEdfou, 85. A. Gutbub,Jeuxdessignsdansquelques et 'signplay'using manyexamples discusses from Graeco-Roman BIFAO 52,1953 pp-57-101 temples; ASAE 40,1940 on cryptic signsin generalseeDrioton, Recueil de CryptographieMonumentale, du Salt 825,ASAE 41,1942 p.99 ff. pp.305-429; La Cryptographie Papyrus


fascination materialbut a basichuman with

in manipulationanguageorderto hideor explainin a

86 behinda phrase. Modemwestern the techniques moresubtlemanner notion the cultureuses same for pureentertainment wit andhumourandoftento engage interest prospective in in the of consumers industry. theadvertising

Alliteration Alliteration in texts has the fortunate consequencefor modem scholars of enabling them to read signs whose values would otherwise be obscure. It is a feature found from the Pyramid Texts onward and like punning it has the underlying aim of making words in a sentenceeffective, especially against hostile forces. Those puns which use two words, where one is derived from the other, could be argued to be the ultimate form of alliteradon - with the whole words of a sentenceallitemting and not simply the initial sign.In these casesboth pun and alliteration serve the same purpose of explaining and emphasisingthe meaning of the phrase. Alliteration has a much more extensive use at Edfa, becausepunning requires a narrower variety of words than alliteration. The most striking set of alliterative phrases are in the texts describing the processionof standards at the New Year Festival. Each bearerof a standardhas an accompanyingline text in the inscriptions and it may have actually been spokenby each priest - in each line the eight of to nine words alliterate, eachline alliterates a different soundbut each expressesthe samepurpose - to impurity or hostile forces from the path of the procession. Each word is selected- firstly for remove its appropriate meaning and secondly to fit into the pattern of alliteration. 87

Functionsof Puns.Alliteration and'Cryptic'Writing features Ptolemaic Puns alliterationandcryptic writing are not simply Separate textsin general of , but are central to Egyptian religious texts from the earliest times and to some extent far from and makingthemeaning a text moreobscure actuallyenhance explainthetext in a moreeconomic of

86. TheJewishEnclyclopaedia, AlliterationandKindredFigures 424-5. pp. 87. In general B.Watterson The Use of Alliteration in Ptolemaic,Glimpsesof Ancient Egypt, , Fs-Fairman, Warminster,1979,pp.167-169.


way than using several lines of text. By using variants on words and phrases, Egyptian scribes can write the same basic statement many different ways - covering every possibil4l, for example for the destruction of Seth, or for the provision of food - and by using alliteration and puns they can enhancethe content of the texts and elevate their meaning into the,realm of the divine and addressthe gods for whom the texts are intended. The aim of the texts is not necessarilydiversity for the sake of aesthetics,but for completeness- so that nothing is omitted and all dangersare dealt with The widdread use of this type of writing suggeststhat it is the style in which the gods adequately. should be addressedand it is possible that the actual inspiration of the texts was believed to be of divine origin so that the composition of a text, its language and style was derived directly from them.Some texts were directly from the gods as works of Thoth or the revered Imhotep; others with the collective names b3w-RI or b3w-Itm books from the temple libraries and suggest perhaps

Heliopolis which could be studied and adaptedby those who had the ability in all the major schools of Egypt. There would have been a structured framework into which temple schools and scriptoria of ckQ ngescould be made ornew' words addedto the texts. The scribe had to respectthe alliteration of a it was therefore simplest to derive new nouns for example from already existing verbs or sentence,and (less frequently) so that there was a ready made alliteration and pun. At Edfu this results in vice versa large number of words for Icnife' being derived from a verb 'to slay' . ngnt nkn 'the knife wounds' a for example, or in the creation of complementary terms :UU is paired with k3w 'food and so at

Edfu Ornswt 'female life force' is paired with brnsw1bod'i The creation of 'new' words had to be done within the mythological framework of the text in the temple as a whole and within the the ideas of Ibat and world order. 'New' words are therefore often derived from existing parametersof that they do not upset the balancedorder and can easily be used within the allowed style. The terms so the words at Edfu to the existing corpus is therefore within boundariesestablished addition of some of by centuries of religious thought and writing. The extensive use of alliteration suggeststhat their aural effect is also important, implying in turn that certain texts were meant to be recited and heard.Priests must have learned by heart certain specific chants and hymns for use in the daily ritual service, as part of their training, and more complex rites


were recited from papyrusrolls - rather than being read directly from the temple walls for example, for it would have been too dark inside the temple to see all the texts without a lamp of some kind and sometexts are too high on the wall to be read without a ladder or scaffolding. The lector priests would be versed in all the rituals and Clemens of Alexandria reports that they were knowledgeable in holy in their handsas a sign of their office. 88 writings and carried a papyrus roll and writing palette The recitation of texts also raises the question of whether alliteration gives to the texts a poetic effeCt.The rhythm of the lines cannot be discernedbecausethe exact phonetic structure and therefore the metre of the lines is unknown. It is not clear whether rituals were spoken, chanted or sung but it is most likely that a mixture of methods of recital were used. If the purpose of the alliteration is to make the meaning of the text magically more effective does this preclude the possibility of any kind in the ritual offerings or processional chants ? Part of the difficulty is in the definition of poetry but 'elevated expression of elevated thought or feeling especially in metrical form' , then the regarded as temple texts are most certainly a heightenedand elevated form of expression,not only addressingthe highest level of existence but in rich and varied languagewhich gives the texts either an artificial air Both Sauneron89 and Junker9Osuggestedthat the rhythm of sounds in the or an elevated meaning. the part of alliteration can be comparedto the temple texts and the phonetic word play are poetry and in Anglo-Saxon runes for example -which also have a principally magical effect. use of alliteradon Similar difficulties - principally of definition - exist when dealing with the writing system and the Where possible at Edfu the words are spelled differently using a range orthography of Egyptian words. least 4,000 - 5,000 signs and their variants. Sauneron rejected the notion that the use of of at 'Ptolemaic' writing came from a leaning towards 'occultation' or 'esoterism' and that even the term 'cryptography' can lend to the Egyptians an intention which they did not have originally. He noted texts are usually not the most essential theological texts, for at Edfu the that the most cryptic bandeauxtemple descriptions are much more difficult to read than the Myth of Horus for example, and in the cosmogonical texts their difficulty is in understanding the content of texts though they can be relaively easily read. Ptolemaic temple texts representthe ongoing processof writing A 88. Cited by Weber, Buchwesenpp.3940; Hopfner, Fontes p.372 from Stromata VI 4,35,3 - 37,3. 89. Sauneron Esna VIII pp. 1-20. ,

90. Junker,Poesie der Spatzeit, ZAS 43,1906 pp.101-128; Grammatikder Denderatexte36. aus


development in temples, a process begun at least from the New Kingdom and perhaps earlier - the point at which the language of religious texts begins to diverge from the spoken tongue - so that 'cryptography' is not a Ptolemaic feature at all. 91 It seems that though the texts were written in a language no longer spoken by anyone, they were understood by a small minority of priests who indulged from temple to temple in what amounts to an intellectual game composing and reediting texts. It can be argued that cryptic writing actually makes texts easier to read - once the basic key to is used and logical thought processesare applied. Ibe values of signs can be recognised by the texts logical means and the key to the understanding of the hieroglyphic script of the late temples is do with understanding the background theology of the temples and experience in perhaps more to ic basic texts. Fairman began his list of approachesto PLoIemQ texts with the basic rule that reading followed logical rules and also that simple and direct explanations prevailed in reading the signs Ptolemaic signs92. Kurth has most recently expandedand exemplified the approach to the reading of hieroglyphs in a set of ten basic principles which are followed by the Egyptians in the system - but 93 basedon a direct and common senseapproach. again all are Once the principles of what is allowed in writing texts are understood - then the texts express not basic messagebut in cryptic writing and heightened diction can denote a great amount of only the information in addition. As a result more is 'understood' from the texts allegorical and metaphorical in one sentence.In this way the intellectual content of the text is increased,the than they actually say imparted by the text is augmentedand it is the use of the vocabulary and the way in which knowledge it is written which is the tool used to do this rather than grammatical constructions or expressions.

91. S.Sauneron,Esna VIII , L'tcriture Figurative dans les textes dEsna, Cairo, 1982 pp.1-12 Introduction. 92. H.W.Fairman,ASAE 43,1943 pp.55-61 . der in 93. D.Kurth, Die Lautwerteder Hieroglyphen den--Tempelinschriften Griechisch-Romischen ASAE 69,1983 pp.287- 309. ihrer Herleitungsprinzipen, Zeit - zur Systematik -


From Papyrus Text to Inscription The texts of the House of Books provide a list of the titles of works written on the papyrus, leather rolls and metal tablets which were kept there( 111347and 351). A total of thirty five books are listed of which some can be identified with texts upon the temple walls and some with extant papyri.,They are the 'best of the Souls of Re' and were stored in boxes, perhaps in the temple itself and existed probably in the form of copies in the House of Life attachedto the temple. Texts found in the temple : s3 wnwt the protection of the hours, known as the Stundenwachen, , this is the watch of the hours for the mummification of Osiris, written in the Sokar Chamber of the temple (1208-217 ; 219-225) ; s3 pr 'protection of the house' (VI 144-152) *.md3t rt4 pt Book of subduing the people (VI 235,6 net ritual) ; mkt b'w protection of the body (VI 298-304) . Identifiable texts : sbr Stb Overthrowing Seth (P.Louvre 3176 5,32/33 has this title) but it may provide elements for rituals to deal with the destruction of Seth ; two copies of bsf msbw driving away the crocodiles , also bsr df3w driving away snakes - specifically for crocodile and serpent destruction rites ; sb'i nswt 'appearanceof the king' and s3 nswt m pr. f protecting the king in , his palace - the rituals of the royal coronation and procession of the king from the palace ; nt-' nb DmA r-s3 pr. k m bbw. k "Every ritual of the appearance of your majesty from your' nw sb1i house at your festivals' -a list of festival rituals at Edfu, most likely at the great festival of Horus Hathor ; btp Sbmt pacifying Sakhmet - either in rituals or the Litany of Sakhmet ; "ro know and divine offerings of your divine images' - perhaps the daily offering ritual for the temple cult'. sX the reference to the Horus and Seth Myth ; s3.w nb n r3-1-bt all the writings of warfare - perhaps a 'guardians of the temple' lists of the temple geni and minor guardian gods ; 'to know the gs-prw Two lights' - an astronomical text perhaps like the texts describing the hours of the day course of the in the Pronaos ; sip i3t nb rb imi. sn 'list of every Sacred mound and knowing what is in them' perhaps the geographical text of the couloir mysterieux which lists the sacredplaces of Egypt and thei main towns , their osirian relics, canal names, sacred serpentsand local taboos ; s3 rnptprotection of the year'- the Good Year Litany (V193-99). Funerary texts : s3bw mTw nw Ory nmit 'great spells of the one who is upon his bier' spells for the resurrection of Osiris ; s3 Pnqt 'protection of the bed' (alluded to VI 145,1 , 151,3 ; VII 13,6 and

ix lrxx

P.Boulaq 7; P.Carlsberg I line 20) ; Protection texts :m

know all the mysteries of the Wabee (embalming place). -"ro

wi3 protection of the barque (also wn n9mt 'revealing the barque) ; s3 niwt

Trotection of the City' s3 wrrt Trotection of the White Crown' ; s3 Trotection st of the Throne' , 'Spells of Destroying the Evil Eya'; one damagedbook of protection. Ritual: Terforming the ritual' - daily offering rites or Opening of the Mouth. General : 'Book of What is in the Temple' inventory of cult objects and fittings ; sXrn Owt-nir Tlan of the temple' - the book which was by tradition written by Imhotep and set out the basic form of the temple tp-rd n sphr s3t 'Regulations for inscribing a wall' - perhaps guidelines on the inscribing of texts ; To rule the coursesof the Stars' book of astronomy perhaps connected with -a the observation of stars at the setting out of the temple plan ; md3t dmd 'Book of Uniting' connectedwith the New Year rituals where the ba of the god unites with his image on the temple roof bbs m3iw 'Hunting Lions' 94. The contents of the House of Life provide the rituals and lists necessarywhich could be copied onto the temple walls, in some casesdirectly and with little adjustment. Such texts would be the product of many years of compilation, copying and refinement which may have been continued by the scribe priests of the temple long after the texts were written on the stone walls themselves. Evidently the inscribing of the texts did not represent the final stage of the life of the texts, for the rolls were carefully preserved in the temple perhaps for future consultation or study by scribes learning their craft. That study in the hieroglyphic, hieratic and demotic scripts continued at the temple is implied by a number of graffiti found in the temple itself. 95 About fifty inscriptions were written on'the rooj of the temple, which was completed in 124 B. C. , and the texts date after that time and probably being written from the eM of the 2nd century to the Ist century B. C. They usually record the name and rank of the priest who writes the text, often with the formula Iwhose name is beautiful before Horus of Behdet, the great god, lord of heaven' or with an invocation to another god. The

94. Library texts at Edfa : Weber,BeitrAgezur Kenntnisdes Schrift- und Buchwesens Alten der Agypter, Diss. Koln, 1969pp.131-134with comparison other known book lists Sauneron, The of ; Priestsof Ancient-Egypt,EvergreenBooks,Londonp. 133 ; Garth Fowden. -The Egyptian hermes pp.56-58 ; individual -entriestranslatedby S.Schott, E.Schott, Bficher und Bibliothek im Alten Agypten,Wiesbaden, 1990. Les 95. D.Devauchelle, graffitesd6motiques toit du templed'Edfou,BIFAO 83,1983pp.123-138. du


inscriptions are mainly in demoticand the priestshavehigh rank in the templeincluding Takhom books' the scribeof booksandthird prophef (No.7) Takhom,the first prophetandscribeof divine, , (nosAO,41). Someof the graffiti are in hieroglyphs- but with exactly the sameformula as the demoticdedications 47) and one hasa mixture of hieraticand demoticsigns(No.19). At this (No. in temple the stage, whenthetempledecoration inscriptionhadbeencompleted, scribe-priests the. and If the werestill learningand teaching hieroglyphicscript,hieraticanddemoticscript andlanguage. theycouldreadhieroglyphs theymustalsohavebeenableto readthelanguage textsin thatscriptof basis.Textson papyrus so that textsin the templewerebeingreadby scribes a continuous on rolls may also havecontinuedto be copiedand excavation May revealdelivery notesfor papyrusbeing 96 broughtto the temple. In order to be able to compose textswith alliterationandparanomasia the successfully, composers to earlier or musthavehadaccess lists of wordswith the samesounds at leastcopiesof comparable It their wordsfor eachsentence necessary. would be unlikely thata textsso that they couldchoose as startwith a blanksheet papyrus compose text out of his head,looking up, of a scribe-priest would and he needed themandputtingtheminto a roughdraft versionof the requiredtext. He would wordsas havestarted textswhich would form thebasisof the text he roll ritualsand with a papyrus containing The scribemay borrow large sectionsof his masterroll, or take lines of it to was going to write. build up a ritual in accordance the natureof a particularoffering rite. A word list could have with or termsor actedasan aidememoiMorobscure rarely usedterms.Word providedvariantson similar lists havesurvivedfrom Egypt but they tendto listthings! ratherthanverbsor abstracts theyare and 97 in categories objects. of enumerated that The scribewould havehadtwo aims firstly to ensure the ritual or text was suitablefor the

96. Thereis a p3 sn diimy 'the supplierof papyrusrolls' in a templeaccountfrom the Memphite Fragment a TempleAccountRoll, JEA 60,1974 areaP.FitzhughD.3 Col. x+1,8 , E.Reymond, of pp. 189-190'p.194. 97. The Onomastica the New Kingdomlist 'all thingsthat exise GardinerAEO I p.1-5 ; sees of also LA IV 572 in general; other'examplesPuRTurin pl. 144fragments a list; amongdernoticlists of P.Carlsberg 41a, 43 a list of templeritual vessels tools WJ. Tait, A DemoticWord List from and , Tebtunis,JEA 68,1982 pp.210-227; alsoin GM 20,1976 p.49. Therearealso sign lists : The Sign Papyrusin Griffith and Petrie,Two Hieroglyphic Papyri From Tanis, London, 1889 -,E.Iversen, Fragments a HieroglyphicDictionary,Copenhagen, 1958. of


that natureof the templegod andsecondly in a morepracticalway to ensure the text on papyrus and would fit into the spaceavailableon the templewall. The latter point implies that either text was copiedwhole and in hicroglyphsfrom a templewall to beginwith ; or that text waswritten into the easilyonto the wall. Ritual textstend to follow a patternbook on a grid which could be transposed for similar format: Shorttide, introductionto the ritual, nameandtitle of king appropriate the ritual, a nameandepithetsof the god (s) similarly appropriate, returngifts of god (s), perhaps welcometo and the king . An experienced scribewould know by instinct how much text he needed how many words he could fit into the availablelines. 'Me flexibility of the hieroglyphicsystemwould ensure for to that if he needed he could usean abbreviation a word &L to Sucha text would be read,andcorrected over a periodof yearsin the Houseof Life attached the to templeandit might lie therefor manyyearsbeforeit needed be usedfor inscriptionon the temple It is difficult to know if the papyrusrituals were actually read out in the temple and it is wall. duringcertainfestivals duringthedaily cult ritesthelectorpriestdid readout partof that assumed and the ritual from a papyrusor moreeasily from a writing boardor papyruswith a boardbehind the to appropriate pageto makeit easier hold the text. When the text cameto be carvedon the templewall the text would be copiedonto the wall by a the mastertext. It is likely that the text on the by a draughtsman priest-scribeor -who could read in cursivehieroglyphs ratherthantruehieraticandin Middle Egyptianratherthan papyrus waswritten to dernoticso that whenit cameto be inscribed furtherchanges the text would needto be madeat no Cursivehieroglyphscan clearly and carefully showthe detail on complexsigns,they can the wall. unfamiliar with them could recognise recordaccurately'new' or rarely usedsignsso that someone the themandcopy the signonto the wall andmostimportantlytheyrecordaccurately sizeof the sign the and the groupingof signsso that they take up the sameamountof space-on grid on the wall as they do on the grid on papyrus.Somewordsat Edfu seemto havebeencopiedincorrectlyfrom the text - for exampletheword rhn = rwi in theMyth - but suchmistakes comparatively are rare master in sucha hugeamountof text. Sometextshavebeentrimmedor havenot enoughmaterialto fill the & nbd or write it with moresigns


is left the space for the text on the wall , andherethe space eitherleft blank or filled in by repeating in last wordsuntil the space filled98. Examples againrareasare instances thehieroglyphs a is of are line being crowdedtogethertowardsthe end of a line so that they all fit into the registerof the relief99. The text would be written on the templewall in ink - at Edfu red ink or paint survivesin many The text then the places andat this stage detailin thehieroglyphic wouldbeadded. draughtsman had that the to havea wide rangingknowledge hieroglyphic signsunless master copywasso detailed it of Part for that at embellishments. of thereason suggesting thedetailwasadded showed thenecessary all (for this point from a cursivetext is that in textswhich canbe shownto be copiedin other temples the example Filling of theEye ritual at Philae)thetextsarenot exactlythe sameandwherethereare differences theyareprecisely thosepointswherea draughtsman scribehadto makean individual at or 100 The one text which certainly decisionaboutthe form or groupof signsrequired. and personal into hieroglyphs. The havebeenwritten in demoticcould in fact easilyhavebeenrendered would by document, eachlist of landsintroduced an offering ritual. The has DonationTexts,an economic in framingritual would be prepared separately would not haveappeared the mastercopy of the and list. The actuallist of landsconsists numbersanddirectionsessentially placenames, of economic into hieroglyphs someone readdemoticand copieddownwordfor for who relativelyeasyto transcribe in demoticscript, but this was It is possiblethat other textsat Edfu may havebeenwritten word . RomanPeriod101andas periodto early to write Middle Egyptianfrom the LatePtolemaic only used the that by decorated the late Ptolemaic period,this supports contention the the templewasvirtually hand. textswerewritten in a cursivehieroglyphic original The sculptorwould begin to carvethe textsin raisedrelief in the interior of the templeand in sunk The sculptors themselves musthavehadsomeknowledge the of relief on the exteriorof thetemple.

98. Repetition: the phrasem Msn mi R' nb is written twice - in a set of texts which havevarious due of errors,perhaps to the inattention the scribeIV 96A n.I. is put underthe prow of a barque 99. Crowding: in a limited space, nameof the god the 111225,6 1 hasa very small man-determinative n. which VIII T. VIII 137,4= Phill! 1106,8 100. bm3g nb-imy [Ilt! ii t t. 136,8- Phill 1105,3" T'F '.Well Known EgyptianHymn, EnchoriaVll,. 1977 115-116; 101.M.Smith, A New Versionof a pp. but c.f. S.P.Vleeming,Transliteration Old Egyptianin Demotic,GM 117/118,1990 219-223. p. of


form of the hierogly phic script to be able to reproduce the detail within the signs or at least a chief sculptor would have kept close watch on those working for him. He may possibly have had priestly rank and some kind of training in the House of Life itself. Mistakes in the carving of the texts are comparatively rare but there are differences in the quality of the carving of texts and the form of the signs. Errors in carving follow certain patterns Siens which are omitted and then carved in late Horus IV 64,6 n.3 ; plural signs added later IV 83,14-15 n.3 ; 0-sign had to be superimposedover added very small IV 84,9 n.6 ;

tr wtt

"-' IV 129,70 'v"o

pot sign carvedlater IV 134,14 n.2 ; pronOun - was


9ts beforethe forgottenandcarvedvery smallbehindan. it is attached IV 152,16 1;TLand n. to word 0 left out thenaddedto IV 283,12n.1 r-V shouldbe" M 49,12

Signswhich are omitted completelyand a blank spaceis left n.2 ; -gr944a- forgotten11175,5 2 n.

111254,8 1 ; determinative tpyw-' omitted IV of n.

44,9 n.3 ; determinative dg3 not carvedIV 291,17n.1 ; A? beforegod not carvedIV 332,7n.2. % of Groups of words are coml2letely omitted : fl often omittedafter cartouches s3 sign of

formulaeoften omitted; space text IV 269,4; br-. k ]Vr omittedV 13.2. in protection Signsare carvedbadly n. thenbadly 11190,3 2 carvedsummarily V for ',%. 354,2. perhaps a

hieraticform of what it is supposed be 11197,11 4 to n.

111205,15 l. 'z" not carvedproperly111232,10 Incorrectsigns:aW bird is written as a duck n. carvedbadly IV 281an. 2. signnot recognised. and
A sign is corrected by an overcarved aLga' overwriting IV 55,14 n.2 corrected IV 60,1 group is overcarved 111153,4n2 over IV 64,5 n. 1;

overwriting IV 81,13 n.3 ; text for Hathor of Thebes written over an inscription for Hathor of Dendera

9 IV 84,1 n.1 ; It IV 81,15n.4 ; -dr-3over

95,13 n. I; f IV 98,12 4 10 n. u. over over M-'



IV 84A 0;




IV 127,6

over 4!? - IV 173,3 ;a line of -j

text is written overanothertext written inverselyV 341,8n.I

Signs or parts of signs in red paint are left uncarved : Dr HB nir '3 nb pt 111157,4n.4 Hesitation over sign on part of sculptor: or I should bel 111151,5n.5 , handle of mace sign


not carvedIV 190,30;

signof sucklingwoman,child not carvedIV 193,3nA *A G)

the raysare

left in red in kV 56,10n.2 ; inner strokesof 0 oblique strokesof

left in red ink V 56.15 n.4 ;V 334,3 ;

in red ink V 57,5 n.4 ; line in red ink V 178,5-6n.1 Bodt left bittik in

hryt-ib Bbdt V 179,12n.1 ; title left blank V 193,2n.l. Othererrors: figure of Nile hasthe southern of planton his headinstead northern IV 118,11 1 one n. (instaed Cleopatra) 123,3n.I; Nekhbet is IV cartouche sculptorbegan carvename Berenice to of of shownwith a text for WadjetIV 165,6n.2 ; Wadjetwith text of NekhbetV 262,17n.I; a text copies V the reply of the god for the formulawhich theking wasto pronouce 102,8-9 1 ; the cartouche of n. Ptolemyis carvedtwice in a row (alternating Ptolemy-with nsw-bity name)which putsthe orderof the text out V 113,13n.3 ;V 119,13nA. Corrections the signswouldbe made to aftera checkof thecarvingwasmadeandthetext compared the copy.Thestyleof thecarvingis differentin differentpartsof thetempleas against originalmaster deteriorates over theperiodof 186yearsit took to build the templeandin general would be expected the laterit is (thepylon hasthe lesswell carved textsfor example). The first phaseof the templewas built between 237 B.C. and the 'carvingand inscribingwith the chisel, ... overlayingits walls with gold, ... applyingcolours,... completingits doors' (IV 8,4 ff. ) was finished for its dedicationin 142 B.C. During the whole of this period theremust havebeen work in progressin the templeuntil it was finally completedwith all its decoration.The temple would havehadteamsof workmenandsculptors going throughit, scaffoldingmay havebeenset up for part of the time, or evenpartsof the templefilled with sandso that craftsmencould have

In the pointsandworkedon themwith relativeease. shortit musthavedifficult if not reached highest impossiblefor the temple to actually function in some measure during the first building phase. During this time thecult imageof Horusmayhavebeenin an earlierbuilding,perhaps Ramesside the building which may havebeenstill standing(it was not built over until the pylon was constructed), The festivalsanddaily cult rituals would have or a SaiteorMirtieth Dynastybuilding now removed. beenperformedtherenot in the noisy,impureatmosphere the templeunderconstruction. Sucha of buildingwould havehadits walls covered theappropriate little effort in textsandwould haverequired
Ao copy some of them completely - changing only the namesof the king. The sourcesfor some of the


Edfu texts may then have been much closer at hand than the House of Life. The temple itself would only have functioned after its dedication in 142 B. C. and during the later building phases,work here would not have disrupted the inner sanctuary.Ille whole of the temple then would have ftinctioned as a major cult temple from the raising of the Pylon doors in 57 B. C., by which time the texts in the

first part of the templewould havebeenwritten two generations andmay alreadyhaveseemed to ago be ancient. Thosetextswhich describe festivalsat Edfu - The Sacred Marriage,the Coronation the of theFalcon,theperformance the HorusandSethdrama- referthennot to creations diePtolemaic of of periodbut to thoseof an earlier time and itS,temple.While festivalswould havebeen*celebrated at Edfu for the wholeof thePtolemaic theretoday period,for partof that time, the templewhich stands would not havebeenthe focal point of festivities.The triumph of the textsat Edfu is that - written in Middle Egyptian,in a scriptunderstood by the godandthepriest-scribes their wordsprovide only in of the continuouslink with the earliestreligious expression Egypt so that generations priests ideas foreignelements. by transmitthesame and'worldview', unchanged outside

Date of CompQsition the Texts. of

The Edfu texts have been regarded as an 'homogenousunit', l 02 becausethey were inscribed in the temple within a relatively short period of time and within one place. Together the texts sharethe same as aims of celebrating the king and Maat and Edfu is emphasised the centre of the original creation and Horus Behdet the first creator god, who not only made-the cosmos but in his form of Horus son of Osiris removed the dangersof chaos.Even in this simple scheme,two systemsare united together and intertwine and amalgamatemany other schools of Egyptian thought. 103 In the temple texts go on to fact the texts are very separatein terms of precise function and particularly in terms of precise dating.

A few of the textscan be datedexactlyandothershaveindicationsaboutthe dateof compositionto The that theoriginalsof theEdfu textscomefrom differentperiods. show

102.Fairman,BIFAO 43,1945 p.56. 103.For a discussion the different'theologies' the templeandits texts seeS-Cauville, of Essaisur of la thdologieda templed'HorusAEdfou,Cairo, 1987.


main criteria for dating Egyptian texts are the historical content of the texts, textual and grammatical features of which vocabulary is an important part, but deliberate archaising of texts has proved to mislead and once it has been identified can lead to a re-evaluation of the aims and thoughts of the itself. 104 At Edfu where the languageof the composersof the text and of the significance of the text texts is no longer spoken, the script is understoodby a few only and the aim of the whole temple is to maintain the order of the First Time, the whole outlook of the temple is archaic in a senseso that in the temple texts one should expectarchaism.However certain texts can be datedmore exactly. The Donation Texts list all the lands and domains which belonged to Horus of Edfu and was set down in Year 18 of Nectanebo 11and Year 19 of Darius 11,then copied onto the temple wall in hieroglyphs under Ptolemy X Alexander.105 The original composition from about 40S, C. to Iti-3 B. B.C. would have been in demotic and the texts contain examplesof words attestedin demoLicand then in hieroglyph only in thesetexts at Edfu. 1()6Between the writing of the text and its appearance the on temple wall copies of the text may have been kept in the temple library and also in a st-sh 'Place of Writings! or local administrative office who could overseethe maintenanceof the land boundariesfor the temple.107 The lists of land areaswould not have been difficult to transcribe from demotic into heirogllrh and with offering rituals and scenesto introduce each part of the document it becomespart of the temple textual system. The Temple Dedication or Description Texts 108: not only contain a description of the temple with the layout and dimensions of its, rooms and halls, but also contain historical detail which together with an approximate date of inscription on the temple walls provide a period when the text must have been composed. The details about the lay out of the temple, have been shown to be so accurate,based on a cubit of 52.4 cm , that there is little doubt that the texts refer directly to the

104.D. van der Plas,On Criteriafor the Datingof Egyptiantexts,GM 73,1984 ppA9-56. 105.VII 247,10- VII 248,4, textspublished D.Meeks,Donations. by'well'for "ample, andin placenames also. ? lace of Writings' Meeks,op.cit. p.57 n.27. , 108. IV I- 20 ; VII 5- 20, translatedby de Wit, CdE 36, Nrs. 71 and 72,1961 pp. 56-97 and 277-320.


109 Edfu temple. In additionthe textsnotethat work in the templestopped during the period extant in Upper Egypt in 206 B.C. until 186B.C.I 10 indicating that the texts were written of rebellion , after that date . The decorationof the outsideof the enclosure wall is believedto have occurred downthedateof composition thetext. between101-88 C.1II which at leastnarrows B. of HorusandSeth: thethemecontained Between The Myth of Horus,theWingedDisk andtheStruggle in this Myth is ancient,but the language the texts is Middle Egyptianwith someLate Egyptian of 1 12andthereis possible in the25thdynasty. 13 evidence editing of elementsl by The datingof textspreciselyis difficult andhampered the fact that whena text cameto be copied and on on the templewall, it may havebeeneditedto fit a certainspace the wall. to suit a scene so on it reached templewall, beingbased a be considered be 'composed! the to couldonly actually when While noneof these copieshavesurvived,certaintexts papyrusmaster versionon a masterpapyrus.
have been indicated which contain Ihe Idnd of material in texts found at Edfu, and they in turn provide information relevant to the transmission and composition of texts in general.

Mesuresrdelles.du temple dEdfou, BIFAO 84,1984 109. S.Cauville and D.Devauchelle,Les pp.23-34 . 110.IV 8,1-3 and VII 6,6 - 7,1. AXgberts in RdE 38,1987 p.60 (on westwall of enclosure wall). 111.
Useof wn(n)/ wn. jn so K-fl. Priese, Zur Sprache der agyptischen Inschriften der K6nige von i t3. Kusch, ZAS 98,1972 pp.99-124 ; Schenkel, Kultmythos und Martyrerlegende, Wiesbaden,1977 p. 120.
Ilse of m tw 2

The Temple of Edfu










lu 19

-. n

93 23 93 Es 93

rol BE

rq E3

E2 19 93Im93S3

93 093191919


0 Fl

xlix Detail of Naos

18 19 20


1_711'16 1 122







9 E::
111111 1

-Z71 -",

-%i .. 014



11 0







Key to TemplePlan I
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A B C D E F G H X Y Z

Pronaos- First Hypostyle Hall House of the Morning (pr-dw3) Library (pr-md3t) SecondHypostyle Hall Laboratory (iswy) Chamberof the Nile Treasury (pr-bd) Hall of Offerings Room of the Western Staircase Central Hall - Hall of Enneadsof Gods Oryt-ib) Chamber of Mn (pr-Mnw) Room of Food Offerings Pure Place (W'bt) Sanctuary Mesenit - Chapel of the Barque (axW room) First Chamberof Sokar Ityt SecondChamberof Sokar k1wt-sr Osiris Chamber Jjnw-n-Xtyt Throne of the Gods nst nirw Chamberof Cloth klwt-mnbt Chamberof the Leg klwt-sbqt Chapel of Hathor Xmyt n ljwt-Ur Throne of Re nst-R' Chapel of Mehyt Bodt Pylon and Pylon Gateway bbnt and m3ht Main Door to Court West Door of Temple Entrance to East Staircasefrom SecondHypostyle Hall East Door of Temple Entrance to East Stairway from Room of Food Offerings Stairway to Well (hnmt) SecondDoor in Enclosure Wall Corridor around Naos with texts of the inside of the EnclosureWall and Exterior of Naos. 'Couloir Myst6rieux'- texts on exterior of sanctuaryand doors of chapels Naos of Nectanebo,


The Nomesof E=t


TheNames Egy2t-thgirMain IQ-ns andjl&k-QodS of

Upper Egypt
1.4.: : j





2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Wtst. ljr Apollir,, polisMapa Nbn W3st B3w lqr B3t, T3-wr Mn W3dit Stg wt Ndft tnt'Lycopolis Njdft At Cusac.
Wnt M3-'4d Inpw Inty 'nty Hermopolis Oryx Cynopolis Hipponus ffipponus Oxyrhynchus


HomsBehdct Nekhbet

Eileithyia Thebes Coptos Tentyris Parva Diospolis Abydos Panopolis Aphroditopolis Hypselis

Hierakonpolis/El-Kab Esna and Thebes Koptos Dendcm IEU Abydos Akmim Antaeopolis Shutub el Atawala Assiut el-Qusiya
Ashmunein Nfinya Umbi el-fliba Oxyrhynchus;

Amun-Re(Montu) Imsu Hathor Hathor Onuris. Rif% Hathor Khnum(Seth)

lo. -1
j11. : 0 t19: 12.119A 17.. 13. 14.
15. 16. 17. -4 18. 18. oe%19.

Wepwavxt Had"
Thoth Horus Anubis Anubis Seth

W3bwi %j% 19.

20. X 21. 22.

N'rt bnt Heracleopolis Wgna N'rt p4t Mdnit Aphroditopolis

IhnasyaelMedina HorusShcfyu Mcidurn Atfih Khnum Hathor

Lower Egypt .. I 2. Inb-hd HP9 v Memphis Letopolis Memphis Ausim, Ptah Hom


3. 4. 5. 6. OnAk 7. 8. 9. 10. ad 11.0

Imntt Nt-rsy Nt-mt U3sww

Apis Prosopites Sais Xois

Kom el Hisn Buto Sais Xois

Hathor Amun Re Neith Amun Re Hu

w'm ww irunt Metelis w'm OwwObt dty Km-wr Hsb Busiris Athribis Kabasos Sebennytos: Heliopolis
Pithom Busiris Athribis Leontopolis Sebennytos Heliopolis Sile, Pelusium el-Baqliya Mendes el-Balamun Bubastis Tanis, Horbeit Saft el-Henna

Aturn Osiris Horus kE- kk& Isis Onuris Re Horus of Mesen Thoth Bancbdjed Amun-Re Bast Horus Sept

12.450u lb-nlrt' 13. 14. 15. br . 16.41 17. 18. 19. 20. 2 1.


Unt-13bt Sethroites Hb Hermopolis

IVR-mt Mendes Bdt Imt-hnt lmt-Pt Spd trts

T3 -rm w

Diospolis Bubastis Tanis Arabia

[After LA,11385-408].

the vulture

Writings -Direct: Phonetic Change: BEFAO 43,1945 p. 68


encliticparticle Wb 1 (2-7) Pyr - NK DG 15,1 'C , 16 y3 Wb 125 (8-9) NK

Cr.74a; CED45; KH48 E16

GG 245- vagueexclamatory interjectional NG force'indeed';Erman, 687affirmativeparticle or MokLEG p.146-7 9.4 y3 andp.598 'but, indeed, reallyl , uses. with list of appropriate

The exactnuance It to which this particleis intended give is uncertain. is usedfrom the Pyramid textsandin the NUddle, Kingdom,with thepredominant spelling following otherparticlesas

if it increases emphasis theseparticles(for example03, sk). In the NK y3 is a non-enclitic the of It particle and may havederivedfrom its earlier enclitic:ancestor. is this particle which becomes COPUCEIE 'wirklich', Indeed'usedto (a) introduce apodosis a sentence, (b) therefore unless, the of (c) except, interrogative conditional and oe uses are and particle,(d) conjunction, [Till, KG 4331 these closestto the Effu 3y. The particle3y appears Edfu in its enclitic:form and so goesback to Middle Egyptian for its at betraysomeuncertainty while it maybe however Tle spellings and modelratherthanLateEgyptian. It 3y (ME) it seemsto be influencedby y3 (LE) in its orthography. has specific useswhich are below. numerated
I 'N Alone : 'He brings fish in their pools, birds

in the Macesof Trapping'VI 56,12, whereit is

'and''or. usedlike a conjunction With Following Particles: 3y-sk : the Nile flood doesnot waver nor is there want after if 1582,5-6. Here the

by it of 3y hasbeencoloured, thepreceding negative, instead 'indeed' is 'not indeed'. so meaning of 'C- ", dU 71', -,,-,,'q. sn and I causethem to enter 111332,3di.irl&" e-f--7=: sn and I cause jd3i. ....

line 4. The sign r-a used here [ASAE 43,224 no. 169] is also used in the writing of them to'sail this word frequently at Esna [Esna V p.265 14 nal

3y-is, similar to the examples above: goodsare without pestilence

badness 1556,1; the gods of Edfu women give birth .... impregnate (sty) V 85,11; everything is in it (temple) for emphasis,stronger than 'anX) 111355,3. After q c- ']k Isis
r qP %%


snn nor is there

and also eggs when they

indeed outside them (again 'indeed'

iw-3y in the Myth is used almost as a literary device and this reflects a more LE use sqd. s indeed she sails with her son to hide him from Seth VI 21,3.7be LEG however

stresses that y3 does not come after any other enclitic particles . It may be that y3 is in fact a combined form of iw-3. (1) a description of events nn irw bprsn and all of these things happenedon the first q 6 "I A nn Irw m st W brs r

month of Peret, day 7 VI 121,7 ; (2) at the end of a clause too

mnw pn and all of this is in this place becauseof it to this day VI 122,2. Later in the text lw-3 comes at the beginning of a clause (3) 'Words of Re to HB4-Jh, Indeed those enemies sail to the east to reach Heliopolis VI 127,7; (4) (some of the enemies are fallen in the sea) of them are fallen on the mountains VI 127,10; (5) a place is called Tjcl to this day and some and

brought to the marshesof Tjel to this day VI 128,1; (6) end of a clause 96-W nn and kidneys are this (happened)in the district of Hebenu VI 117.4. 71bercforciw 3y can be at the end of an action clause 'indeed this happened'(1), (2), (6) ; act as a .... conjunction (4), (5) or it can occur at the beginning of speech(3). The negative equivalent of this is nn-wn 3y : the first harpoon takes breath from the nose of the hippoir W indeed there is not its like among the weaponsof war VI 239,2. which may simply be an

3y is also used at Esna, in the samekind of way and often spelled


'I way of transcribing erroneous

EsnaV 265 14 n.a also KO. no.194,3 and 6 in [Sauneron, , the soundof the harpoon

BEFAO58,1959p.35 n.21.Sauncron quotes possibleexampleat Edfu a

is like storm clouds, mi rN 0

and like a drum VI 61,13. Blackman and Fairman took this

as a spelling of sh3t ratherthan mi-3 [JEA 29,6 n.g].


be long, wide Wb 13 (12) to 4 (9) iniransitive DG 57,1 Iw be wide LP ')

Cr. 533a; CED 230; KH 296 be long (in compounds only) LJOY Te long /tall of things' - plumes IN hmhm 1124 (135) (166). Be long' of time: a lifetime m 006 Fqi IV 38,4; describing the hmhm crowri in epithets -

IV 44,6.
FH tpw also 11 19 (39). tA his heart

Me greaf in offerings: HB is Rc- btpw 1459,14;

In phrasessuch as 3w. ib 'rejoice' (Wb 14,7-8) : when the god rests in his temple

'widens' IV 18,5 *. ' eCIOD heart 'widens' when I seeyour light beams says Horus IV 54,11 my he unites with the sun disk 1441,12. %--; cqwhen


length width , Wb 14 (10-14)and(15) to 5 (1) OK DG 57,2 'w n irt CED 231 in WO YWI&T-blessing,luck

Usedas in Wb. but especiallyat Edfu of the lengthof a building, in the templedescriptions '- IV 5,10; A
IV 6,5; 17 C IV 16,2; VII 11,7-8 ; 15,34 - Also in die phrase 3w. s r nrr

'its width to perfection' IV 4,7 ; 19,11. 3wt dt for the lengthof eternity IV 16,5; VI 93,13hq Of time: (Wb 14,10) rn In 3wt-ib, a noun meaning'joy' Wb 14 (17-19)usualwriting
J19 *

IV 17,11;V 23 ;

HathorVII 90,7.

3wt-ib pectoral
Wb 14 (20) GR Wb lists only two examples of this word, from Edfu and Den6ra : in an Offering of the collar and p A the king says to Horus, Take pectoral,

to makefestiveyour breasf132,11-17.XI pl.213

(wd3) andprotection. in and this scene the sanctuary in returnHorusgivesprotectiveamulets shows

ZRofgold for his &awt MD IV 77a; rdit $9 El to Ihy andHathorD At Dendera,Giving O9C. VIII 25,10ff. which is thenreferredto in the text aswd3, in returnHathorgivesprotection.In an R7 offering of a pectoral,the king s'r e -C5,
pl. 119 2nd reg.

hr shr-ib, giving it to Horus V 171,13and

in [KoniglichePektorale 16-17]notesthat this word appears the Ptolemaic Feucht-Putz period, p. but at DahshurandEl-Lahunsmall pendants werefoundin the shape the 3wt-ib hieroglyph[de of Morgan,Dahchour,1903,pl.XIX Nr.30 andpl. V Nr.30; Winlock, LahunpLl3A A I.

longbeforetextualevidence '. Evidentlythis form asanamuletwasrealised suggests.


realgar Wb15(I) NK Harris, Minerals p. 141-2

This is red sulphide of arsenic which could be usedas a pigment and is included in the Edfu mineral list H q I -* VI 203,1.


to stretchout , makelong (transitive 3w be long) of Wb 15 (4-11) LiLMK

11is verb is mostoften found in the compound ' to makelong (i.e. outstretch) arm and it 3w. the is certainlyattested later than3w "belong, but earlierthan3wt 'offerings' . is usedin parallel with other verbsof offering Ac -1-4 dbhw, btpw, snir IV At Edfu 3w-' . 61-j PEIGljr 10r 331.1.In an epithetof Nekhbet,sheis the White oneof Nekhen ; it outstretched arm of (c E dm3t-pdwt) IV 52,10.This epithetoccursearlierin Hymn Diad.18,18. I

R -. 0- I offer themto your ka 1477.16 3w : breadoffering

fat meatportions1490,7 .

1 hold out to you asis)

In the phrasesfsf 3w (Wb 15,3 D.22 - GR) seeundersfsf The verb survivesin the form i3w I itt / 'stretchout' DG 57,1 and in the imperative

6Y I

IyFEICGive! Bring here! 19b; CED 14; KH 14. 'Cr.



Wb 15 (2) Pyr. This word is foundfrom theearliesttextsandit still occursat Edfu asa general termfor offenngs.It derivesfrom the verb 3w 'to stretchout, presene thusit is 'what is offereT. In the canaltext of and
the Athribis nome, HB is the one who gives

to the gods IV 30,3; in a geneiai offenng

--,, indicatesit may havebeenmainly a bread f R 'ic o to your ka IV 45,12.The determinative s%m.
offering, other types are not specified.


offerings Wb 15 (7) MK IiL

literal meaning of 3wt-' is 'stretching out the arm' 'in order to present gifts and it derives The from 3w 'to stretch out! [GNS 63] It occurs in Sin. 175 ; Urk IV 520 and at Edfu i their hearts (of .

people)rejoice with Fj

I. cm --

331,13 14 ie9. , IV and &

. 0.


A ;u..,

-4 -,0,

their he=

rejoice with the offerings, in a pun IV 331,4.


compound preposition = all, entirely (adv.) Wb 14 (12-13) D. 18


The literal meaning of r-3w is 'according to its' length' [GG 100,31,for example Ptahhotep 380,

382 hrw -

F,I Y-- the

day. Ito expression occursvery often at Edfu entire 'V8,6; -'

Rey-this whole houseIV 14,1;gs-prw7k, ':;!-With following suffix: pr pn-c--s3w.n. sn nn R I- V-1110,8;0-: =111167,6.

Without suffix (adverbially) :, ir nn <=> I 371,2-3; tr #AM% all time/seasons222A. GE-4

VII 215,8;ir -nin-c-,J9 C- I Horusdoesall this


from Punt incense Wb16(l) GR

The laboratorytexts at Edfu describe3wg thus : best'ntyw from the Eye -ofRe, its nameis 10 205,12;the Bnb MG bring nnib bushes (b3q) bloomingwithr, 19 people and trees OR 201,14-15.Evidently 3wl is a plant substance this is confirmed when there is mentioneda and

(wd3t) of magazine

11217,1. could be mixed with It 3w plants(from the determinative)

P-9F mixed with nnib (ir-md text) and was usedas an incenseVI other similar substances : 000
100,3 ; in a rdi-snir Or ht text, Horus gives the Irtyw people 155 sn upon their arms IV

152,1 and he receives the ^

of the king. IV 152,4 . In general incense texts

listed with substancessuch as Ddw and 3hm VI 251,6-7. The word is also used in puns : 'ntyw upon the fire. Horus says 3w ib. 1 mA .9 19
0. -

145,6;%ms-'ntyw'Ocr'q heart rejoices with your incense'111 (= (tp) of Hathorin this case11140,11 CD IV 180,9). Ile plant and ---

best3wK is for the head

determinatives into showit maybe a plant resin,which hardened granules or

The from whoseseeds could be extracted. word alsoappears : often at Dendera CD 174.12-14; oil CD 1 140,189M rn i1tJ D 1141,7-83w9 9ps with nnib D 11217,12-13and D IV 11,15

3w WIL hnt Wdntt In origin it could be a loan word from an incenseproducingareawritten in Egyptian.Ebbell it translates as 'galbanum' a first classtype of 'ntyw which comesfrom the Eye of Re, it is the ff. are colour of gold and its granules the sizeof pigeoneggs(from 11205,12 ). It was most likely in known underdifferent names the earliertexts,the name3wg beingusedin GR textsonly [Acta Or. 17,1939 92-941. p.


chamberintemple Wb 15 (14) GR

Wb records 3wty at Dendera where it refers to chamberswhich are hidden and contain cult images or statues MD III 32a, MD III 7=67a ; 68b. At Karnak too there is a damaged Ej C-J nty ///// [Varille, Karnak Nord 1,1943, p.3 1.

Ptolemaic example /////gps m-hft-hr-n

At Edfu in a building text, Horus gives the regions of the whole earth, built with (qfn) all their walls ? 1161,7. To translate 'wall' seems more acceptable in light of the text and the determinative. It could be derived from 3w I)e wide'land describe a particularly long or wide construction, but this text seems to conflict with the other examples, unless this has an incorrect determinative and the sentenceWall its chambere. -


to stop, cease Wb 16 (2-8) Lit. MK

At Edfu this verb is mostoftenusedin negative constructions 11 fH9,13 n(n) 3b : Belidetsits and eats to mooringquays ; the Nile poursout IV 48,10 m 3t r 3t 1167,2. 11270,13; king sails the

IV 43,10;the Nile floods

trn 3b : the guardians clearfoesby night and day n 3b n rnpt : the Nile floods fields

not'ceasing eachyear1112.11.
J without

"1' n ir 3b (noun Wb 16,10-17) Hathor gives drunkenness'and drunkenness^1-*"



from to separate Wb 16 (8) GR

The Wb reference here is 1459 and example of 3b 'to stop' (above) but this verb does occur in Maat texts : in the pun phrase ib3. tn--A-1 I" 3bw. k (Maat is) your throat, never separating bms bm. n Her Majesty

from your form' (parallel to n w3y=) VIT 254,10

(Maat) does not leave (separatefrom) our Majesty (gods) VIII 124J. Both expressthe wish that Maat is not made to go away and 3b is avariant on synonymous verbs which express this wish in most Maat texts. -1 --


to take pleasureat Wb 17 (4) NK GR

The examples quoted by Wb in Anastasi VI 38 and 86 are translatedby Caminos as'trifle with, take pleasure af, so 3b-m derives from 'to wish'-with a special sense rather than being 'rejoice', the meaning given in Wb, which does not fit this context [LEM p.290]. The Edfu example can have* 4J 1) either implication: He found his father m33. f wishing to see hi' (or 'taking im .

at pleasure seeinghim) 1129,13

her hearttakespleasure the god'swords, MD III I Ia. at


to wish, to desire Wb 16 (24) to 7 (7) MK

From Lebcnsmgde (141)'desire, wish or long foe the verb is used often and continues in use at Edfu, where it can appear in participle form, in much the same way as mr. f 'his beloved', and this parallelism stressesthe affinity betweenmr and 3bi : Hathor appoints - -one loves to stand on the throne 1274,12; a Harpoon f I whom her heart

J TF -o-k3. k which your ka desired V 1543 1;

qJ harpoon T-25'o 4-4 im. f you do what you wish with it VI 87.11; the king, who makes god your exult with what he loves IV 230,14: he pacifies god with fJ Ll (a harpoon text)

line 13 ; driving the calves 'I bring you the black calf r k3t br or

J JcD-for work. doing what, qfJ, owhat your heart what

IV 241,18 to 242.1 . With ib : offerings - your majesty eats you wish

44tI desires (note spellings with prothetic i) VII 151,10 ; of places - the temple is his heart desired 1351,14 -,Horus is bnty st. f ; and linty Wlst-f use of mr) V

Y. foremost in his beloved place V 324.6 (c L -

V 325,12.


type of cloth

In offering processionsan offerer who brings cloth, presentsHedj-hotcp who protects the king with IV 200,11-12 and Horus includes 1566,16. In a cloth ritual, a list of cloths associatedwith VII 158,12 and a md and cloth presentationl efrom Res-Neith

is brought [this is the sanctuary of Neith at Sais - Cauville, Osiris p.85 n.4] 1376,6. The cloth is not attested elsewhere and may be a particular type of cloth or an Edfu name for a certain type. In derivation it must be from 3bw 'shapejorm, thus it means 'divine shape or 'form of god', and it has mortuary and protective functions. I


ivory elephant tusks Wb 17 (16-17)OK c.f. Wb 17 (21) Late nail, claw, hoof -, . _, c f. Cr.76a; CED 45 hoof, nail, claw EIB DG49,9 and34.,,,:.,,,:..,

The word for tusks is known from the Old Kingdom and is also the word for elephant. Xt Edfu the -word is used to give the mythical etymology for Elephantine 3bw : 'Sail to 3bw it is the place of the tusk' VI 216,6 .


images, forms Wb 18 (1-2) NK

from the NK, hasthe clear meaning'image'or 'form', for example The word 3bwt, first attested An. 1114,12 Thoth is described a baboonndm 3bwt sweetof appearancethe king Med. Habit ; as tJ 20 27,6 his formsarelike Re andsimilarly at Edfu, Nephthys a mirror offering declares at form 1174,9; in a NWt text n-3b r, your

to the king 'womenrejoice at

from your form (body)'punning 254,10. VII your throat,neverseparating The most usualuseof this word at Edfu is as a technicalword for the symbolsof foeswhich are I [JunkerZAS48,1910p.72]. The word is usedalone: foes# %'%J andsm3yw ritually destroyed 4J so that it fire 1483,12; generalhrp-'3bt text, the falcon eatsof, are consignedto the implies the specific 'enemy'or 'hostile!forms of animalsVI 257,6-7- also a list of oils includes, bestoil of fattenedcattle in every form of the enemyVI 204,4-5;a geese nt hftyw -6 (enemy)formsVII 125, andtheprecise nature JC oil, It Sth in all

distantfrom god offering,Horusmakes

of such'forms' is explained,'all animalsof the desertare offered formsof Seth'VI 28,8-9. There are specific forms : 3bwA Mg in a crocodileslayingtext meatportion offerings : wbt nt VI and 3bwt (Elephantine) 312,14; '=. 9a -Poe .%% IDJr%-l

IV 212,1, in and

(the text punson the choppingblock of Belidet is pleasantbefore you (Mahes)IV

128,17-129, this is the crocodileform of Seth so 3bwt-Nbd againin meatportion presentations: 1 h%--11 r--fe.. %L% are eaten1452,7-8;foesare slain Jtm'

1147,11 Particulartypesof animalscanbe implied -I offer forms of

4t offering meatsarebutchered cattleareon theblock 168,17-18; JL andthebutchered portions(ibrt) IJ -. I 91 h%' I '.' h-, IV 66,10-11;in putting meaton the fire, theseportionsof T of 01 - are gazelles,oryx VII 61,15-16.They can also be birds : rns-msw text; Horus gives p3yw-birds


of forms1565,8

VII 82,7and in an offering procession, geese trapped are


'of enemy

3bwt-sbi : preparingthe altar, stpw of

these animals rn

behold are on the fire IV 116,6;gazelles,


are forms of the foes VII 319,16; slaying cattle

formsarebeforeyou 1565,15-16. enemy The origin of the word is not easyto discern It may be relatedto the root 3bwA 'brand mark' . (Wb 16,323) and Meeks[An.Lex. 77.0032]derivesit from 3bw 'a distinctivemark!which seems more likely than Husson[Mirroirs p.71 n.131who derivesit from 3bi, thus it is'desirableimage'. VII Borghouts [OMRO 51 p.71] discusses 319,16whereSethis called'ne Left One'andpossibly if enemieswere peopleon the left, then it comesfrom i3b left hand side!.Junker (OP. p.72 CiL it implying that it is a modelimage,perhaps referringto MD IV 151translates 'symbol'perhaps an 'execrationimage' made to representthe foe in one form or another,thus if this symbol was destroyed thefoewasdestroyed. then in a moregeneralsense: in a geographical procession, ww-I Ir is broughtwith its JLrdgrain III IV wtt. s and all forms of plantswhich it creates 38,10,c f. P.Br-Rh. 26.3 [JEA 23 p.1791 everyone-Vt. form theymay be, in any shape. in whatever

3bh v

to mix , unite with

Wb 18 (8-20) MK c f. DG 4,3 to forget 4q- 2,


c f. Cr.518b; CED 227; KH 290 to forget L)gtql"Used at Edfu with the following prepositions : m: fragrance of the winged disk a%%

temple 119,6; in festivals with celebrating people, the

# 0%% -Ab k-&. w'rw and qrw - Minglewith themIV 17,9;every heart ...


3wt-ib mixes with joy

IVI7, l; ofemotions-fearofhim#GJ, qJ 0, r: UE Cao '"'

mixeswith facesVII 262,9-10.


hnmmty his perfume mingles in the nostrils VIII 140,2-3. m-bnt ,f Ojtsty. f +J m-'b : Isden "L b3w 111210,3 e.


With direct object the verb again has more the nuance of 'unite with' : your mistress (uraeus of the Q Wyt joins the serpent goddess111172,7 king) Dr .


people Wb17(8) OK

Meeks [RdE 26,1974 p.52-651 studied this word in the contexts available to him, from the oldest example in the VIth Dynasty [Goedicke, Privaten Rechtinschriften p.87-103 and pl. 9]. In the older texts it occurs in juridicial or administrative contexts but from the MK it becamea word for 'people' in general, like b3kw and Omw and from the NK it is an archaic word found only occasionally. The Edfu too : an offering procession,Renenetis brought to grant long life to %mswand word occurs at she makes children for LU IV 44,6. Here the parallel with tmsw suggests your people

that the two terms cover all people near the king".' An.LtK An exact designation is still not agreed : 77.0027 3bwtyw a household ; FCD 2 3bt people of


3bd or 3bt reliquary for the headof Osiris at Abydos An. Lex., 77.0024, Brugsch - DH Supp. 45 ; Budge DicL I 19a L.. 1172,4 [coll. from XI pL276] which A word at Edfu describes Osiris as the noble one Dnt Cauville read as 3bwd [Osiris p.49 n.3]. Chassinatdescribesthe object as having a cylindrical body it and a bandage wrapped around it trails in the air. A rounded off at the top with two plumes on

be setuponthe top andthewholesign is given thereading3bd Abydos[Khoiak Il serpent also can 589 ff. ]. Inside the reliquarywas the headof Osiris [MD IV pl.69 tp mll ]Meeksquotes a

in NK "ample from the Statueof Khaemwese the BM [No.947, Fs. Griffith pl. 13, III I and KRI 890,511 ,j 'craftsmen' [AnJex. which he reads 'reliquary'contraryto Shorter's 0 is 3bdw, but by confusionof UCWe explainsthe readingof the sign : en is dw and and 7= 3b the lattercould be usedin the writing [ZAS 84,1959, especially 95-6 ; seealso p.

Beinlich, Barguet,RdE 9,1952 - p.153-5; in generalfor the headof Osiris as the 'Abydos-fetish'. Osirisreliquien 222-2241. pp.



month - see ibd.

3 bdw

type of fish 18 Yvrb (23-25) Med.

The fish cannot be identified

with certainty


Fische pp. 27-291 but

Desroches-Noblecourtsuggeststhat it is very similar to the Lates niloticus fish, but has a crescent shapedcaudal fin [Tomb 2 at Deir el Medinch ] and that the 3bdw is an ancestorof the mummified lates fish [Une flole Ivoql=d le poissonLates! de la d6esseNeith in Mel. Mchalowski (1966) p.73

ff. ]. Its religious functions can at least be4iscernedeven if not understood properly. The Edfu of 3bdw often have earlier parallels : the 3bdw is connected with the sun god in a examples creation text where he appears day, the sun god is at this time 11110,16; in the 9th hour of the 13 sgm-t3wy the great Fish who leads the Two Lands III 4w -:

223,18 - 224,1 (pl. 72 has no fish of any kind depicted)[a parallel Anchnes. p. 119-123]. Part of this is repeated in the 3bdw canal in the 3bdw (Abydos) nome, HB is epithet -J'44 w'b s9m

t3wy who rises in heaven to see what he has done V 112,9. Thus the fish is a form of the sun god, his rising in the morning which derived from the idea of the 3bdw leading the sun boat especially at announcing the presence of Apopis [OMRO 51, Excursus III pp.210-213 ; at morning and Gamer-Wallert, Fische pp. 113-1151. As far as the Abydos nome connections go, it is often difficult to discern, for the texts in the EI geographical list have been destroyed and in IV no mention of this fish is made. [For 3bdw w'b parallels - P.Cairo 86637 vs. 17,4 ; Urk. VI 144,7 ; 144,15 ; P.Br.Rh. 19,14 - see OMRO 51,130 301].


to hurry , rush Wb 19 (12-14) D.18

The earliestattestation Amada5, where3pd means'to hurry by' (Urk.IV 1291.5)but in the is P.Br.Rh. it hasthe extended with 3pd meaning 'to hurry the hearf andin this it may beconnected of bird, so that the fluttering of a bird is likened to the fluttering of the heart (14,21 and 15.3


it Faulknertranslates as'palpitate the hearfJEA 22,1936 130). of p. r 1-6hurrying At Edfu the verb is usedas in the 18thD. sense priestcarryinga standard CIX :a to 3 your stairway1542,11.Herethetext alliterates so that thereading3pd is certain.It is mostlikely derivedfrom 3pd bird, 'to beasfastasa bird'.


bird (generalterm) Wb 19 (5-8) OK DG 29,4 ipt poultry, goose Cr. 518b ; CED 227 ; KH 289 goose or other edible bird WBT

In keeping with the Coptic descendantof this word and the determinative

it may be more

to regard 3pd asedible fowl= ducks, geese.'Ibe word is still found at Edfu: an offering text accurate notes that the god has trapped foes as -Y'II 163,11and Sekhet (the field goddess)gave birth to

13-Y11 and created others line 12. The full spelling of the word is not frequent and often Spellings In V 7: " be ambiguous as to the meaning: he has provided bird coops with fat can IV 15,7

dm 'g3wt all sharp clawed birds (read as 3pdw by de Wit, CdE 36, No. 71,1961 p.84) IV nb 11,11. Whatever these signs actually read, they have a specific general meaning 'fowl' within the context of the texts : cattle and as burnt offerings 1549,4-5. as burnt offerings IV 19,1 ; also cattle and IV'


type of wine

In wine presenting texts at Edfu, as a reward of Honis to the king, the people of the oases'areladen

V, ' IV 125,4 -Iwith ) --":

Ej -

IV 101,11-12 Texts at Dendera further .

A" :a areas wine text, amongthe different winesis this type of wine with the oases connect .0' T CD Kenmetand Desdes IV 65,14-15;the king presents of IF for yourself Xbbw,vessels with GreenEye of Horusand 120,13-14. includes bearerwho bringswinesandthe text maintains association An offering procession a the of q 13 and wine of Kenmet the wine with the cases GreenEye of Horus: Sethwith wine vessels, -'' " Y' CD IV 66,2-3; Take

CD of Kenmetand'Desdes III


t; I

and GreenEye of Horus 1469,2-3 -a text which is repeatedat Karnak, in the Osirian chapels CRT .* 23 p. 168 top] of the Temple of Opet where the spelling is&4 -a [De Wit, Opet I p.203 without comment). Such an abbreviated spelling could read irp (I=r 0' = p) so that examples at

Philae, Hathor Or%t- 1 136 drinks Green Eye of Horus Benedite 82,6-7, or the ka of Hathor is and flooded with 10 13 (wine offering) Ben6dite96,4-5, must be viewed with caution.

This then, is an oasis wine, and the plant determinativesin the first two Edfu examplesshow that it is the juice of plants and the vine in particular. These two signs can be used in the writing of irp itself [IA VI col. 1172 esp. ]. The word is literally "bird hearf which may reflect on the qualities of the wine, for it may causethe heart to flutter like a bird and is thereforeperhapsa 'poetical' creation.


to adore, praise Wb 19 (15) GR

Wb quotesonly two examples this word : in a procession priestscarryingstandards the one of of , 'Goesto your shrine//////. ' with the bull standard 1539.12andalso,'Praise for theLord of Gods calm without angeeMain. 132.7. from thedeterminative. from its general The meaning theword is deduced contextandespecially of It may originatein the verb f3i (Wb 1572(6) to 573(14) )'to raiseup or carry'andin a reduplicated form it means'to exalt, praise'. The confusionof 0 for 3f is understaridable in this casethe and be f3f3. The are too few examples the momentto be certainof the readingand at re readingwould 30f is retainedfor convenience. E. Dum. 77 148.14 !2! t '17771et us praisehim, he comesin peace,


to eat empiffner c f. An.Ux. 79.0035and79.0037s!

In an '3 bt offering text : the dr ty falcon tastesthe taste,the falcon

m 3bw

rdi-m-owt m 3w n JU and the hawk seizesand eatsof (feedson 3bw cattle and eatsofferings froImhis'table. 257,6. VI


At Dendera in a w-'-r-stpw

"'text, Take 3bw animals ...... .

"im. sn' CD IV

62,5-7. As this is a reduplicated verb, the meaning should rather be 'gobble, gorge! ad its meaning is clear from the context. There is an earlier example in CT 11394, text T3C 'I eat (wnm) in it like



Y-A in it like Seth'. 71beparallel texts have - lo&-

YIC and


BH2c Faulkner translatesit'gorge' [FECT I p. 141 n.4] These may be the root verb 3f, which is . . reduplicated to give 3f3f and if so then the continuity between the Coffin Texts and Edfu texts is noteworthy, though it is likely the word is more widespread. A further possible root is the verb 13 'to be greedy' with the initial I lost and the stem 0> 3f MY , 'to gobble%


a catch of fish and fowl 'GR Wb 19 (16) BD,

The earliest attestation of this word is from the Book of the Dead Chapter 172,36 where are announcd for you'. The word is then used at Edfu, particularly to describe the the produce of the pehus i'a pehu with has Dum.GI IV 114; ljpwy

bird and fish catch IV 28,5, the Dendera parallel the Lord of the pehunngs 91,7-1' IV 47,6;

the fisherman god has9'"AA , to IV 46,15 ;a nome fis its too, a pehu with Vt 7, IV 23,3 W, and the goddessAqet carries

VI 46,10 ; possibly WC 3l'IV 45,3, though she is i

that primarily responsible for bread, it seemshere that the meaning of 'breadsupplies'has'superceded

of 1ish andfowl catcW. The origins of the word are likely to be in f3i 'to carry' (Wb 1572 ff) and so M may actually be f3i 'what is carried'thoughit is possiblethe root may evenbe in 73 'be greedy'.In any caseit is a varyingaccordingto the specific'content to of generalten-n coverofferings,with the determinatives theoffering - thusfish, fowl, bread,liquid in vessels .


to cook Wb 19 (18-19) Med.andGR

The intransitiveverb appears earliestin medicaltextswith the meaning'to boil, to cook' Eb. 42,7 (19) at Edfu r* (206b)and transitive 'prepare cooking'11219,3 by 'MSS) (after Fairman,


Grillen p.141-21. maytoo be related theEthiopianword na fa ra 'to boil'. It [Verhoeven, to qq 31 Thereis alsoa noun,possiblyderivedfrom this verb: P.Br.Rh. 25,16,,. -fIL3fyt 'heaf JJEA 23, p.179



Wb 110 (6-8) Late GR The earliestexampleof this word for lion given by Wb is on a Saitestatuein the MusdeGuirnct Tk&Sh, Nf. 6 <8> wherea btp-di-nsw, hasthe lion sonof Bastet W. son of Sakhmet At Edfu -wr . 3m is a commonword for Horus as a lion, who is also wr-pty 2YS V'- VII 168,4.In Tjaru punsHarocrisis the T asdeterminative HB : 111231.1 Lord of or

%i-3rn a lion who bums foes V 71,6. With 1306,17;

9 andLord of RageV 146,9;sharpof claws

3&'%? drinks the blood of foesVII 323,6;Horus 'kqr- qn and rulcr of the God's land I -who in 132,17. this form Horusdrivesawayfoesandparticipates offeringsof meatpattions. In The term is alsoappliedto the Edfu lion waterspouts: Edfu is the Placeof the Claw of L3m rA
wr in the Place of Piercing IV I 11,14-15 ; words of IV 106,17 : words of 2A it is you who seizes(3 m) foes

tW who bums (3m) foes IV 111,6. If the word is written %-R- it is ,

difficult to distinguish from m3i or 13m It origin it may be a metathesisedform of m3i either by confusion or miswritings of m3l. Once the error had been made then 3m could be used to effect in puns with 3m'to scize, or 3m 'to bum'. It may have been intended from the beginning to mean 'Seizeehowevcr, as seems likely for 3m 'falcon' (below) or even Sumer' and it is difficult to seewhere the exact nuanceor emphasislay [Do Wit, Lion p.423 index].. The word is found at Dendera (again of HB) and at Kom Ombo where it applies to Harocris, Ombos 1119 no. 155.


falcon Wb 110 (9) GR

Wb recordsthis word at Dendera Philae,but as it refersto Horusas a falcon, it is frequentat and


Edfu. The 3 m-falcon = Horus, also has attributes such as sk-'g3w 3t in Mesen V 2483 0; he seizes offerings with his teeth

wr VII 125,11; he is V 111 '7,7;

foes slaughters IV 3712.

In puns: r 3m hfty the falcon seizes foes V 92,16; HB is 3m who seizes foes

1% and the living lion who drives away his enemies V 53,10; Horus is k3-nbt with the face of C'-a falcon 1554,5. Under this one name then Horus combinesall the attributes and appearance the of falcon, bull and lion. There is no doubt that this word was perceived to read 3m : the drty falcon is 3f3f rn 3bw who feeds on 3bw cattle VI 257,6 .

Thereis alsoa puzzlingexamplewherethe Easternflood is described nd as q. VIII 156,11


The origin of 3rn 'falcon' is mostcertainly3m.'to seize',as the falcon swoopsdown andgrabsits prey with its claws.It is possiblethat 3m,the lion and3m the falcon, fully embodythe destructive 'De andrapacious qualitiesof thegodHorusat Edfu. Wit [Lion p.4431 with Wb in suggesting agrees that 3m, is lion with a falcon head. This is not specifiedat Karnak (Urk VIII <2lh> ), nor Edfu,' nor Dendera(MD IV 66 wr pbty m A P1 Or but in reference HB, not to

necessarily lion), so 3m mostprobablyis eitherHorusasall lion or all falcon,but not a mixturea of the two, thoughsomeof their attributes overlap.


to bum Wb 110 (1-3) Pyr. KH 528 OM (0) to bum (not Cr.)


The underworldtexts of the NK stressthat burning in fire meanstotal destructionfor the dead' [Zandee, Deathp.133] and so the burningof foesmeans their annihilation.The word 3m'to bum' can be usedmost effectively if it punson 3m lion', as in the gargoyletexts : 3m"4&r-Q-f6e IV in 111,6and the gargoyledestroys wrongdoers 0T in meatoffering texts, the 3m- lion rj%4 or r%4/// ; his placeof burningIV 117,6-7

. the foe V'71,6. It can also pun on 3m Talcon'

V 93J. In a Onk-stpw Hmt' associated text, a goddess with Wn-hA 'a falcon headed 'in buM'sthcenemy fleshand bones, that her nameof in

knife bearingguardian(pl. 145)


Death Fire VI 159 14-15. Horus can bum his foe: Wetjeset rejoices at k 4

V 156,5 and the heart of the Lord of

burning his enemiesVIII 36,6-7.

The orthographiesthen are fairly regular, aside from what may be termed geminating cxamples in the lion-gargoyle texts which give the verb more emphasis.


to seize , hold in the rist Wb 110 (17-21) Pyr. cf. KH498 GM

r! a. thedeterminative % The usualspellingof this verb at Edfu is fist of the clenched showingthe The action involved precisely. variousobjects'held!at Edfu are often staffs . staves. weapons or similarlycylindricalobjects: Wy weapon: VIII 34,6. q 'c, -,, harpoon: 1381,14; IV 374,1;V 41,12-13 harpoon and rope harpoon: VI 75,12. bow andarrow 1309,10; IV 39,5 ; C) nomeV 27.2;4th LE nomeIV 24,8. VI22,4-. MtC, IV55,11. IV 343,5 and theendof the .

13tVI70.7; rA4g symbolsof office: imyt-pr: qcC--;

111121.4 the yearsof the king line 6. and VI 330,3 1119,9. holds it

in of weapons general: ht nb titi everything destroying ritual implements: nir censer

7A TC> V 82,11;in settingthe fire, the king

in his left handandthe right armis bentwhile settingthe fire 158,14 . As a falcon or lion, Horus can fastenonto and hold his enemies directly : gs VI 142,13; b3b hippo VIII 7,15 ; oryx IV 239,1; gmhs 3&c-p the bodiesof his foes (e--P by error) 1576,4 The exactmethodby which he doesthis is described foeswith his talonsMyt) 1276.15

f this later becomes a phrase 3m, %t3t. m bftyw 'his talons seizing his foes', with the rn introducing the indirect object : qr-& 319,12-13 J 316,15; r'3&%: (m m3. hd) VI 143,4;VII rn bftyw. f VII 275,6-7. VII

D 1120(67) and 3m VT

This ideaof seizingcanbe usedalmostas if 3m is anotherword for 'to unite or join, in a text for gm'.s 4r IF the presentationof crowns, the,White Crown joins, (dmJ) the Red crown : k-A


mVw.s the UE seizing the LE crown IV 134,6-7. 1-?: The reading 3m for the sign P- once favoured by Fairman and Blackman was discardedby them for hs-VnI, though there was still uncertainty [BIFAO 43,121 n. 1].






Wb 110 (22) Pyr. and I1 (1) D.18 3mmt, the closedhandor fist, is not a medicalterm [Lefebvre, Tableau53p.47]. It existsearlier as3mm.(Pyr. 1282)and from the MK as3mmt (CT IV 92r). It occursat Edfu in this form in the phrase, whereheads the foesare held in the 'fist! of the king of 75,7; or part of a slaughtered gazelleis in m I-> rik 1530,5; i>

IV Q- 311,8-9.


type of sceptre

Wb 111 (3-5), Pyr.

Properly speaking the 3ms is the mdw stick of the king, decorated with a tassel or whisk and spelled fully asM P h (see WB) [LA VI 13761.From the examples in the PTs, it seemsthat

3ms was carried by the king when he functioned as Horus. In origin a divine stave. it is not found in the hands of servants. It could also have a protective quality and maintain order (e.g. Pyr.274a [Hassan,Stocke p. 179-183and 6]. At Edfu the 3ms is usually written as sometimes without the flail, though in actual ta it is shown as stave (e.g. XI pl. 268). The 3ms is most often used representations proper with the t Dd mace, and together thesetwo are held in the left hand, while the right hand is held I (XI p.268). Normally the texts differentiate . t

out either with an offering or holding the brp mace

between 3ms and brp, as in the following : Orp gifts, the king receives the Od and holds 3ms, he stretches out his hand with the I brp 1126,5 (p12 Ia and XI pl. 260) -'

Theoretically, in writings the brp and 3ms are differentiated by the A,

on the 3ms sceptre

3ms and d are held in the left hand while the brp is in the right. The king receives t-and the and holds it in the right hand, thus this is the hrp, and he receives Dd in his left hand 171,8. P1.17 2g I shows the king with all three sceptres,but plainly f Be. in the text is read hrp. V


The hil and 3ms can be received separately: receive hd and seize 3m 1133,12, though this can be reversed together :t1 132.5; t f

the word for seize being

and 3m td 158,6 . The two can be received

in 'handing the Great Place to Horakhtj, the text. saySthe

stavesare held in the left hand while the right is bent before the temple 1106.17 pl.20. This configuration of three sceptres is found in brp offering texts where the brp is used to consecratethe offering, while the 3ms and hd perhaps bestow their kingly authority on the king They are also used in in the Ow-l-r-stpw texts (e.g. pl. 153) or wdb offerings (PI.40h). The bd and 3ms staff are separatedhowever in one particular ritual - the pr-m-'b 'Coming forth from the palace' procession. Here, as the king makes his progress, the Tun-mutef priest pours out incense before the king to purify his path and the king holds tI it '. so VII 42,10 pl. 163 ;

VI 243,5 pl. 151 ; 111113,7pl. 62 ; VII 190,14 and the scenesshow the king holding -oin f in his right. This processional use of the 3ms is very ancient and was his left hand and recorded thousandsof yearsearlier in the inscription of Re-Wer [Urk. 1 232 - Sahurel as the king was appearing on the day of taking the prow rope of the divine boat, his 3ms sceptrel& IN fell from

Re-Wer. his handat thefeetof thefortunate

The ability to removedangers that means in a text for defeatingfoes,they are cut up by IV 235,7, which could be read as brp/sbrn but the pL493 showsthe king holding to of enemies theking attached it. The 3ms may havebeena purifying sceptre the fly whisk impliesit wasusedto remove'dangcrs' 'impuritics'and thusto afford protectionto the king. 7bis is echoed a pr-m-'O text wherethe in 4 in the left hand,purifies his sanctuary 49,12. IV T with the


3ms-ib to rejoice in, in the phrase Wb 111 (7), MK - GR

The earliestreference this phrase from Beni Hasan andalreadya recumbent is 1,7 to cow61


usedto write it. Gardinerhasthe sign of a cow sucklingher calf [E51as 3ms, after Wb only. and implies 'to showsolicitude' is the original meaning. may havesomeideaof 'rejoicingat the birth It 'pride!in a newborncalf. In this respect 18Dexamplefrom TT an of a calf however; perhaps even


-Mp&-i 110<2352>describes deathas

andthe presence ms 'birth' as a root for the word can of

hardly be coincidental. T'his may be the underlying implication for the origin of the word 'rejoicing at something newly bom or created' [c.f. Grapow, Bildliche 80 top; also Caminos, Tale of Woe pAl 5,6 take interest in]. At Edfu in the building texts, there are frequent referencesto Horus rejoicing at his temple, which is in its newly created form : when he travels to it IV 3,8; at hearing the songs in it IV 15,3; opposite it IV 18,2 and at seeing it IV 2,5. All spelled seeing it VIII 145,17, which is corrected * ork ', '6, except for : the benu bird at

he rejoices at the perfection of the temple VIII IV 22,15.

152,16. In a nome (identity lost) HB is called

In late texts the verb 3ms can also stand alone, meaning 'to rejoice! [An. Lex. 77.0054] in Barguet, qMP4i?L Pap. 3176 (5) du Louvre p.9 11110and 17 N. at Edfu too : Hathor says dU A May yourejoicel, alsoDVIII 84,14 and

br. k I cause faces to rejoice at seeing your face n m33

(the face sign could be a scribal error for the heart sign ) 111136,15.


to drive out Wb 111 (9-16) MK

3r is attested from the MK and is often used with Or [FCD 31. At Edfu : Min says, 'I raise up your 3rt crown -M%,-j and I I)inX the 9 bows (Otp-di-nsw text) 1407,10 -'a pun on the 3rt

headdress The root of the verb, 3r, is found in many other words, often connectedwith 'enclosing' . 'binding' something [see Osing, Nom. II p.676-8, c f. w3rt string to close a net Wb 1252,31. or


headcloth or wig Wb 111 (17-18) Late GR also 132 (3) GR snake of Re Ort

In Pyr 456e 'as this your wig (hnsyt) is raised up to you (i'r)' and according to Sethe [Komm. 11 pp.249-2501 this line is paralleled in a later hymn to Min, where the word for nsyt is replaced by i3rt and the verb becomessin (raise up exalt) He gives examples from : Lange, Ein Liturgische , . Lied an Min Amon (Sitz. Ber. Akad. 1927 p.331 ff. ) MK (Parma) mi sin I', NK * =P'o; - Abydos !

q72,1''%Oz; oand Edfu mi sin which actually is in the Min Chamber at Edfu =1 390,14 . He sin


equates this with Wb 111 3rt . If this is an example of 3rt then the spellings seem so consistent they may have been copied, with only the Ptolemaic scribe giving a slightly different interpretation. Wb gives an example of 3rt from P.Br. Rh. 8,11 where Isis and Ncphthys sing to Osiris %sp. k' n. 0 k1you have received the wig in the northern regions. Faulkner comments that the

tp-3rt (that which is upon the wig) may be the atef crown JJEA 21 p. 127 'headdress'. and p. 1371. The headdressis worn on Ptolemaic monumentsby certain gods and the uracus is set at the front[ Mquier, Frises pA n2 and 3]. In origin the word could be connected with the verb 3r 'to tie, to to Coptic 6AW strangle' and related p.676-81 is explained in Marn.37,14 'Causing this god to appear in 'R The nature of the 3rt 5) which the 4XOOY 'snare trap' [Cr. 5b CED 4, Osing Nom. 11 -. ,

king offers'. It is either a wig or perhaps the cap upon which the wig is placed [LA IV col.988-990 doubts that it is actually a wig]. What may be this word occurs in an epithet of Iforus "=1 q 42- -D

hilong of beard and image of Re 1120 (61). 7be etymology of the word is suggestedin an offering to Nfin who raises up -A n. 1 Pdwt 'the headdressfor I have bound the Nine Bows'

1407,9, pl. 32a shows Min wearing what is presumably this headdress. is recorded in a mythological text on the El-Arisch naos (Griffith Tell el . qICIE% Yahudiyeh p125 line 17-21], here the object is spelledq1=or and it is the Urt of This spelling with Shu. When worn by Geb it drives away his fever and makes him well, it was kept at Pr. 13rt [DO H 52 -a place near Goshen, Saft el Henneh in the eastDelta] and was eventually taken to the take there to be washed, where, as soon as it reached the water it turned into a crocodile. Griffith lop. Cit. 72-731 translated this as 'cap! or 'wig' . As the word can have either determinative it may thus be pp. the cap upon which a wig could be placed or sewn [Wb 132,31. q T in this respect there is a personal name from the OK [PN 17.11 (Kairo 1634 Stela) which C.Maller 0 "A varA "At 4c'* tq 4

IV 989 n.6) translatesas Terracke machee.

-C=Xl q,.. hl-, from: UAV133,7; Further come examples


Mmi 6,1936 17 p.
<825> D.20



BD 239,5and comparea word


IV) (Ramesses (Wb 198,11). -



hurt, pain Wb 112 (4-6) MK, GR DG 8,4 Woe IY 'erA . Wb Med. 97-98 under ih also ), WZ. ---IEb. 191cpain.

Cr.536b; CED232; KH297

r3>q are well attested and at Edfu 3hw is used as in The meaning and spelling with the variable texts : in a text of sJ3 mrt I take away hurt and I make well the Wadjet eye earlier ra

from its pain (Treasury door) 11165.11. The word is also found in the phrase 3hw-ib, which is the fb; "R,,, ', ]P A%' V 132,5,and title of one of the books read at the Festival of Edfu :0q %=b V

135,4. Derchain makes no mention of this in his list of ritual books [P.Salt 825 97ff. ], so it may be unparalleled. No information as to its contentsare given.


fields Wb 112 (17-18) OK DG 9,1 3h Cr-89b ; CED 50; KH 54 F-IOZE

in general and as such,it is used at Edfu, This very old word applies to land which was worked in the Donation Texts of the Persian Period. Here it can be spelled with or without the especially r3ts,I ; 'oot VII 248,4 VII 248,1; and passim.

fields in nomes: in the Sht-nrw it has it describes In the geographical texts too, IV 37,11,or in a brick makingtext, r VII wgm are mentioned 48,7. of


Wb 113 (7) to 14 (25) Pyr, Uppsa, 1978 ion, GEnglund, Akh-un,enot. religieusedansltgyptepharaonique,

po Egyptianterm,ratherlike mnh, but Englund(op.cit.) showsthat it wasaw er An untranslatable V , with the act of creation and the birth of light. In this respect it has a similar nature of god, associated to W and can be at once active and passive, static and dynamic (p.208 ff. ). It is the power of the which guarantees maintenanceof order, stability and the permanenceof what is autoregeneration created . English words may suggest these qualities only : 'be glorious' 'efficient! .'useful' even


At Edfu it is used as detailed in the earlier periods by Wb and it is most often spelled with the crested ibis head -C 0. either with or without . A0 A common variant has as if the light'

ideasinherent in 3b were deemedmost important. Adjective : BB is Re, snn -90 e 3b. wy: T, IV 39,11 ; granaries are supplied with p; t 1475,10.

'1" m33 sw njim. wy p tr sw V 6,2; c %-% mdw. k (your words) 1 505.4. ) r. nfr IV 42,5; the Nile COmes-t3 0 2e3 in its monuments IV 17,13. wrAl IV'

Adjective verb : all offerings are fat r-mnhVI 48,10 ; the temple is beautiful in its work

In compound epithets, especially when 3 is joined with a part of the body. Otto'. for exarnple [GUM J 781, renders this 'nUtzlich' but perhapsit indicates 'creativity' whether in carrying out a royal or p. , divine command, or in building a monument. 3b-ib (Wb 113,13 D. 18) : Hathor is 3b. "wy (Wb 1 14,4-6 GR) and mnh-3hw 1 153,5. is applied to Khnum, the builder god 1477,10 ; in the

'-JJVI 100,1-2. laboratory as the maker of md, the king is 0"-lP'. 3h-mnw epithet of the king: in the Two Shrine Rows 152,8.

, are Examples 3b-r3 (Wb 114,1-3). apliedto'the king at Edfu, collectedb'y Otto [GuM p.96-97).
interpreted here as an epithet to show that the king knew and could pronouncecorrectly the necessary

ritual spells . In fact the ritual is designedto 'create'a food offering, to createMaat, to create implied by this epithet[c f. op.cit. pp.76-771. king The magically,andthis is the underlyingnuance hasthis epithetin scenes for wherehymnsandwordsare important: the dw3-nLr scene example -t -=- 1293,10; rb-sw -le 111121,16; 'T'IV 384,2;TO ', eT QD 1 ::.. 87,14-15; the king is given in return'no endof -S 01'

VII 92,11; (D"2


'10. VII 155. In this sense especially and

when consideredwith its'accompanyingepithets(such as rb-sw , wd3-1b , bnr. ns , pb3-1b), q'uates king In this epithet the with Thoth,the ritualist par excellence. othertypesof texts: incense and libation'1'482,11 63.10;seeinggod '6readoffenng VII 282,10, VII 256,1-2;wdb-iht nbt 1483,16;sW31a: 'To II

1118,1-2and pacifying Sakhmet

VI 280,9.'In'thisasso'ciation Tboth the epithet also has implications about the with

I 13h it wouldnotbe possible. for Priests , assubstitutes the Maat without -r3 too I maintenance'of



also have this epithet : the sg-md3t priest is -'L"'I: ,

invoking the ritual and pacifying god'

with his spells 1540,5. 3h-sh (GuMp. 97-8) of protective gods : the Lords of d3isw are-t-I V. VIII 82,2 ; the king is Il 93,16. M, driveaway disorder %who

3Y-jjrt : the king is on his throne in a wYb offering (again connected with T'hoth) and has the --t 0 epithet . =q- snb-db'wt 150.4. The titles can therefore refer to the practical, manual creative

skills as well as those of utterance.

3hw V

magical creative power, spells

Wb 115 (4-9) -



In the ordinary sphere3hw is the creative ability of god or king [c f. Te Velde, JEOL 21 p. 175-186], for in Ptahhotep 56 n hmw 'pr 3hw. f 'no artists skills are perfect' [Lichtheim AEL

p.631 in the sense that no artist is equipped with magical creative skills, he has to work hard to by became them. However in the sphereof the afterlife 3b was the poweri which the deceased acquire an 3h [Englund, AM p. 191]. Vk3 is a parallel but different type of magic force but like it, 3hw force also has protective powers [c f. Borghouts - Magie, LA while mainly a self sufficient creative 1111139,4]. In the early funerary literature 3D is very important for the dead [CT I 86a ; IV l8e; VI 30e; VII 2g] and forthegods - CTII 39c Shu is'hewhom. Atum madeas eldestby meansof his In the Amduat too, in the sixth hour 'You are 3h by your 3hw' is said to seven figures [Hornung, Amduat I p. 109] and while 3w is the creative force expressedby mummiform .0

as which had utterance, time went on in Egyptiantexts3hw wereregarded the spellsthemselves as StatueBasep.77 'magicalpower; c.f., KH 503 H magicalforce [Klasens, and werespoken I andwritten down -1"0, c'% OsingNo. 11n.4461

deities: Isis protectsher husband At Edfu, theword 3bw 'spells'is associated appropriate with with -to b I 1166,2;shedid not tire of uttering-LO 1 (driving the calves)1102,10; sheslays

foes with king with'Ot Ills"-

VII 149,13and,recalling the original function of 3h : Isis s3h the ka of the'-qW 1166,4-5.Also: Nephthys protectsHoruswithr-(D1', 'P 1315,5 or the uraeus

IV 51,8 Thoth makesprotectionfr the king with tk3w -t', % tp-r3. i my magic ,


J, + 7 q.and protects the VI 84,5; Thoth with the king is equippped with 0 power and utterance house with tp-r3. f VI 145.11.These two are also connected where Isis protects the king with '"' D 'Ilf tp-r3. s wrw 1 269,12 . The king invokes these spells d3isw) VI 300,8-9. The word is used throughout the GR temples in similar ways. +'#'H 34,6; -tO nis-3bw-t*G. (parallel to tk3w and

3ht %I

power, ability - good things

Wb 115 (10-16) MK
With verbs of seeing 3bw often is used like nfrw : his majesty seesnfrw of Mesen and 07-Vill Wer-Nakht IV 2,6; the gods see 0 or lo' and hear nfrw which the king has made IV 9.5; the go6

R 20111 IV 54,12;the hall of the templeis inscribedwith nfrw nb heart rejoicesdr m33
the s3b-%wt (glories ?)V 4,4. wrw of

beforethe kin VII 272,7;Hathorqm3 In Maat texts : Tefhut qm3 -1:QI19 128,15. rK Objectof ir : the falcon of gold ir 331.7. Object of verbsof saying: an offering of gazellesTk beforeBB 1146,15-15.1 -a

beforeRe III

for the Lord of heaven (with reference the temple)IV to

1565,5-6;Berenice ddt

Wb 115 (16) hassp-n-3ht 'gooddeeds,which occursquite often and theremay be a variationon W -r, 0 Edfu whereHorus says e nn sw m sp n SO these your good things they are the this at ,,. likewise(a dw3-nJrtext) IV 57, otherwordstheking hassaidthe deeds Sia andyour praises of correctspells. 3bw arein general of moretangibleandconcrete manifestations 3h. J

3b. t

bread Wb 117 (8) BD GR

Wb cites the references Totb.Nav. 39,2o! n. f ry. :


which Budgetranscribes*'91



Allen translates Terform beneficial acts for him [Allen, BD p.66] ; and 'Utter for him spells, give him praise' [Egyptian Book of the Dead p. 122 P.Ryerson], but 'bread' as a meaning is discounted, and so is not an example. As 3w are 'created produce, fine things' so 3b. t 'provisions' is a natural development (c f. k3w from k3 ; ww from hw), thus at Dendera, the Nile supplies granaries with Upper and Lower Egyptian grain for the storehousewith makes Dendera great with R09 T! T 0 MD II 19b ; the Nile provisions the land (df3) and it ,

MD IH 26 and also atEdfu Harsomthus floods the table with


VI 48,13.

it Without the specificdeterminative would be difficult to know if 3hw 'provisions' 'goodthings' or V here. in general wereto be understood

3hw W

grain hrp-3bt Horus gives the 3bt field 3h.ti rn -t:. text It VI 36,11; the

3hw as grain seems certain at Edfu

and fills granaries with corn (npr) VI 257a; Renenetis brought carrying pehu of thel3th LE nome brings 0 000 its high ground IV 32,9. of

If this is seed-corn,then this would also embody the idea of something with lautocreative'power.

3hw W

alcoholic beverages Wb 117 (10 and 11)

3hw derives from 3h and refers to the pleasantqua I ities of wine or beer Beer: in beer offering texts, 'How beautiful is this ei,qeui n 4 Ue% beer Om which the mistress -tr. for

beer has made 1113,15 and the king is clean of hands, pure of fingers shn. i 0of the Lord of heaven 1462,6 . In a mn-vessel. presentation, Hathor is 3ht in the horizon 3h. ti excellent of beer V 381,10 ;I have pacified 3ht with translates3bw as 'beer] Dend. Dum.Kal. Ins. 109,14 .

3h. ti excellent beer [Alliot

Wh gives (11) as wine with reference to a wine offering text at Edfu where Hathor is exhorted to ffo "r "f, take oas the Lady of beer; offering 'IC15i (confusion with thw ?) 1453,11. Possibly too in a wine I 11-6"' "to

Put the vine to the ground-=> -Ij

treadout its glories (=wine)'H 38,8.



ghost Wb 115 (17) to 16 (10) Pyr. DG 42,3 iy spirit I


Cr.89a ; CED 50 ; KH 54 ghost I

The 3h is the dead person who, having been provided with all the necessary provisions and rituals, is magically recreated (or reborn) into the afterlife (in the same way as Isis magically resurrected Osiris). The 3h and 3hw appear throughout Egyptian funerary literature as the transfigured and 'blessed'dead as opposed to the mwt who are the condemned.71e 3bw can be people, deities and also ancestorkings [LA 11678] and the Edfu texts show the different nuancesimplied by them. As applied to Osiris, the 3b par excellence : an offering text for Sokar-Osiris 'I alight as 2

A d-l' V 663 496,1; libation to Sokar OsirisMay you come as the mummy upon your offe ringsl form being the exact state for the 3bw. In the plural the 3hw and mwt make up the people of the kingdom in the afterlife: Opening of the Mouth, Osiris makes his form secret from pr-brw r3? offering to &2 elj and mwt 1 173.7-8; the king gives the

Oil 1547,10; Seshmeton the brow of the king fells both 0&'"-Mkd

and mwt (who oppose him) VI 302,9. A list of creative gods at Edfu includes the d3isw, 11nmw. Xbtyw and G-F psdt tpt the spirits of the First Ennead VI 173,16.

The 3bw then at Edfu are little more than additional beings who come under the sway of the temple gods and the king [Zandee,Death p. 197].


vessel Wb 117 (9), GR &

Wb cites two referencesfrom Dendera: the presentationof a reliquary vessel


2ZY11111 Dum. GI 11145;is a Thoth headedreliquary presentedby Thoth who says I have brought , 3h. ti before Pr-3ht Dum. GI 11149; at Philae the king brings a Khnum headed vessel 10 r it! PhOt. 327. Khnum-Hor I raise up to you-'lr to purifying you with

I At Edfu in a libation offering : the king seizes


da. Horusinvoking the with


offering for his fathee V 66,12. This mortuary vessel then is used in the libations to make the dead into 3h, and this is the underlying notion of the term. V


ShiningOne- seeunder13hw




plants (11) GR

Wb 118 (8) NK

DG 10,4 311yreed thicket r Cr.25a; CED17; KH5 41% &l

LSJ9 p.295b reed grass; used for lamp wick, as a rendering of Hebrew Gr. CCXet CEXL Genesis 41,2.18. The earlier word is attested in P. Anastasi IV 16,7 0t 'crops' [Caminos, LEM 127 and

in the tide s3w. 3hty guardian of the crops - AEO 193*]. Here 3hy is possibly 129 ] [and possibly a NK writing of AO r in the Coffin Texts [CT V 159a] [Meeks, 'papyrus marsh', known S Vt

Hom. Saun. 1254 n.691 and in this Taharqa text [line 201 'plants, marsh. Fairman suggestedthat lyf masculine word [BIFAO 43 p.63 n.51. At Edfu : the nome of imt-pbt


1923, its value from this because it derives

'papyrus thickets' VI

is preceded by P3, thus is

mentions in a damaged6t

] ; Khemmis (3b-bity)=1Sz-c1s with its papyrus VI 51,10; HB is the 41,16-17 [Fairman op.cit. TO child hidden by Isis in f2,, Khemmis VI 299,2. These examples point to the word meaning of

Delta marshes,but it can also be used as a general term for plants . In the papyrus thickets of the brings the sht-field with all -t 0 offering processions : an offering bearer list of plants brought as offerings is 01 466,4; among a of its h3-t3 land I rn fdt. k

1468,1 ; pr ,, 0

from your sweat(of the Mnevisbull, the flood) 1487,16-17 XII pl.357. = plantscome


cow Wb 117 (3-5) GR .

Hathorcould be known as3ht 'the GloriousOne'and3ht'the suneye!andalso3ht 'cow'. At Edfu


in milk offerings to Hathor, the king offers the milk from the udder of the 3bt cow: "E-YW 67,15; -11'4t VIII 105,4. Ile milk OF'4& from

is used for purification 1199,14 (in the'

name of a minor deity). In a beer offering, the king brings to Horus---PlfvL , Golden One, Udy of the s3t-byre IV 46,10. The connection with the byre is also alluded to in a milk offering where the king brings a byre withj(ffiLwrw and their milk VII 66,1-2.

These 3 bw cows, aside from milk, also produce calves: in a driving the calves text. the gods give -V-0 4A. and their calves VII 156,12. the king in return byres with
-It VrL YL 123;MD 1117 and MD II 17d 'P The term is more fi-equentat Dendera,for example Hathor is a.

a priest carrying a cow standard says I carryT2)EhktoPr! 7AS 43,1906 p. 114 = the sacredcow]

V-Z 'Dum. KaLI99[lunker,

The other possible origin of the tem is that it refers to 3ht Delta papyrus, so that Hathor is 'She of W the Delta!, the cow in the papyrus swamp and protectoressof Horus .


fire, flame
Wb 117 (6) BD GR f. KH 529 O I c. Osing Nom.1 139

This derivesfrom a root (i)3h I be brilliant, light ='that which is brighe and is relatedto words suchas 3bi 'eye!. in Ile earliest references the Book of the Dead [Budge, BD 369.9 378,6 ] have the flame, andalsoin BD 15A5s3the3bt flameis wherethe 3rd Moundand 12Lh mound, on respectively the is bodyof thedeceased burnt [Allen, BD p.19]. At Edfu this flame is usedfor two main purposes to bum incense : 128.13 and where

incense glows 41 jj- to bum foes 1174,12 f. burning foes' 1490,2 ; (killing the turtle) Make strong'-: c. brazier. P.Br.Rh. 22,24Apopis is in the 3ht flame,so it is usedas a foe consuming .0

93,34 : andalso to bum foes I makebright (s3h) VI

3ht w

knife Wb 118 (15) GR


The two Edfu examplesgiven by Wb are used in gazelle/oryx slaying texts: Nekhbet makes sharp your knife to slay foes 13 10,1; Nekhbet makes strong -At7 the knife to cut up your "'R`Ft enemies1175,4. There is also possibly an example where a minor deity presentsa foe chopped up I by 0,43> VI 331,9 which may be an error for \ , [c.f. Goyon, Gardiens p.76,6]. '

This is similar to s3bt 'knife (Wb IV 24,13 q.v.) and 3bt may be an erroneous writing of s3ht (Wb cites Ombos 181 (95) which is s3ht). It is possible that the two Edfu gazelle texts were copied, so that once the error was made, it was then repeatedlater, and the other example may also least one other error in the writing of 6e determinative incorrectly. show at i

3ht 10


Wb 118 (12-13)
The sign the crestedibis, or This comata [also Comatibis eremita is well'suited to its name

becauseit has particularly brilliant, almost metallic, plumage, and may itself be the origin of the word 3h "be glorious'. The actual full writing of the name of this bird is, however, only attested from the later texts concernedwith the ritual where the king brings a bird in his hand to a god. The earliest example dates from . 0. -Okp, NectaneboI at Goshen,and a text above the bird on a stand calls it

Two examples of this scene occur at Dendera : MD II 54a and b and one other at Edfu

[Kees, ZAS 52,1914 p.631 =V 188,13 to 189,4. The title of the scene has been lost, but pl. 118 shows the king with T on his right hand and in his left, running to Wepwawet.

Kuentz [BIFAO 17,1920, p. 184 ; after Kees op.cit. p63 n. 1 and after Sethe] restores the text in , line 15 as dwn. i 0 ms.i n. k 0 later line '16 has inJ n. k and (D sign here). The

im. s 'I bring the 3h by which you are 3. (both Kees and Kuentz omit the <[>

3 bird may in fact be the symbol of the 3bt eye here. The Dendera texts are more straightforward: 7F z4 spellings being offered. See : This in LA 111115-121 ; Keimer, CdE 29 no. 57 p-237-250 p. 183-188, IV L'oiseau Aakhou. Kuentz, 131FAO 17,1920 and mn nA r? "3h. ti and s'r -'. - 1Z and the pl ate shows the bird



pastureland, field Wb 118 (9) NK oft GR

The earliest example in Wb is U&IV 482,9 [Statue of Hap-Soneb, Hatshepsut] where Amun and Osiris sDd 30 -s The 3bt as the horizon or land whence the sun comes could naturally be a .

general word for land', where the sun both rises and sets [J.Assmann - 11turgischeLieder p.231 nA . after Amonshymnen Uiden 5,231.In religious texts this may well be the origin of the word, but it may be also connectedwith 3bt through confusion and/or punning. It is common at Edfu, but not in the Donation Texts, for it is a field only in religious and magical terms. Plants come from -'C (D at his time IV 48,9; 56,8 The slit field in the 19th LE nome has W and 0'7. ""' so 31 the two terms are clearly 1555,11 ; the Nile floods the field VI 19,10 and Hapy comes to make 1112,16;1113,4 -11er bloom (sw3rh) IV

IV 37,11 ; in the Mendesiannome the w-land is separate Spellings such as )A? L

flooded with bread IV 35.3.

171.11 are probably 3b plants, but one text describes all plants upon #"Ito

its fields ? 176,15. Ltn. ti m nprs 'Your field is brilliant and dazzling with its corn' (3 -Z ',%

in a pun i

copper colour , like colour of ripe com) VIII 8,16. ! for At could be read as 0 land'. for example gods at Edfu From this use Fairman noted that are rulers of t3w]. At appearspredominantly in geographical texts and stt or '3bt offering texts. v P3-T3 the Earth'V 85,11 [BIFAO 43, p. 107 line 2, also CD IV 239,5

3ht to

serpent uraeus Wb 116 (18-19) Pyr.

3bt derivesfrom 3h referringto the sheen theskin of the serpent.It is a rareword for the uraeus of V but it can be tracedthroughEgyptiantexts: Pyr. 442Re arises; g 295 his serpent his head on

horizon [so AEPT p.67 n.21 ; MK - Sinai Inscription 136west, 81 uraeus, not

124Hat. 142line 9 the queensays'I have bindstogetherthe Nine bows ; NK - Chap. the uraeus


Z-O 9,; Urk.IV 613,45Poetical (ndr) of my taken possession StelaTuthmosisJjjj& serpent your headbumsthem(foes); andalsoat Edfu on

41=50 the

in a darnaged'context but

a--protects concerned with thedestruction foesVI 110,34 ; alsoMagic madeby his uraeus of --5 him Ul 11,1andat Dendera. VIII 136,6 example. D for

3ht 0a0

First Hour of the Day 4, wt tpt nt hrw -'this is the hour when Re rises and becomes Khepri so that

people and gods can see. The horizon is opened and roads and fields,"this is when the sun-child is

bom 111214,10'
m0m 3ht w

'f and 13.It ma- howeverreadwbn t for in line 11 it is the hour 0 U, y

The nineteenth decan is called 3hwy, from Middle Kingdom texts and may be related to this later term [Astronomical Texts I p.2, nos.18-20 also p.86 no.23 and Englund, Akh p.59 1.


horizon Wb 117 (12) 6 (23) Pyr. DG 10,7 - ITI )*


The sign for horizon representsthe sun betvcen two mountains and it can be interpreted as rising or

setting.It is the placewherea numberof divine beingslive or comefrom andat Edfd the useof the"
word reflects the many facets of 3bt found throughout Egyptian texts. The spelling is consistently 1-OJto which c3 can be added. When Re rises in the Pyramid texts he is 3h in the 3ht '152 a-d etc. The idea of 3ht-3h being connected with light is clear here suggesting 'light' is at the base of WW 3h, but still ii is interesting that morning lighi is basically 'bronzeor ied the metallic colour of the A bird [c f. Englund, Akh pAl-41 (PTs) and p.89-91 (Crs) 3ht is die'place where'the gods and w 10

Atum whenhe risesout of Nun - IV 74g-76g]. Aw announce ' v As the easternhorizon : s3b4wt pr m 3ht IV 35,12; HB psd m 3ht V 3,2; bnw 9ps m 6b v 10 C-3 IV 33,8 .
. Ch

6h Westernhorizon: the king leadsthe sunbarqueto, or

1115,12; 'q rn At IV 52,1. HB

Partsof the templeare said to be like the horizon- h. mi C231i' IV 9,8 and the templeitself : 3yt


can be figuratively alluded to as the horizon (as early as KRI H 325.9 ; 361.5), in this case of the_ deity Horus Belidet, the temple is Pc-j r- '314 solar 123 .1 horizon of Akhty IV 4,6.

3hty v

Horizw god

Wb 118 (1-3) Pyr. here. At Edfu,Akhty is HorusBehdet thesolargodin residence as et C: -J Tie templeis likenedto IV 6,9 IV 4,6 ;V7,8 hasa hymn to IlB as123 'VI , .0C'J the

beautifuland multi-named. pun writings the nameof 3bty appears 12 V 7.1 andV 5,5 In as & ofL_y 3hty is the templeor nb nhh (note the two horizon signs here held by the Fx-I god of eternity)IV 330A.


Horizongoddess Wb 118 (4-5) NK

As a complement 3hty, 3htyt is the feminineform and at Edfu and Dcnderait is appliedto to W it Hathorprimarily [Miroirs p.82 n.5], Derchain[HQ p.9 n391 translates 1TImpyrIene"Burning k 0 One!: the king is called 'child and son of (22 and nursedby ILrskyt ' IV 105,3. In the

d? Vk "a3"I 111293,4 in an incense Hathor/Sakhmet Litany sheis called 3 and offering to Ilathor, the king protectsq (! i'l & '

IV with incense 93.14

3ht-ib -HypostyleHall or temple

""k-47* In the temple description the Hypostyle Hall is also called )f; ms-lb-. C-3and t3-13w IV 14,1; the Great Hall (:!r) is called *gms-lb and No. 71,1961 p.31 I as ? 1ace. ddsir.du son cocuil. du &3 VII 17.4 [translated by De Wit, CdE 36,

C3 The term also refers to the whole temple: HB follows his heart (Yms-lb)in 0-', heriseseveryday1579,7



-,. -; V 0'. ,,

7--, C---) The measurements the sanctuary the falcon are perfect so it is called0-5 of of


IV 4,7 and also mh. f nb 3h. ti r-rnnh. n accurate of cubit 0v a stretching the cord text 3h. wy mbw nbm hwt-nir

'I is called the 9tyt VI 7,2; in, W---j

how accurate are all the cubits of the


j ,!

is its nameVI 169,1-2.

3ht-n-3ht Edfu temple %P v [93 c= The temple of Edfu iS r3 C5? 11 1', , IV 4,6

& cOj al t!

,hW; IV 6,9 ; c22)

=3bt R'-]Vr3bty VII 3,3.

3ht-n-R' w

Horizon of Re

At Abydos 3bt-n-R' is the temple of Sed I [Gauthier, DG 19: ref. to NW. Abydos I pIA5 col 29 w ] but at Edfu the term is a name for the Edfu temple : the list of names of the temple

0V includes 123 XY10-

396,3.The building descriptionrefers to the templewhen it is IV 13,6.

[22 1 finished : 'Seeingit is like C3


Horizon of Horus

In the list of names the templeof Edfu is of



V 396,3.

3ht. nhh Horizon of Eternity ,, Wb117(19-22) Gauthier, DG 19-10

This designation of the temple of Edfu is used of the temple in the earthly sphere, in the list of temple names: i2ijol (also at Dendera and Abydos) V 396.3; HB is described as H wrin

has stabbedNehes IV 78,8; the Great Place of HB is in Cl F3 t2i 123101 when he Re Horakhty innEQ)1 of Eternity (nhh) IV 330,4; a seeing god text'l see c-:

of Akhty . Lord Edfu temple! IV

54,15-16. However in texts of offering incenseand libation to the dead ancestor gods of Edfu, the 3bt. nbb is the earthly place for thesedead gods in the afterlife . Three sets of texts in particular show this : the a63 gods of Edfu are in the burial ground in dbc"-3 and two of the named gods here have the word in

Q0 their epithetsIV 84,1; Excellentbutcherin C93 c6 IV 84,11and jjnt-Bdt is injn:1 o



the gods

(hrt) is in dh RN andoneof the godsis called IV 85,4 -,similarly the heaven IaIV


62,16. Tbc basof the deadgodsare hidden Nb-snw dsr-st (sacred place)in c23 of , W in 123 andtheir bodiesare in D t-W VII 280.4-5. One of the gods We is called, 4 bnw-nir wsb-nmt in1211 VII 280,16 .

This termthencanhave'real'andsepulchral connotations.


Horizon of the Two Lords this has

The gods Euergetes, Ptolemy IX and Cleopatra arc upon the throne in C23

' IV 92,9; cloth to Sokar Osiris text, Isis makes. sepulchral connotations too contain jk 0(L>c), 4 awe of the king 1165,6; Horus gives COc27A containing awe of you 125,18 . The two Lords in the horizon are presumably Horus and Re [Cauville, Osiris pA8 n2.1

3bt. t3wy Horizon of the Two Lands Gauthier, DG III This is the name of a sanctuarynear Memphis, which is at the point of the division between Upper and Lower Egypt. At Edfu 3bt-t3wy is connected with Ptah : he grants Out the king can rule the

and the Nine Bowsare underhis feet 1498,12;an epithetof Ptahis bnty613 two landsinE23 A'%, andhe bringsto HB VI 53,1t2i (. with what is in it, manufactured/////2).

In this place the king is grantedHeb-Seds upon his thronc, on his dais (jnL31) in 3bt. t3wy
Horus = c3 &no


", -b dt

1498,16.It may havebeenthe placeor a

for the temple complex at Memphis where the Ifeb-Sed court was built and where the, name ' took place. ceremony mlat the be personified theking drivesawayfocs from Q1vo., The placecan also : wish of Re VII 34,1-2(andperhaps


VII 32,15).

3ht v

eye Wb 117 (1-2) NK -

This is a frequentterm for the eyeor eyesof a sungod, be it Re or I torus DchdcLIn the Litany of,


Re for example

is almostsynonymous with wadjet eye and is translated 'Glanzauge' as

that the eye gives out light [Sonnenlit47, p.54 note 130]. Similarly in Urk. VIII 115 showing no.143,17there is the 3ht-n-R'01"-V-cQ2nd , Pylon PtolemyVI). ,

At Edfa the 3bt or 3hty eyesare usedin a numberof ways.Hathoris described the 3ht eye: as III194,17;, , Z" between two eyes in a Wadjeteyetext 111195,4 the association the and 11

1jr m -,to is reinforcedin other texts : the title of the sceneis nk wd3t and sbtp

' (nhm) the wadjeteyeline 12; 39,8 andlater Mring 0 <ZD,from the placewhereit is andrescue nk wd3ty
Z 40).

41" the 3hty eyesare yours Horus VII 266,7.Theseeyesare usedto give out

light: he illuminesthe two landswith placesare lit up by -

AP% <<z>c> 3; Seeing Iine VII 267,1and. god text andlights up

IV 54,16;(seeinggod) Horusshineswith 01;

the two Landswith nirwy eyesVI 245,18. unite wi th 3hty eyesin particular unite with the two 9wty plumesof the king : CD The %0 thenHorusdrivesaway headVII 109,14-15 later in this text the plumeson the and
-I- y.. anger and unites with <=O

mrJ his beloved eye VII 110.3 ; ojT? R\

4ft, 9% AMP c2s),

and the two plumes are with the plumes

are on the head of Horus 117 (27); a text for the pw crowns, the


the incandescentlight and on the head. IV 134,6-9 In this case,together the eye(s_) plumes represent of the atmosphere. The eyes also feature in lotus offering texts everything seen by

-t! <U>

the nose V 51,2 ; Horus gives refresh

VI 248,4 and when Horus rose from Nun he gave out light from

is also given by Hathor in a field text: Ign nb n-e eyes VI 248,8. What the eyes see z>his 'e. Horus gives,-, cc-= seeing light to the ends of eternity 1425,15, appropriately 7,15-16 and in a text for the presentationof eye cosmetics. 4-j Q 125,11 ff. -'tQS> is brought to its lord and pacifies Horus Its opposite eye The text sf . is called 'nht and tog ether they are ref&A to as mrty and later the .0 place 125,15.
The 3ht is also prominent WV in an offering of honey : Tdi bit r s3h <W sb3q niri with ,

45 is put into i ts proper

honeyusedasa cosmetic clearthe eyes1495,4The text goeson to give furtherinformationabout to 3hty -'- are floodedwith the produce the wadjeteye (6) andAmun p3-'dr givesthe king of the

38 Xn nb n%
--t AM <M>IC

45 -(10).

In common with other eyes the 3bt also has destructive qualities : (meat on firc)-r' Horus burn the flesh of foes V 47.12.


Blackman/Fairman translatedthis askindly eyes' JMG 423 n.130) which adheresto the idea of Uncficene as a translation for A. Lefebvre [Tableau 1171 saw 3bty as a Late period religious invention which seemsclear but it is somewhatearlier.


to make green, verdant

Wb 118 (16-21) NK ThePyramidTextshavea word i3bY(Wb 137,2)which seems mean'to flood, ovCrflOw,. g. to e. Pyr. 848 13hwitrw with this determinative also 1857 ttp *t3w W r'a mint the fields are satisfied,the irrigationcanalsareovcrnowing Ilis s=c phrase occurs . ,

but in CT Sp. 140 tn itrwq1PA% mint fill river andflood canals, a varianton this text, itrw andmInt theobjects oneverb,whichreduplicatcs B2L, makes thus of Itrw

'flood', is thus Ile presence this verb in the MK, admittedly of with the meaning mint. Tbe but thetext does specify not with whatthecanal overflows. verb13b= 3b3t established, but has signs, rather plantsigns, it maybethatwith thenewfloodwater, and or never water canal begin, thattheyabound areflooded plants. remainder in 7be of so or with newgrowth thecanals fromhim andthiscanonly how Spell140goes to describe Gebis covered whatcame with on in to plants[seecomments Faulkner FECr I p.120MI. Goingbackto the FT. the of refer
imply that 'wateeis meant,so thereis a changein the meaningof the word, perhaps contexts through confusionwith the similar soundingverb w3hy or w3rh (Wb 1258.13 - 2599)which V9 a acquired of meansoverflow,be abundane landandfield. Possibly13hyis this latterverb hcLving morespecificuse. By the NK therewasa verb 3h3h treesand plantshr 4V0 growinggreen AmarnaVI

(in 27.5 [after FCD p.5]. A text aboutTbebes a text reminiscent the CI) describes canalas the of tL.= like Lower Egypt P.Haffis 4.3; but in 7,12rAA`tX being coveredin rnnw treesbr]U gD o .0jII is one of a list of plants sim.27,8 ; but 78.8 is back to mnw br 3b3 In P.Anastasi1112.3 . , WrXDAQL LEM p.74). [after Caminos, herbage are meadows verdantwith m

39 While the origins and precise meaning of the word are difficult to trace, Edfu 3hu3bfunctions at as a verb meaning 'be green or grow verdantly': a wine text, every vineyard rA8 110 19 1.0 RQb t rAA grow for your ka VI 252,10-11; rnpw they

vines grow VI 253,2-3; plants 70,308

for his majesty VII 84,8-9 and 3h3t Y3 VI 261.2 . at

More problematic is the association with Yny. t3 : when HD shines every day 3b3b %43

his rays VI 253,5, but 'HB sees3h3h Vny-t3 n wbn. f is this 'plants growing when he shines' ? VII 83.9 and where the Nile floods areasof EdfuVIeM flowers grow in them T 1582,2. Other things can also be verdant, such as Maat possibly thenose1117,2. gny-0 makes plants bloom Kny-0 n'lLrrw fl, " in your heart VII 195,16 and in them'plants and

Wb notes that the verb can be transitive: Horusr1ko-710A he rises VI 261,6 and sw3rt 3w r-'9 NO when

i33w CD 11 219,11-12.

3h3h io v


Wb 119 (3) GR


The word was discussedas early as 1898 by Piehl (PSBA 20,1898 p. 191-193] and he thought it may have had its origin in 3h3h I)e verdane, thus bones could be 'young and fresh. Sauneron however suggested[Esna V p.99 m] that 3h3h is 'the shining ones' with reference to the brilliant white colour of bones [c.f. bdw Wb 111210,12white ones]. The word occurs at Edfu and the meaning is clear: the presentationof an amulet, it makes whole VII 313,5; libation with four vesselsof water 'Your head is yours, I have united JIyour bones' 11122,12;4 Anubis gods embalm of Osiris [Collated by Cauville, rl&o divine

Osiris p.219 and Brugsch, Wb 1163] 1188,5; with the nemset vessel the king makes

711" 1 111 202,14 VII The bones of the foe on the other hand are broken (s3w) by the king . CL 0114, rA* 1551,3 (Pichl coll. ) and O&O'lb, of the turtle are chopped up by the ii harpoon blade IV 150,11-12. Pichl quotes bxamples from Dendera : MD 111511(b) Purify bones and add MD III 72a IV 85 and CD 111185,14and it seesmto have have enjoyed wide use in GR texts Philae, Bdriddite 100, Abaton 14 right (d.) snb bones with white Eye of Horus ; Lieblein, Le livre dgyptien que mon

40 fleurisse p.70 (a.) and add Esnano.250,8 in the hymn to Khnurn . nom


to scratch, inscribe , carve Wb 119 (6-12) MK

This verb is related to other words which have a similar semantic use : 3WA (Wb 1 19 (13) scratch, wound) ; 3W (Wb 119,14 cut through) ; 'g3A (Wb 1235,10-12 claw) and even Wq (Wb 111365,1,2 the ancestorof Coptic WwkC shave, 662b*, CED277). -Cr.

The earliest example of the verb is in the tomb of Sirenpowet I [Gardiner ZAS 45,1908 p. 131 ,] pl. VI line 14 n. i I grazed the bodies of the stars!.

At Edfu the verb is usedin two main ways for which there are earlier precedents(seeWb Beleg) a) inscriptions, mainly d3isw stpw 3h' r-mnh m k3t gnwty words are carved to perfection as the work of sculptors 34, V 4,5 ; also the namesof HB rlt b) the gargoyle lion

r3' VIII 112,3;0- '-J

IV 13,5 and b3w. R'

are carved in the Housesof the gods 113,17.

'*Wcarves its claws into the hides of foes IV 287,9- 10.

The verb is used of hard. sharpobjects -cutting into softer things.


to hurry , hasten Wb 120 (1-6) MK DG 503 Ys '- P)P Cr.86a; CED 48; KH 52 Ox

The usesof 3s arenotedby Wb, primarily from the studyby Eman of the sign -: K, 1910p.31-47].


Intransitive in an epithetof HorusBehdet:rkll

Jw rn I n.f who quickly comesto one who tA -Q1wn 11n.f a

calls to him V 211,6 (note the position of 3s at the headof this phrase

spellingvery like'the Coptic twc- VII 256,6 ; Horus gives the king all the peopleof the earffi U 'D hurrying to your ka (ratherthansL3)1158.16 In thIephrase3sI rdwyas an epithetof the king or gods: the king3 352,16;lhyisachildsweetofl' oveandrAP-'*'-ff Sf tohismothcrl

(sistra'andmc* text) 1141,3*.priests nat

carryingthe god, .4- ff - r rmn R' do not rush, when carryingRe I 1415,1. ,

41 A variant is 3s. lbwty


: Priests=


not going quickly 1414,10 and also in the

This text is also found at Kom Ombo 11 .

instruction to priestsf=

-W -2. -


itne hAtez pas']. p.245 No.878 andMD I 15c[c.f. Gutbub,Textesp.174n.ah who translates vos rW Ermannotesa text BM 171 .W '2i.tand P.Harris 500,5,10hasa messenger -js-. 3s-rdwy

going quickly . This speedof foot then, while a praiseworthy quality of the king or a messenger, was not deemedto be so of a priest in procession [for similar phrasessee De Meulenaere in Mel. Grapow p.228 and n.8 ff. He translates1414 as 'ne hAtezpas la marche (litt. les sandales)and gives parallels.] Also Horus goes in his boat looking for the foe and 'he sailed after them 3s.ti sp

sn very quickly' VI 118,5.


a goddess Wb 120 (19-20)Pyr.

3sbt is well attestedin_LatePeriod texts.Her nameis relatedto the verb 3sb 'to bum' (Wb I 20,18)and it is implied in textsthat the goddess a fiery naturefor sheis able to burn up the has foes of the king. In Pyr. 556a rA P.1 . Crown ; in CT 111260 Spell227 e is connected with Athribis and the White is Isis andOsiris her brotheris called3sb. From the

NK the name3sbt is written with a fire determinative In P.Dr.Rh. 22,22 and ' r2, PIis called upon to bum the foe ; P.Salt 825,10,1


became new more a that the natureof 3sbt underwent change, that the old goddess a suggests the activeprotectoress, to destroythosewho threatened foesof the king or gods [Gutbubin able M61angesMaspero 1,4,1961 pp.37-411. At Edfu, in the Sokaris chamber four female hippopotamiholding torchesare described as rAJIt bryw-tk3. sn who are upon

their torches1195,16(PI.281 8' and9' ; and their role is defmedmore fully

X ft W4, -a==06 It I .1

of the foremostof the West, who protectby day and night and drive away foes' 1195,10-11. Their role is as protectorsof Osiris here, reflecting the duties of Isis. The goddessappears UTI &LAsbetgoesin : elsewhere at the fourth hour of the day whenRe sails in his boat m The it and bums Apopis 111218,4. accompanying doesnot showthe goddess a human but scene is (pl. foe is speared 71). The goddess thus envisaged here as a fiery serpentand so Wadjet is

42 identified as 'It

Aturn 'she has burnt the snake in her fire IV 322,17. The of

t the ureaus means that she can have royal fun(Aons, so that the king is begotten of connection with r3lt PJ26 &in a smn-hpt text XV 43,6.


to reap , cut grain , harvest Wb 119 (15-17) OK DG 11,8 3sjj r

Cr. 538b; CED 232; KH 298 LOLC- or_ 77heannual cutting of the corn, known from OK texts and representations[Vandicr, Manuel VI p.80ffl, becamea specific ritual in the festival of Min [c f. remarks by Gauthier. Fetes . pp.227-9 and Khoiak 11p.561 fl]. The sceneof 3sb-it is found three times at Edfu and once each at Dcndcra

of endded and Esna, The Chamber Nfin hasthe scene .


the sign bcing mad as 3sh-It. w

the plate (XH 332) showsthis is exactlywhat the king does.The king uttersa hymn of praise as to Min as he doesthis and in returnMin grantskingship , the two crownsand the two lands1 393,11to 394,4 . before11arsomthus, Min: in but The two otherritualsat Edfu ammoredetailed, areperformed not hall (pl.330)It, the centraloffering 0 & (0 d 7 continues havecut UE grain for you an put i t VQ-

You walk the landandtrampleenemies in your pathon theNew MoonFeast the Ist of Shcmu. of ln offerings before the great gods'(edited)I 394,11-385,3. this casethe king is called and put lowty qn wU-r and in return receivesthe Nine Bows under his sandalsand thosewho are disloyalaremadenon-existent. On the insideoftkkclosure wall with the sameintroductoryline of text. In return

Harsomthusgives the foe of the king on the choppingblock, he then tramplesenemiesand performsthe pr-brw andsetsout the offerinji beforethe divine bas.The epithetsof the king

howeverbetraythe true significanceof the ritual, for he is 'imageof the field who makesgrain grow, he attackshis foes,he cuts the grain andputs it on the road,he is wide striding in the Two Lands,like Horusslayinghis foes'VI 280,18-281,10,pl. 151. It seems the grainsymbolises enemies the king andwith its reapinghe destroysthem that the of Two Lands.The date,the New Moon Festival of the Ist of Shemuis and takescontrol of the

43 probably a harvest festival time (though Chassinattakes.great pains .to show that it is the date of Mn Festival, op.cit. ). The appearancebf corn d6es suggest aconnection with fertility gods the too, like Min, hence the rite in his chamber, but it can also have Osirian connections, which may explain Harsomthus, son of Osiris as the recipient god and why in P1.330and 332 the king wears the Atef crown and in pl. 151 the White Crown.

is Harsomthus honoured theIcingwearingtheAtef and by At Dendera [CD IV 69 andpl.2721 too VI at Esna[LD IV 90a= Esna, noA92] with the Atef performsthe %%Geta-Caracalla

the symbolise unitingof theTwo Lands. rite beforeNeith andNekhbetwho perhaps Il As Chassinat washeldto honourthe local god asa harvest cO'Mments'[Khoiak564] the harvest food andthuslife. festivaland,throughhim or her,the supreme who ensured com, bread, god

3sh V

harvested crops

Wb 119 (17) OK
Derived from the verb 3sb 'to reap' and known from the OK [Urk. 1 64,4] Mring '(text

of Senedjem-ib, in the time of Issy) and also found at Edfu : the agricultural regions of

Hnty-imntt nomearebroughtwith

IV 27,5.

3 (3 b) To cut The king as a harpooner says, 'I bring jou foes'of your father Re Y'--A tongue slit, but not his throat! VIII 327,15. The verb could read 39 or 3h, and if the latter then there is a verb 3hw (Wb 118,14) Maspero , VV nggt. f his

Roy. 706,2. In the study of this text by Gardiner[JEA 48,1962 especiallyp.61 n.12] he Mom. it but this word is unknownto Wb andits meaningis obscure, translates 'achieve that comments The'contextof the word is a promiseof Amun mischief. io protectHentawy c-1-04 Itmay

root for theEdfu verb. be an abbreviation 3hL"tocuf which wouldalsobe a possible of


Libyan god , alsoa termfor Seth a Wb 120 (21) OK

Delta edgeandfrom thereignof Peribsen In theOK, Ash wastheLord of Wine from the western

44 he is shown with a Seth head with a feather [Petrie RT 11pl. 22 Nr. 179 -, seal]. In the temple of Sahure he was Lord of Tjehenu and by the GR period he had become fully identified I "s

with Seth in his form of a donkey (see: LA 1459-60 and Goyon . Gardiensp350; 1.

At Edfu, Ash is the name for the Sethian animal in scenesfor the slaying of Seth (sm3-Stb and ML== W T& 9 UY I me'd VII 167,16; wnp-nhs) where it occurs in a similar text: 78,2; and T05 VII 274.8 These contexts contain virtually all other names for Seth. .

in particular by and '3, the donkey forms of Scth. implying that Ash was regarded in this way

In a procession priests,the manwith the of

ky -A

standard saysI receivethe fleshof

is ,zW'I 557,1and in a text for the fieldsof the Mh UE nomeHorUS the onewho drivesthe bulls (? for whomis slaughtered bull of sacrifice andfor whomis subdued ) the backbone(psd) of the Ift CIO it Seth[seeYoyotte RdE 9 p.159who renders as a spellingof Shaij. ,

over the nameof this god and131'thepig'= Seth though Ilere may havebeensomeconfusion no textsalludeto sucha connection.


to roast . bake Wb 121 (1-6) Pyr. verb (8-10) noun

This is a method of cooking meat by putting it in direct contact with fire in a brazier. From the OK the most usual type of roast is geeseor fowl but other types are also common such as cattle meat. Verhoeven suggeststhat in offering lists the AM roasts, derived from the verb and animal are small pieces of offal and so they are determined by In the daily temple ritual however

3sr.t simply refersto roastedor grilled different varietiesof meat 7he root of the tcrn is *Ir . $orange the colour of fire ' from the Semitic (Fecht,7AS 85 p. 105 n-l and see Verhoeven, Grillen pp.16-21and 155-1561. From the NK the ritual of Irt-*t [Brunner,Luxor,- Tf. 141p.7-8 9 VII 142, in appears tcmplese.g. Luxor

At Edfu AM, the noun,is offeredas a generalmeatoffering'U-J

text accompanying for this scene confiumsthat this offering to Horusand Hathoris symbolicof Ile text, havingfistedgazelles the destruction the enemies Maat (c f. Kees,7"icropfcr 851. of p. of andotherassociates Sethnotes of wd sk hr ps roastsof them are placedon the

45 altar VII 142,9-10 ; sim. r3la RUP 1554.1.

This construction of limb or part of the body plus im= denotes possession of that 'limb' , [Gardiner, AEO 1 109* n. 1] ex. ' im. f 'limb of himseir and 111 10,15 btp. f he

(the sun god) is content with the limb of himself (= Horus his son ?) [for more examples see OMRO 51 p.94 n. 163 ].

This phrasingis commonat Edfu : in generaltexts for temple sustenance,tail to mouth of animals A-. roastsof themare in the temple'1536,11; I-, roastsof them +'I

(geese sacrificialanimals)areuponthe altar 1537,12.In meatofferings: animalsT, and


A1-sim. (wdn Otp-nirw) u=: q'c-, roastsof themare for you upon your altar VII 61,16;
Ft are completely roasted (putti ng mt on fir e text) ea -""6'' IV 235.9 and in the division of

VIII 89,1; animals, their forepartsf- q r-,

111197,2. Foes : sm3 hftyw. 'Come I Receive W

3 OL a him I' VI 89,10. In particular Sakhmet is content body of Seth, ' Bring q Mr. -, the roast of =-- Y0- -


q =c=:. 0



Wb 121 - 20 MK DG 11,12 dit-3q

Cr. 3 b; CED 3; KH 3 (noun) 6,1( Also Noun : Wb 121 (22) D. 19 and see : Cr. 405 a; CED 184 ; KH 503 0226 TA KO This word is often used in MK literary texts [Wb Beleg. and FCD 61 but is less frequent in NK is the word for total destruction 3qyt which is derived from 3q religious texts, though there [Zandee,Death p.45]. At Edfu 3q is a term for the destruction of foes and it implies utter destruction, in the phrase r2Kj 'a for example : enemies who plot evil against the king 3q-m-t3 r 163,5; those

RM M! 1452,13; disloyal ones disloyal they do not exist H 74,14. who are . V VI 'IP- m n nor perishing ever For the ir-t3 snake, there is no reaching his end 173,9-10. The verb may also have been connected with the excessesof drinking text has hA-jpa wine

k3w the hearts of one who trespasses your road perishes 1152,3; in a hrw-I offering, the god on

46 gives drunkennessin the hewts of foes rlLd The noun 'destruction'also occursat Edfu (1 Wb121,21): nome rl-lb. " 7-2a is not in it 1333,3 . 1171.2-3. inthc landsof tlorusofthcllthLE


inundadon,flood Wb 122 (10-14) Pyr. DG 73 'kf to freeze c f. Cr-540a ; CED 233 ; KH 298 be cold 6WIf9

In theearliestreligiousliteraturethe3gb is theprimevalocean from which waterflows to ensure life. It canrefer to theoverflowof wateror offeringsin general evenmilk Ic f. Ward,JEA 599 and 1973p229]. At the root of 3gb is gp/gb 'overflow'discussed Ward (op.ciL) and the prefixes by 3 andi seeminterchangeable do notaffectthenuance theword. and of
At Edfu 3gb is primarily the inundation flood, especially in Nile offering texts : the king brings 1582,8; the king brings T4 overflowing upon every mound (so 1) IV

45,11 who is shown as a bull headedman carrying a tray of bread and grain (pl. 97) ; Rh LE nome, the hn-hmt canal is brought with its overflow flooding the fields V 16,10.

From this noun there is also a verb 3gb'to overflow'(Wb 122.15 GR) land also a verb s3gb to irrigate, Wb IV 27 Ward op.cit. 229 n. 121.At Edfu the verb is used as a variant on other words , . with the same meaning, thus the Nile hr4Uzmft ww lands, there is no dryness in it IV 43,9

Wadj-wer is brought %, U=6 sand IV 46,1: the canal in the I ILh LE nome tr rulIL&Lhe the fields for you IV 30,8-9 (also Dendera Dum, GI IV 117 306 flooded the glorious 3ht field 1443,5-6; the Upper Egyptian NilcjzW Nun %'he has he has flooded the

P3-ILn canal at Edfu 15823. Gods cause the flooding : Sothis 473% he floods the land IV tv--r48,11; S6kar Osiris gives Nun flooding the two lands of the king 1154,3 and in offering shedyt land VI 261,3 ; the flood is brought

)j the field the god/king is 3h. 'wy br P16i' e ^:-E

he floods for you Vands) 71113,4. ... The verb is used parallel with b'b to show they are synonymous lie is beautiful Ilapy who floods (bb ) the Two Lands and overflows the banks (ldbwy) Vill 155.10.

47 3t anger? Wb II (11) Pyr. and 2 (3-4) time - Wb 11 (12) to 2 (2) MK

Gardiner tackled the problem of the first two pages of Wb in a publication some seven years before the Wb I Belegestellenwere published, but with accessto the Zetteln he was able to make suggestionsregarding the rearranging of 3t in particular. He suggestedthat 3t 'headdress'and 3t 'strength' should be treated as one word and that 3t was properly 'readinessto strike' (of a lion or uraeuswhich can determine the word in the PTs). Later this word was written with a hippo head, presumably due to confusion "d' between d and and 6

From this evidently originated 3t 'moment! from 'moment of striking', also translated as 'attacle, , 3t determinedwith 0 so there was still confusion over the precise rendering of the word. truly to be a moment of time as its uses show, but inevitably there is confusion and [JEA 34,1948 p. 12-181. seems

Wd between

In discussing 3t in the Pyramid Texts, Sethe [Komm. Vip. 84] translated as Rage' 477a and 'Anger' 532a, but still held to lion mask '. 'headdress'for 253b, 940b. Faulkner in his edition of the texts consistently translates 3t with 'powee which seemsappropriate where 3t is used in parallel with s't and hk3w 'terror' and 'magic powee [also FCD I]. 3t seemsto be like pbty, an attribute of the lion/lioness, but it must also be that of the uraeus, as the PT 253b writing indicates, -I Serpentsare not necessarily noted for their strength,

but both lion and serpenttogether can be quick to react when provoked and thus roused or enraged enough to strike . Blazing rage is difficult to maintain and it may be this aspect - the quick roar the lion, or the hiss and bite of the snake, which led to 3t becoming not only a word and snap of for'rage'and 'powee but also for a period of time, a moment., The Edfu texts show the varied usesof 3t As a synonym of rage : Thoth recites a spell to calm the sea o -:

o Ic- rn dn. f in its rage and in

4.0- rk'Ch its anger VI 128,4 ; IHB u-sm. o, who prevails over foes 1560,12 (though note the word 3d
anger, may be another source of confusion in this respect, Wb 124, it is used from the PTs too). Parallel with ptty : Horus, you are a god

0 '3 pbty V 186,17. .cn. VI 122,7and this happens in 1-5,

Anger = momentof attack?: the harpoonis cast T:ga%; as a bull HorusprevailsIxO 0 11

VII 308,10.

48 As object of ir '00' who launchesan attack? (Goyon , p. 11,11) VI 329,2; Horus -IM

smites foes they go away a ;g -D at your attack ? IV 58,6. , W_E In the phrase 3t-n-fnd : Sakhmet fires her arrows m theirvxNb-3t Others o-at =, rebelsj=o:
013 -0T.


Il 15,8;'you trarnple

, _sso


VI 270,13. 01 1554.5. bs3-r m sbiw n its 1310,2 ; -Mehit destroys her foes

HB is a falcon faced bull Nekhbet %tyt mr 'o

her attack [en pleine activitd , Cauville, BEPAO82,1982 p. 12211313,14 and //// slays IV 307,6. W 0 `='WS from moment to

Time : the guardian gods clear away foes without ceasingc--r'.



typeof crown Wb 123 (2-3)

from an The crown consists a centralportion,whichcanbeeithertheWhite Crownor perhaps of traditiona kind of basketwork or wovenreedconicalhat, similar to that worn by the Muu older dancers at thesidesaretwo plumes from theNew Kingdomthis wasplacedon a pair of rams and ; hornswith two uraeion the tips. Thebasicform 14 or furtheror canbe embellished

madesimpleand is worn at Edfu by the king, performinga variety of rituals and by a numberof differentgods[See Abubakr,Kronenp.7-24for a fairly detailedstudyof thecrown andnotesin LA III p.8141. Abubakr suggests The etymologyof the word is not clearly established. amongother things a connectionwith the itf3. t snakeand the verb tf [p.22] andalso he notesthat it is a plural word 3tfw, from a singularword 3tf, so that togetherthe crown is threesignsof office or decoration because hornswere the the centralcrown, the homs and the plumes. This howeveris untenable not a regularfeatureof the. crown until theNK. It may comefrom a stemword tf 'to spewouf 'to beget',as in father.itf, and with reference- Osiris who can have the title itf3 wr [Abubakr, to Erman,Hymnenp.49 n.1 and2- Praiseto you op.cit. p.221'der groBeSAger'[A. Derivedfrom the nounis a verb 3tf meaning'to crown' (Wb 123 (6) D. 19). At Edfu the word for this crown can be spelledout fully :a minor god 1101 'nh givesthe king

49 and rulership of the Two Lands in return for geeseand papyri 0. 1307,4. P1.30bshows the king here wearing Alternatively the determinative alone is used to write the word : is garland for Horus r md IL& 1143.4 and in the same text, the garland is gfyt of Re, wearing the -YT

tied on to the 3tf crown 1144,2. Here PlAOb , 3rd reg. shows the god wearing the atef crown. In the pehu of the l8th LE nome Horus as Lord of Might raises up The crown can be qualified as 3tf-wr : offering 1407,15 and in pl. 32a the king wears -4 IV 37,2.

'How beautiful is the face of the king and (same text) Min receives

and makes great Ityt with the hmhmty - 1'408,5:. In this scene,Min wears the hmhmty crown, which consists of three atef crowns. For representations : Vandier Man. IV 561-4 ; Wom by Serapis see list in Castiglione , , Hom.VermaserenI p.223ff.


typeof incense Wb 123 (7) GR Wb 1144 itf (see3tf)

from Punt and the God'sLand [Charpentier 58 no.59]. Brugsch A generalword for incenses p. [Dict. HD p.461 suggested that it derived from the root tf 'that which is secreted' Abubakr ; A [Kronenp.17 n.3] discounted link with the 3tf crown,but pointedto the pun at Dendera a 2 nw Pwnt 'crowned with incenseof Pune MD I 48a, but it is more likely a

from Deir el Ptolemaicinvention.A possible earlierexampleof this word occurson an ostracon Medina(O.ViennaAeg.1, temp.R.III) line 10 hasthe word in a list of objectsfound

in a tomb during its inspection Zonhoven,translatedit as 'piecesof scentingmaterial' [JEA . 65,1979p.97n. 741.
At Edfu 3tf occurs usually in gms-ntyw scenesand it is almost synonymous with 'ntyw: a product of the God's Land a &,t VII 317,7 as

1137,1 in offering bearer texts '34

Land 1566,2-3. It also comes 1566,1; the mistressof Punt carriesr6'%4, of the God7s -*1 jT3gI tzln g of Punt IjUi54np- Lq

from Punt


of Punt VI 251,17and of Punt IV 151,8and

this canbe combinedas in a text for putting Intyw upona fire

L)42L of the God'sLand . 15-F: Horusgives the Irtyw peoplewith their bundlesof -j...

111145,3 i4thqpr pe text; the h styw comewith bundlesof and of Fekheret ..;
j -C,


of God'sLand111145,6. The king is , -A 0


greatof Yfyt in theGod'sLand V11211.3.It may alsobe spelled

133.9-10. q.-- wrt is yourscomefrom Horus,thoughthis is mostprobably'ntyw 111 4n, Thewordis alsofoundoftenat Dendera similaruses. with

3tf Wb 123 (8) 4- 1;14 V TpO In the nomename: IV 41.3 and witho. your templewiLh things =, 4-M V 116.4 HBisAmunLordoftheN1=hesherc; and5'all goodsaregivcn the god is 42" Wepwawet 14and V L- 5 117.3: 14rr 1340.1541341,4 the 13thand

14thnomes UE pauthier, DG I p.13.14]. of


to nurse
Wb 123 (9) Pyr.

At Edfu 31 refers usually to the rearing of a child (eiLherIforus or the king) by gods or goddesses M. 'tn d Horus is raised by the Merty IV 16.9; the king, son of Sakhmet --%" Ok raised by * nursedand raised by the Ogdoad III

the_ of Punt 111187,13-14and even the king -W mistress

167,14-15. Though the determinative shows a wet nurse suckling a child. 31t ck4rly had the more implication 'reae 'bring up' or 'nurture a child : the two sisters general (nfrw) of Horus 11111,7. the beauties


nurse Wb 123 (10) MK . GR who

At Edfu this name is applied to Isis : in the myth of Horus she says 'I am

rear4 (mn' ) Horus upon the watee VI 79,12 and ? Wse to your barque your moLhcrrw-b3d6cb, nfrw. k tr rdwys_ nursed you and reared your beauties upon her knees! VI 760.


binh bed-, -,,, ! ...... Wb 123 (11-12) OK

51 31t is a four legged bed of wood, with or without a foot-board which is shown being made in OK tomb scenes.It was most likely from this time a mummy bier and thus a Tunerary couch', but Jpstein, Mdbel p.6-7 ; representationsVandier, Manuel IV could also be used in everyday life [K? lp. 87-1931. The writing of the word is derived from the verb 31t 'to rear, nurse' and the determinative of a bed with lion headssymbolisesthe power of renewal and rebirth inherent in the funerary bed. Faulkner lists the spellings of the word from earliest texts [JEA 50,1964 p.25] : AWe 3,5 dm. Ti 133 L to D 1,4 Adm. 14,1; Urk 11142,12

Nianchnum 138 (30.3.2) pl. 63 and Janssen[CP p.239-41] believes a word at Deir el Medina, written ytit is a Tunerary couch' [in general see : W. Needler - An Egyptian Funerary Bed of the Roman Period in the Royal Ontario Museum, Chapter 2 is connected with Osiris : protector gods protect rRz=q At Edfu the bed Wenn-nefer 1 178,14 and the winged disk protects 'A) 779ofthe courtiers of

97-2 of Osiris Sokar (in the Sokaris

Chamber) 1203,8. Berlev notes the connection between the 31'nurse' and 3Lyt 'couch' and bed 'takes care of' the person lying or sitting upon it, hence too the lion headsto suggeststhat the ward off evil doers [RdE 23,33 n. 1]. The king also sits upon the couch, where the word comes almost to be used like 'throne' slaying the gazelle, the king is upon in

Lord of this land who drives away sovereign, N

foesIV 239,5. The word also hasthe derivative3Lt-rdwy : in textsfor the presentation Two Plumes- the of king is upon3klWffas N in the Placeof Horus VII 110,2andalsof:ff as Hr-w3h in Pr-wr

IV 89,10andpl.86. Ibis maybe a word for a footstoolor a particulartypeof 31tbed.


beangry Wb 124 (12-17) vb. Pyr.

seealso 3t The word is written with thecrocodilesignand igo a crocodileheadcanbe usedto write 3t, so thereis room for confusionbetweenthe two. The transitiveform of the verb showsthat the and an whichcanevendevastate country[KRI Il 241,1]. angeris destructive becomes 'attacle a 2zr', in the two phrases: wdn-3t Horus slaying the bull, ) At Edfu this word occurs m

52 )W 'D' 1' bftyw. f VII 310,11andslayingthe tartle', a bull, Amun pr-'-4t Z-51 r *gfyt m t3w nbw V 245,3

he treadsthe battlefield VII 144A and also in the phrase IgOe A 7C -U bftyw chop hrw-3d 'day of attack' hbhb h3b up the hippo on the day of .t CD his attackIV 129,13.


Furious One - Seth c f. Wb 124 (20-22) the angry one (but not Seth)

At Edfu this is an epithet applied to crocodile foes : in the 9th UE nome hsf 180,8.71is phrase is in common use from the Eloquent Peasantonward (11181hsf. n.

IV '3N6T1

and Vogelsang lists examplesof this phrase,including variants with rns (Bauer p. 147-81. r)O'jpo',15'hmhmty 3d is also used in a more general way : HB bsf snake and drives off the attack of nh3-hr V 113,8; c f. Go in peaceto your temple W the harpoon VI 160.11(are theseangeror attack 7). It could refer to the hippo :a killing the hippo text, among the namesfor it are rN "'*% who is Q stabbedin his hour (a pun on U- moment ?) IV 58,13. of nh3-hr is destroyed by


the reed -q

Writings- Direct: Change: Phonetic Error: BIFAO 43 1945p.68 ,

E2D - Z=



suffix pronoun,I st sing.masc.andfm. Wb 125 GG 34 JunkerGrD p.36-3748

J at Edfu are numerous, for the sign representsthe person who is speaking so A Signs used to write giving numerous can be a sign for the king with different insignia or different gods and goddesses, For a survey of the different signs seeFairman, ASAE 43 p-207-217 for example variations.

V TB 2 4'24 211 -T. 291A

to say

, Vk

YA ly


Wb 125 refers to in Wb 189 (7-11) Pyr. have many examplesof a word which is written The cosmogon i cal texts at Edfu [read as'

in by Sauneron, BIFAO 63 p.87; after GG A27 , who translates it Tring here V, MA 81 does not have this]. Also possibly -and

The texts involved are (a) on the inside of the enclosure wall - VI 181-186 [Barucq (after Alliot), BIFAO 64, p. 1671and portions of this text are in the Pronaos- 11130-35[Barucq, op.ciL] and also VI 328-330 [summarisedby MOET 34-36, not translated]. 'f Barucq treated as a Ptolemaic version of U, as used in the Pyramid texts . it is used in the This archaic use of

f form, hence the writing sdm. n.

and also the sdm. f form, thus

i may have been to give thesetexts in particular a spurious air of antiquity. Faulkner showed how the

Texts, Coffin Texts and may even have beenincorporatedinto the in the Pyramid verb was used [JEA 21,1935 pp.177-190].Gardinerincludedin in his grammar 'a in.f verbalConstruction as sdm. for phrasefor'said he! [GG 436-71, exampleCT 107b*41L parenthetic Wsir 'so said Osiris'.


Tle use of the verb is rare in the NK and it is not clear whether or not the so calledprothetic' yod of Late Egyptian is related to I 'to say'. where it has becomea marker for parts of speech[c f. LEG 10.5 p. 161-2 24.1 p.342 etc.]. Sethe found an example in a text in the colonnnade of , q2? q NT which he translated 'Said Neith' at the Nt. Tutankhamun-Harcmhabat Luxor: . hymn taking it as an exampleof NK I OS end of an 64,1929,1-5 especially p.31.

The presenceof this verb at Edfu in specialiscdtexts implies that they have beenartificially ardiaised and comparison with the Shabakotext may be valuable to compare deliberately arch aic texts and, show if they use the samemethodsof archaising.The verb itself can imply special creative or ritual purpose :q 17 NW said VI 328,7; Wa said Aa said VI 181.15 -



Meeksproposed that the wordslisted underWb 127 (6) [BD 179.4and possibly81 ; (5) - Beni 118 an offeringq1hCr ; (7) and(9) a plant- DauerR 8: P.Kah.19.59; Sinuhe81 - shouldbe Hasan amalgamated underoneheadinggrapeor 'vine [Donations 10n.51.7heBeni llasan exampleis in p. fact a meatportionso canbe discounted (maybefrom 13t'back). In Peasant R8 qlall Is I is oneof theplantswith which the donkeyof thePeasant loadedwhich 4r" 59) "t 4: 100 rushesam

comesfrom the Wadi Natrun*.P.Kah.19 59 (VI 10 vo.

broughtto thepalace[afterGriffith, P.KahunI p.501.In addition,thereareexamples from Cr VI 405 qjj, tie s oil P.Ramesseum frag. pl. 14"da" 14'1 ; BD 179.4 III 4 ; 4

&rnj. TuLInscr.3 24 q rA t someone comesforth . so it may be a spellingof 13 mound; no. vines and in P.Leiden 348 Ro 11.1and 9 JOMRO51 pl. 11) there is brought'hair of the chin of is called YJ, ` Osiris which There is also a word 133 (Wb 127.10 and 11). a staff or sceptrein Peasant 122 B also Cr 149 Ile nameof the plant and this stavemay be relatedin that either the plant could be madeinto a stave,or that the 13tstavehasthe samequalitiesas the 133plant beingstraightand long. By the GR periodit is clearthe 133is a vine, if so it may be from the earlierword for typeof plant. At Edfu 1133 occurseither aloneor in the phraseprt-133, both occur only in wine offering texts 3h3h 93 'make verdant vines and make vineyards grow' VI 253.3. sw3rh


from which.,


prW33 are literally 'seedsof the vine and thus grapes or raisins rw-') Take wnY grapesand q T& 4'r VII 283,17; (offering of game) How excellent are '0g :- in a list after wn and Xspt VII 199,13, the text continues, 'the god sucks' grape and water offering: and his flesh is refreshed' VIT 200,18. A

nn 'these grapes which I offer to your ka in your vineyards VII

=, e ILI, come forth from their 122,10; (wine) Hathor gives all the vineyards of Egypt vines VH ... .

142,1 .


The meaning'vine' for i33 seems clear at this period but whetherit can be appliedto the earlier termsor not is difficult to say.i33 may be mythologicallyassociated with Osiris, (P.Leiden348 Ro. 11,11 in CT 49 Osirisgivesto the deceased staffs(W). The vine mayhavebeenregarded two and as the staff of Osiris thoughthereareno allusionsto this in theGR textshowever. Loret [BEFA0 19 p.6-71saw i33 as the Coptic word i ky, F-1AAY which it clearly is not. In 'flax, SinuheB81 ve in is the nameof a foreigncountry'Vine-Ian&which hasfigs andgrapes on

it, oneof thewine producing to areas who exported Egypi.

nxds Wb 125 (5) MK, Med. II showingboats occursearliestat EI-Bersheh p.19,over a scene ittl 9 j 'gathering are usedin a on the water carrying papyruslitt reeds'andalsoEb. 263 141 8-91. recipefor regulating urine[Wb Drog. At Edfu too the word survives in a damaged aboutpart of a nome,'thereare seeds text qt ioio'mixed with reeds' VIII 113,15. The literal readingof the sign


birds An.Lex. 78.0130 Vernus Athribis p.239 nn. (I and2) ,

The 133wbird deity appears Sp. often in the Coffin Texts: CT II 222e-223e 148describingHorus the i33w doesnot achievemy flight [FECT- I p.126 'the Contender'];VII Ill qj-'bird! 953qrxUq ; VII 168Sp. R,, 'fighter'; VI 332 Sp. 698qla'-2 Sp. 905 snb IT411 'club wielder; III

37Sp. 170T%M12OIaaw;

11396a Sp.162the west wind is the offspring of TK2451.

from BH IOX). (notethis odddeterminative


Fo\ -a pair of celestial gate wardens (FECT p-61 n. 1, This god may be related to Pyr.264qymj: 'which makes the CT II Komm. 1261, but it is possible that Horus and Seth could be envisaged, and 222e-223e text seem more comprehensible.The determinative in the Pyramid text is a pair of light. This confirms the idea that originally 03 may fan-signs, which are associated with the air and have been somekind of air or wind geni who was later envisagedin the form of a bird. and who had control of the air [Vernus, Athribis 239 n. 0) and n.21. In the Late Period the word came to mean birds in general and Rundle Clark took it to be a phoenix [Univ. Birmingham Historical Journal H (1949) p. 139]. At Edfu i33w is a general term for birds: the canal of the Athribis nome, here its birds rejoice (also Dendera - Dum.GI IV pl. 116) IV 30,2 -, where the Fisherman (wt') all brought, the is

the eartWscircumference, fly upon the fouf winds (or from the four I of 9-

points) before you IV 46,15 - the correspondingtext in V 19,4 is damagedbut has At Dendera too :a serpent is called 1? -r3w. .

' Shmi hw t3wy. k D VII 106,13. WV

animal? q%cP tkr. pbty

is offeredbeforethe falconandibis. HereKhonsuis described as md ointment

from XII 311).Ibis couldbe- errorfor 3m Un! wherethe vulture signhasbeen 1276,14(coHated an of written instead th owl.


staff . twig Wb 127 (10)

Type of stick or sceptre with the detaminatives

by Osiris to show his wielded

by extension symbolof royal authority[Hassan Stockep.118).Perhaps madefrom the a power and i33 plant, thus of vinewood[c f. Borghouts, OMRO 51,120 n254 on the confusionbetween13A perch, i33A twig, 133 vine]. AtEdfu Ut can be an alternativeword for the 3m's sceptre consecrating offerings enteringthe 14 A- 1162.1 Pl. 40c I g.11V' TW, 3S. holds the bd 1121.8 also temple,the king receives and and 40h'lg. showthe king holding and / in his left hand; in the text opposite40h IdL the' Z

3ms. In a consecration stpw portions the brp is of but samesceptres appear the hd accompanies


held in theright handand


in the left VII 102,6-7. Even in the earliesttextsthe brp and

i33t are associated in Pyr. 866b. the hrp is (also I 159c),a : with dets. V L2K Thesetwo words may refer to similar objects. text foundat Siut I pl. 10line 417


praise (from NK) nounWb 128 (1-5) Pyr. (6) vb. be praised Cr. 62a; CED 39 ; KH 42 ' 600Y F', Y=, WOY
*1 when used alone could read either as

A synonym of W,

but not as well used at Edfu though

i3w or dw3, depending to some extent on the context. hl=a 'praise' as'object of verbs : di - when Re rises in the east , gods qe-l(dw3-nLr text) III -:. give

A ', 123,16; Mendes nome, for the ram L



praise to him IV 35,6. A compound:

A 41

1, lhy'A 0in a sistratext the king impersonates verb praiseto Re V 6,6; compound , Nbwt 111134,10.
In puns : the king Pr n Owty (harpooner = HB) 111123,10. I V8,10-:

lby n

ir : courtiers of his majesty:q lid dd. tw

hwt-njr. f praises are said for his temple V 3A. n 'House of Praise' [literally 'land (0) of praise', De Wit;

An I ameforthewsbthallis

CdE 36, No.71,1961 p-911 14,1. IV Yah: . dw3-St wrt god comesforth tr J;, JL

r praisingyou R 34.11 ; the Enneadof


IV him for his ancestor 50,7. praise 0 very praisedby the one who created

Stative: theking comesforth from his palace 9 I= him IV 50,2.1

basis,directly to the god i3w n.k beginshymnsto Behedty,so this is praiseofferedon a personal q rA , 'pA4""Behdet 1378.14and .1 1381,8.

that Barucq [Louagesp.36-37] suggested originally i3w was praiseby acclamation, which was beforethe king and in the daily cult to the god. In the Ptolemaicperiod, occasions given on public by while dw3 was accompanied singersand music,i3w was a simple sungprayerof praise.From, in the the end of the MK dw3 gradually assumed original meaningof i3w, Ow becameweaker, in In thereis no difference thedeterminatives and meaning, wasusedlessfrequently. actionandgesture



old man Wb 129 (1-4) Pyr. cf. DG 16 c f. CED 227 W6

be old

This is the description of the sun god in the evening: 3bw bpr


at night IV 57.7. Behdct

m wh3 (and a child in the morning) 1379.7-8; as an old man the sun god goes. through the underworld, sb -n 2,2 'passing through eternity 'that is dying sb n4 VI

rnpi the,young old man who passesthrough eternity and gives birth to himsclf Il

38,1; the king presents Inbtt to BB in his formof


M91 fD in VIII Is Imntt, TheWest Horus underworld 92,5.Appropriately thenome who . from himself hidden hischildren 23.7. IV makes q6 Nun, Other things beold: thekingbrings theflood can is oldonhisday(diefollowing text rn

the ,


illumines the

has 1112,13 thefestival Dchdct At as contrast) mw-rnpiperhaps a deliberate of . IV dance 17,8. pgtheoldmen

Horus fitting Asthe'OldMan'par Behdct atEdfu, excellence : he receives epithets Is qrAdql,. ' IT VIII III theoldoldman 145,13.11is old epithet' nfr thebeautiful man 35,2; q Jq fl, ' is also found Dendera Horus thecreator god: Greetings you We- W%of to as at sun %, rM tj CD Philae Photo'290, this bnt 1my-wrl(west) the ;q and whomade gods 1158,2
epithet could have its origins in texts such as Ch.B. IX ro. 5,11-12


[HPBM I p.88 n.21 Oldest the old'. 71cre is also a book at Edfu which wasreadat the of V 132,5 V 135,34 which appcxs In the fist CKI

q elJ d Festivalof Behdet: El

in of books in the Houseof Life preserved P.Salt 825 , 13 k-9 [pl.361[Derchain-Salt p.99-1001. The importantaspect Horusasan old manis his ability to become of youngagain: 1111


Dn r nw.f the old man who becomes child at his time Vill 92.8 ; of Osiris . 'you exist. you live a A14 become - you endure'l 211,19. shpr. k old you In a crocodilekilfing text, Horuskills 11 W IV their old crocodilesand their youngones'-


211,13 an inventiveuseof the term. ,


office , profession Wb 129 (7-13) OK DG 16,8 fV 'k

Ibis is probablyfrom the sameroot as DR 'stick', i3w 'be old', Owt 'Post' beforethe shrineof &n, and i3wt 'herd'- all of which havethe semantic link of authorityand power.The symbolsof by office in Egypt are the stick and the seal,no doubt presented the king, but the highestranking for Tboth cameto be responsible high officials officials werethosewho couldread. For this reason andtheir offices,andin theLatePeriodprieststoo couldbe designated holders i3wt [HelckLA of as 1226-71. At Edfu the word is . usedin ritual and offering texts whereit appliesaboveall to the 'office' of kingship : BB seizes of his father1118,9 m sw
of his father . 14; HB is your office in

Lord of the Office VII 85,6 and he says of the king 'You have seized (iL)

m3'-hrw .7. This connection with M'aat continues in IIaat presentation texts : Horus gives '3t m m3'-hrw v

1 117,7 and the king has taken 3m vf-

like the Lord of All VIII

122,18-19. In the templedescriptions HB it : the temple say 'Dtm.n.n sw m k his seizes office in PeandDep IV 18,9and the godsof #weseal him in the office of king' IV 10,4 - this is a

declaration theking hasreceived sealof office. his that Thereis also a connection to with Thoth he declares the king, 'I give you '2. kingship'VIII 148, your throne,your The meaningof the word doesnot alter in the texts,but it doesemphasiiethe office of kingship

your office,


holders posts of Wb 129 (14) D.19 Late

A collectiveterm derivedfrom Owt to indicatethe holdersof theseoffices, andpossiblyonly used

with reference to temple office holders, that is priests. Wb cites some earlier examples, and Karnak


Mar. 54,45

lot %=r

n rng' seems to indicate an army contingent

(Lcmp. Merenptah).However this term doescome to be mainly a priestly term : Gauthier cites a list of participants in a processionfor Min, with at the end Ti 'all dignitaries' [ Fates p. 115 these post

Minfest. Champ. Mon.209]. Also at Philae : <3039> photo.72 holders are in the wsht hall ; <2902> 854 Y 17 I Am Y-

of the temple perform their duties .a the temple at their duties V 30,2. nn of

phrase echoedin the Edfu temple description:

At this time 13wt is a word which encompasses the priestly holders of office who performed all functions in the temple.


left Wb 130 (1-9) OK DG 17,4

As an adjective : in temple descriptions, 11wt-sbqt ='e the wsht hall has hnd imn

on the left side of Mesenit 1251.2;

right and left stairways 1111,13. Ite two shrine rows also

have left and right sides the left being Lower Egypt and right Upper Egypt, so that IIB is Lord of . Mesen o on the left 1282,9. Becauseof this the word 13b can be written with the sign left (V 4,2) as opposed to the vulture for

of the goddessof Lower Egypt, a serpent , thus imn.


the left hand or arm Wb 130 (10) NK. GR

This is not a true medical term, but is often found at Edfu to describein which hand the king held his sceptre : the 3ms is, held in clearly in the plates 1106,18. IV 49,12 or the king holds bd and 3ms in ji something shown .


left eye Wbl30(ll) OKand (12) Moon - LatcGR


Ile word for the left eyeimpliesan underlyingidentificationwith the moonandalsowith the

Inevitably too it is closely Egyptian.uraeus (see above), the three things being amalgamated.


paralleled with the imntt 'right eye! (rather than w3dt). This is particularly representedby the phrase imnt m hrw dg3 n Obt n gro 'what the right eye sees by day and the left by nighf, which ptr is often the reward for the king in 'eye' related offerings. The verbs in this phrase may vary but the imagery is the same : mirror texts <c,. IV 81,12; IV 389,5 (both given by Hathor, w3dt eye offerings (Horus) 1240,8; (Bast) VII -a;, IV

Eye of Re) (mirrors can represent sun and moon disk) 163,13; #

(Harsomthus son of Hathor) 138,1 ; &<zs> <a> , +

48,10-11 and the king carries 'f

Jz> to her Lord (Horus) V 49,1 : in'Uniting the rays of the sun =!

+ ; (Nephthys) 1308,3: sun boat text, (Isis) 111268,16: sistra offering and moon' as* AM f f (Khons) 184,2. Also Seth of 11130,12: mnbt pelt (a moon animal) cc> the gods 4> the oasis gives ptr the Left eye seesby night (libation and incensetext) 1152,5. what the left eye is

The connection with the moon is stated explicitly : the night eye is itn and the moon V 55,10; ////e


his left eye is the moon by night V 93.

dw3-njr text for In texts with a lunar bias, the i3bt is treated in the same way as the w3dt eye: a # the bsttyw moon dogs -=), Heket-weret receives +J is provided with its requirements 111210,3 . In an offering text

form of Khonsu 1309.8. The two eyes can be joined and in her great < VHI 136,1

# <S> then there is rejoicing 'cl

'right e; e ' and balances it by providing the left Ile imt-pb nome puns on the word imnt + <20greatinfant _, HB is the Imt child in imnt. f his right eye and sdt wr hnt %: : counterpart W

in his left eyeIV 37,5. in Wadjetis stated epithets thegoddessWadjet : of The equivalence themoon-eye thegoddess with of 4 4A IV are is Re, thusthe ideaof moon,eyeandsnake goddess combined 166,14. ,1,,, of in pl. i3bt eyeappears early asPyr.33and thensporadically religioustexts(e.g. Taharqa 40 The as 14 = Hibis 11131 4 col. col. YJ - JW. JJKa hymn to the moon)andalso at Dendera.


uraeus Wadjetmoreexactly Wb 130 (13) GR

in As explainedabovethis is the naturaldevelopment the GR period to equateObt = Wadjet with the left/mooneye. At Edfu this is a commonepithetof the goddess sheis : of Atum 1310,14; of


"=c7IV 162,4. Wadjet herself unites the right vulture of the diadem with

+ "f


D, %. IV 52.13 . In -

the w3dty serpent sceptres of the Two Lands, Horus gives the Imnt shining on your brow, offering and shining on your forehead 1149,5; Mehenet shines as '0' b 1141.18 The term .

is also used at Dendera (MD III 71c).

has In a paralleltext for Nekhbet thenWadjet,firstly the vulturegoddess the Imnt vulturesettle." and with qe

on theking VI 244,11andthenWadjetdoesthe same.settingthe two downtogether,

VI 244,14


LowerEgyptian crown Wadjet of Lower Egypt, then Obt can be appliedto the the White Crown) : Behdetyshinesin Behdctand unites

A logical extensionof the useof Obt Lower Egypt (as imnt whole crown of imnt with

IV 371,17-18



Wb 131 (7-9) DG 17,5 t. I(<

adjective13bti130 (16) to 31 (3) Pyr.

Cr.76b; CED4b;

KH49 ElGB7rl-, lF-sr"-

(left hand)side of the Nile, becamethe ty The adjective13b 'eastern'. usedto refer to the eastern form appears 'the substantive east'in textsfrom the New Kingdomonward.At Edfu the substantive of quite often as a designation the place wherethe sun rises in the morning. It hastwo principal spellings: IV 18.1 West is imntt. It is alsousedto give directions positions roomsin the templedescription. and of

IV 16,3or


IV 5,8 var.



V 82and also


11113,2.7be jackal sign is readas 13 ty and jackal with the feadw of the b


headcloth - see3rt


grapes wine = I Vb 132 (12-14) OK Wb Drog.10-1


/ I- Lcy), 2.., DG 7 311y XOO CCr.54b ; CED 34 ; KH 34, C= %

Tbis, oneof theearliestwordsfor thevine in Egyptian,cameto be alsoa word for bunches grape's of [Vitis vinifera L. Keimer,Gartenpflazen p.157].In the pre-Lateperiod I andthe grapesthemselves writings of the word the q rA at the beginningis morecommon,for examplethe writing MIF

from the 3rd dynasty [Murray.Mastaba pl. 1] Sethe I discussed these with the writings in connection
reading of the eye-sign . without coming to any definite conclusion , but giving parallel writings in a


(Ebers 10,10)and

'miW [ZAS 58,1923pA5-47 ; also Loret in

BEFAO16,1919pp.245-2531. At Edfu and in GR textsthe eyesign is replaced by between that therewas little differencein pronunciation probablyin error,which may indicate and At Edfu irr (as it IV 46.5.In

is appears) the word for grapes: the Sht.Im3 is brought with its wine and

beverage In a Orw.' offering is it a constituent the drink hrw. ' this respect grapeand water of ,a thereis a sub-offering

Presenting and water VI 133,7,also "Words grapes

. C=. -W=

spoken about

line 9. It is this drink which is given to the harpooners,

hunt VI 1123. In a brw-' text, Horusgives the king in to embolden themin the hippopotamus ql!qe 1'cr=: return waterand Thereis a sceneentitled hnk -' to pacify your heartVII 200,6-7.

1460,5-15 wherethe king offers two cupsto Horusand , qi."=FF Nephthys(pl.35c) and their contentshavebeneficialeffects.Similarly in link the and againthis mixture of grapesand water is intendedto 'makethe grapesare called prt-i3t also, The king here has epithets showing that he controls the wine breast festive' VII 122,9-123,8. in manyvineyards Egypt from Horus, who andin returnfor his offering, hereceives producing oases hasmilitant epithets.


reeds Wb 132 (5-8) Pyr. andc f. Wb 132 (4) Med.

This word may appearin Edfu in the nameof a particularfield'in the lmt-p nome is brought with its s3h -fields 3ht and 3ht landsIV 37,9 and 10 ; also , W
with'Scly and Pnbwt lands V 25,16.



The field of reedsin funerary texts is the field where the deadperform their agricultural activities (q-vthe snake sign occur in P.Boulaq 3 p. 11 1.34 ; Petosiris Nok" sbt-i3rw) , and writings with *,

67,1 -.69,3 and also on a statuefrom Dendera- ASAE 21 p.72 [refs. from DG V p.50-51]. Gauthie'r- that the term could be applied to the proverbially fertile fields in the north Delta [DG V suggests p.501, which also containedreed marshes.As this is in the nome where Buto was once the main city., and whose goddessis Wadjet, this may explain why the serpentwas written in the word. It was not the only for r but represented fact that the reedy marshes Buto were full of water snake& of


sunlight c.f. 3bw Wb 133 (3-5) Pyr. cE KH 505

This is the earlierform of 3hw. ihhw which appears Edfu and it hasfairly consistcntspellings at WWW -T - R% 156,5-6; -70a by night the moon is the substituteof (D illumines your face Vll' -50? % VI 248,15-16; idb for me heaven 306,12-13. itis written If 9 as in 'his sunlight is the,

heaven HB'VIII 152.13 reading13bwis prefwed, thoughit could alsoreadpsd 'shininglight! ', the of [seeEI-SayedASAE 71,1987p.67]. Sunlight can also be personifiedas a god and he occursat Edfu in the phrasedr-13bw Limit of sunligheand the king is given all placesat the limits of the sunlight: of Weret ;CH


160.1; by Scth

el 52,6 ; also PL JR 1174,5 ; 11orus givesn ww landsof -CP1 C> IV 17,1. In principle this god of sunlight

A 4 'eO 115.1; Horus doesthis andthat r Sjr

the represents creativepowersof light [c.f. Englund,Akh p.91 and 191) , it is the tool of Re to' achievecreation.As the solargod at Edfu Ilorus is called VI 96,10 ; also 9V VI 302,2-3;he is Lord of Light tf Occasion andLord of the Fu-st IV 57.6.Re for his part is

'Me onewho illuminesthe two lands A0A

'V 56,10, an epithetoften given to Ilorus also


sbil t3wy V 7.7 ;A2

A Acl also V 180, a grain offcring-; 0 ///// %*% who gives light, one lives at seeinghim V 250.2.

std t3w nb V 376,10; and also


old man, old age*


Wb 134 (4) BD . i3k is in use from the Book of the Dead onward -.BD 240,67 receive in

Ro-setau ' says the deceased[FCD 9; trans. Allen, BD p.94 = Spell 1181. It appears in the Late Period: Turin Zettel <1 1> the child isq14-1Naged and a Ptolemaic sarcophagiat Vienna [Nr. 20 Wresinski p. 159 Pa-wedeb] 'he gives me children and I become q 2 Pt e'. The spelling seems

quite definite, so it may not be easy to dismiss this word as a mistaken writing of i3w . with hieratic Q erroneously written as i) thus It is found at Edfu : BB is a falcon and I old

(referenceto his role as a sun god) VII 22,13. Also at Dendera,rather surprisingly, [Junker, ZAS man q.11 C; L& b I-A' 43,1906 pp. 121-2] Hathor is described as . in every land who gives q It 'T to her,

beloved (translatedasrich in yearsand'old age'respectively) MD IV 30. The origin of the word is unknown, but Wb points to ik 'stone'quarry workee 'stone quarry' (Wb 1 139 10,11 and 12). These ikyw were quarrymen whose work was more specialised than ordinary necropolis workers [Sinai Inscr. II p. 171. It is possible they were the older more experienced quarrymen, 'master-craftsmen' and i3k not only implies 'old age' but someone with great skill accumulatedover the years.The word ikyw occurs often in Sinai and Wadi Hammarnattexts. ,-


to moum

Wb 134 (5-8) DG 12,3 3km be sad

13 >-- 2-, also spelt 3gb

5*, LOKEt4* Cr. 519b; CED 227; KH 290 be dark, gloomy WKM

Derchainshowedthat in Late textstherewaspunningon the words3gb 'flood! and13kb'to mourn', the caused flood of the Nile. -This the idea being that the tearsof Isis, mourningher deadhusband [X tradition continuedinto the works of classicalwriters,suchas Pausanias 32,10]. He arguedthat in by theLate periodthe two words hithertovery different,werethenconfused, probablydeliberately punsof the priests[DerchainCdE45, No.90, July p.2824 ]. The verb i3kb, origin unknown,is usedat Edfu mostoften in the textsof the Sokarischamber (Die i q Stundenwachen) the spellingherewhich is mostusualis and godsmoum at the coming . F,, -:, -., .-I

q deadOsiris 1211,15;with suffix of the mourn. wail for my belovedlord and ,'I 215,19'. -. II I-


FoHowed by a dative n

foe: mourn

q : J- I-%for you (0s. ) 1210,8; Nut raises her P3tyw mourn

Osiris, so that Isis'q son ,

she moums for you 1222,12.


. mourns f6r

1223.6; Sakhmct you


Followed by dependantpronounsas subject: Followed by suffix as direct object : Two Mourners

they mourn you 1210,9; 1215.15 also. mourn you 1211,12.

Sometexts hereare directly copiedfrom earlierversionsand the GR spellingreplaces that of the earlierversions, g. the waters e. q'- -"4TI-1h* Nav. 18,18 1217,5= Toth. . 7"=-moum for hr sns rn wbt who

Dr Elsewhere the temple- followed by preposition : Isis andNephthys in their brother VI 148,14-15;Nephthysis Temet in j1wt-Nbwt'-A'a and mournsfor her brotherin the PurePlace1188,14;maidens women It can be driven away : dr IV 312.

sn brk 1201,8.

i3kbi - 13kbit mouming women or goddesses Wb 134 (13-15) BD Derived from the verb 13kb there are a number of related nounswhich occur at Edfu Singular: Greetings to you q; P---of your house1210,3 (- Pyr.W2c).

L '. 11110,22. Dual (Isis and Nephthys): who are in your belly (of 1111) 1 ". Plural: h3tywU-, they mourn for you 1201.8.


mourning, funeralmourning Wb 134 (9-12) Pyr'.

Also at Edfu : Ut us glorify (s3bw) him with

hi our mourning'(songs7) 1216,7and8.

The i3kb family of words is generallyconcentrated thoseplacesin the temple whereOsiris is in in less and occurs ftequCntly the templetexts. venerated otherwise

i3gw.t unknowndrug Wbl34(19) -Med. Wb Drog p.13 'an unknowndrug' but it may occur at Olk

One reference known from Ebers609 is

Edfu amongthe produceof 3-'3 GreatField, thereis broughtthe efflux of the Eye of Re andO.



of Geb111154,5. ,,


mound Wb 126 (9-13) Pyr.

This is specificallythe landeitherleft exposed which first emerges or after the inundationin Egypt I As by landandserved subsides. landleft untouched the flood it couldbe regarded sacred as'burial' as
' grounds or temple areas and for safety towni were built upon them. As the land fast to emerge it' could be seenas the primeval mound and so has speial significance as a cen'treof creation. Villages built up on the accumulated rubble of many years are thus on top of these mounds and many place'

beginwith i3t, the equivalent Arabic Kom or Tell [Wilbour II p.33; JEA 34 p.151. names of ihis OS tGP1 1582,8 or the Wadj-wer'does At Edfu, the Nile floods the mounds Al .01 . 1113,1. A-

k 111169,5 (along with nomes,oases Horus created(ir) 16a and temples),he provisions with riches111155,10 he illumines and epithetsof this god 341,14;rs hr le5j in The moundalsoappears of Egypt VII 161,15. 378,16; br kSA IV

defeatinghis foes he is mn tp kW after

for V 296,13.That this is in fact a euphemism the Edfu'templemoundis (i.e. Edfu) V 125,6. Horus

moor at suggested the festivalof Behdet,wherethebarques at deafeats crocodileupon the da I VI 239,4.

It can also be the necropolis area : the king and queen 'search'ku relics of our fathers' V 393,16. Also the king restores ws' town mounds ?, as this is a brick making text 111114,4-5. The spellings of the word are fairly consistent but notice too 145,5.

the mounds and seek the

which are fallen into ruin, perhaps'

on the %6t of iw-nXn Vill

i3t-3ht. nhh Mound of the'llorizon of Eternity V.. In an offering of rw-' to the godsof Edfu, thereis also a treewhich is described llp c2: 1 as and


VI 136,8-9.This seems be the sacredgrove in the necropolisat Edfu (see to

pl. 1462nd reg. for this scene).

i3t i3hw Mound. of the'Shining One v


Gauthier,DG 122 namefor Edfu In the list of namesof Edfu hnt ndm-nh (=Edfu) VI 11.5. 396,4 and possibly in a temple description kN T V .. 0

BWD3ty Mound of the Fighter In the Myth Isis bids Horus cast his harpoon upon e5i OL q0zr,. believe

VI 66,11.7be editorsof this text

O'w is read as '3 through confusion and should be emendedthus. They translate 'mound,

of the SavageBeast! [JEA 29, pp. 10 and 33 n23]. Drioton believed Ot was 'bacle and read 00M,as O'pi thus 'au milieu du Nil' [CASAE 11p.59 n.c]. There is a similar text where the king exhorts Horus 'Cast upon IV 213,14 -214,1, this would seem to confirm the reading but does ,

not necessarilyelucidate the meaning.

i3t-wrt-rit-Mr-Dr Gauthier DG 123 Name for the temple in the temple description : %ani ,,,


IOA jh;

VI 1115.

i3t. Wsir Mound of Osiris ,, GauthierDG 124 name Edfu for V 396,4,and pcrhapsanywhcreholding Osiri;p,,

In a list of names the temple of

relics in Egypt as Edfu evidently did, could have this designation. Gauthier reads this as Ot-Mir, jribn, where in fact this is the beginning of the next narne (lw. nYn) [after Brugsch DG p. 166:

andBudgeEg.DiCLp.949]. The namealso occursin a darnaged abouta 11wt? which containsft hcnuboat,it notes text "I is the sanctuary of 6 '1 to., who protectshis sonHorusVII 32,1.Whctherthis is supposcd

be part of Edfu or not is unclear.

i3t-pg3 GauthierDG 125 A placein LE (Pharbaethite nome V", Osiris k5J 0 Shedenu) herethe guardian godsprotect contains which

&to a W-. -, 1180,6.Ibis is the LE counterpart Abydos. Also in MD IV 63.m iU 4b,, of


in the nomelist.

i3t. m3't Mound of Maat Gauthier 125 nameof partof thetownof Edfu sacred Osiris DG to this In themythologicalsphere mayhavebeenthe namefor the tombof Osirisat Edfu . Osirisis the
. noble mummy in C:3 a6 1 1172,16; noble one hnty 16,11 11, 10 in Lord of Abydos and Ruler of 1- 1182 (18) ; Khenty j9

Busiris 111277,6; he is in Behdet and hnty-imntyw 15" Lord. ',, Amentyw and

ruler of Busiris IV 243,11. Other gods are associatedwith this -3 0 VI 136,3 and in the Festival of Behdet it V357,3-4.

: Horus protects the rituals (or relics) in e-sl place is one of the places to which the barques go 6d! z, J !

There is also a i3t. m3'ty which is the place of victory of Horus [Cauville, Osiris p. 124 n.2].

i3t-n3-Irw Mound of the trees Gauthier 126 partof Edfu DG

During the Festival of Behdet this is one of the places 5, W'; j,, &=c! visisted, e Vo V 357,3-4 -

13t nw Bbdt Mounds of Behdet This is the burial area for the gods at Edfu when the king offers 09 -a "traverses ,mi life stability and power, he ,

before those who rest of the children of Re VIII 65,1.


Mound of Osiris of Edfu


Gauthier DG 127 a name for the Sokar Chamber Occurs thus PF lkL JAJ OD

1179,14 - in fact may be the tomb of Osiris at Edfu, ,

ratherthanhis sanctuary.

i3t-nk Mound of Nek ! In a meatportionsoffering, the Sethianfoesare destroyed the greatchoppingblock in k. j on brm-and they nevercome(back)from it VI 160,9.


i3t-niri divine mound This seemsto be a general term for the sacredarea of a town (c f. Gauthier DG 129 13wt n1r] or for the tomb of Osiris in the divine necropolis [Vernus, Athribis 123 n. 1 and Khoiak I 277ff. ] even In a garland presentation to Horus and Hathor, the king as a jim-tir priest traverses ,vsI,,,
k:nj 5"d,


leN to do his tasks (k3t. f) VII 81.1; the corpscs of the dead gods at Edfu are in .,

VII 118,11.
Generally then it is a necropolis area,outside the main town.

i3t. try-ib

Mound in the middle

Gauthier DG 130 six towns betweenMescn of the south (Edfu) and Mesen of the north

(Tanis). As a part of Egypt : in the Myth Egypt is divided into east, west and,. where 11orusslays

ew Q 61 the foe beforeRe VI 125,4; Egypt is divided into southnonh,cast,west and in HB Horus is king 111169,10; is king in UE, ruler in LE and sovereign in placesof Horusare protected t VI 9,3 ; Horusis ry. tp nt


1158,5-6; the VI 324,12

. C-Is I Vernus [Athribis p.336 n.61 suggested they may not be so very different from lww try-lb that

islandsin the midst.It may be a termto coverthe gezira.not countedin the othermain typesof land division, so thatall areas Egyptcameundertheauthorityof 11orus of


GauthierDG 1 '28 13t-nmt

of sanctuary I lorus In Oxyrhynchus -a

in the of andperhaps name anareasomewhere Dendera .

i3t. D.dmy GauthierDG 136 - fust of the six 13t.hry-lb It is found on the southsideof lbebcs 0 VI 8,10.


in with numbers the Behdctfestivaltexts

During' the festival Horus and Hathor are taken Ito visit all the sacrcd mounds at Edfu [for a'

descriptionseeFairmanin BJRL 37,1954-5,pp.196-1991 % , 13 , :,

U5, im

the First moundis where

itself is V 131,6- perhapsalso with the connotationthat this was the site of the rust the temple


mound where creation took place [c f. MOET p.9 nA]; the third mound is also called primeval "7? 11 V 134,10;. sm3-Bhdt 1353 1; samefor the fith mound on the third day of the festival ir-nt-' 11 V 136,1 nb in the fourth mound V


standard Wb 126 (7) Pyr.

A word occurringfrequentlyfrom thePyramidtextsonwards still in useat Edfu : Onurisasson and 34 vjr of Re is occursas I-Ir , his standard 1179,12.The word is rarely spelledout like this but upon

in the phrasetpyw 'thoseon their standards' a designationof gods in as

z 'T1549,15 -, e- 111 -= - carry their wsr staves 1555,4. It is also High on his standard in the House of Strength V 176,2 .

JZ procession at Edfu v-

found in epithets : HB is q3 Or

(CompareOR i3wt earlier). ,


net Wb 136 (8-11) OK CED 13 ; KH 13 (not Cr.) 4TE

type of net usedfor capturingbirds. This net i3dt 'net' appliesto the hexagonal At Edfu the word overthe of of a stretch water,which couldbe closed on eitherside placed of consisted two sidepieces, is by a systemof ropes and pulleys [the mechanism explained in detail by birds on the water -, 35 Nr.210p.500 ff., afterTi H 122andan Italian engraving alsoVandierManuel D.DunhamBMFA : similar to OK examples pl. 145on the west sideof the Two scenes Edfu showa scene V p.320]. at over birds , animalsand foes as part'of the rtt-plt temple showsthe net closed ritual where the

the captureof hostile forces [Alliot, RdE 5 p.56 ;- 1181.The text captureof animals symbolises

44'jR begins,

qn "This net of the strong fowlee VI 56,7 with the imaginative I nn nt wtl

the mainpivot for theropeon the centralaxis is givena bird headandthe spellingof the word where q into the designof the net.'The text oppositehasa similar beginning, ro, initial i is incorporated here VI 236,13andthe determinative is an aerialview of theclosednet andthepivot postclearly 011111" is hasa duck headat the top (pl.150).A parallelto this scene alsofoundatEsna- VI No. 531., The word occursin a further bird trappingcontext-a papyrusand geese offering : wherethe king


catcheshis foes in


his net VII 101.15.

This may not be an old survival. for fowling in this way could still have been practised in the Nile marshes and bird pools.

to injure ? Wb 134 (21-22) becomemutilated Wb Med. 20-21 to reduce mutilate , KH 500 (--&T and 555 W*T 'to hurC.

The verb is also used at Edfu: transitive 'Horus throws his harpoon at the hippopotamus.and rSIkinjured the Terrible Face VI 67.5 [JEA 29 10 p. sore wounded ].This use is transitive and thus an extensionof the earlier examplesof the verb, but closer to the proposedCoptic derivations.


pestilence impurity , gems , Wb 135 (16-18) NK

Wb (alsoa verb : Wb 135.9-11'bewretched'(12) tormentandsubstantive 1(13-15)foe , wretched to one) 1152).as 13dtis oftendetermined In origin this word is relatedto ldtdew, exudation'(Wb with the exudations organicmaterial. suchas thosefrom decaying pustulesign which canindicatedangerous forces and illnessescontrolled by flesh. 13dt came generallyto meanthe dangerous especially days.The Sakhmet, sentthemon the wind or in rain (idt) particularlyduringthe rive epagomenal who i3dt-riript (q.v.) werethe plagues pestilcnces, thechange the yearwhich endangered MaaL and at of Yoyotte [Mmi 18,1968,pp.82-83 I showedhow these13dt were effectively the messengers of in medicaltexts [Wb Med. p.21 pliguel but Sakhmet, shecontrolled.13dtappears which very often its origins as a term formalign influences may be earlier.Gardiner (GAS p.25 text 2,5 including Sinuhe45 mi Sbmt rnpt collected the early examples, B Peasant 120 thereis the phrase 13k f,, , and in the,,

VAIadyof Plague! takesas an which Vogelsang

epithet of Sakhmet [Bauer.Komm. p.1081. idw (Wb 1152,13-15MK) is clearly a forerunnerof i3dt. The term is alsousedto describe thingssuchas the Ilyksos (Sallier I 1,I) and it otherimpure in appears the Magico-medical that it truly seemsto be an equivalentfor our texts to the extent 'germs'. .


The texts at Edfu continue to show the association of i3dt with Sakhmet : in the Sakhmet litanies, she leads the gods in heaven in fear at 1'2--]Il q '1-k 0 her plague 111314,13;men bow in teffor at q%

If317,1-2; 'You put fear of you in the gods and qrYh, -29--

your pestilence in the

Two Landsof men (tmmw)' 111293,4. This last phraseis echoedearlier whereMehit, a form of Sakhmet, 'mistressof is Two Landsof men(tmmw)'l 278,4. Sakhmet alsoremovethe i3dt : sbtp-Shmt text 'sheprotectsWetiesetfrom can V 65,6 ; in her form of Mentyt 'I drive away . zy my pestilenceIV 273,8and , Lady of Dread, her pestilence 75. '-j and is in the 0-

'priest in the procession the king from his palace,the lunmutef of to asksSakhmet remove(sw3) 7 impurity from his flesh' IV 51,7.

Minor deities too can have the power to remove13dt : hnk stp'Wthe king calls to the guardian genii 'May ye guardWetjesetfrom VI 158,15anda geni calledIr-m-1w3y removes

rlC I 10 1187,1 a libation text. In this case the determinative implies that i3dt 1. your pestilences' are almost personified as physica enemies of the king. While i3dt are unpleasant, they are not Sethian for it is Sakhmet who controls them and this is more terrifying thiK Sethian evils; for these are expected. Sakhmet is the raging form of Hathor who destroys men indiscriminately and this is more threatening . lberefoie in a Crown of justification offering, the temple is built and flowers grown to take away 6f Be VI 287,16, the word in question here is more likely to be 3d

which is associatedwith Sethian creatures,rather than i3dt which is not.

i3dt appearsthroughout GR templesand represented malign influences, either intangible or physicallyreal,whichexistedunderthecontrolof Sakhmet. In a benignsense flood of theNile wasseen thedewof a god [Van derPlas,Cruep 751 hapy the as . 179,5. bringsplantsandcontendthe Eye of Re with i3dt of his body'11


annual pestilence Wb 11431 (1)

Vandier studied this phrase in the context of the Edfu texts to see if the occurrenceof the'word could be connected with historical periods of unrest and'perhapsfamine in Egypt. Ile nature of rnpt in the writing of tfi word is not cleai. i3dt is not an adjective or it would follow rnpt and Vandier


have beenadded to i3dt, a word with a lbaX meaning in order to minimise. suggestedthat rnpt may its effect, so that it becomesan'andphraseas he termed it [Vandier, Famine p.89-931. In fact it may be a straightforward phrase 'pestilence of a year' and the texts show that it was threatened every year but was removedby the inundation. somethingwhich At Edfu lands or fields are said to be purified from i3dt-rnpt : fields are purified by the Nile flood_--, "2kN 264,5 q X-Osi'l f 19* 1148,17 1471.3; Hapi purifies the fields and banks 11270,13; and lands in general = -sP4 ILa pure from it M '%% f-Vil 11

69 9. the fT.

9r,%%l seasonof Pcret is pure from it

q7h VI 98,7; and even the Nile is pure from it

1264,6-7; 0 1115,3.

rN, 0 11146.9;

H 265,12;

VII 120.4;

q31c,. After the flooding of the fields there is no 13dt.rnpt : >


IV 363 no.111,17;

IV 195,17;and the GreatGreenspreads over the fields andthemis no

1 his embrace 582A.

The king is protected from 13dt-rnpt by Sakhmet: IA5 ; he is saved from q r-k from 44L q; IINI 264 1.43and 0

VI 265 UO-, Sakhmet protccts the king's city

V1226no. XX, 40.

! The phrase 3dt.rnpt, asusedat Edfu, seems indicateclearlythat it wasa periodof the year,just to beforethe inundation, whenperhaps earthwasdry. therewerestagnant the water poolsand it was for hot. Therewouldbe idealconditions an endemic to yearlypestilence flourishwhich would thenbe, sweptaway by the flood waterscreatingpurified fields and cleanlands.Sakhmctwas believedto, control theseforcesand magicalformulaecould be utteredto deflect her arrowsand messengers, [Gerniond, Sakhmetpp.286-297 : J.Yoyotte, Ktmi 18 (1968) , p.821.Ilis seemsto be the true nuanceof the word - in any casethe Egyptianshad a word for famine- bkr - which existedright, famine. throughto Copticandtheyusedthatto describe


harpooner Wb 129 (18) GR

This word for harpoonerocurs often at Edfu and Dcndcra.but apart from that seemsrelatively localised.At Edfu it refersto the harpooner excellence, is most often an epithct of Horus and par


Behdet (as opposedto Horus Lord of Mesen) and it is also used of the Horus aspectof the king. The epithet appearsin texts where the harpoon is stressed, either as an offering or in the slaying of Sethian animals. In origin it may derive from OR 'stave' and thus mean 'the holder of the stave = harpoon' [c.f. LA 11134n. 161.

4.'-kP*Y VII i3wty can be qualified by appropriateadjectives,referring to HB as i3wty Or : X", q Ir q Y, '- VII 152,6 q34 I in Edfu IV VI 239,10h;'- C*'Z 132,6h; %e% c; -0:: fq t-' like the sonof Isis 111287,9 58,4 c; IV 374,7-8c andto the king c. A*. q rk I' "A 1 381,13 i3wty-qn : HD 111137,11-13 praiseof BB text c; . It also appearswith other epithets : wr. pbty sanctuary the templeis the shrineof of X q^2 IV344,4hi: im3oftheking HB q J% q99: 6g IV 10,9;

1145,8hi; the VII 310,6b: hy-b3t

IV 57,10c. 111123,10 in the Greathymn in the and (coll.MG 401,16114 (13) ).

IV 213.1 c;

In hymnsof praiseto Horus he is called i3wty :q re.t of sanctuary amongthe list of epithets Horusis

her son as q Horus as the i3wty is closely associatedwith Isis Isis raised

king is the beautiful harpooner like the son of Isis 111287,19c; BB i3wty son of Isis VII 310,6; the Horus bom.of Isis is the harpooner IV 374,7-8. This stems from the Myth of Horus where Isis helps her son in the hunt for the hippopotamus form of Seth. The Myth - pl. 146 [secondregister, Ist scene the procession of Horus in his boat. Before the main barque is another boat in on the right] - shows holding a cord attached to the divine barque and leading it . He also holds a which stands a man A I, Z5'-A'. m '03t. f VI 129,1. harpoon stuck in a crocodile and he is called .qI rf In the plural i3wtyw are harpooners in general : in a pun, the king says to Horus diJ Ow n X. 'I give praise to your harpoonersVI 61,1 [JEA 29 p.4 spearsman].

i3wty is to some extent the counterpart of msnty,, also a word for harpooner which seems to have Lower Egyptian Mesen, implying i3wty may be a complementary invention for connections with Upper Egypt and for use at Edfu. When the words are fully -written out there is no difficulty in, identifying them, but the the reading of et al. is open to interpretation . Ibrahim

[Kingship p. 131-1331 decided in favour of reading this as 13wty as in certain cases, for example where the crew of Horus consists of msntyw of the Lord of Mesen and qn of'"

HB', VI 79,1 - this would seem to be clearly i3wty as the Egyptian texts do not repeat the same -


k 2 words in the sametext if possible. However in IV 374.13 c HD is'l

pr-" and


" 1*f 9 eA has

if i3wty here is not re peated then the word in question must be msnty. Me reading of qI been much discussed(q.v. rnsnty) and in IV 59,4 hi the king is called pr-*, a spelling which suggestsin one word both i3wty and themselveswere unsureof the exact reading of I I.


It secrnsthat the Egyptiins'

and in fact could read it cither way, implyinj

that there was little difference betweenthe two. Spellings witA have thus far beenexcluded. Key to texts : hi - hippopotamus slaying ;cpresentation. crxodile slaying .bbull slaughter *,h- harpoon


to come Wb 137 (1-36) OK DG 18 Cr.70a; CED44; KH47 Cl

Orthographies :A






The verb occurs most often at Edfu in the formula Ii. n. Ibr. k said by the king to Iforus. in offering' processions, for example Horus Dchdet and then continues InJ n. k (a

construction also used with 1w) 1466,3. Gunn [Studies in Egyptian Syntax p.69-741described it as a survival from Old Egyptian of a verb designedto show an event happeningat the moment of speaking, and he called it the SynchronousPresent.He collected examplesfrom ritual acts through into the New, Kingdom, when it was replaced by sAm.f and iw. f tr sAm forrns. GG [414 (5)) followed this and' suggested the form in ritual texts was used 'to express an action simultaneously spoken of and performed', having survived from the Old Vingdom. Junker [GrD p. 1311 noted ii. n. f at the beginning of certain formulae which introduce offering presentations. Latterly O.Perdu [RdE 30,1978, p. 103-105 and notes) collected examples of these ritual texts from tombs and temples and into the Ptolemaic period, showing that Ii. n.1 describes the completion of the action in a train of events, where this verb form is followed by the prospective or infinitive preceded, by r. Also ii. n..i is-an emphatic form which puts emphasis on the br. k Kurth Illimmel Statzen . 4.21 trarislatesby the presentl come/I am come so that it shows the first in a chain of actions (and p.


is often followed by in. f n.k so that he might bring to you). It is then an archaic survival.

The verbli is usedas listed in Wb in phrases suchas ii m Dtp. Also note howeverii m ib nir : as an epithetof HBATIt with variations , HB pr mA (k3p-'ntyw) 1110,16-17 . ii rn Nwn : epithetof Ptah In a nameof Horus(Wb 138(7) GR): 'Deiril Bhri 104E MD 111294,9; I 27; beforethe land hadcomefrom Nun 1574,11-12. 1122(2l)]a! Aq-A k (27) andalso: in Punt ('*w text) 11133,12; rn Punt

of Punt(md) 1 131,4-5;HB wbn =1-


take by surprise

In Merikare n ii. n. tw V wb3-ib 'no-one can'go behind the'clever man' P.Ill 8-9 [HelckMefikare

p.171.At Edfu ii-b3 is usedwith hostilesense: ageni turnshis facetoward -A z! who attacksyour templeVI 68,13.




sanctuaryat Letopolis Wb 138 (13) Gauthier DG 138

This name is very common at Kom Ombos becauseit was the cult place of Haroeris and it derives from fit Inife" it may occur in the form M1 of Haroerls). Ombos 1338 461 ; 147,193 [Gutbub, Textes p. l.10 n. (n)]. At Edfu 173 1330,6 which is in the Letop6litan nome (a cult centre


offering A e%-% =%I as texts,the king brings the 14thUE nomewith its V 117A. ne

In the gephical

070%-% /// IV 184,14, iyw "217" text h,, seemsto be a generalterm for 'provisions' or 3 so parallel /// the like.


trouble, misfortune Wb138(9) LiLMK GR(10)


This is the active particle of ii 'that which'cornes'but it usually has a bad senseand occurs earliest in


Peasant B 1,38 and Prisse 17,9 '93w n


- -iFt. 111

many troubles.

At Edfu it does not occur as frequently as iwt :I receive the flesh of Ash (Seth) and P qq -2" the day of does not succeedin my city 1557,1-2; Horus is prepared on o0c trouble trouble IV 24,14.


marsh plants Wb 139 (1) D. 18 and c.f. 1122 ii = iy Wb Drog.59

Dittmar [Blumen p.53 ff. 3.1] derives this word from the verb i3hybe flooded'(Wb 133,2) and then V from this. In fact 3hy is probably w3hy and from a different Greek a"XEt, W I are not source altogether. Ile spelling of iD is establishedfrom the earliest examplesand 0 and derives Coptic &Zi

qIA III, the confused easily.In TT 76 (Tjenna- Tuth. RT II, p.158]amongst plantsis so
q41 AN sn ; Urk. IV 772,1 (Tuth. III Karnak) 1 Habu 160qq


of the fields ; in a list of plants from Medinct

(of one cubit ?)- ten of theseare required for a festival ; PuR 21 aa hymn to Seven Hymns p. 10 and 26 n.2 a kind of -[Condon,

RamesesVII has him flourishing like

reed or marsh plant which grows in abundancein the Delta]; P.Brooklyn 47.21850, XVI, 19 has AW Van aromatic marsh plant which is sniffed with seven other marsh plants, by the king before

he cuts off the head [Goyon, Conru7nationp. 118 001) The word occurs at Edfu and one scene has the tide A to the Lord of Khemmis and

papyrus to the Lord of the Marshes. In return the king receivesLE papyrus and Khemmis from I lorus and the marshes from Hathor. PIAO i shows the king, wearing the atef crown, accompanied by Wadjet, holding up 77 to the gods One of thesethen is 10 one is WIL and they are obviously .

very similar, so ib may be a type of Delta papyrus. 71is is suggestedtoo by a papyrus and geese offering where the face of the god brightens with and the altar smokes with geese I sn lotus (as in 7T 76), plants offering, I and raises up the lotus,

374,12-13. However it is associated. with other plants receive lotus and hold

172,9; (rnpwt) the king presents

(where the lotus may representUE and lyb aLE counterpart) 1480,17: also mnbw (gencral)qj ft together VI 29,7; papyrus offering - Horus is lord of mixed Ruler of Mcnhu and

Child of Khemmis VII 259,1-2. The LE connections of the plant are continued where the pehu in Sma-Pelidet is brought with its


V 24,11 (also MD I 66a


)(the IV 35,17 parallel has mnbw). dives

In the Myth a metaphorical sentencedescribesthe barque of Horus'sailing and says:

in front of it like a snake into its hole ' VI 80,9 [after JEA 30 p.7 n.n] thus describing the reeds , being pushedaway by the boat as it moves forward (illus Meir III pI.IV). .

to wash Wb 139 (2-17) Pyr. DG48 41 0)11 Cr.75a; CED45; KH48 C=IW" IWIiThis verb is an action of purification 'I wash my mouth, I chew natron'VI 70,1, the I

aim being that the mouth of the speakerwill be pure enough to speak the words [JEA 29 12 n.el.
The use of washing to purify is found in the phrase i'i-'wy w'b-db'w V 256,9 and in a beer offering, king-**9;:'\ the 0Aq ' the king':. ez,., ii as an epithet of , w'b-db'w'1462,5.

Fi-br 'washedof face' (Wb 139,5-7) the face is clean and bright and the person happy or joyful : the king in his White Crown VI 270.8 and' as Lord of the

White Crown IV 76,10.7bis may imply that the reflected light from the White Crown makes the face of the king appearbright and thus 'washed'. Fi-ib 'be content! ? (Wb 139 9-11 [after van Dijk, GM 33,23,2 - R.III text at Luxor Amun is content] or stronger'slak6 the desire(of the king) [JAOS 99,283 n.53 Redford and FCD 10] in foreign lands. At Edfu the latter seemsapplicable where the king is given strength bm. k sk and the desire of your majesty is slaked at killing your foes VHI 77,6-7. Botli of the latter phrases occur when Wetjeset exults m, qq--3j Nbwt mq nb itrt m '3y

Nb Msn 'with the delight of the Golden One, with the joy of the Lord of the Two Rows, with the joy of the Lord of Mesen' VIII 81,13-14.7bese then appearto be used synonymously here (unless the'

fare or heartsignshavebeen for confused each other).


to unite
Wb 140 (12) to 41 (1) MK

Meaning 'to unite!, usually of the limbs of a deadperson and'so at Edfu primarily the body of Osiris:


Va -;

PU of Wcnn-nefer and anoint his body 1 178,15-16;Apis -:

b'w. nlr 1150J. Morc

specific pans of the body are named: the head :?

I unite your headand your bones(purify with eye, receive your

text) 1 170,17-18 (possibly, I unite your bones-Ja nJ n.k/// V 238.12 11srt P '7 head -!:

ing 1 unite for you your eye and your bonesare complete (grect. with nmst) 177.6.

Thesetexts are purification texts and possibly representthe purification after embalming to be carried out by the son on a deadfather. De Wit [Opet 111125 n.521 suggestedthat Vb could be 'to bury' the body QL3ty. dt ), as uses at Opet indicate, but this seemsincorrect, for the places where the suggestedburial is to take place are not burial places : Opet 109 has hwt. wtt (a regenerativechamber), Opet 120-21 Ipt-wrt. Wb 140 (20) cites i'b-113t as 'to bury' 'unite corpse with earth, as a synonym of sm3-t3. The phrase with Vb ocurs at Edfu in a Sokaris procession, the god is greeted lw n fr ;? Iq a Velcome you who

were buried by Horus in Edfu' (after Cauville) V 163,17.7bis phrase occurs also in Sinuhe B 159 "What is more important than -J-1 W0 msAwl lm. f than burying my body in

the land in which I was born', and also B 258 'old age reaches you nn %rr 'b. IL31. the burial of k your body is no trifling mattee[GNS p.59 lb-113t as a synonym of zm3431.7be idea of 'burial' may be implied in this phrase, but it does not describe the physical interment, it refers to the preparation of the body. The verb i1b refers to the actual reassembling of the body and its mummification, not inter ment in the ground. The Colophon of P.Br-Rh 35 has the instruction for anyone who disturbs the writings nn 'b-IL3t. sn 'their body shall not be assembled. Also in the Tomb of Ineniljq 'b J13M m-bt mni m is.1 could be translated as 'my body is buried after

dying in my tomb in the necropolis!, or 'my body is reassembled ' Urk. IV 64,16 11b however ... . seemsto be analogous to twt 'assemble' which has the mummy sign as its determinative. Ile pot

which appears in writings of i'b may represent an embalmers pot. used to hold resins used during mummification or even to 'collect! the fluids of decomposition and ensure that no part of the body is lost [c.f. scenes of embalming in the tomb$ of Tjay and Amenemopc in Dawson JEA 13,1927 , pls. 17 and 18]. This is more likely to be the true senseof the verb. In il-Opt texts to ensure the successionof the king, he has to have attended to the mummification burial of his father first, properly : Horus is :44 'TJ -1 and sequenceis mummification them adornment 1103,4-5; it. f Skr and adorns his body (dt) - the 0_ ibt-nir divine relics 7 1102,14


Pi In wt-bbsw texts: -,; n.k 'you haveassembled your creatorand you treadhis tomb' VI 286,8 j1a ; : he hasassembled fatherandtroddenhis tomb [JEA 36, p.109n.65 'to reassemble, put his to

J, together again'I VII 155,24. In a purificationrite: : which arein the mounds1178,5. i'lo in houseand placeof The verb also appears connection with tlwt-nbw, which is the emblarning iL op t1wt-nbw +a rebirth -, Osiris) 1102,16and var. ILr iht. f 1 61,4-5; t1wt-nbw-J'1a JLr nfrw. k (of'

]Vwt-nbw hr nfrw. f Il 50,2. This is'the useof Vb meaning

'to be supplied, with variousthings. united' with things,so W- Houseof Gold is supplied Vb alsomeans offee, from theideaof thingsbeingcollectedtogether offering,andprobablyin for 'to confusionwith '3b I ?, a 1j mn't the menatis offeredto her ka 1167,16; -. you offer

'1; (i'bwt) offering of all good things 1471, but 'Take the Eye of Horus' the offering ) which I offer (or reassemblefor you' V 66,8.


ape Wb141(5-8) from'nr DG 56,12 f 1) HN

the apes gives praise to


Cr.66b; CED42; KH46

At Edfu this word occurs as 'Inw : in the temple dedication

Re, so here they are the solar apes V 6,6 (in LA 183 Comopithecus hamadryas- c104kedapes).The dates from the PT 415 , 505 , 1462 with both masculine and feminine forms . By the MK it term had become %q. It may be onomatopoeic in origin, reflecting the and in the NKT-"--'jj

by the apes,particularly at the rising of the sun and clearly continued Mi use into Coptic sound made [Vandier SAbbadie, RdE 16,1964 p. 151]. for Thoth who is representedas an ape : the king is the heir of ry zr JQ It is also a name of Isdes IV 57,1 ; also 5 anaper286,11. .I V 226,2; also 1-j M '-.. 111128,9(Maat text) .1 and son -j

Vn w

cry or shout Wb 141 (10-12) Lit. MK'

This word seemsto be related to the word i1nw for apes It was studied by Baer VAOS 83 p2 n.51 .


who collected together all examples then known of this word [after Gunn JEA 16,1930. p. 151, review of Letters to the Dead, 'attcndon"consideration' used as a kind of salutation, also taken to be 'woe!] He suggested basic meaningOf 'pain'with a range frorncare topain. but does not mention a . the cry of apes. I

At Edfu the word is used in the senseof a cry of pain : of Seth after he has been harpooned lmmw,, are in the southern sky and inKensetV179,7and g in the northern sky VI 67.1 ; : 74 7r J! sp-sn

sp-sn in Kenmet VI 86,13.77his was translated as 'Alack , alack

in KX[JEA 30 p.6 and 13; JEA 29 p. 10 lamentation ], and is made after the hippopotamushas been struck. The idea is that his cries are so loud they can be heard as far away as Kenmet [compare also Urk VI 15,20 Knmt Dsds rn q rO'-Mq' JEA 29 P35 n.26).


to go up , to raiseup
Wb 141 (14 - 25) Pyr. MK 'ry

DG 67,5 ) 114-1 C) Cr. 4a; CED4; KH3 &X6"* AXH6' 4 %, -J Originally the word was written tuq The and &-Pyr. q. ', At q:: Pyr.326; -=J, and 161016-.1455b. [Erman

J became mergedso that from the MK the normal form was Z..

ZAS 46,1909p.98] Wheretheword is spelled at Edfu it is neverwritten as Viso that this older out . form seems havebeencompletely forgotten. to Z! 'to Pr means ascend' by especially a staircase stairway,hencethe dctcrminadve b- andusually or 2S. is At the ascent into the sky or heaven. Edfu writings with 9: Followed by a preposition: r the Nile ie-u goesup,<? I r 3ht 156,15. Most often the verb takesthe direct object: HB 25,4 Pr is mostcommonin the staircase of texts to describethe procession priestsor godsgoing up the Tle spellingsare varied,evenwithin stairsto the sanctuary the roof or metaphorically heaven. to on 1542,13; -. -A 1 : 0-j eCS an alliterative phrasesuch as Ir-13yt ascend the sanctuary . to c:Nj. 5 1571,6-7.Aside from 'u=,, 557,12; eCS 1562,15;, can stairs,Toads also be the objectof 'r, in : opensroadsand I III to English 'go up a road7 Sakhmet perhaps a sense similar he alonearecommon. ontofields 1583,2;r IIBnb 3bt to seethe sun disk I


( note the appropriate ftt goes up them

determinative) Il 15,10 ; Mehyt with her wnmYt-flame


ta =. ns whom one cannotapproach1315,13 .

Wb claimsthat the verb 'r is alsotransitive'to bring someone with references from Edfu : but up', I# e. e-. d: 2'3, _j 63, the stativeform of 'ascend , =. (not trans)1513,12;but stairs' tis qw staircase of

makingpriestsascend 1579,9.a transitiveexample; andalsoMD IH 54 ; IV 272. The causative ... form s'r is very commonin GR texts. ,-II

Pr t

Wb 142 (1-4) Pyr.

This substantive is derived from the verb Fri thus it means 'she who is raised up' or 'who rises up'. that is an erect cobra. It occurs from the PTs and is spelled more often with I than Ir [see

Erman ZAS 46 p. 102-31 It was thought to be the origin of the Greek o,updt'oq 'uraeus' , made to , . look as if it came from Greek op('X'tail' [eern" in Legacy of Egypt,2 p.2031. This is a masculine Y9 however, whereasPrt is feminine and in bilingual decreesi'rt is translated by q ao=8=8715 word Pcccrt4ta [Canopus 31. Daumas, Moyen p.218 and see note by Leclant - WI-Maspero 1,4 p.76 Most recently wrrt has been suggestedas the origin of the Greek word [Osing Nom. p. 196 and nA]. n.8721. At Edfu the word is spelled, almost always with Sakhmet The word can be used as an epithet of

VAwho opens the acacia VI 269,3; of the uraeus, Greetings to ' -=-

q -I

Re who unites with the head of the sovereign' VI 140,9. In the procession from the palace the of Ji TO q ---=-: V. -- IV 50,18. an offering of incense to priest makes There is also a pun on the word ,j enh .on. f m rn pfy n',1c-;!, 'Ascend to him in that your

(Prt) VI 303,13-14 [Germond, Sekhmetp.219 n2j. name of uracus lq2, in the dual in an epithet of Horus Behdet : smsw 4.,Jn tVtl 14 (12) and is also used The word again smswe-,=j ; 1LZII 19 (38). Blackman considered this to be'eldest who wears the uraeus'rather

than 'eldest of the 2 snakegoddesses'[MG 414 n.40] which is plausible. The word can also be plural, in a w-bsw text, while certain serpentsare disposed of as dangerous the uraei are worth thousandsof gold! 111168,12[after JEA 35 p. 1051.


moon Wb 142 (7-9) Pyr. DG 19,4 S rCr. 257b ; CED 123 ; KE 142 00 L01 4-

The word for moon is clearly very old and its origins are not known, but later in a mythological pun it was said that Shu and Thoth had caught the left eye in a net Q) [Dcrchain RdE 15,1963 p. 11-25 Fig. 11 There Ua series of moon texts at Edfu which hint at this, for example the lunar eye is esp. . identified with Osiris 111209,17- 210,4. The word for moon is most often written ideographically F0 111210,16or 111210.6praising the moon when he riscs -, '44 111211.13 the left. '

and passim in the phrase r-nb 'every day' , literally sun and moon Q 41o Horus is C7 eye of by night V 9,1, or 41,120

CL or 0

V 55,10. The moon is the substitute for,

the sun disk during the night and this is why it plays an important role at Edfu, the temple of a solar deity Here Khonsu is called Q-wr . Great Moon second of the sun disk in the sky I "JI

253, II; Khonsuisq4J).

who lights up night like day 1480,11; the king is like =.

when he created the Full Moon to illumine the cast at night 1375.17. The sun cult of Re seems to have been regarded as characteristic of the Egyptians while the apparently weaker (waxing and waning) moon was associatedwith lands outside Egypt and at Edfu P is king of Egypt %aJ there is the phrase : the king , -A )J Imyt Sit 1159.6.7; the sun in Egypt and',

irnyt Sit 1196,10, perhaps a hint that the moon cult was associated with the Near

East more than Egypt (c f. LA IV especially 193]. A further reference is found in the 12LhLE nome where Horus is called who

rejuvenates himself on the Ist day of the month who makes himself young on the 15Lhday of the month IV 32,1 [also c f. Junker, Onuris p.58], the usual god here is Onuris-Shu . The moon is also associatedwith Sokaris in the House of the Leg and Khonsu of Behdet is a god ci oncernedth therenewalandmaintenance thekingship[in generalLA IV 192-196 Dcrchain and of

S.O. 5 La Lune Mytheset Rites].


nameof the 18thdayof the lunarmonth Wb 142 (10)


In MD IV 80

q,w--j NCY '13E7 at Edfu in the temple description on '=7 and

of the 4th month of

Shemu the god HB goes into heavenand looks at his city in festival IV 11,4. Ibis may representthe climax of the festival.


Wb 142 (12) to 43 (10) old DG 19,5 C

Cr.52a; CED 31 ; KH 31 verbalprefix of the3rd Futureandcircumstantial nominal and sentences9E to As the textsat Edfu arelargelywritten in Middle Egyptian,the useof iw conforms ME usesand iw Junkerfound at Dendera[GrD 146-149 sdm.f, iw.f sdm.f 154-5stativeor infinitive and as with nominalsentences iw 254-2561. It is spelled 1244.8-9 andalso IV 50,7

Used as nty. iw : Sokar,. bpr. f m tb-sd ? 111353

1;, gz %NU

spwt lir k3.f 1244,8-9; he goesround with Re itn. f wbn m NwtVII 20,12


to come
Wb 144 (1) to 45 (6) Old 10Y KH 484 , &.

Occurs like ii in the fomula iw. r br. k in. f n. k ........ (see under ii

it is essentially the same

for verbbut with differentorthographies diffeRt uses]. Spellings 119,10 -"*" 6



VI 9,4.


island Wb 147 (4 - 11) Pyr.

by This is not 'island!in the sense a pieceof land permanently enclosed the seaor river, but it of to fields lying on the river banksof a particularquality. iw is not the Arabic gezirah[AEO I refers 10* andseealsoWilbour II p27 andIndexIV p.95 island,gezirah].Gardiner remarked iw'I doubt of if the literal sense islandneedbe pressed, morethanits modemequivalent of any gezirah. Indeedthe is KarnakandLuxor' UEA: Islandof Amenope a nameof thecultivablelandsroundKarnakor between


22,1936p. 181]. Eachyear the flood would either add land to or take it from the banksof sandand the iw cultivated land making Lhese imperin anentfeatures[Gasse,Donnics nouvelles I p.56 n2j. ' At Edfu the iw are used for cultivation: I bring to you CQEE c! a. with grain (w3hy) VIII 24,14 and the Nile flood is brought and he provisions with his efflux VIII 32,5.

iw-3tt Island of the Horizon ", In an offering text at Edfu BB is called hnt c=D -"? OD and foreign lands are brought to him VI -* , 'M I


p3-iw-n-t3-swht The Island of the egg In the cosmogonical doctrinethis is theislandof the primevalagewhich carneinto existence the, at Ile islandwasthe first thing to exist at the creationand upon it beginning[c.f. MOET pp.65-661.
jb the Great Lotus appearedupon which the child was seated:o E133 p 10" 1 which is also callcd the

Placeof Fire of the ancestors which first existedbeforethe GreatLotus IV 392,16;the king prcsents D'P* W, VI 339,8-9 the Ennead ibt bp n bring the lotus in 2e (! ". V, I
4z 0V'. 46 -ir-

IV 140,2-3;I

bring you

-% 1

23,6-7.7be lotus then may have Mam.

from theshape the. regarded havingthe properties anegg,perhaps as of of closedlotus flowcr. All of ideas. these textsarelotusofferingsandmaybehereundertheinfluence Ilermopofitan of

iw-nfr-n-id beautifulislandof the child Gauthier 145 name Edfu DG for In a templedescription(: = 9 q 0- -V, VI 11,2.

iw-nsrnsr Island of Fire Gauthier 145-46. DG The place of the sacredtrees in the 15th nome of, UE,- a resting shrine in the processionto Hermopolis'.It therefore connected is in creationmyth. but at Edfu It appears i with the Hermopolitan cloth offering texts, in the epithet of the Eye of Re : she is b k3t M0


432,12.The term datesfrom the MK at least.but its alwaYs to seems havehada fantastic


and perhapsmythical significance.

iw-dn Island of Fury Gauthier 146 DG ; This is the nameof land belong to the templeof Edfu and it appears ing often in the Edfu texts: in the list of names the temple,one of themis,' eA,; 2 eV of ... .
Sn C=

396A andherethe determinative


M givesa clue to the significance this place; HB felled his foesin of

C=:: l AIA%, % C1

Piet "a

(turtle killing)

1114,17 the ; r

(D of Re is for the killing of Seth(asNk) VI 11,5 ; HB protectsRe in --i

IV 379,12.It was thustheplacewherein the templeMyth Sethwas slain and so in the is creationtexts its' cominginto existence described bpr am : V 189ff. ] VI 176,9;Horus Khenty Kherty is the greatgod in , ) CM: because his warlikeepithets. of in [c f. comments MOET I 1562,3 perhaps ,

iw-rwd MeeksDonations 73 L n.70 p.

In the donation texts: e2b 'A VII 250,2; VII 250.3 also, is land not usedfor cultivation;

perhaps stony ground [e.g. Rowe, 'ASAE 38,685 n.2] and also in the Field of drunkenness2=r- Az' M. 185.4 It may be something comparable to 'fi-angelittorales' and may be the forerunner of (T)C-pWT. well known in Egyptian toponyms [Tarouth , Deirouth etc.]. ,

iw-ryw-ib Land in the middI6

Wb 147 (11) Gauthier DO 141 i

A general expression for islands in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea [Gardiner AEO 1207*

VernusAthribis 336 n.61or from the NK onwardland of the Delta between armsof the Nile on the' east and west banks [Yoyotte, BIFAO 71,1972 p.4 n.21 and Fairman implies that at Edfu for rww-hry-ib was eithera replacement iw-hry-ib or derivedfrom it [JEA 21,34 (4)] 06. .*5,, rWW and i3t-ry-ib.

iw-htp Island of rest GauthierDG 148


Name for Edfu : HB is linty

(= e.

ch (D

V I'106,16.

iw-sm3 Gauthier DG 148


Name for Edfu : HB is hnty C=:) v

VI 206.16.

I (w)

divine name = Thoth written at Edfu as Iw , Wb 148 (4) NK

Caminos [LEM p.90) discussesthis word from An. 1113,5


but takes it as the word Iw

4CY14 'dog'and thus a nameof Thoth.The word occursin ChJ3.I vs. A3

' whereCaminoS'--,

regards the skin as showing definitely this meansdog and he seesdie dog in thesetwo texts as a sign, of prosperity and well being. &rny I notes that the ape has a dog like face and this may be the true

underlying meaning of the epitheL

At Edfu this term refersto Thoth : the king is excellentof planslike the king is like 131 T

(Maat) IV 102,9;

who bringsthe eye Mam. 28,2.Thesemay be late writings of I (rather as in the namefrom the OK,

than being iw) (Wb 125,6 late writing of the Thoth name P"(Urk.1113,l6)q(D.

1 protects him'. Overtime the two mayhavebeenconfused.


trouble (c.f. lyt) that which comes Wb 148 (6-10) OK and WA (11-13)

Edel [ZAS 81 p.81 notes that iw was used from Urk. 1 269.6 and 271.8 dr.


'I have driven

away bad things! (Bases, Sflnde, Leid). It can have detcrminatives such as phonetic CM . but this spelling does not occur at Edfu. iw also appearsin Literary texts (Bauer 95 ;D1,112 ; LtbcnsmOde III etc.) and like iyt it applies to misfortunes which may come At Edfu it is still used in this sense . in the procession of Sokaris, foes are put on the fire 40z14*0VI 141,3 and the Ennead sb CD 0 1217,2 trouble passesaway

The word also occurs in the phrase: lir iw 'one under trouble' that is "ourdcncd with trouble'. 7bis term also appears from Literary texts - P.Prisse a man who is troubled 'washes his

heart' [pour out his heart - Lichtheim, AEL I p.681 and in Admon. 12 'everyone Is hy

to subjected wrongs.


At Edfu the phraseis analogous m3r 'wretched to one!andOtto readsit as iwo (q.v.)[GuM p.251. iw Usually thereis a clear distinctionbetween and iw, in the writing, for the iS'clearlyspelled but carelessness havecreptin anda smallsign suchas 1,0 hasbeenmissed out: EB is the may out, excellentprotectorof 3cl.Az- 0111194,8; Horus makesprotectionfor . -'Por (notethatnoneof thesehave h or VII in the

113,12; benubird drivesawayevils of the

VIII 145,3.This is not a statefitting for Maat, so theseoccurin Apopis slaying,Maat and writing) texts.II. general I,


cattle Wb 149 (9-11) OK

iw3 was a generalterm for cattle which could be supplied for various feastsas offerings-In' beingtaken hooves legsanddeformed fat andcorpulent, they with stout representations arenoticeably V Rindepp.70-76; Vandier,Januel 48-9 ; 54-6]. 11ey were in procession the abattoir[Ghoneim, to kept in stallsand fattened for sacrificeandat Edfu'iw3 areusedsiolely sacrificialofferings,in as up textssuchas MO&I hw-'-r-stpw : take 9 slain V 52,3;
rdi-iwf-hr-ht: .v 61,13-15. w3h-'h bnk-3Xr oil portions of VIII 169,6. VII 142,8-9 .


1497,13;IV 3513 also


their time VII 73,6;VII 213,4-5also; VII 319,8.13. at are stabbed

fat portions of 1489,16; 111197,1-2 VII

In all of these casesthe iw3w come at the head of a list of cattle and gazelles etc. which are also butchered. It is emphasised that the iw3w are fat (ddj) 1536,10; IV 11,10, they for the daily'

byres [Ghoneim p.741 : the temple has many mdw byres with 41'4A are kept in mdw IV 15,6. Of these cattle no' one knows their numbers: -M offerings in the morning 1537,10-1 l, '4 " 111298,5-6; stf -606 4

they are slaughtered and this was done with a

knife IV 331,12. The temple altars contain they burn rise from the slaughter q Pk)' block

with the other animals and their smoke and fat as 1497,16 In the daily offering iw3w and wndww .


4 404aregiven in greater than numbers locusts

Also at Edfu are:a 4 -CU


IV 3.3

am again paralleled in earlier texts [Ghoneirn f and rnn gsw, which

p.721 : young cattle (oxen) are consecrated offerings 1452.4 . The iw3w are also associatedwith as T "the 3ht cow: the Akhet cow is brought, she is Lady of the byre with hcrds; 4AV 0mm The W wm m-'. s making your braziers fat with their meat portions symbolise the foes of Egypt and the king. Ileir sacrifice as offerings removes the threat ,

in and establishes11aat the temple , so in a netting text . the net contains among other hostile booty 'c arl' 1,
' VI - -0-1411'j 57,1. In the Donation texts , bountiful offerings are guarantecd by b rp --b

before one of the donation lists VII 220,5.



Wb 149 (19) GR
Wb records this at Bab el Abd, Urk. VIII 38b, wnp. n. f Q IMq to 4- of the one who aaacks him

A clue to the derivation of this word may be seen in <48,1> Montu is q3-rnp-. 9"I- r-b-PIZ Simbel where Ramesses11is spd-'bwy =q spd-dbwy, a phrase which also occurs at Abu fLW-k

sharp of horns and great of throat KRI 11318,15.So it is in particular perhapsthe'neck and throat of a bull' (An.Lex. 79,01251. The word could derive from W, theseare cattle with thick necks, but at Edfu the word applies to as 4 fL

another creature : an offering text, Horus Lord of Page wnp


of the w3mmty serpent IV

77,12.The alliterationheremeans maybe pronounced it morelike w3l.


Wb 149 (21) GR

Jones, Glossary to 2,3,4p. 124

TheWb examples the comefrom thefestivaldescription Edfu,thetext describes crewof thebarque at of Horus Behdet: 13 01 q,q*-j . qq., _-. - 1-h LOn .

qQ Re-q-.1 sD3z4 13 qk-J Dmw s4V s2 C)

126.5 The word is read as p3-iwy and he is the man who movesor opcramspart of the sailing 2 tackle 'the wdyt operators; men ; sb3 operators4 men ; rudder men 4'. [Alliot, Culte It 4731. Jones p3 also translates iwy as 'opcratoe[opcit. ] which certainly suits the context. Theword maybe connected CT V 191awherethereli a pieceof boat equipment calledR-i-SIZ. with FaulknercommentedUt defeats VFECr1151 uA%. me!




iwyt is a noun for complaintsor wails of lamentation,derived from the verb iw 'to cry' (Wb I 48,17-19)and most likely relatedto iw 'evil' [Hayes,Ostrakap.31 = no.149 vs.3] In the Sokar . Chamber thereis wrw of the 2 mourningsisters1201,9


quarters a city , military garrison of Wb 149 (5-8) MK originally a house DG 23 ZAA 2- quarters

best is alsofoundat Edfu whereit doesperhaps fit This well attested word with a varietyof meanings the ideaof beingthecity quarters the city of Behdetis in festivaland : in joy IV 3,2. are all its quarters 11',


heir Wb 150 (11-16) OK DG 56,10 cC KH 555 Woy

This word occurs frequently at Edfu to describe the status of the king, for he is the heir of the gods, inheritance is Egypt and all that is in it. It is perhaps his most frequent epithet at the temple. whose The original writing with the sign is not understood but may be connected with the offerings

father. madeby a son and heir to his deceased IOU Spellings : ti, 1404,4-5 VIII 148,12,

In the ceremony of smn-iw* : 1296,13-14 ; 1477,17 1182,5-6 ; VM 148,12. He is: heir of Re 1111,12 ; heir of Behdet IV 51,5 heir of the Two Lands IV 18,7 iw'-mnh IV 20,9 (Harsomthus) and IV 54,4. There is also a noun iwt ' inheritance '(Wb 151,1,-7): the king it of the two lands in

justification V 1,11[c L demotic

Pestman, Textesgrecsddmotiques 6 n.14]. p.

A verb'to inherit'Wb 150 (8-10): BehdetOr. % t3wy'inherits the tw. lands'VI 157,1., o



flesh or portions of meat Wb 151 (14) to 52 (5) OK YA DG 23, Cr.23a, CED16, KH 16 44

iwf is soft tissues and flesh in general, but it can substitute for other ar.3tomical terms such as 'intestines' etc. If the word is written Q-cLR. then it is difficult to distinguish it from b1w and 't, which can be written in the sameway, so thesethree words are synonymous,even if they originally had different meanings[Ufebvre. Tableau14). q YAt Edfu the word can be spelled out and iwf refers to the flesh of sacrificed aniffials :I have put too his flesh upon your brazier' in this caseof a bull VII 316,7, and also of hostile ani=ls comes and eats q9.9, : Rb-ms

of the hippopotamusand drinks his blood IV 59.1.2; the followers of I lorus eat

of foes - in a crocodile slaying text IV 57,13. One text at Edfu is titled : rdit br ht Tutting flesh upon the rite Ill 196.14 the text

describesthe altars burning portions of cattle and gazelles,symbolic of foes. Ilathor burns against the" foes of the king as Sakhmet,and the king is likened to a fierce lion. P1.64shows the king his hands . turned down towards T. upon which are cuts of meat. This is in the Pronaos. the flesh of the god and he is

lwf can also refer to human flesh : the Nile comes around rejuvenatedby it IV 52,5-6.


pillar, column Wb 153 (10-18) Pyr. DG 23 0

Originally iwn wasan architectural element, column,pcrh3ps madeof palm woodwith a tenonat a building from the the top to attachto a roof. With thereplacement organicmaterialin monumental of 3rd dynastyit wasmadeof stoneandexamples havebeenfoundin the StepPyramidcomplex[Laucr. La pyramieh degrds 159andIII p.58]. Before-the NI Kingdomexamples I'p. haveeight sidesand ew . 1 2311.Metaphorically lwn held TempleP. the after this they arepolygon with fluted sides(Spencer, als heaven ii became for strength wasespecially associated I lei iopolis.The Iwn so with up a'symbbl and by becamethe subjectof a ritual sl'-Iwn, which is represented four exampIcsat Edfu. closely


associatedwith obelisk erecting texts. The Edfu examplesrefer in the titles to the iwn as k3-n-lwnw 'bull of Heliopolis'and the pillar is shownas col.2 pl.86 pl. 1315th col. with a bull's headattached pl.40i : pl.672 also . Two of these for

textsare on columnsandone on the pylon. The textsrefer to the columnnas iwn : s'bl Atum who giveslife, healthandrejoicingHeliopolitans 1191,9-92,2;

C= nn thesecolumnsare

firm and do not fall, they are like'the work of Ba-neb-hyet,performedfor Re -Harakhty who" his light IV 85,10-86,8'line 11 ; has slh'. n.i n.k guarantees 217,7 line 2; 'Words I for Atum V 216,17-

nn are firm VIII 100,3- 101,3line 4 and line 10 s'o'

of preciousstone,where specifically two columnsare mentionedand shownin the scene,this is for performed Horusasthebull of Heliopolis. At Dendera iwn-riiual isconnected but the the with Osiris,in the Osirianchambers, at Edfu because The iwn templegod is Horus,a sungod, it iS'easier identify him with the solarHellopolitanCUIL to as a solar symbol may represent form of benbenstone,but this is not proven.Horusin his own a right can be called iwn :LI 111243'9'11 and of heaven 6line 45. brt

There are no physical iwn iolumns at Edfu; but in composite writings of words for columns the AI iwn sign appears : the hypostyle hall is like heaven wrw built in it V 6,1 ;6T wr o' again in this hall V 3,5. Whatever this reads (wb3w. rmnw. tw3w) the iwn is there as a symbol, perhaps that Heliopolis itself was regarded as one of the supports of heaven, for the name Iwnw

this embodies word. de I See: Zivie Les Rites d'drection lobdlisqueet dLipilier lwn - Hom.Sauncron p.488-498; also , Martin - Garantsymbol 16-18. p.

iwn-mwt. f Pillar of his mother Wb 153 (15-16) Pyr. An epithetof Horus and also an impo'rtant'prie'stly [A.M.Blackman ERE X 195Priestand title Prieqthood; Gardiner,JEA 39,27 n.2 Otto' - GuM 701.The king, as Horxis,bearsthis .title in Ito'staff of old -y mortuaryritualssuchas the libation or incense offerings.The tide ma be comparable
age' and it emphasises the youth of the holder as the heir of his deceased'ancestors[Blackman op.cit. ].

94 Ak In an incenseand libation scene,the king is : for his fathers and mothers, for

Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe IV 304.9. The parallel scenehere has the king called qbtw (IV 148.7) and Ibrahim tentatively suggests that iwn-mwt-f counterparton the west wall [Kingship p. 1331. This priest plays an important role in the ritual pr-m-' where he goes before the king rcciting a , spell of protection to ensure that the route of the king is not dangerous,for example is UE, on the east wall and qbhw is the LE

Vil 190,14 7he scencshowsthepricst . _ wearinga lion or leopardskin, with thesidelock of youthon his headandhalf the sizeof the king ., He turnsback towardsthe king to offer the incense purify his path [seepl.151; pLI 17 kilt and and ]. 113 etc. The pr-wr is an UE sanctuary Nekhbctat El-Kab [GauthierDG 11 to amuletworn ; pl. in wherethis priest,the king, leadsa procession gods p.671. The phrasealsoappears scenes of ' Y-- VI 290,3andVI 293,15. in In two setsof scenes the House theMorning(D) the lunmutefpurifieswith natronandincense of 111337,8 .16opposite sempriestwhopurifieswith incense Nckhcn111336,13 338 (see the of and and alsopl.81).

purifies Pr-wr IV 50.18; IV 70.7 ; IV 226,7; A 1131-IJ*1436,13; V 136,11; V1143,15;A "P-


VI 243.5;

hT0. it


epithetof Osiris Wb 153 (19-20)

Iwn is a particular formasmanifest epithet Osirisat Edfu.It is thedead in his mummy of god at Osirisis venerated theGreat Edfu: Sokar in Place heis for Rulerof theWhiteCrown

by Il In he Egyptian protected thetwo mourners 54,8. a sense is theUpper counterpart Iwny the of (Atum)whois theweakened of Re.At EdfuHorus thesolar andthe'weakee Hcliopolitan form is god formis his dead father Osiris, themoon. ideaof thedead king as1wn'thepil& is perhaps The as first foundin Pyr.280 (also 1283) [AEPTp.65 n.13).By_ he Tillar of theStars' ci. where is called theNewKingdom particularly theSaite from 1wny anepithet, onlyof Osiris and period was not and deceased kings,butof officials[see Maspero p.241n.2.1 In I 1. Abydos pAI andFaulkner Mel. III him theGR periodit wasa common and of Osirisin temples alsoassociated with Iwnt epithet, 'Dendera' Cauville Osiris [see RdE32,50 n.29 for examples the outside Edfutexts;alsoCauville,


Miroirs p.158n.2]. pp.186-7; Goyon,BIFAO 65,1967 p.110n.12; Husson, That this OsirisIwn is the correctform of thegod at Edfu is seenin the fre4uentepithet'Osirisiwn L2 AII LI IV 378,15; IV 110,15; greatgod in B*ehdet' 111299,3 11 ;L VI 291.3; in Behdet: IV 99,10. 'Also 'OsirisIwn'bry-ib Bdt' 18.2 . ' VIII 119,15or simply Al

the Hwt-sr was built for him at Edfu 1179,14and it is the'palace of A4 in BehdetIV 13,4.In the- val at Edfu offeringsarelaidbefoie him festi V 29,12andalso , * in Behdet1 160,2.

Theepithetcanbe furtherqualifiedas 1wii-wr of Belidet: thefirst epago'menal is thebirthdayof day hil *V 14 Osiris 395,3;'A 10 receivingdatesIV 291', ; the'godsepiphanes comebef0ii A )f ., 10, Belidet Re V 67.1; Min - irBehdetIV 122,6;SokarOsiris istV of -a=* offerings160,10. Osiris can be effective in this form,'for in return for an offeringbf 'nb-w3s he is 6alled Osiris 'powerfulin his appearance of driving away foes ' IV 244,9and his role is who food receives

like his risesin Wetjeset his form in heaven, two-sisters the establish annals, protecthim, the Ennead
Lord of justification, who hatesisft and puts joy in hearts VIH 120,12. " One of the minor protective deities, in the Sokaiis chamber is called 1195,13'.



This term for the moon is derived from the epithet of Osiris iwn, who is the lunar complement to the solar Horus . In a Maat text Horus himself is called (restored) who shines in the.night.

156,6. Also in a miffor offering text (symbolisingsun and moon disks) the king declaresthat he raisesup itn andlifts up 9. IV 238*,

It mayalsobe an abbreviation the f6flowing w6rd. of



C Wb 153 (17) GR This word for the moon'thecolumnwhich rejoices'is a pun derivedfrom a Ptolemaic writing of Vt #moon'. writings suchas In from the templeof Thotli at Kasr el Ag'uz'Wlit p.82 temp.

PtolemyIXI Sa6neron arguedthat it*readi-h

'moon'[in RdE 8,191 n.1fter DiotonASAE 40,


1940 p365 (147)). Earlier examplesfrom Edfu suggestthat if this was the underlying explanation Of it was not the way it was read, for it is clearly spelled out as iwn-b" in a number of the writing, texts : the temple is like heaven,the sun disk is in it and. & VU X (Ptol. IV) 1368,12. m-hnts

The meaning is never in question as it comes in contexts where the moon is expected '. wjj3t eye hI !P V 49,6 or miffor 111139,17; -T --ol texts , the king is child of Re, heir of Gh texts , Hathor gives everything seenby i1n and viewed byA9Y (stealer of the eye), Khonsu is Al V applied to Khonsu V 275.17; staying the gazelle

lights the two lands VIT 111.9.7be term is'also who L %, VV ---j lights the two lands IV 143,4; who 236.1. In a

description of the left eye of Re. it is called comes from the pupil of the god texts : the barque is nome 6) 'T ou

VIII 136,1-2 and where the sun disk comes from his belly Qj) 11118,7. In other moon'.

who lights the night and sun by day 111210.10; in the field of the in the Lake of

IV 40.9 Horus is called Dwau pupil of the eye of Re .


Two other reasonssuggestthat lwn-h" is the actual reading : in IV 143,4 above - the line mentions iwn-h" then immediately following it has , J second to the sun disk. Egyptian texts tend

not to rcpcatlthe sameword so closely so thesewould be different. Also at Esn3 them is an inevitable pun - Brugsch , Thes. 390 b"Ai m months ........ 'one rejoices in the moon at the beginning of the 4,


colour appearance, Wb 152 (10-17) MK DG 24 2Cr. 20b; CED 14; KH 14 &. tj YA

iwn is the outwardcolour of something someone, outwardappearance its determinative the or and )x%human hair lock, which showsthat the hair colour of a personwas that which most .a

distinguishedthem (men have black hair, gods have blue hair. animals have other colours) [c.f. Grapow, Bildlichen p.107. Baines,AA 87,1985p.2M]. At Edfu ivn follows the uses in Wb: as
colour of flowers : ms-msw bouquets e)eryqnerejoices at seeing q YB: triUtheir colours I


94,3. skin of animals: the calvesin the bw-bbsw rite are of all colours(blackwhitered, mottled) 4 1.2~4 1102,4 c " 78,13 ga. -t" and . 13 =%, colourof cloth 1126,6. tm the

Horus poursout the river with colour : at the stabbingof the hippopotamus, colourof bloodVI 83,7-8.

It is also usedas an epithetof hiddengodsn rb iwn.f 'his colour is not known' .'At Edfu this is
"E" Horus Behdet, -"C-93 IV 258,9 and earlier it is applied to Amun (the hi den one) applied to 4L
[Sethe Amun 180 = Itiden Hymn 350, ZAS 42,33 4,17, also 1851. d


colour of heaven , name of a plant Wb 152 (18) GR Meeks Iwn-n-pt=AYkt4MTfrflax, inRdE24,1972p. =linen, 116-119.

Meeks collected all the examples known to him from GR texts and showed that the metaphorical 'colour of heaven/sky ' was a blue plant often mentioned in mnbt cloth offerings at Edfu :T term make great your h3t3 land with r-, q tle V 247,17; 1 give a bnbt field covered with 'VII 319,6. Other texts which qS4 atc196.17 ; i. 'W-rt 7-n (verb here is tfrr) I irzb ", IV ma

IV 289,9; 1 give the weavers'shop heavy with have the plant but the context is damaged : //// may ////// VI 30,4; ///#-hx I/ I VII 261,3 .* 6V

In the Sebennytic nome, the field here is made blue with 31,10-11 (also in Dendera Dum. GI IV pl. 118 onlyref. inWB).

The connection with weavers, above, and the presenceof the plant in cloth texts implies it is a plant* be made into cloth, so it was possibly a speciesof flax of which some types have blue which could flowers (Linum humile for example). In Coptic the word survives too as aqAr4mrte [Cr. 20b]

'a material for making clothes' (Vycichl, DELC p. 19a). More likely perhaps is the suggestion that this is a plant which provides a blue dye, Used in-the dyeing of material - which accounts for its presencein the cloth workshops and the emphasison the colour in its name [personal communication from A. F.Shbre].



wind Wb 153 (7-8) Pyr. GR

The word iwn as wind may derive from the sameidea of i" n as a support or pillar, for the wind is the 'support! betweenheavenand earth, invisible but present.Ile word first occurs in Pyr. 1557c as q Twith a sail sign to denotethe physical presenceof the wind. The word seems to have been revived in GR times and is found at Edfu (VA's 1371,15 is not tenable, it reads-M extent of ';: ' is this iwn ?) but in an offering text an action is performed to the

the wind of heavenwhich gives life to millions' V 154,6 Also at Philae. . for his nose.

Karnak etc e.g. Urk VIII <126k>


the Heliopolitan Wb 154 (7-9) Pyr.

Usually Iwn is an epithet of Amun At Edfu too .

tr 4D

IV 53,13 and passim.


bow Wb 155 (2) MK sarc. Pyr.1644

The bow is represented from the earliestrock drawingsand first palettesin Egypt in scenes of huntingand righting [c f Wolf. Bewaffnungp.15; Mquicr, Frises213 andLA 1842-8441 It ,

became symbolof thetriumphof Pharaoh a his foesandso in the templeof Edfu the offering of over Maat. the bow is a symbolof the mightof theking or Horusin battleandhis ability to establish iwnt is oneof a number wordsfor bow at Edfu of in the offering scenes oftenthe wordsfor bow and and arrow are written simply as the actualword. Ile texts may then without specifying Isr where the king, with

%-s write the,word out as iwnt, pdt Ymr an offering has, martial epithetsand hmhmty crownoffers a bow similarly armed1150,3.In returnHorus (1.6)gives

and 3 wows to Horusof Dthdct. who is %& r Int Idnw 'to MA repel foes' and he is

by accompanied a falconheaded Biket, the femalefalconwho guarantees protection the the of goddess h king in battleandtriumph(seepl.22a).In otherbow andarrow texts:I receive Zxw andraiseup h is the arrow' VII 143,10;with alliteration Jkn --cr Dr Int lwntyw 111136,1 1113 Lord of and with andruler of the arrow line 4. The bow is associated. particulargods: Khonsuhurls the wc%


spear and seizes the arrow and



1309,10; Horus Behdet hry-tp 0

a% %\


Neith, Isis and Nephthys of Behdet are equatedwith

and arrow Il 24 (164). 4.41

In the geographical texts the bow hasother associations in the 4th LE nome HB : , t 19% lord of the arrow seizes %% IV 214,8;(j) IV 39,11. nomeHorusis Lord of

iwntyw raceof people .. Wb 155 (3-7) OK

It is possible thesewereoriginally nomads that of who lived in theborders Egypt,armedwith bows, who eventuallysettledthere,giving rise to placeswith iwn in their names[Mquier, BEFAO19 by from Sinai to Nubia andcould be differentiated p.2061.Theseiwntyw lived in an areastretching adding an extra word to iwntyw. At Edfu the term appears alone and it is a generalword for 'foreigners'for it occursin archaiclists of foreign peoples[GauthierDG I p.58-591 who havebeen defeated:
I I of in list VIII 76,7-8;

i it Mnty Sttyw bow down to the might of the king VI 15,15

ttb "0' Stty Ibnw 000 I_m bw belong to the king (these represent the

people on the four sides of Egypt) 165.5. A procession brings gifts to Horus : the Nine Bows are brought and 2all I are called Sttyw and Nhsyw, which is the mountain range on the east of

]Vnt-nfr and they live by the water of heavenand water of the well of Merty VI 196,11-12.Ibis may be an attempt to localise the iwntyw made by the writers of thesetexts.


shrine, sanctuary Wb 155 (12-13) MK

iwnn may haveoriginally beena general With the house determinative term for a dwelling or house placeasthedwellingof a god. Ibe word or appliedto a sanctuary sacred whichcameto be specifically be relatedor confusedwith iwyt 'street'or 'quarter'also in use from the MK, which can be may determined with C-J thoughthe in the writings are omitted and the meaningis clearly

[Spencer,Templep.99ff.]. distinct from iwnn 'sanctuary' At Edfu iwnn is often spelledlike iwyt, especiallyin the templedescription: Mesenis

IV is his of n i3wty Sanctuary the harpooner 10,9;of HB 1AL-mhis sanctuary Wetejeset, throneis ck C3
Esna IV 16,10. Contemporary texts maintain this spelling : 'Supplyka C-Q c: C-3 ck b
and provision the


&1 falcon images in their houses IV 42,12; the uraeus goddesses endue C-J-9 'em

your sanctuary with 1

(Punt incenseis brought) IV 47,15 The meaning is clear here and writings of iwyt in, ' their perfume . earlier texts are not always clcarly'streef ,a word Wyt (Wb 151.12 NK) is a military camp and the term may imply a securebuilding, safe from attack,either physically or spiritually. & At Edfu the word can be clearly spelled thus : repel foes from euphemistic word for the 'chest (of the body) snb n lm= **c'3 116 (11) and in a

G1 Wall of your shrine 116 (9) [c.f.

MG 421 n. 100] [Wb has 1 18 - incorrect, in fact wnnt here is 'belongings' also in Spencer]. The iwnn is regardedas the temple itself for Horus, the temple is your-A- n 10,8; Re unites with his r=of 1wn (Osiris) VII 32,1. These uses and in the phrase snb-n-iwn confirm the impression that lwnn is a securepLice The . term is used throughout GR templesand in the NK texts too from the 18Lhdynasty onward. containing your throne 11

L-1 V 155,6 and in a pun 13I-Ws ir (sanctuary of Osiris) is in


Hathor Wb 155 (1) GR


is a very common name for Hathor at Dendera Illusson, Miroirs p. 10i n3] , perhaps

showing her as the Upper Egyptian female counterpart of Iwn in Heliopolis, and it also occurs at Lb T VIII 64a t Edfu : Hathor is jyjb .


to conceive bepregnant . Wb 156 (1-7) Pyr. X DG 24,9 , -( fZ 11

Cr.5 I 8a ; CED 227 ; KH 289 WW The verb is often usedmetaphoricallyat Edfu with a meaning'be full' and the fields which are in to presented Horusare described this way : J& 0 (is k p'p'. s prk 'Sheconceives full) for n. k p'p. s n

A.., x,. aPn. you, she gives birth to (fills) your housewith produce' IV 43,14;

for k3.k 'sheconceives you and providesyour ka with produce'IV 49.5 ; whenthe Nile hasbeen pouredout, 'the land conceives (becomes pregnant)for you and the field givesbirth for -; R,

1 92,13.-This is a promise made by Isis to the king and she above all is the goddessof you'.


conception, for by her magical power sheconceiveda son from the deadOsiris [Manster, Isis p.5-6]. This is alluded to in two texts at Edfu which give the date of the conception of Horus : 3bd 3 9mW hrw 8 it is the day on which Isis conceived of AL her son Horus VI 223,2 (earlier

the birthday of Horus is given as 4 Peret day 28 in VI 214,9). In a festival text however: month 3 of shemu day 4 C` je& Horus son of Isis and son of Osiris was conceived (one conceived

) and he was born on month 4 Peret day 28 V 356,5-6 This makes the gestation period for of ..... Horus 10 months (taking in the 5 cpagomenaldays), something confirmed in two later texts: Louvre 3148 line 1.9 and P.Beck line 12 'your mother was pregnant for 10 months' [see Schott, RdE 17, 1965 81-871.This length of time may have been to ensurethe protection of Horus from Seth so that , he was stronger when born.
This is an allusion to Horus in the Osirian myth, but as', a solar god he dies, is conceived and born everyday: a hymn of praise to Horus'Behdet A.. e)p&(l =;; 3-1b he is conceived in the evening and zg'.

shows himself in the morning (Le-is

born) 1379,8

[not as Fairman in ZAS 91,9-10 'by whom' in the evening and born in the morning III

women conceive at night); HB noble child



In origin the word comes from the stem wr I)e great' (with reference to the increased size of a pregnant woman) plus a causativei-prefix. N


a roast
Wb 156 (13) MK

in offering texts between dp. t and Art This is true in According to Wb this type of roast appears . but it is not the invariable rule [c.f. the lists in Barta, Opfer p. 143 -125 and 111 list from some cases MK onwards where iwr is positioned as in WB]. It is a general term used archaically. the The word appearsat Edfu in appropriate contexts but Wb also mistakenly reads (Wb 121) where the hare sign is clearly an error fdr. '.dt hr ht : 'I receive yourtributeandI 0V eatof 13iwandmaybeacopyis&effor. iwr as 39r Inrdit -I


your meat' 1478,12 (also I

490,1-2) ;a food and meatoffering, the god huffies to breadand beerand to 499,2-3.





to rowt

This verb derives from the noun iwr 'a roast! :a list for putting in the fire where 1wr meat is 5"%rK1 mentioned st I roast them (meat portions) for you, declares the king 140,17. -1



A Nile text, theNile floodsthe landwith -4tk--O his moisture makepeoplelive IV 439.7be to meaning seems clear.


to carry, bear Wb 156 (17-22) Westc.

The verb iwh goesback at leastto the I Ith dynasty[JEA 48,33 naj - Mentuhotep text] mq' CYSI% r spty 'do not be laden (i.e. prejudiced)against a petitioner [Stewart, Stela UCII Originally the verb meant'be laden'but in GR times it was usedtransitively 'to carry' pl. 18,141. " An something. In a tw3-pt scene: the king or rS heaven (Irt) VI 279,8 ;a pun in a frieze' Irt 11139.7 7bis is an'

inscription from the HypostyleHall, a plant column (1wht) br, 466,4

Ile phrasemost commonlyoccursin the phraselwh. nDb 'one who carriesthe Ul. epithetof HorusBehdet: e46rjA 1381,10;-&rj*/A

4--2 11168.7 Min-l torus . i AI or

375,13.It stresses fearsome regalaspect the holderof the title ks earliestuse(in Wb) is the and of . gj. from D.20 - 7T 65 <595a>Imiseba whereit appliesto Osiris . Goyon suggested the nameof one of the guardian that geni Iwbd wasoriginally lwh. hdhe who is carriesthe mace.Ile first word 1whdoesseem clearbut thesecond not Dd andmaybe dt (7) [c L' Goyon,Gardiens 58,71 -2"-; '-\'I Py p. VI 159,13for "ample. A., 03'ra ')A r VI 329,10 11133.7 VIII 126,6

iwht , -,,

column , r it r 1wh Irt ', used in a pun lik'e this suggests may be an -

In the Hypostyle Hall:

invention,with the'general 39,7,derivedfrom 1wh'to hold!. etcAII meaning"tallreeds!


to moum


Wb 157 (13) GR This derivesfrom the verbiwb 'to flood',with reference the tearsof appears the to at in momentonly at Edfu andespecially the SokarisChamber:recitationof the lector priest X'Mourn, Lady of mourning'I 215,19;in a list of goddesses mourningOsiris, Bast sn n.k 'They mourn for you' she says1210,11. Isis aboveall as a mourner(iwhyt)%3'A6 e. *jR r L3i.s 'first mournedfor her husband! 102,10. 1 There is also a noun iwb 'mourning' (not Wb) which is used with an auxiliary verb ir : the : ir. goddesses 3 ryl -n k3.k 'they makemourningfor your ka! 1223.4. The nounalsooccursat Dendera 1L. = h' ,D Il 152,3.


mourner Wb 157 (14) Saite, GR I

but e. This word is probablycontemporary theverb above, examples it aremoreabundant, g. of with Mett.197,Berl.12441.It occursatEdfu: Isis
A, 'o" 102.10 and in her form of Isis-Shentayet o

the moumerwho first moumed(iwb) I

in the house of Living Images 1188,13 . See '---j IR, B the moumee

D 11 152,3 above and also at Philac 'I am your sister Isis, I am -M

<1383>Phot. 1591/2.


to flood , inundate Wb 157 (1-6) MK from D. 19 written iwD'

iwb refers to the normal flooding of the land at the inundation [after Baer, JARCE 1,1962 p.40 n. 1]. Nile flood : Hapi.,W This is still the use at Edfu, where the verb describesthe bird pools 158 1,2 ; the Idng brings NunL I =4=' floods the 3ht at

An 3ht 1113,4;the Nile flood -=r%Ob%,W^

0 ".. inundates the his time IV 48,9 ; also 11255,12;H 251,13.In a qbbhw text, the flood 0 4. dry land 14862, a phrasewhich occursalso in a nmst text mk1rZ 77,10.In the Heracleopolite nome,Herishef floods the fields with Nun 1343,7 andwaterfrom the templewell 9S

7=c floods the templeandensures it is pureVI 8,3. that 'flood' -beer: I give beerlo Otherliquids metaphorically in Incense perfume: Seshmu an 'ntyw textU and -1 to flood your breast1459,14-5.

In floods'the tresses hair V 378,12-13. of vxz!


Dendera, cloth is iw4 flooded with lotus (oil ?)e. g. D 11125,2 ; 225,6-7 ;D III a common use at 160,4. Blood : when Seth is cut up, the butcher (HB)AQ blood) VI 86,12. in fact be a repeatederror fcr % In the apparent writing iwo', the veRsel may hieratic or badly written hieroglyphs. easily mistaken in floods himself with blood Cdrenchwith


to destroy, dispel Wb 157 (10-11) D.22 GR f. KH 490 kyt M c. be destroyed

It This mayderivefrom iwD 'to flood' andrepresents potentialof an inundation be destructive'. to the lw-'b lo destroyimpurity Cwash is usedat Edfu particularly in the phrase awaydirt), as a flood L 4-J 4' '2"- in this would do and leavethe land 'purified'andclean.In MaatTexts: the king Ij in this land I29,8; Aa== 46 13-J I 478,17;. land 1173.10; -, --J-VII 91,4.In the Ibis A%*+ %*-JL 4 -zil his work is destroying 1HB Thoth is one who aborninates partiality k3t.f pw as nome, impurity IV 34,8 (also D 11189.8 111178,4). damaged hasin a hymn to I torus24-4w-) A text ;D 1442,6 [restoredGuM p. 174 no.50]. Otto [GuM 25] leavesthe meaningof lwt. 'b openbut * the translates overcomeimpurity' (andexamples 98). He then discusses phrase&-lw and is p. inclined to take lw hereas 'SandeS sins,but the lw hereis morelikely to be lw 'misfortunes'and one under so this goes under iw, for example, HB is the excellentprotectorof -; L*'a (not sins)111194,8 HB protects -Lc ""* VII 113,12;the benubird protectsthe ; misfortunes ,. U 12 VIII 145.3. temple spb3.n.f he haschased awayevils and' A noun iwt is usedin the adverbialphrasem4wb 'destructively''forcefully' this time dcriving , R Ili' from the destructive' powerful aspectsof 1wh 'to floo& : IM hasstabbed and VIII 15,1;Horus seizesthe foe one who comesdestrucLively 426,10 ; Hathor 11-poty j Zp %%% q. forcefully 1153.6. '* '2t =

forcefully I

Wb recordsa prototype, 1wh from Tur,154 - NK but 1wh is a GR word only. It also occursat of Denderaand ThebesUrk.VIII<59a> 1wVb and <32e>11. f m4w , king killing a donkcy ; also n. Medamoud (1925) p.104Inscr. iwt-'b. 232



thereis not, without Wb 146 (1 - 10) fem. (11) to 47 (3) DG 25 e5-*4' Cr. l8b ; CED 13; KH 13precedes nounsor verbs,without

Junker,GrD 291p.200 negative (transliterated niwty). adjective as This word is commonlyusedat Edfu in phrases suchas: iwty-bhn-snw 'without taking bribes 129,9. iwty-sn. w 'without equar 0 VI 253,10fem.
1198,2; ^-"A I 171,14;. o c2,
, -A..,U

-2Q- VH 195,10


:v, -

VII 291,8;

IV 101.15fem.-,`-A


iwty. "w 'without sleeping'of a guard: ^-A' -jF*0a0



IV 390,10;IV 114,2also.
with following verb : My also. Passive: Horus came into existenceby himself without being bom , In the Donation texts lwty ,-Iu -2' V 176.9-10. sk. f 'without dying'.. :5-IL IV 22,12; do . VI 133,8; VI 265,6

is 'nothing' in calculations, the nearestto the concept of zero

e.g. VII 241,2 ; VII 232,2 [Meeks, Donations p. 159 n. 1451.


thosewho do not exist

This word is often found in parallel with ntyw : the king listensto the petitionsof 1 those who have(are)andthosewho havenot (do not exist) VIII 93,7andthe two wordscan 0"""'2FOZ be combinedthus V 213,15

it foesof the king, they arenon-existent:iw brtywk m In a derogatory sense refersto the defeated

.,. iwtyw can also refer to the dead, thosewho are not', and in an offering madeto the deadgodsof
Edfu, the king is described as wdpw of -Inc I

m0 pn 'Your foes do not exist in this land' 111340,11. 0 .2a-

I ',

IV 309,1 I. The word also occurs in the

phrase for the necropolis b3p-iwtyw Uder of those who are not' the dead gods hide their corpses , in H3p

(libation and censingtext) IV 240,4.This word for the deadexistsin CT Il cAO


U-L--W 250d 11, -2


IV 94a Osiris is king of M-A--j J. ; ,

iwty is also used in phraseswhich have negativeor evil implication, that is in terms for Apopis etc.
iwty-'wy, iwty-rdwy 'without arms "without 5 alegs' as a designation of the Apopis serpent : Khety

deals with `6"

VI 159,3. The last of these terms also appears in P.Brooklyn

47.21850 XX, 24 Goyon Confirmation p.81 ; P.Br-Rh 23,17 ; 29a3.26 ; P.ChB VNI vo. VHp = , HPBM 3rd pl.46; seeGardiensp.56.8.

r. iwd

between Wb 158 to 59 (6) NK GR 4 -(Z. and 105 ) J, f DG 26

Cr. 494b ; CED 218 ; KH 501 0 TrOYTW=

An T between domainof HB In the Donationtextsat Edfu : an areaof landrunseast-west the VII 90 the domainof Nekhbet 2403. Meeks[P. n.1271notedthat r-1wd canalso mean and V-_& ","'%'. Jt p-JLn land,its norLh-west, Texts137 n.8] anda text describing 'af [c E AHG - 11icratic is 'en commun'with the southPa-KhcnVII 237,8. rsy which )6 !: -AU Other examples are dubious : Isis 1r.ns -% 'b3t. f bn' s3.s t1r she put herself the can hardly represent

betweenhis boat and her son Horus VI 74,1 [JEA 29,16 n.3

is hereis anobjectfor Ir . if therestoration correct) compound preposition r-iwd-r whatis required of guardians Mesenby day if withoutsleepprotectingllwt-blk 11133,14 .


heart Wb 159 (10) to 60 (1) Old. DG 26 1+ 4

KH 264 yS


ib represents heartas theconscience a Centre feeling,emotion andthought,in contrastto for the and indicate an emotion or feeling suchas 'joy' the more physical 03ty. ib is usedin phrases which 'concern'[Piankoff, Coeurp.1-13 and 106-123].At Edfu the most commonorthographyis morerarely '& 1442', 17; and thereare someexamples phoneticwritings: of 1468,18andalsoby error qJ U&-' 1398.9-, 1165,16.



The uses the word areasin Wb andPiankoff[op. 106-123], notethefollowing: but of cit dbw Dn' ib to converse heart: -V I with one's (L , IV 15,9.
?, qe- `m7 &'&o h tr Q. , %%I sw3jtn. f h3ty n

There is an interesting parallel phrase with h3ty: 0

Dnnmw'He makes festive hearts of men and makes whole hearts of the sun folk' IV 50,5. This may suggest that whatever the original distinction between the two words, they could be used interchangeably. ib-n-R', as an epithet of Thoth (Wb 159,16 ) e.g. q). VI 105,3 and sometimesThoth can be

ib, h3b R', 61 1VRe sendshis heart' [Boylan p. 114-1231VI 174,17. called simply ib-nir this is used at Edfu in a phraseapplied to Amun Re when he receives the Maat offering. He is %nbt 15pstwbn m ib-nir 111268,8; b3 Yps wbn m snsn W3st m nb srh :1 181,7; 1166,5;

VII 291,6 and once applied to HB in an incense offering: nb t hh msw 1110,16. There is a slight variation where Amun Re comes forth from

-M I VI 318,7-8. This seemsto be a Theban epithet, but may also be connected with Thoth as the heart of the sun god Gutbub [Textes, p.346,5] explains that Horus, when assimilated with Amun . can have the epithet wbn (pri) m ib-nir 'come from the heart of god' and other epithets can be added (as above). It is connected with incense scenes : HB is bry sr 16,
Cl 13 z---

v (!, CL 11*1-A




61 1 W ib heart = wish (c f. Wb 160,1): iw n %

come at their wish IV 37,1.


type of tree and its leaves Wb 160 (17-18) Pyr. and Wb 162 (4) Med.

The lb tree, not yet identified [Germer, Arznei p.230 ff. ] , was valued for the protective qualifies of Ui leaves at their its leaves. As early as the Pyramid Texts, 1213 d. deities wear garlands of throats. The use of the leaves in garlands is continued in Ptolemaic texts, where three garland offerings specify they are to be made of ibw leaves : Is your flesh (iwf) IV 377,5-6; goddess V 169,16 ; wsh nV 161 vq%X here the 46 Words olzi, for

and th plants are for the flesh of the

223,13. This ritual also appearsat Dendera i

(MD III 66a) and it is performed for Hathor. Garlands are regarded as protective and,if pleasant


smelling may have been thought to ward off evil or disease.The scenesshow the king holding up a collar like e.g. pl. 131 . 107 , 119 , and the leaves are attachedto the horizontal strings. 77he

texts emphasisethe smell of the leavesand their protective qualities, in return for which Ilathor grants protection to the king. 'Mis implies that a plant lbw (Wb 162.4 , Wb Drog.20) which is used against illness may be the same.This plant has other uses : PuR 32,4 ibw wood is used for a statue of RamessesVI [Helck, Materialleh p. 1971and Yny-ibw. pr. t ib . dd3-Ibw are found in medical texts. Also Wb 162 (3) has in Ostr.Kairo 25231 (ZAS 38,1900,36) beers,which may be related. Seealso commentsof Jdquier in BEFAO 19,192227; Keimer, Cartenpflanzcn 1126. 1 in a list of bread and


title administrative Wb 162 (1) NK- Late

In agriculturaltexts at Edfu, the king often hasthis title : Onk-rnpt scenes Or VI 250,11-12:hnk-sht 4+*and

VII 83,2

excellentof hands IV 68.6-7:bnki It bdt

doing his work VII 84,4. A scenewithout a title, but connectedwith a plant pr-1 4J3* VIII 63,15.In a scene presenting for 'ntyw of lotus the king is offering, the king is like r-" t described -% as (in thelaboratory) Ibrahim [Kingshipp. 13341states is for 11224,14. this

the king in agriculturalrites. Earlier examples few, but includea text of Montuemhet Karnak are at [Leclant,Montuemhet p2121where is a kind of priest [ p.220 nd 1.


thirst Wb 161 (8-10) Pyr. DG3 <'-u its il44-

Cr.76a; CED 45: KH 48 F-IBe S`

k. f. let

4, * Z= I This verb still occursat Edfu : in a libation offering, the king says quenchyour thirs with my pouring'Il 260,18.

ib-, -'.:


E Wb 161 (1) GR


qJqIi=# In a necklace offering text to Hathor the king says, 7ake your necklace, it protects There is clearly a pun on bb. t, the word used for and this seemsto be a new word for throat 111191,6. necklace,but the spelling is clear. Wb 1455 (5) records bbA 'throat' [E.Nlam.89,90 and Urk VIII 71d] and there may be a connection with ib sistrum [Wb 161,1] which has the more usual form b1t [Wb 1416,12-151. In a Maat text, the king says 'I open 4 -J I that your Lhroaewith your necklace' IV 75,17 [Maat I has been confused with

= throat, see mrt], where the word throat with the determinative

sistra and the sistra determinative is used in writing. Also in a further Nbat text. the god declares n hr is not far from. Your Majesty 111194,5 . This is most likely a pun connecting the 4

throat= Maat=sistrum. 4.11 89,14 Also Marn.

that your throat supplied with a necklace (Maat text).

to dance Wb 162 (8-13) Pyr.

A word in usefrom thePyr.[1947a] in theOK to mean'dances' an acrobatic moresedate and and of for dances godsand dancing In religioustextsit indicates. too. processional natureandit cameto mean indicatesthe type of actioninvolved in the particulardance[Brunner-Traut, Tanz the determinative p.76-78-,Green,Dancingpp.29-301. At Edfu it is spelledin a numberof ways : Hathoris Lady of hb dances mistress and of W VIII 159,2;when everyoneseesthe gods,they dance q edancing %% for the god 1539,10;the roads
V 40,1; in the Hwt-isbt a there is

dancetoo ? IV 54,8 ; whenfoes

arebroughtboweddownto theking

IV childrendance 292,1.


wall, bastion Wb 162 (5) MK placeof refuge

Originally the ibw was a shelter for protection, but it became synonymous with words for wall, especially large protective walls and it may be confused with inb [BIFAO 43,72 n. 1], so at Edfu in '3 temple description, the enclosure wall of the temple is 47 C"" of copper around the sanctuary of the Re Harakhty VI 6,5-6.


ibw is mostly used in a metaphorical senseas a designation of the king or other protective person. In P.Kahun Il line 15 Senwosret (III) is AIk - M 11, [Griffith - place of refuge excluding the

marauder P.Kahun Text p.3]. In the Peasant,the word is often used in this senseof a place of refuge e.g. B 129-130 c3 It B 223 and B 1297 C3ili against the crocodile (3d) are

(c.f. Urk IV 972 also) [Vogelsang, Bauer p.2061.At Edfu too the king is called ibw officials C'-1 around Baket 1429,5 and an inb of copper around the banks ; also -wall around Egypt 11107,2; he makes whole Egypt like of copper ql C'3 C'3

qjA' 11177,17;

of precious stone around the two lands and wall of copper around the banks 11121,9.This epithet F3 Wc--3of is also given to Horus in a hymn of praise precious stone around Egypt VI 68a . This phrase is frequent from the MK onwards and shows the protective strength of the king [Otto, GuM 99 with examples from the GR period ; Blumenthal, K? 3nigtum p.271-2 and alsoGrapow. Bildlichep. 162-3].


unguent Wb 163 (10-14) OK Wb Drog.23-25

A kind of unguent known in Egyptian texts since the OK and possibly to be identified as ladanum which is made by crushing the leaves of Cistus c"ticu L. (a bush which grows in the Middle East

and Crete - Ebbell, ZAS 64,1929 p.48-49). In medical texts it was used as a medicine against headaches and demons and also in recipes to avoid grey hair [Germer. Arznci p. 174 ff. notes that the identity with ladarium is not proven beyond question, also it is viscous and named in lists of products of Punt; see also Goyon, Confirmation p.95 n. 103 fat with resin base]. At Edfu ibr is often found in the 'ntyw texts among the list of unguents which come under the general heading of 'ntyw :4 r*z .1 VII 211,3; in alliteration sanctuary 111144,14and 'I hold for the flesh of the god Oms-'ntyw) VI 314.6; the king is 'Ale 3bb. ti m lwnn. k incense mingles with your

your incensesays Horus! 111145,5. VIII


This ibr can also be qualified as ibr. m3', to indicate its purity : 3bh h'w. k rn 140,15; 'ntyw is brouglif and there is a bbb vessel in the hand of the king with 5X

498,9. In a'staircase procession, one priest carries a host of unguents includingU6. f .lr-> qat; r a vessel is in his hand of and &-aiy -j

5: 1566,6 ; j

anointing your body with god's efflux 1566,8-9


Different types of ibr are also alluded to: :IF nhb of lotus is produced 11225,3. v

put onto tressesof hair 111298,10-11and

It is one of the products of Punt used, along with hknw, for anointing and which could be made a from different plants, either a pure product or from lotus. By this date it may be a general word for unguent.


stone Wb 164 (1) OK stone from Nubia

This material was though to beamethyst' [Sethe. Bau und Denkmalsteine p.50-51 and Montet, K6mi XIII 70] but Harris suggestedthat this was an unusual type of diorite found in the southernhills and

elsewhere,which was used for amulets and beads[Minerals p.96-7 and 231 also Helck, Materialen VI 691. Goyon commented that as the stone was to make beads and amulets it was probably not diorite but was important for its protective powers which ensured royal stability [Confirmation p. 116 n.289].
At Edfu it is used to fill the eye source is named, 'I bring to you VIII *&4, 137,2 (= PhilA I p. 106,5 B 31L '3t nt @) Horus tramples The desert

animalsin offers U1

.0 -W6

I Wq4 OW

%% 191 the mountain of

ibht 11291,8(from a TreasuryText) ; M! 080 land

I king * ra to VIII 75,10which comeswith '4" "5* makeamuletsto protectthe D

againstD3yt 76,2 is well attested in Z; WO andkingofB3ktIll A T3-bh atEdfu too: the king is a sovereign eira "00'JrO, 0,1", 250,15;oil offering, ruler IV 281,6; 'ntyw text, the king is master the foreign lands of *%' L 1 IV 114,14.Sauneron 7 171 that suggests possiblythis is the sourceof the stoneibht of Ma andit is in Nubia [JEA 31 p.8 n.5], knownfrom the6th dynastyat least[Kush VII p.65-7].


teeth Wb 164 (2-4) Pyr. DG 4 3bh


) "-

'; -

9. Ase, 1, Cr.254a; CED 120; KH 139 08 ZE

A frequent word for teeth in medical and religious texts. It may bo6 origin of the I--- -=b


[Lefebvre, Tableau 20 p201.

The word occurs at Edfu in a text describing the passage of bw'uuerance' from the mouth : he comes from your path and is not hindered by q 'O. -77-, J imyW spd your sharp teeth VI 153,11-12; n d3t s

the parts within your teeth have not ejected him VI 153,13 [so Blackman, JEA

31 p. 59 and 65 n.41 = tongue and soft parts of the mouth]. Ibis may be a survival from an older type of text.


headdress Wb 164 (18) GR sic D. 18

Brugsch HD 44 records this word from the 18th D. but BM text 829 [PN 121,17) has part of name. It is actually fairly frequent in the 18th D. : Chap.Hat. 242 the queen appearsin Zivie Giza 66,16 and 69 from the.time of Amenhotep,11 , fIP 1 UP


Urk. IV 1277.10

and 1286,16 also

[FCD 161 Piehl [PSBA XIN, 1890, pA6471 derived it from 1b3 'to .

qjip 'D [Wb 188,81. Both dance' and discussedthe appearanceof the word as of these spellings occur in the Chamber of Min at Edfu : hw-bhsw Min says 'I receive I adorn my hair 'I

qM ' 404,10and Min says,I receive 'this andI makewide my face'I 396,9. IlarsomLhus god appearsinqj IU Mam.37,8andlaterat Esnain a list of crownsto be wom on certaindays'Day

J-*- 'ZIworn by Khnum'[LD IV 78 b 13,temp. Claudius]. 16 0Q

The Karnak text of Hatshepsutactually gives information about this crown,.,it is the adornment of appearance, colour of lapis lazuli, so it may, be a name for the blue cap worn by the king at his appearances.


bird trap Wb 165 (1-2) OK Cr.2a; CED2; KHI &BW

The longevity of the word suggests it was in fairly frequenteverydayuse.At Edfu it occursin that the geographical texts,in the pehuoffering of the Aduibis nome: he bringsyou the pehuwith

This type of net was usedto andall its i33w birds in it IV 30,2 (V text destroyed).

is by two birdsat a time so it wasa smallnet.Its mechanism explained Vandier[Ntnuel catchoneor


V p.307-313] but essentially it consistsof two circular halves which snap shut like a venus fly trap. The word also appearsin klwt-ibty q.v.


month Wb 165 (5-9) OK DG 27,3 ;ABOT b.

Cr.53b: CED33; KH33 C-BOTc'

The word ibd or 3bd actually refers to the new crescentmoon, though this is not the first day of the lunar month, the appearanceof the new crescent was inextricably linked with the beginning of the month [c.f. Parker, Calendarsp. 12-13 and LA III p.299 n. 1]. ibd appearsat Edfu: in dates,the date for the stretching of the cord in the temple is Year 10 3rd month of Shemu, 7th day of 4c"-o ,
. -W%


14A = IV 7,8 * -7

VII 6,3-4.
to=: ; % -"V 7,1.

In the designation of priests as imyw-ibd. sn One of the moon geni is called whm. f

one who opens the month ? VIII 135,16.


secondday of the lunar month [Parker, Calendarsp. 12-131 Wb 165 (10) Pyr.

At Edfu : in the 12th LE nome, Horus the moon rejuvenates himself in

IV 32,1

Khonsu is a child on "*w" 1255,13.14 ; Isden nets the left eye (Khonsu)4=1 'T"117 111139,6 o'*

Khonsurejuvenates a *a



The natural outcome of this is to make 3bd a word for the moon : the tbn reliquary contains 0v /// an 1262,13; Khonsuis a child Nc>e

1255,4 (Wb 165 (13) GR V 49,5.

c.L too the

sungod is an old man =

1101% Ir-tv

%% 'M* ^-


to reckon, to count Wb 166 (1-21) Pyr. DG 28 12

Cr.526a; CED229; KH293 W7T 4ej3&: '2: In the phraseip-'t to count the limbs :q %0% m limbs 1383,4; and % 6 rn offerings to


EsnaV 260 n.c andCauville,Osirisp.86 n.6'inventorieel. Osiris Il 284.9[Sauneron,


Wb 166 (16-17)

As the accountant at the Weighing of the Heart of the Dead, Thoth has this epithet ip-ib Reckoner the heart. It is parallel with his title th 'plummef and was particularly common in the Ptolemaic of period [Boylan , Thoth p.56-571, it can also imply that Thoth has the power to see into men's hearts and adds to his reputation of 'all knowing' [Boylan p. 1021.In sceneswhere the king performs rituals he is likened to Thoth : he is 3h-r3 and W who says the praisesof Re IT 63,10; a Maat text

a IV 76,3.This canbe abbreviated 1py dw3-njr text is to the king performsNUat like k% , q 1 IV 210,13 by performed the king like %13% .
ipy-ib can also apply to Horus in texts where milk is offered : the king is heir of
VIII 105,1 and ^.In 111 125,6 a hw-bhsw


'', ' A
a V

:wq text also, the king is

guarding his cattle 111168,18 UEA 36, n. 9 gives these examples but no explanation].

In the staircaseprocession, this phrase is found in an exhortation to the priests Be careful carrying the drty falcon I 1576,10 .

17 'em ii

Ipy-mt. s Wb 166 (20) GR A name for the hippopotamus goddessand midwife, who is shown standing up on her hind legs. Her name may mean 'the nurse! or 'the wise woman' and Ipt is known from the IRTsonwards [c. f. Wb I 68,7 ip. t goddessof the women's enclosure] and her name appearsoften in women's personal names. As ipt-bmt. s she is the patron of the last lunar month Epiphi, so at Edfu in the necropolis (niwt-wrt) who is Ipet the Great f

Q 13 1 -"

who lives


who gave birth to the gods H 43J.

At Luxor she was confused with lpet the harim goddessand her cult becameimportant here and later more especially at the temple of Opet at Karnak [seeMeeks, LA 111173-1761. ip-mt. s name of the civil month of Epiphi, that is the third month of Shemu [Parker, Calendars 103 a substitute for ipip the original name of this month. At Edfu it occurs in the date of the

q a lq P, stretchingof the cord %% m"C";

IV 7,1 and

VII 5,7


In the dismemberment the hippopotamus, foreleggoesto the fatherof Horus the of 'onewho attributes light! VI 89,8,not attested [ASAE IIp. 81 n.b].elsewhere

40P. % '

q 13 I a Nx -a In the slaying the oryx text at Edfu is the phrase : Bastet hws nirw % sailing round the w-


lake IV 239,9-10.Derchain[Oryx p.49] translates 'countsthe victims' andcompares CO /j/// kP sailingin the lake VII 264,1-2. ipy maybe derivedfrom the demonstrative 'these' the in ipw way that nfyw canbe 'thoseenemies'.


stairway -

Wb 163 (3) GR The only reference this word in Wb is in a stairwaytext, in an alliteratingsentence ipd r for : q 04bi3wty 1542,11. It may havebeeninvented qn 'hurrying to your stairway,strongharpooner'

for this kind of text.


demonstrativeplural, these Wb 169 (6-7) OK

GG 110 p.85 these forms are earlier in origin than nw nn rit a noun with a suffix .

ipn pw (m) usually found after .

Junker 57 and 58-59 1pn 60 ipw usually only in the phrase mw-ipw [for use in singular see Gaballa in MDAIK 35 p.77 n. 131. ipw ipn fem.: nbwtyw Purify your body with these waters IV 52,6 It3r IV 52,2.

V 4,3; purify your majesty with q la3, these goddessesV 6A .

I &q 11 With suffix: Takefor yourself(Osiris) this your libation 1219,1. .

Spiegelberg, Dem.G. 17 12 1j[11A 3m In demotic cIT114 postpositive 'this'. hrw ipn CED 47 ; KH 504 (not Cr.)



pig Wb 169 (14) DIO GR c.f. 3ph Wb 1 9A

(asa singularword) and alp , at Edfu it is usedin its plural form in a list of offeringanimals: 'rw and t, # of mdw stiesIII
298,6; also in the festival the q -', t3,9 is butcheredand put onto the altar V 354,4 ]. The Edfu

4 13 in This is first attested the MedinetHabuofferinglist 111158

examplesare identified as'pig only on the basis of the Medinet HAW determinative, but there is also A131 e. the term 3ph which is offered by a female slave in Admonitions 8,13

[GAS 65).


part of a ship Wb 169 (15) GR Jones,Glossary1117p.153,cites JEA 30,7 and Triumph 103,54%aulks'in her hold.

A.Lex. 78.0266part of a boat. q 13 4 T, In the Myth iw %% II + eem-hnw to like columnsin a hall VI 80,7.The I ps

stand up like columns, Drioton translated this as Itais! in la cale. There is an earlier term ibs in the Coffin Texts V 136 b which may be I)ow timber' [FECT H p.34 and p.38 n.34 from lbs 'introduce' for they introduce the boat into the water] if this is not so they are not Edfu's Ips (also ibsyt in BD


(alsoUrk-V No-24189.5).


Festival of Epiphi - 3rd of Shemu Wb 168 (11) D. 18

This is not the Opet festival of Luxor (held during 3bt) but is the festival held in the 3rd month of S. Shemu which gave its name to that month in the civil calendar ETTETT (Cr. 57b ; CED 37 and

entt. At Edfu in the 3rd monthof ShemuHathorsails southto Behdetin her barqueon 'W thus this marks the start of the Hathor/Horusfestival at BehdetV 371,6-7 There were other placeswherethe festivalwascelebrated hymn to Thoth hasrejoicingin Hermopolisat "w :a Umnw HI 298,8.
-t'; ,

qo,a w


chamber enclosed


Wb 167 (13) to 68 (5) OK and 67 (12) Westc. This is probably closer to the Westcar P. 7.5 ; 7,7, ; 9,2 meaning of the word'sccret chambers'rather then 'harim'. Both in fact may allude to a secureor protected place (like Prt) [c f. Gardiner, JEA 11.

1925 p.2-5 and against this F.W. Green, JEA 16,1930 p.33-41.At Edfu a group of protective deities
r-"q a2 -44--

are called e it i.


'.. and they drive away foes and evil VIII 147,10 (pl. 675 shows them on the .

baseof the pylon).



four days, from Pyr.

Wb 171 (14) (5-8)

DG 29,7. KH34b; Cr.625a; CED266 4TOOyr' Orthography of ifd Toue : till is the most usual e.g.

4th monthin datesetc. --x being the feminine 14

all 1111 4 a0 3 names IV 52,7; or 'I - 11 1:: 11 T0 0,11 -. Re, Shu, Geb, Osiris ending;

four bricks IV 331,11.the

(1) 11IV 303,3 ; in compounds - Re and his 'A

kas V 6,5. The word can be phonetically written out, but in this case the meaning is extended and implies more than four, 'four sides"four walls"four supports' etc. and also Hathor with four faces VII 26,13 [BEFAO 43,106]. Four was one of the special numbers of the Egyptians becauseit representsspace-4 comers of the 4 sides, 4 winds and to some extent protection -a building has four sides, Egypt has four world, frontiers, seasonshave four months [Sethe, Zahlen p.31-33] and the application of the word 4 to specific things can have magical implications. Q.


four sides G1 --* on four sidesaroundyou IV 46,15;Mesenis completeq i iL,

inb. sn

Thus : birds fly up -O-q

q N 'U inb. s m pjlr. s four sides of its enclosure wall around it VI 351,6; establish the four sides of their enclosurewall (B 9) IV 353,6-8.


q Y-

Ibis nuanceappearsespecially in the building descriptions of the temple : to see

3-140 -!



mi-qd. s to see all four walls of Mesen VI 18,8; the temple is complete with built by Shu IV 331,9-10; t-

four walls

of Wetjeset protect his father (the useof the Heb-Sedbooth

as determinative implies it was square) VI 6,7. From this example in particular Blackman and Fairman suggestedthat in some casesifd could actually be translated 'girdle wall' 'enclosure wall' especially as VI 6,7 is actually written upon the enclosure wall [JEA: 31,1946 p.77-79] and in addition they cited : (2) he protected them with this wall on four sides, namely the girdle wall VI 10,9-10; (3) this q nn Irw m '? q ! -SRi all

q House is beautiful

the girdle

q V-- 1111 wall on its four sides VII 19,8-9; (4) gods walk around v' of St-Wrt . eitherthe four sides

or girdle wall VU 4,7; (5) IV 331,9-10above; (6) the templeis noble with in girdle wall on its four sidesIV 330,14;(7) her Majestyis venerated the names her temple of it the girdle wall - how happyis he who enters VH 23,12.

The word ifd heremayhint at the enclosure wall but it maynot be a trueword for it simplybecause Evenif theword hadbeen invented theEdfu texts,surelytheywould for of thelack of determinative. to not havehesitated inventor adapt determinative. a
Use of ifd in dimensions of rooms: (12) 4 walls VII 14,2 (each 8 cubits also VII

15,8-16,1 ; IV 5,6 ; 6,2 that is a square room and thus (13) W nb Im q all* 12 each of them is a js it ". squareroom likewise, more likely 'each one there, the 4 walls likewise! IV 6,3. r-ifdw (a) on the four sides of, round about: VII 19,8-9 ; IV 330,14 (3 and 6) (b) four comers (of temple) noble temple ?q0 1111,14and he found his temple, noble? " -". 11186,13-14.

Example No. (11) adverbial use applied to persons : chiefs of tens are with him (m-ht. f) qtr. mI V hm. f hr Irt nht. f on all sides of HM protecting him = hr ifd with ellipse of hr the four sides . ,

of IHM7 Ill 32,9-10. Four supportsof heaven: heavenis established upon '? fill heaven -, (field offering) 115,3 list AM IV 260,9 ; Horusgives the king IV 251,10-11;the circuit of

Four supportsof Nut Jsis exactstribute from (alsoDendera) 178,15.

Four comersof land : sht-text vineyards are given 115,1;Egyptians(T3-mrw) are given %p I 11158,16and Il 58,17; are for the two halvesof the king I &oil 4411 402,34; 1 give you the whole circumference the sundisk of


VI 249,8.


As a substantive in a striking the ball text, Hathorgives :


as servants the king IV of

306,4,havingjust described destruction foes,this mustreferto thepeople the4 areas the of of around Egypt.


to walk round

Wb 172 (1-3) D.18 The earliestexamples a verb ifd are from Urk. IV 658,1foesiwsn br of full of fear (Tuth III) ; Urk. IV 697,14 wpw hr theyrun away

rn dwn also Tale of Woe pl.6,13 -A

[Caminos, Tale 8,3 p.88 index] 'movequickly', all show that its origins are in ifd 'four'. from four legged,thusonerunsasfastasan animal,for example. Hencetoo KRI H 30,1 70,14especially used in battletextsto describe foesrunning.
q Ve'30 At Edfu however : in the temple description 'You who -A ifdw n St-Wrt walk around 4 ve I

sides of St-Wrt 'V114,7 seemsto be 'perambulate'with a different nuance altogether[ JEA32,1946,78

14]. Here it does not seem to bego fast! but'to, walk on four sides of a building'

and the example may be an imaginative derivation of the original use to suit the text. Ilere is an JMc"--rall I four sides of the God's Land, ruler of example however of the basic use: HB goes round Punt int hnd bwgm rushes through the valley and runs in Bugem' 11 198,8. The reason V

for the apparentdifference in meaning is that the verb is used in two different contexts requiring the

of modificationof the meaning ifd.


leg Wb 171 (9) GR in Hwt-ifdt Houseof the Leg gne of four , , @qyc'!f' -PThe derivationis clear,but only one exampleis so far attested: variant of tlwt-sbqt. ,

1251.1 set under



dierein Wb 172 (4-12) DG 201,4 Cr.196b; CED95; KH106 Mmky

Adverbfrom thepreposition Usedasin Middle Egyptian[c f. GG 205,11 at Dendera [Junker m. and


GrD p.1381901. Speffings Edfu: at U e.g. IV 24,8; 147,16-17; IV 57,10. passim, e.g. IV 330,6


child , stripling

Wb 178 (16-17) MK

FCD 18

from the MK, thoughpossiblyolder,is connected This word, attested with the word for the city of Mythologically imt may be Buto in the Delta Imt, which is written with a child determinative. FCD 18 to connected Horusrearedin Khemmis,but that this is the origin of the word is uncertain. 'fosterchild of the king of LowerEgypf from BH I p.60 andP125,69, translates whereKhnumhotep is called imt of the king of Lower Egypt (andm3t of the king of Upper Egypt). Berlev recently that suggested the nounimt derivedfrom an unattested with the meaning'togive a signwith the verb eyibrow', usedto point out an person who waseligiblefor'an office [Bib.0r. 40 3/4 1983pp.356-7 At Edfa imt occursnot only in the nameof the Buto nome(19th nomeof LE, EastDelta). imt-p 10 jV Cllf-) V 25,12,but a IV 36.3and IV 37A and and imt-bnt, for example ja in its own right as a word for a youngchild : the hw-' staveis presented the king by to following him IV 292,17. who dances The word is very common Dendera a designation Ihy andHarsomthus, childrenof Hathor the at as of and this is also seenat Edfu : the king is nome,Horus is called4TI IV of the Lady of Dendera 113,13. In the 19di LE

in the Right Eye and sdt wrt in the Left eye IV 37.5. It is

is interesting that in the imt-pb textsthe emphasis on HorusBehdetas a child , but this is not found in imt-hnt, suggesting that the myths went with imt-p imt pupil of the eye Wb 175 (23) GR A word in GR periodfor thepupil of theeye[Lefebvre,Tableau17p.17].This word is usedat Edfu in wd3t eye offerings : the 'nDt eye is alive and 139,13; J-, its pupil is firmly fixed in its placeIII y (of wd3t eye) 111140,5

her alsoVII 163,5;Hathorwelcomes sonas id

q= j born Hathor11228,11. furthervd3t offering, Horus Behdet,shines In a of and this is Ihy id


by day

q TO

183,7 ;q Alt of right eye////


pun the pupil of the eye or child is with you

IV 137,3. importanteye textsare the sqr-W textsto destroythe evil eyeof Apopis,whereim The second appliesto the pupil of the eyeof the Apopisserpent: I havebentdown (sd foe 162,6 andthis continues a pun-q--P in his pupil is hit IV 149,7-8 m a child tearsup vie drd of wnmmty ntpupilofLhe q Ph, 162,8;

tgtg the pupil is choppedup IV 305.7-78.

The Eye is regarded Hathor,thusthe black dot in it is her child, Horus.Onceim is takenas the as pupil of an eye,thenit canalsobe usedof thepupil of theeyeof Apopis. Thereis alsoa dual version:a comichetext, HB brightens Two Landswith the
322,4 The word occurs at Dendera and Philae too (Phot.329) also c.f. Borghouts, JEA 59 p. 125 nA for example. j (Cr. 5 a and b) for


%% lot



41\OY Coptic kXW In this context it is interesting to compare the use of ,

both 'pupil of the eye! andmaiden'and also in Greek x6pil 'maiden"pupil of the eye! (LSJ, 9 p.980b 981a). .


skin Wb 178 (7) Late

In the Book of the Dead imt is a variant of ikm 'shield, but due to confusion this became a word imt referring to the skin and in GR texts it is an Osirian relic [L. Pantalacci, GM 58,1982 p.65 ff. ] :

is Thebes broughtwith its relic for imy-wt


1338,6 and it is argued(op.cit.) that this is a variant

In fact the usual term may be inm and most likely im(t) is a corruption of inm .

[Beinlich,Osirisreliquien pp216-7].


U= Wb 179 (3-7) Pyr.

The W

or i3m tree is still unidentified for certain. It is not the male palm tree as in Wb [c f.

Wilbour 11p.31 (6) 1 and seemsto be more a leafy type of tree, similar to the sycamore and the Christ's Thom tree. It may be similar too to the acaciaand incensesycamorein use in Egypt


[Gamer-Wallert,ZDMG III NF 36,1961 p.383-385; c.f JdquierBIFAO 19 p.14 ff and also Arznei.p.235 ff] but PJumilhac 176n.332.1. playsa role in medicine[Wb Drog.30 andGermer, It tree at Edfu is aboveall a sacred of Edfu itself :a list of the treesof Edfu,includesAT P(dand%nd)1337,12.It is also found in this role in the Coptitenome with V 1344,1. Aphroditopolis qT (along


The treeis actuallydepicted Edfu XI 318,wheretheking sitsbeforea treedesignated at as


Ww m Bodt 'Unique im3 tree in Behdet' It is clearly a leafy tree and perhaps this implies . protection This sceneis in the chapelof the Tbroneof Re and helpsto indicatethe .

significanceof the tree, for this sceneis Ksp-imyt-pr , wherethe tree hasa role in securingthe legitimatekingshipandinheritance theking (othertreesin this contextincludethe 9d treepl.320 of treesin 1337,12.The accompanying andYnd treepl.321) which explainswhy theseare the sacred in text is 1297,3, but the tree appears anotherscenehere'Receivingthe crook and flail from his father'with the tree legitimacyof rule. Ww m B4dt 1290,11-12 (pl.29b) so it helps to bestowthe .1.

The leavesof the im3 tree were usedto makegarlands and this is expressed very often at Edfu 'nw garlandsof im3 and i9d :A0W 133,5; V 125,4;V 92,15; qT ' qT'-"7 1569,9-10; qq 'k V 74,10-11; V

VII 80,10-11; VIII 163,2in this instance garlands the

mayhavehadprotective qualities(q.v. underInhw). The Myth of Horusdescribes materials the usedto build thebarque Re, its prowisof of 9nd VI 122,1,intimatingagaina link with Edfu andits sacred trees. andstemof


possiblya writing of W7
+ 4'P is used VIII 136,8, which is not normally a use of W. tk 'nb-imy (Wb 1203 (6-8) and BIFAO 55 p. 116-117). MD 11154u. Phill I

In the Filling of the Eye 105,3 shows the spelling

C.f. Wb 179 (9) with one reference


tent Wb 181 (1-6) MK, exwnplesin FCD 20


im3w is the word for tents and awnings made of a wooden frame covered in linen or matfing. The on awnings ard deckhouses boatsas early as the Old Kingdom and the tents are temporary structuresusually associated with military campaigns [Kemp, JEA 63,1977 pp.77-781.The word occurs in the Myth at Edfu : st-wn p
C: b



VI 16,10.


be friendly, well disposed Wb 179 (16-23) Pyr.

The meaning is 'friendly' as found in Wb and followed by most other authorities, but this does not cover the GR use 'to unite, join'. That W these two nuancesis easily shown from the Edfu covers

that im3 'be friendly' really means 'to be close to' both in an emotional and texts and suggests from the same stem as s-m3, 'to unite' a verb with which it appears in physical sense. It may be parallel at Edfu.
im3 is used with direct object have taken your eye ...... the UE crown tr joins the UE crown V 101,10-11; you

'he has reached his nome

he has merged with his sanctuary' VII 3,1;

have united with it VI 307,10; in the temple descriptions you le

'he has

joined the two landslor you(pun on W-plant - rnnht cloth 'r-

as one'VII 80,13-14 ; or cloth presentation) , united -tr I 3bt I consort with

dt. k it joins your body VII 99,9; also

V 37,16 (after Fairman, ASAE 44 p.269). the akhef q 0=6 Followed by Uie-: the Ennead, their bas join q7 join one 5,10. Followed by m-'b the king r pR = 4J the other V 101,7-8; his ba with

with their images 1368,15; the two crowns 4bs. f joins with his image Marn. 1


70,14-15 (a parallel type text in III

172,11 has the verb sm3 here).

Also possibly: in Ta-Ihet whereOsiris is god him thereVI 21,2.


snt.f Ist im his sisterIsis consortswith

At Edfu in im3 the idea or uniting or merging is often predominant,but the compoundim3-ib of the nuanceof im3 'be pleasant,friendly'. For im3 = unite c f. de Wit CdE 36, retains some No.71,1961 p.281 trans.; 'Gutbub-Textesp.496 n.4 whereim3 is listed with sm3 , ILnrn etc.


im3-ib Pleasant of heart Wb 179 (17-23) As an epithet, Otto [GuM p.32] includes this with 3ms-lb, but from the examples in Wb im3-ib is attested later than 3ms-ib [Janssen, Autobiografie II p. 10-11 and I p.2 E 13m by itself in autobiographies is a quality of people concerned with their relationship to other people and in particular to their brothersand immediate family].

Examples: Nfin-Amun-Hor
glad at seeing Ihy 1141,4; Ptah 6' "a

A the king 1390,15; Wosret

Or your heart is glad at the incense1498',10.

her heartis

Plural : for hearts '5. Osiris, '&

Y. 6ffof -

1286,1 everyone


V of everyone 93,10-11;for

hearts the horizongodsarefriendly for you 1205,7. of


glowing light Wb 180 (9) D.18

/ The word Im3w determined with

Praise of Amosis has sbpr

occursquiteoften from the 18thD. onward: Urk.IV 15,14

; Urk. IV 1847.16 = TT 58 Khaemhet'O full moon people


s9p n

Ostr. Kairo 2508 VAS 38 p.27-281 Hymn to the sun god Y--; of the sun.

see by his light and BD 15.19 electrurn is not like, At Edfu this use continues : lotus text, 'May you see

q. qq

his lighe (of the sun child) V R\ light IV 34,14.

84,16 ; in the Mendes nome, as the living ram HB shines with Adamagedtext: hymn to HB 4Sk", R

1140,12 and possibly HB lq


IV 318,11 It occurs at Dendera:

4M WiD 1147,10 everyone by light ofqT and sees

M D 11194,1 at Esna 265,3 Lumi6e,ASAE71,1987 67). and ;Vp. 256n.a [EI Sayed p. There alsoa wordim3w (Wb180,16-17 whichis redcolourandredcloth[c f. LA 11119 is NK) SAK 1,1974, p.124-5 des which may be as early as the 6th D. [Mquier,Tombeaux

de A Cairo1929 39 figA31where is particuliers contemporains PepiII, FouiHes Sakkareh, there a p. qf bundle clothoffered labelled Theideaof redbeingtheglowof thesun, of as accounts im3w'glowing ligheandfittingly in theBookof theDead name Re for im3w 'red'becoming the of
is said to be written down on a palette 1to, ,c 'red Spell 148 Budgetranslates coloue .


[Budge, BDp. 366.51but Allen rendersit as 'green ink' deriving it from W

tree [Allen, BDp. 140].


Wb 180 (14) GR 1339,17

The priestess I OthUE nomeis in


back bone, spinal cord Wb 181 (11) Cr

This is the writing for the sign

The which representsthe spinal cord [so GG p.465 F391.,

meaningis confirmedin ZAS 47 p.126ni W pr m psd Wsir 'the marrowor spinalcord comes forth from the backbone Osiris' Lefebvretakesthis word as the 'moellepini4e' [Tableau31 of at p.301.It is still in existence Edfu : at the slaying of foes nwd q-, of the onedisloyal to

him andnwr the heartsof him far from his roads'so the spinalcord is cookedalongwith othermeat An in this text IV 235,17-18. MSS note in the Liverpool University volumehas roastsmentioned this M bZT = mht intestineshowever. above


vAx of incense An. Lex. 78.0328

At Edfu : censing tet



is broughtbeforeyou (Horus) 111 133,9,a word which also . '. D VHI 116,14.

appears Dendera at


0 D 1135,4andprobably,

im3h w

oneprovidedfor in theafterlife Wb 182 (1-12) OK

The im3h had a tomb, funerarymealsand was allowed to enter the fizavenlyuniverse.The title the of assures patronage the king by the gods,and officials by the king [c f. Garnot,Mmakh et les Melun, 1942especially 30-32W in the Pyramidtexts in particular]. Imakhous, p. At Edfu this is an epithetof gods(Wb 182,17-20): Atum is Khepri in the morning,Re at midday and (5 4 in the evening, 282,13;Heh sinks in the west as VU and risesin

the east11149,13 wine offering, Atum is ; themein the pehuof the 8th LE nome,Horusis

in Behdet1295,2 Continuingthe solar . M4 10 the who reaches night andis bom in the


morningIV 28,6; HB is

at night 1128,3; Khonsu


ps at the Full

1 255,13. Protector gods : in the nameof a minor god ir ILrw.f mn m moon 195,2. Wepwatyw: 'You shinefor us as kat theFull Moon' 1255,5 . a

Usedas a verb (Wb 181,13-15): in an amulettext, Horusgrantsthe king in returndiJ J) I cause to be prepared 111179,5. you For the eyesignreadingMH no.17 - 25.

The idea of the im3h being old seemsto suggest that it is an old personwho has had all the his of necessary preparations madefor him, to ensure rebirth,this is the solarinterpretation this word.

imi-tw between Wb 176 (3-8) by GG 177from D.18canbe preceded r or m. JunkerGrD 197'between, under, in'. The word spelled at Edfu, which may readimi-tw, is usedin two waysat Edfu : (a) as a

synonymof m almost,but in circumstances among'is indicated: Maat where literally 'between, makesher place on your brow Oit. betweenyour horns) 1206,17 ; the king makesa

4Tet-M the slaughter e-f- 'wt 'in/among'animals111188,10; king stands sb3 betweenthe fT doors of this place VI 102,7; the wind blows e, between(in)the two heavens 11141,2 the lotus child comesforth ; smw.f from his plants (the leavesof the

lotusperhaps beingcompared VI with the thighsof thesky goddess) 247,13. More definitely m: the king is the sunin (m) Egypt andmoon Sityw 1196,10;Maat e KhemmisVI Mehenet

tec-% imy-st-'. k is in your heartIV 76,5; Horus comesfrom the horizon 138,4; foesare slain 'eVI 140,7(paralleltext VI 141,9has T wsht I Mesen118.5;

tp. k IV 52,13;HB makeshis placefk

JAm 'her 'Hor'uscomesforth (b) Between: HB isinheaven thigh'sIV 2,11; .e thighs11150,9 NekhbetandWadjetmak their place ; + 90



between your browsIV 52,13.In is between themIV

= e the templedescription chambers the eastand west 2. GreatPlace to 5,10; temple in SWO

(qbbwy) IV 10,10; people,he kills the betweenthe two sources jr-imi-tw) who are among
'th emIV15,8-




Also imytw

r before X and Y: lands of Horus .......


Nlsn ---- sn.n%%-. between NIescn i arc

and its fellow VI 8,10.


who / what is in Wb 172 (13) ff. Old.

GG 79 and 80 and Junker GrD 93-95 for prepositions made into adjectives. -y Spellings at Edfu f C=' fq .0 ty--passim. e.g. a canal of a nome brings passim =! L VI 20.1 IV 14,1. what is in it IV 41,5.

Plural forms

When the plural form is applied to people 'those who are in', it can have the added meaning I 'inhabitants' (c. f. Wb 172,13 sing. ). for example in specific cases : - I, C inhabitants of Mesen

III 3,16; '. 10,6;



f C (b unite with Wetjeset IV. 11,9 141

people of BehdetII

4M C-3

IV 24,2.


priests in their month (of service) Wb 172 (21) and Wb 165 (6) under ibd

This phrase occurs often from at least the Nfiddle Kingdom to designate the ordinary priests of the temple who served on a rota basis in month long stints with a break of three months before their next term of service [ERE X p.298]. At Edfu this word for the priests occurs in descriptions of the temple staff :e *c tr, ', V 7,1. & &o 40


name of a mythical snake

The secondconstituent this word, ', is probablythe sameas that in Wb 1159 (12) " 0 [and of OMRO 51 pA2 n.1] which is an'evil'condition orbad influence.At Effu the seenoteof Borghouts, imy-1 was 'onein an evil state'thusa serpent. the templedescription: Mesendestroys In i

WV1- 2,3 andin the stairwayprocession priests the buff standard IV drivesawaybadthingssuchas of 1557,12. in Theremay alsobe an example the litany to Sakhmet, is calledon to drive away4- she 'O.'M of this yeae

I [Sakhmet 94 VI 267,15.Germond however,


the n.521suggests example wnm-'t reads


'devourer of limbs' and suggests that it could be a word for leprosy'.


palette Cauville.RdE 38,187p.186

Literally 'what is in the hand!,the term occursin paletteoffering textsin GR temples

90,8 , 111190.11


VII 127,12,createdto give more choice to the

of composer the texts.

imy-wnwt observer the hour of

This is the priest at Edfu who gives the signal for ceremoniesto begin and indicates to the workmen in the temple when they should begin to preparethe offerings for the rituals. At Esna he is called the b3q-pt and he seems to have watched the sky in order to ascertain the correct time for rituals to begin, thus S%mneron called him 'le pr8tre astronome' [K6mi 15,1959 p. 3641]. In the temple regulations +I 'ec" calls to those who are in the gn' workshop to prepare food VI 346A. The

title is in fact known from the end of the New Kingdom [Wild, BIFAO 69,1970 p. 121-51.

imy-wr priestly title of the king

The king has this title when he brings the god to his meal parallel with bm-gmos [Ibrahim, Kingship pp. 134-51. VI 305,10 and is

imy-wrt west,right side Wb 173 (6-13) OK FCD 18west,right asyou sail upstream starboard ,

(right hand)'side a boat (opposite t3-wrt) In origin this is a naval term meaningthe starboard to of [Jones, Glossaryp.2591and it cameinto generaluseas a word for the right handor westernsideof L -At where somethingCc Cerny, A Communityof Workmenp.100-1011. Edfu the word describes in relation to one another: Xtyt'br wnmtIJm parts of the temple are the sanctuaryfive chambersmf

OnO IV 5,4 ; from

jx =w C::

not vary greatly : c=

43, mU-.


VI 171,1 t

IV 5,7 In otherdescriptions also,spellingsdo . da t VI 172,1 -1574,5. Dw

wa of Re

It can also describe the position of people/gods in relation to one another': lboth


VI 329,5.
This use of the phraseis from the GR period.


He who is in Pe. priestly title

Ibrahim concluded that, despite its apparent geographical preference for Pe, this was a title which did not belong to either Upper or Lower Egypt alone. Here p is a more general word for 'throne'. indicating the temple as the throne of god, so this is a general title [Kingship pp. 135-61. It is held by the king in m33-nir : 13 0' 1 IV 55,4, t9 VI 245,15-16 and htp-di-nsw offering

k 1C371, VII 61,4 and miscellaneousofferings, iht upon the altar: +jkS. v f9a' 1c, * VII 74,10-11; gns bread IV 223,2-3 and in a scenewith no title but concerned 31 with entering the temple: 17 t 1301 111163,7.

E, V281,1;


those in the water, aquatic animals Wb 174 (7) D. 18

This collective term for aquatic animals in general is first attested from Amarna VI 15 and in the Edfu texts is a negative term to indicate the water dwelling Sethian foes of Horus, that is the crocodiles and hippopotami. It occurs quite frequently in appropriate contexts such as the harpoon offering texts, killing the crocodile or hippopotamusor casting the harpoon at the hippopotamus.The

is determinative mostoften a crocodile,in crocodileslayingtexts:f.,

1114,1 -, in the Myth texts VI 79,10


IV211,10-11; VI 81.2 ; in

teE+= IV 74,15-16; IV 74,7; harpoontexts: IV 230,8but -9C" 11 --iLwIlli 1 t, , -=]V11202,8; tieto -- 54- V11292,11 herethe hippopotamus bethe determinative: can file, and in sty-r-h3b : w+ ' IV 214,6.Without determinafives: =' it I V 154,15 VII 238,11;hymn to HB IV 212,6(croc. ) 1381,2.With


f Call

IV 212,7;harpoon-'

both determinatives e. :

VI 239,5[JEA 29 p.31 (19) cites VI 229,5 incoffectly MD IV 24,8. terrified.

tl (I

directly or In thesetextsthe imyw-mw aredrivenaway,slaughtered


those in the flood


A harpoon presentationtext at Edfu has the imy. mw paralleled with IV 74,16. A crocodile text also has hftyw-imy-nwy U

W, +,


'foe in the flood'

: t= -^--% xxdriven away IV 374,8 . This may be read

and seems to be synonymous with imyw. mw.

imy-U white crown see under h3t ,


ancestors,forerunners Wb 174 (19-2 1) Pyr.

is Thosewho areat thebeginning a description ancestors from theearliesttimesandstill in usein of the Edfu texts : in a Maat offering, Horusand Hathorarereferredto as shmw, Ddw and :Greatof Placein Mesen VH 255,10.Theyaretheoriginalancestors originalcreators Maat, of and in h-, their presence this text. nce


epithet of Thoth he who is in Ashmuncin IV 14,8.


imy-Dnt he who is to the front priestly title , Wb 175 (1) Pyr. Originally the imy-bnt is thoughtto be the man who dressed king and looked after the royal the insignia [Pyr326a] and it was thereforea seculartitle with a religious complementin Iun-mutef [GardinerJEA 39,1953 p.26-27]. By extension title was given to priestsassociated the with royal for the and who wereresponsible thedeadking'sadornment thento priestswho adomed cults mortuary III gods [Bissingand Kees,Re-Heihgtum p.23-4 57-8 Gardiner,AEO 123* Ibrahim, Kingship this p.136-7; GuM p.69 and 100 ; ERE X 30921 Gardiner(op.cit.) translates as 'he who is in front' of and Gauthierindicatedthat the counterpart this title is imy-ht lie who comesafter' [Personnel p.60-631. At Edfu it is a title of the king in scenes arrangingofferingson the altar: of 219,10 + VI 255,5 ,a t. Cr drty IV

form uniqueto Edfu . Thereis a further variation, imy-hnt

is applied,,not the king, butl to Thoth in two scenes stp-s3 chamberlainof the palaceand this


connectedwith the crowning of the king, so this seemsto go back to the original secular meaning of the epithet: fd 'k 41 C-Wl 187,11 ,n stp-s3 1 393,2.

imyw-ht followers, retinue W (4-6) Wb 175 (2-6) and Wb 111347 This designatesin general priests who attend or serve the gods or the king. In the temple description the servants and praise Horus IV 15,4; in a procession , the lunmutef priest censesthe it a U-191- I c. A y'his followers IV 51,4 In a .

gods protecting the king and sprinkles incense on tp-di-nsw the offerings are divided out f6r f


attendants 1189,6 . In this case it your

in generaland seemsto have becomea generalterm which was used in the plural. refers to priests

imyw. jlt that which is in the belly . intestines entrails , Wb 175 (7-8) Pyr. (alsoreadmIlt) as Of This is a late variationpossiblybased an erroneous'-reading mILtw (Wb 11135,4) imy-11t. on Gardinersuggests that this word is removedor with mlit [AEO 11252*-3*]. crossreferenced

Lefebvrenotesthat it is not a medicalterm but is usedin religious texts [Tableau41 p.35]. The the Edfu exampleis in fact opento doubt: Horusis a falconwho slayshis foesandtastes taste 'to /r-of his entrails,(or 'his followers'?) IH 179,6.

imy-%nwt Wb IV 498 (5) This is usedas part of the nameof i which canalsobe readas imy-s3lwt 'who is in

bonds'[so Blackman,JEA 31,61 after Setheand69,89; also ASAE 43,267 n3l and mostrecently imy-t3tyw 'Horusin the prow' or evenwnm-h3tyw 'who devoursmeatpieces'[so E.Bresciani as In FrJ)aumas1,Montpellier 1986p.87-941. the oldestattestations this god, his priests of in Homm. interpretation his name.The cult lend weight to the moreanatomical of werephysicianswhich may in the 9th UE nomenearSohagand he wasparticularly invoked in 'magical centreof this god was of texts'to destroyevils in his bodily form of a crocodileor falconor combination the two. At Edfu Horusimy-Ynwt is usuallyconnected with a fiery brazier: in the festival text. a damaged L ": fe'et R beforeOsiris V 399,5; Bastetrips out enemyhearts line mentionsthe 'b brazierof


N Q -: fT e-Pand puts them on the brazier of Wee-e-

VI 156,1; a protection spell has 'h-pfy n

in the morning VI 149,13 [Jankukn, Schutz renders this 'Horus beim Abschlachten shining fWe- e I 9hceVI 55,15; ot

95 and p.971. Other texts also imply that he burns foes :W p.

VI 149,11-12 and in a library text, there is a scene(P1.82west) which shows the king stabbing his foes who are in the brazier in 111347,2.This appearance the library and in the t 0ewith Hr-nmt Wte

9 his role in magic, and in the Book of rth-p't : "! protection ritual stresses

to destroy enemies VI 235,6. There is a further damaged line which has go out associatedwith EB VI 55,6.

Whatever the true reading of this name, it is possible that the Egyptians themselveshad forgotten [c.f. Van de Walle in LA III p.47-48 ; Sauneron BEFAO 69,1970 p. 53-58 ; ZAS 64,1929 pp. 107-112].

, Blackmantook it as a word for a trussed bull, hence'in his beforeyou VII 148,10. up chopped up be bonds'[JEA 31,69,851. It may however an erraticspellingof wndww , thusa type of sacrificial bull.

Thereis also a writing in a bull slaughtering text, wherethe king brings to HB


-4z; 3


heart Fairman, ZAS 91,1964 p.4-5

Wb notes (Wb 175,13) imy-st-1 is a name for an ornament and there is an example on a MK sarcophagus t- -i Drsd [Lacau, Sarc. Ant. NE II p.57 = Kairo 280921 . It is not a medical of

[not in Lefebvre] and occurs often at Edfu as a general word for 'hearf. It is a place for Maat term 4* i-A 111132,4;(ei 'toy' IV 76,5 ; sim. Hu and Sia put C""J V U v of the king in its 'box' z'7 VI

in its proper place IV 310J. while Hathor makes the heart balanced ('q3) (chest) 111189,14 It is aplace forrejoicing .

god VI 293,10-11; at seeing

M. 31,20 but in the case of enemies hearts are stabbed (bbhb) if they rebel, 178,7. The word alsoappears in amulet texts : Is-wA3 the king establishes 64,5 and,in a m'nh offering: this amulet makes excellent on the Middle Kingdom coffin may thus be a heart amulet. object

IcO7' the god's heart VII the heart IV 141,4. The


The word is also used at Dendera throughout GR temples.

157 'U- CD 111137.16-17and may have been widely used


a tide , acolyte

Wb 175,12

FCD 19)

in An imy-st-' who wassomeone servicein a temple.They usuallyhadmenialdutiesbut at Edfu MDAIK 25 can havea more importantrole [von Rlnel, Sekhmet 136and notes; de Meulenaere, p. AV P.951: -V -1 - performtheir dutiesin the daily ritual VI 346,3andbum incense =J t7

V 346,6.Literal meanings also differ 'thosein the placeof the hand''writing tablef 'sufferers' [Gauthier, Personnel 36-38]. p.


what is in the breast - heart

f: Q, 'My heart rejoices at what you have done', a temple building text 11 Horus says : msh (L


imy-IfsM t foes Slaying text: thekingis themaster theland of 143,4. 9 lands V andheroin all foreign


or mr Overseer

Wb 1194(5-13) DG 165,5
A in

Cr. 148a ; CED 75 KH 74 .

Ibis title from the administrative sphere appears often in epithets of the king at Edfu. It emphasises his role in the government of Egypt and at the same time makes him answerable to the gods for his performance of the various posts compounded with imy-r. Though the title started as imy. r it

of to mr andat Edfu hasa number spellings: abbreviated

Pr -0-35,



overseerof fields VII 86,2-3 IV 291,5 10,1 '-

In stt offerings the king is -$m" A IV 282,4 1111 11149,1 and in a wine text he is like

ShuVII 86,6 ; "-, of

PIV 312,14 ; '-T rA

great in fields and land VII 267,11-12. Ibis

refers to the 'feeding' role of the king - who provides the food for the gods, in the same way as Shu supplies the god's offering table, thus Shu is also imy-r 3ht [Blackman, JEA 31 p.681. The king inherits the duties and the title from Shu [Cauville, RdE 32,1980 p.50 n.221,

imy-r 3bt Overseer of the horizon The king is the excellent manifestation of (that is HB) IV 278,16.

imy-r Btdt Overseer of Behdet Ibrahim, Kingship p. 166-167 The king as V 74,15. 910'kof Behdet(tp-di-nsw) VII 61,3 and the king is like-24 2'o (ms-nbw)

imy-r niwt overseer of a city Otto, GuM p. 129 ff. Ward, Admin. p-31 This title often occurs with s3b t3iti 13ty and it is concerned with the upholding of NWt. A city governor would have been expected to be responsible for solving disputes and sorting out problems fairly. When applied to the king, his niwt is all of Egypt and he is the high official here and perfect example of an official. The title is applied to the king in Maat presentation scenes 195,10; `91 'k who is not biased VII VIlil22, ON l2; 15 -2;


, 59,1; e-: !

V 187,14;






Mam. 27,7. The king can alsobe

his called'sonof the overseer the city ' perhaps strengthen claims to legitimaterule : Maat to, of X -T -%aIl 4,16. - 02 - HI 143,9;-., -=> Also in usethroughout temples. GR


imy-r hmw-njr

Overseer of prophet priests

Otto, GuM p. 131-132; Ibrahim, Kingship p. 168-170 ; Ward, Admin. p.35 The king has this priestly title as the highest priest in Egypt when he performs ordinary daily rituals such as pr-r-rd r hwt-nlrw a of all gods 125,3 ; 'q r bw dsr -I// Of VI 241,2 ; m33 nir 2 Tof IV 55,5; gods and goddesses167,5-6 ; 'q of Behdet IV 71,11;


'1) t', VII 137,15; sn-0-2=t.

in the placeof sn-t3 VII 193,11;

121111 if j

111164,6; of godsand goddesses 1161,5 IV of the Ennead 250,1;-2ac

N IT of the falcon IV 56,1; ir-snir VII 258,34 also ir-snLr qbhw

of Per Wer andPer Neser185,12; VII 52,2 ; wine Tanen111132,1 sp-lnh ; V

1482,11 Purifying, with incense 111129,8 Maat ; -2. of

VIII 44,18 ; nis-dbhw -!N. 0

to ; of PeandMesen111170,15Proceeding Mesen t1i & 11123,10. of the divine winged disk 111163,7 ; various

In the library where one would expect the high priest to have knowledge of the books in it, here too A21 is 111351.6.In the priestly processionson the stairways, the king the king is

of PerWer andPerNeser1559,9.
There is a further embellishment of the title :V1 the king is the highest of high priests 1430,1. The role of the imy-r mw-njr is described in the stairway texts: he brings of incense and a burner before the god, with which he purifies the god :, with a vessel The temple

21 '1 111 ' ' 125.3 and. =5' - -c=o

11570.1-3. description lists an order of priests at Edfu which may actually reflect reality in the temple smrw, 3ty-'then w'bw , '3w , rhyw-iht, W. ti m b3w-R' VII w 10 4,4-5.

References for the reading : ZAS 79 1954 p.76-77 ; JEA 41 1955 p. 121-2 ; ZAS 8 1, p.9 = DG , , 165 ff. and Cr. 143b.

imy-r Bclt Overseer Behdet of Ibrahim,Kingshipp.166-7 The king hasthis title in offering presentations someof the daily rituals. It is the equivalentof and


w'b-iqr and may be connectedwith UE Behdet,thus has a more UE emphasis. Scenes : htp-di-nsw ,

V 281,1-1 ; VII 61,4 : Is-iht -b



IV 219,10

t(restored) VII 74,10; ; ms-'nhw -

V 74,15; 'and bouquets

ne -9'66 VI 58,14-15. In the

64,17, burning 'ntyw the king is -Pia , ',, qD

IV 121,12; m33-nir who is called mn

VI 72,13. Also IV 206,1 and


imy-r hnty-9 Overseer the lands of V Ibrahim,Kingshipp.171 This applies to the king in agricultural rites : rnpwt 209,15, c f. nb hntyw-Y. V
of the Horus lands VII

imy-r st-hnt Overseer of the foremost place Ibrahim, Kingship p. 172-4 ; Otto, GuM p. 132-3 ; Ward Admin. pA2 , Alliot translates 'chef de Uminent si6ge' [Culte I p. 131, Otto 'overseer of the illustrious

place'[op.cit. ] and becauseit often appearsin incenseofferings , the st-hnt may be a type of incense W workshop. At Dendera Room E is called st-tnt. At Edfu the king has this title in ir-snir 96,14-15; 1 -d cam N 111133,15; a scenes

4-dn1d 156,12-13; :
IV386,6; -d

IV307,16; -2;-Acr

VI 93,7; ---T 9 In VIII 57,10; snir-qbhw

VI 296,17;

VIII 66,2 also rdit-ntyw 1289,I0-II; -2;:, -Je*

on the fireAJ,,


IV 259.1.

Purifying everything which comes into the temple but connected with incense offerings: 1570,15-17; The title imy-r 1135,34 *, 17 .4'.

C-3 4' 11150,4. In sceneswith no title, ' 128,11; 'VIII 96,9 . 1559,10;

st-bnt is usually connected with purification and also with the mortuary and

ancestorcults. Ibrahim suggestedit was a LE title (or at least was held by the king while performing LE rites) but this does not explain the determinative st which is held in some cases.It is parallel

to iri-I and occurs also at Dendera Kom Ombo,and Kasr el Aguz. Sauneronsuggestedthat it may be , connected with imy-r st, a common administrative title'and person who managedplaces connected


[BIFAO 63 p.84]. st-bnt is moreimportantthenst, for it is the pre-eminent with food preparations place,the house godandhis sanctuary, thattherole of priestandadministrator of so merge.

imy-r %nwt overseer of the granary Ward, Admin. p.49 storekeeper the granary of
In a scene for the presentation of md ointment, the king is called s3 'who holds out his C3

arms bearing offerings' IV 122,13. In the'tw-bsw

ceremony the king is called

n IV C-j

242,8 [also D 11169,9].The title emphasises control over food and provisions that the king has. the



Wb 173 (20) to 74 (5) Pyr. LA 111141-145 Literally imyt-pr is 'that which is in the house',attestedfrom the 4th Dynasty,in particularthe Inscriptionof Metjen It is a legaltermfor the list of possessions a personwhich couldbe handed of . down to his heir. It was important in mortuaryrituals to expressthe hand over of property to a legitimateheir, but in the royal sphere imyt-pr contained, theoretically, list of all the areas the a of Egypt and the inhabitantsthereAt was given to the king by his divine 'fathers' and at Edfu it itself is an the and establishes king as the legitimateheir of his ancestors the gods.In the sanctuary important scene: where Horus gives to the gods Philopator(PtolemyIV and Arsinoe) 1 I and

31,18-32,9. Horuspresents The text then emphasises that it entails.In the actualscene all

Ptolemywearsa fringedrobe [pl.11]. In offeringritualsthe imyt-pr is perhaps uniquefor it canonly be offered 4 god IQ the king, thus the title of the ritual is Up imyt-pr JCIV

from its lord,

holder(or roll of Horus1170,11-13. 23b showstheking with theRedcrownreceivinga document PI. papyrus t from BB ; 9sp the 't with Nekhbetbesidehim 1296,18-297,9, king kneels ZP7. U This sceneis in the Chapelof the from BB [PI.29b = XI 3181. to the king, so the physicalsignsof kingship

underthe im3 tree to receive

is Throneof Re and the parallelscene offering to arehanded the king, in this chapelof kingship.

The imyt-pr is found often at Edfu in textsconcerned with the right of the king to rule : the dead
gods hold out ir-3 ', -IT

to their heir IV 122,15,also

IV 123,1.Thoth can also be

involved as he grants kingship and the ci

which he gave to his son Shu, then to Geb, then


to Osiris, who made Horus VIII 148,5-9. The text then sets out the geneaological connections and tT links the king (Horus) directly to Re. In the Hermopolitan nome as Thoth, Horus ir Wp.f Or E of his father - perhapswith the implication that Thoth wrote the document IV 33,14.
+ C-3 I

In other traditions the imyt-pr comes from other sources : Aturn gives = Z-,, J-3 king receives the + L! 53,15; HB is ruler of VIII 148,10 ; the i'oj (Osiris) 1128,6; rules the imyt-pr

to the king IV of Wenn-nofer

4Tc. 3T of Shu VIII --,


23,7-8. Some texts indicate the contents of the 1503,8-9 and HB rules

: Khepri gives the two halves of t3-mrt withfin


f everything that exists in + ""I living king: c-- C-3

o=, 111 %

1292,17. The end result is that it is the possessionof the

held in his hand VIII 102,7.

The testament is primarily mentioned in scenesconnected with the ancestor cult (censing scenes, Ennead texts, md ointment) or texts connected directly with the kingship (for example Maat offerings).

n. f imy

possession GG 114 no.4 and 113,3

To show possession,still in use at Edfu:,, -32,5-6.

'His is the whole circuit oi the sun disle VII


negative verb Wb 176 (10-13) Pyr. GG 342 cC JunkerGrD 286

Also in usearchaicallyat Edfu, mostoftenin negative wishes.In Maat texts,the king is joined with hq= er: saysto w'wl56,1; 9TJI Horus, qr%---Po

w w'May you not be alone'HI 131,16An the Myth Isis

'Alay you not be weariedbecause him' VI 73,5-6. of sbm im. f 'Do not prevail against

an. In the plural : to the messengerdemons of the gods qT, t,

him (king)I'VI 133,4.


iw IV 49,14.

Wb 176 (14) to 77 (8) imperative rdi of ,


DG 150,16)1- 3 my give p.30 also Cr.155b; CED77; KH85 M6, GG 336, 315 338.2,452,1 JunkerGrD 160

Usedat Edfu in the text describingthe dismemberment Seth: 'Give his foreleg (etc. to sucha ) of place!': VI 85,1 .2qq t_ '3w VI 242,2.


Wb 178 (8-10) OK - NK

This word is found in the Edfu texts. Though originally it could apply to transport or cargo boat on the river, it later became a term for merchant ships and even foreign ships and warships I[Jones, Glossary p. 1291.In fact it becamea general term for 'boaf [ZAS 68,1932 p.81. At Edfu it is used in a text describing the festivals at Behdet, where the text notes who is in which

boat-. qT the first of ADOAo' boathasoverseer the houseof theking V 126,8

has the overseer of the seal and UE singers the singers are in the .9; Edfu. 10. If a word for boat is spelled I qT-Nd'A. boat

the second
of the b3ty-' of

then it is not always possible to see if it is wi3, dpt, or lmw.


mouming , grief

Wb 177 (14-15) MK from the OK in someof the Harper'sSongsq A nounand verb for 'mourning'attested =

2h: q. ,

'do not mourn I' [Altenmuller,SAK 6.1978 p.17 n.35] and from the MK in religioustexts [CT 1

215] and in Literary ones[Admon.5,5] It occursin the Edfu texts too : when Sethis captured by . Horus is 'the noiseof his lamentation in the southern sky' VI 67J.

Tefnut says, The verb is usedin the Sokarchamber (Wb 177,12),the mourninggoddess 'We mournfor you' 1201,13andin line 9 the mourners glorify your ba with 3h that suggesting Osiris couldonly become if he wascorrectlymourned. W mourning,


to hide Wb 183 12)to 84 (3) Pyr.


This verb is used as in Wb : Reflexive use : the creator god 10,14 ; BB is hides himself from the one who createdhim III

one who hid himself from his children (in 6th LE nome) IV 25,17. rrn w3d plant IV 36,1; ////fl in Nun IV 22,12.

Object introduced by in : roadsa With h3 : to

from Seth VI 21,3.

imn-dt to describe the Nile flood and emphasisethe mysterious nature of the inundation [Van der Plas, Crue p.641 the Nile 477,12; 1486,14 ra-Q .a hides his bod,.,(the earth) to make the fields of the king grow I qr-!3 Irl? 77 1163,10. In the tree and viper that is, buries

1112,14 also ; 11261,6-7 also

is4g, '-. Horus nome , him VI 286,13-4.

IV 41,12 Also Horus hides the body of his father .

Other bodily forms : the temple is made to

bpr of the god IV 13,3.

imn-shrw 'to hide plans', the idea of a hidden destiny prescribed by the gods and known only by them : Horus gives the heart of the king sbrw hiding plans IV 55.8

from his enemies (Isis does this) VI 21,2; possibly the king, great of might, presentsm3'-brw to If 0 e- 1559,4-5 It is most often an epithet of Khonsu (the moon) :q . rq -4,- j 0) =w of

Wetjesetl480,11; 1256,13; I262,15; 1275,16; 1280,13 and Horus1248,3 [c.f. GuMp.21]. In puns,especiallywith the nameof Amun 1w of the ancestors Amun hidesthemV 63J.

Amun who hideshis nameIV 35,15;

To hide the tomb: the calvesaredriven to 19-

trt nb hide every tomb 1 102A.


hidden ones Wb 184 (4-6) Pyr.

l1r. f In an epithetof HB4R Ii mosthiddenof the hiddenones(gods)1350,13.


priestly title Wb 184 (7) GR

In the 4th LE nome,HB performsthe dudesof of carryingthe standard 7th LE nonleis called

priest 1331,2 and also a priest MD IV 31.



mysteries, hiddenknowledge Wb 184 (8-9) MK-GR

This word is used at Edfu in the epithet hr-imnw 'one who seesthe hidden things' and it is applied to the king : the great h3ty-' IEB II-&L 1 in the Great Place 1558,15; W Ynbt 0- Z=-3,iY I 0

who hides his belly at seeing the sacred place 1570,17.


IEdden Place, underworld Wb 184 (13) NK GR

c f. 6, MN Te

usually said to be from imntt the west. CED 6 Cr.8b ; KH 6, DG 31,4 may simply be pun writings of imntt

The examples of this word imntt determined by ',a

wese, 'the land of the hidden ones'. It is attestedfrom the NK [Zandee,Death p.310 ff. ] and Gauthier took it to be a separateterm [DG 1751, which is probably correct, but the possibilities of punning

T Ihides would not be lost on the compilersof the texts: a minor delty Neb-shernu9
in the hidden place IV 241,5; the dead gods give the king die length of lifetime they spent in 4N'r e!! WO IV 84,7; they are buried in dead gods of Edfu are masters (hry-tp) of IV 84,2 and go to 49 Qj wo


in Weben-Hor (84,1) The .

V 63,16 and Re orders they are to be hidden in

VII 118,12. of these libation andincense All texts,so the useof are mortuaryofferingimnt as the underworld is clear. That it can be regardedas different from the 'west! in general is found where Osiris is Lord of the West who constructs 9-"3 04, r, %n for his mummy I

174,7, suggesting that imntt is an artificially created underworld or tomb as opposed to the natural

areaof thewesL


western Wb 186 (15-19) Pyr. /, XS II DG 31,3 Cr.56a; CED35; KH35 C-MWT

As an adjective: barqueof Re sailsto


1115,12 L above (c




Wb 186 (3-14)andimntt Wb 187 (1-13) OK

Orthographiesat Edfu : 'a la"" VI 190,17.

IV 16,3;

IV 329,15;



IV 19.9;

imntyw people of the west = the dead Wb 186 (20-22) Pyr. Gauthier, DG I p.75 The W-rdis used as in Wb: as the sun god BB goes through die underworld to light up the westernersVH 81,9 ; in the underworld he brightens the faces of sinks (rests) in the west,. f. 71..1, II rejoice at him V 56,14 . +Ii IV 24 a; when Re


right handside Wb 186 (2) Pyr.

Wb gives only ex=ples from Pyr. 1253m-imnt 'on the righe. At Edfu howeverimnt is the in to complement Obt in the templedescriptions indicatethe relaiive positionsof chambers the of temple. I IV 5,4 IV 5,11.

Spellings : ityt hr ]A Y-.


nameof a sacredsnake Wb 187 (14) GR

Wb has two examples of this snake, from Geog.Pap. pl. 10 frag. 13 LE nome, the sacred serpenthere is fittingly called IM a


and in the 3rd



milk lpn

r" -0 This word occursat Edfa in a text wherethe Wryt cow is brought, thereis given'12L,, I

iry. pbt. s 'that milk (thosehiddenthings ?) of her uddeeIV 45,15. In this contextimnw may hint powers this milk from agoddess-cow. at the mysterious of




A.Lex. 77.0306
The word for hoe most resembling this is Wb 1198 (11) mr. t, which is effectively the sign -4Z' There is evidence however that later it was read (if not at all times) as imr. t The only example .

cited by Wb is the Tanis sign papyrus[XVIH,41.

qe'' but in fact thereis largelacunabefore a

the word, so in fact it is imp4ible to seeif this is the entire word. Earlier CT VI I= Sp.472 has the instruction to the Shabtis, 13 nAn q 4:-->v- An nnAn Take your imrt .0 its
c:: 3 '-',

? and your picks' [so

Faulkner FECT II p. 106 and p. 107 n.9 isrt 'the translation 'pick' is a guess' ; see also Schneider, Shabtis 154 na 170 253 n.25]. Whatever it is there is a parallel to it at Edfu, in a text for hb-t3 , , 'digging up the earth' : the king 'who holds and destroys with the Pnn pick' III

167,1, so the two words occur together again. Fairman [ASAE 43 238 and 286 n.6] read cm as mr after confusion between = and 1 but no further examples of, C39: = mr are mentioned-

A Coptic word WE


by [Cr. E-Me 55b ; KH 35] waspostulated Crum [JEA 8 p.117] as coming

9 from A/gil [LSJ, p.82a- shovel] but if the Edfu andCT examples imr this would providethe = , for 2kMC-from Egyptiansources. etymology


to suck

Wb 188 (5) GR imh was studiedby Piehl [PSBA XX (3 May 189,8 195-71whonoted six examples Edfu ,I p.

The Wb took it as being a GR word but it occursearlier. Denderaand Philae and 2 unspecified). (line Assmann[MDAIK 28,1972 p.59 n.12] notedthe word on the sarcophagus coverof Merenptah 6) ) im. 1 'You suckleme and reportedan additionalexamplein TT 373 (Ram. in a unpub.

sunhymn, right, line 8

At Edfu, the term occursin milk offering textsmostly,andin the form of commands:Milk is in the udder of the Hr-sh3t cow W 453,1 and the milk is in the udder 4T r. k st Drink it 11 367A ;qr st Drink, it II

4'which the child in the nest sucks'I st nhn rn DAW'drinking the miW 111125,9-10

q TJ '*-L '*T hr. 67,16; the child seizing (3m) the breasts a milk alsoat Dendera In a wryt cow text,

nhn which the child drinks D 11104,1-2 MD 1137 W Dm.k bnrws, Your Majesty drinks her milk' HI 93,5-6 and at
I" 'I-


the mammisiof Hathor

At Philae I, 7


s m Ddw.s M. 95,8 . s3.

Hr-sh3t, here the objectOfthe verb are the breasts not the milk, of v this is a slight difference in use Bdnddite 100,13.Possibly too, Phill I Abb. 120 p.212,15 hr so A Ih9 of his mother Isis [ Junker readssm n]. Two examples have been noted at Esna too : 'My breastsare for you suckle thereat!Esna V p.202 No. 305,19 and -j *' No. 104,7. for you'to

The origin of the word is unclear. Sauneron, following Vycichl [BIFAO 64,1966 p. 8 n.421 between Dim.twoman'and semitic h-I-m c.f. halabto milk and halib'fresh suggesteda connection im was a descendant.More fruitful may be seeing the stem mt 'to seize! 'to miW etc. of which take'in the word (or even'to filr Wb H 119,5ff. and Wb 11116,6ff. respectively). The imperative of. is imh 'takel' [c L Coptic 4M k TFmh Cr.9a ; CED 7; KH 6 to grasp] and when a baby

suckles, it 'takes' the breast in its mouth , so this seemsmore likely to be the etymology of the word.


Wb 188 (1-4) BD D. 18

Like tp-t and even qrrt, imt is a word for a cavern in the underworld from where the Nile flows. It is illustrated in the Book of the Dead Chapter 149 [Nav.7b. I pl. 169] as the 6th mound The word appearsas early as the Coffin Texts IV 97g and 344c C-73'

'open the gates of the netherworld! [after Faulkner], so it is already in general use as a term for the

do underworldor part Of I Theseexamples not give specificinformationaboutthe imbt however. The term appears quite oftenin the Book of the Deadandin the Amduatimbt is part of theregionof 'Amd6at11 82 n.11]. [Homung, theunderworldin the'4thand5th hourof the Sokarland p. At Edfu, the flood water(srf) comesforth from H 242,11and'god'sefflux! usedto fill

-' TI` e broughtfrom the two legsof Imhet 11231.12 in in hr '4=0 ritual purification vessels . from the legsof lmheeH further'on'a door texL hapycomesfrom'Aturn in r e""brought 145,1' Allioi [Culte 1 15] treated'imhty as a name for Osiris, here thus assimli'ted with Osiris a [which is not impossible].Bonnethoweverdiscounted that this [MDAIK'14,141 and suggested the Atum','was'a referenceto the legendarysourceof the Nile it Babylon. In with cavernassociated io"Atum in Kher-Aha,the'Ennead StelaPiankhyline 101wherePiankhy%ffers and supportof this is




[Grimal, Pianchi p. 130 and p. 136 n.3981 Also in a further text at Edfu .

where Tboth and Horus purify the king 'I purify your majesty with this water which comes from Wr
Mq C= 0=

having come from Heliopolis on the eastern side' IV 52.2.

Tbere is also a solar connection in the phraseb%I-imt which occurs at Edfu, in the repeatedphrase in 'd boat r bwt-imht isatresthr 76q'--: kCF-3 lc, ' P-3 111209,5 111207,8; 3hw

111211,15which suggestthat imht again has western and underworld

connotations.Thus in the reciting of the funerary menu for the four children of Horus IV 153,15. imDt is a term for a cavern entrance to the underworld either for the sun, the dead or the Nile flood (c f. ZAS 98, p. 136 ) and Gauthier [DG 176-771 translates one who makes drinleso that imtt is . related to imht 'sucle, as a name of the underworld /cemetery at Memphis, Sakkara. 0


namefor Hathor? Wb 180 (13) Hathor

0 "b*V4H or on his head- hereit is the uraeus 3,14. The king, wears(carries)


-:riVI 159,13. Goyon treats this as a word for serpentand q q A\

'Me genieWen-Hedj drives away

Onomasticon, a list of fish includes a hapax [Gardiens p.59,3 1. In the Rarnesseurn

AEO III ILl no. 147 and AEO I p.9 which may well be the kind of creature which in later texts be regardedas impure, and the forerunner of Edfu imtw. would


preposition- agent, by Wb 189 (1-6) 1 DG 33 KH 486 AW

formsor infinitive. GG 168usedto express agentafterverbsin passive the The usual use of in at Edfu is after the infinitive : reciting the ritvjI q "' * by the Lord of by the king IV

qU AshmuneinIV 330,13;makingwhole the Houseof Eternity for its Lord


9,11, Sim. majesty

IV 331,9; setting out the foundation by his army V 2,1. nsw Troceeding by the king' IV 19,5.

by SeshatIV 19,14; Praising his

I Passive wdAw ID Stative 168,3 .

Horus gives the royal court m qd

being built by Seshat



particle Wb 189 (12)and(13-14) GG 227usedto emphasise or another or wholeof a sentence. one part

in + noun participle :2


Tnn sdd st It is Tanenwho established IV 14,9 it dndn ir. n.f r. sn It

JLnm hnm st It is Khnum who built it with his handsIV 19,14 themVI 111,5. is terrorwhich hecreated against

Thereis a list of suchdescriptive phrases, with imaginative variedspellingsof the particle and Southof his wall .... singers Seshat 'J, r33 ... Thoth ..... builder gods .....

agathodaiman IV 14,6-9.

Also in in the f form - GG 428 - 429 JunkerGrD 139 still found at Edfu : h' , , biti The king of Lower Egypt appears 50,1. IV


say Wb 189 (7-11) Pyr. GG 437 (seecomments under i)

Examples of the verb in 'to say' or perhaps the form Ln occur at Edfu [q.v. also 1) : ii. ti RI n smt. f Welcome! says Re to his uraeus' VII 26,7; the annals of the king rM spoken by Re from his mouth VHI 148,5; i3w. ti of the one who created him IV 50,2. q'

4S/ RI m

"Praise Praise I' says the father ,


interrogadve Wb 189 (14) DG'36 b)I -j/'


KH 37 ; CED 36 ; Cr.56b interrogative. GG 492asinterrogative. in A libation to Sokar-Osiris usesa stringof theseinterrogatives a poeticdevice iw. n.k mU... 'Are you in heaven? you come as a ba /'9 .. rn pt

m0 ii. n.k m-3 9q * %=; k Gb are you in earth? you comequickly you haveopenedthe earth m d3t sl(n. 0iw.n.k m //////// are you in the underworld? you comeas //// V differentlywherepossible. 66.1-4.Notice they are spelled


to bring Wb 190 (2) to 91 (10) Old DG 33,7 2-

Cr.78b; CED47; KH50 EINE Frequently usedat Edfu andmostusuallywritten


in especially offering scenes:X

comesin.f n.k and he brings to you variousofferings. Phrases with in. bring an end to'that is ldll'(not W6) but seeJEA 30 p.16 n.34make an end of andit in-pbwy'to be followed by variousenemyobjects : h3b VII 87,4; hftyw. f 1404,10, Il 5,12; h3kw-ibw can 1135,12 74,10 -,111118,11 139,10;V 47,12 ; VI 142.5; ryw. f VI 129.3; 191,17 snitw. f V ; , 296,15 ; th sw 1 131,11; 378,15 ; 1185,13; 11136,3; IV 57,17 V 270,11 -, 185,6 VI 89,2 M.94 2-3 ; th m1n.f 1142,6 ; 134,2 tkk Yfyt.f 137,18 Wn rnw.f 180,4 ; VII 164,8; 200,5 ; Il 185,6; 111127,13 wd kn 1286,5 ; 432,14; IV 257,8-9; VI 258,9 ; 288,2. ;

in-drwy 'bring a limie, virtually synonymous with the last, but not as widely used


J to one Ibis phrasecan be [JEA 30 p.16 n.34 'to utterly destroy']1114,22-23. who attacksyou howeier : Re is praisedfor the templefor eternity (hnty)j in its more literal sense used bringingan end(neverending)IV 14,8. without

in-wrt 'Bring back the GreatLady'l(that is the eye of Re) : the king is the living imageof of the heartof Re (rhoth) -t -SA C=. wn r. fi who brings back the eye which was far away II


39,11-12 [Junker, Onuris p. 6 and also Berlin Photo 1942 from Dakkeh


-5-e-M p C=:



'to bring heaven'(in light, with light). This phraseoccurs at Edfu in lists of epithets of r. T 1119 (34); 6 m tddw 1 15 (28). Blackman

HB HB sails heaven

took this to be a case of substitution apposition 'who brings back heaven (more exactly) the light' [JEA 29 16 nj and MG 416 n.621 and also cited for comparison Westcar 11,14 pt m Xtr twYt'a

sky with storm and rain' and Kees [ZAS 57,1922 p. 1041gave an example int. f n. f pt m lgp 0 m sim Ile brings heavenwith rain and earth with dew' to show that the sky could be said to contain weather conditions, though Gunn [JEA 22 p.43 n.261 suggestedtaking m as'in the form or for this last example. This epithet is also given to the winged sun disk in incense texts X4--=Lr- m Ind 1169,13; text 40 q r-", Dddw. f 1499,17;

m Ind traversing Edfu with his beauties IV 62,11 and in a wine

rn Dddw. f 1273,5. In all of these scenesHathor is also present.

Junker [Onuris pp.5-71 compared this late epithet in-Drt with the name of Onuris In-Drt 'one who brings back the distant one! with reference to bringing back the eye of the sun, hence the importance of the presence of Hathor in the scenesnoted above .0 r-V , may well be a play on this,

transposing 'heaven' with 'distant one!, but there is not a true syncretism here as the epithet can also be held by goddesses: ]Vtpt of Heliopolis in. ns 12t-, Re is 9`1 A. I rn Ind LD IV 46 and Hathor, the Eye of

m Ind MD 11171.The important idea in the epithet seems to be that heaven is

lit up by these gods and goddesses.In the incense texts the brightness of the burning incense is the brightness of the god.


bring back(of a dooror doorbolts) thus'to close! Wb 190 (27) NK

The doors of the pylon are openedin the morning ..... eveningVRI 58,14-15;a door text in the couloir mysterieu-x'X

and they are closedin the sb3w n shw 'closing the

door leavesof the sanctuaries whenthe sunsetsin the cast [parallel text usessmn) 1346,2. In the Ir temple description the bolts of the temple doors hr com i'jjr -, psd itn htp. f IV 13,4 [de Wit

howevertakesin to be usedlike rdi here'to give free entry' when the sun risesuntil he sets- so it


may not fit this category CdE 36, No. 71,1961

p. S11. Also s9 doors

A-J Y--

he is a child in ,

the morning IV 57.7. 71is idiomaticuseof the closingof templedoorsis known sinceAbydosRitual tabl.20 and Stelaof I4 Piankhi 1.104 -9 Mett. 5,3.


to bring back, capture(a hippopotamus, is bring it out of the water). that 1 h3b 1423,13; nJ Ns and I

Objectsof the verb when usedin this way : hippopotamus X havecut up his flesh IV, 343,6;

[JEA 29 #3b as an epithetof HB 'Captorof the hippopotamus'

-1 before 8] VI 64,7 ; the lanceis thrownat the hippopotamus andhe is broughtandslaughtered , Re VI 122,7-8. Nbd: ]Vmty: II nbd in bonds111188,11. IV59,11 ork3p crocodile I IV374,13.

This is basicallyan extended of in . use


to go slowly . delay

Wb 192 (18-19) CT GR
in is attested from the Coffin Texts =, CT II 184c Spell 146 'but if shall tarry or turn

bacle [after Gardiner, ZAS 45,1908 p.60-61and I)e prevented!FECT I p.361and also CT 1231 Spell q "; 4 A 50 im. k tw r. 1 'Do not hold yourself back from me' and thus Faulkner takes it to mean 'delay" hold oneself aloof from' [ FCD 231.It also appearsin the Love Poem Ch.Be. G 29,7

At Edfu examplesare rare: in the nameof a minor dietyu. 192,10.

q,, '*'d

i srq-ttyt //// sw I

be theroot of thereduplicated Someor all of theseexamples verb Intnt (Wb 1102,9-11 NK may GR)'to turn back,hindeeandperhaps also with ind (Wb I 102,16-17)togrieve,mourW. -


knife Wb 192 (20) GR

is The only reference from Edfu

i3dt. k 'My knife drives away your foes

but impurities!1187.1.This is probablya word inventedto fit the alliterationof the sentence, notice


in CT V 287c Spell 436 where there is a word

which Faulkner takes to be a verb 'to cuf

[FECT Il 75 n.2 and also Anl-ex. 78.0353] so that the Edfu examplemay have earlier precedents.


canal Wb 193 (15) GR Gauthier DG 180

This is the canal in the 20th LE nome, where the sacredbarque sails

1335.11 and in the

geographical texts it is said to contain white water in the middle and black water at the edges IV 38,5 6; . IV 126 also. V q2-441 26,7 .8*, Dendera - Dum GI 11125


levy' tribute,revenue, Wb 191 (12-18) Pyr.

for This word is usedoftenat Edfu with a general meaning whichcovcrs'offerings' thetemple,goods broughtas productsof taxation,producebroughtas duesfrom foreign landsor partsof Egypt. it coversall commodities which are levied andhaveto be brought,thusits derivationfrom In is clear

[c f. also bb-inw to exacttax Wb 191,16 D.18 GR

The spellings of the word at Edfu show that inw are items of food: QM For discussion of the exact nature of inw see R. Maller-Wollermann, GM 66,1983 pp. 81 ff Sol

W.Boocks, GM 71.1984 pp.61 ff.



At Edfu :a filling the eye text, the 10thgod,16tho'r,fills the iye of HoruSwith real lapis lazuli and provisionshis body with VIII 137,6.The parallel text at Philaehasstf dts (pupil) with

q'u (t Phill 1106 n.11. Otherwisethis plant is unknown though it may be a writing of lww C, q e1129 P. (Golenischeff 11ierat. 'rceds',with 'U in error for Z, c.f. P.Cairo 58027,4,6,7
" II"I. (Wb 194,14 Med.). ' cI too inyt plant (Wb 191,6-7) and inwn plant



to slay , slaughter Wb 194 (10) Pyr - GR

A word attested from Pyr. 678 tw Sth and through the Coffin Texts - CT V 287c q 24,4 Spell436 (possibly) (cut throat)[alsoZandee, Deathp.1471 in the Edfu textsit is a and fairly commonword foT'cut, slay' etc. It canbe an action of the harpoon are in the water IV 230,7-8;also V11292,10-11;Hllq
44 q 4R4 ZD

foeswho his foes IV

66,13.Thereis also an examplereminiscent the PyramidText example,in a menatoffering, the of king Sethfor you (Hathor)YIII 101.11 the Sethiangazelleis =q

q', q44 '4` A i3dt. k 'My in knife IV 66,1; in alliteration the genieir.n. 'w3y %e'4 cuts up your 1187,1. pestilence! 9.'*4M: '4 D 11169,18 hereisparallel with hbhb and may represent similar AtDenderatoo, a kind of action(c.f. the useof theharpoon, morelikely 'cut up). so


independent singular pronoun I st person JunkerGrD 55 GR

Usedas the independmt but uponthepersoninvolved: vary depending pronouns, the spellings D.-k VII 84,14; ler -b :
(Isis) VI 81,4 and Q-j

the king V 195,2or

142,5 and the feMinine form is

(Hathor) VI 143,1. Junker suggestedthat this was a cross between the

pronounwj . It canbe.usedlike ink I am'or like wj Meholdme 1. particle in and the absolute


wall Wb 194 (15) to 95 (9) DG 35,3 'OK,

This is an old term,referringto the largebrick wall aroundthe templecomplexor the stonewalls of Templep.2601.From the most commonlyuseddeterminative is a inb the templeproper [Spencer, aroundthe outside. It is, therefore,for protection of rectangularwall with supportingbuttresses in is whatever insideit. The termis oftenattested Egyptiantextsandat Edfu mostoften occursin the, phraseinbw nW 'wall of coppeewhich is an epithetappliedto the king or Homs Horus VII 177,13-14 nW

VI 13,5;aroundhis templeas


around his southern Mesen VI 75,6 107,2 and 11121,9 also 14


V 304,9

The king


bi3 around the banks Il n


1429,5. In a description of the temple,

impliesthat inb refersto " its wall is aroundit like copperVI 91,13.This lastexample

the enclosure wall of the temple - but is it the mud brick wall of the temple complex or the stone" temple wall ? Some of the building texts imply that it is the stone wall actually on the wall itself

wr around the Great Place of Re VI 6,5; gives the dimensions of the wall 'Knowing the foundation of 326,2-5 ;q 'UJ in around the temple q'5JJJ of the eastand west is 105 cubits' VI 0 -ff his

IJ 11 =

of the north VI 326,5 ; and also 'god seeshis image upon

wall - must be the stone wall here 1328,10 . This then applies to the three sided stone enclosure (three sided becauseat one end are the temple pylons)rather than the much larger mud brick enclosure with four sides. In the Late Period inb became synonymous with sbty, which had originally indicated the enclosure wall [see Corteggiani, Hom.Saun.I p. 148 nA]. Metaphorically, inb can be used to describe Isis, VI 304,9 and a genie-embracesyour majesty as q.,24 JH of copper, protecting his majesty' VI 78.1-2.

The inb protects and if of copper is the ultimate hard, durable defence. -

inb-ity Wall of the Sovereign' GauthierDG I p.81

A sacred building at Memphis consecratedto Tanen. ity refers to Osiris and the texts at Edfu show that the building has Osirian functions : the Memphite nome and Men-nefer contain in

which the gods limbs are united 1329,12 and in a Sokar text involving the procession around 114 Memphis The god is 'in Meryt (canal at Memphis), god is equipped with his limbs in . 46 a

which Horus did for him' VI 282,13. The term is first attested in an inscription from the time of Merenptah, which involves (D of Tanen 'to make them wh6le (healthy) from evil' KRI IV 3A -


type of plant'-' Wb 195 (13-15) 'OK Wb Drog. 38

is unkn6 and unidentifiedand in'medical texts it hasgeneraland very different uses This plant wn


[Germer, Arznei. p.237-8]. In the PeasantR 26

is included in a list of items from the

Wadi Natrun. It appears earliest in OK tombs texts, for example in the tomb of Ti [Steindorff, Ti, Leipzig 1913, plate 51 a man is called s 24 J and also a further tomb [Giza V Abb. 26 p.96] has

in a list of requirements for w3h-'h. At Edfu : 'HB is like a fire in his moment of attack (anger), the wind when he treads jISI 'L'

Fond. 112n.s] ;a parallel dry inb-plantsto devourall that he wants'l 442.13[after Gutbub,Textes. at Kom Ombo 'wind reaches(pt) h,, Ombos1127,167.Gutbubin the light of thi's J litei firinly fixed in Nun' so

it translated 'chaume'straw'.Furthera list of plantsincludes it maybe a wateror marshplant VI 29,8.


evil, sin Wb 195 (17) GR

from the palace,he Wb quotesonly two Edfu references Thoth purifies the king in a procession : t2t drives away(dr) 69 the lips dirty'IV 52,7 (this occursalso in P.Berlin 13 242 which makes P

4b [Schott,Reinigungp.63 and in a purification with water, a goddess rwi takesawayyour dirt IV 215,9.

Ibis may be relatedto a word Inp (Wb 196,3) = irp in a CT which can be'to decay'FCD 23 m _113"O'do decayin your mouthit is of not CT VI 384 q Spell 755


part of a ship Wb 195 (12) GR

One reference only Erom the Myth : the


are in

like a snake in its hole'

VI 80,8. This was translatedin JEA 30 p.7 n.k as 'the belaying pins (?) in the bulwarks' [Jones, Glossary 154,meaningunknown,belayingpins ?]. p.


field rype Wb 195 (16) GR

At Edfu in the 18th LE nome, the sbt-nir field is broughtwith'its

Its-, IV 36,10. The

text corresponding in V 25,4breaksoff at the vital point, but Wb doesrecorda similar word at Philae


where the king is Lord text the word nbw. I

Phot. 1425and DenderaDum. GI IV 124 copies the Edfu <898> (later date). As the Philae text shows this is most likely to be a miswriting of


efflux from the eye Wb 196 (10)

Wb Drog. 59 notes a spell = Eb. 385








comes from the Eye

of Horus which compares with Amonsrit. 7,3 where

from the Eye of Horus. This is closest to Edfu exampleswhere the

is from the Eye of Re and honey is P420-3,0, q -04 ..0. Wadjet 12=

eye contains


of the Eye of Re (in the offering of X3-'3 'the Great Field) IV 333,12 and also the niri eye contains f,16, of the Eye of Re 111154,4-5.An offering of w3d and msdmt includes the

Owhich comes from the Eye of Re V 191,16 and by the king, I bring you (Min)T2&-!::. phrase spoken at DenderaCD 111183,7-8. The meaning seemsclear, but the actual identity of the word is uncertain.


incense Wb196(9) GR-

Harris [Mineral p.99] cites theonly two certainexamples MD 171 (not Ausfluss,asin Wb) and II it 290,15[Durn.GI 1167,7] He regards asa variantfor w3ij in lists of tributeandmay be invented. . Perhaps 'efflux of theeye!it couldbe connected w3deye Its originsandetymologyareobscure. to as paint', so at Edfu tn is the placeof w3jL and land of q The Ombos Z"15=4.4andalso mentions

by Wb,'is in an incense incense text, which hasbht, examplequoted Eye of HorusOmbos1119,155.


skin Wb 196 (14-20) NK DG 5,14 Cr.12 a; CED 9; KH 8,Om

in m.'skin' can also mean'colour of the skin' due to confusionwith iwn 'coloue (Wb 152) 1&rnY'q


Sinai 1197 n.f ; Baines, AA 87,1985 pp.284-5]. At Edfu this is evident in phrases such as n rh. inm. f 'no-one knows his skin or colour[or aspect - Vernus RdE 31,1979 p. 1091 HB 111133,4; gods of Edfu Ito all q trL Ito

IV 384,14 where the word is best taken to be 'skin,


every colour' , or every q"4' Gr, 'turquoise colour of skin 1 102,4 . There is also an epithet of HB who has mfk3t skin' 0 ., 6 q :n! oerL IV 56,6 and in the Sopdu nome he is 'blue ski4d I IV 39.1. Specified colours qz=r can be different. The calves are red, black, white and mottled, Horus is blue skinned and the sail of the barque of 1HBis described as psd VI 80,3. To a large extent 'skin"colour' are interchangeableideas,just as iwn and Itim are interchangeable.If they did originally mean different things, by the time of the Edfu texts, they are used in the sameway. 'shining coloue, implying perhaps that it is white

appearance! and of calves, 'rake the calves which are



Wb 197(1) GR (2-3) winevessels from lnm, in This wordfor winefirst appears theEdfuandDendera textsandit mayoriginate in to to this or perhaps indicate is coloured red wine,asopposed white.It usuallyappears wine r-W OCA %.,VII 279,13; 'a is Edfudrink zr a mn vessel filled with of offeringtexts: thegods o -W V 45.16 sheis 171,7.It is associated Hathor:Ladyof drunkenness makes who or with 'My V61,1; 1=7 It in mistress ImetIl 218,10. canbe contained of
q =*' q 11295,17 the 'a 1%\10 and ;& is

vesselof clectrumhas other typesof vessel:a seneb in broughtto Harsomthus Hor-MaaVI 316,3.

5, includesq'. T 1EF IV This wine is as4iated with variousplaces.A list of offerings from sht-jr
49,4, but it is at Dendera that most information of this nature is given
q. g,4 RA xv,



from Desdes (Bahriyahoasis)D IV 19,9;




'W=u of Im tD 1140,186,8 and inmt of nn el

the East (B3htt) DIII 179,8-9, also lnmt is associated with the lands of the Fenkhu,so that in and origin it comesmainly from the oasisvineyards areaof Imet in Egypt but canbe importedfrom afield DH 200,6. wider In an offering procession Edfu a male offerer brings to Horus, Seth with at Its

of which arethe beauties your vineyard1469,2.PL35bshowsa mancarryingtwo vessels in this and


the word inmt may apply not only to the wine but also to the type of vessel especially in cases case

where the word appearsto be dual . Thus god rejoices at his offerings


vessels(or wine) which are given to you 1100,9. As with other terms for'wine! 'vessels' the same word can be usedto refer to both.


plant Wb197(10-11) DG6,13nq Med. GR WbDrog. 39 YI/2-2J ENOYN r

Cr. 56b ; CED 36 ; KH 37 Cz r, N

In the Ramesseumtext A 10,'a medical text and in others, innk is used in medical prescriptions [P.Ramesseump. 171.The identity of innk is not cerksmand even the Coptic word EMYN(has

a range of meanings, so it is difficult to be specific. Suggestionsabout the identity of the plant range from thyme [Jequier, BIFAO 19,1391 to 'water-mint' Mentha aquatica [Dawson in P.Ramesseum p. 17]. Germer [Arznei. p.230 - 240] reviewed the evidence and added that Innk is also used as a 'RAuchermittel' [Gardiner, JEA 41,1955 pl. VI Frag. a and in two medical texts it is used against diseasesin this way. At Edfu innk is used in a filling the Eye text- 'the pupil of the eye is made bright with VIII 137,2, a text paralleled in Phila I p. 106 n.5 -T tit A ZY Ur

It is possible that innk refers to one family of similar plants rather than one specific variety.


stone Wb 197 (12) to 98 (6) OK DG 34,14 iny' o)e 2-)

Cr. 524 a; CED 228 ; KH 292 CONFE wr4l inr is a generic word for stone [Harris, Nlineralsp. 19ff.] and it has two commonusesat Edfu. mainly in the building texts or texts describingthe temple the shrineof the temple is of Inr km 'black stone'(granite)r-34 mIV 5,3 c3 IV 15,1wherethe writing of inr is abbreviated.

Also wherethe templeis saidto be built of inr hd rwd nfr Ur autiful, white, ha d stone (sandstone) A'N tV5,5 IV 12,7; & 'k IV 17.4; 141179.15 c'03 coll



surround Wb 199 (3-13) D. 18 DG 35,7 70 2-

Cr. 13a; CED 10 ; KH 487 border of something -WaL [C f. ANZ yard, courtyard Cr. 13a: CED 10; KH 9 andDG35]

in4 occurs in Egyptian from the 18th D. onward and while the meaning 'surround! is clear it has different applications. Its origins are not clear, but it may have connections with in4 'eyebrow' (this borders the eye) and perhaps also with inq 'to embrace surround! (Wb 1100,19 to 101,7 Pyr.). The , has a military connotation 'to surround!enemiesby troops and this is echoedat Edfu in the verb often net text where the'king casts his cord to net the enemies n. f s 'and he surrounds them

(with the neffrom that time to yesterday' VI 56,10-11. The verb further decribes walls enclosing a building : the four walls of Wetjeset protect his father Behdet, here with an appropriatedeterminativeVI 73 inb has two other usesat Edfu, not specified by Wb It is used of the Nile, flooding fields A n. q3yw. k phLr. f idbw. k 'he has surrounded your high land and enclosed your banks' 1583,2. S! Iand enclose the throne of

Also in descriptions the door leavesof the temple,they are madeof pine wood of *4 q .4 by bi3-SLt surrounded copperVI 8,4 or . of of strengthener theedges thedoorleaves.

S. -J

with bronze(Losw) V 4.3. This acts as a

All of theseexamples to can showhow the scribes alter the determinatives suit the meaningof the in is alsousedat Dendera with otherdifferentuses. word and


eyebrows Wb 199 (1-2) BD' DG 35,91'fill ZZs

Cr. 56b ; CED 36 ; KH 37*

inh is attestedin the medical texts quite frequentlyand in magical texts [Lefebvre, Tableau18 181.The full spelling of the word doesnot occur at Edfu but the writing p. In inhwy 'the two eyebrows'. texts the uraei are betweenthe eyebrowsof the king V-VI 83,11;Nb-Flgt lmyt is read'as imyt---

JV 256,3and the two serpents maketheir placesimyt


IV 52,13. Ibis imPlies that the uraei are wom low on the king's forehead like two eyes with which they can be equated.


type of oliban

Charpentier 92-3 EbbellActa Or. 17,1939p.105- 106 p. ,

PI 11k.: P'v', 1:, ins" occurs in the laboratory where it is a type of 'ntyw apparently gold in colour,

Ebbell(op. ) its liquid, very excellent comes from thebackof this god11206,9. cit. and madesoft with
identifies it with 'tree of Mecca! Commiphora Opobalsamum but readsinhs"-snn , 0


brightred cloth
Wb 1100 (6-13) Pyr. DG 35 -112-(O

Alliot distinguishesins as 'blood red' ratherthan dr 'flamingo red' [RdE 10,1955 1 -7 ; LA II col.119 1,but in the earliesttextsPyr.1464Pcpi is which comesfrom Isis anddyr which

comesfrom Nephthysso that they maybe synonymous, in Pyr. 285dIns is the red of morning and in light. As a type of red cloth ins and idmi were to someextent interchangeable the Ptolemaic period.The red colourcameto be associated thered colourof the sunandtheblood shedwhen with Sakhmet thusHathoris called "'-:7 rampage, went on her destructive q --=1,245,4 Hathor and

Your fire burnsyour foes VVHI 106,3-, (and MD 11177; MD 4 of nomethe priestess Bastis called

27) In the Bubastite . _II in 1335,5 [seeBerlandini-Grenier BEFAO76,1976

and Germond, Sekhmet 352-3and 353 nA]. In magicalrites ins protectsby degrying p. p. 126-129 HorusBehdetwearsgreenandred cloth whengoing to fight Sethin hostileforcesand for this reason the Myth : bnd ni q4, V183,10-11; IV 344,2and his garmentis -=-'4
q 4! 4 -Q-W


in The protectivequalitiesof thered cloth are emphasised an amuletictext : 'I tie on VI 137,7-8. for you the knot of band. From this noun derivesthe useof ins with the implied meaning'rage'. other wordsfor 'red' are and in this way. In. a, staircaseprocessionthe queen says , int. n.i used too drive awayanger,I havedestroyed alliterates 1570,13. rage, which Y. hnt.n.t hrst I Y so at your throat' 111311,14-15 that hereins is usedas a neck


Thereis alsoa derivative verbins' to makered' (c.f. Wb 1100,5 GR). Wb hasonereference wherea q -C', bl. 1 and makeblood red my eye geni in the first boat says,' I makered my eyes 14z'O balls' VI 75,6-7[after JEA 29 p.141,a text repeated your majestyVI 178.3. bl. 1 againstthe attackerof


priestess Wb 199 (7) GR

q ins is the priestess the Bubastitenome, of above).

who plays the sistrumfor Bastet1335,5 (see


Lower partof theleg Wb 199 (18-20)

A word for the whole leg, from medicaltextsandusedto refer to the legsof men,animalsandbirds is Tableau 611. Oneof theearliest [Lefebvre, a references Siut pl.8,314 Hapdjefaitext,whereamong list of meatportionsofferedis nt mnt U nb 'leg of a haunchof every bull'. q.=4 IS in At Edfu the word appears the Myth wherethe 10thharpoonof HB is stuck in of the (dual) of his foe VI -78,6

Seth hippopotamus 78,4 and HB.who transfixes VI

Blackman[JEA 29 p.17andn.c] took this to mean'hocKafter Siut which meanthind leg'; Faulkner 'calf. It is probablethat the Egyptianswere careless [FCD 24] refutesthis and translates aboutthe here,lying on precisemeaning.Pl.147 (10, -VIII) and Naville, Mythe pl.6 show the hippopotamus his back and the lanceis stuck in the bottom of his paw in to expected showexactlywhatis described thetex thoughthe sceneshouldnot be

inq = Inq


to hold cLinq'toembrace! WBIIOO, 19-101,7 -I,

In a harpoontext: HoruS
r% A

holds the 3-barbed harpoonand slays Apopis IV 231,4 , _hmt

'm 3m. i 'I hold my harpoon in my fise 111-138,7-8.The'meaning-,

the king says


because fist'embraces'something andspellingare clear. It probably derives from inq 'to embrace! the which it holds.


independvit pronoun lst sing. mase. , Wb 1101 (13) DG 36,2 Cr. llb; - II CED9'KH8 4NOIC

GG 64 and Junker GrD 55 This pronoun is used as it would be in classical as INE, that is in nominal sentences the subject and in sentencesof possession.Orthographies at Edfu : T'-, -6"z IV 285,17; 771 D IV 55.1 *,


IV 286,13;.


IV 57,13; cD

4 j

IV 65,5.

valley(wadi) Wb 193 (2-14) Pyr. DG 33,4 0 '_-51 Cr. 263b ; CED 126; KH 292 westvalley in Egypt.

int is a valley or wadi which runs betweentwo rangesof hills or mountainsin Egypt, hencethe determinative PAI or t:n The word canalso meanthe necropolis areaof placessuchas

Dendera, El-Kab,Thebes Memphis[Gauthier I p.86].' DG and The Edfu texts usethe word in a numberof ways int as a designation foreign valleys in the of Net text, the text hassm3 h3swt m slayingtheir foreign landsin their valleys!VI W 56,10, a reference to perhaps thevalleysof theSyria-Palestine area. The phrase int-'ntyw is alsocommonat Edfu [GauthierDG 1871andthis may be a poeticnamefor Punt [Junker,Onurisp.78] : Horusfollows his heartin oaa and VI 252,2 spelled . Jr is levied from 4E4S-2* tribute 1419,13-14, both of thesearegms.'ntyw texts. .8; OW -rmAt Edfu thereis alsoa mentionof the 'Festivalof the Valley', originally a Thebanfuneraryfestival from the MK (MentuhotepIV) where int is connected with the necropolisand burial areas. It to consisted a boatand land-barque of procession the westin Thebes the royal mortuarytemples and there.At Edfu in an irt-sftr-qbw text, an offering to the deadgodsof Edfu, BB licalled 'living ba,


master of all gods at his time of

the festival of the valley, who makes live the'

basof the gods'1289,8.It is held on the 19thof the monthhereand seems havebeenborrowed to from the Thebantradition [c f. Reymond, CdE 38 No.75, p.55 n.3 which refers to their (primaeval in 1A fQ., gods)necropolis Djemeandfor thefestivalin general 11174


fish Wb 192 (12-15)

This is the buld fish (Tilapia nilotica ) [Gamer-Wallert, Fischep.24] and wasconnected aboveall q, gIn with the sun god [op.cit. pp.109-1131. the Mendesnome,accordingto the Edfu texts it is qz"e4 which is the abomination the god 1334,7.In a litany to Sakhmet who saysSehold I am of , 0 in fields,-canals' 111308,17.


to turn back
Wb 1102 (2-7) BD

cL in earlier and also ind (Wb 1102,16-17 'be tired , sad). q iml 'turns back from me' The earliest form of this verb is found in CT 1150 Seshat
('holds back in pregnancy' FECT I p. 89 nA the other texts have sin 'who runs from me) and also CT I 231d imi. k tw r. 1 'Do not turn back (hold back) from me'.. By the time of the

compilation of the Book of the Dead , int is used consistently in such phrases as

qa. -04

In -

13pp Turn back with Apopis 1' e.g. Chapter 39,2. Ibis senseof turning back the enemy is'the main way in which the verb is used at Edfu, but the verb could originally apply to other objects, such as 4 q J "2' 'hands' (Amenemope 26,19 V, -& turn back the hand on the rudder). Wb suggestsint is

related to in (Wb 197,7-9) which exists from FTs and means 'turn away'. Perhaps a link may be suggestedwith in 'bring bacle. In late texts it is generally hostile forces which are objects of int e.g. fSalt 825 VIII 2 and 4q C-m sbiw and &respectively; P-Mag-Harris 5,9-10.

q 4a-& At Edfu the verb is usuaUy transitive: the godswho protectOsiris q. =". -Q&

mjLrw r Hwt-sr 0 bftyw n SOR 1 180,8-10. is also usedin alliteration especiallyin bow and arrow It , bdnw I 150,6;, king ikn iwnt hr Lhe 'or iwntyw 111 136,1 and in 4L\. -. ,

texts : iwnt r q the processions queen

ins'l drive awayredness' (that is 'rage) 1570,13 or iwntpr .


I "e. *' ,*

herequalitative1370,10.With otherfoesas objects: w3yw VIII 156,11 rkyw - the enclosure walls or A-


IV 286,15and

rkyw VII 19,11.

nn (wn) intnt

without hindrance' GR

Wb 1102 (9-11) NK

intnt is the reduplicated form of int and nn (wn) intnt is literally 'without turning bacle thus, [JEA 29 p.35 n.28 to p.36]. Gardiner suggestedthat it could be connected with a verb unhindered' (found in SS 16-17 = 'hold back, be restrained) [ ZAS 45,1908 p.60-1]. Ile negative nn (wn) nitit intnt is used quite often at Edfu and Wb gives examplesof precedentsfrom the NK. n intnt : Hapy floods --I, qTT L\-

without holdingback173,13.
'E -a "4 6111154,1-2; a canal

nn wn intnt : of the Nile in flood in the 11-di nome streams

it covers the two lands -, aim

without holding back V 110,14. This is also the text: mrd. 1


of the verb mfd usually used to describe the king running in the bnp-qbtw negative




1116,12; mfd. i n. k 0 ritual mfd 4

Il 78,4; m fd 1312,1-2.

Il 245,14 and in the ij-pt


misery, sadness
Wb 1102 (16-17) MK

ind is attested from Admonitionsat least(a text full of wordsfor sadness misery)50 and6,8 and
-P4 I

[GAS pA3 'calamity,misery]. The usualuseof this word is as an adjectivequalifying q 1442,7-8;Sakhmet 6-6makessweet VIII 120,13;the king, like Horus

ib or ibw (hearts): Horusputsjoy in


1115,9;Osiris as Iwn putsjoy iri

4' 2 bom of Tenmet(a beergoddess) drivessdnesifrom IF" Iq * VI 283,4;in a wine text' and -A, A 25' VH 279,4 ";Amun M. 170,6 the king doesthis'also '& .I,, cheers sadhearts up fliq and 6,9, 'q
A% %


M.131. is there no

ind alsoappears comes nA4 out morerarelyasa noun. Whena procession

miseryin your path 1559,6-7. (110220) suggests meaning'illness' for this word and it may occur as EN TOT Wb a in Coptic (0) written illness.

(KH 499)



to make, to do i, -I Wb 1108 (5) to 112(11) old DG 36,3 -> CIPE

Cr. 83a; CED48; KH51

The Edfu texts,written mainly in Middle Egyptian,retainir and useit almostas an auxiliary verb denotingactivity, of variouskinds.The verb is spelled 132' lc=S' andrarely co (IV 17.1 or

the sign is the pupil of the eye). Its usesare outlined in Wb and only thosewhich do not appear there,or which arepeculiarto Edfu will beinvestigated. With words for protection : lr. mkt q IV 330,7.1 IV 16,4,ir. nht '' 148,12;U IV 41,9 and<>4& lr-bs3 <P 11132,10,

With wordsfor offerings: food -a;, : IV 331,2-13. aim In the formula ir-snir passim
In the phrase ir-ibt
-Z I

the liturgical rituals to be performed in the temple in the which covers all

L, 4-asw for his father, done by the king in his role as priest IV .331,2-13. Also in a c=;, services,, Vm ; qm C=M=; y-general sense:a geni holds his knife Wb I 110,2-6'to make something be something': <M,. and performs his duty ... VI 329,16. hftyw m tm. wn also IV 41,12. W

ir-st assume/takeposition in : the uraeus <x> ,41> st. sn rn tp. k 129,19; em -d ir. qrs-m. Dt perform a burial ir. wdt proclaim a decree: he decreed11183. iri-shrw to care for, exercise go verance over <> %P

m 03t-Dr. f IV 16,9; and plural, 4=>

between your eyebrows IV 52,13..,. 4, nt it. f mwt. f by the king IV 278,16. of HB VI 2933-8 ; they did for him CL what



ir-hr turn the face(towards):a geni

onewho comesagainstyour templeVI 68,13.

ir-Am-9m - heir
Wb IV 287 (22-23) GR and IV 467 (5) GR Wb records this phrase on a stela in Vienna Nr. 172 [Bergmann Hier. Ins. line 8-10] from the,


Ptolemaic period and then in GR temples.It actually occurs quite often at Edfu as an epithet of the 41"' king and can be compounded with other synonymousepithets such as h'w-nh : to (crown of justification) 111142,3;4c> i* T 29 V 103,13; <, hr -nst : -:a> *4F2- 9F .Y temple) VI 245.8. Sometimes the king can be the 'heir' of a specific god Wnn-nfr-Q>-J1*cR; '17 b H.r-JLn-rt<3-+cN IV 289,6; Shu V 152,15; wT 3r:, r,;--' IV 207,5;<zP, cE rm a 5r-

(scarab amulet)

M. 144,11-2and probably <m-)OPQ - (driving the calves) V 87,6 -cu> ff% cX

V 199,5 (hnk-11nm), or (king goes into

CD11140,5; Hedj-hotep-czt*"ft-c33"I

* A 5? Tr MD III 74a ; Horus Harpocrates Ib

D <4624>, or by implication of his royal

ancestors <=>

rc--P-A of the gods epiphanesestablishedupon their throne IV 122,16. The -A of the unique lord his father IV 249,3.7be 5 ff /i Z-///// (pouring out sand for n nb

child Ptolemy Memphites is called <> term also appears at Kom Ombo the king <r, --

). Ombos1165,611 Harpocrates

. 1.

lie texts in which this epithet appearsdiffer from example to example. In general any epithet such as 'heir' suggeststhat it implies legitimacy of rule for the king and some of the texts are primarily concernedwith this, for example crown of justification and also ancestortexts (hw-bhsw) or rituals for ancestors(bread, cloth or hLnmofferings) so it is appropriate to theseexamples [for list seeJEA 36 p.68 n.26]. Ilie origin and meaning are not so clear however. Vernus discussed an example on a statue of P3-n-hb-wd3 [Munich 82 Nectanebo 1. line 4] where he foun a conjugated example'hr

hr it. f and translated 'who takes the successionfrom his fathee[Athribis p. 174 IA and 176 nm]. The absence of the Im suggests that Ir is the verb and not iry , thus iry-sVrn (Wb IV 289,18) T4t-? P 917and -* in the Rekhmire inscriptions Urk. 1V 1088,12 14 IV 1106,3 which occurs . , a phrase smin n. i The compound iry4rn Qy-dd 'every responsible functionary has reported to me saying

belonging to the business, the affaie is a general description 'the one

in charge, used from the l8th D. and possibly in the Ute period. It applies to officials of an official dudes are outside the context of the text [see Van den Boom, Vizier p.69-68 n. 15 and p.551. whose The Ptolemaic examples have 9F as an extra element after sm. It could be a phormfic complement

Am or it could separate. could 'fituar ft title is actuallY & be 'Perf0m" of rituale to be so


implying that the successoror heir of a man is the one to perform all the rituals correctly for his



to eat
Wb 1114 (8-9) GR

This useof the verb ir is commonlyfoundat Edfu, and in otherGR templesoften followed by the of prepositionrn or its adverbialform im . Ibis meaning the verb ir may stemfrom the motionof ir 'to do, to act' and so 'to act' upon food is to eat it. Early examplesof ir 'to eat' have an determinative ! appropriate I? <111' it otherwise is written simply as <z> of : (f) thousands things

May you eatof them161,14-15 Often the personeatingis accompanied, ir. k thus . &I On' imyw-bt. k 'Wy you eat themtogetherwith thoseaccompanying you': <=<a, 1 60,7-8 (f); -= 1 472,13; 11 155,7 (f); VII 289,11-12 (f) or with 175,6 (f). .

58,6-7; 'thosein their shrines: IV 49,5-6(p); or the ennead 17 ir can be followed by m which precedes object:, 91> the 1478.12iwr meatportions; 1480,2-3 sm31woffering.
With direct object: 71' 0V -9D. III 98,1-2

m k3w.k, 158,9; 160,10-11ibt

As a word for eatingit is usedin parallelwith synonymous wordsandwordsfor drinking : offerings

<D, -#t-


s'm.k msn. You eat them and drink them IV 220,7 (a).

ir-ibt-m 'to eat partakeor [e.f. Fairman,ZAS 91 p.6 An extension this useof ir is the phrase of , 9bw IF& 1380 5-6; bread,meat, A&L. n.2] which is usedlike ir-m of offerings in general: beer,wine lnw ; bread 111152,4 111125,12-14; CM V

.a> t 0.0 1%I V 152,12-13; 257.16meat; milk O'T' 261,15.

V 266,1-2;portionsof bull

for'to eaf <> The phraseoccurswith otherphrases or parallel with wnm of meatportionswnm m nfyw VIII 166,16-167,1, and once it is parallel with ir-m ir Of

and rdi -m-hwt , wp-bity 111178,7 nw VII 73,8; (both meat texts) wn h. mw IV, 49,6. r

I HorusBehdet VE- Again the eatercanbe accompanied: eatingportionsof meat,

VI 127,12-13 Also thingswhich comefrom godsare eatenVII 315,4-5 . . Key to letters: (a) 13btoffering, (f) f3i-iht offering, (p) processional text v

ezr, T--. v AM. ,



to act against FCD 27 set upon do somethingagainst(P.Kahun 4,1) ,

The harpooner1

he acts against the hippopotamus? VI 117a .


to give birth to

Wb 1114 (10-11)GR
Spellings such as <> a found at Dendera DII 22,5 ;D 1148.9 whose meaning is not in . ,

doubt may in fact read ir-ms as indicated by an example at Edfu where Harsomthus is the child of Re,4i> given birth to by Hathor 1380,16.


to create

In the phrase ir sw c f. Wb I III (1-2) MK UL At Edfu this ir-sw is used as an epithet of gods such as Heh : nir wl --*whomadehimselfintomillions'HI145,9, Sakhmet andalsoofHathor'43>ftm b 'one god '


1115,7 [ Otto, GuM p.59 and 106].


Earth maker snake Wb 1109 (1) GR

The ir-O is a name for the creator'deity who is representedas a serpent. He was associatedwith different gods, in different places and Ir-t3 probably a convenient epithet for any god many -was regardedas creator. At Tbebeseven from the New Kingdom it was connectedwith Amun, a litany to

Min Amonat Luxorcalledhim <m>

into Rameses KRI 11626,131 WiscontinueS 11 and ,

latertexts,.4" Urk V111 other 36c 65i [Seth, As AmunP26-271. thelr-t3 is thefirst creator, 05T, ,
texts be calledthis, for example Ptah.At Edfu this is statedexplicitly, in the geographical godscan for Memphis: herelives <a> =, 1329,13 and the canal text for in tpqt d3t who is Tanen IV 21,15. who raisedup what exists'

hereEB isNun who existedfirst and ' 12='Ib 1-this no'me, .

<> = 'he is thea who cre ted serpent Furthera md ointmentoffering declaresthat Ptah sw m. =. %^_ in the beginning="> 11 is like 'Southof his Vill' begotten in the beginning'V 68,16 ; the king


Armin p.56-71. who created whatexists(mirror text) V 77,14[seeSethe, The origin of Ir-t3 is difficult to seebut the mentionof 0 in the nameand the older legendsof Memphisand connectionwith Ptah may give this areaa greaterclaim than Thebesfor example [SandmanHolmberg, Ptahp.185-71. Inevitablyat Edfu the textsherehint that Ir-t3 is HorusBelidet,but do not often explicitly equate the two: t4P: qevnbnb fashioned cities in his greatimageof Belidet IV 169.5;this throne , in Pe of Re V 321,1-2;epithetof Horus the king is begottenof :5z-VV". and son of

of the si3-falcon, the 'm' JPP-

who createsall things V 326,12; offering Dry-wdb (Shu)11143,5 alsothe wingeddisk ;

in fatherof who created the beginning,

fathersof all gods,creatorof everything 1137,8 In a mirror offering, god gives . Rvv"s3jw lrty. k r k3t ir-O the earth which you see to be the work of the Ir-ta ? Il

76,11[Husson, Miroirs comments thecollationof the text p.65 andp.66 n.10]. on The textsshow the role of ir-O in the cosmogonical texts wherehe appears placeof the two the landsis created the word of a at
ointment text the 'al


VI 17,13;c.f.

VI 183,9and in a bkn

comes to Re and rests with Seshatin Vtp-nbwy VI 321,14.

Hathor is called the daughter of IM3, not to equate ir-B with Re, but to emphasise her role, at 1199,9 D 1118,14;D VIR 6,2 ; 107,13 etc. At Edfu Dendera in particular, as a creative being ,D then, she emerges from Nun together with 1r-t3 308,5 ; 41s)-CiF= c=> %Aoo%. 206,7-8. The term appearsin othertemples: KOI 89 no. 108; Medamoudno. 117 line2; 257 line 11 ; Opet p. 122 ; 189 ; 196 ; UrLVIII 11,7-8 ; 54.7-8 ; 92,19 and at lbebes ir-O is a chthonian serpent, the -: TvL^V 154,4 V

who created all goddessesafter creating himself (m-ht bpr sw) V

child of the first serpent Kematef, and both are manifestationsof Arnim, as a result of a compromise between different regional traditions [commentsof Saurieron-Yoyotte,S.O. I p.33].


ointment Wb 1106 (1) GR

At Edfu a scenein the wsht hasthe title-q-A The king gives a vessel -&

for his noble father' 1415,14to 416,4

to lhy, Horus and Hathor [pl.415]. Thereis a possibleexampleat


Dendera where the 14th UE nome is brought with

e \\

sty snLLmr fnd. t MD 1128,33.


adverbial use of r, all Wb 1104 (19-20)

irw is derived from the form of r. iry 'pertaining to'. irw substitutes the possessive suffix becoming 'thereof, thereto' and the adverb is formed from the preposition [GG p.87 113,2 ; p. 156 250,4 obs] At Edfu the adverb irw can often take on the added meaning 'alr It is used alone . sb3w. sn 'the doors thereof ='all their doors' IV 5,9; gods give the king rewards all their children dance IV 17,8; A. wy for

it (building the temple) IV 10,1; 4b nhnsn W off pr s 'how glad are all those who enter if V 6,3.

In lists : width of the temple length height .... -...

thereof IV 19,11. and what

With suffixes = probable plural iry 'pertaining W: offerings of gazelles pertains to them (that is 'all gazelles) IV 3,4 ; birds m -'b CED 135 derives Coptic Pu) also! so NK (Cr290a)from irw. (KH 161). PW Got

are roastedon altars 1553,16.

is an enclitic particle 'same, again,


ingredients thingspertainingto something,

Substantive derivedfrom iry, irw (or from irw 'body,form). This word refersto the ingredients of liquids,unguent, eye., the The word occursat Edfu, in usessuchas 'ntyw 'prAi m Irw 'oliban providedwith its ingredients! Y1198.1; A III I 9it111136,9 ;WiII =7 IV -, 11204,14; YIIIq. IVU 150,17-151.1'Inmty, *, 'Q> 111237,6; (equipped)

354,5 and this can be appliedto other substances :Wq

95,7; the eyeis filled with its requirements. d. V . 11290,3; eye is equippedwith --*-

q III 144A VI 165,2; fill the eye of Horus, ; the wd3 t with )f 111 111139,1 VH 311,2-3also.The fact that it doesseemto mean ; AA qz-= III G1 Tresenting its ingredients,

'ingredients'or the like is seenin a text in the 'laboratory'

ingredientsof ihm without number' 11193,7 ;Inytw is suppliedwith

; parts 111136,8-9 knw and ikIb with IdtI t-y-- VI 314,6-7.Also : the lotus is equipped with

all its parts111,187,9.


The word occurs throughout GR temples and may have earlier precedentsin KRI 11387,12 the
q 25>

king 'pr. k m

. :



79 1


you are provided with your requirements of the afterworld'.

Wb 1114 (3) notes irw in 'equipped with its belongings' which is this word, but does not give the of this word as a noun. It is possible that the term derives from the word r 'part, fraction', so that use the substantive irw means'parts' or pieces' of something.


r, adjectivalform of preposition singular

also (a) belongs to (b) all thereof (c) with weakened

Junker GrD. 97 p.76

(=adverbial use). GG iry 113 possessiveadjective. meaning , alone With sufffix :A I %i 177,6 ; removing all evil pertaining to you 24 IV 52.3.7.


wine Wb 1106 (2) GR

iry-ib in 186,3 and 1362,7by Wb is more likely a writing of irpwine! The word recorded as P u7jare wine presentationtexts and alsol-'D6' '- IV 11,12.Literally it would mean

pun. the 'whatbelongs the heart!if it werea trueword, unless writing is meantto be a deliberate to


man of the cup, vessel 11161,7;

This is a priestly title of the king in incense presentation scenes 0,111184,10-11*, 11165,12; J incense and libation scenes: /// 182,1; 17 'C17

IV 91,10 and Mam. 24,12; 80,1 ; 96,1 , in t * 9V III 111181,15 ;2 T7 11270,7; S

185,11 [Ibrahim, Kingship p. 198 n.501 burning incense on the fire: ,

Il 82,4; Y2 C' 1 on the fire: t? Do

1570,17 buming 'n tyw : j . VIII 57,10.

IV 121,12and putdng 'n tyw

The title is a parallel of imy-r st-hnt and of the two iri-I is the Upper Egyptian title [Ibrahim, %P is a The scenes involved, mainly concerned with incense imply that 0 Kingship p. 138-1401. for holding incenseand this is the practical significance of the title. vessel

iry-'h %o

1 170

In a ? uming meat on the braziee text, in return Re Horakhty gives to the king his followers and a Z2 performing the oblation offering 1478,12 This is the person responsible for the,

brazier, perhapsfor keeping it burning.


birds Wb 1104 (4) MK GR

Ibis picturesqueterm for birds, 'those belonging to the sky, occurs at least from An. VII 4,1 [Helck, Dw3-bty p. 1121,and through the NK, e.g. M 11267.15 '; 13-7- 1 [RamessesIl.

Blessing of Ptah] and to the Edfu texts where it is used as a general term for birds : in ro-geese offerings sit r,,v which are brought from the Dw fields II 11,11, or papyrus and ro-geese , V-1 111193,11; IV nn these

where the birds 'are established upon the altae

120,15 and in Wesenting the staff of Sekheethe king announcesto Horus'

birds which I present are tribute of sht for your ka! P1.61[4d VII shows the king holding a staff . v upon which are four birds. The word can refer to birds in a hostile sensewhen they symbolise Sethian forces : sm3 bftyw, text 'flesh of 'is offered VII 150,3. The word can also refer to birds which represent 'high upon their perches'1276,10-11. iT 'are -

v ibis and the falcon are referred to as 24 av! gods, the -, -

17hese types of birds are mentioned as the tribute of the pehu of the Hare nome upon their perches'V 118,11(destroyedin IV). 1, .,,,

iry-mw priestly title of theking, he who is in chargeof water The king hasthis title, iN a scene incense libation offering 11270.7-8, also, of an and 'his vessels filled with what is in

in a processionthe king brings the wdpw and,

them,he giveswater,wine andmnw vessels your W IV 45,5.It is a title for the ctip bearerof a for royal person, in this casea god [Ibrahim,Kingshipp.1401. or

iry-rdwy servant, attendant Wb 1104 (7) OK Literally 'he who is at the feetof and theearlierexamples this are isually of qualified,for example



n nb t3wy , iry-rdwy


etc. [c f. Caminos LEM p.70 = An. III 1,I]. At Edfu

too the tide is also qualified : Horus created the gods and goddesses their cities to be in 9'c59- fy * n nb Msn attendantsof the Lord of Mesen '1464,11 ; the living gods are. n Wrt

Great goddess(Sakhmet, Hathor) 1511,10 ; the king brings bknw as an offering and,41f of the III 0- his servantsare for his workshop 11201,12.In the latter then it is a general term for attendants or workforce.

iry-3t prowman pilot of a boat , Wb 1104 (8) -NK Glossary 64-5andAEO 194 Jones, p. Ward,Admin. No.528 from MK

iry-U occursoften at Edfu as an epithetof the king. Ibrahim [Kingship p.140-11 notesthat this VI 245,15and tide occursin 'pre-toilef,episodes the ritual, in m33-nir rites : q2j; of ? it is parallelwith imi-P and mr mw-njr IV 55,5. This title is also applied where 0.4
to the king in more martial contexts; such as cro"codile slaying scenes: the king is ndri m 'h3t. f IV 374,8; m 'h3t, VII 152,10; shty-qn 3, fo, m 1h3t.f

IV 212,6,, or slaying foes in general : the king is i3wty

m dpt nir protecting his in

father VII 327,14-15, and it is also applied to Behdet: (hippopotamus slaying) his barque IV 344,2 and Horus Behdet 'h3t. f VIII 27,11; A , %4Y jj m 1h3t VIII 7,10. VI 81,8-9; (hippopotamus)

in The importance of the title is shown in the type of scene. which it and the other epithets held with iry+3t, for he is the man in the front of the boat who throws the harpoon to kill the hunted animal

(enemy), be it a hippopotamus, crocodile or Seth himself. 11is is the true significance of the post,

for it stresses importance theking asHorusin destroying enemies Osiris/Re. the the of of In the Behdetfestival texts,the prowsr6en the 3rd, 4th and 5th boat are listed: of V 31,13 V 32,8; V 32,10.15 also. Thereis also a femaleequivalent:,'Settingup the braziee the goddess is called Isis , Greatof Magic and


in his war ship slaughtering H enemies' 83,5. -

iry-pmw helmsman


Wb 1104 (10) OK' Jones,Glossary p.65

BauerKomm.117,135 alsoGardiner, AEO 194 For earlyexamples this title seeVogelsang, and of
*. The term is not used of the king at Edfu, no doubt the lessactive mo-restolid title was not appropriate for his role as slayer of enemies,but it occurs in one unusual passage: sm3-'3pp, the 6 king is described as 'master of the Nine Bows in the horizon. The abomination of his ka is. . a! * ,

.1 role that he has no need of an instruction book. in his

iry-bh whatbelongsto the throat,necklace Wb 1104 (12) MK


the Book of the Helmsman'IV 80,12- implying perhaps the king is so skilled that

In usefrom the MK ason a coffin from the Asasif[LD II 148c]whereupona tableof necklets and' beadnecklaces, type is one [J6quier, Frisesp. 50 'gardede cou'andp.61 n.2 from 4 of Re [but Allen , BD p. 94

Kairo 28091] and BD 105 line 5 mentionsthe

'mineis this papyrus translates amuletat the throatof Re*l. Ile origin of the word'that which is it thetht-oat' clearandby theEdfu textstheword appears is as a substantive quite oftenin textsfor thepresentation collarsandnecklets Onetext is specifically of . entitled wherethe king offers it to HathorIn 175,8. His epithetslink him with of the king in return.Whenshewearsthe -'

Tanenas a craftsman Hathorincreases ,QII" and the

necklet she is tkn-m-'n

and pl. 64 [2g 11]shows the king offering a tray thus

The .

word isrepeat6d in the text: 111175,14; 176,1.

howevermay masthe word iry-hh and Chassinat of readsomeexamples %JV the sign in thii way in his index [Vol.VIM. While it is not certainwhat the true readingis someof The writing , thesetexts then do go on to mention iry-bb : Onk v
In 191

for yourself -'-7ake

-n Z? I

adomthe breastwith gold andsilver' (foi H6rusandHathor)11297,7; Nko 2D it uniteswith the forepartof the goddess 111191,2; ?A -'and bring you

the king brings Vords, I

169,19. gleamingwith its constituents'gold, silver andpreciousstones'

P1.239 showsthe king offering an ornatecollar, with a top row of roundbeads.thenrow of marker Vd, beads then a lotus row and then a row of long beads and the French' ,


Institute sign covers somevery detailed and fine carving on the necklaces. In a wd3 amulet offering too :7ake wd3 ) 21 of your majesty, the Ennead adorning your

breast' 1236,17. This implies too that the necklet has a protective function as well as for decoration. In the priestly procession, the overseer of priests comes with 491L their necklaces 1

570,1-2 [but the text does not relate to a priest carrying something pl. 381 In a Maat text the king says I open your throat with 14 )'IV 75,17.1 your necklace (Maat amulet 1111; , til

The word is also frequent at Dendera: 1147,6; 114,1 ; 111143,10-11; DIV 28,13. In this writing iry is often spelled with a female sign, perhaps to complement the feminine aspect of this type of collar.


milk , whatbelongsto the udder Wb 11249(17) GR

At Edfu : in a text concerning wryt cow, imnw milk and21 the body become young I' IV 45,15 ; milk from 11 your

'May you drink andmay

of the akhet-cow1443,15.Fairman

[Indexslips] read -W asript 'udder'but it couldbe pt 'end. Otherwise unattested.


keeper cattlepens of Wb IV 13 (6-7) FCD 25

AEO 197 * hasan early exampleof this word, so it is earlierthanGR as statedin Wb. The word doesoccur at Edfu in a text listing someof the peopleat the templededication. Among them is Y = %pswand 'andtheir cattlekeepers' IV 17,8and in a gazelletext, amongthe titles .9 of Horus of Hebenuis VII 324,10 Derchain[Ritesp.41 n.6] doesnot translate

iry-s3, but it may indicatethe control of the god over his animals,as a masterof the animalpens.

iry-s3h 0

Ibrahim, Kingship p. 141 17 IV 128,12. Ibrahim

In a hnk Wbt scene 'the king is called 'butchee and 1? translatesit as 'he who belongs to the endowment' or supplier.



those who belong to the kitchens, workers in the store-kitchens c f. Wb IV 508 (16) iry-'t-n-Vn'

iry-gn' are the people who preparethe food and offerings for the daily temple riaW : the hour priest calls to 'C* _"Aa6 L :1 when it is time to begin preparing VI 346,4 [Von Kanel,

Sekhmet p. 136].


what belongs to the breast, breast ornament , Wb 1104 (15) Late

Caminos [Lit. Frag. pl. 9,2.91 records this word in an 18th Dyn. text J9 cli2i: v


the context for the word is lost. It also occurs later in IT 166 [Ramosi Dyn2O] where Maat is the j -of the Lord of Ashmunein and this compareswith an Edfu Maat text, where the gods are exhorted, 'Adom yourselves with 2119 no. ', the breast oniament, which is Maat VIII

122,10. In other GR temples too the Maat connection is continued, 'You adorn him with 'A --79:1lq:; Pw ,a Maat text Urk. VIII I Ic .
Q. ,

iry. tp

what belongs to the head,headornament of the king VI 295,6-7.

In a speechof Wadjet the Lady of Pe and Dep unite to be the



I. 2is 46 I its produce

in one of the geographical offering lists, the My field is provided with

IV 44,15. The determinative here indicates that it is a concrete word for 'things thereof made into a noun I,


garment,raiment Wb 1105 (19-20) GR

The origin of this word is not clear,but it is possiblethat it is an error for, or confused with irtyw blue cloth'. It is usedquite often at Edfu and usuallyin cloth offering texts: Hedj hotepclothesthe imageswith I? imageswith VII 99,14; a list of cloths includes IV 122,11;HB is great in 158,12;providing, Vll IV 289,11;a list


includes 11

VII 318,13;the king presents

1126,6 and 'Al ofi


12f Yrtyw are for*Horussonof Isis line 7. Two textsmentionboxeswhich are brought containing Id 11 3 III 115,15and 1128,1-2 wherethis 'divine cloth' is usedto clothe the god in iii 1 161 , thedaily ritual.
The word also occurs it Dendera in similar contexts : clothing his mother with her all gx

CD IV 126,1-2.


form, beingof a person Wb 1113 (13-15) Pyr. cE KH 499 EP= F

This is theembodiment a being,a visible imagewhich canbe hidden,andit seems derivefrom to of iri 'to do, make. The sun god travelsin the underworldin irw forms so that it is a fabricatedor 'made'appearance it with a specificfunction and because has to be createdit can not comeinto [Hornung, Mensch als Bild pp.126-1281.It is particul* existencespontaneously , literature. underworld .I. Ihis form of a falcon is like the and youngchild in his limbs IV 113,18; of IYhis form lives anddoesnot die IV 28,3 of the found in

Use at Edfu as Yorm': of Horus Behdet harpooner 18,9 ; of Aturn smsw m IV the sacred srpentin the 8th LE nome -f * king *thegod wdd exalts ,

your form andmakes rich your ka IV 44,3., all their forms are to perfectionVII

As the form of a commodity typesof bread 79,6-8; of grapes water and

all their formsare to perfectionalso VII 122,10-12.

fj, q 21 m-irw. f Wb 1114 (1-3) : in the phrase't' m lrw. f , which is appliedto the king IV Pry s9t3 who standsin his form of Master of the secrets! 122.11;fT ,= 1m 96 qbbw

in 'who stands his form as libation priest IV 148,7.In English 'the king actsin his capacityas Micellane, ous tm r-3ws 11195,15 a city 'nt'm n Itm IV 25,5 of HB in the N.Neith nome ; twt IV 17,13. 6 of

irw -

thosethingswhich belongto somthing


Of places 'pr-m equipped with : the Great Place "I ....

lot Il 106,10; 0 sanctuary x --w1158,8 ; Horus gives the

194,4-5; Il 218,1-2 the laboratory ; the Great Place of Re 'pr mo Pr-hm3g containing 1161,5.

tpr m irw. f in the senseof 'provided with its ingredients7 occurs often at Denderaand Edfa in parallel with m-At. f :a type of mineral tr m dt. f tr 0 m' p. 155 n.8] VI 204,1 ; beer"m dt-f corn mineral =q6 3" VI 251.7-8 ; 3wt-ibT'u 11 Iv--[c. E Harris, Minerals

VI 204,7-8; nhd mineral m dt. f m9' . qm3 m dt. f VIII 61,8 . m-Irw. f may imply .

that theseare the complete and real products,with nothing removedor addedor lacking Also : the eye is provided with 4..

or perhaps here 'its parts' 187,1. showing the connection

between r 'preposition' iry 'pertaining to' and r 'part, something which belongs to a whole! , Meeks translates m irw. f 78.04211. as 'comme il faut' and it also common at Dendera [c. f. An. Lex.


rite , duty , task Wb 1113(8) ceremony and also Wb 1105 (11-18) duty

The two words given separateentries in Wb are probably the sameword and may both derive from iri 'to do, perform'. It is in use from MK literature such as Sin. B 246,290 etc. At Edfu the term applies to the rituals of the priests :a 'driving the calves' rite, Horus rejoices in 'the ceremony rightly performed' [JEA 36 n.77] VI 156,12 ; 'rq 135,10 [see Goyon, JEA 57 p. 158 n. 101. -' m3l

complete the ritual IV 11

In the templedescription,the Dmw-nLr and itw-nir go round, *I hour priests


at their dudesandthe

-it at their duties IV 11,8.In the staircase texts,the priests<W,Y , ,IIt

mitt do their dutieslikewise 1536,9.


wine Wb 1115 (5-8) OK Wb Drog. 49 etc. 14j DG 39,6 Cr. 66b; CED42; KH46 RprT"6*

of lists [Volume VIII index] sixty oneexamples wine offeringsat Edfu, of which three Chassinat


are erroneous references ( 1488, IV 379, V 274) . leaving at least fifty eight examples. The rite is q always Onk-irp and the spelling of irp is most often 0'77 with the variations J43 1171,14 I" Zola. 1287,15 ;Ulu ; UU 1141,18 ": ' 111195,8 IV 280,10 IV 124,10 ; or

4-Yu V 298,10 410 ;

VII 88,13 and also

11 186,7. The offering is made to Horus Behdet, Re Horakhty and Hathor, alone or in combinations and to other more minor gods, such as Harsomthus, lhy, Khonsu, who may act as substitutes for the three main gods. irp is the general word for wine and the text may then go on to specify wines from particular places, inmwt, irt-Hr. from Kenmet, Desdes, Swnt,. Hamet and

Hwt. iht, the main wine producing areas. In return for the offering the king is given mastery over Egypt and foreign lands, especially the Fenkhu, whose people become servants of the king. The emphasis is on increasing the power of the king, which makes the wine serve as something to promote bravery and strength, a stimulant, 'Dutch courage!.If Hathor is involved in the offering, she often gives back to the king tb whm tb 'drunkennessand again drunkenness'and her epithets stress her position as the patron of drunkennessand all the uninhibited dancing and rejoicing as a result. As in wine is the produce of a plant, the ability of the gods to make plants grow is often stressed, their epithets as is their creative power, e.g. ir hryw hryw 'who makes those above and below' VII 75,2

76,2.While makingthis offering the king mostoften wearsthe composite crown . , [c. [pl. which canbe further embellished f. pl.664] and the morecomplexform as in 111253,2-8 76 3rd.col right II]. The wine canbe presented with otherofferings: the mt garland-V 60,10ff ;V 232,15 or milk by VH 88,13(presented Berenice) beer- IH 299,7(to the thirty Hathors). or The word irp alsooccursthroughout templetexts,outsidethesespecificoffering rituals andis the madefrom grapes the of word for all andany typesof alcoholicbeverage clearlythegeneral [Keimer,Gartenpflanzen 1156].andvineyards 6 vines


Wb 1115 (16) GR

Wb cites an examplefrom Dendera,Dum. GI IV 125, where in the 19th LE nome one of its is products

q 13 4m

of the God'sLand.This text is a duplicateof one at Edfu


IV 37,5.From the determinative,irpy, maybe somekind of bread.




GG 252 later fon-nof rf, for emphasisafter imperatives,in questions,excalmatory sentences. Junker GrD 273 rf irf is rare used for emphasis. , , The particle occurs infrequently at Edfu : people of Dendera unite with Wetjeset m-'b and with their brethren they join !' IV 11,9; HB repels darkness rwix. f q1`2' tty and drives away storms' V 7,10.

irt = 3rt


Cauville, irt un nornde la situle?, RdE 34,1982-3 137 p.

At Edfu, in the Houseof theMorning,a lunmutefpriestconsecrates offeringsandthescene showsa a--=. designated ,qa situla as amongothertypesof vessel111338,7 pl.81 and 6= derivefrom a word irw(t) 422.2ao This may

Ce. OSLCGC25677,8b An.Lex. 77.0392 for perhaps a =

milk vase.The word at Edfu may alsobe for a milk vessel, it could havebeenusedlike a situla but for a funerarylibation.



Wb 1106 (6) to 107(20) dual1108(1-2) DG 38,2 Cr.73b; CED 44; KH 53 E14 C-, &'r= .
In early texts irt and its dual form were the only words foreye [Ufebvre, Tableau 17 p. 16ff.

irt is used less frequently at Effu than might be thought'becausethe texts have, by this time, many other words for specific eyes and compound words with irL To open the eyes in Egyptian can imply two things Horus Behdet in'the km-wr nome IV 29,14 and wp wn physically is an attribute of with the adze, is symbolic to ensure

that the deceasedor the temple lives' IV 33 1,10 (temple in this caseat the dedication), and is thus a parallel ceremony to wp43. -


Eyes of gods were thought to dispenselight and this is metaphorically shown in the canal of the

imt-bnt nome,whereHorusbringsfire out of the water of his eyes

(the canalbeing IV

IV 36,7 while in the imt-p nomeHorus is one who entershis eye <Z> V_ the water) d. I, 38,12.The word im is alsothepupil of theeye,hence metaphors word playshere. the and In the 10thLE nome,irt is also usedin metaphors, 'Horus hereis the Black Bull in his eye (thatis, he is the blackiris) IV 29,11. irt, suchas the wty plumesin offerings, Other things can be assimilated with 'this youreyeis fastened your head'1V89,4-5. to

Thoth; as the rescuer the eyeof Re haspowerover it,'he saysto the king, May you receive of your eye' 1401,4. inint or i3bt 'righe or 'lefe e.g. 'May you be contentwith irt can be qualified by the adjectives the right eye1401,4.EyesalsoareredJor examplein the nameof the minor god by 1190,3-, this is caused rage. A gift to the king is gn nb * 'I 'all the circuit of the eyesof Re!(that is everythingthatRe <0> could conceivably

the 1278,7.In instances suchas the last two examples, writing sees)
mask other readings such as mrty. I-

In the phrase irt= nt dt= . The translation of this phrase is uncertain, Meeks took it as 'son propre [An. Lex. 77.0381 ; 79.0284] and collected examples from the date of Pepi I: bnbn falcon tr oeil' Z' V(-Martin, Garantsymbol p. 12'Auge sein6r Ewigkeiel, to the CT IV 103a 'he has fashioned his bodily eye' [FECT 1238] ; Medinet Habu IV 226,51 : May 0 in a procession of pries& ; KU H 661,2 the king as a waab priest
Oh I

you seewith the of Horus censes godswith

censedwith * :: -;

Ibis useis paralleledat Edfu whereHB is .

IV 307,17 and a necklace is called irt, 'when Ptah gives the king,

1"i "F-- 142.7 The eye of your body may simply be 'your physical eye!, cL the use of dt in IV . 9=0 this way to denote something real.


Eye of Aturn

The eyeof Aturn wasoriginally a serpent goddess who was the daughterof Aturn. in the Book of were the Deadthe eyewassaidto b6 the uraeus snake in the GR temples numberof goddesses and a


said to be irt-Itm,

them Wadjet, Bastet, Hathor [see Mysliewic, Aturn I pp. 117-1191.At among

Edfu, this epithet appears in a scene of offering the wdb (Kbt), or water clock . These texts are
in particular Hathor. but a text begins dd mdw <a> often associated with the eyes of Re and "I

q V1 I the wn9b' V 98.4-5. This offering is performed by the king to Bastet'and raise up IIr-hkn. It is difficult to see who is the irt-Itm in this case and it does not occur in any of the

other wdb offerings. At Dendera Bastet is called irt-Itm in a Wadjet ofering .D 164,14.


Eye of Osiris

Eye of Osiris is a type of incense or aromatic resin, usually mentioned with other incenses: in a <M> Eye of Re, Eye of Horus and 4T. A 11 md ointment offering #' 272,14-15. With thesetwo other Eye compounds<a, 1-1 are mixed together to make it V

comes from the God's Land 1566.1. In ,

the Laboratory texts describing nnib, the red variety is said to come from

204,14-15and it is also mentionedin a 1ms-'ntyw text compounds usedto make'ntyw IV 94,9-10.

as perhaps one of the

irt-llr and is This substance not found in medicaltextsandis mostlikely an inventionto balance irt-R' It alsooccursat Philae,Ben9dite105,1-2 (parallelto V 272,14-15) .

Irt-bint evil eye

Wb 11-7 (5)

Late and 1443 (11) EIEP - BOONEE but

Cr. 39b; CED 45

The c8nccpt of an 'evil eye! is found as early as Pyr. 1266, a door is scaled shut the phrase irt-bint

does not occur in Egyptian. until the 22nd or 23rd dynasties. 77hisprompted

Spiegelberg [ZAS 59,1924 pp. 1534] to suggest that the idea had come into Egyptian magic with the rise of the Libyan dynasties. He collected examples of the name sl3w-Irt-bint W onwards and also mentions a name 10 P from Dyn. 23

-Qa from the NK [there were Libyans in Egypt at this,

time , see also Ranke PN 1322-3 with ref. to Spiegelberg only]. 77heoracular amuletic decrees studied by Edwards [BPBM 4th seriesI text] from the 22nd and 23rd dynasties [p. xfiil contain many examples of irt-bint, be warded off by the amulets [one such example is the Berlin which was to

23308, S.Schott, ZAS 67,1931 p. 106-1101. A spell against the evil, cye (r3 hsf wooden tablet 'j



is written on a door jamb of a chapel at Dendera [Cauville, BEPAO 89,1989 pp.52 ff ,

with bibliography] and at Edfu, the r3w nw bsf irt-bint 'Spells of warding off the evil eye' is one of the volumes kept in the library priest king says I recite (Yd) for you accompanying the carrying chair of the Icing are 263,5. -2pl-iP'74-'41r. 111351,9 Also in an amulet text, the . VI 300,6-7 ; in an incense text, P! 2' which sanctify his path VI 7:


every eye, everyone Wb 1107 (34) oft.

This common phrase is also found at Edfu in a more embellished writing : Horus as the sundisk dg3c -2
07 "; 1?

='r ,

'everyone seesby him' V 7.9.



Eyeof Re Wb 1107 (8-11)

As an epithet of goddesses,and particularly of Hathor, this is common at Edfu, with the virtually constant writing -Jef>l Hathor'Rejoicel AsinWb, irt-Rlcan .93 but note in a text for the destruction of the eye of Apopis, it is said to , you Eye of Re'IV 149,8. It can also apply to Isis.
d= I


be a word for the sun: Thoth gives theking%n nb n'-"I"


circuit of the 'sun' 1278,7 and the king is given m33.k n =>

that you seeby the Eye

Re 162,12-13; the king purifies Hathor with products of the Eye of Re 1569,34. of irt-R' like irt-Wsir, is also a word taken refer to some kind of substance used in producing Eye of Horus, Eye of Osiris are used V 272,14 ; in the and 11204,4 ; simiWly the king censesgod with

incense: for making md

laboratory black nnib is formed from -Vcu -0-0comes forth from ICZS'> 1- what God's Land <> 15663

JI 186,1 the three Eye substancescome forth from the are combined together as one incense VI 204,3

[mythological allusions seeAufr6re, RdE 34,1982-3 p. 17-18]. So irt-R' be seen,not only as the physical producer of incense, but as a name for one of its, could



irt-I. Ir Eye of Horus Wb 1107 (12-14) identified by a qualifying adjective and without There are different types of Eye of Horus substance is this it is difficult to seewhich substance meant. irt-Hr alone : as the physical eye of Horus, mn-wr incensecomes forth from 43tw ttf II

189,14 precious stones come from cz> :4t , slaying the foes as fire '2111,4

111144,5; red jasper comes from it VRI 73,4 in

t prevails again,; them V 293,8 , implying that it is fire , and this so that it bums 1571.2 [c. f.

is made explicit in a text for putting incenseupon 'W +-I-

P.Br-Rh. 24,6

+-L and29,25 41. tt

The eyecanalsobe a word for an ointmentusedin mummification is synonymous and with md in md and mnhiofferings :a hbb vesselis filled with andmd is a mixtureof 9 '111192,4; and'c1'-* Ut

irt-R' and irt-Wsir V 272,14-15; alsoVe receivecloth andhold 111141,6 andit is broughtin offerings qc-0 ; Q> .C: :W1

1133,16.In this caseit is possiblethat'

irt-Hr as a synonymof wd3t, the eye of Horus, could be seenas something'whole! and life producing',thus it would be importantin mummification. Ibis usestemsat leastfrom NK texts StelaYr. 30 R.II IM 4963= KRI 11370,7 makehim divine/ to censehim with [seeSerapeum to 2 -QE> . 11 1--

The two minerals irt-RI and irt-Hr representthe solar spheres,though the difference between the

two is not clear.

Wine In wine texts irt-Hr is clearly wine : -'Offer before its lord' V 151,6 ; '1 make V'111132,10

body divine with <C> #C ' 111195.14; 'Your majesty is drunk with your 'Bring 4z> UZ

and provide wd3t with its requirements' VI 253,2., It also seems to be with its wine'II 195,13 ; 1144,7 also ; 111177,6 and Eye of Horus or of

provided with wine itself : 'Fill

#M that in 186,7 a mnw vessel is full of Inmt wine 1121 which means

Eye of Horus ? [PJumilhac XIV 14-15 has a legend associatingwine with the eye of Horus, Vandier p. 126]. Cosmetic In w3d and msdmt texts: nn this eye of Horus comes forth from quarries

and joins the two eyes 111144,1,where the Eye of Horus is plainly w3d cosmetic through a pun on P, 22t>twd3t eye, and the same text has 'I bring you w3d of ' 111144,5.


Water In qbhwtexts: cool with



to refresh (qbh) your heart '1 186,2 ; 'Make your heart

VI 253,16.

The word also has a curious relationship with the drt vesseloffering and goddessWadjet for, in the texts where thesevesselsare offered, the goddesscan be referred rCt* 4t1: to as 111122,9and

IV'60,1'. The connection seemsto be that Wadjet is a Lower Egyptian goddessand also the Red Crown d6t, hence the connection with the vessels [c C Lefebvre, JEA 35,1949 p.731. In these texts : 'Take water from 22,13 'the Idng puts dit vessels' 1170,17 d5zis before you III

in its place! 148,11. In fact there is a pun on wd3t eye (of

Horus) = Wadjet the goddess,so she is also theEye of Horus With adjectives irt-'nht : Intyw is on the fire it is in , V V containing ta! 111144,3.

Green Eye of Horus (Wb 1107,18-19 Pyr.) is generally wine: in the Behdet festivities, streets w3d : drip with Tei which -T IV 3,4 ; in wine texts is before you VIII 46,6 ; Take irp V 301,13 Two .

<Z>; Y\ satisfies your heart'l 448,6; Tlood Behdet with 40

texts in the laboratory define it exactly : 'Giving R


from the House of the Right leg to

the spices of the laboratory. Grape wine of Kenmet, 'j'&Df' of Djesdjes, wine of eastern sweeten " lands, of Hamet and Sunet likewise with 4.3::ff\ foreign , 3WY,'to moisten in them, to soften

md of the work of best 'ntyw to sweeten to makesoft all spicesof Punt,to makenice the" nnib, for laboratory,to makeflourish the scentfor Akhty in the horizon,to makelovely the fragrance the for in a recipe- k3p 25",WT'1 is oneof the ingredients is alsocalled and BehdeeIl 218,4-8; also . In 'wine of the oasis'11212,1. the preparation ointmentsthenit is extensivelyusedandjust here of 'so the Egyptiansusedirt-Vr w3d wine as the is usedto dilute concentrated perfumes, as alcohol
I alcoholbase.In a priestly procession, H
d: z>


the heartof the god 1555.12and Horus makes

is satisfiedwith At


irt-wrt can apply to different substances t : 210,13


m3'ty for your nose,probably incenseII

I the handsof a priest comesfrom Nun and is to censelimbs (probablyincense) 171.15 ; in a cloth

5 'Your heartexults with its fragrance, 570,2 ; but in a wine text, text 'You are clothedin it

'1296,9. It may also be'fire! : Intyw is on the fire'. I fire 1478,8

Ybring you Intyw Dr upon '14#3r" ; fore pieces meatare for -of


irt-bnr 89,1-2 191.16. irt-hd

sweet eye of Horus = wine - offerings and


and sd h 'you eat of them ' VIIIlei 'wine! ?V

in a cosmetic offering, 'Bring infw of the Eye and Re and

white eye of Horus (Wb 1107,15-17) Pyr, according to Wb this can apply to anything in'

white in colour, from bread and milk to incense.At Edfu, it applies to incense Punt censesthe Great Place with its fragrance 40

is the girl child in Nekhen, the diadem of 4M

Hor-Akhty (that is Nekhbet)'H 218,4-8. It can also be cloth in a md and cloth text, , is for your limbs V 196,3 and in an offering of white and green cloth, I receiye the cloth you clothe yourself in if 1125,1. ,


sky An.Lex. 78.00473rt c f. Wb 1209 (7) 'ryt GR and

irt occursat Edfu, but CT VU 428b hasa word variouslyspelled

Faulkner[FECT 111159 51suggested 3srt wasa pun on sr 'makeknown!.In light of that n.

the Edfu examples 3rt/3frt may be the prototype for the Ptolemaic word. In two cases, probably 10r-. -5 VII 276,16 and Horus Behdet iWh q, 4r--Iq

copied, in link hh texts, the king lifts up (k3wt) traverses

VH 296,6. The frise inscriptions in the Pronaos have

VI 279,8. The alliteration of i shows that at Edfu I may have soundedlike 3. Kurth suggestedthat irt may derive from j'r 'to raise up' [Himmelstfitzen p.60 n.3] and had been invented so that it meant J Qq 'that which is raised uV = the sky. Wb 1209 (7) has., ro-'which is a word for heaven in 1557,8 =-, where it is purified from impurity. This example may be irt 'sky' or even 'ryt or 'rwt 'a shrine! or 'dooe. I-II -, II


light blue cloth ? Wb 1116 (10-11)colour - Med. (12) cloth ,

irtyw-cloth is known from a Berlin Sarcophagus 45

(Sebek-0)whereit appears with

[Papyrus red cloth and also at Deir el Bahri (Naville pl. 130)and then often in GR texts.Breasted how irtyw cloth wasderivedfrom the nameof a plant or its fruit, Edwin Smith p.194-6]discussed [P. to plantsin festivegarlands Berlin 3053,18,4Mut Rituall andis usedas an ingredient as applied


in recipes [Pap.Ebers 30,5 etc.]. In medical texts too it describes the discolouration of the face or a wound and though Breasted translatesblue, violet, purple a kind of bruise-dark-purple is nearer the mark Further Daumas, [BIFAO 56 p.63 Note sur la plante 11atjet 59-641 argued that as irtyw p. can be written with or ' as determinative it was impossible to tell if it were mineral or

vegetable.Germer [Arznei. p.2431suggestedthat to dye cloth blue one might useIsatis tinctoria. The irtyw cloth at Edfu is part of a specific offering ritual and it can be offered with idmi red cloth di mnht V idmi 1126,113 ; the king comes with his cloth

fear he intends clothethegodandincrease andaweof him 1289,13.In theformertext to with which TayetandNut andin the latterby Harsomthus by and Horusis accompanied by Hathor,Hedj-hotep, 9fyt of the king in Egypt and for the king is on increasing snd and the emphasis the rewards of foreign lands.The scenes the king holdingup two bolts of cloth to the godsandin XI 258 he show hasan ornatecrown while in pl.29a 2d a red crown. The idml red cloth may have affectedthe balanceof the offering, but two further examples show irtyw offeredalone: db3 mnht in his king dresses fatherin 9 strandcloth andHorusagaingrantsan increase terrorand wherethe fear 131,2-8 ; db3 mnht 1432,9-15.While the latter 0kqP hasthe samekind of emphasis

XII 347 hasthe king againin the red crown andfor the formerpl. II the king wearsthe blue scene crown. terror in the eyeof the beholder It would seemthenthat the wearingof cloth suchas this increases so it wardsoff hostileforces. in The cloth also appears processions offering bearers, bearercarriesvarioustypesof cloth a of including the god'sbody with q to hide the divine image1566,13;Selketis broughtand covers with which Ilk idmi ntri etc. IV 48,6 ;a list of templecloth includes 1

four king consecrates chests cloth beforeHorusandHathor, oneof 388,6andin a scene of the where q61 I VI 249,14(alsopl. 152)the othersbeing bdtw%idml. boxesis labelled the .RA irtyw is also a term for colour in a 'Driving the calves'text, where the king says , 'I drive the q* !k II'', but the scene labelsthe calves as coloursare black,white, greenand calveswhose black, red, white and speckled this is the only exampleof thesecoloursfor the calves[JEA 36, and 1950p.70 nAS]. In a similar sceneat Denderathe black calf was the one designated irtyw as [Breasted cit. p. 1971 it may be that the writer of the texts did not know exactlywhat irtyw and op.


was. describes A text at Dendera someplantswhich arebrought'andit goeson, 'Your face is rnfk at seeing -oe 11190,5-6. CD Keeswho notedthat this wasa'variantof dfr [Farbensymbblik #

it pA66 n.11andJdquiertook it asa variantof idmi [Frisesp.371.Harrissuggested wasactually a 'purplish Line [Harris, Minerals p.266] and Iversen took it as a variant of i3rrt with the'root [PaintsandPigments 101. of this indicates it ISnot'light blue' All of meaning 'grapecoloured! that p. by assuggested Blackman[JEA 32 p.80 n.171.


In a hippopotamus slaying text HB is the harpooner wn , ,



F. 41



hbhb hut niwt. f Jjb3 IV 214,7. If irtn is a word for hippopotamus then it is a hapax. to v


Wb 1117 (1-5) Old DG 40,3 Cr. 58b; CED 37; KH 39 EPWTE5' EEPWt'

In theEdfu textsirit refersto the milk of cowsandis part of a ritual offering.It appears titles of in texts as Pnk irLt where it is spelled

appropriate dr-Ides such as Harsomthus, usually shown wearing the hmhmty crown and side lock. who grants to the king in return might and strength against his foes, rejuvenation of the body and

4. Cb

'0". 71c offering is madeto

limbs and great amounts of provisions and supplies. Ibis is a reciprocal gift becausein his offering speech,the king stressesthe renewal power and strengthening virtues of the milk [see 167,15-68,6 1 452,16 - 453,6 ; 11 38,15-39,6 Il 184,11-16 ; 111 124,14-125,10 ; IV 272.7-273,2 ;V 9 83,18-84.10 ;V 265,9-266a ;V 364,9-18 ; VIT 123,10-124,81.It is also offered to Horus Behdet with the same rewards'of strength and rejuvenation 1531,13-532,13 and to 1hy, the child god V 159,17-160,10 ;V 172,4-14 where the emphasis of the return gift is on provisions. In these scenes king wears T the which is reminiscent of the wine offerings [see e.g. pl. 117,1191. On door

jambs a scene of milk offering to Ihy and Harsomthus may be placed opposite each other, V

330,16-331,3 and V 332,3-6 (pl. 136) ;V 389,16 - 390,4 and V 391.13 - 392,2 (pl. 143) ; also I (pl. 365,11Horusand 1367,3-11Harsomthus 3Ic). The offering can alsobe madeto Hathoras cow


goddessand provider of milk, she is the Lady of Milk VII 68,8-66,7 and Queen Berenice, the wife , of Ptolemy Alexander, is shown making a dual offering of milk and wine to Hathor and

Harsomthus VII 88,13-90,8. The texts make the wine offering dominant, but rewards for the milk of provisions are mentioned. In VII 284,16 to 285,13 milk is offered jointly to Ihy and Harsomthusand this text stressesthe purifying aspectof milk as a reward for the king. Milk as a basic offering can be used too, for cxample a Onk irlt offering heads one of the Persian Donation texts VII 226,6 to 230,7. Here the king describeshow he bimself milked the cows, strained the milk in a colander and put it in silver and gold vesselsto be offered to the god. It was the strengtheningand rejuvenating properties of milk which were celebratedin the rituals [in general LA IV 127-8 Milchopfer]. Milk came from the udders of the hs3t and sh3t-Hr cows

mainly and it is associatedwith rearing the young Horus in Khemmis, so that allusions to this Myth arefirequent. In the temple description milk is listed as one of the prime liquids for the offerings IV 19,2. U


camp Wb 1118 (5-8) D.18 DG 40,1a Cr.253a; CED 123; KH 142 0 7_6

The word ihw refersto any kind of enclosure, whetherfor peopleor animals.Usually textsspecify land for keeping army campor a pieceof enclosed what is kept in the ihw so it canbe a permanent animalsin pasture.The word is found in toponymsand in people'snames[Yoyotte, MDAIK 16, 1958pA184191. At Edfu oneof the placesvisited during the'HappyReunion'festivalby the gods ra -T bilt, C': 0 3 the campof the army V 357.3.


to cause to move slowly Wb 1118 (19) MK

Wb recordsthis verb in the Peasant Vogelsang [Komm. p.67 A 56 and B2 104] suggested and the in meaning'go slowly' as it appears B2 104 in contrastwith hh 'go fasf. The verb also occursat


Edfu in the text for'Bringing Nun to his lord'. where a number of deities describe the coming of the' flood, and My says, 'q J, I ra, ikwt tr rww I cause the flood to move slowly for you

land' where the verb seemsto have developedthe use of the MK verb into a causative 11 upon the 260,4.


mineral Wb 1119(2-3) Med.

ihm appears medicaltexts infrequentlyso that its properties a drug cannotbe examinedin in as detail [Germer,Arznei. p. 176-71. Drog. 59 took it as a resin or balsam,but not necessarily Wb 'benzoin' once suggested [surveyof references Outsidethesetexts Charpentier 106-7no.1731. as pp. q ra it is mentionedas a product of Punt,U& IV 329,8 with snLr (in Hatshepsut's

expedition).At Edfu someindicationof its useis given in two textsfor putting Intyw on the fire, whereitis said IV 151,5; 111145,1 , is usedto fumigatethe sanctuary the temple(alliterationwith iwnn) of ' a. . is reiterated the templedescriptionqa This in IV 19,1.717he

in lists of incenses e.g. rAO '-- as the productof Punt1566,1 andW word often occurs , a 04 'r- IV 151.16 and this text goes on to indicate that the hbstyw and g3wtyw people of Punt carry
tribute IV 52,2. It can be combined with other substancestoo, with mn-wr 'Ac"T: as VI 296.18 and they form Eye of Horus, it is like the majesty of the White One of Nekheb and it is also combined with snLr"XMT VI 204,2-3. In a list of substancesin an 'ntyw text is rAMr

VI 251,7andHorusas ruler of the Godi land is also

(Up 'ntyw).

Lord of Ihem VII 131,6

A longer text in the laboratorygives somedetailsaboutthe substance the 'ntyw called :


which comesfrom thegod'sheartand the vulva of the femalefalcon in Punt.It is red with white in it, soft but canhaveits liquid removed become dry' is usedin all UpperandLower Egyptian to 11206,10-13. temples The ihm at Edfu then is a type of 'ntyw which i.S usedin the sameway and possibly had a

purifying effect,whetherthis is the sameihm as foundin the earliertextsis not clearhowever.


burialground underworld ,


JEA 36, p.75 n.87 ihks 'underworld'occurs oftenat Edfu in mortuarycontexts, suchaslibation andincense offerings Osiris is
gods are buried in faD

Lord of the underworldand distinguished his form IV 99,15;basof in

IV 103,10-11; water is poured out for those in IV

q ra 1 83,10-11; a md text arriving at 080 each year IV 115,4; w-bhsw HB illumines Behdet but hides WO -178,15-16; a Sokar text, he is ruler of King of the Two

Lands and sovereign of the gods of heaven VI 141,16 ;a hymn in praise of HB imyw q ril .4

those in the underworld exult when Horus Testsin %tyt 1346,4 ; an amulet gives the protection of him who drove away mourning from

q ra'a *- 0

VI 301,6-7.


crocodile Wb 1122 (11) GR

Wb cites only 1441,12 where BB 'SpearsApopis and sty and thosein Mesenrejoice'. The phrase+ crocodiletext IV 57,9.

and the hippopotamus ,

also occursas the title of a slaying the

The word at Edfu refersto thecrocodileandis derivedfrom iO 'malebull', hereappliedto amale aocodile.


Wb 1119 (15) to 120 (4) Pyr. in phrases DG41,2 ', [butQCP41 cow] wndw

Cr.64a; CED41 is from ihtfem.

This word is attested from the earliest texts, but is not as common as words such as W, and is not part of the offering lists [not in Bartal. Ile

word continues into the NK [Caminos

translatesitox' LEM p.5391and the plural is a generic term for cattle. At Edfu these cattle are specifically mentioned in the temple festival calendars on a 12th day a slaughtered q Wr and milk are offered V 349,1 and a red male bull is slaughtered

before HB and its foreleg cut off V 133,5-6. to symbolise the destruction of Seth and his foes. Writings such as IV, 11,10 could mask ih in this case they are cut up for. the temple ,


celebrations [de Wit CdE 36, No.71,1961 p.83 transliteratesthis as iw].


white bull = oryx

'Making a slaughter of the white

A gazelle slaying text, has the clear line ir Id n

bull ', presumably here this is an allusion to the gazelle, but it may be a simple confusion wi6 m3-bd VII 263,16 [Derchain, Rites I Oryx does not comment]. If ih is used of the gazelle here then this strengthensthe derivation of ih 'crocodile' .

to sleep
f. Wb 1120 (13) Late, GR to weep?

qL 40, s3w hwt-nLrw, At Edfu, a text describing the guardians of the temple says, 'hm 423 without sleeping by the guards of the temples' VIII 39,11. The nearestword to this in Wb is a verb ih 'to cry', from Mett. 39 irt ]Vr Ombo text describing food ,n q1 TI\ and Gr.Oase <11> . Also however in a Kom


Ombos 159,60. This does not

appearto be the samething as Edfu where the meaning 'to sleep' seemscertain.

'How goodV Wb 1120 (15) intedection IiL MK

In Admonitions Recto line 9, the text has jLd.l , kr srf. 1 'that I might say 1

aboutmy condition1. Gardiner[GAS p.1011 that suggested it wasperhaps exclamation relief. an of He notedthe examplein the IsraelStela line 22, [KRI IV 18,3]in a line in praiseof , king the h NN'd ndm [ANET p.378 'how I '1'0 how sweet I' [LiqheimAELII p.77]. The writing of the 2p .... nosesign alsoappears Edfu, a door text says,'Giving Maatof Re to his nose'we at offer it to Hathor andhe says qIa Ptp.wy is this lord 1'1267.6 ; and in a Maat offering the samesentence . VII 91,2'.- -, ,,, "I . sty nb st-wrt 'How pleasantare all

is repeated n.f dd.

In incenseofferings: incense put uponthe fire, is

" g,,, , Zf GreatPlace! 151.12;a mirror text, 'ach'nostrilsmellsits odourql 0 styhow IV the of perfumes du nice is the fragranceof incense'ofthe GreatOne' IV 238,5 [Husson,Miroirs: p.78 1'agrment rfurh de-la Gr'ande' 'She-smellS'her fragrance> (idt) ; p, ql(i> -- -sty bm.f, '-Mam.149,3;1'



idt. s DH 42,6 and


rn hnms

with an m 'How nice is it, namely, her ,

scentI'D Il 80,9.
Of wine :a mnw vessel of wine is offered njim. wy idt. f , hnm. f 'How sweet %P

is its scentand(parallelto it) how pleasant its smell I'MD III 20r. is
This kind of interjection maybe a writing of ihi (Wb 1117 12-14) . somekind of dialectic variant. and thus perhaps


smell of incense Wb 1120 (14) OR

Wb quotestwo examples this word E.Mam 149 and MD III 20r, but it also occursin Edfu of temple:a libation and incense text, rs Hpri m 1503,4 (collatedXII 363)'Awaken -

(spellingundertheinfluence thegodIhy). Khepri with the fragrance! of



to make music Wb 1122 (1-9) D. 18 oft. GR

The verb and its nouns are more frequent at Dendera,the centre of the musical Hathor CUILAt Edfu, as 11athoris the main goddesshere, texts devoted to her have appropriate offerings, so in sistra texts, gods play for her 1523.10 1528,8 and goddessesplay for her I

153,10 and in snsw song texts Il 70,3. Theking impersonatesIhy the musician god and he declares 154,14 and the sbmw play for Min Noun - music Ob 1407,17. for Hathor H 40.15 (sistra and menat text) and -for your majesty, Eye of Re'

As the object of ir -'

! z=91.

Jqq 'A Lady Hathor is 1%;? l of Music 155,1 A (sistra text).


musician Wb 1121 (-17) OK

Ihy the child of Hath is knownfrom the Old Kingdomand this nameis appliedto the king when or I heperformsmusicalrituals for Hathor. ihy [Ibrahim, Kingship p. 141-142; ERE X 294] : at Edfu in a sqr-hm3 text the king is T



'musician in the flood who sings to the diadem' IV 149,10 [Borghouts, JEA 59 p. 128

7hy who bestows water, whom the uraeusgoddesspraisesl. But elsewhere,the king is translates beloved of his mother (sistra text) 154,17 ; and 57,4. of the Golden One (menat text) I

1114' iy-w'b [Ibrahim,Kingshipp.142-1441 Edfu in a beertext at

dw3-njr' 1453.10and

71' /'0 It IV of HorusKhentyHeretIV 344,11. alsorefersto Harsomthus 42,12-13. /IqIITJ ihy [Ibrahim, Kingship p.144-61 is the title of the king in dw3 .nir scenes: this w'b.

(;b 293,9-10;


IV 308,15; /I 'I

9j q J'b IV 378,8;

VII 194,7and Tringing god to his meat`/

(I /.4Jht7q VII 87,13', 611 1483,16. In the Myth too the king is

thereis of Horus Behdetwho pacifiesthe god andhis harpoonVI 63,10.In the dw3-njr scenes on alsoan emphasis him knowingthecorrectspellsso that hecanbe associated Tboth. with My is alsoclosely associated hnw, but this doesnot havethe implicationof association with with %0 bnw mayhavelessimportance. Ihy thegod andfor this reason


femalemusician Wb 1121 (18) D.22 oft. GR

T'hisis known as a title of a femalemusicianfrom the Late New Kingdom,but at Edfu the title is appliedto the queen,Cleopatra for your ka.(of HIR)VI 82.3.Sheis calledthis in the

Myth whensheleadstheroyal daughters southandnorthandwomenof Mendes, andDcp in a Pe of songof praisefor thegod. k

iy-nnw musicianof Nun Wb 1121 (17) GR Wb only hasreferences from Dendera (alsoD 1169,14-16 VIH 29,3 ; 31,15; 152,12), the but ;D epithetappears Edfu too: in the canaltext of the Imt-pD nome,Horusis the noblechild of Neith at J; f I'V'37,8 ,'a textIor the'carners the barque,the king is EE the Lady of Pcr'-Wer of of his motherWosretVIII 98,14.


to capture,surround Wb 1213 (17-19) GR spellingof This verb is derivedfrom Vnet/cord'is usedat Edfu in a pun,it canmean'tostretchwide thearms' ,Je, Nekhbet and 'to surround, enfold' . An Edfu text usesthe two nuances, VWO 10 :mmss 'stretches wide her arms(wings)and enfoldsthe riverbanks' 111204,4.; f. IV 16.10; VI c. 72,8.1 ) In the sense 'to capture, lunareye :M41--. of nef, this appliesto the 91,3Thoth V "C= ; place'111210,13111139,6 1424,15andcE Nfam. ; an allusionto Thoth nettingthe eyeof Re). 'net the pupil fixed in its , he hasnettedthe eye I=

net Wb 1214 (1) OK Medum9 [Petrie,Medum,London,1892]hasin a huntingscene Ia out, net spread but Wb

hasonly 't (WB 1213,15-16)which is a cord in a net. At Edfu it is clearly the word for a net, II -= -6 J11' derivedfrom theseearlierformsfor in the Myth, thereis a reference a 'net of Min' to VI 79,8 and : M4 VI 64,4.This probablyrefersto IvIin as a god of the desertwastes and.

thusa hunterthere,the net beingoneof his huntingtools.

iy-Xny In an offering of life and poweeto Osiris, the king is called 'Son of Shu and Tefhut V 366,1 ; similarly 'the king is like 'd and the child of hx and heir of Mam.92.6;

bsbd-tp DH 128,1 ; also a mirror text, in a mirror offering to Hathor she is called '3t 3W kr%. Hathor is'Sweet of face t'Ll) its IV 79d [Husson, Miroirs p. 180-2 Doc.54]. Husson

commented [op.cit. p. 185 n. 15] that the meaning 'is uncertain' but it seemsto be a type of hairdo of a goddess . Perhapsher braids of hair were held up in a net and thus it reads it-by 'net-braids. A rct text describing the uraeus (in the Soped nome) says wrh 11 bsbd inm fixed in his 14

Gutbub suggested head' where iy then has the full meaningof 'tresses' that the god ''w was written Min the pairsof the godsquoted[Textesp.144],but the god hereis intended be a to

and goddess mostprobablyis a namefor Hathor.


Both Brugsch [DH Suppl. 1281and Budge [Dict. I 76a] record iyw meaning'tresses'as at Edfu and to this reference can be added a Dendera text, Hathor m, nwn and head of lapis hue' D Il 200,2 and also D Vill 110,14wn"w'n bsbd-tp 'wiLh flowing hair hsbd-tp.


thighs Wb 1120 (16-17) NK

iht 'thighs'appears relatively late in Egyptian and it is used primarily to describeth Ahighsof the .Ye
sky goddess Nut when she gives birth to the sun god. New Kingdom hymns to the sun frequently use the term in this way [Assmann, Sonnenleider p. 197 n. 30] and P. Berl. 3050 3,4 [BIFAO and text], for the sun god comes forth from "M 93 53 p. 65 ff. '

of his mother: Amduat 12 [Hornung Am. I

192] the sun god appearsfrom he who opens

IN 10.

of Nut *,Cenotaph Sed I pl. 81 [ASAE 51,3771 it is'

RamessesIII ?; Taharqa of his mother Nut; Tr 158 < 1400> 77honufer, of Nuf. IV'

pl. 38 ,C 7-8 (Aspelta) 'this great god appearsfrom

At Edf6 also : Horus Behdet shows himself in Nut between her thighs (at sunrise) 2,11 ;qI "" Ig M 1151,18 ,

Mam.5,8. An interesting example has die personified cf". r" between my

birth throne saying't6 the king, 'I establish'your majesty Imyt qJ mn-bit

king in your Great Place VI 152,8 and also, when the king receives the mekes, 7-4 1. thighs as Jr I YY 'First one of the opening the thighs' i. e. 'first born' and parallel to sm sw VI 138,5-6. The noun does not appear in Lefebvre or Lacau so it was not an original medical term, but Grapow , noted it [Anatomie und Physiologie p.92 n.71. At Esna, No. 250,12, in the hymn to Khnum, the are forwalking, so the use hai

become moregeneral[EsnaV p.102n. nn]. In origin, this nounis probablyfrom the'rootih 'to suffound!, thus,My are 'thosewhich surrounT.

ih v

'interjecdon particle', Wb 1123 (5-11)or question word Wb 1123(13-19)

Cr.22a; CED 15 KH 15 GG 554-5interrogative. ----


At Edfu, a word ih appears:a building text vvU

Vm n. mtr in hy-bnt shmt. f 'What is

the direction of the axis ? It is. high' before his shrine' [Brugsch ZAS 9,1871 113 warum ? die Richtung der Mittel VI 7,3 Also in a speechof Thoth . 181,1. ii-in R' Who am I? VI


offering , thing Wb 1124 (2) to 125(7) Old

At Edfu, iht occursoftenasa general termfor groupsof offerings,goods, contents something of and %P unspecified objects. When used to representofferings it can be written with an appropriate
determinative c= a thus brp , O'n "0 C= upon the altar V 6,7 ; provided with M

IV 38,34; ir

0 cz=

IV 49,6. Otherwiseit is written 0 -a

or?, ',


offeringsare the subjectof a type of offering ritual, the mostusualform of which is f3i-it 'Lifting up the offering' for exa ple m_ '$ O'n 161,13; 1 0 (= I= I V 376,17; VI 107,12.

This offering is made usually to Horus, sometimesaccompaniedby Hathor or to Harsomthusperhaps accompaniedby My [VII 264,6 ff. ), though once also to Geb and Nut [VII 289,9 ff. ) and once Shu and Tefhut [11 102.14 ff. ]. Most often the king wears a Red Crown surmounted by an crown and he _atef

lifts up on both handsa tray containing bread, with perhapsa vessel for drink [for example pl. 145 2d III and once pl. 64 2g III 111176,4-15and a tray with meat and fowl portions too].7be texts

stressthat bread is offered, the king bearsprovisioning titles and in return receives food from heaven, earth and the flood. Two texts entitled

IV 76,15-77,12 IV 309,5-310,7. the and on

basis of crowns and content of texts are correctly identified by Chassinat [index in VHII as f3i-ibt scenes, though the latter is unusually made to Hu, Sia, Maa and Sedjem. Variations of ibt offerings are: hrp. iDt : 111125,12-126,5 ; 11 149,8-15 or hrp iht nbt : 1113,8-13 ; 11160,1-8 ; 11180,7-13 ; III %# W -%, 358,5 ff. In this case the actual consecration ritual is the important aspect, so that the king holds his t --r for this purpose and no actual offerings are shown in these scenes,having been sceptres pushedinto the background. This happens too in wdb iht nb 'q r hwt-nir : 11 17,24-18,7 ; 1121,6-13 and sw'b ibt nbt 'q r %# 0


Il 150,3-9* 11237.19-238,5 11238,7-16; 11174,16-75,6 O'n : ;



79,11-80,2. and it is no accident that these without exception occur on door jambs, or lintels to kind of offering is purified before it comes ensure that anything and any chambers. hnk iht nfr nb V 61,5-15 ;V 201,18-202,8 ;V 254,5-13 ; VII 150.16-151,10 show into the temple

literally all kinds of offerings - bread,meat, vesselsand also 111242,4-10 Atum. to 0-: f" ocz Is-iht :V 148,6-16 24, VI 254,14-256,2 ; 1179,14-80.4 ; IV 63,14-64,12 -, IV'

219,4-220,4 ;V 49,8-50,3 ; VII 74,4-17 becausetheseare slightly differen4 the king wears a more ornate crown on aQ crown, usually, and the offerings are set upon a flat table before him [c. L'-

pl. 119 Ig VIII or pl. 153 Ig XVII and consisti of bread and meat oferings. 7te range of rewards is extendedto the kingship, besidesinnumerableprovisions and supplies. ir-ibt is made to ancestors : 1479,9 ff. Ptolemy H and Arsinoe, and 1494,8-17 Ptolemy III and' Berenice [PI.35a 3d 11] shows the king consecrating meat, bread,,vessels, vegetables, but in the, secondpI.XII = 360 shows a full libation and incenseoffering, where ilit has been used to cover ir snir qbhw. In the laboratory ibt is used to cover incense offerings : nk V of the God's Land,

where all the'gifts are types of incense 11189,10.PIAM shows the king offering all the implements used in incense Offering rituals. ' Similarly wdb Q, = Trtt is an incense text and a recipe for

making k3p 11202,1Iff. -,also 11210,9 pL43a 2s Id and 2d show vesseslof incense being offered and link 0

of the God's Land, shows incensepots being consecratedH 204.11.

ibt appears very much to be a portmanteau word used to cover various types of offering and its very generality could be useful as it includes things, not necessarily included as specific offerings. It is easier to say 'everything' rather than enumerate each specific item. Within texts itt can be doubled. qb-iht V 0), m IV 30.5 and listed, &-ilit 11C7 V 3,2; V 6.3. T'he Eye of Re FS 91

evenhas0, & ;,=:r all its thingsIV 278,13.Peoplecomecarrying(&-ibt) their goods 0, =- t 21,4 ; q=p, IV 25,I6. -'CCn IV 41,6.

Thereare also ht-dw, in a text wherecanalwaterspurify the body from Q %P

iDt-ib' 'with2'6%L' 4*4 In an Intyw offering, the king says? acifying Nu 9

' 1498,8 and also ? acifying


heart with Eye of Horus 0.. your ii,

& it, Ty 4

of the laboratory' VI 251,11-12 . T'his 'things of the

heart' is some type of incensemanufacturedin the laboratory. Also at Dendera : Vms-'ntyw text, receiving his mother with 0&
Am. --

CD 1180.4.

ibt-n4 Wb 11300(7) PR This appliesto ointmentfor the divine image [Charpentier 110-111 and c f. Lucas,11aterials p. of p.336]. In scenes presentingmd ointment and mn bt cloth, the godsareoffered 1 01

4b1(531 101 V 146,3 It is madein the Houseof Neith vk andcloth to clothethe god 1188.2; An, . Urk.VIII 24c perhapswith the mummy wrappings.In a rnd text , rejuvenateyour bones163,17 and mrht is to anointthe limbs and isused to the to rejuvenate

bones11212,17.This 'substance eternity' is an ointment usedin mummificationand Cativille of [Osiris p.62 nA ; Janssen, 101]. CP that suggests it might be derivedfrom nhh -oil (sesame) 00-

iht-nir Wb 1125 (1-3)

The formula lr-iht-nir 13 for the performance of a ritual may have its origins in Urk. 1 213,83 which came into use in temple texts. At Edfu : ir 'py, in performing the rite for Horus Behdet 11204.5 This is not a .

283,8-9 ; Up is used <s,. (D ,n.

specific rite but is the whole service of the god [Junker, Abaton p. 19] and the iht are all the things used in the rite [JARCE 10,1973,84 n.32 ; Vernus, Athribis p. 125 a]. itt-njr however was used as a word for the 'ritual service! and as such the spells recited during it

were written down, so that the word could be determined with a book roll sign, as a substantive for 'ritual book! : secret books (md3t) of 568.1-2 ; the priest (king) recites Id 10 the ritual 1557.17 ; spells of !A A7 I


the liturgy at the appointed time V 392,7 ; ed II


0 "k dQ

at the right time V 343,15; in a dw3-njr scene, Horus gives the king md3 t-nirw n VII 298,17and written rolls of VII 299,5 At Philae even in the . ,

formulair-ibt-nir , thisdeterminative that could be added,suggesting the full cult rite is written on
[Junker,Abatonp.19 = 38 <a>j 0-'. 00% papyrusrolls MD167d. in itt. nLr also appears phrasesuch as md of
III 1555,14; dbhw n
4 -. 4. -



and also at Dendera dbbw ,


IV 6,3;,


all vesselsof the liturgy IV 9.9.

iht-lir W.

Blackman, JEA 32.1946 p.79 n. 13 Charpentierno.868 p.542-3 .

The reading of this word has led to problems over its interpretation : ChassinatCRT20,1898 p.21-21 dismissed the idea of Piehl that it was a variant of irt-11r and writings such as simply forms of 2 ": & -. 93 . not Q: h
0& 0



In spite of this, Blackman [op., -iL] read ibt-ni Lr do but without reference. iht-Hr 0.

which is unlikely, as Chassinatquotesan example of

seemsto be a type of natron (as acknowledgedby AMB op.cit. ), for it is used in wpX.bsn texts : the king scatters A2 2A. Ik -. n %rpt H 33,2 and 'M 101 :In frpt is used for purification III

109,3. This is a Lower Egyptian variety and the latter text continues with Horus Behdet giving the' 1 0. IN king Lower Egypt containing . 6: bdt. A more usual type is, 'Going round with and

drw vessels of your limbs with qualities.

andbdt uponthe fire IV 330,15.In an amulettext, ' You haverubbed VI 300,3,so it hasprotectivepurposes well as cleansing as

A further variety may be alluded to in a text for the presentation of a cup of incense to Horus in Nekhen and purifying his ka with 2. A*41* 1175,10 and line 12 Take.. which comes

from the Eye of Re and bdt from the Eye of Horus' (so it is not Irt-t1r) This substanceis also mentioned at Dendera in purification texts identification with natron is suggestedby P.Rhind 16 h3 where translated into demotic as CD V 89,6-7 and its from Nekheb is

'and also I 6'd 3 p3 hsmn Nhb [MOller. P.Rhind

Edinburgh 30 andindex43*1. p.

iht W


In certaincontexts Effu ,the word iht cannotbe translated 'offerings'or 'ritual'. Whenapplied at as in to Osiris it seems refer to his relics, that is the partsof his body which werekept and protected to in the templecrypL By keepingthe'relics' of the ancestors the domainof the templetheexistence of [thuIsReymond, Theseobservations JEA 53,1967 pp.103-1061. the tenple wasensured were based on a nis dbow htpw text, with the line s3h 6 1P 0 'he who glorifies(beatifies) the 'relics'

Pre-eminent in Western Field; the sem priest who opens the mouth of Sokar' . As this is an of


offering -text, it would be clearer to have lb V translated as 'offerings', unless it is deliberately

IV ambiguous 153,10. The c6smogonical textsdo seemto allude to iht relieshowever: wherethe of Horusaresaidto be in Edfu IV 328,8andVII 22,10; andalso 11--; of the father remembering

in the iht VI 177,6-7.Elsewhere, a qbhw offering , ? acifying Horuswith of his Y. V 24 father' 1116,7 ; similarly, the king pacifiedgod with 1377,3; andKhonsis guardian

Q. & 'a, of I

1273,16; HorusBehdet the falcon guards ,

Qjm "I



and he gives to the king m3'-hrw

1270,2-3(theselast two are in Maat texts); 'the

iht-nir 1273,16= the leg of Osiris [Blackman,Fairman MG p.418 ]and also

relic of your father, which you found in your city' 1 16 (43) which - compareswith the use in texts. cosmogonical Most informative howeveris a text for ij-Ppt : 'I bring the god'slimbs twtJ j= and I reunite the relics in the nomes' VI 288,13-17; also 'Bringing .11, bt spWt to the one who

himVI 289,1-2. herenot only refersto thepartsof thebodyof Osiriswhich werescattered ibt created identiflied throughoutEgypt, but also to the nomeswhere'the relics were found for they became with thepartsof Osirisandtheyarehis 'possessions. however: at theendof the title 'I raiseup A rod offering text suggests that oneshouldbe cautious your thingsto you'V 179,8which is madeto Hathor,so iht hereare not relics. but W
must be offerings. Beinlich also notes that care should be taken, noting that in the geographical texts,

they describe'


the things which are in them 1336 and 1329 for Upper and

'things',ratherthan relics and leave in Lower Egypt. He proposes one shouldtranslate all cases that the interpretation open[Osirisreliquien, p.48-49and01. It maybe that the generalterm is usedto p. eachtime, with the danger coverall or any partsof Osiris,so that theydo not needto be enumerated 'all them being omitted. Every time ibt is written it represents things' so that Osiris is of one of each time. Even in the phraseibt-n-it. f, iht may simply relate to substances to made'complete and mummification preservation. ensure

ibmw wrd unwearyingstars 125(15-16)"Pyr. --Vbj.


This is attestedfrom the Iyrs (Faulkner, WES 25,1966, p. 157 - the unwearying stars] and Faulkner.-'t them as the non-circumpolarstars,which generallyare mentionedless frequently in texts than regarded the imw-skw. They served in the night boat of the sun god as the crew and dragged it through the night [c f. W. Barta, ZAS 107,1980 pl also Caminos - Lit. Frag. 4445 where they are representeda elderly beings (B2 , 10) ]. They are also found at Edfu, where the journey of the sun boat is described q with a crew of =2 illiand ih mW'-Skw 1116.11.

ihmw-skw indestructible stars -circum-polar stars w

Wb 1125 (14) Pyr.


From the PyramidTexts thesearethe starswhich arevisible all yearandas part of the early stellar beliefs they represented deadwho had goneinto the sky, the king being one of them himself the [Barta, ZAS 107,1980 1-41 p. At Edfu, they are part of the crew of the sunboat describing the length of the reign of the king, nty.f ", (that is 'for ever) VI 10,1 and=" -a a P; - -k the stars of i , I IT in, 1116,11; his time span is that sit0 ItPf-: Il 46,3; sim. Z I

1376,10.They areusedherethenassymbols eternalexistence. of


encliticparticle Wb 1130(9)

Acting as coordinator [see Vernus, Athribis 263 n.b and Junker,Gr.D p. 175] Is occurs quite frequentlyat Edfu. Therulesfor its usewereestablished Gardiner[GO 247(5)] and is is placed by after a noun with the meaningof a preposition'like', and otherwisehas interjectionalor emphatic force. The is at Edfu, actingasa coordinator form of this. maybe a weakened Coordinator )&- 'il", 10tt U40- fatherof menand women185,4 ; the Athribis nomehasgods heartswt andalsoto it belongchildrenof the god'sbelly 1332,14.In descriptions a staircase msbb hr 13bt. and a stairway turning left of it IV 6,4 s annals of

to the north nd WU

heb-seds hfnwq P rn rnpwt and thousands yearsIV 10,4 ; makefestive his temple millions of of qP hrwsn the temples gs-prw and their offerings IV 11,8 ; Horus, king on the throne of his father sw mn msnty and he is the harpoonerIV 13,10 ;a tomb containscorpsesshmw


nn qP


and these chambers contain his images V 8,6 . Even after verbal constructions iwsn

m hryt and they are sacrificial victims 1537,11-12. V

is q.v. Negative in n .......


go I imperative of sbi Wb 1126 (8-16)

Also occurs at Edfu :a priest with a standard declares illumine Mesen 1' 1563,9 ;a geniSays, VI 160,10.

Go to your horizon that you may 'Go in peace to your temple

m btp r twt-njr

This is a Nfiddle Egyptian form GG 336 and seealso Erman, ZAS 48,41-2. ,


be light (weight)

Wb 1128(4) Lit. MK DG 11,3

Cr.17b; CED 12; KH 12
be light

Vogelsang discussesthe word in tfie Peasant[Komm. p. 121 Bauer] and it continues in use and even occurs at Edfu in a phrase which is repeatedquite often dpt nhm ims an epithet of

Horus Behdet, the boat is light and he who is in it is a child IV 214,4 and in the modified form dpt is. ti nty ims m nhnjLrd VI 217.7 [JEA 29 p. 35 n.271. None of these texts parallel dns 'heavy' and it must refer to the boat lightly and speedily sldmming over the water. VI 69,10-11 VI 74.3


tomb Wb 1126 (18-24) Pyr.

is 'tomb', is 'workroom' or 'office' and is.t 'a palace!(Wb 1 127,7-9)are all from the sameroot kind of chamber some whichcanbe secured. which indicates is 'tomb' was appledto mastabas rock cut tombsindifferently from the Old Kingdom [Mariette, or 201,204 and JEA 10 p.226 n.31.At Edfu is is a generalterm for 'tombs': Horusprotects NIastabas


q D-'R his the temples guards childrenin and

an epithet of Horus is bq3 itrt-Urd

ft db ' VIII 97,12, and

VIII 87,7-8'

tombs and ruler of the Two Shrine Rows' of there is no opening of their 1151,34. jq - IM C73 of the one who begat him I

VIII 133,1 ; the dead gods rest in Behdet

tj 4PeLJ
IT 51,12 ;I

tombs 1173,14 ; an invocation offering is made for In the phrase b- is :IAI c-' :3

102,3.The calvesin the tw bbsw ritual treaduponthe tomb of Osiris to cover ;t and hide it from desecradon.


chamber, workshop Wb 1127 (2-6) OK

At Edfu is is Room No. 6 called 'Laboratoire! by Chassinat.The temple descriptions use the term

L-3 its west of 10 cubitsby 4 IV 6,5 ; and in this placethereis k3t nb on VII theLord of the Workshop 17,6. of

C'-""J work

The texts for Room 6.11189 - 230, frequently allude to this chamber as is, most often spelled %% 189,13 C-3 Il or C-M ps noble chamber of the drty falcon 11 191,11, and describes its' C-3 %% C73

contents as products of Punt and the God's Land, that is incense and unguents. It is also
U, a

of W is t 11191,18 %% H 194,3 C--3

w'b wr 11197,9 ; the king is Ml E: 228,5.

C-: %% 1

Btdt Il 197,2
IA 198,15-16 ; vessels are filled with

Outside Room 6: incensesare manufactured in


1 t ,e in ti9PS Of L-2 -4,


This useof is is not restrictedto Edfu, for it also occursat Dendcraand as a place for producing it is attested from the OK [Kairo 1421= Denkmiler desAlten Reiches 162rnrt from p. unguents Ci c-3 The room labelledis at Edfu, is not the actual workshopbut a replica in stoneof the

in the templecomplexwherethe unguents Room 6 may havestoredthe incenses place were made. for manufactured usein thetemplerituals.

is = ns tongue MG 420 n.95 tt in'the sanctuary tonguewhich repeats and life has A qP Q. which judgesMaae116 (6)


The writing and meaning seemclear and there may be a comparable example in D 19 (9) '. , ' Blackman-Fairman suggestthat i could replace n or 1, thus this is a spelling of ns [after: Ember, IM Egypto-Semitic Studies p.30 ff. ]. Note a further spelling of tongue with is I -q VII174,5 I. and that the Egyptian name Ns-Min is written in Greek as Eagtvt; P V. Urk. Q. -

[RankejN IF. 114


ancient,old Wb 1128(6-9)and(10-13) MK 9-2-, DG43,4 Cr.17a; CED 12: KH 12 &. CC C,

Originsunclear, in usefrom the MK. but At Edfu the word isw refersto 'ancienttimes'(c f. FCD 30) for example the templewas k3t nt 'a work of ancienttimes' IV 9,6 and also 'the templeis laid out mi ntyc> VO like that which wasin ancienttimes'VIII 111,4, so it retainsits original meaning.

isw Wb 1131 (2-10) OK rII DG 44,2 -*J) N, CED 13; KH 12 kCoy price , value

isw best translates as 'reward' but the idea of an exchangeor even mechanism of payment is in fact what isw represents. At Edfu the word is used to describethe exchanges betweenthe king and the gods, in particular Horus Behdet The king has built the temple for the god, who gives him in return the kingship in Egypt . which is an exchange between gods, expressedthus at Edfu : HB gives m k3t. f Wm nsw.f

dt 'the exchange for this his work, namely he rules for evee IV 18,6 ; Horus gives the king n r"wy. k 'the reward for his handwork - the kingship' 1 105,8 lice 137 1,5 he gives him monument, namely the Great , lifetime of Re IV 6,10. 'the kingship j= Tj) 1Lm-isw-n : sip. n. f in exchangeJor what he builf IV 16,1 inheritance U)for this his

the exchange of the


in exchangefor this work of his 1127,11 *,als6=4 isw-irw 'reward for ie : irn. n. f Vi

'%' "I V1126,10. D '%

make for him the exchangefor ie IV 10,1 9eO% re the reward of the father

hr itJ n s3.f 1537,1-2 and 1127.1 temples for his son'. Similarly

the reward for him is xi as Upper Egyptian king and

his rewardis jdt as Lower Egyptianking' 1179.16 in parallelcolumns. , for r-isw : Hathorgives iwntc::. 2S-, iwnwin exchange Heliopolis?'139.7 .



Wb 1127 (2-6) OK cEDG11.5 CED 13 ; KH 489 44-0yII Originally this word seems havebeenwritten to form 'purse,sack! 11 (CT 111124 Sp.199)and in a dual'-

[CT I 30b 134c], it wasstill written this way in the Litany of Re and

Q-0- [Hornung,AmduatI p.2131with var. (Wb 11203,8 niswi is incorrect)and the word became iswy, with the lossof the n by Ptolemaictimesat the latest[Lefebvre,TableaupAO 46 ; seealso Borghouts, CdE 56,1981 pp.271-21. In GR templesiswy refers to the testiclesof Seth which were cut off by Horus during their by struggle.They were equatedwith the menatnecklacepresented the king to Hathor and were Seth[seeP.Barguet, BIFAO 52,1953p.103-1111. symbolicof theprocreative powerof qP - 'Z DnS In menattexts,the king says, " 76,12 th are in my handand are raisedup to you' V'

q - G V. of Sethin his handsVIII 101.12; the menatare of Mmt Failure pf its

Diii of Seth VII 265,16 is also this word. It is used in a of Seth and Photo 120 <584>

wh-sp. f VIII 101,6. The writing similar fashion at Philac, Photo is a menat,text with' e D

wheric the king cuis off

of Seth.

The writing 'D

haveother, fdq W, can readings, so

of the sterileone IV 383,3may not be



thmne 'Wb 1132 (2-8) Amama


In origin, isbt is connected with the Semitic verb wLb and jsb in Akkadian 'to sie, though it is probably not a loan word. It could refer to the stool of a private person or the throne of a king, so had a wide application in general [Kuhlman, Thron p. 13 1 and 15 n.9 and 11 with examples ; also Kopstein, MOM p. 181. At Edfu it is a word for the seat of the king, his throne and the temple of Edfu itself is called Hwt-isbt 11ouseof the Throne' in this case the throne is that of Horus Behdet 0 U c'-'-3q 12113 .

IV 10,7. In a scene showing the carrying of the sedia.chair, the accompanying text [pl. 154 = VI 262,161says, 'Horus Behdet shows himself upon qU lt- his throne in his Behdee. CF: 3' C:' his throne appearsas the

For the king it is part of his royal regalia : the king upon

Horusof Gold 1383,5 andgenerallyisbt is a variantword for throne.


spatula for Wb 1132 (12) GR instrument applyingointment

At Edfu a recipefor manufacturing that suggests it is appliedto the god'slimbs with unguent VI 165,17= 11215,9 (Dum. GI 1197) U u rFrom this contextit would seemto

be a wooden'spoon'or spatula', depicted the walls on perhaps shownamongthoseritual implements No. of the templeof Kom OmboI KO 11 950p.304


disorder. chaos

Wb 1129 (9-14) Pyr. From the earliesttextsisft is the counterpart orderandNUat,but in this pair of opposites IIaatis of dominantto tha extentthat isft occursin texts much lessoften than Maat, perhapsfor reasons of safety. isft is chaosand disorder,both in the cosmosand ethics [LA 1136 ethik ; Grieshammer, Aspekte 82 ff. ] p. At Edfu, the king hates isft VII 114,5,as doesHorus Behdetbwt. f
4. 4--ix- %%


VIII 7,1, and he judps Maat from isft (wp M3t r isft), as the vizier V. 1, - I (in presenting the palette) VII 127,7. This phrase appears IX-Q- 0' 'Q" Maat is for judging Maat from NIII 163,1 ; the gods do this


often : the gate of giving - -Yl-

VIII 122.16

VI 311,7 and HorusBehdet

VII 114,9.


I'lie word is used in other appropriatecontexts: the Nile purifies your throne from 1326,4, here then treated as an impurity and in a lotus text, n wn there is no chaos'

in Lhis land V 85,14 ; in the agricultuml land of the Ibis nome (LE) Horus Behdet is here Lord of

qP vc-3-, 22-: maat,free from

IV 34,5.

isft can be personified as disruptive enemies(Wb 1129.16 NK-GR) and at Edfu an appropriate determinative is written This is used particularly when the king deals with isrt as a physical .

personificationof chaos: sdf

and bb n


(hw-'. r-stpw); hbt w


Vil 91,11

III in this land VI 161.9 (last two are Maat texts). IfL

is-ni3w breath air . Wb 1129 (5) Late and GR and Wb 11200 (6)

This word is first attested in Underworld Literature [P.Iciden 32, col. V 26 Stricker OMRO 4, , 1953 p.241 and it occurs at Edfu, in a processionof priests who put incenseon the rim and 4

'the breath of incense enters the nostrils quickly' 1571.4 ; in the Sebennytic:nome, Horus Belidet qt'? Is YqNXbreath "'.=4 of the nostrils, Lord of life, who opens throats'IV 31,8 (paraUel* It is also found at Dendera, where Horus as Lord of Life, who opens breath for the nose LD IV 79d [Husson, Miroirs Doc.54 and p. 182

at Opet 194

q Lft throats is wv%%

n. 13 reads it as lwn but is corrected by Meeks, An. Lex. 77.(950] ; also D 11125,17 'SC111 and LD IV 54a 4


tamarisk tree Wb 1130 (1-5) Pyr. Wb Drog. 62 DG 11.6 r/k, 12-,, I

Cr. 251a; CED 122; KH 141 OCI IdentifiedasTaiwriz nilotica [Keimer,Gartenpflanzcn 55 ff. ; Germer, Arznei.54 ff. whoseleaves p. ]. 111264esp. At Edru, in q P--=. the protectionof the housetext is the spell,I protectyour sleeping of chamber with branches . Vl the sticks of beatingyour foes'. 145,7.The tamariskhere is protectiveat night and in the PyramidTexts 126cthe tamariskis the tree on-the desertedgefrom which the moonrisesat night wereusedin medicineandits wood usedto makeobjectsin daily use0


[so Jankhun, Schutzp.23 andp.145n.105]. The word also appears the place namet3-m3wt in IP": 1 ! 'the lowland of the tamarisk'VII

217,4 which is attestedelsewhere[Meeks Donationsp. 123 n.261]. It is a sacredtree in the , Cynopolisnome along with the nbs ,




non-enclific particle Wb 1133 (13-15)

GG 119,3 and 230 (sk) archaic variants of isl sl with the same meaning sk is preferred when , . a depende-ntpronoun follows. Junker notes that isk is enclitic, like is, and is used often as a conjunction'and'GrD 242 p. 175. t I Also at Edfu : Ptah 'e L-i #--to

-"-b %=-;

father of men and women 1137,4 ;I drive away evil =P-1

Zr='M. Y--q .

2-VP %=; P uponyour waterand underit 1470,16;I give you the White Crown, and the Six day feastIV

and the red crown 1172.5; 7th day of 3rd monthof Shemu-Z"TIP 7,8 ; son of Goldenone of Pe %="-b:

protectorof the lord of MesenIV 330,1-,'gpswsn IV 17,8; birds '19--PS irw. sn and indeed all of them 1553,16-554,1. .... With dependent pronoun: the king is given manyheb-seds UpperandLower Egypt VI 292,34 ; 296,3. Enclitic : in a protection spell, Isdes n ntf rmL n ntf rmLt he is not a man VI 301,13; ntf rn KULE and he is king of

3bw 'he is really a man, he is not a spirit' VI 302.2-3 [Ghattas,Schutz

p.77 n.5, Wb 1133,4]. q+* ity he is indeed (after Non-enclitic?: in festival texts,Horus the sovereignV 125,10-126,1 Alliot, Culte II p.472 n.2) the spellingunderthe influenceof sk'tq destroy'.


crew Wb 1127 (11-19) Pyr.

From the OK ist wasusedto denotea bandor company menperformingvarioustasks,from field of work and transport, to helping in a slaughterhouse [6erny, Community p. 100 and n.1-3 with Mlitary Rankp.25 and43] andcameto be a examples] It alsomeans groupof soldiers[Schulman, . aboveall the crew of a ship and from Pyr. 1439a b. the crew of the sun boat_. Re [eern op-ciL of


p. 100 n.41.
At Edfu, depending upon the context of the text the word is used in, ist can imply slightly different meanings. In hymns to Horus or Re. the ist of the particular god arc oftcn, dcscribcd as 'in joy'. ' exulting' and they are found in parallel with words such as snltyw or imyw-Bdt 0 "'of Horus rejoices 1110,5 ;iIJ of IcTn r9wt V 155,6 ;qIb "' for example: of Re rn h3-snd



of Horusm-lw VIII 93,3.

The king can also be accompaniedby an ist : in setting free birds, 'Your great ones exult (m-t') 24'&m-3w-ib 1114,13' and in temple description texts also bend

their arms and praise Horus VI 17,7

of the Lord of Mesen with the band of Re and make festive the temple

Iqq 8si 70 gods are united together VI 17,2-3 ; in a more general sense, s,

anddomainsIV 11.8

the royal comrades in their adornments, are alongwith priests. qi Wa 1 d3mw IV 15,7. andprotects

youthsand womenIV 3,7 ; and thegod makes whole

qIqq2 111 Theyare connected with boats: in thepehuof the 7th LE nome of the god'sboat are in joy IV 27,9 ; in texts for the slayingof the crocodile,the god is accompq by sbtyw and nicd of the sonof Osiris IV 212,4; the crocodileis slain by the king 'alonewith IV 57,14-15, that the ist as a boat crew is continued. so The term canalso be usedin a moremilitary sense (thoughthis doesnot excludea boat crew also, for the ist may be a general forcejn fact andto draw divisive linesof meaning purpose expeditionary servesno purpose).Two texts describingthe guardiangodsportrayedin P1.50 a 'pilieein the on (2. Pronaos ), usethe term to refer to theseferociousminor deities sail on a fair breeze i's

13 incribesthe genii on the waUshesays,I know andhelp to upholdMaat 1113 and whereSeshat q 1qq i7l'his fill your heartwith them11132,6 Horusof Bohda too 1nows qJqq your crew, you ; crew andhis loyal servants'Ill 32,9 The ideaof knowing the crew is alsosuggested the in . VI 179.10-12 and he says, Isr. 1 They are protectivethen and this role VI 194,18.12 play an importantrole as they for the -

texts : Thoth is said to Ysr cosmogonical rirs3. kVII79, I2; a1soinVI332,6 is further'stressed passage irA wherethe

accompanythe Xbtyw and protect them,. They bend their armsin praise creationgodsVI 185,1. In 1119,9
and VI 18,9 probably to be read qdftyw

(q. v.)

209 ,

rather than ist (after JEA 29 p.21 n.6). ' In the Myth the ist are the boat crew of Horus and they can be identified : die royal children are the crew of Horus VI 79,1 and in the barque procession a genhalled bry. tp-t3wy is decribed as tpy m4kq-; qVqA", Theist III * -=; the best of your crew VI 65,6 (in the first barque) Osiris increases '!

of the warship of Horus VI 85,6.

are protective personnel and at Dendera as might be expected they are theist of Hathor,

(MD III 30c etc.).


Egypt Wb 1127 (10) GR

Derived from ist 'palace!,thus it means'the two palaces,courts' and from the GR period only it was a word for the whole of Egypt [Gauthier DG I p. 1061.The word occurs at Edfu when the temple enclosure wall is described as like the'wall of

q - P1.2', 2

VI 14,4 ; Horus Behdet is Lord of

q -

VII 314,8. It occursoften in GR temples[c f. JEA 36 p.75 n.95]. ,,


Wb 1134 (7-8) Pyr. and GR

qP--! 54 The noun isd 'spittle' is attested from the Pyr. texts. 261 and850qp-, JeQ, also ; in the CT, Sp.331


[c f. FECr 1256 n. 12] where the meaning is clear'liquid from

the mouth of a person"spittle'; also DD Spell 174 [Hornung TB 576] goes back to the PT spelling, P qP Horus is Lord of the Storm '0- c=) s . Rain may have been viewed as the spittle of the storm god I This narrow kind of use may be an archaic survival, copied from religious text to religious text, but it may also have existed in everyday languageas a word for'water. Edel [SAK 4,1976 p.90,92] discussed a word Ist, isd in place names,such as Urk HI 1433 be related to a Nubian word essi (z isd-rs, which may

'water, in words such as Ast-apus Vhite Nile', ast-asobas13lue

Nile' and astobores'Atbara!, so it may be a very early loan word from or common word with African languages.

in At Edfu, the nounappears the geographical s, wherethe hd canalin the Memphitenomeis Itext. its spittle IV 21,14 paralleledat Opet 189 h1py is brought,, brought containing r--, ,


q0-.: -"' '-containing

in and it poursout waterfor you . The word alsoappears a phrase'nb ; P 1114,17which canbe restoredaccurately'. nLrw m isd.f in a libation offering ////// -B- /ft,
here it is also r

from a similar text in Urk. VIII 10c a water libation 'nh nirw n: v

ejected water. The noun howevergaverise to a verb from the GR period,not in Wb but translated An-Lex. by Tdpandmd6versee (and79.0349) perhaps sprinkle (water),which occursat Edfu in a 78.0495 'to or libation text: HorusBehdetgivesHapyin return 4. %=P andhe poursout for you at this"' , q 111170,3 Kom Ombo, 695 the tortoise Lo b'py [Gutbub.Hom. Saun.14271and time too, -at qP

at EsnaIl no.9 , 7.13 ; no. 23,13etc.TheGR useseems be an archaicrevival. to

name of a canal in the 18th LE nome (not the Mut lake)

Gauthier DG 1108 1 C=3=q CxCJ 'i L

32r =r- is broughtcontainingiweet thingsIV 36,5.6;

V 25,1-2; the sacred

ti %kj C= r- 1335,5. barqueof the nomemoorsin This is the Bubastitenomeand the connection between catgoddess andthelion goddess mayhaveinspired like named Bast Mut the the canal.

ivs. t

interrogative pronoun Wb 1135 (7ff.) - not GR GG 500'what2'

This pronoun is usedat Edfu extols the virtues of the Uwt. msnbt t3. mhw Vhat is its like in UpperandLower EgyptT IV 169,14.

9m, M

to spit, spewout Wb 1135 (14-16),Pyr. As early as the PTs the'verb igg was Usedto describethe way in which Shu was createdby his father. Aturn spat Shu from his mouth, thus igg has C'Onnotations, only of oral birth, but of -not
q Ec:: creation and procreation in general [Pyr. 1871 33'14 Atum spits you from his mouth in your,

texts, of verb name Shul.The doesnot occuroftenoutside'Shd-Atum implyingthatit is not used

of until the late New Kingdom and Late Periodbecause the natureof the Shucult [ILA V regularly


735-71. 9w At Edfu a hymn to theTablegod begins, tablegod rw '0 m r1k you havespatShu q an j. from your mouth'VI 153.8and c= ... sw spty.k 'Your lips havespathim out' line 13. The .. significance this is thatShu,asa life principle,canbe identiriedwith Hw (utterance the mouth) of of who is alsoa food god, and Shu in the Ptolemaictexts is the 'Masterof Largese.In this casethe Tablegod is identifiedwith Aturn (c f. Blackman,JEA 31 p.64 n.28 and29]. The precise of meaning iff, asan actionhasbeendebated:Blackman[OP. treatsit as'spit forth' CiL] to as opposed Sethe[Amun 241n.1] 'Husten'to cough. An illuminating text quotedin Taharqa q [Leclantpl.40 p.71 and n.26] saysaboutRe, ' cm Ic 13w br srq-btyt m rn. f n Imn heI

expectorates winds to makethe throatopen(breathe)in his nameof Amun'. This implies again a forceful expulsion that theactionnot only involvestheexpulsion liquid or fluid, but alsoof air, so of which fits with the fact that Shuis alsoan air-god[text 7 Gr.Oases15,15and Amun 212]andmay to with this the goddess-sister Shu,Tefnut,wheretf is 'to of correspond English'to belch'.Compare spew'andsheis thegoddess moisture. of i99 at Edfu most often occursin the epithetof the king Wn 9w either 'Spittle of Shu' or 'whom , r "lob Shu coughedoue It occursin texts appropriate Shu, f3i-iht: VI 108,4 to TO 1; 'A' P and sonof Re IV 77,7 ;a myrrh and meatoffering 15 r+ DO-C313

EM V 208,15

V1, .

305,11 or in texts high up on the templewalls (air-texts) ,


HI 43,15 or in amuletofferings : ws r. I , q C313 0 IV 143.9and the hh -offering nh-lid-w3s c= W

It also occurs at Dendera.

of Re and Shu IV 265,16 VI 270,4.

The OrCjin is obscure, unless it is a pun on the creation of Shu and the relationship between the king and Shu They, were identified becauseboth were the son of Re and providers of food. In the, . tomb of Anch-Hor [Bietak, Das Grab des Anch-Hor 1, Wien 1978 p.95 (plan 15) 1 the mayor is called

qm3 n Itm m



'created y Atum from the spit of Shu and Tefnuf Bietak b

by it translates thus,but it may equallywell be 'created Aturn as the spit of Shu'which agrees well of with Blackman'sinterpretation the phrase,as a meansof identifying the king with Shu using a metaphor very similar to our own 'spitting imageof someoneor 'spif = exactlikeness.In this case it is a noun [c f. Wb (16)] and d appears haveexistedin this form from the PTs. It is not a then to


mistake for isd, for in Pyr. 850 there is the line rn 0 Sth, which uses the two verbs in parallel. %0

pr rn 0 Ift


At Edfu the verb and noun are used in puns and in protective contexts, such as the ? Mtection of the' House' spell : s3 CM3 r ), pry n R'q CM:-'06r-'He is one who protects that spittle of, ' s3 kr'pfy of that his face' VI

Re which he has spat out' VI 148,12 ; and also

148,15 The first is an oblique referenceto Shu, the secondto Tcfnut (c f. Jankt+n, Schutz p.72 and . 721.

to carry , support Wb 1136 (1) BD GR' ,

Wb quotesan exampleof iXYfrom BD, Spell 114line 2



m p . which Allen

'a (alsoBD indexp.286 lis to thrust], he takesit translates, featherhasbeenthrustinto the shoulder' as a versionof M 'expectorate. At Edfu, iff 'to carry' is usedin punswhich suggest that its derivationis from Shu as the igg of qc= C, Atum, who, as the atmosphere, 'holdsup' the sky: theTable god who hasbecomeShu
n. k Nwt r tp. f May hecarry the sky foryou upon his headVI 154,12 F, qrCXQ
Ig -a Pt

'wy rn rn. f n 9w 1jr-pt he carries the sky on his hands in his name of Shu, the upholder of rn the sky VI 154,3 The determinative is physically incorrect, but it representsShu, the bearer of the . sky. -1 1 n 9w np In ndmndm

q C33 A difficult example has the temple with its enclosure wall =3 -H

'the very spit of Shu' [after JEA 32 p.77 and p. 82 n.36] IV 331,9.7bis time Iff is an epithet of the temple, though it may be theverbgg'to build'. When the Dendera texts were written, the word had correct determinatives and clear usage :a q rlm procession of priests carrying shrines 117 '1 carry ....... D VIII 1199 ;D VII 189,1

203,7 Ile Edfu texts may representthe formative usesof this word. .

i9d "

;' persea tree Wb 1136 (5-8) c.f. (13) D. 18* DG 45,3


The precise identity of the i9d tree is uncertain, authorities are divided between the Persea tree, a qTeek name for an Egyptian tree mentioned in ancient authors, but which is also called sw3b in Egyptian fc Keimer, K6mi 2,1929,92 n. I Mimusops schimperi I and more recently it has been f. identified with Balanites aegyptiaca Del. [Keimer, Gartenpflanzen 136 ; Germer, Arznei. p.246-252 also LA IV p.942-31. For the Egyptians the.i9d tree was above all the sacredtree of Heliopolis from the OK at least [Urk. 1 197,10 pr-i9d] for on its leaves and fruit the namesof the king were written by Thoth and Seshatto him a long reign. The 9d connection with the solar cult at Heliopolis ensuredthat at Edfu the ensure tree would be very important in the cult of Horus Belidet, the solar falcon and thus the royaJpersona. At Edfu there is one clear scene of the writing of the royal names on the iYd tree, in the Couloir Mysterieux [1112,4-17 and pl. 19 3rd reg.l. Here Khonsu (=Thoth) holds a pot of paint and writes the royal cartouche on a leafy W-tree, under which the king kneels wearing Double Crown and holding the crook and flail. Khonsu says, 'I inscribe millions upon Xps m BOW 1 112,4 a

statement of the guaranteeof kingship by the gods (here Seshat,HB, Hathor). This scenecompares wth New Kingdom examples,especially during the Ramessideperiod, to give the divine guaranteeof kingship [Helck, ZAS 82,1957 p. 117-1401.In the Chapel of the Throne of Re, which is a kingship room at Edfu, in two scenesthe king is rewarded with years of reign and many Sed festivals, while he kneels, wearing the Double Crown under the i9d tree. T'his is identifed'as such:
m Bhdt 1291,4 and q9 E3 ps m Bhdt [pl. 29a and 29b 3rd regs. ] 1297,14.

q =. 2


The geographical texts, which list the sacred ftes of the Egyptian nomes mention the [lid tree in a number of places, most importantly 329,14 ; Khent-labet 1332 ; Busiris the Edfu nome 'j U1 1337,12; Memphis I 1

1332,11 ; Athribis 1332,16 ; Heliopolite 333,13 ; Hermopolis Parva 1333,18 ; Mendes 1334,6 ; Diospolis 1334,17 ; Bubastite 1335,6 " ; Pelusium 1336,1 ; Theban 1338,7 ; Dendera 1339.3 ; Aphroditopolis 1339,18 ; Hebenu 1

342,1 ; Dwny 1342.12 ;

1343,13 [see Buhl, Goddesses of the Tree Cult, JNES 6 p. 81-84]. JW nome where the noble with the

The reason for the 'popularity' of this tree is in imitation of the Heliopolitan i9d grows on the Mound of Ynd 1333,13. Heliopolitan

Here the iM may have en connected

obelisk and cult of the benu bird [Buhl p. 89].

Garlands of iM flowers were important in the funerary rituals of the New Kingdomf perhaps regarded


as life giving, they were emblems of new life. At Edfu i9d flowers (or leaves) were mixed in with in festivals : -'nhw n C= im3 leaves for garlands which were used V'133.5 ; in 0 qc') 'nhw im3w 1569,9-10 ; or in off'ering hymns of praise to god C23 processions V VIII 163.2.The offering of such garlandsbecamea particular offering ritual, but here the emphasisof the reward for the king was on iM in the garlandas a symbol of kingship guaranteedfor the king. A garland of W andl'am is offered to the ka of the god VII 80,10 and it assuresthat one rules upon

the throne VII 80,14 ; also IV 387,15; 388,1 where pl. 107 shows the king holding out Jand' I to Horus [pl. 107 4th register]. Though this may be the leaves, that the flowers are offered is '

implied where

q c., O!,,,,

in a bouquet presented is (ms) IV 356,7and the

q '55"

Yps is for,

the 'nostrils' of Horus Behdet and W texts in Ir ms 'nhw nW and the iM.

for the nose IV 356,9. Others include the opposing pair of from Behdet V 74,10 pl. 115 the king holds up two leaves

V 170,10 [pl. 1191 the king holds up 9 and VA where the latter must represent ,

In a slightly different text type, a bouquet of b3k and 'life-stability-powe? VIII 64,11-12.

is combined with millions of

As the sacred tree of Edfu, the id grows on the 13t Bhdt 'sacred grove of BchdeC -nirl 0 1397.1. Two wine offering texts have the phrase wdn. 1 sw Uk JLr 9d 9ps n so the king offers the wine under the tree, perhapsthe regal or power aspectsof wine are here mixed with the regal force of iYd : thus 186,7 (Re-Harakhty pl. 15) and 1100,10-11 (HB and,

Hathor pl. 18). Neither plate shows a tree however. The A(d is not only the symbol of a living green, flourishing life, but its branches offer protection

the im3 and


in aI protected thesacred re groveandin returnthetrees

ir-s3. k 'protectyou' VI 227,11. See: LA III Ischedbaum 182-3';Ibrahim',Chapelof the Throneof Re p.524 ; Ibrahim,Kingship p. p.43 ; also commentsof Gardiner,,JEA 32.1946 p.50 n.g with referencesand discussionof arguments


exceffent Wb 1137 (1-20)OK '


f '2--1 DG 45,5 C.f. (VLT)(01CPtq iqr continues widely in use at Edfu, most often as an adjective : msnty especially in the epithet of the king w'b-iqr q4`1- -b V 342.14-5 ;q x -r=; Z'L VIII 27,11 and IV 55,1

VII 282,10;Qlso s'O mummiesare iqr the It is alsousedas a verb : theking is 197,4 m k3t. f 111 .

IV 84,5.

excellentof fingersas a brewer11197.4

it With preceding preposition is adverbial: makeexcellenttheir mummies IV 19,9.


The phraseiqr-sbrw 'excellentof plans',which was usedfrom the MK [Janssen, AutobiografleLG 53 ff. and Sin. 48 of the king] is usedat Edfu as an epithetof Khonsu [GuM p.34] As above,iqr can be written using the ibis sign and this is a referenceto Thoth as 'the excellent one'.It is in punson this that iqr is usedmost inventively at Edfu. iqr can be a straightepithetof q-'5=; 167,6 D the god Thoth : the king is the imageof 1377,17; he is the heir of q an3 IV 247,6

1170,15 and so this lendsitself to alliterationand punning: the king is excellentof excellentthings of the Excellent One IV 57,2 . iqr is being efficient and as competent,which Thoth in his capacity scribeepitomised . form of the verb iqr (not in WB), wherethe wddw 1'777-, Theremay be an example a causative of '1: I 'a 'the Mesen Msn WO Bhdt
Iq 'PI OP m jif3w nbw excellent snakes who make excellent and flood Behdet with all provisions' V11 269,4 ; also the king as w1b sbtp nir m

iry. f excellent priest who makes excellent songs (or excellent of songs) who pacifies god with his works' 11143,8.


doorbolts. c f. Wb 1138 (6) NK typeof furniture

A word on an ostracon from Abydos (D. 20) includes in a list of objects

14 A


two iqrw, whose identity is unknown, but which precede the word sb3w 'doors', so they may be 'wooden door bolts' here [Abydos 111, EEF, London, 1904 pl. 54 and 55 2,1 and p.38]. At Edfu the


iqrw are the bolts of the main temple doors and in the Mammisi, various parts of the temple rejoice 4. jar:: ' E-E Mam.196,10 whose determinative clearly shows one of the at the god, including c'=o. bronze lion form door bolts.


ExcellentLady Wb 1138 (2) NK

Epithet of the goddessof Buto: Abydos, Rit.Tabl.18 and at Edfu: Wadjet is Lady of Might' and ja '.. r3 1129,15.


to illumine Wb 1138 (15-16) GR

An extended of the verb iqt 'to entera place with the determinative use that is light entersa place.

to mean'illumine.,

q41 RN illumines the At Edfu : HorusBehdetlights up the darkness his son(theking) 31130&'Oss and banks 1 379,6 *.describing Horus Behdet , bw nb 1556,2. beams Possibly: s3b-*gwt mqTi; P Ft V VI 157,2; and HB is the greatgod niwt n tn3w.f is illuminated by his

ty-- who illuminescities with his colour? IV 318.11

This verb occursat GR timesandthroughout temples. GR


to enter(a place) Wb 1138 (8-14) Late. GR

by The earliestexample of this verb in Wb is from Buch von Durch W. 27 and thereafter the GR 'to the meaning enteror go in'. It is followed by periodit is frequentlyusedat Edfu andDendera with 4 .4 J%, it entersthe nostrils quickly 1 571A the direct object : of incensein a procession L- . Qd I HB -'' xspt m irw. f mY he entershis nome in his true forM 1 19,1. q'dN%'. Ot flood (i3kb) With following preposi r nb (alliterative choice of verb) I, tions :r- the 4 in Myt in MesenIV 123,5-6 of a procession the necropolis; V 582,8 , r srh n si3 s3 3st IV .54,6.' v


Dr : of incensewhich enters ('q) nostrils and


^,lxfore the scent of goddesses enters!. -,-, you

in heaven1559,13. The parallel use of 'q confirms the meaning. Imperative form : to the priests carrying standardsin processions

1557.1 and

A A--->

10 inter In I'

It is used here as a variation on the many words used to mean .

'go,proceed' in this particular text.

Also in a ns bread offering, the god Wdd is

q'"I. 4-e invokedand - ""' he entersyou ?

quickly' (asthesmellof bread? or does wdd herepersonifyfood ?) IV 222,13.

This verb is the origin of iq 'to illumine' as shown in an example : bw nb m3wy. f 1128,16 (if -A sign is correct then this is the forerunner of the writing with A q0.

but The origins of the verb areobscure, it is widely usedat Dendera, Urk VIII 26 andprobably also q in othertemples (GR) for example Deir el Chefloiut[RdE29 p.229-2301 -4--j-A at a place.


in goddess vultureform Wb 1138 (17) GR '

Wb givesonly Edfu references this word, which is an epithetof Nekhbet for 310,3 in an oryx slaying text, so it is plainly a vulture form goddess. two incensetexts,Horus In I P q'943 -: by Behdetis embraced of with her wings 1475,1 and the king is called'begotten q '610-JA in -t firstly that who wearsNekhbeeIV 93,13. Ile association with incensesuggests

Nekhbetis callediqtt in her form of the Nekhebincense alsothe brightness burningincense and of and brightnessof the vulture plumagemay suggestthe origin of the word is iqt 'to illumine, brighten', so that it means'Bright goddess.It may be older than GR times too and occursalso at qi, ; : ////// D 11200,2. Denderadescribing appearance the GoldenOne the rejoices of


shield Wb 1139 (13-15) MK - GR

Middle Kingdom coffin frituswrite ikm determined with

implying that it is a shieldmade

Later textsspecifywhich materialit could be madeof - leatheror evenmetal of hide [Mquierp.2311 it and in shape could be 10 0 or [Wb exx.]. Aboveall the shieldprovidedprotectionandit

q=41 is usedin a metaphorical way atEdfu: HorusBelidetis n bi3 aroundhis templeVI 92,9-10


q A- 0n and the king is

bi3 around the temple VII 182,1.2. Ilis

allusion is repeated

Kom Ombo : 11218 835 [c f. de Meulenaere.BEFAO 53 p.92 n.61 and at Edfu, Horus elsewhere,at . '21, q says,

T ID I make a shield of copper around your majesty (king) in

1307,1-2.77his is a

turtle slaying text and it is possible that the killing of the turtle, protected by hi's carapace can be rewarded by a shield of copper (an allusion to the turtle shell used as defensive annour c f. Van de' Walle, La Tortue in Nouvelle Clio 5 p. 185-6 ). Wb gives a ref. to E.Piehl II 46A where the king is ikm around wist, (comment of De Meulenaere op.cit. but cited in Grapow Bildliche wrongly as Rochem.1146,4 on p. 172 n.4). Though first attestedin the MK it may be older, as the shield is depicted from prehistoric times.



This occurs, where a flood serpentsays ihm.i n.k ,

flood for you upon the fields' 11260,4. c.L 13kb or igb ?

1: 7X

e.= xx-

Dr rww I overflow the


to seize , take hold of Wb 1139 (19) GR

Wb quotes only one example from Edfu, but it does occur more often. Its suddenot ppearanceand the general use of the word suggest that it is only a form of Ink - 'nk which has metathesis of n>k, to creat6this apparently'new'word. Objects of ikn are weapons: 4, j CM h'y staying the hippopotamus VI 168,14 ; in alliteration W '

iwn hr int iwnty'w Seize'the bow and drive away the Iuntyw 111136,1 1. sceptres or w3lit V 177.7 and also irnyt-pr testament A 0 IV 249,1-2 and -%.

8. .
Onereference a sentence has which includesthe names varioustypesof cloth andverbsto denote of how they are madeir dr Y qm3 n1ri (Wb 1139,18= Westc. 12,26).

11163,15-16.c f. also lkn 'to draw water'


to moum = i3kb



rain clouds

Wb 1140 (19) to 141(2) Pyr. 'GR DG 579.1 gp.t

Cr. 825b ; CED 334 ; KH 462 YH TT 16 if WE

igp is well attested from the Pyramid Texts onward as a word for 'rain clouds' and its meaning is clear both from its derivation from the root gp/gb. t [Ward, JEA 59 1973 p.230] and also from the determinative of the word At Edfu, becauseclouds block out the sun and thus obscure Horus Behdet they have to be removed 13JW and this is done at dawn and the rising of the sun in particular -, nq V 284,8 ; heaven is pure cloud : dr-igp b lc:: r-V ci there is no cloud I

75TR I there is no cloud in it at dawn 111211.3. 7be sun drives away the 111215,8 V 7.10 13 FHr with his eyes

VI 339,11 and Hathor (as the sun eye) does this


q ID 1551,20. Re declares that the Place of Re n tkn igp 'no clouds shall come neae 13 q z VII 41,3 and [35 VII 182.13.

11r a

VI 247,6 or Horus rwi4


An interesting use of this verb is found in a list of epithets of Amun Re (Maat text), who is king q Uj of the gods and father of s3w. n. sn, shmwsn rn bntsn 1 95,19. There is

example in the PTs, which is rendered by Faulkner (FCD 32) as 'soar cloudwards' [Pyr. 891 an Amun too. 1225 ; 15601but it is also connectedw4kh


necropolis Wb 1141 (3-6) D.18

A word for the realm of the deadin generaland particularly the necropolisof a designated town [GauthierDG I p.112-3].The word derivesfrom gr 'besilenesois thePlaceof Silenceandit is used q.! for the realmof the deadfrom D.18., -A thoughin CT V 333h, thereisao'bl, =5, as a term Asa

to certain conceptthe afterworld being silent seems havealreadyexistedand its derivationseems Deathp.93f]. It is oftenfoundin funeraryliterature[AmduatH p.162n.8]. [Zandee, At Edfu igrt is most often associated with Osiris in his capacity as ity('3) in 1grt [Cauville, Osiris index p.199 passim] or hq3 igrt
has the power..; Q,scatter his light even in-igrt

V 165,2and I litCao 1370,17

293,11.Re -V
which makes the ,


Z"<4D ', people rejoice. The ancestorgods also live here On is the noble mummy in underworld VI 312.2 Igrt is not specific to one place, but can be associatedwith Thebes and in the ity nome, here HB is called Dq3 m There is a problem over -]J-Iona IV 2U. 73V4 W3st VI 26,4

though, for it could be a confused writing of dYrt rather than Igrt. As,

the flamingo and not ibis it would be the Red Land and not afterworld . for this confusion see: Sleth rj: A: b has been banished to by Horus IV 18,11= d4rt here. It is also usedat Dendera.


Wb 1141 (10) to (19) Old. DO 4 4,4Cr.86b ; CED 49 KH 53 F- WT s I IWr

Usedat Edfu in epithetsof godsand mostusuallywith the spelling

1910p. 18-27] also noted atEdfu V 5,1.
In the plural: 1562,4; iti %C1151,10; t-' q%10=A.

Burchardt[ZAS 48, .

1118 (12) Lo_

e.g. VI 13,10 and add also


It is commonandfor uses Wb. see


fatherof fathers Wb 1141(17-19)

This is usedto describe god as the first creatorgod andat Edfu this is HorusBehdet a
of gods and mankind IV 102,14 and also creators such as the Ir-t3 snakeS. Y-iof all gods 11

37,9 Edfu is st '07".

Y ,"I1, '.3.

placeof the fatherof your fathersIV 53,14.

it-nirw fatherof gods Wb 1142 (1-8),.-1, The term it-nirw is appliedto godsat Edfu, and is distinct from itw. nlrw 'gods' fathers' which denotesa priestly class:In generalit-nirW to the main deities of Egyptian templesand in QfCW


particular the primordial gods such as Atum, Ptah or Re and other gods who are regardedas playing a creative role such as Osiris, Hapy, Geb, Shu, Sobek, Khnum etc. At Edfu it may apply to Atum
I '471 IV 32,10 ; Ptah-Tanen ie 11276,9 ; Hapy IV 21.12 11259,7 and also the s3b-Ywt 185,34

sovereign and Latherof the gods IV 53,3. Ibis is the title in Wb 1141 (14) which gives examples from as early as the Pyramid Texts. El-Banna [ BIFAO 86 ; 1986 pp. 151-170] outlined the usesand

limits of application the title notedhere. of

The itw-nirw class of priests are found at Edfu most often in association with bmw-nirw., The

0- has templedescription them


11, performingtheir dutiesIV 11,8andil A7 I

V b ', --


attend the king in the temple IV 15,1 ; also .

assist in the ceremonies in

the shrine.In the hierarchical orderof prieststheyareabovew'b priestsbut belowhmw-nir. The honorific and political implicationsof the title as a markerof court rank are not addressed at by Edfu, so thatthe textsspread light on theproblems over theprecisenatureof thetitle discussed no Gardiner[AEO 1'47 53 *1 andKees[ ZAS 86,1961p. 115- 1251. his 1421,18whenhe addresses

=IrThe deified ancestor king is also called It-njr : PtolemyIII sonPtolemyIV.


barley Wb 1142 (10-20) OK DG 46,1 jo Cr. 87a; CED49, KH53 "61(JT'. - WOT it barley was grown in Egypt from aA'-'Ieast neolithic times and the ancient varieties, most often four

or six rowed barley, were much the sameas that grown today (Manchuryia barley) [LA II Tackholm. col. 270-271 and Dixon, A note on cereals in ancient Egypt, in Domestication and Exploitation of plants and animals ed. Ucko and Dimbleby, Duckworth, 1969 p. 131-142, especially p. 134-51.Barley was used in bread and cakes, in making barley gruel, for brewing, as a medium of exchange and in medicine [Food II p.479485]. The writing of the word as CR occurs from the first dynasty [Emery, Great Tombs of the First

Dynasty III pl. 83,31and in offering texts of the Old Kingdom onwards it is most often listed with bdt".,


The latter was treatedas a female counterpartof it whose resemblanceto the word it Tathee. emmee. did not passunnoticed in puns. At Edfu, barley is found in an offering ritual bnk it bdt 'Offering barley and emmee, which'were symbolically, the staple grains. A pair of texts on the jambs of a doorway into the Court have this

'W% text in the first register:' 0&0

V 376,4to 14and'

04' see

V 379,16to 380,10,wherethe onebunchheld in each

grainsof the field areofferedby theking . The grainis shownas T.

handof the king [pl. 142].In returnHorusBehdet givesbnd fields in Egypt without numberand hnbwt without end, andall the landsto the endsof the earth(rcpectively).Similarly nk VII 83,13- 84,11,wherethe king hasagricultural epithets, suchas ibw, andfor supplyingthe gods Horusgivesgood fields full of grain andgranaries to their satisfaction with provisions. One of the. donationtexts follows a Pnk: *. *.bdt text, showingits importance one of the basicagricultural! as the rites VII 242,11- 246,8.Horusagainguarantees fields full of grainandwithout famine,for they areunderhis control. A different ritual altogetheris the 3sh-it ritual : 3sb tj V1280,18-281,10and its

1384,11-385.3, wherea specificvariety of barley,lt4m'w, is cut an the New Moon Festival of" ,
the first month of Shemu, signifying the beginning of the harvest. In return Harsomthus grants the defeat of the king's enemies,for the cutting of the barley symbolises the destruction of foes. Wearing his atef crown he cuts the barley in P1.151reg2 and PL31a reg. 3 respectively. Outside these texts it-bdt is found quite often, e.g. in the temple description the granaries are -,j) %. 30- IV 15.5. supplied with -' -c=P- ---P Different varieties of barley are known too and at Edfu the two main types are It-Vm1w and It-mbw [though these can be read simply as gm'w and mhw q.v. for examples see Sethe ZAS 44 1907 i , , a p. 191.In the grain offerings above thesetypes are mentioned for the rations in

the granaryV 376,10

41 of

of the field is broughtV 380,1

e+ est% 1

of ,

the fields are for the god VII 83,14. Thesetypesmay correspond red andwhite or black types,or to more likely to the geographical the provenance the grain (for togetherthey represent totality of of grain in Egypt) [Dixon op.cit. p.137].


sovereign king , prince : ,


Wb 1143 (3-14) = GR Poccn4uq

It may be that it 'father' is at the root of this word used to designate the king [as suggestedby Kees, Gotterglaube p. 179 n.21 but precisely what the relationship is is not clear. Sethe [Komm. VI p. 102] qnoted that in PT 476b the king's name was replaced by and it is uncertain whether this

reads 'king' or 'father. An example in PT 51Ic is more certain. From the biographical texts of the 6th D. onward ity was used just like nsw and in the MK it became common in monumental texts [Blumenthal, Kbnigtum I p.26-27 and n.24] so that it was a standard part of the titulary of the king and gods by the later periods. Helck translated it Tatron' in Urk. 1 82,14 [MDAIK 14 p.68 n. 13 also Roquet, BEFAO 78,1978 p.490-1 OKI. The Greek equivalent is also used for nsw see and there

seemedto be no difference in meaning betweentheseEgyptian terms, so that their use in hieroglyphic texts was to a great extent artificial [Daumas,Moyens p.219.1 At Edfu, the word is used to refer to the reigning king and is spelled V 8,10. 128,3 ;q -There Wj& passim. and plural

is also a dual form for the king and his wife: Ptolemy IV and ArsinoeA 132,4 (W'b 1143,7 GR).

in the phrase ity m nfy mi nn (Wb 1 143,11 GR) 'king of these here and those there' with the only references given as : the king is 1380,11. A The epithet ity-'3 is applied to Osiris (Wb 1143,13) often at Edfu: the Sacred land 1148,12 and in the great lists of his epithets he is Ity : Osiris 4 q 14 in cities and nomes V 289,2. (63) and 1181 (9) and qH .0!.J in .23 138,6; also


to be king , to rule as king Wb 1143 (20) GR

Like bq3 and try-tp, ity can alsobe usedas a verb in its own right meaning'to rule!.Wb quotes q MiZ Edfu examples it is usedquite often in this way in the templetexts : the king and only 4 `c` you rule the Nine Bows 1 he rules the Nine Bows 1156,16; Thoth saysto the king j idbwy 108,12 It is usually in pamllel with nsw 'to rule : the king nsw.f m-ILnw Nbn . I-Ir 'he rules in Nekhenand he rules the Landsof Horus'1152,15; Isis saysto the king nsw.k Kmt 0 ity. k h3swt 1 235,15. %0


It is used then as a variant word for 'to rule, particularly in texts where many synonymous verbs, havealreadybeenused.


Gauthier, DG I p.113
as its IV -

Ibis is the name for the Bubastite arm of the Nile which waters both the 13th LE nome canal and the 20th LE nome as its pehu . In the Edfu texts this is made clear : for 32,5andE-=2A boat sails here For

'contains water which came from his limbs and Khcpri sails herein his. ' .6 V 20,15 ;V 21.1 (with the samedescription) and the barque of the nome god1333,12.



IV 38.12 7g GED

13 'contains water and marsh'-

birds' also =r
. e-b

Dfv :gM

3--r- V 26.13 -uo ........ r_r

andit is described as



This part of the Nile stretched from nome 13 to 20 in Lower Egypt and served both nomes , [Gardiner, JEA 5,1918 p.258 and pl. 35 map ]. ,


sanctuary of Osiris Wb 1144 (3) Pyr.

A placein the Heliopolitannomewith a cult of Osiris and whereIsis wasalso venerated [Goyon, BIFAO 65,1967 p.133n.210; GauthierDG 113 ]. It is attested from the PyramidTexts[ 627c.f. Komm. Sethe]and graduallybecame epithetof Osiris himself [Cauville, Osiris p.1811 an and it is Edfu In an Openingof the Mouth text, the king is called 'the living imageof 14 usedthis way at . 91 C! 1 Y- ' III 143A 4xI 4t- -=IV and an offering text has '11orus protectshis fatheras C--> 87,8-9.The readingof k by as U3 was established Kuentz[BIFAO 30,1931p.858 nA and 5] who

quotedearlierexamples this writing. This may represent survivalof the Heliopolitantradition of the at Edfu.


sundisk Wb 1145 (1-8) MK, f DG 47,5 ') I-


itn is first attested from the Mddle Kingdom, not only in religious texts [Cr 1209 d Sp.47 'Your seat is spacious in q '0 the disk and your character is recognised by'him in 6'y' his

disk (i. e. Re), FECT I p.203-41, but also in Sinuhe ', B 233 wbn

n mrwt. k 'the

sun disk shinesthrough love of you (king)'and also R7 where the death of AmenernhetI is described ILnm mq A0. The variant texts G5 and C2 spell this as q0*-* showing that

when these copies were made it was thought of as deified. In both of these cases the itn has a funerary role, which suggeststhat it could have originally been a mortuary counterpartof Re [perhaps ]. connectedwith the root idn 'to substitute!

in The etymologyof the word is uncertain fict. Fecht[7AS 85,1960p.88] suggested it derived that from the Late Period (andwhich mayhave from the root iln 'to be far away, to go', a-'verb attested from itn) [Wb 1145,4].kter the Amarnaperiodthe word itn continued be usedto referto derived to the sundisk asit doesat Edfu . In the phrase,and its variants,dM n.k m33 nb n itn 'and everythingthe moon observes' VII 311.11 The disk usually shines/rises, is the object of wbn : Re bnt that
Qualified : itn-nbw

J wbn m pt VIH 153,7; nfr n nbw

&IN 1552.3 ; -=


Il 6,11. Most often a solar god, either Re, but more often Horus Behdet goes to unite with
Ohk Icr Ao

the sun disk :dmdq

1441,10-12 V 7.7. --

::: 7 0,1554,11.

Horus lives in the temple in

4 "70 '17 his golden form

In the New Year procession up the stairways to the roof, the airn is to take the god in his shrine so

the roof, when the sun'sriys hit it at dawn, then he 'unites'with the disk :qI 1IFthat on
557,4-5 V 2,4 m Ort V 5,5.

The word alsolendsitself to someimaginative spellings: the templedoorsareclosedwherethe sun disk sets ieh' of Heaven

IV 13,4; the heavens contain 49 Horus'disk V 2,3 ; possibly,Lord IV 18,1.

shining in heaven VIII 145,16;

qoam'u The disk can be described as 'winged! : itn & dnt. f 0 ZS1;;7

VIII 152,13. In the Western nome (imntt) Horus Behdet is described as "Ibe one who ieu IY*xIV 24,2. Inside the disk the god is dsrt 'sacred : =p . I

qaIVmade the disk ' -cmD, *6

IV 34,13.


itn can also describe the moon disk (Wb 1145 (8) Late GR) but it is usually qualified to make it


%=; b

and secondof Shu VII 111.9 and by implication in the phrase idn-itn

4. ='a 4 192. 0 the disk! : in the GED nome.HorusBehdetis of (J substitute 0

whenhe setsin the

himselfon the30thDayIV 40,12. west,who renews In a mirror offering,the beams of thetwo disksareofferedfor Hathor111268,11.

itn. t

female disk Wb 1145 (9) GR

The femalecounterpart itn which,at Dendera, of of refersto Hathor,both in her capacityasdc-Aghter

am A 'Z Re and as the partner of Horus Behdet. At Edfu too she can be caUed, the second of

VIII 4,7 ;a mirror offering,

sn nw

I "'

111126,15. This was regardedas, 0 a% MD 125 [Junker..,

in oneof the primary titles of Hathoras it appears her list of names ZAS 43,1906 P.1131.


mirror Wb 1145 (10) GR

That the mirror, particularlya goldenor coppermirror, can be a symbolof the sun disk (either at dawn or the disk at midday) has long beenrecognised, especiallyin view of the often elliptical appearance the sun,which is faithfully copiedin themanufacture the mirror disk [c f. H.Schlfcr. of of ZAS 68,1932 1-71. theword to refer to a mirror, this is attested For p. only from the GR periodand it is often usedin mirror offering texts,for theitn sundisk shines radiates the sundisk itself. like and 7,. q In the mirror offering texts at Edfu : s'r ,? I receive 111126,7.8 Presenting. ; andgiving wn-hr , both wordsformiffoe the two mirrors can be called 111126,11; Uo1, 'carrying V 77,8 and iwh the mirror as the work of Mesentybeforethe two ladies' q '7mr * 'One line 13; the king is called F. %, who fashionsthe mirror for the mistressof, the -J -+1 111268,14 This useis more commonat Dendera, goddesses' wherethe word can havethe correct . ti2j- ?, determinative, CD 1139,7-8. .'-, I', . ;-,


to shine, illumine


Wb 1145 (12) Mag. 4 U0m In P.Mag. Haffis 4,5 A.- e-

hprw. k rn itn 'you shine in your forms as the sun god', %0

where the pun seemsto have a magical import and thus the word itn 'to shine' had been invented. At
Effu, in a mirror offering, it is said of Hathor land like Akhty' Ir A= ,0m! 3bty 'you have illumined q4^ the

V 77,10 and at Dendera, the winged beetle is itn I

m 3bt the disk who

shines in heaven MD III 54v.




Fairman, ZAS 91,1964 p.5 H The useof this word is quite clear from one exampleat Edfu : iryw-pt r 'V their perches 118.11. In threeotherexamples, nounis usedin a noun pw noun construction in the two net texts,the the
same phrase appears both times, pw

'thebirds upon

VI 56,8

ai, Ur a il


236,14 'it s perch is his Mesen/Wetjesee.Ile text meansthat Mesen and Wetejest are symbolically the resting poles for a huge cosmic net in which to symbolically trap and destroy foes. Alliot [RdE 5,80 n.51 suggestedthat it should be emendedto'6'to, seize'. which does not seemto fit the sense. In a lion-gargoyle text 4; A-, pw n w' Wetjeset is the perch of the brave fishermen' IV

118,4 As itn is the perch for birds, then here it has a general meaning 'resting place and in fact this . is what it really does mean [de Wit, CdE 29 Nr. 57 p. 36 n.881, the -A appearing in the writing through confusion with itn 'to go.


opponent Wb 1145 (17) MK

The word is the noun derived from a verb itn 'to oppose'(Wb 1 145,15-16UK). It occurs in 'IM 'Cr Ptahhotep(Prisse15,6)qAA^- ein a legal senseand also Urk.IV 341,14 nnq-

SLt9a m

'. hw 'noneof her opponents in the north (Hatshepsut) It is usedat Edfu in allit ei on : Horus are m rat


gives the king iwnt r ind


I 'a bow to smite the opponents!1150,6. KH 500 and ATJ uproar KH 489 enemy-

cf. KH 529 01-A' oppose CTN


wig , ringlets Andreu-Cauvifle, RdE 30,1978 p. II

jL'I I V= At Edfu, in a cloth presentation text : brp. 1 n.k 43 g.,q '-,.sl3m 'w. k m nLri P. -I %; .

'I present you cloth ? of all idnw andclotheyour limbs with cloth! 1126,6.This may be thought to in No. to be an error for something else,but in the inscriptions theTombof Tutankhamun 56 [Cerny A t% YJI= It is much too like the Edfu Tut.Insc. p.13 andp.27] has,in a list of cloth, A-. 6ernyl kind of hairy or fluffy cloth (woollen?) that to suggested it wassome example be differentand dueto the'hairy'determinative.


Wb 1146 (9) 1335,7 which lives in the Bubastitenome,

In the nameof a snakeor serpent: in and is also mentioned the Geog.Pap.29


papyrus, aquatic or plants Wb 1147 (5-6) GR J'DG 13,83tr

Mquier [BIFAO 19,1922p.234-51 the explains truesignificance Itr in certaintextsat Dendera and of Edfu There is a scenein the sanctuary . V1 jid mdw to make whole the,,.,

140,3 ff. andpL222showsthe king raisinghis right handto touchthe door of the shrine, sanctuary' [pl. containingHorusand the next one in the sequence 223] showshim holding the door handles and i ts% 9 '0 openingthe shrine.This sceneis also found in the sanctuary Dendera. : at 1; sL3. 1 n.

hd n hmts 'I have taken back the itr from the shrine of her majesty' D 11176,5-61 0 ff. MD II 64b andpl. 191showsthe samescene at Edfu, exceptHathoris in the sanctuary. Also as 16-524=2'-MI) I C: '*-' Ombos11159.74 The 5. 'T 141 a and C=). 1. sceneherehasno shrinebut the king has his handsin the correctposition(left up, right down) so either the copyistor the sculptoris in error. Jdquiersuggested itr is basicallypapyrus,but it can be madeinto cord or rope which is bound that


around door bolts and has to be untied before the sea can be broken and doors opened hence the , i=; phrase*)q is 'undoing the cord to see the mistress of the king' D 11157,1. The identity of itr is more difficult. hrst oi'2 A presenting the two lands text describes Mehenct carrying text, the king lifts up 1=1 V4 to 'the and holds

IV 154,14 -,in a bnk-rnpwt

Great One of the gods ' VII 83,3 and in a papyrus offering, the king carries m0w

VIT 259,5. Here the itr takes the place of papyrus. Jdquier further connected itr with a word etzr meaning a cord used to tie up a roll of papyrus (and close a'naos) and it is 'Usedin this

Edfu also : is snb text the king in the House of the throne r*wnb context at

5' 11' br -c it#

pg3 mjL3t 'unties the cord opens the book' and protects Re and his house VI 144,13 ; also in the Festival of Behdet one day is called , Ot Pr 1,1'r srh md3ts in nirt 'Day of untying the

cord, unrolling her book by the goddessto sweetenmen's hearts with the word of Osiris' V 356,2-3. Some texts describe things made of itr :a boat MD IV 35,10; P.Jum. XHI 23 "boxesmade of 9M V' MD IV 37,78 fr! ' and a cord K Tfo

itr is a plant perhapspapyrus or an aquatic reed, which is made into cords to sel shrines (as a bolt) and book rolls.


rivcr Wb 1146 (10) to 147(1) Old DGJ'r49-50 ZIL)" ,

g top6 Cr. 82a; CED 48 ; KH 51. eloop The word is usedat Edfu to denote Nile, usuallyasthe transporter boats: the GreatBarquetp the of Ar V 125,1; tm. n. f he sails the Nile in his boat 111257,15.

In the Myth of Horus is the phrase'weapons raining down in the midst of the river' :m Dry-ib due VI 64,5 e; E5 VI 83,8 and outsidethesetexts'q'I"' C=N. , 111255,15. This latter

spelling,with the -

fallen away,is closerto the Coptic pronunciation the word as Gloop of

]. but is in evidencein Egyptian texts from D. 18 [c f. -Fairman,BIFAO 43 1943 p. 109 Obs. An Y' "spellingis unusual VI 67,6 underthe influenceof itrw, the measure distance. of ,





Gauthier, DG 1119 Canal in the (g-N) nome at Edfu e'* I IV 39,6 and it is brought with its water for: .7 V 27,3.4. 1330,6.

the renewal of the god's ka at the beginning of the year ; same text In the 2nd LE nome, the barque of the god moors in


measureof distance- schoenus Wb 1147 (24) BD

Gardiner suggested that as a rough estimate the schoeuswas about 20,000 cubits = 10.5 krn (as opposed to Sethe in ZAS 41,1904 p.58 10,000 cubits with the double itr = 20,000) [see JEA 30,,

, '

p.33 and GG 266,201. Schlott concurred with this estimate, on the same basic calculations , but-. from other sources calculated that the itrw could also be 12.6 km long, perhaps depending on the length of the cubits involved [A. Schwab-Schlott, MDAIK 1972,28,1972 p. 109-1131 At Edfu the measurementoccurs in the phrase n-mdwt-itrt Thebes , 11361-2' x: 'he saw them to the south west of. -,

at a distanceof 2 schoeni VI 114,7 [see do Wit, BIFAO 55 1955 p. 120 for VI 119,2 ; =. a*f MLtq VI 123,10 =As VI 124J. Also, more

VI ^, mdwt] ; sim. j'wvZ.

poetically : Intyw can be smelled-

1383,17-18. for a distance of a schoenus;


shrine containing imagesof gods Wb 1147 (10 - 16) sing. Pyr 148 (1-6) dual Pyr.

The Wb suggestion that itrt was originally a palaceof the king, was not acceptedby Gardiner [JEA 30 pp.27-281 who argued that itrt were intrinsically linked with the heb-sedceremony, and that it was itrw 'river channel"riveemeaning a 'line' or, row' of water. In the dual the term is connected with 'two rowe In the Sed festival all the gods of the country were brought and placed in two rows of . shrines on either side of the Jubilee Court representingUpper and Lower Egypt. The Lower Egyptian


'= Buto, and thoseof Upper Egypt


EI-Kab. Gardiner

itrt translated 'enclave' deitiesandit refersto theseshrines theJubilee. at of At Edfu thesingularform usuallyonly occurswhereoneshrinerow in particularis indicated it is and qualified as either itrt-mht or itrt-9m't. itrt-mbt is found in the phrase: s3b-lwt pr m 3ht m-hnt itrt-mht , which occurs, 0 %0 V


Edfu as it is one of his standard titles M

J (S IV 54,10 ; IV 42,6 also IV 52.1 ;A

IV 20,10. 179.12 ;-

This can be written with the dual form however: Ir aa0

A0191 371,4;qg. '. AA J 6 1218,9 : Other for '* s of Horus are ass iatedwith m oc Ch
itrt-mht apart from s3b-Xwt . The winged disk hnt %P

@ Ik

113,17 ; 119,9 also *,the falcon hnt V


itrt-Ifin It is rarer, but still appearsin titles of Horus Behdet he is Lord of the Two Lands Mesen , ix-j 1-73 1119(28)., Qb nt
i The two of these occur in parallel VIII 43,15 VIII 42,7-8 .... 19")and 17 and most imaginatively . 121 b and b'; OD 1379,17 Il 14,16. @@ 137,13 and Lord of all the gods in [119AS 41 OD

Other variations on this include .

IV 12,6 and without qualification Horus Behdet is ultimately the Lord of


344,15and as suchprotectsthe two Shrines rL a ,

4'9=Nl Gj rr 2"eIV 75,10


88,5. He stretches wings aroundthem his goddesses 12' 1![

IV 16,10,for in themrest all godsand q

'M"1349,4 The s3w guardians IV the shrinerows also protect . 00 3,10.'It is the king who is responsible 111 170,5and they are floodedwith offerings for @@ building the itrty :@9 157.14or makingit (ir)-=> for the Ennead111355,5-6 ; -8a 4*7 Clijand for the Lord of the ShrinesV 6,6, thoughin the templedescription,the bas made The writing for his majestyIV 11,7. @I Egypt showsa god insidesucha shrineand it maybe that at festivalsthroughout

shrinerows suchas theseweresetup, ratherthanbeingconfinedto Memphisor the Heb-Seds.

itrty is also usedin prepositional phrases.

m-itrty Wb 1 148 (7-9) 'around, on both sides', Junker GrD p. 169 229 and cU de Meulenaere.,

BEFAO 53,1953 p.91-102. It is quite frequent at Edfu as a variant of m-plir, 03. It involves gods his Ennead C138,11 ; the Ennead n Om.k 116 (42) ; J2dw wm #


q C," k3. f VI 12,7 ; his father and mother rc=:;,

1168,15-16;the Ennead'OR-his majesty,the king II 10,4. Mculenacre 'de saw

VI 10,6, or of people,the priests


this as a characteristic invention of Ptolemaic, to provide m(;re elaborate synonyms of already well ' known words. In fact, as Wb indicates, this preposition exists from the MK at least and perhaps Pyr; ' J757 in shines 'L 111C=> jr1j, the phrase, he leads you g4 pt around heaven, cf. atEdfu, %hewinged disk hrt

'throughout heaven'1591.4 ; Sclket is the Great One

throughout the skies 1142,10. r-itrty not Wb and rarer than the last : the ba of Amun Re flies to the horizon of heaven V around ? or at the side of ? the Lord of Wetjeset 111183,4.

br-itrty alsorare,not Wb, in a parallelphrase theEnnead imnt on the west side I' : ? 119,13and sbw ipn 13band thosechapels the eastern on side 1120,4


to pull , dragout Wb 1148 (12-23)Pyr. NK DG 14,4 3th

Cr.498b; CED 230; KH295 to draw (water) WTL

At Edfu, this verb is used in texts where hunting or capture of foes takes place In the struggle . between Horus and Seth, st. f in. f h3b lie transfixes, he drags and he lands the, V

hippopotamus'VI 79,6-7 It describesthe dragging back of the hippopotamusonce shot so that once,! . the hippopotamus is struck with the harpoon blade, Ut your hands drag thai 11 ty' VI rn 0
. 4L

67,7 In the net text, .

Yd! Q

--j --


VI 56,13-14which Alliot translated qu'il en tire (cst) 'ce *"j

gibier pour (son ddjeuner)'[RdE 5 p.87 and n. I p.881.builhe parallel md3t. rth. p't

ibw. tn 'he hastakenout your hearts'VI 235,9 Thereis no doubtof the meaningof Ito hereandas, . tj I 'S b: itt has similar useto rth, they maybe closelyrelated.A slayingthe enemytext, %- -w1
S. '

I havepulled out the affow in you' IV 235,8. It has 4, --J .

From the earlierperiodtheword is well attested, thoughnot with thedeteminative a longerlife thanWb suggests.

to seizetake I
Wb 1149(3) to 150(7) Pyr.
!5? t, , most often,'with the determinative u--J and it follows the usesin Wb., At Edfu spelled


particularly when used in epithets, such as -02 309,13.

Owy in m3'-hrw IV 33A

m sbm. f I

In phrases iL-ini 'to waver,vacillate'. Gardinershowed[JEA 24,1938 p.124-51 the origin of that : Tombs to the ideawasin 'to takesomething a place,thento bring it back![e.g. Davies,Five Theban 608-9.'Do not takea word andbring it backagain'. occurasearly as Ptahhotep pl.61andexamples He discussed that given in Wb (1 149,21-22) and suggested the phrasecould apply to examples (of ), as or emotional mentalmovement heart,mind etc. but left the GR examples physicalaswell as At Edfu one example 1 to the flood of the Nile, 'He comesto you 0. refers obscure'. I 3y sk

f without hesitationor famine with him' 1582,5-6 [Vandier,Faminep.721.This qn-rnpt rn-bt. idiom occurselsewhere Edfa : the canalof the nome at IV 177.4-5and 'He brings Hapy , greatat his time stopping floods ' :W4 without

hour' IV his appointed at

it refersto the 'going havebeenaccidentally This looksasif a negative omitted,unless 362,12. may to andgoingback'of theNile at the flood. ii-in can apply to other things,for the Two heavenlybodiesgo their places
dmdytsn 'without wavering from their appointed time! M 208,3 and in a more literal sensein rn '-? I Mj;, the instructions to the priests : :i-i Do not take away or bring to the hekat measure'III

361,2 [c C Fairman, MDAIK 16 p.9 'do not tamper with]. The idiom is found at Dendera too : DII 0 1 r5 *1 'tampering 12,13 the king is free fiom 15? with the laws' (also D 11179,7). ,&,

iji-ptty As an epithetof the king, can be usedliterally from the enemyof his father'1370,3 strength the whole land V 42,1 .m bfty n it. f 'One who takes the nt t3 Or ndb.f 'seizesstrengthin

it (n) U inundation, flood Wb 1150 (3) GR is The earliestexampleof this phrase. on a Stelaof Taharqafrom Kawa, templeT [Kawa I p25 Yr-Z, 'for the inundation cameas a cattle thief [after inscription, bottom line] iw.n h'pi m :P aItI inundationwhich in fact is a benefit in so Kawa I p.271and this is takento describean excessive


it drives away rats and other pests [Kawa I p3O n.3 I], so the word ij-k3w is the high flood much as in a good sense. - 1.

however and nor does Vandier's reading of ;? Ile idea of 'cattle thief does not seemsatisfactory

'4; -= ,

Philae,Phot 130415 ij-Pnh 'inundation'[F=ine p.66 n.31 seemplausible. The'. as at

;? 42w which gives the correct reading 1L-n-k3 11263,6. It is a word'

word appearsat Edfu as

in qbDw libation texts, where the recipient gods grant as a reward to the king, b'py rn il (n) used k3w ! RV3k free from wavering 11260,11; 1486,14 -.11263,6 or it

can be given directly:

the fields IV 103.8 and Nun is which moves quickly upon

the fields 1115,8.It hadbecome accepted an variantforthe inundation'in the Nile , watering t 'comesat texts: :Ryri mr- Or il r sw.f 'seizes his day' 1582.16;a pylon text !5? at his time of year'VIII 108,1. The formerof these two examples shedsomelight on the meaning may of the term.If the bulls are the subjects il , then' thebulls seize'mayrder to to a herdof bulls as of it, they run over the land, coveringit andpossessing which is a metaphorical way of sayingthat the, ' flood sweeps of overtheland,unstoppable powerfulasthestampede a herdof bulls. and The word alsooccursat Dendera asa description the king 'he is like W A= : of atThebes,'he comesin peace as 'Urk. VIIIIOdL CD 11190,9 and


Dendera Gauthier DG I p. 124-5

"'ZZ-Z Usedfrequentlyat Edfu : in the Behdetfetsival 20 11,9.1

join WetjcsetIV.,. peopleof Dendera 14..,.


Is with protheticI

At Edfu is canbe spelledi1s,in textswhereLsis usedto mean'copulatewith': a lettuceoffering to Nlin 'who copulateswith maidene IV 270,9 and an incenseand libation for rnnwt

q : =r P-VBa-Neb-djed, ram the with women'IV 302.9-10. Ilese texts are ia q=a nfrwwho copulates Fe 3g VIII (pl.92) andFe 4g XIII (pl.93) and so arefairly closeon the wall. 5e, Is -' respectively I



malechild Wbll1(8-11) OK, BD, GR

Apart from a term for a child in later texts, idw is an independ-ent title of a court official. Little is known of his duties however, but his influence was in the court sphere [Fischer OMRO 41.1960 p. 1-13, The Inspector of Youths Nfr-n-Hwfw after AEB 1960 60242 p.84-85 q4

At Edfu, id can apply to gods : in the field text of the imt-p nome, Hor'us Belidet is

d nqrse, by Renenef IV 37,11, but here it is merely a convenient alternative word for 'child' as these imt 'child' in the name of the nome. Usually it is the king who is id, and the texts pun on the word pst a 'A") im 1 62,18 and it can be connected to synoynmous terms : s3 word occurs with specific gods: Qlffi king is ffiLw\ Itm V 297.18 Or in puns, for example in the idmi cloth offering, the n . 1 31,11. The texts also use id to show the power of the 'who seizes might in the entire lanS V 42.1 may refer to the Horus-child VI 11,12. which

'raised by the rbty' MA

king-child, in slaying enemies: Ca The temple is called ten


shore,bank Wb 1153 (2-6) Old. or dual

The plural form idbw does not apply to the eastern and western banks of the Nile, but to Upper and Lower Egypt, so it is a synonym for the whole of Egypt [Gauthier DG I p. 126 -7 Lord of the banks 1390,16; Horus is king of the Two Lands hry-tp king in "N u:, sL3L the king is -<:7 1307,8': and the b3swt and

3 Egypt IV 16,10 ; Re Harakhty puts fear of the king in C3 1: of

is loyal to him 1500,11. However a text giving the areasof Egypt under the control of the king Kemet I>1'* 10 includes sPwt h3swt =Lis. and VI 48,4. Here in one senseidbw refers to the

as areas land of landsof Egypt asa wholeandalsoto the individualplotsof land,described elongated [Wilbour H p.26] ' 1db is 'riparianland ' of cz shape Gardinerwho further suggested with perhaps by land thanthanthat without directaccess water.Most 'morevaluable to canal, oneendabuttinga river or idb between andwdb whereidb arepiecesof land in the exactform of the thereis confusion probably sign c=' (not banksof theriver,aswdb are).In the Donationtexts,this is exactlythe caseas the mht n p3 rsy

is often spelled-out and cannot be mistaken for anything else :' p3 term mrt VII 243,13 ; p3y.s t b, with the k3yt land of Edfu VH 237,1 ;0


'a mht of an area VII 218,34 - all of theseassociateidb with Iligh ground' and aq -w 1146t,


217.12 with the desert edge. Theseexclude the translation of idb as I)arW . From their dimensions they are'longer on the eastand west than southand north and they run parallel to the river [c.f also the use of 'b as the determinativefor 3bt, sbt [Meeks, Donations p. 149 22 and p.81 n.91].

Plural idbw would then be 'strips of land! and 'SS. fields and thus all the agricutural land in Egypt, so the the term idbw acquires a more economicnuance. In the singular: the flood standsupon 1 I the bank and no land is free from him 1113 2.


red cloth

Wb 1153 (14-16) Pyr. and(17-18)Pyr.

DG 47.3

idmi notonly denotes cloth' but alsoa quality 'red of cloth [LA 11119; Kees,FarbcnpA631. From informationin the Abou Gurobreliefs it wasusedto makethe cloak for the king in the Hcb-Sed,a cloakof 30 or 40 cubitslong andperhaps foldedin two [Posener-Krieger, 29.1977p.94-951. RdE At Edfu idmi is the red cloth whichcomplements the white, blue andgreenclothsusedto clothe the divine imagein the templeandhadthis ritual functionfrom thePyramidTexts. The cloth can be offeredalone: db3 mnht 131,10-16wherethe king as the child nursed V by the roty gives the cloth for the god'slimbs, it was madeby Isis and Nephthys.In return Horus guarantees splendidappearance the king in.the garbof Horusm3'. hrw Pl.I 1[2ndreg] shows the of . the king holdingonebolt of cloth out to Horusin thesanctuary. similar text is found in the Wabet A db3 rnnht , 1432,17433,7 wherethe cloth, madeby NcphLhys, given to Horus in, is

returnfor the samerewardasabovewith the additionof Heb-Seds Tanenlike Re [pl.33a2nd reg. * ]. of idmi is also offered with irtyw Vue cloth' : di mnbt Irtyw QWJ n ItJ 1 126,14-127.13

in Room U. The clothsare for the clothing of the god 'to hide his bodily form. Here a row of gods, Horus, Hathor, Hedj-hotep,Tayct, Nut and Horus guarantee fear of the king beforethe gods and in Egypt. This is primarily the irtyw cloth, but together blue andred present awesome In an appearance. the Chapel of the Throne of Re hnk mnht irtyw Xn ItJ 1289,14 - 290,5, again to hide

the form of. the god Horus puts the Ifyt of the king in the bellies of people and Harsomthus . thq'office of kingship P129 a [2nd rcg.l showsthe king wearingthe red crown and it is guarantees . of cloth scene. this contextthe cloth is theguarantor kingshipand the recognisable oppositeanother -In


insignia of rulership and the symbol of awesomeness power. and In priestly processionsthe cloth is brought for the rituals :It4Q G=: K is brought in a casket by a

priest 1558,9 (pl. 38d) and in a row of offering bearers a woman holds two bolts of cloth from Serket irtyw idmi nfrw 1566,13 (pl. 381) later parallel to this text has Serket brought with irtyw and .A q f3iq *V in her hand IV 48,6. A simple cloth offering has a list of cloths which include Wbt jjb3-Rnnt' qj. 0'w-njr. k`Rennet cloth to clothe your body and idmi'to =. jjb3 dt. k

touch your body" which puns on the

verb dmi 1238,1 . Often it can be difficult to see if one is dealing with the noun idmi 'cloth' or the 1'. -yes, ] 4 F- '1qq c5p'to clothe': 1126,16 and tq9 az I verb dmi -r #w-nLr 1289,17 and nir 1 122,9. Outside the ritual texts idmi occurs rarely in the temple, it is not a basic offering ritual, but in a sL3-mrt text, four boxes of cloth are brought of which one contains (the others are bdt, w3dt, irtyw) and the text continues'you seize anger = red), lbpy washesit and it brightens your face! VI 248,14. ldmi may also appear once in a md ointment and bandages offering text : Ibm Wk its 44W VI 249,4 (pl. 152) in its moment of the hands of Tayet sL3m

Iw-ftr. k oil makes healthy the bandagesof your divine flesh [thus Cauville, Osiris p.62 and n.7]. Here idmi replaces the usual word for cloth n1ri (c f. 1376,4 and 1188). A damaged text also has

* .9=: IIf

br = "W

and bandagesfor the body' IV 122,4-5 , so this too may be idmi.

In generalseeJEA 32 p.80 n.17.


for to substitute deputise . for Wb 1154 (1-4) MK (5) m idnw replacement DG4891

At Edfu, id n is usedmost often to describe substitutingthe sundisk by the moon



by night 111210,1 111210,11 also,with the pun itn. idn, and in the pehuof the GED nomeHorus Behdetis q ad 'who restsin the Westand rejuvenates the 30th Day' IV 40,12=V on '. As the moongod Khonsureplaces 3bw, the daylight god q=

q "zr' A 28,7-8



m mi(rw 156,5-6 and the left eye by night

replacesthe right eye V 48,10-11(Eye


In other contexts : the Harpoon oil makes bright the eye and n-wn 3y =W-,
Q ^ Y-

m b'Y

'there is indeed nothing that replacesit as a weapon among the implements of wae VI 239,2-3. Also the king is described as the heir of the one who begathim -4 YJ st. f 'to substitute his place A-2

as king' 1285,11. This phrase idn-st was also found in priestly titles as a mark of an administrative post Ccf. Goyon, KImi 18,1968 p.36 n.31 but here I think the senseis to be taken literally. idn is known from the MK with this senseof 'repiace!and as a noun for a commander or governor it may imply that this person acts in this capacity as 'substitute' for the king.


to keep distant, plus m- withhold from Wb 1154 (15) D. 18 - GR

The earliestusesof idr are followed by the prepositionm: Urk IV 159,5iwsn


Drw-rmt 'they arekept awayfrom men's faces'andat Edfu the indirectobjectis usuallya place,so it is introducedby r: 'the forearms Horus of shrine'116 (11) ; Nfin
T422'o. tl-

hftyw -=- iwnn. k repel the foes from your

fty <>- ]Vr-idbwy 1306,8 (coll. from XII 334, Chassinat has
n hftyw -=B3kt 'repels footsteps of the foe from E"pt'

"im Q ); Horus -c& LA.

q 1375,3 ; sim. BB
theselate texts.

nmtf -

W3jLt 1476,9-10. The word is not common outside


bonds cL Wb 1154 (17-18) Med. stitching of a wound / verb 'to stitch'

77hisword is related to itr 'papyrus cord', as in the phrase s13-itr, to denote the undoing of the door cord, prior to the opening of the shrine door. At Dendera, the word in the analogous phrase wnb-itr can be written q 'a- '-=DV 1183-2 which compares with , a word in medical

texts to denote the stitching of a wound, either in noun or verb form . Wb Med. 112 1dr thread, p. 113 to sew and p. 113 2 points to a connection betwen idr - i3dt (cattle pasture Wb 135,20), Idr Urd' (Wb 1 154,12-14) or i3d band on door bolt ( Wb 135,6) Idr of drawing back the door bolt (Wb 1 154,16). The connection is clear. itr is a plant which can be made into fine thread for sewing and for door bolts, thus itr. idr may originally have been identical, and if not they were thicker cord


confused [cf. Graefe, SAK 7,'1979 wnh losen P.55-56 and 56 n. 10 and 11; also MDAIK27,1971, 150 n.24 spelling originally i3dt]. At Edfu, it seemsthat idr can also indicate even thicker rope used to tie up enemy prisoners hftyw pw Tq 'the foe is in bonds' VI 55,15. I idrw herds

Wb 1154 (12-14) OK - D.22

KH Cr.45a BOCIT*9' 493 b3-jdr but CED 28 derives it from wdw ? 'to The meaning of the word is well establishedfrom its earliest uses, refer to herds of various types of herds. The spellings *, [FCD 35] but at Edfu it most often refers-to cattle C--70, J' animals or j7

seemto be phonetic writings id (r) , with the r sometimesfalling away [see AEO 11260 *-61 *].

At Edfu, the pehuof 13thLE nomecontains

Vil "II -all with' animalsof the desertIV 32,13,

livestock,despite determinative the this mayincludeherdsof cattle,sheep, goatsandotherdomestic so (sametext V 21,7 has In thepehuof the 22ndUE nome,the herdsman takescareof

). V 124,3wherethe CO-hasbeendropped(c.f. Itrw and BIFAO 43 p.109 Obs.


papyrus marshesof the Delta Wb 1155 (5-8) MK

The word can have a generaluse to designatethe whole Delta or it can specifically refer to certain parts of the Delta. It is the marshes where reeds and especially papyrus plants grew. In papyrus offering texts, idow is the place from where the plants came [Dittmar takes the word as being the papyrus plants themselves, B lumen p.55] : Horus is 'Lord of iihw, ruler of mnhw plants in 0 1t in his off ,

form of a chick in Khemmis' VII 259,2. The idw then'have a mythological function too as the Horus was protected and reared and this is reiterated elsewhere at Edfu : the king as marshes where

Horus is a noblechild of -mv- III he is s3b sl

kt--j U,

'V 295,16; Horusis the sonmisedin

VM 8,34

The centrefor Horus in the Delta was in the 1157,11. of the marshes

'LowerEgyptiancounterpart and nomeof Sma-Behdet the idw then may havebeenlocatedherein 'I texts : Sma-Behdet, present so that in the geographical particular, good thingsof 'IV 35,8 and'all

arebroughtV 24,2 ; asAmun, Horushides(imn) himself from Sethin


q 49: of Sma-BehdetVIII 8.1 ;a Lwfy offering Imn imn hm. f rn AA I 0

Amun hides

himself in the marshes111237,4.Amun's connection with idbw continues elsewhere: in the northern

tree and viper nome (3tf. Bhdt ? GardinerJEA 30 p.40) he is Lord of

(h3t-idw q.v.)

IV 41,6

q Inevitably the word is usedin puns: the king presents ,T. offering)VH 259,6.

to marshes the child (papyrus


For idbw as the rearingplaceof Horus : Salt 825 p.151-2; Gardiner,JEA 30 p.53 ff. indicatesthe association idbw with Sma-Behdet, at of especially Edfu, whereIsis raisedHorus.As a geographical Rosettaand Damiettabranches the Nile, term it is the marshzoneof the northernshore,between of in DG thusall of northernEgypt [Gauthier 1129-130].id appears general from the MK (Bersheh use 1119)but it& origins are unknownand it could be a word local to Lower Egypt. In the Sma-Behdet !, i* S is called 1334,16(Wb 1155,11). here nomethe preistess


gourd , melon (or cucumber?) A,, Pn' 'hmw Ut with all the seedswhich are-in

A southern Nile says, 'he opens for you them' 1583,5-6.


scent, perfume Wb 1152 (7-12) cE DG 49,6 LJI cL- G1WTe (-') 11

dew Cr. 87b ; CED 49

Both idt 'perfume' and 13dt 'dew' (Wb 136,1 ff. ) either had a similar origin or both were confused from earliest texts and the sameword in effect can serve for both meanings. Idt, from its determinative is liquid perfume which derives Erornthe hand or body of god 14Y and so its assimilation to dew as the droplets of the sky and heavenwas apt. 71bere be a further connection with 13dtpestUence (Wb 1 may 152,13 ff. ) which also seemsto be connectedwith water. .,, At Edfu, the word is not usually spelled out, but written incense texts such as rns-'ntyw :. 'ntyw--j==` or sim. It appears in

pw. n D'w. k it is the sweatlexudation of your

limbs' VII 106,1*,k3p -Intyw Refreshyour nosewith gods

VH 130,17-18. your perfume!


This kind of text suggeststhat mythically, incensewas regardedas the exudation of a god, perhapsthe sweat which was fragrant and perfumed, so that id t is a euphemism for 'sweaf (for gods smelling

fragrant, cL visit of Amun tcreother of Hatshepsut),or even 'semen'.

Horus Behdetcan be saidto havecreated

VH 251.18m, but thoughthe determinatives

suggest a liquid, idt mainly appearsin texts where incense is burned to release its fragrance, thus it could refer to a resinousproduct, which hardensand then is burnt as incenseto becomeperfume. In the Pyramid Texts idt again refers to incenseburning (Pyr. q365,1390) and is used here as a verb idi 'to burn' (276). In k3p-'ntyv texts therefore, Hathor says, I make your father Tejoiceat fragrance' 1242,12 ; in a procession of priests, the king 'censeshis Ennead with: your 570,16 ;a god says 'I breathe in the god rejoices at king is -a

which you bum for my ka! 1501,13. As incense fragrance,

the smell of the fragrance 1383,17 ()fms-'ntyw) and an epithet of the 'sweet of fragrance like the divine falcon' 1384,1 ( ms. 'ntyw). The effect of

749- 1588,16 fragrance to refresh body (wrb blw)lb'CM is the with or'makefestive palace the '1280,6; Hathorishtp 1131,6.

A variation on this term is idt. nlr 'divine fragrance! (Wb 1152,11) which is used in much the same idt : in the ms-'ntyw way as texts sqn b'w ... M 3= VII 317,13-14 or in processions, ,

sqn dt m


1566,9 in burning incense, king is nb the

364,5 text ,a

Punt,'he hasseized itr IV 47.12; anditl''also funeraryuse,for the ancestor godsbreathit a about 9 IV 148,4and in a md-ointment offering, IV 305,2andput it on their hair in thenthe heartof god is raisedup with V 174,13.



Wb 178 (11) D.18 loanword DG 50

13 W 11

Cr. 77a; CED 46; KH 49 610M Loan word from Semitic,found in Egyptianfrom the reign of TuthmosisHI spelled where

[AEO 17* and 162*-3*]. Someauthoritieshave both m and the determinative the water represents but arguedthat it refers to particularseas, it is actually appliedto various,different large bodiesof water suchas a lake or sea[Nibbi, GM 29,1978 p.95-100] . The Coptic term can refer to a 'vaf for


implying'thatthe termcameto havethe liquid [alsodemotic kf-5))'Tarker,JEA 26,1941 p.1081, is filled with liquid [in geographical terms,theFayurn a goodexample]. of nuance a depression Iq T'cx At Edfu, the texts aboutthe fight of Horususethe word often : the foes fall inD (in

I dww mountains) VI 127.10 : the foes on the mountains having been defeated, Horus contrast to the qqT-cx VI 128,3 Re declares that they have travelled (sqdd) over the whole sails after the rest on ; sea eRED so that these waters are named by Iloth Fairman VI 1-28,5-6.

translated 'sea, thus reading this as ym [JEA 21 p.351and it seemsto fit better than iw 'island! or mw 'water'. A later text refers to Tr4 --X VI 1-34,8 so the reading'seemsassuredand in this ,

too caseit is nearH3t 13rw andg3w ; the templedescriptior; noteshow, after the slayingof Seth and his allies, Horus sails south bnt from Mesen,till he arriveshomeVI 9.4. It is
[P.Harris 77,9-101 as suggested by

possible that this ym-n-sqdd is relcited to p3-im. '3-n-Mwqd Brugsch [DG 7601 and then Posener[GM

1974 mwqd V p.391 [Gauthier DG 1168 Red Sea ?I. , where Thoth rescues

Further, Horus and Seth actually right on the shore oF Horus VI 135,6.

A text describing the regions and areasof Egypt being brought has : 'all things Of E) VI 195,4-5.

qgL Aq -1m

The word then continues in general use, but in texts with'a narrow content, note also 0.3w-nbw VI 195,1 [Gauthier, DG 1 169 sea behind the northern people , ym nty t3w tp 113w.nbw = Mediterranean Seain the Ptolemaic period]. 0

In the Busirite nome,the sacred barquesails DG 1169,alsoat Denderal elsewhere and called'nd.

tlie seaof Osims'[Gauthier


the ann A 2

. -i
a"> A 0 V 1-14

Writings - Direct: Phonetic change: Error :



BIFAO 43,1945 p.69

arm, hand Wb 1156 (1) to 157(10) Old DG 51,1 )3, -

The term designates not only the the forearm but also the hand [Lefevbre Tableau 51]. It occurs throughout Egyptian texts and at Edfa is often the object of appropriate verbs or used in epithets. The arm of the king is made mighty against his foes : snht - --J IV 11,1. The usual spelling is J IV 10,2 ; or made strong qn --J

in Mostoftenthewordoccurs thedual, asobjects verbs strengthening of of : srwd :ZJ IV 58,5

IV 11,1 verbs of stretching out :p . Jj IV 45,12. ::: and to carry things : snw cakes on nht

IV 18,11 ; dwn


IV 57,10,

q.v. underfirst element phrases. of


palette by RdE 38,1987 185 lbot p.156no.74 corrected CauvUle, Derchain-Urtel, p.

0-n-Ir 'arm of He who sees' refers to the palette offered to Thoth by the king in temple offering



ZZ CZP-' IV 90,1 ; -

VII 126,15; Phill 11177.21

; Urk VIII 83d ; EsnaIII no. 309. The palettein this caseis on one level 'the arm' of the god Ir , but thereis alsoa word ' which itself is a palette( -,-j IV 299,1; D.IX 89,8) , so that the terrncould be in that either,but thedeterminative 163,7 indicates it is actuallya word by itself for a palette.


for censer burningincensearmof Horus'

Wb 1156 (7) GR


Wb cites examples from Edfu and Dendera only, and here it is one of the variant words used for the incenseburning apparatus,shapedlike a forearm with perhapsa falcon headat the'elbowl and the hand holding a vessel with charcoal into which pellets of incense were dropped to be burned [c.f. du , Buisson, Vasesp.78] PIAO f, lst register shows a barque procession which the king censeswith three . censersof this type embellished with c1l atone end. The accompanying text says that

the king holds. -Li'N "M in his left hand and bums incense (that is puts in the pellets) with his right (as the scene shows) 1135,4. In this priestly role the king himself holds hLr V procession to the roof of the temple 1554,9 . The censer can hold snLr incense j S& 42,2' 464,11 or -! -, . mn-wr V 82,14 . In this text 1-n-kir is synonymous with n1ri 'censee. in the

Also at Dendera :D 1117,5;D VIII 101,9 ; 116,12-13 153,18. For actual examples: Beinlich MDAIK 34 p. 15 ff. , seeLA V col. 83. Insley-Green, Temple Furniture pp.38-43 and



kJ2 E im. f Literally 'every hand ', not in Wb, but in a description of Horus Behdet s13IG!

'everyone by sees him' 11296,34.

region , area Wb 1157 (14-22) NK


in compounds KH 7; Vycichl DELC p. M prefix sign ifying 'region. ' ,

1 41 'the 'j describes butchergod Menhi as Lord of Fearin -1 A libation text for the ancestors the two IV 240,18 that is UpperEgypt. A vagueterm usedin texts to desi gnatea general southern region' , area land. of

vessel(forsubstances) Wb 1158 (13-18) MK holding (10 At Edfu, in a censingtext, the king is at the front of a procession and asking

Sakhmet protecthim againsthis foesVI 263A. The scene[pl. 1541 showsthe king holding up to like that this is not a word for a censer, the I-n-Hr, but the ' is the word for a vesselshaped V. so as I


The use of the 'as a vessel in which incenseis burnt is common at Edfu but the vessel was also used to hold other materialsand especially thoseused for purification [M. Du Buisson, Vasespp.56-581. Incense : for purifying with incensethe king says, 'I receive -1-j 1: containing irt-1.1r' VII 51,9 -,the 7 king receives Slj , and raises it up VII 1'09,4and in burning 'ntyw , the king receives ;5 t-% C2U for purification purposesVII 204,2 The plates, if published would probably show the 6 pot . y. filled

and not a censer [pls. 164 , 165 and 173]. In a md offering the container is comparedto Ijt: with 'ntyw 1 131,1. One scene has the title nk

to Horus in Nekhen 1175,10-17,and

it is a purification ritual performed by the king wearing a White Crown before Horus. PIAOc 3rd reg. shows the king holding up V to the god. vessel [Pl.61 supplied

5Md : in the foundation ritual the sand is poured into the trench from a large 'V , 40b I st reg.] The accompanying text for the latter says 'the king receives' V and pl. , with sand 1131,16. ?: a text with a lost title has the line, Take for yourself 195,8 and pl. 120 3rd reg. shows the king holding aU Mcal: in an offering of roasts, the king says, 7 receive 142,8. Water : there are two scenes of plir b3-tp sp-4 m V--J

filled with gold and grain'V

before Isis. filled with meat portions (stpw)'VII

'Going round four times with a

of watee , at Edfu : 11248,3-16 pl. 44a and Il 265,5-16, pl.44b , both 3rd regs.In both the vessel , the aim is purificationwith waterin theNile chamber,so theking is guaranteed rising of theNile. He is hown holding up a single V vesselto the gods(Osiris , Isis andNephthys). a hr bit 111258,2-7

-C Honey : on a column, a vesselof honey is ofRed to Ba-Neb-Dieds'r andpl.76,3rd col.

' is then a utilitarian templevessel- ma;nly usedin puri&don rituals - and was probablymadeof occasions. copperor bronzefor routineritualsandsilver or gold for special

M. 1

preposition: from Wb 1156(12-13)

GG 178pA2 with the meanings Ltogetherwith a person : through,because . of

2. in the chargeof

3. from



Spellings at Edfu

IV 14,12

IV 52,3

VI 5,7

IV 27.11

m. llnw-' At Edfu : di. sn n. k 'nb On' k3. k CZZ htpw 'They give you and your ka

life (or causeyou and your ka to live) by meansof yearsof food offerings! VI 189,9. The rn hnw may functi&.as m here, so that this reads m. '

child cf. Wb 1169(6) andGrdseloff,ASAE 42,115-116 Thereis an archaicword ' meaning 'youngprince in the title n a At -'GreatOneof the Prince'

in the Old Kingdomandthensporadically later texts andmaybe relatedto the in which only occurs , 1 Wb 4 from Gr.Oase15,3. ? _ Mam. E 38,9 and CD 11208,11and this

There is also a Ptolemaicword explainsthe useof

BIFAO 43 p.80 (9)]. to write thevalueI [Fairman,

moon Wb 1159 (13) GR Abbreviatedform of Q (q.v.) but it alsopunson I 'child', especially the Lunar text where in 'thechild-moonreplaces old man-moon' 111207,6. the


bandof singers choir , Wb 1159 (16) D22

Wb recordsthis word in P.Greenfield [Budge,P.Greenfieldnow P.BM 10554]with the spelling 2,4 13 U7 jP , 7j 0, At who hereaccompany funeraryprocession. Edfu during the festival : s13 a b'y nb n tsw 'bringing the chorusof singers(sayers)and all the impedimenta singing' V of 348,6-7[recognised Alliot Culte114740]. by


begreat, become verb great, great- adjective Wb 1161 (3) to 162(17) Old


DG 534 Cr. 253a; CED 120; KH 139 -o, -40, also Cr. Ib ; CjEDI At Edfu mostoften as an adjectivein epithet: , passim.

Feminine: 13bt '0" 41, IV 33,11or passim. A I 'Greatwaabpriests'IV 15,2[de Wit, CdE 36, No.71,1961 p.94-5) and Plural. nw Isty great waabsof Egypt VII 4,5. Verb : 'His majesty with wy As part of names VI 333,6. In the title of 71both Twice Great(Wb 1163.5) e.g. 173,3 1126,10 and V Idl is great' IV 51,7

snd.f 'How greatis fear of him I' VIII 15,1 Greatof Magic VI 189,5 Greatof Fear,a geni

' [L. Trismegistus Kakosyin reviewof G.Fowden, 5,2 [Boylanp.1821 theforerunner Hermes of possibly TheEgyptianHennesin OU 85,1990/4ppA03-4081.

'3. mk

Great of Protection Jones. Glossary p.240 ff.

This is the name of the sacredbarque of Horus Behdet. During the Festival of Behdet the god sails in -! z V 397,2 and in the Myth an explanation of the name of the boat is given. Thoth so that the barque of Horus

tells Horus after one of his battles , 'Your protection is great .A

Behdetis called%t!;


down to this day'VI 112,6 and then in puns. Thothprotectslo--

. barqueis -Z 129A.In the Edfu nomethe nameof the sacred a

I--* tof -j

1337,12 1360,1and

illustratedon the wall is in the CentralHall amonga series barques of and kv XII pl.324 -


doorleaf Wb 1164 (12 ff. ) Old

ibis word is usedto describe actualdoor leavesof the templeor sanctuaries is not found in the and Templep. 179ff. but it is usedin conjunctionwith synonymous ] demoticor Coptic [Spencer, terms , suchas Inhwy. The temple descriptionssay that the door leaveswere madeusually of 'real pine %0


worked with Asiatic coppee , and though it is an old convention it is not necessarily untrue qlll IV13,3; IV19,12; nfrw VII 19,9 , and they can also be made of mrw wood and copper:


IV 6,7, the sanctuarydoors are of mrw IV 15,1 '. A text however shows how conventions their leaves of pine and 'nbwy their leaves' of m rw of

could be mixed : the pylon doors, ',, i --4"

wood V 4,3 , so that either could be used and may have been similar. In addition the

doorways could be worked with gold VII 7,5 and the bolts of bronze in the door leaves gave accessto the temple II : IV 13,4. Concerning the main doors, they were finished in Year 16 of Ptolemy 'the Great door leaf' IV 8,1'; VII 6,6.

IV (206-7) and are referred to as

Due to disturbancesin Upper Egypt it was not until Year 30 that work could be resumedto complete it ` bolts and adornment --C- It' with 7 IV 8,7. n m3ht

Each shrine containing a god and each room had door leaves, for the texts mention VI 7,4 and bdt n hmJ'door leaves of the shrine of his majesty' IV 10,12. -

One of the important moments in the daily ritual was the loosening of the door bolts and opening of the leaves, which is expressedusing three main verbs : s9 , sw3 and wn , thus at the adoration of the tj IV57,6; king IV 10,12 and a sceneof revealing the god's face has -C=sb' nLrw 'opening the door leaves of heaven , opening the door leaves of

141,3 [seeXI 223]. earth, causing godsto appear' J, Two texts on the internaljamb of the doorwayin the Treasuryhavesw3-13texts: Y. u


of your house,so that god'slight illumines the Two Lands" 11170,11 the king is the, . C: =rr 11170,14. of the temples 1338,7.

one who closes(srq)

is The main priest at Thebes called


doorleaves theearth of Wb 1164 (19) Pyr.

Well attestedearlier, and also at Edfu : the king brings all good things of perhaps termfor theendsof thelandof Egypt. a




piflar , part of a ship Wb 1164 (10-11) MK-


O. 11 "E, From a Coffin Text.,, -131- part of a boat or ship and they aelikened to the jaws of Isis and 1,, are

OsirisCT V 140a. Faulkner that suggested theywere'verticaltimerssupporting deckor half decle the [FECT Il 38 n.40 Jones,Glossaryp.1561and in the Festival hall of TuthmosisIII a text hasthe phrases'01. f n. Urk. IV 857.17 It refersto stonecolumnsalso. .

At Edfu the word is used in a text which Arnold describedas a ritual for placing the cult image in the

barque[Wandreliefund Raumfunktionp.24 n.2]. Alliot, saw it as a rituel pour la procession sa de [CulteI p.327-81, majest6' wherethegod is put on a platformwith a goldenroof , which is heldup by theseas nt s3wy 'four columnsof gold' 1554,7. A parallel text describes
I'm C-3 nt s3wy , where the scribe or copyist has confused 13w columns and '3yt shrine , perhaps

beingunfamiliar with the former word 15551,7[comment Alliot Culte 1328 n.21.Thereis not an of illustrationof this scene the templehowever. in '3w are supportseither of wood or stone and in the caseof the Edfu text it is a woodencolumn , [Spencer, Templep.235 7 (b) perhaps with a tenonat the top usedfor the supportof light structures alsoin MD III 37i]


to rejoice

Wb 1168 (16) D. 19- GR This word is attested Karnak,from the reign of Merenptah, where'thewholeearth at

T, q

[KRI IV 7,15] This word and with the sameusealsooccursat Edfu r-hrt rejoicesup to heaven' . c---j becomejoyous when they seeRe in the underworld ' 1417,15 westernersbpr. ti

thePlace stabbing of Akhty heaven enters 4

isjoyous 375,1-2 IV 234,10 IV ; also


V. In injoyasthe the s3b-9wt 81,10. thetwolastexamples joy festival the isalso the and lotus represents ofthe '3y led GR), has theword beread (Wb1 166,10 to
How joyful it is to enter the !empleIV6, ;.with brw at , 'the soundof rejoicing is in Mesen'VI 86,11 Here the word is .

have determinativesbecome explicit more of spelling with a symbol joy. The

*" ly is also an adjective: 4P4 M. the defeatof the foes 014 9
6. =

thoughit is clearly the sameas 'y which may be the true form.

with 'i1w. parallel with 3w-ib and m-rX, andall are contrasted It is possiblethat ly is an error or abbreviation (m) by wherethe h hasbeenomitted.This error for ,


may then have beenperpetuateduntil the new form '3y had becomeacceptedas a word in its own right In the Edfu texts the two tenns can b used together howevr : 'the gods'are 4q 0%% the palace ,


-V I"

1204 6 so that if they wereonjiimally the sameword they hadbecome completely

separate. '3y is used at Edfu also in alliteration : 'py me IV'17 .

As an alternative ongin '3y could it be from the verb root T 'to spit out ejaculate' (Wb 1166 16 , Pyr.), where a shout of joy is 'spat oue 'uttered'.


temple 'shrine Wb 1166 (11) GR

This is,a common word in GR templesand is a general term for 'temple' or'shrine, referring either to

the wholeor part of a templebuilding.At Edfu the '3yt'of Horusis ih Placeto which food offerings are brought, thus it mustbe the wholetemple
C73 for 1451,6 cropsareharvested it 2";; . 'M




IV 21,5

IV 42,5 foreignpeoplecomebowed ,
C"3 VI 78,2-3 ,

down to it

147.5 and the geni drive away foes from it "Tca VII 157,7.

while Horus slaughters enemiesin

The templedescriptionshowsthat whenthe templeis completed the god entersthe shrine'q. f , `qr-3 IV 9,3 7bis kind of alliterationis commonwhere13yt is'designatedas '3yt (nt) 1py . the king 'r. f 'py IV 50,2 ; he is lmy-r. :: t 3 C: nt

'shrine of the winged disk'

of n 1py'overseer the shrine as r73 0150 7 'ZZ:

IV 330,12and in the list of templenames one of them is given V 396,7.

The word is commonat both Edfu andDendera.In Urk VIII 50, Vemustranslated example this an of word 'hypostyle hall' [Xihribis p132 n.c] perhaps taking as the origin of the word ,

'3 for a column,thusit is the placeof columns'.Daumas for took it to 6--derivedfrom 13lbe'greae, it indicatedthe 'GreatPlaceof the gods'andhe alsonotedthat it did not haveany specificarchitectural '. Pylon at application [NUmmisi p.288 n.5 'grand-appartement] In an exampleon the Euergetes I tqq Karnak, Amon hn -c=> the creationof the ft mound,'settledon its surfac C. at v Drioton therefore took '3yt to mean'the upperfac of somethini,'surfke! [ASAE 44 p.135-136n.fl.



heaven roof , Wb 1166 (12-13) GR

This is also common at Edfu and is related to 13yt 'shrine' It is used in alliteration : priests 'r r, . ascend to the roof 1569,10 ;Ir r- q r--"q %X carrying the divine images 1571,6-7

1562,15 also It is a separateword for 'roor not an adaptation of '3yt temple , . Qz`q4L Ir Horus comes from his shrine (d) r 'r to'go up to his roof 1 557,12-13 at the beginning of a processional text. By the slaying of Apopis the roof (heaven) is made pure 111138,1 and the overseer of Behdet priest with a Nile, standard says , 'q r '3pp 'd m 'dw. f Tnter your temple fly in to heaven , Apopis is massacred'1543,10 *.also 'h , qr:%q of the gods 111187,5. could be derived from 'room or chambee.

Brugsch suggested[HD I p. 1631that '3yt Cl


spit , sweat, water Wb 1169 (1-2) GR

but from Kom Ombo,Thebes Dendera, it is alsofoundat Edfu, Wb quotes and examples this word of 'flood watee In the geographical texts , certaincanalsin nomes contain it hasthe meaning where . it poursout Hapy for you V 13,8(in IV the word is jLr C3 the Memphite canal r--:, 6 V-5 IV 39,7 (ED contains1-1 .-. 27.4 00 r--. and in 3=, by i9d); canalof =V ; --j xreplaced % 'its watercomesfrom the goidslimbs!IV 32,6 (not V). Similarly .. the canalof -j I floods the land with in other texts : '11apy .... "-;5 his water'Ombos11,126,695. everyyear'Urk VIII 36c ; 'Hapywith

The word is also connected the tortoise a text for 'digging the earth' says,'I give you the with tortoiseto spewout the Nile which he swallowed 6r
C7 V-

wbs 3bt ' and his spittle (or

'he spits) to makethe field bloom' Il 60,12 ; also at the slayingof the turtle, when it is deadn wn there is none of his outpouring' IV 150.5. The meaningof the word is clear and the origin of it is in the root W (Wb 1166,16) 'to spit, spew liquid' (perhapsonomatopacic), either water or semen,which leads to this noun " 'water, out outpouringof watee (so Drioton ASAE 41 , 1941p.28 e. discussing". w nw.w ; for 'Y - Drioton I ASAE 44,1944 p. l.14f: Gutbub- Hom.Sauneron p.425-8 who takes1160,12 a verb ; de Walle , as


WES 31 1972 p.74 n.c where the verb is used of spitting poison]. ,


The Ass = Seth Wb 1165 (11) DG 54,3 Zv---! 5 61W (6-11) OK

Cr. 75b; CED45; KH48

The difficult nature of the ass or donkey, its non-compliance with authority and obstinacy-, and its disturbing braying, led to it being consideredin Egypt as a beastof 'chaos!and thus the foe of the go& and ultimately it was identified with Seth [LA II p.27 - 301. At Edfu, following the example of earlier religious texts such as the Book of the Dead'. Chapter 40,1 15 and Amduat IV 30, Seth is referred to as '3 In destroying Sethian creatures. 2" P9 * --W . 'the Donkey is slaughtered' IV 77.17 text for the killing of the hippopotamus begins, ,a rn hmt. i 'the donkey is for my harpoon' IV 58,12 and a slaying Seth text describes j being cut up, his limbs going on the fire and the rest of him to the dogs 111188,6-8. ' M v


type of Ben Wb 1166 (6) OK - GR rT.; e, -Z DG 55,3 I Cr. 88a ; CED 49 ; KH 53 Cc&Ay i ky

The word '3t occurs often in the Old Kingdom offering lists [from the mid. 2nd dynasty '3t is one of idmi and Ysr, Barta, Opfer, p.21,27 and index p. 170 ]. It is the the three qualities of cloth, along with origin of Coptic 61aAY linen' but occurs rarely at Edfu, the other words for ritual cloth superceding

it : in an amulet text, the king adorns the god with the snb plant, the uraeus and '072' -W jM da VI 298,5 This text seemsto have early origins, hence the mention of '3t It does appear at Dendera. . . too, but again is used much less markedly. It may be that the word had gone into everyday language and was not appropriate in temple contexts.


offerings 'Wb 1167 (10-12) Old


This general term for'offerings' occurs frequently at Edfu and is used to cover all basic food offerings in general. M. Muffay explained that the sign


usedto write the word, conminsthe signsfor ,

bread,cakesandbeerwhich wereofferedfrom the oldesttexts in funeraryofferings [AncientEgypt 1929 p.431. At Edfu '3bt is a ritual offering, either as wdb '3bt , hrp '3bt , smY '3bt In m3'-'3bt and once as ms '3bt (111338,6-11). all casesthe spelling of the word is consistent, harcVvarying at all 526,9-, 91 11 111146,17 V 387,8; 1

for VIII 158,3 The actualscenes all the 13btofferingsare also very similar. In . by crowndecorated aL in he holdsout the brp sceptre his right .

the mostcases king we+

in handandthe hd and3ms staves his left. The offering is mostoften madeto Horus, and the -Behdet for king offersor consecrates selection traysor tablespiled high with a selection bread,vessels of of a fruit, meatand fowl [c.f. XI pl.250 = 191,18 (hrp) and XII 362 = 1498,18 beer,plants,vegetables, (sm3')]. Thereare exceptions Hapy wdb '3bt to PtolemyIV and Arsinoeas the godsPhilopatorI : the 475,7-18(pl.35a); madeby theIcingandArsinoeto OsirisandIsis (rp) 191,18-92,13; offeringis for Khonsuand Hathor andtheking wearsthe hmhmty crown 1115,11- 116,5. , ff. Horus alone : 158,3-10 link ; 111146,17 wdb ; 197,12Opposite; 1450,6-13 king has Double ; Crown ; IV 65,1 and IV 220,6Oppositeon Naosext. smY 171,5-12 ;H 36,4 ff.; 11164,13 IV 382,8ff. ; 1498,18ff. Horusand Hathor: VII 206,4wdb 1160,10brp ; VI 256,4 1460,19ff. smY (RedCrown) 118,3 ff. (atef crown) ; VII 66,9 ; VII 160,6ff. ;V 153,6(mY). HorusandHarsomthus VIII 10,3ff. With Ihy : Vill 18,11. With both V 387,8ff. : , ff. Horuswith Hathorandagriculturalgoi#: 11167,15 Philadelphes Soters1526,9ff. the king wearsthe atef on In a mortuaryoffering to the Evergetes, and Hedj-hotpe TayetH 163,6, Nem,Neb-netemt, and RedCrown with Hathor,Khnum,Sekhet, the text as The m3-3bt beginsa cosmogonical and serves its introduction: VI 175,13ff., for Ptahand Thoth. In the pr-dw3, the text ms. a containingofferings presided precedes list of vessels

by the king as a sernpriest. The elevenofferingsrangefrom plants,grain to wine and waterIII over 338,6-11(pl.81). The reciprocalrewardfor the offering is all of the produceof heaven,earthand Hapy, a high Nile, ), (k3w df3w etc. fields with grain and eventhe kingship for by his provisioningof the provisions , ,


gods, the king shows he is the legitimate and rightful ruler of Egypt. The epithets of the king show that he is regardedas the cultivator of Egypt who offers this produce: he is Wdd in Egypt (1136,4-13) who fills altars and tables , the 'h'-nfr who supplies temples (191,18 ff. ) and Lord of "3bt `Z7 V 153,13 and IV 65,9. Throughout the rest of the Edfu texts, '3bt is a general word for offerings and sometimesthe texts list what the '3bt comprises : bread warmed and unsoured!111197,12; 'thousandsof bread, beer and all good things, oxen, geeseand gazelles 'VI 256,4 ; 'millions of bread, beer, oxen, geese'VU 160,16 ff. ag Also in the texts, different orthographies of '3bt include: -j 4. -Onj

1 92A ; 118,6andperhaps

ZY VIII 10,3

VII 183 1; a list of offeringsinclude' V


.=P III,= 1464,34: N:; '0:r no-oneknows their numbers andoxenandgem V 131,7. The word is usedin puns (presenting dates).

makinga greatoffering for HB of bread,beer

Y6, offerings are offered to everyone1471,1 ur


to offer
Wb 1167 (8) Late GR

This verb is derived from '3bt 'offering' but there may be confusion with the earlier verb'b3 "to ,

. 'o, ,, " ' ommon's urce. -lie'st,s'e in fact all threeof these derivefrom a 'Ibe ear offer'and wordsmayultimately u
aj % of the verb '3b is in the Piankhi stela 109 and 112 which Grimal [Pianchi P.147

as n.438] transliterates '3b 'a verb generallyusedin the lateperiodin a religiouscontexf In this case it is usedto refer to the offeringof gold andsilver to the king by a princePetisis. At Edfu, the verb us' in ti ually appears the phrase13b 13b. 'the offering is offered' 387,8 Q


i4'; VI 256, 153,6-7or Behdet

IV 382,8 "provided

VII 160,6 with offeringsIV 18,15. IV 64,2 and two

Without 13bt the 'verb is used in parallel with synonyms: js-t ......

1 in the tiItle 13 b-tpw-njrw scene usethe verb s

IV 312,8, wher-elhe altarsare flo6ded

drink,oxen, foodsupplies HathortheNile in floodin return with bread, and geese Horus and gives
g P1.89 reg. shows4ih the']` wearin' 9 his headbeforean altar tableof offeringsandhis on


rcm handsare both down by his sides v-q .

V 230,12is similar, but shorterand Horusonly receives

the offering (PI.132 9th col.). Here the king has the sameposturebut wearsa red crown with atef crown.
The verb occurs in the slim. f form: F4 I

wd4w. k 'I supply your altars' 11269,12.


Apopis Wb 1167 (14-15) Ist IP DG 59,7 Cr. 21b; CEDIS; KHIO

is Apopis is the serpent chaos%ho theenemyof Re andthe dead.In the Booksof theUnderworld of between andApopisis especially Re andApopistries to stopRe in hisjourney prominent the struggle Apopisso thatRe canriseandshineoverthe At dawn Re or his crew,destroy throughtheunderworld. earth[LA 1350-21. hoursof the day often refer to this victory over Apopis . In the 4th At Edfu the texts describing the (pl. bums Apopis(111218,4) a spearis put in his head(line 7) , but the scene 7 1) hour,the uraeus and WL The and humanfoe being speared. 5th hour showsa serpent herethe textsrefer to' ci Ei showsa 611- is killed by the magic of Isis [PI.71 In in the water is slain' 111219,8. the sixth hour Frjj the king stabinga snake)111220,10.A text in the library begins sbr shows for

his father Re in the 12th hour of the day (or 12 hoursof the day) . 11is is done for Horus Re, the ) Horusof theeastandheretheking spears tortoise(pl.82 I st reg. M 349,9-13. a The ultimate expression the solar victory is in the ritual sm3-'3pp , which is importantat Edfu of because the solarnatureof HorusBehdeLThis ritual doesnot comeunderthe headingof Sethian of

but is solar.A pair of scenes otheron the outsideof the Naosshowthe victory : each opposite rituals, 'Ei It0i sm3 -fV110"0' Yfv"-IV 80,4-16andsm3 0 13 IV 237,2-17.In both the title goeson to

) list other kinds of serpentwhich are slain (nk sftb etc. and then the king is one 'mighty on the or throneof Re-Harakhty heir of U-Q the and child of hnb who destroys recruitsof

The rite is performedbeforeHoruswho gives strengthto the king in his battlesand the god himself hasmartial epithets.The king is shownstabbinga -'\&r before the god [c.f. pl.90 2nd serpent

Court follow the samepattern: sm3 YArL reg.l. A similar pair of texts on oppositesidesof the


V 79,13-80,11 and sm3


by V 175,14- 176,10.HerehoweverHorusis accompanied

Hathor,firstly as Sakhmet thenas Nesertwho burnsthe foes. Here the solar titles of Horus are and given prominence and the sceneshowsthe stabbingof Apopis by the king who wearsthe Onuris ]. crownof four plumes[pls.116and 1202ndregs. LIP-rThe title of the rite can emphasise Re aspectof the ritual :s rn3 '0*'('] the n it. f RI III is speared 29,6-16wherethe equivalence HorusandRe is madeclear throughoutand of -Artdnw (and kill the foe 270 481 ; w [PI. n RI m on the 13t-Pg3t)ll 54,11 - 55,3 -IVUCk the slain [pIAOblbut thesetwo placesarealsofound in againHoruswith martialepithets sees serpent Uk beforeHorus Merty, who is Lord of Shedenu who kills the foe on the Isle of sm3 ca 3rd col. hmhmty crown] ; and srn3 --j UVV*-Pg3t 111252.2-8 76 [pl. all whereHorus is Horus

Merty Lord of Shedenu war god who givesthe king success the battlefieldVII 156,14-157,12. on ,a Shedenu the centrefor HorusMerty in the=U Delta [GauthierDG V 151andLA 1112761Of the is bVVL remainder, note sm3 '-j all for Horusand Hathor VI 332,11-333.7 srn3 '*c" WL ; C1 11 VH 200,11-201.11 Horusand Hathor.. for

VII 112,13-113,13 Horusand Hathor; sm3

The destruction Apopisis carriedout from the 'dt morningbarque of which givesrise to an alliterative Wk taA/\' Idw Apopis is massacred 156,14 found at Edfu : 4'' = VII pun often Go 0-AM ky- VII 200,13 and mosteffectively m Idt 'dt m 'd Apopis is slain, the morning is boat is safe IV 80,4 and this association continuedin a text labelled , Idt rn-htp

of m Id 1115,10-6,3 wherethe emphasis the text is on the boatand the scene showsthe king offering it up to Horus and Hathor [plA81.Other texts havethis alliteration 179,16-17 in the description die destruction the of and of 15,6. _' foesof Re k/V" m 'dt '3t VI

kPA11- falls slain VI


Asiatic Wb 1167 (19-21) OK DG 55,5 V3r,. 7 .-,

j 6th D.

Cr3a ; CED 5 &. ME - -, ,,I In origin this is probablya Semiticterm usedby the Egyptiansto describe peopleto the northcast the Ile word is still of Egypt with whom they cameinto contact,both in tradeand military expeditions.


used at Edfu , though is archaic by this time, for the demotic equivalent means'herdsman': in texts for I *T the destruction of foreigners. theseinclude IV 370,15 ; other spellings fit

It I


1frOm GauthierDG 1133-4 1.


semiprecious stones minerals or Wb 1165(13-21) DG 55

Whereas is stonewhich canbe quarriedin greatquantity originally '3t wererarer, morecostly inr . stones,though in Coptic inr had come to be used as a generic term for stone [Harris, Nfinerals distinctfrom p.21-22].TheEdfu textsused13tarchaically with themeaning semiprecious of minerals the noble metals- gold andsilver [Aufr4e, RdE 34,1982-3 4-61 the templecontainssilver, gold pp. and I C3 lot in IV 6,1 ; the barque Horusis fashioned gold and, C3 of IV 14,13and his

is sanctuary finishedwith gold and . C3

IV 15,1.These'3t camefrom theYtyt quarries

it i on

11176,17 ; some are pure '3t w'bw VI 203,2-3 and priests in processions carry c3it, their hands 1568,17-18.

Certainmineralscomeunderthis generalname: in a w3d and msdmt text, Hathorsays,'I receive

-eCJ 111

which camefrom theEye of Horus'111144,9.


divine stone

This substanceis mentioned in a recipe and ritual in two texts, probably copied, at Edfu. The earliest ! 4 -0-.= is in the Laboratory : king offering is called tp-rd n sm3ty stone. Ibis is then repeatedas -q-j to Min and Isis 11213,16 ff. and P1.43a3rd reg. shows the

to the gods , but there is also the recipe for malcing it H 214,7-215,12. This In sm3ty r ftr-'w n Mn-Imn and all the, images of

VI 165,2 ff. where the text describes it as

3 which is given to Min , Osiris and Isis [pl. 146 1: 3rd reg.]. Again a recipe is given C3 for the limbs of Min Amun VI 165,8-166,4and it is the same as the Laboratory text.

Outside these two texts the substanceis mentioned in the laboratory: Horus Akhty is Lord of

from the Eye of Re andEye of HorusIl 194,9;a mortuarytext has11 0which comes . cS decorate mummywrappings 213,1and'bitumenis prepared H the accordingto what is written and


c3r tp -sb divine stone is excellently made . They are for your ka. I unite your limbs for you with if [after CauviHe, Osiris p. 107]. A damagedtext gives the connection with Min againl"///////

for Min Amun GreatOnein Behdet11196,6. ,

Outside the Edfu texts, '3t. nir is also found in the Embalming Ritual, where Osiris brings to the deceased product].
It is a substance which is made artificially and is connected with Osiris or Min-Amun. Montet

2, . C3

in Diospolis Parva [Sauneron Emba '" ment p.20,2 who says it is an organic ,

suggested it should be translated as 'matitre divine! after Uret concerned wih the title sm3ty].

[JNES 9,1950 p. 20, but he was mainly is mentioned again [Harris, Minerals

He noted that in the Embalming Ritual 13t-njr

with mnn which is thought to be a word for tar or pitch used in mummification p. 1731 . In the Djed-hor text mrht I, nt C=3 III

is used to embalm th6 falcon [Reymond


Djedhorp.109] and it is specificallyusedin 'mummification with cloth wrappingsand

it This suggests was a substance as is written' [Wreszinski,Wien p.87 line 13-141. pouredovI the er hardened stone,hencethe name'3t 'stone' The connection like mummybandages, which perhaps . with Min may be in that he is often shownwith a black faceand if this substane black 'then it' was could have symbolised the fertility'of Min and regenerationof the dead. This substancewas in from a mass ingredients manufactured the templeworkshops of including ninn and manyincenses which are left for a number of days. The resulting 'divine unguent' is black in colour [Aufr6re, MinerauxRdE 34,1982-3p.16-17; also Chassinat, Khoiak 11351ff. and Derchain,P.Salt 825 p.15 n.21]. 'i -


seat, throne as the ruler in Dep VII 107,9,

In a presentingmeatportionsritual the king is upon , apparently hapax. a


sleep Wb 1169 (8-11) MK GR

in This is the word usedat Edfu tor'to sleep', which is invariablynegated someway I' 'not sleeping: -thetempleguardians n do not sleepeveryday, protec ting MesenIV


tm 013 the genii of Edfu guard Mesen and Wetjeset --f- 0- %. % IV 98,6.

%wm "'free from sleep': Horusin the Athribis nomeis awakeand iwty " 'without sleep': a gargoyleis Lord of Watchingby day night' IV 269,6;a minor god is called 1198,2. sleeping It is also used with bwt : the guardsof Mesen,Lords of Watching is abomination sleepVI 14,10; the guardians Osiris '"w-x4 of

IV 13C5- 29,15. IM without sleepat


'onewho spends night without the

vij am 1200,17.


00 QM

Theseusesconformto thenotein Wb that " is alwaysnegated [cf. too Gardiner,JEA 34 p.171.


Nile flood Wb 1169 (16) GR

The word is attestedearliest from the Edfu texts Its meaning is clear and use consistent,in . for processions the Nile it is one of the names the river flood : the king brings of 322,7-8 which fills the Two Landswith its efflux 1325,8-9; 1-j 'r 1 which

it renewstheTwo Landswith efflux VI 33,14.In a text wherea vesselof wateris presented, is Yr m 'pouredout as/withNile water11248,5. is then the flood wateritself, not the river It and in a text for the canalof 15thLE nomethe mnt-canalcontains 34,1. One form of the flood is called era; e`\ IV 198,7 IC7 .0 0IV its flood waterIV 43r3

337,5-6'waterof raisingbeasts',it raisesfor you all beasts'. U, The word is also usedat Dendera g. D IV 5,15-6,1 (e. king is heir of of the Eye of Re andDH 54,2 the

thesetwo templesit hasa consistent so throughout use.

t, lie in 13''to spit out liquid ', wherethe bird sign r3hi hasbeenmisread The orig4*1 e word may as I from hieraticandthe mistakeperpetuated Edfu, so thatour readinggem no morethan T. is at


animals beasts Wb 1170 (7) - 171(1) OK

A general word-for animals which are not cattle, but live in herds. In origin it is connected to a word


Iwt 'sceptre, stave , originally a herdsman'sstaff, so that Iwt animals are 'those of the staff. At Edfu these herds often appear in texts for the sacrifice of animals as goats, sheep,desert game (gazelles, oryx, antilope) and for the subsequent offerings of portions of 'their InCat. Thus in the w-'-r-stpw 'portions of iw3w and 1 are brou'ghf VII 319,13 ; the king kills these herds IP are in the temple I

If. q1

to symbolise the defeat of his foes VII 319,16 ; roasts of

536.11andfat portionsof

Ij #

areput on thebrazierto madeinto burnt offerings1490,7;n3 Alliot, Culte H p.466 n.31.

(211, arefor the altar at the festivalVI 25,7 [4 =I

.r to'domestic'cattle Thattheimplicit meaning herdsof animals is live in thedesert, opposed who as on

thepastures, confirmedwherethe lion gargoyles called'King of is are 1 CF W IV 274,6-7; sovereign IV 286,1and 'master of of The king as a lion in the desertchopsup imyt

IV 117,4-5and IV 286,4.

111188,10. This can be madecertainby VII 164,3and

qualifying the word, as in two offering rituals called: hrp 'wt-n-b3swt

VII 322,18 Both describe captureof gazeHesoryx and antilopefor'the temple the . , altarsandin fact the two textsareopposite another the outsideof the nclosure one on wall [Po 3d 31 lands andYe 3g 311.Theseherdsarethe tributeof thedesert 4'. Y:1 no be 'wt n 10w 1489,17. Someof theseherdscould be kept in enclosures'or pens: the templeis built and prov'ided with s3t n J(S%(Rti( created penswith pensof animalsVII 50,1-2; Seshmu 1565,4-5for he is VH 320,6-7 60 w it VII 323,11-12. They canalso VII 323,6or

the Lord of the wastesand of the hunt. In this casethe 'wt may be sheepand goats,as also in a geographicaltext where an agricultural areaof land has grain n wgm n by herdsIV 26,6. Other writings may be this word : in a list of offerings ninnint ? VIII 154,8. #wt is alsousedwith the meaning 'sacred animal'(Wb 1170,15-16Late GR), but only from the Late Period( Kurth, LA VI 571-587, 571-2andnn.8 to 11]. At Edfu, because sacred the especially animalis A. falcon then 'wt is usually determined a with In the Installation of the sacredfalcon for Setting'uphis sacred II -k for not trampled twt and

is usedoften and the ceremonyis called : s'b' 1110 example,the word animal' VI 157,1-2and II IF'

VIII 148,11-12; also smn 13wt nt

Hor-Akhty VI 263,1-2and the bird is called IA

of Re-HorakhtyVI 308,1-2.This takes


place in the m3ht nt



VI 93,10. Alliot collected these examples and concluded that the

'wt was the living falcon at Edfu which was believed to be the embodiment of the soul of the god [Alliot Culte II pp.576-71.Fairman however suggestedthat the word read qm3 'image, but Blackman agreed with 'wt . especially in view of an example at Philae n Hr-3hty , where the hide 0W

sign is more usually the determinative of Iwt [Junker Phila I p.75 and WZKM 26,45 (16) ; Blackman,

JEA 31 p.63 n.26]. The Apis bull too is alsocalled king of



'all sacred animals'1472,1?


to reap, harvest Wb 1171 (18-21) OK

1w3i is the action of cutting the headsoff grain stems with a sickle and it. is used thus at Edfu. At the q Shemu the king u *""Lq ,! gmw harvests the crop for the sanctuary of Horus IV seasonof , -i , 42,5 and --J fl] qP1 ;Jn. k 3ht. k r sws 'he harvests your field at its time' H 243,12 In . 0V VIII 9,1 and

the nk-sbt texts, the cutting of the grain is done rn-ndm-ib 'joyfully' VIII 17,10-11 or m-3w-ib %mw 1468,9-10 in an offering procession.,


to rob
Wb 1171 (3-12) OK

At Edfu, the substantive derivatives of this verb are most usually found : 1w3y 'robbee (Wb 1171 , 13-15) and 'w3y 'one who is robbed' (Wb 1171,9-11). .-, -Yuh : occurs in the name of a minor deity protecting Osiris -5?- *Y-- nbd sm3yw. f

hr n 11IJ'Robber, he has stolen away the foe and his allies are fallen to his knife! 1199,11. robber, possibly in 'driving the calves text! : Isis is one who dr VI 287,3-4

the suppresses robber' [after JEA 35 p. 109] ; in the name of the god above 1199,11 in a plural form to denote Toes!, Nekhbet fires flame at -J -6k 1113,8 Also in the Myth, ' Seth in his .

form hippopotamus is called

5: I It

'robber beast![after JEA,31 p.8 because the t,

hippopotamus raidedboth fish and grain supplies]VI 81,5 ; sim. the shaft of the harpoongleamsin the backof qfLQQ-, "--robber beasts! V179,3 *,the guardiangodsprotectHorusfrom,-, -I q-t"IwIr%

VIII 147,10(cf. Wb 1172,6Med. foulness).


'One who is robbed' in nhm. 'w3y : Horus as Lord of NWt nhm

from Seth'saves the

robbed from'Seth' VIII 7.1 . This idea of the restoration of Maat, occurs as early as Sinuhe B 97 nm. nj 'w3 'I rescued the one who was robbed' [GNS 42]. From the New Kingdom a goddess

Nehemet-awy is attested, who acted as the companion of Tboth and together they upheld Nfaat. The goddessappearsin texts at Edfu and especially in Maat offerings and puns on her name are frequent Id -a P-JAqr C-J z -&k . bw hr m. k 'Nehemet-awy she drives away the robber from the place of Your .

majesty' IV 295,4 [for this goddess: Zivie LA IV p.390-2].

2-r; tFurtherpunsof this kind : HorusBehdet

Otrescues king from -J -0rA%-z=; I.I. the 3

king from every evil robbeel 267,13, but this phrase is capable of a different interpretation In'the .

field of the Imenet nome,Horus brings back what was takenby Seth -a Z-j

Y. -tr lp-- k-j tx-*_

'rescues that whatever'was whatis stolenby Nebed V 15,8.Is this the truesense, 1w3yhererepresents stolenby Seth , that is the eye of Horus . This would meanthat NehemetAwy is no more than a counterpart Thoth, as the femalecomponent who broughtback the eye. Also in the Book of the of DeadSethis referredto as 'w3w who stolethelimbs of Osiris [BudgeBD 313,6]. 'roV is from the sameroot as 'w3y 'to reap' 'where this is The verb 1w3ytranslated with the nuance the removalof the heads com from the stem,andin fact is violent in its implication.It may be that of 1w3yreqiresa strongertranslation is than 'rob'. Oneof the earliestexamples Urk 175,15 n sp it ibt rml nb fLMNever did I take a thing of anyone m-'w3 'robbingly' but it may be ,

more accurateto render'in violence'oecausingharm'.Whateverthe true import in English 'w3 is disruptive,and in Egyptianterms,not within thebounds Maat,because symbolises it chaos. of


to rob , plunder Wb 1172 (11-18) MK - Late

From its first Usein Literary texts of the Mddle Kingdom, the term can be treated as 'to dispossess, rob, despoir (forcefully) [Caminos, Tale of Woe p.271 . The noun from this 'wnw is also forceful (Wb

1172,19)andit is still Used the Edfa textsin a play on words: the guardiangods &. + i% in St-Wrt'driv'eawaythe robberfrom the GreatPlace!IV 128,8.,



The compound'wn ib 'greedy'[after Vogelsang, Bauerp.73 =B 166] is appliedto Apopisj0S -vC qy. I ,j- re & i,, drive away the GreedyOne' VII 46,4, as it was earlier in the MetternichSiela 189 At -4-S


__j -U-I W-MA- Pr hwn. f a scorpion (?) has stung him [c f. Sander-Hansen, Mett. p. 7 I]. -,


typeof tree Wb 1173 (2-6) MK

Thereis an example this treein a midand mnt offering text wherebestmyrrh is mixed with of . 'seeds the 'wn tree', in the manufacture md V 196,5. of of Accordingto the Wb Drog. [p.831the identity of the treeis unknownbut its seeds usedin Bt.10. are Someauthorities havetranslated as'almondme [Charpentier 234-5]. Thewoodof this treewas Iwn p. usedto makesticksandstaves usedin balances. and


to grieve, to mourn Wb 1172 (21-22) D.20 GR .

-i A verb 'wn to cry oue is found in Mett. 180W-.


--A 'how greatis your cry I' ; 219&

g7 ! a cry of Nephthys [Sander-Hansen Mett. p.71 and 721 and also in Med.Habu 35,8 where lions are speared in a hunt and 'they cry out' It sems to refer to a cry of pain and at Edfu . -r , --j

is then the soundit makesis ... c-k when the hippopotamus speared

V1,69,10,perhaps a

substantive derived from the verb . In this instance it is heard as far away as Kenmet ; sim. 0 in Kenset as opposed to the sound of joy in Mesen VI 86,13.[c L V 17 9.7 co%%

JEA 29 p.35 n26'Alack, alack1] it In the Sokarischamber is alsousedasan additionalword for 'to mourn, wheregoddesses around are J -6 -0.,. 'they mournfor you' 1201,13. Osiris and +t v-V


hom, Wb 1173 (12) to 174(1) OK

Originally the word referredto the homsof cattleas indicatedby the usedof hornsof animalsin general. is At Edfu 'b is usedin the singular: the harpoon likenedto a horn VI hippopotamus 733 Horus

sign , but it cameto be

stuckin the bonesof the

but it is most often dual, especiallyin epithets : nb-'bwy spd-lbwy , . % *12 6siris 1148, ; 1149,8.


They are also ram horns, where in the head gear of Horus Behdet, 'the two great plumes unite with on his brow' IV 8,8 and in such cases -4, goddess ,=7 114 1.9 is envisaged not bull horns. There is also a ,

who protects the king VI 310,6 and who is equatedwith the fillet on the head IV 76,6-7.

F of the king in a Maat text <=;


with , and Wb 1174(5-9) Old

'b in this phrase is a corruption of the verb Fb 'to unite' and it may also "plain

the origin of 'b

'horns' becausehorns are joined together m-'b occurs often at EdfU'[c f. GG Ij8 1 Junker GrD and , . 2251 It joins two nouns: incense m-'b mnwr IV 3,5 ; bow m-'b arrow IV 39,5 ; right eye m-'b left eye IV 52,13.

It follows verbsof unit--g sm3

IV 55,11.
After other verbs: lind, Spellings the king rejoices A.

IV 110 ; snsn

P -.;

IV 52,11 dtd ;

with his followers IV 15A V 6,5 V dz




Wb 1173 (16) GR
Literally translated as 'horn of the ni3w gazelle' but means'yeae. It occurs often at Dendera at and

Edfu and its meaningis not in doubt.It is often connected to the New Year festival : 'ascending with the roof on New Year'sDay
Sothis comes each year A-LA 'L

IP ,4

DDn 3b 'a million yearswithout end' 1569,10


k3. f no year is free from his ka 156,10-11 sw m

hh 'millions of years,rising and setting,seeingthe disk in the Place of the First Feast(at the New Year festival) 1579,11-12. It agmnis found with hh : Horus Behdetshall remainin the temple for nmX

VI 18,7-8. W tr hq3 rupwt


is used in parallel with synonymous words -. Vr 11 A dm6 vpdssal Az

'taking jears andmVm7,91

(urv) at the'head theVivln IV 219,9. of nmtoWYisateout cws


At Dendera:D 11114,17bo n I-w

Fe7CE? .

In origin, Keimer suggestedthat the similarity of the horn of a ni3w (bouquetin) with its knobbly , f 'yeae causedthe Egyptians to to and notched appearance, the sign of the notched palm branch , equate 'horn of the ni3w ' and 'year' [L. Keimer Interprttation de Quelques Passagesd'Horapollon, , Cahier No.5 Supp. ASAE, 1947 p. 1-11; Grapow, Bildliche p.84 horn of gazelle is year; for examples : de Wit, BIFAO 55 1955 p. 120-121]. In cryptography also 41 could be read rnpt [Drioton,

RdE 1,1933 p.8,12 and 41 no.76 from BD Chapter 851.


impurity taint , Wb 1174 (15-18) NK GR often

This word for 'impurity' in fact existsat least from the PTs [207 2081though its similarity to , 'b/w'b 'purity, to purify' hasled to confusionin the treatment the word [c L Wb Med. 137].There of p. is plainly an antithetical between words,both havethe stem'b but they haveopposite the connection , It to meanings. may be associated the ideafor something be purified , it mustfirst be'impure'so with that impurity/purityarea balanced of concepts words, neitherexistingwithout the other.This and pair thenimpure maybe inherentin a text that mentions pure(w'b) waterwashingawaydirt andbecoming ('b) [Blackman ZAS 49 p.591.Gardiner that of suggested 'b wasa case lucusa non lucendo, with the , is original meaningof 'bw - 'offscourings"what to be cleansed away' [Gardinerand Sethe, Letter to the Deadp.10n.3 ]. At Edfu the word occursfrequentlyand is usuallyclearlydetermined with -29L or so that

Inevitablyit is usedin the pun wheresomething no mistakecan be madeas to its meaning. w'b. ti r VV lb is purified from impurity': limbs 555,18; the season Peret of fields 281,13; provisionsfor the godsWb. ti I IV 51,13 dw nb pure meat

LO IV 42,1 ; feet for walking on pathsw'b r w'b. ti rl-sk

by the Nile 1471,4 and ultimately w'b

is purified from all evil impurity VII 128,2. lb is controlledby Sakhmet Germond, [ Sekhmet 89 n.5 InvocationsA la BonneAnn6ep.71 n.3, p. it translates as 'atteintes malffiques] andalsoHoruscanguarantee the king is purified against that N: 0 of her majestyIl 75,14and sheherbf can savehim from Isr nb 1--w nb dw 'every arrow 'I. VI 264,5 Shecan direct it againstthe.enemies the king of .

and every evil taine VI 264.2 ;


-'LO Ir0 wdA Behdet 11

ftyw. f 111291,3 ; as '1=7X1

she sends it against all the'inernies of Horus

VI 99,11 and her emissarieshave the power to dispenseit for the king is saved from

n h3tyw 1473,13 . In the 'Good Year Liturgy' Sakhmet is asked to ensure that n p W -VOIc7dw n rnpt 'no evil impurity of this year reaches him' VI 95,11-12 1b here is then . connected with the miasmas produced by the i3dt-rnpt: V1264,5 14 ; . V196,11; VI97,17

The verb dr is most often found meaning 'remove impurity 148,13. The king too destroys impurity, when he has the epithet iwb. 'bw 'one who destrols impurity' (Otto,GuM p.25,75 and 98 for examples]. In the canal of the 15th LE nome it is the work of Horus J-j 0 iwb -, IV 34.8 ; the king as upholder of 11aat -JJ -Sa- in this land 1173,10; also[JJOJ iwb

1442,7 (restored by Otto op.ciL p. 175 example 50). , The use of 'b is common throughout the GR temples and the possible ambiguity of the term may have enhancedits attraction.


to kill , sacrifice

At Edfu there are two examples of a verb, otherwise unattestedby Wb'. In a text for offering meat goats are slain VI 257.12 ; in a text for the defe-at of foreign lands, the king tr Ca -zi ,

tM 'slays Asiatics' IV 370,14 The alliteration in these texts of ' shows that here it reads 'b and I . the context suggeststhatto slay'or the like is an adequatemeaning. The nearest to 'b in Wb is 'bb 'to knock' on the door (Wb 1 178,7) and lbb 'to use the pitchforle (FCD 41 but Wb 1178,9 to harvest) in Leid. V 6,14 MK -Jjl A ); -


be pure. to purify Wb 1175 (4-10) DO 58

It is unclearwhether'b andw'b are the sameword, with the w failing away in pronunciation. Wb suggests that 'b and treats signs with /* or /1 or as w'b a

follow Sum-S11011 eAtiere,md,in tact tilt wa w, % m7mm *at tp.,m As matret. -a Vm9 -L purifies the noble shrineof every The verb at Edfu is nomally tr ansitive 'to pufifY I.the 113,11On simJ form Thoth says, zod ilt-k'l purify your body with this watee to king IV


52,6; Arsinoe7CA/R 1325,17 lun-mutefpriest

k3J I purify my ka!,I 320,9; the Nile purifies placeswhen it floods 1321,6 1322,8 The word can apply to water or incense: the . Per-Werand Weret-Heket 1130,1.

in That 'b andw'b are different is suggested textswheretransitive'b is paralleledby causative sw'b . Horus as Lord of Purity sw'b R' it. f Wsr 1 164.1 and Horus is the

Inventor of cleaning (93' twr) qbbw 1162,8. ras'b is based the horn sign='b. Thereadingof on


purifier, asa priestly tide

Wb 1175 (12) D. 18 and AnJex. 77.0607

'b may be part of the title of the Iun-mutef priest quoted above in 'b Pr wr 'one who purifies the Per-Wer, which is at least as early as the reign of Hatshepsut : Urk IV 262,10 Iunmuter 3 ]E, IF%* II

and occurs often at Edfu in 'Coming out of the palace' texts

V 7

59,16 for "ample. Similarly in a scene of offering food, the king is called . Gold! 11246,9 ; at Dendera too. CD V 5,9 -t+ ji n


'purifier of Horus of

Ibrahim [Kingship p. 148] notes that this is .

similar to w'b [p. 148 and n.72 on p. 199] but it is used as a parallel of of qbW at Edfu. The title 'b may be basedon much older traditions as the Per-Wer is attestedfrom some of the earliest texts.


purity Wb 1175 (13-20) OK

Using the samecriteriaof differentspellings for 'b 'to purify, 'bw hasthe following usesat Edfu as Ob.ect of iri : BB <, > in the Pr-Dw3w IV 25,8 ; rituals are called ir 'bw : with four vessels

428,2-7(pLXII 340 showsthe king pouringwaterover HorusB, in the Wabet11 ehdet)and in of water this text is the line ?t" R' sw'b msw.f 1428,9 Also <> ( . wherethe king

pourswater into a bowl containingfour blocks or tablets1590,12 - 591.7 . The text againusesboth 'b and swb The ritual is analogous sw1bm4 Ort m mw,. to . X: r-Lords ' it : appliesto the godsI. F. of purity 1591,7 -,whenthe templeis completed is nbw-'bw


6 Nt sw'b in -qf4o,.

IV 33 1,10

go round the king with water and incense In 333,9 1164,1.

In the singular, Horus is called ":--77V

m-'b w 'in purity' %eing pure! is virtually the equivalent of w'b. ti : the priest in a procession is



'b 1557,8 while a counterpart is w'b. ti r-'b 1557,4. A ny ritual duty in the temple, any 'ring IV 51.13 ; ente

e made m-'bw 'pure: walking on roads r-= I approach to the gods has to m pL4, r_ x: IV 55,5 ; the king goes to Esna.

in his purity IV 209,7. IV 53,7 ; also

- Fm . 'b w-wr 'in absolute purity': the king enters Mesen - IV

553,13-14 ; in the laboratory this state is essential- the laboratory of the divine winged beetle m 2f ), 'H 202,1 The hbt is also c-Il 195,14 ; isw n 11197,10 . %0

11227,6. Peopleare in this state especiallythe king who seizesthe watervesselm . --. , ,


Il 261,11and the ka of the falcon is madeto be 'M /V

-2?.d I"M

by the workersof the -C=N.



mineral Harris, Nfinerals p.84-5.

A mineral from the Eastern Desert, listed in the mineral list -is

VI 202,10.It is attested

from earlier texts, Peas. 23 and P.Ch.B. IV vs. 8,2 but its identity is unknown.It may be from 'b R
Ipure' or Ib3 'offering table for example.

'b = Fb q.v.


to shine , illumine

Wb 1177 (11-13) D.18 GR From D. 18 (Hatshepsut),Urk.IV 340,1describes queen'her skin fashioned electurn -J Dr the of glittering'. At Edru the verb can apply to the sunshining Re?shine upon (r) the gods'1'537,1 I

m3w n R' 'the beamsof

n sty Ijr 'the rays of Horus illumine (no

Vqq i 1,7 HoruS " Va RI 'P, :; preposition)the Two ShrineRows' II ;

Hathor Eye of Re Or

1* 0

1304,8; Bastet the as

IV It br shd s'nky illumines limbs and lights up darkness' 239,10

Msn "illuminesMesen, VII It can also apply'to the moon:Khonsubr 0.1 chasingaway darkness'


111,11 and this is implied in 'Filling the eye with silver , -A-jQ VIII 137,12--Philae Phot. 579 [Phill I p. 107 (9)].

brightening its pupil with t"

Thewordalsooccurs Dendera 1135,11-12) seems established. (D at and well


light Wb 1177 (14) GR

Noun derivedfrom the verb W, of which Wb citesonly two examples: a pun in a purificationtext (ir-'bw) Horusis Horus 'purifies ('bw) all placeswith , 1,5 his lighe ('bw = purity) 1,59 ; also

Lord of Light who brightensthe darkness'IH112,3.


purewaters .
its 'bw IV 37,7. The Fu::

In the 19th LE nome, the canal is brought containing

is probably there through confusion with 'b3 'light! and what is intended is 'pure watee . The sign parallel, V 25,13 has srf.


to offer, present Wb 1177 (2-3) DG 58 to offer

The word hasbeenabbreviated 'b by the time the Edfu textswere inscribedand it is in this form to that it mostoftenappears. With direct oW=. Horus is 3ms-ib VJ iht msw.f 'who presentsfood for his children ' IV

22,15; the king '.? c As. sdm flQM2. -f

it-nfr nb 'offrs 01 offerings upon the altar of Horus' VH 61.5.

n.f n.k ir. k I presentyour eye to you' 177,6 . C7 In puns a breadoffering text -'I give you WA eyour altar providedwith all things'

CC77et74* 'the offering is offeredto your ka! V 153,6-7. V 153,2 '3bt Ile verb doesnot introduceritual offeringsand is an archaicsurvival which providesan alternative being replacedby the similar '3b (q.v.) lbough W was also a type of word for 'to offee, perhaps . by sceptre,the word for it was superceded others such as hrp and both the words for sceptreare associated verbsmeaning'tooffer, to consecrate,. with



offering table , altar Wb 1177 (7-9) Pyr. GR

Originally the 'b3 was a stone offering slab, upon which food offerings could be placed before a tomb for the dead or in a temple for the gods. By GR times the word referred to an offering table, not necessarily of stone, upon which the offerings were placed in the temple, and it is synonymous with words such as wd or btp where the original difference between them has be6 lost. In the temple it is the responsibility of the king to supply the altars of the gods : sbb :PY (meat portion jerings) IV 221,14 ; sdf3: t9 Ja tn '(wdn btpw-njrw) P VIII 89.6 ; sjjf3 -.

Jj of all gods (M iht) 161,16; W

upon uj 'IV

'pr with all good things VI 255,9 ; lb all good things

of Horus VII 61,5 . The altars usually hold only general offerings : all vessels on 43,15 ; Otpw Ij IV 48.12 ; offerings are great upon -:: C-3 Ifi VI 33,15

innumerable bread loaves are upon uj

1464,14. The determinatives represent accurately

the actual types of altars shown in such sceneson the temple walls, but there is no specific one type which is 1b3. A god Sm3-wr is described as e- -Pr nt nirw nirwt 'One who is upon the altar of

1472,12-13, where pl. 356 shows a bull headedgod bending over an altar jrp:? a gods and goddesses' stacked with bread . In this sensehe is upon or over the altar and his epithet reflects his ability to provide offerings.



offering tableof provisions

ZZcw At Edfu Room No.14 (Hall of the New Year) in the descriptionof the templeis called --110 0, R0 10 IV 6,2 and :: a C-3 VII 16,1.Alliot translated ? Iaeof the Reunionof Food! [Cult'eI it M'" in a list of

in p.305 n.1] . The term doesnot appear No.14 itself, but is Ifstedas

Jj 'oil offering roomsII 11,12and in the Treasurya text describes madefor a cup of stonein -: C-73 at the time of the New Year' Il 159,16, so this refersto it also.


Isceptre Wb 1176 (17-18) Pyr.


From the oldest texts %3 is the name for the sceptre variously portrayed as


and it is

related to the words 'b3 'to command' and W 'to offer, to consecrate', being carried by dignitaries in the Old Kingdom while standing or., walkirig and performing their duties [Fischer, NM Hassan, St6cke pp.6 and 1801. 'This type of sceptre can also be called trw-l 13,1978 p. 18

shm , brp [Mquier, , W

Frises p. 181 ff. ] and at Edfu W rarely occurs spelled out in full for only in this way can the word be , i, identified correctly Maat text describes the king as heir of 1W,41 bnt 0 pn 'to .A ..... the iceptre in this land' 1129,8. The connection with "Iboth and Maat shows the function of this wield sceptreas a symbolic controller of chaos. I;. -,

to boast

Wb 1177 (16-22) MK in This word is usedat Edfu mainly in epithets Min (or godswith Min attributes) the phrase W of , m nfrw. f . It is known from the New Kingdom [LeydenV .. stela line 12] and occursoften in the fja e.In j tf-VI 166,6; Amon ',.: 1156,8 temple nfrw. f
1562,6 ; Ka-Nakht 'j ; and also U etII

-1P , ),

m nfrw. f 11188,9 : Kamutef %2P cez-dm m nfrw. f IV 242,12

' 1374,3. Gauthier translated this 'one who boasts of his beauty' with

ntrw referring to the basic quality of the creative god , his phallus and thus nfrw IS a euphemism for the phallus [Fates du dieu Min pp. 138-139]. This is conrmned by variations of this phrase such as": Nfin V. H 85,3 Ija -: h 19: LU397,1-2 and in'b"m nbi. f

ij IL nI j 1-J" . IrPc (anotherword for 'phallus) : Nfin . 197,5 C- ACA "k I= 1407,8 ; Mn --P m k3-mwt. f 1396,15. %C-A G da

1338,13; -U

This seems be the only usefor W at Edfu and this verb led to a noun'phallus' In the mammisi to . Ij 4--1 (or Mn gives-.. fW "--7 every'phallus boasting Wb 1178.1) Mam. 9a.


lettuce Lactucasadva L. , Wb 1176 (10-14) Cr. 535b; CED231; KH297 oy4 S.

The lettuce in Egypt grows straight,up to a metre high and exudesa milky white sap.It was also (andstill is in' UE.-for examplethe Esnalettuceseedoil press,pers, I believedto be an aphrodisiac onal


observation) and for thesereasonscame to be associatedwith procreative gods, in particular Min and ithyphallic Amon-Re [Food II p.675-679 ; Gauthier, Fates du dieu Min p. 164 - 172 ; Keimer, Gartenpflanzen1121 ; Charpentier p. 150-1 for references].At Edfu there are least six examples of the offering of 'bw lettuces by the king to ithyphallic gods. The rite is usually introduced as bnk 'bw and most often performed before Min, particularly in the Min chamber [No. 121, 1396,13-397,6 bnk ,41 rz

HereIsis accompanies godandin returntheking receives tributeof the foreignlands the the 1". ,

9fyt and snd of Horus.The lettucebestows power.This text containstwo puns or the phraseW. ti by rn 'boastingof (1396,15 and 397,1) , Min is also accompanied Isis in 182.5-16 Onk 'jj and they againgive power, but alsothe gardens the king containplantsand he is promisedsexual of Two scenes the Naosexterior one abovethe other show this scene: hnk _j *& I potency. on Ias , , lic, IV 270,6 ff. and Onk VJ IV 297,13 with Min and Amon Re receiving In the caseof . . Min therewardsare sexual, Amongivestheproduce thefields andheaven. Amon is alsoin VII and of 115,16ff. jjttc wherethereis thepun: Jc. 2V5, e : m bft-r. k again his gifts are more

of concerned with theproduction plantsandvegetation. e, I.? V,, Further there is rdit for Min 'to arousehis membee..where Min grants, king a * the ., I _

legitimateIdngshipandthedefeatof foesH 44,9-17.

In thesescenes king wearsthe hmhmty or atef crown,but it variesevenfrom theseand Nfiri is the If shownwith a lettucegardenor his shrine[e.g. XI 247]. 1, The lettucesymbolises in luxuriant plant growth and also for sexualpowerandsuccess procreation, the king it is the guarantee the attributes Min in thekingship.The Isis in the textsis the Isis for of of Ka-mutef,not the motherof Horus.Theking alwaysofferstwo lettuces. i A list of protectiveplantsin an amuletspell includes pfy .... which come from Desdes',

but this may not be the sameas the word for lettucesVI 302,1.The offeringsof lettucehoweverdo its alludeto protectivequalifiesof letuces this strengthens claim (e.g. IV 297,13ff ). so


wingedbeetle falcon or Wb 1178 (10-12) GR

The phoneticsimilarity betweenlbb and Ipy haspromptedsomeauthoritiesto read 'bb as 'pp and 't no more than thusgs a variantspelling of !py [c f. CdE 73 p.38-39]. 'bb is clearly the winged scarab


beetle(at Edfu this is HorusBehdet)while 'py is the wingedsundisk with or without the uraei(also HorusBehdetat Edfu) and while both in effect symbolise samething, the sun,they aredifferent the , in aspects it. The word 'bb is not recorded Wb prior to the Edfu texts,thoughit plainly musthave of doneso,and at Edfu the identity of 'bb is madeclear.It is the sunwho risesas the beetlein the cast W rejj g is qualified as n1ri: nirl in the n1ri m hnt i3btt 1560,16-17 Horusis,'b'-ejj and field of Hnt-13bt, the easternmost nomeIV 33,11and 1351,15 a hymn to the rising sun has d7 193,7. n1ri is in the Hwt-bnw 111 More than this the 'bb is associated Lower Egypt: HorusBehdetis with Mesen (msn-mht) VH 102,3 inhisnorthem n1ri lives in EasternWetjeset 'protectinghis bas'1411,6 ; diet

Hor is Horuslord of Mesenin Wetejeset and

Lower EgyptIV. 120,15-16.Both of theseare'Papyrus geese offerings'. Khent labet who protects and with the Lower Egyptianrite, and the latterneatlydrawstogether 'bb of the eastandDelta together a Edfu is the placefor -J Edfu-Horus. 4t H 11,2andonceidentifiedwith Horusthe niri of Edfu 120.6 n1ri

falcon, lb b is written with a falcon determinative Cjt:7 raisedup on his perch1381,2.

The 'bb is also the namefor the winged b, le amulet which is mentionedin Is-wA3 'tying on et , i is tied at your throatVI 298,10 Vj tj -t7 protects your nLr, amulet' texts 2'k n1ri provided with adornment1426 ka VII 313.1 and &je7j It is also offered in a ritual which ocurs twice at Edfu :ms 199,9-10wherethe king brings

8-9. etr V v3=7 67-CJT Take


%psto Horus and Hathor who have epithedonly,


Hathor is 'pyt hw 'py , so the two are linked, but distinct V 200,2. PI.120 3rd reg. shows though the king holding up 7k other is . beforethe gods, he wearsa complexcrown with Aisk andplumes The 'VI 316,10-11and hasHeliopolitan

'which flies to Mesenas

connotations.Horusis called

n1ri in his body (317.2) and he protectsthe Idng frorn

Khent-Iabet by and thing.He is accompanied Neb-hetep-Hemet significantlythegoddess who everyevil receive 0j pr-m-tp (317,11).The amuletis protectivethen.PI.157 , 3rd reg. showsthe

by king in the sameposeas the last but he wearsa Red Crown surmounted the atef crown. The quotedhereare all full spellingsandwritings suchas examples may maskthe word 'bb .

Note that in the lists of namesof Horus Behdet,Ibb is not one of them,but 'py tps is.


', I 'bbw bird geese'settled'upona

In the Myth the harpoonersare describedthus : 'You"are a flock of bank, their hearts are full of flyinj

('py) ' VI 77,10. Both Fairman [JEA 29 p. 18] and Drioton

[CASAE IIp. 431 translate ' 'bb geese'.'oiseaux 'bb' and leave it at that. Ile term is connected with Ibb flying beetle and derives from a root 'p or'bb 'to fly'.


harpoon lance ,

Wb 1178 (13) MK'

Prior to the Edfu texts, 'bb is not attestedmeaning harpoon, but on the Middle Coffin frieits there is a word or Vdquier, Frises p. 1'61nd 1671,which refers to a forked stave

which Jdquier derives from 'b 'hom', thus a 'homed stave' [c.f. Cairo 28083 = Lacau, Sarcophages , Ant;,rieur du Nouvel Empire I p. 186 n. 115,5 and 185 no.103] and this maybe the ancestorof our word for harpoon. The stave is the support of the old man for example [Hassan, Stlicke pp.6,23,124]. 'It may also be a confused form of the W sceptre [Amduat No. 188 has for example]

At Edfu the bnk-lbb is an offering ritual performed by the king for Horus Behdet : two 'roughly texts on the Court, give the basic pattern of the ritual, hnk IV opposite 55,12 -' 56,7 an V

,d io"kill 154,9 - 155,2 where the harpoon is use the water' dwellers*,the king has the epithets of a ,

harpooner hunterand he wearsthe hemhemty or crown [pl. 116 and 120] In return Horus promises in success the hunt , strengthand victory over the foes.Further suchtexts describethe harpoonas having a copperblade and nbs wood shaft: hnk ':2K!7tVI 238,8- 240,2wherelthe greatgods

of Edfa (Horus, Hathor, flaisomthusandlhy) grantsirength, protectionandfood andthe king wears the four plumedOnluns crown

T' 'mn gT forHorus V1181,10ff. andnk


90,5to 91,9, where the needs'(V191,9); Dnk andpossibly Words

is for'killingfoesandthekingreceives theweapons warhe all of 292,9-293,9Pnk 'for youV11 *, V 265,13 ff.

IV is for stabbing those whoarehostile' 74,3-16. nn

'(pl. 148'lstreg. or" Thescenes ) (PLISO ) (pl.1201st reg. -or showtheofferingof T (pl.1334th )_ -be a specific Ist reg. )'or typeof harpoo,called n thatthere"does seemjo not col. so


The word appearsfrequently outside the ritual and it seemsto be very common in 'slaying crocodile' texts : Horus is 1J t V. 15 1QM 111137,8; the king kills the crocodile with --J Cz 287.9 ;

he takes

IV *1 to kill the crocodiles 374,1*.the king urgesHorusto receive VJJ



212,6and also in the alliterativephrase'dT m 'bbt 'massacre cr6codileswith the harpoon': Vtr 3) w-j VIII 11,10
IV 13,11 by Horus ; el C1It Tw

11169,18also ;U

; var

m 'jit

VI 239,1. Often in the presentation texts too there is the phrase hbhb b'w %0 W

Ij%,: up crocodiles' or sim. e.g. chop receives


bblib snty

4 .-

1560,12-13; in the Myth Horus

hnt hnttyw

kills crocodiles VI 87,2 ; he receives Vr and

VIII 97J. The 'bb may have been a particular type of harpoon used in the crocodile hunt therfore . The weapon can also deal with hippopotami, for in a text for spearing the hippopotamus, Horus receives VII 168,14 and the 2nd lance is called 'which splits open the brow of

65,8 here however it may be a variant on all the other different words used for the hippopotamus' VI , harpoon. The harpoon is associated with Edfu as wt-qn Tr also in the alliteration , the king s'r 676 11C VII 202,5 and 7-8 and

'py VII 132,1 (for this spelling also see VIII 11,8

'bbt is never spelled 'p which suggeststhat the Egyptians did know a difference between 'b and Ip (above) that Ibb 'beetle'and 'py'winged disle are different words. and strengthensthe view

'bt-wsbt Wb 1176 (4-5) D.18

has mortuary and funerary connotations, in the Tomb of Paheri [Plate V 2nd reg, from the 'bt-wsbt j Ma top] 'food is offered in 11--i C-3 .. I a scene a shrineis being draggedto the tomb [also where

Rekhmire,Mem.NfissV Taf.20].
It also appearsat Edfu : in a text for the dead ancestorsit is said, they go to heaven N% Iwn-wr Bbdt IV 122,16 ; in a libation text, the king is described as .a rn its Q c"3 v C3

11145,11. This may compare called with a room for the protectionof godsat Dendera )L P-73 74,26 In a driving the calvestext, 'names in are .

6 C7 a c-3

1bt MD IV

111168,11 this is translated 'bt as and

[JEA 35 n.5 andJEA 36,68 n.5] 'nothingis known of the 4 'bt they could be connected sanctuaries' .


'bt-wsbt of Anubis and in the Edfu texts are connected with cattle, see also Ombos 159 no.61 with
-%. C-3

-U/Tt- O's,Mand compare Sauneron in MDAIK rsy n

16 p.274 n.3.


to fly

Wb 1179 (17-21) Late, GR ) The verb is derivedfrom the earlier1pi(Pyr. 'to go' with the determinative, -A falconsit is givena wing determinative represent ideaof flying. the to With direct object eaQ A pt tns. k 3ht VI 156,9-10. GV-c> 3ht 116,15 OW also IV 18,2 Whenappliedto

Nwt 181,8 a Followed by r : 5qq! =357. 7 4ZC: n.f G? -9 1350,7. A 4r. f IV 51,7-8.

Followed by r

Followed by m possibly

hprr. 'nh 'flies as the living beetle'119,16; E3 1; W sky 1307,12.

bik HB flies as the falcon 156,15 ; Bnw- nir C] C-rn

Because of therearea largenumber textsin praiseof theHorusas a falconandas 'py the nounis very be by Edfu the verb 'to fly' may sometimes masked writings suchas '37--7 at common -p- for example. or


thewingeddiskor beetle Wb 1179 (22) Late, GR andWb 1180 (5) GR'pp ='bb

1py is the sun disk, endowedwith wings to enableit to fly in the heavens It is a Heliopolitan . conceptand the imageof the wingeddisk occursfrom at leastthe sixth dynastyandprobablyearlier. The Sinai inscriptionof Pepi shows - 'z=7 over the nameof the king [Sinai Inscr. I pl.VIII

The equation thewingeddisk with Behdetcannot calledBehdet. of no.14] andby this time it is already be firmly datedbut this conceptis central to the Edfu dogma.The winged disk represents sun the the two lands,its two wings protectingUpper and Lower Egypt, the two uraei looking north uniting andsouthandcentredon Heliopolis.Whenthe sundisk and the falcon Horusare unitedthen the disk the represents king and the power of the kingship [Gardiner,JEA 30 pp.46 to 52] . In this respectin Ptolemaic -C; cartouches the second cartouche the nameof the king. of nsw-bity over replace's

The Myth of Horusprovidesthe mythologicalexplanation the uniting of Behdetand the sun disk, of


for when the foes of Re Harakhty appeared, then Behdet flew (1py) to heaven as


by HWF] VI 109,1 and further the king ( %as 1 c: C-&71

1 ) is in the barque of Re-Harakhty as ,I;ZZ7 -a=A

the divine winged disk of gold VI 109,7.

Among the namesof Horus Behdet at Edfu are two which express the universal sphereof 'py : he is CJ bnt itrt nbw 'in every shrine! 1119 (21) and %ps (22) 'who spans the

the earth in his flight path'. Most often 1py is qualified in some way which enhancesthe whole of reverenceshown to this manifestation of the god. 1py-wr : often at Edfu lzw VIII 144,13. py-wr. n. qdm 'sun disk of gold':


'shows himself in Nuf IV 9,3 ; in heaven in his form of 'Or




V 352,3; f'oq V 6,9.



rdivine sun disk: 9it"F




IV, 1,13;

IV 330,12; 'o"

q1 q 13

4Mlp s IV 18,2 *, C-) JO

: -0-q PY-9ps

>'( qe

from Nun IV 2,4 ; 1* who rises 4-Kps 156,15.

protects the Two lands IV 18,12 who

The word is also used in alliteration and puns : Ipp m Id 13y tr joy is in the sun disle 1115,10 ; 'r. f, '3yt nt 7 `-3c; IV 50,2.


'Apopis is slain

The beetle as the rising sun represents'py and this led to confusion with the 'bb winged beetle. On the lintel over the door of the sanctuary(A) and in the centre there is a hymn of praise to 1py . Ile text containing the words is surmounted by [PI.232 and 13a The right hand text, I . RA 'who by apes,bas, Heh and Hehet, where the disk is called 4aq 34,15 is praise of Re , to the Great Place to sleep until dawn! 135,34 . On the left it Is sets at night and goes 'who goes down at night to Behdet and Edu after the enemiee 135,6-7. Edfu temple was the place where the sun rested at night. Throughout this temple, as in others,,. `MCZ7 is common over doors as a decorative element,

but here too as a constantreminder of the presenceof the sun god and the power of the Idngship. See in general : Kees, Gdtterglaube p.421-22 ; Sethe,Urgeschichte 155 ; LA H FlUgelsonnep.277-9 1A III Horus von Edfu p.33-36



femalesundisk Wb 1180 (1) GR

At Edfu this is a female counterpart of the sun disk and may have been identified with Hathor she

'Lr-, Jwo flies up over the king as ra q "t* &protectinghim

IV 51,8 ; but sheis also the uraeuson the brow of the king,

IV 75,10-11. This is the Toleshehasat Dendera too.



DerivedErom'py 'to fly'. In an offering text theFisherman broughtwith all birds of the earthand is a ;rzi; ) from a the four comersof the world'IV 46,15; also possiblyin a bird offering : rdi. n.1 VIH 29,9-10.


[;PIP too0Dr ir nht. k 'opens

Derived from lpy 'to fly'. Horus Behdet br dwn gn%tr. k d his wings over you his wings protect you' IV 87,7-8. ,


flying pests bd 'to drive away 'flying things! from

%7tr In the Sokarchamberthereis a prayerto : tnm (3

the shrine' 1180,7.Also perhaps derivedfrom 'py 'to flybut hereperhaps flies or similar.


garment Wb 1181 (13) GR

At Dendera, Hathor is called '--7


in a cloth offering

102,9= MD H 34aand also at ,DH

16 *6 Dendera necklacetext mentions a

MD III 66a.At Edfu, Hathorgrantsthe king of Renenet

D 1e' 1428,16. The closeparallelof this te)n MD H 34areplaces 'pr an appearance clothedin db3 and it seems likely that L with or moderncopyistsof from Wb. removed is a miswriting or misreading eitherby the Egyptianscribes

jLb3 . The texts need collating ., but this word should probably be



to equip. bestow(with) Wb 1180 (8-23) Pyr.

This is usedat Edfu. as in Wb andis usuallyspeUed To provide: 4J qn 'I provide strength'VII 62,9 msw. k I provide your


wd3t 'providethe eye with plants'1138,8.

Be provided with : 'bb-nir L'409: ILkrw 'providedwith adornments' 1426,8 the winged disk 0 providedwith wings1273.4. T94,11-101 44,15 Most often it is fol. lowed by m in the phrase'pr m irw= :a fieldU IV ; god T 1205,17 1110,6. Providedwith other things: temple dy fields 4m bw-nf r IV 47,6 ;I e '%It IV 13.7;a nomel T IV 27,8

m Irty. k VII 277,13 ; children of Horus

m psd with nine strandcloth,1560,2. In the phrase'pr-h1w : as an epithetof Horus twt-'t tm.ti m irw. k n Itm. IV 25,5.


plant Wb 1182 (4) GR andrf. If3y Q-) and Y.t (5)

A word Tw is found at Edfu in a field offering, where the field rwd. ti

vt I it


m, sbt

'growswith plants,cut in the fielS VI 260,13.In an example Philae<3041>Phot. it is forbidden 72 at -i to bring -s1W into the temple.

It is possible that this is a term for weeds [Keimer, Gartenpflanzen 11261, or may be connected with T3y and 7A of the medical texts, which Dawson [JEA 20 p.4 no.91 argued was a sweet and soothing herb and perhaps 'sweet clover' (MeMotus officinalis ). Germer [Arznei p.218-2191 suggeststhat its identity is still not certain. 7be word occurs at Denderaalso in a hostile senseagain : the flood water n rwdm Ve 1`2 'not growing with plants'CD 157.1 ; the field flourishes n rwd ni 0 tle Qand

grain grows in it CD 1136,5 and

also Y-

CD IV 55,4.7hemeaning'weeds'

do contexts would suit these also,for on templelands'weeds' not grow.


Wb 1182 (14-16) MK


DG 59,10 Cr.23b ; CED 16 -\4 is calledon to The well known word for a fly , is foundin the Sakhmet protectiontexts , whereshe g falcon imagefrom nb dw 'every evil fly of the ycae VI 265,2 [Germond, protectthe Sekhmet 91 n.241.In origin W derivesfrom the verb 'fy 'to fly' which is a variantof 'py 'to fly'. p.

13 y

encampment,enclosure Wb 1182 (9) MK

The earliest example of this word in Sinuhe associatesit with the Asiatic champion whom Sinuhe -x--jr-1'4qq C3 fights, culminating in B 201, where after the defeat of the-Asiatic, Sinuhe goes around

his own encampment that and shoutingin triumph.The determinative natureof the text suggest it

A of wasan enclosure encampment Asiatic, possiblyBedouinpeoples. stelaat Abu Simbelagain or 2 "%--j associates 321,41.
In the Edfu texts the spelling has lost are cut down in '-j M 'c' 14c,, but is used in the same way : rebellious foreign lands C73


with foreignersfrom beyondthe north eastborderwith Egypt [KRI II

-J -= 341,13 ; slaying Asiatics who are in x. r-3 their enclosuresIV ... _ V 43,1 (all - these texts are for the overthrow of

IV 370,15 ; killing Sttyw in '-j tL'p Y. -A,

Cz -J C-3 foreign lands and slaying of enemies).The term is found at Philae'too : Libyans are slain in i-[Junker PhilA 125,15 after Fairman Or. 30,1961 p.226]. Ir IIt In origin 'f3y may have been a loan word, but by the time of the Edfu texts, 'if not in the New Kingdom, some of the enemiesdescribedin the texts, had in reality ceasedto exist, so that the word is in purely symbolic and archaic fashion. It may be connected with IM which seemsto have been used a temporary structure for workman or resting shrine for a god [c f. Sauneron,Esna V p.98 il.

crocodile Wb 1182 (13) GR

Derivedfrom the verb T'to be greedy'(Wb 1182,12NK), which in turn comesfrom 3r (Wb 19,17 because its appetitein eatingfish MK-NK) the crocodileis seenthenas 'the greedyone', perhaps of , In crocodile slaying texts at Edfu the phrase'd Tm Ut or carrion meat. (and varr.) 'slaying the


crocodile with the harpoon', occurs often 7 r. k


IV 343,13

IV 13,10.Variation 'bbt n Id T 'harpoonof slaughtering crocs' the m 'bbt 111287,9.1


239jand mds Lqz jt4

Horus is known as pd-nmtt hr T 'wide of strideupon the crocodile!:a crocodiletext (La a r-j IV 213,3 IV 45,5.
; and 9 -3pin an offering procession The term is also found often at Dendera and in the mammisi at Edfu -j Mam. 94.6 for

example, showsthe lengthsto which the symbolicUling'of signscould go. Chassinat [VoI.VIH indexp.222] that the title of a scene suggests but this seems unlikely , as the usualterm in this caseis ms. readssm3-'f (111287)



c.f. Wb1183(1-3) to cover (4)head cloth

In the Protection of the House ritual, 'He is the protection of that mucus of Re which blocks the nose 0I IL
q. 79

fh m Th and is released (or loosened) into a cloth ' VI 148,12-13 [after Janku6'

Schutz p.73 n, 161 'und der sich von der UnhOllung 16ste]. Here the Ifn*is ahandkerchief and derives from the word Th 'to covee which also gave rise to 'fnA 'head cloth. I IM to swallow, drink

Wb 1183 (19) to 184(15) Pyr. DG 60,6 -6

This word continues in use at Edfu and is used to describe the swallowing of offerings of food or the drinking of liquids It is most often simply spelled . as the throat, Make strong your ::: Z! 7 I or even '"J j and note also: Maat

n st swallowing with if IV 257,17-18.

In puns : "m 'm t3wy m rjjw. f 'the flood swallows up the two lands with his effluxes' 325,9 ; 4 '3b, "I> VI 33,14-15.

At Edfu 'm is also used to describe the action of the harpoon - as it bites into an animal it swallows flesh' : JLmswJ VI 66,10 ; VI 67,9 and also m3wt. k m ntt. f 'your"

shaftswallowshis hide!VI 67,7(but notethatFairmanandBlackmanin JEA 29.9andn.f transliterate this as s1m+m= Wb IV 45,8 'to bite into).



In a crocodile slaying : the king Vr

Mg 'slays'Meg, 1114,2. There is no

for verb 'm3 'to slay'or m3l 'to slay' and 1m3is probablya miStakc sm3.


he who swallowsmillions

41 V 79,14 In this slaying of Apopis text he is ra .

One of the names of Apopis is


m-t3wy he who knows the Two Lands Wb 1184 (21) An epithet of Thoth in the GR temples which occurs frequently in connection with him at Edfu [c.f. Boylan, Thoth p. 183 and p. 103 where this epithet serves to show that Thoth is 'All Knowing']. In Maat texts the king is the son of 'm-t3wy : 4E yt VIII 3,6 ;IW -J R. '9' V 59,1 1118', and Isis 2

T, 1269,4. In the fair division of offerings too he is 'second of P'I 253,5 .

is called Seshatbeside

lm3.t = 'myt part of the body of Osizis Wb 1185 (4) GR and 185(9) MIKUL
In the Saite nome one of the relics of Osiris kept here is called a (L

2-'- Sk M, , T J9%

'1331,6. The

NfiddleKingdom example given in Wb is from Dua-Khety[Sallier 11V 5] and reads -j 01which H'elck[Die Lehred6sDw3-Utj I pA6 andp.48 (b)] translates 'shouting. as ,


throw stick W'I- 186(2) Cr

The word for a throw stick is attested from the Coffin Texts [TR 22,6'. 701and may alsobe usedat Edfu in a modified formi a procession godscomeswith garlands'ofplantsand of

'thesesticksof seeds trees of which canbe broughtin'processsion.

Wt hererefers to somethingof wood VHI 136,3.The term



to hide
r3! F" -

Tanenet and Itmet

imy hn-gtyt m. %t

gnbt "rhey have hidden him in nt

the box of the crypt in the crypt of the falcon image IV 122,2. The meaning 'to hide' here.seems to suit the context and it is parallel with h3p , thn , imn 'to hide! so apparently a hapax.


tablet, writing board Wb 1186 (13-14) MK

Writing tabletscomplemented 11ey were madeof wood or metaland thoseof papyrusand ostraca. the silver or gold in particular,but alsoof bronze,wereusedfor sacred religioustexts- for example or Il treaty of Ramesses with the Hittites was written on a silver tablet,which was then placedin the temples Egypt [LD III pl. 1461.6,Mquier,BIFAO 19,1922 125; Weber,Buchwcsen 20 ; LA V p. of p. III 703-7091 Also a hymn to Amun recitedby Ramesses at Karnak is written inside a tablet frame . -trC3 M held , -j e [PM H 28 (51) (52) (53) KRI V 2211.At Edfu the Lectorpriest in processions uponit'l 557,17-18; or.. q-wr of silver in his handwith all the hieroglyphs


'of silver

Akh and gold' 1568,1-2 and 7. None of thesehave survived, but examples of bronzekwith demo c texts on tablets are known [CG 30691, of Medinet Habu ; BM 57371 and 57372 from Dendera linventory A. F. Shore. Glimpses p. 141-160]. At Edfu 'n is also used metaphorically in the Myth The deck of . the war galley is like o JEA 30 p.7) VI 80,7. )- V OtT v-: a writing tablet 'filled with the images of goddesses'(after


turn away. go back Wb 1188 (13) to 189(7) MK DG 61

Intransitive: 'turn' with <>nmt bm.f 1167.1;

'to. usedof flowers which Mow the courseof the sun 1 pit, 191 H 177,11

, -A -*--

nmt bm.f Il 179.9 (all in

flower offeringtexts).
With reflexive sw : the sun god also in the phrase -a lion -r& V 'he turns himself to his course of yesterdayVI 1,17 tit. f IV 18,12 In tit-f rn bsb-inw IV

259,5-6 ; qL

tit. f r msnty VI 8,7-8 and

irw. f,




wr-pbty VII 213,13-14

of those in the water , by the 17 -J ezr, king IV 212,7 ; ir tnmmw m In-"wy 'make the hostiles turn away the hands': Horus zC -j ., Transitive : 'n-"wy r the hands" of foes :"'. Au' 'turn away

IV 212,12;

"!> =
0 Cr4t

,LT r-j
-j A

IV 374,14; the king.

rH 20 (48) ; Horus c7 IT A
(A-6 II


IV 343,14 ; Horus ..... IV 246,8.Also: 128,8. A.

r St-wrt 'turn away the greedyone from the Great Place ' IV

Ina negativesense 'n= pr m r3= 'Do'not turn ack what comesfrom th mouth ' i.e. what a :n : god sayscannotbe countermandedHorusBehdet
the king as a reward in a Maat text 156,5

VIII 93,7 andhe grantsit to

Sakhmet 0-1-

[c tshedoesnot go back on her words'111322,11 f. Otto GuM p.106-7andp.15 usedas a parillel of bsfl.
Also in the phrase 'n-w9b 'return an answee, that is 'revenge'. This occurs from the NK [c. f. KRI 11 228,11] where TJ couldbe taken in a more legal senseas "give offence' , in the
of his mother

Hittite Treaty. At Edfu however Horus is called ndty of his father

Isis 1128,3 -,the god Mahes is


of his father Re IV 129,14 : Horus is V-

,imder his father and his mother, in a driving the calves text V 87,3 s'ee of vAb also). The evidence suggeststhat it is analogous to ndty thus a term like 'protector 'or 'avengee. A nuance of In not recorded in Wb is when it is used of a trapping net The net to capture the . \enemies is set out on the water and tL sbt. n. s qbDw 'he brings it back and it catches birds' VI 237,1. Ibis may be the technical term for the shutting of the net -or it could be a mistake for 'nb (below).


be beautiful. good Wb 1 190(1-18) LiLMK DG 62 Cr.lla; CED 8; KH 7 -&. N6,1'

The word is probably'older than yet attestedand the determinativeof the eye with ffiakeup'on it in The implies that it represents ide Of visual beautyand goodness. word continues useat Edfu the


'He seeshis city I-M3 IaZu m irws beautiful in its form' IV 17.13 ; Horus Behdet -'. Q3, -j

beautifulin his appearance gold 1575,14.In epithets like 'n-hr qn-sdm applied to Horus Behdetin dw3-njr rites or similar 0 1120no.62 ; 4ft ' V 142,10 VII 92,17 m sdrn UO VIII 162,4[Cauville,Essaip.2201. IV 46,15.

qn 0 VII 88,19

C7 V 'n-tit is a namefor the fishermangod (wh')


n-Art of Hathor in a procession , carrying the,sistra e-



IreAs a sdm. f in a Maat text, '-J 4w ... 152,16. 'nt

r wpt. k 'I am beautiful upon your head' IV

Beautiful One Wb 1 190 (19) GR. a name for goddesses,especially Hathor and also in Behdet 1573,5.

Nekhbet 4Z


talons, claws Wb 1188 (1-7) Pyr. DG 63.2 YI1: t EINE which is the

Cr.81a; CED47; KH50thumb, bigtoe

The Coptic word for thumb derivesfrom the use in the writing of 'nt of

in thumband nail. 'nt can refer to animalor humannails andappears medicaltextsas well as others [Lefebvre,Tableau53p.47]. At Edfu the term is mostoften found in descriptions the falcon form of Horus and thus it refers to his talons He is spd-nwt 'sharptalone4f: -:;' V 152,6 hMA:; 4 A*~ It I-If77 1305,5 IV 74.13; the VII 142,14. When he goes VII 82,6 ; VH 214,1 ; V11127.16 A

for the kill he is sK-'nwt 'openclawed!

V11 164,8 These, two terms also describethe lion gargoyles, one saysspdj VU9 -S . IV 286,14 and anotheris s)f , -j

IV 269,14. Stj (L by falcon IV 234,16 VI 270,13.

Verbs which use Inwt : ndr m 'nwt 'seizewith the talome 0V% and
_j % #it


VII 128,10and variant

Am ndr nttsn

dd m 'nw 'tearwith thetalons': tr, -j sbiw m Its 1120(66).

in VIII 106,1.; thenames Horus thefalconnVd of

nkn ..... m 'nw : in theMyth

VI 127.11.


%. The claws also hold 3m C7U y--

m hftyw. f 'VII 275,6-7.

Normally theseuses are in meat offerings or killing foes of various kinds. cl usesof 'g3wt.


throat, neck Wb 1191 (13) chin Wb 1191 (14) neck

This word was originally 'n' [Pyr. 1308a]but by later magical texts it had become In'nt [Letebvre,
.4a Tableau16P.161. Edfu too the word'appears this form, wh6reHorusis described zx *6 u- q. in At as CI -

VIII 7,5 and at Dendera too eats (=Wat in a Maat text) CD H 146,11.

is the throat by which one


close the mouth , catch Wb 1192 (34) NK

'nb has two slightly different meanings: in Pap.Mag.Harris V8 it is found parallel to btm 'to close and in a hymn to Amun 'nb is the action of a bird 'holding"clasping' its prey in its talon [Zandee. De Hymnen 1114]. The idea is the same 'to shut in', either in the mouth or in the claw and a magical text

: uses 'nb with both meanings .-'

JC-C Z-'.


'You are firmly

held, your mouth is closed' in spell for catchinga scorpionand preventing it 'biting' [Geneva ,
Papyrus MAH 15274 V (2), MDAIK 15 p. 184 n.21. At Edfu it is a verb used to describe the catching of snakesanIdreptiles (ddft) : two snake deities br Cy a U-6 Adft VII 269,13; also o ,, _j VII 30,5.'so it ised again of catching snakes in this case.

A 'w:: 'nb is also used in the description of the shrine doors : it has bronze bolts, ready like a lion hr r. IV 13,4. de Wit [CdE 36, No. 71,1961 p.88] translates 'who beats his tair but it may*refer , to the lion bolt 'which catches its tail', for when it has done this, the door is shut.


to live

Wb 1193 (8) to198(10) DG 63 Cr.525a; CED 228; KH 293 238 WNL by Occursvery often at Edfu, mainly in the usesoutlined, Wb, and is most often spelledsimply

287 9


as a reminder of the symbolic function of the scarabbeetle. The word could also be spelled

out in full . It occurspassimin the phrase'nh. nLr-nfr May the goodgod live' andalso

V T: 41
V 390,11

VIII 93,6.The verb Inh always comesfirst here and this shows

'nb. in between andman,bestexpressed the phrase tw its importance. is theresultof interaction It god (god) : 11177,10;T eSk V 23,15 ;V 148,13;V 388,1(dg3.f) ;f n m3.f -IL GU-

his the ; VIR 154,7-8 onesees rays. By seeing raysof the sungod menlive. when lnb irA nbt 'every eye lives! + VII 207,18.1 In the pun Inh. 'nhw he shinesV 82,4; m33.k V 148,4;m wbn.f when

V 44,6 ;ffV


VI or'nh

for 1,16 and with variant phrases 'people': Inb bw nb VII 103,14 V 376,12 U'G

hrw-nb : VI 310,4; V 61,13 n m3M. 0 The seeing god is mostimportantat Edfu because the solarnatureof the HorusBehdet[c f. Otto of of GuM p. 107-110,p.47 andp.54 ff].

#nh v


Wb 1198 (1) to 200 (8) Wb lists the mostimportantuses the noun. of

The offering of Inh in the temple is one of the most important rituals, though it does not appear as frequently as many of the others [in general LA V 949-9511. Around the inside doorway of the 'life' rituals predominate (south wall). In the Ist register, left side , rdi sanctuary, rdi * tn s3 R'

f 139,13-188 where the king receives life from Horus Behdet . Opposite n s1f mr. , it. f 124,8-13 It is. not a reciprocal offering however, for the king cannot m-' .

this is sp -4-

life to the gods, it is in the hand of the creator and life giving god only. The third register has also offer s9p c4-texts : rd! (135,16-18 and 148,5-7) [all pl. 13a]. Elsewhere this ritual appears in equally short scenes tdr r, fnd of the king 1268,13-17 ; sim. 1528,14-16 or s9p -qt 1438,7-10.

from Horus and 1hthor who are shown seatedin In the Hypostyle hall the king receives Q here life is one of the essential attributes for the Idng so he wears the Double Crown here and , 111170,11 - 171,4 pl. 63. In these texts Horus Behdet is often called 'Lord of Life! an epithet which stresseshis role as creator 0 di L3w nta V-388,13 lc7 f Qb hates death I who




1155,2 and also of Osiris



symbol of life Wb 1193 (2-7) Old.

forin of the offering of life. The offering of the actualsignfor life would be understood a concrete as
That it is the offering of a life-sign is shown by the fact that it is the king who offers it, and only in this form is he able to offer life. The 'nb sign is offered in the Court on a column, where the word 'nb is used many times to stress the offering : -u-J fj and Horus says f _J tq

My life is in his hands' V 268,10-18. Here, instead of the king receiving the offers a basket containing

tohisnose, he

so this is the offering of the ankh-amulet, rather than life% In 10 IV 55,11 and he says '-1 'is

m33-nir texts the god holds the was-sceptreand the

in his left hand' V 40,2, so again in thesecases'nh must be the actual ankh symbol. The sign can be held in either hand, 117 (23) it is in the right hand f Most often the ankh-sign is offered with others : with the w3s sceptre : in the Sokar chamber, di In it. f, where the king brings these symbols to Osiris and Nephthys. They welcome the king and 'to his noble nose and power to his body' 1219,11-220,2. The king wears the JI to Horus , who rewards the king with fI

f lo` in return give

Double Crown (pl. 250). In the Wabet, rdit

for his noble nose, that he might live forever 1425,2-10 and pl. 33a. Both scenes show the king L_f7 offering the symbols in a basket The sign also appears in the triple offering which is more frequent and symbolises the

legitimate kingship of the king [studied in detail by E.Winter, Tempelreliefs pp.69-1021. He presents (nk) f 'to'Horus Behdet who grants.him dd and w3s in return SOthat his people live ,

and enemies are destroyed : 1154,16 ff (with Wadjet) ; 1233,18 ff. which describes the king as a 'human faced falcon before the living'; and also ms 'fJJ 11299,540 (no text). Most importantly

the offering is made to Osiris, stressing the role of the king as Horus . The rewards are the same :H 68,5-16 (with Isis) ; 1481,8-15 ; possibly VH 286,11 ff (with Isis 1310,19-311,16 (where the god

is accompanied by aU themain gods of Edfu). It is also made to Min, in his chamber, where the texts are not typicg of this offering type, (Heb sed offering for example) and the title may simply be a filler 1407,14 The offering is also made to Ptah and Sakhmet who ensure a joyful kingship and firmly .


establishedthrone VII 111,14 ff. The king wears suitable crowns - the Double Crown. Red crown and atef, plumes, or atef alone . In all caseshe is shown holding up fR pl. 22a. for example

pl. 32a , 3rd reg. ; or

iri. 'nh w

supply sustenance

Wb 1200 (8) Pyr. B This phraseis usedfrom the PTs and in texts suchas Peasant 182. It is also found at Edfu : the t4 king <> Horus cm> -f' and provisionsthe Two shrinerows with his offeringsH 37,14; in a Maat text, n r-nbw for everyone'VIII 5,4.


the living Wb 1201 (10) to 202 (2) Old

This is commonat Edfu as a generalterm for 'people',especiallyin the pun Inb 'nbw 'the living live! III# they seehis majestyV 8,2 when V 51,12or evens'nh 'nhw v n dg3.f V 44,6;

V 268,12.Thoughit usuallyrefersonly,to people,

mi rmL 'living birds and fish like men'

a later text describes,giving the breath of life' to

VIII 154,10-11.Other appropriate determinativeScan be added, for example the living bas of Wetjeset are determined thus: n Wist V 6,7.

The term is also in the phrasebnt k3w Intw dt 'beforethe kas of the living forever' passim. k'k * IV 12,2 IV 330,9 IV 50.7



Wb 1204(6) LateGR Oasis 26th- 27thdynasty) from theTemple Hibis (Khargeh Thisuseof 'nhw is first attested of wherein a hymnAmunis ' 4q3 [HibisIII seasonsmonths years' whodecides and ,

to pl. pl.31 2ndreg.line 36 andalsoTaharqa 43] . It wouldseem referto the starsas 'living gods' the living in concepts thePyramids with of where stars 'dead' whichcompares thestellar are god-kings thesky.At Edfuthewordis used clearly: thebasgo to heaven theylive with and 118,11 in a tw3-pt scene the ; VII

159,12 arein heaver% andsetting theirtimes' rising at


-A is instrument pointedat.,, - -k in pd-sYr the mrht in appears the sky when mshty w

the courseof the stars1131,14; Sopdet

arein their correctplacesV 6,11.Possiblywritings suchas

-k "t

11135,9 asIntw or equally sb3w as read


car Wb 1204 (18) to 205 (4) MK

#nb 'ear' is not found in medical texts so that it is a symbolic term rather than a technical one [Lefebvre,Tableau211. Thoughit hasbeensuggested originally Inb.wy the dual form meant that , , 'the two handles a pof [LA IV 559-562andn.61 it is morefeasiblethat as one of the vital signs of , 'hearing'wasdoneby the cars,and for this reason they werecalled'nb life . In onemedicaltext the ear is the entry to the body for the breathof life, thoughthe word usedin this caseis not 'nhWy (Ebers100,2and 103,15), and it hasalsobeensuggested the ear was regarded a sexual that as orifice, againfor the creation of life [c C Stark, GM 5,1973 p.33-38andGM 8,1973, Beitragpp. 39 -421. At Edfu the word occursprincipally in two epithetsofHorus Behdet: wr-irty 13-'nbwy 'Great 'f numbersof eyes,many ears': 193 1240,7 ; 1r-T 019 11167,16 Of t VII 69,11or vice'versa wr 1135,10. 5 VII 15, VIR 107,14.

1316,8 and also nb wA3ty

Also wb3-Inhwy 'Openearswho hearsprayers: V262,14; V ff 111358,9 the benubird (equated and with Horus)is

Theseepithetsare found throughout temples[c L Otto GuM p. 116 ; 113andp.30 and 81] and it GR in showsthe openess universalityof god who is accessible, everyone and and their prayers [for stelaewith earson themseenow A.Sadek, Popularreligion in Egypt During the New Kingdom, Ifildesheim, 19881.


beetle Wb 1204 (7-8) Pyr. andGR

In the Pyramidtexts (1301c) 'May you live as

Pyr. 1633c. Mddle Kingdom variantsof thiS'lattertext showa determinative morelike acentipede beetle.As an'amulethoweverit beetlesjgesting that originally it was not the scarab or spider,not a

a beetle!is said to the king and also in


could endow life in the next world, though in practice 'nh beetle amulets were not much used after the First IP In texts it gradually becameconfused with the bprr scarab [Ward, Scarabs I pp. 4341. At . Edfu, the 'nh is a term for the scarab,sun beetle V and -Xfb 'flies in the Field of Reeds' 1410,15

rn imnt 'the Great Beetle lives in the west (=Horus as sun god) 11113,1. Wb only

records this late use at Edfu and it may be a pun, for both texts refer to the afterlife so that it may mean 'life comes into existence. Elsewhere however : in the 1* a ritual Ls 'attaching a scarab amulet of a beetle' 146 ; at Philae Photo 296'<3280> nk -W , n Opy X - is

for your ka, so that you live, so that your secret image lives' ; and at Karnak, Wb Zettel <298,64 > tm bprJ n Hpri 'the beetle in hisform of Khepri'. The early 'nD beetle then, whatever V

in it washadbeencompletelyneglected superSeded the scarab GR times[for these by references and Keimer, ASAE 31,1931 p.180ff. ].

#nh V

libation vessel Wb 1204 (15) NK

A possible earlier example of this word may exist in the Neferirkare Abusir Papyri, where the determinative of a word for a vessel resemblesthe Inh vessel 441-2 = Fragment 67 b. W6 28,13 and f0q 1"O'E t [Posener-KrMger,Arch. Abousir II f0

is 1HPBM5th series pl. 67 a/bl. In P.Harris among a list of -vessels

is on the altar of the temple 49,8 -, so by this time it was certainly a

temple ritual vessel [M. du Buisson, Vases pp. 108-9. Fig. 44, p. 147]. I At Edfu the vessel is used in libation rituals : Horus receives _f and lives *f 1525,11 PLXII- 366 shows the king holding. -rh, .

and drinks the water in it so it was evidently , 1482,16, also a libation ritual.

'nb shaped. A similar text has Atum drinking from., 'T truly PI.35b, 4th reg, shows the king with a vessel

in a libation text, but it makes no mention of the

15013 The vessel is most likely to be more than a libation vessel, but because of the vessel, . connection with 'nb 'to live' it has an amuletiq function as an instrument of revivification [A. Radwan, The Inh-vessel and its Ritual Function in Mdlanges Gamal Eddin Mokhtar II pp.211-2171.,

'nhw V

of garlds or bouquets leaves. Wb,1204 (3-5) D.18


DG 64,2 614)

Cr.12b, CED10; KH487

Westendorf suggestedthat Inh derives from a root meaning 'to bind, tic', for the W is a knotted

tied rope or cord [ZAS 92,1966 p. 153]. Inhw then is a tied bunch of plants and leaves and first or of occurs from the 18th dynasty and representations flower bundles first appearat the beginning of the New Kingdom. It was introduced into cults and symbolically combines the ideas of 'to bind! (in protection) and 'to live' [Dittmar, Blumen p. 132]. Some of the earliest writings of lnhW seem to bear this out: Urk IV 150,9 Nebamun goes forth carrying (Tuthmosis I and 11) Urk IV 136,14 'For your ka f of this god who rests in his horizon' of Amun!. Sethe describes this a

'BlumenstrauWand in the publication by Virey [Sept Tombeaux TMbains, Mem.Nfiss. Arch. Franc. V, Caire 1891 p. 3521it appearsas a group of flowers - one open and two closed. In other tombs there are bunches of flowers tied into an ankh sign, which are carried over the arms of women [Davies, Two RamessideTombs, Plate V and 8] In this sensethe original Int are tied bunches of 'living' flowers . and in funerary rites this offering would be symbolic of life and renewal [c EFs. Griffith = Davies op.cit plA I where an ankh sign with arms offers flowers, but the accompanying text does not have the word'nbwl. *Roeder regardedInbw as 'breiten StrauBdes neuenReichs[ZAS 48,1910 p. 1181. By the time of the GR temple texts the offering of the 'nhw had become a rite performed for the gods. V I It has two main types, neither of which correspond to the 'funerary ' functions of the flowers of the New Kingdom and which should not be seenas following NK practices. In the first type : rdi f Q, and Onk 'to the'majesty of Re'l 497,4-11 and 1150,11-51.1

the 'nhw are equated with O offerings and thescenes [pl. 35b I3rd reg. and plAOd 4th reg] show the king with fourP'lumes on his head offering to Horus BehdeL The reason for this equation

be that ho is above all an air god who causes'life and because Inbw are plants or kaves in a may bunch they show the presenceof life and the bre6ze'or wind. Ibis interrelation then meant that the 'of offerin 99 'nhw leaves was in essencea physical symbol of the life givin' air. In return Horus gives millions of years to the king and breezesto make people'live. The equivalence is stated explicitly in texts and the 'ntw are specified as Inbw. n-R' :I bring you W Lands 111145,13-14 is for your nose 111231,5-7 ; sim. RI you rule the Two . n'n n hm-n-R' are


for your nose VII 134,4-7 One text goes further: "rake j of your noble father Horus Behdet . fn VI 271,5 ; Take hm, R' VI 272,3 ; Take - t& of your mother (Hathor) VI . t tt 272,11 'and of your ba Atum VI 273,3. A text for the installation of the falcon describes with are nn n Psdt 'these bunches of the Ennead' VHI 110,2. Wd (b3k) where the constituents of the Inhw are . V

The second type of offering is ms 'nbw nW

specified . This occurs seven times at Edfu and also three at Dendera . At Edfu, the king usually has a priestly title as he offers, such as imy-r Bodt, Om-gmhs, hry-sgO, hm-Hr, and the offering is usually made to Horus Behdet . Two offerings are opposite on the exterior of the Pronaos 13 and IV 356,7-18 and IV 387,15-388,11. The scene shows the king holding in his

hand which are not garlands or "bouquets'but branchesof leaves of the trees named, which prompted El-Kordy to translate 'nbw as Teuilles. The texts emphasisethe individual elements of the offering, that is the Wd im3 and b3k trees rather than the 'nhw and the rewards may correspond to the natures W of thesetrees the enemiesof the king fall in battle, people are made happy, the king is guaranteedthe kingship and protection. As the traverser of the mounds where these trees grow the king shows that
t1 V41 i

come from Behdet V 74,10-75,3;

K, ot,

VII 80,10-8 1,10 ; VIII 163a. 71e offering can

be combined with

n b3k LW , where the king receives the praise of his people n irn3 to ensure the

VIII 64,11-65,10. An offering in the court is made to Sothis : nis

defeat of foreigners and that they bring their tr -ibute V 92,15-93.1 [For these texts translated and studied see: Z. El-Kordy, ASAE 69,1983 p.269-286]. -. A text for the freeing of birds h. ms It4jrs, im3 il(d n Om-nLr V 133,5 and the presentation n as of the m3'-brw crown can be accompaniedby that of the b3q the.h4 of gold and ,

im3 ied V 312,34. When the king is at the window of appearance,he performs rituals for Horus such as offering md, the collar, the t of gold and the temple VI 102.11. Derchain studied the texts which mentioned 'nhw in the light of the writings of Suetonius who describedhow Vespasianwas greetedwith bouquets(verbenae)on his visit to Alexandria. He concluded that Inbw symbolised strength in war, the taking of royal attributes and promises of stability and prosperity. Thus they are found in the ceremonies to uphold the kingship listed above - and including Installation of the falcon and the coronation of the king [Derchain, CdE 56,1953 26I 279, the p. - 4tPi with the names of the Ennead who are in


especially p.271 -2771. The 'nhw are thus important for what they are made of (flowers or leavesof particular trees ) and the consistency of spelling of the word implies a consistency in the unerring way it was used. The translation 'garland' , from the NK, best fits the nature of 'nhw [FCD 44 ; in general LA 111084 n.6 "=tn4w ; Cauville, Essai p. 168 0; LA 1837-840 Blumenstraull E.Brunner-Traut]. ,

'nh-imi w


Wb 1203 (6-8) MK, Med.

Wb Drg. 98 unknownplant

Thoughthe identity of this plant is not known it hasbeensuggested it washenna[Charpentier that , It p.158-91. is only infrequentlyusedin medicinehowever[Germer, Arznei p.258-9] whereit is the basisof a balsamor ointment. It occursfrom the MK [Kairo 20564 4" CGC Grab'VPt6 und

Denksteine des MR 11pp. 199-2001and is especially mentioned in the embalming ritual [Sauneron 13, 23 ; 11,101 In this respect a translation of the term as 'that in which there is4ife is appropriate . [Barguet, LdM p.45 n.31. lnb-imy is also found at Edfu spelled consistently in the laboratory a recipe for making oil used in the Opening of the mouth ceremonies uses as an ingredient

210,2-3.6. De Wit showed that at Edfu -t could be written as I

I* JAC --aIii

Z- .',



no doubt due to confusion over 1955 [BIFAO 55, Phill I p. 105 T

the two signs in the hieratic and that the word here should be read as 'nh-imy p. 116-171.The plant is also used for the Filling of the Eye (3) qj, t

VIII 136,8

'Also in I(ny'and If offering processions the divine field is brought with smw . VI 226,14-15 so here it is a more a general term for plants. ,

lnh-imy is often mentioned with sn-nwt and this has led to the suggestion that it is 'white lotus' LO

[Aufrtre, BIFAO 87,1987pp.34-351.

tnh. w3s w

milk Wb 1197 (7) and1204 (1) GR

fv Nfilk offering texts in GR templesuse 'nh. w3s as an alternativeword for irlt 'miW : for lby V 172,10and for Harsomilius inn V 80,13 'Fill the child with 1452,15

D also 111125,4 the god drinks s1m)it and

V 840.71iis milk is from the Hr-sh3t cow


'bl IV 265,10 or ]Vs3t cow -t, & 1 1138,15. Most obviously it is puj; texts play on this Harsomthus is 54,7 (libation to Sokaris).

f J; 1453,5 The milk rejuvenates the god's body .

ord whose individual elements mean 'life and power' and the

'you live and are powerful on them ' VII 123,10 V, 160,1 also VIII 124,6 and Isis suckles the king with' her milk II

A purification text shows Horus 'purifying the gods'with

V 37.5 where pl. 113 (Istreg. ) signs and this maybe

shows the 'liquid' issuing from his libatiun vessel as a stream of ct-*-*'

the origin of the term . Earlier purification rituals show this liquid and as milk could be used in them then the word Inb. w3s was applied to milk. See : Husson, Miroirs p. 101 n.6 = E.Mam 91.7 suckle her son with tv It is very common at

Dendera, cL Review by Goyon of Winter, Untersuchungen in CdE 89 (vol. 45) 1970 p. 102 for exx. and also add DVIII 93,6; 108,3; 151,2; 156,3. ' I" .


mirror Wb 1204 (11-14) MK DG 64.3 4)

'The full name of the mirror is Inh-m33-hr and is used in OK burials [Jdquier, Tombeaux p.51 fig. W f 'Living one'and noted that idea of the shapeof the mirror as the 55 Pepi III Lilyquist translated . origin of the Inb sign had been refuted Int-m33-kr wV and the abbreviated form 'nb continued in use

into the GR temple where the mirror offering formed an important ritual . In relation to this the Abusir papyri record f in a list of toiletry items [Posener-Kri6ger, Arch-Abousir H p.422 a with

Lilyquist, Mirrors p.65-71 ; Husson, Miroirs p. 35 and 37]. comments ; At Edfu, where there'are fewer mirror offerings than at Dendera, the word 'nb is still found: a text entitled W3-Dr. t has the f presentedby Henu (a craftsman aspect of Sokar comparable to V 275,9-18 made to Hathor who gives the king 7

Ptah) V 367,10. One offering is: ms

in return all that the sun and moon can see. PI.133 (7th col. ) shows the king holding uP'one

to thegoddess.

'nh v

door leaf


Wb 1204 (16) GR
Wb records this word only at Dendera but it is quite frequent at Edfu, especially in the temple descriptions They are usually in the dual : 'Setting up_ . of the wsbt-t3W IV 8,6 and

often refer to the leaves of the great doorways such as rwt-di. rn3t, m3ht, and bh n

I'their beautifuldoor leavesof fie VIII 5,15 ; 'Settingup fT4n nfr nt

m3ht ' VIH 58,14 ;-



of the pylon are of meruwoodV 4.3 and



is alsoa pylon door leaf VI 7,5.

t44 The door leaves thetemplein general of

fir workedwidi copperof Asia VI 8A. areof

The origin of the word may be connectedto Inheae as '(door) leaves'on the head. , v


thewest Wb 1205 (16) D 20

rn The word is first attested the Tale of Woe [ pl. 8,1


that Inht andwbnt 'the easewere'elegantvariations'onthe ordinarywords 13bttand lmntt, thusa literary device[Caminos, Tale of Woep.331. literally ? laceof Life or theliving'and The word means asthe westit refersto life or the renewalof fife after death.It occursoftenat Edfu asthe placewhere the sun god sets Ona 112,5 and in the pehuof the CE) IV 40,12 ;-+ nomewhere the moon, as the

t WO substitutefor the sun disk, setsin tApopis then the sununites -,

OM V 28.7-8 . After the slaying of

with the westin joy 1115,14. the wese

In the templedescriptionInbt is usedto showdirection: 'the laboratoryis on - Ono that is the right handside,and in this respect mirrors the useof imnnt IV 6,5.

'nht %0

the living eye Wb 1205 (5-7) NK

The first conceptof the living eye'describes as belongingto Sobeklord of B311w it [BD 125] , but by the Edfu texts Inbt is a synonymfor the wd3t eye.,In an offering of the wd3t the text continues after the title : 'dji m st.s 'the living eye is safe in its place ' 111139,12-13and b3k 'AAi m sts the living eye is bright and safe in its

J-ca> similarly in a sqr. bm3 text: '

t<'a> to its lord for I am Thoth place' 162,11 .A text for the loosening the sealsays 'I raiseup of broughtthe eye to its lord' 125,11.a clearallusionto the returnof the Eye of Re by Thoth.Like who


the wd3t it can be equated with the Xwty plumes 'I receive themon my head'lwty text VIII 142,4-S.,,. In the dual they are the two eyesof the sun god, 'lighting the land with

and hold the crowns,I put

9: k 4zl> 4?


njrty 1284,10. Ibis term stresses life giving quality of the eyecompared the with the 'health'giving attributesof the wd3t eye.


corn , grain

Wb 1205 (9-10),Lit. MK
The word occurs in Admonitions 6,9

n Kmt, where Gardiner was hesitant over it,

because the reading was not certain and it did not seem to exist before this text [GAS p.49]. In the Book of the Dead [FCD 44] the word may also appearin Spell 178, but again is not certain. The Edfu texts use the word in a bnk-sht text as an alternative word for grain and there is a pun on it: its grain lives' VI 260,10. The term derives from 'nh 'to live' perhaps as grain is the V f -& a' staple of life. The word also occurs at Dendera in a plant offering : s1r to the ka of @a 1? ! -11 111fD 11146,1 and in a cloth text at Edfu the corn god Nepy says; Take OW go-141 Living grain. 0 living one, Lord of Life! VI 160,8 Punning ensured the revival or perhaps invention .

of this word.
An offering of dates has, 'what maybe an example of this word: VW ? '. '.

I! are offered, the reading

enb is suggestedby the fact that this word should play on the sound of nbb IV 135.5-6 [Cauville, RdE 32,1980 p.48 n.6]. P 'nh-mrr beetle amulet Wb 1203 (10) GR Wb records this word only at 1? endera but it is also found at Edfu On the exterior of the naos is a scene Dnk wd3t nt Presenting an amulet of a scarab IV 74,18 (a spelling Tepea, in ted IV

the text) and on the other side of this wll is a symmetrical scene hnk, wd3t 231,14.7be reading may actually be bprr with the iVV the reading 'nb-mrr

sign either misread orre-read as bpr. However -tcr X, VII

is confirmed by a parallel set of offerings is wd3 n

301,17 We 3gVII1 (pl. s 164 and 172). Other texts 140,10 [To 3d VIII and ibis type write the of -VII



(e.g. V 371,9:V 367,18)so it is difficult to say how it is read.-The

in but of at meaning 'nh-mrr is unclear, theword occurs Dendera similarbut not copiedtextsof those atEdfu, suchasMDlII54vjswd3n D IV 173,16Dnk wd3 nt ' wherethe king offersa wingedbeetleamulet;
and MD III 56L kv-0 LS is offered and later the text says is the winged beetle

t-P, ig ..

lie stretchesout his hands holding , [Gutbub. Mmi 16,1962 p.73].

Above all the 'nh-mrr

#nb-t3wy type of plant Wb 1203 (4) GR The only reference from Wb is, 'he brings to you the western field with Wn llwt-k3-Ptb'

plants of the Mansion of the ka of Ptah' 111156,4-5.The pun here is that both terms are words for Memphis.


flow (of flood)

Wb 1206 (2-3) D.22 GR oft.

Wb gives two Late Period examples of this word (Lond 8 and Fayum,Pap. 8e, so Beleg.) libation .A

bowl in Berlin [189011 an inscription has

hpy r srwd sbt [R.Hecker,ZAS 73 1937 ,

it p.43 I and Heckersuggested is connected with inq 'to gatheebecause the determinative L? of However'nk is a word apartfrom this andas suchappears punson the nameof Anukis ('nqt) In in .
the Temple of Ptolemy IV for Isis at Assuan rn .I r siwr sht m rn tfy n --j A

'You make it flow to impregnate field in that your nameof Anukis' [Brescianiand Pernigotti, the Assuan, Pisa 1978p.102,2and for the connection Inq -nqt seeLA 1333-334n.11. The word is thususedintransitivelyandtransitively q `21-1*1 Intransitive - describingthe Nile flood: 0tr tr rnpt IV 48,11 sm3-Nwn -r q ANY f JLr rnpt IV 339.2 ;q '*4 r dr-ib. f IV 364,2 ; flood r nw. nw 1325,9 ; hapy A 1L r tr. f 158 1.1 ; Hapy ,

sk r

libation texts the verb is closely connectedwith Anukis, shesays' b1p r srwjj 3ht.k (c C Assuan)1318,3
Tran-silive '4'j V4 - -% -1,

n.f rd mdt-f Il 254,13 . In *L Wp r nw.f 1115.7 dz'

Inqt r nw. f Anukis makes it flow at its time IV 63,8.


The verb has a consistentand naffow use and is used thmughout GR temples.


wig or capcrown Wb 1181 (16) GR

The word occursin the Sign Papyrus [Griffith in Petrie,Two HieroglyphicPapyrifrom Tanisp.321 pl.8 II B 6,5 and it is also foundat Esna 'D *v is worn on the 14th

II of Pakhons Esna. no.77 (13) LD IV 78b. = The termmayalsooccurat Edfu,whereMin declares, havereceived I


for his appearance

in his house! 1403,17-18.The determinative showsclearly this is the round cap or wig worn by the king andpl.32b (2ndreg left) showsMin wearinga crown which maybe the 'nt.


a second Wb 1188 (11) GR

A word for the smallest portionof time derivedfrom the verb 'ndto be little , few'. Wb recordsthe
word at Urk. VIII 135 k in the phrase in. f brt r-- ,j= ,-0, where 'nt here Is including 0 and also at Edfu

IV 62,11

'light' not a time division, but in Urk VIII 25f which lists divisions of time one second!


BeautifulOne m Wist V 40,10.

This is an epithetof Hathor


child Dnt St-wrt s3 3st VIII 8,4. The word for

At Edfu Horus is describedthus : ntk

from 'nd "belittle' thus child could be a phoneticspellingof imty , or a new.word derivedperhaps literally it is little one'.


myffh Wb 1206 (7) to 207 (3) DG 65,2


Myrrh is a fragrant gum 0 resinoccurring as red or yellowish lumps on speciesof the Commiphora tree. It comes from Arabia, Somaliland and Ethiopia (that is Punt and the God's Land) and was brought to Egypt by trading expeditions [Lucas, Nbterials 2nd ed. p.94-5 : LA IV 275-6]. Myrrh has been identified with the Egyptian word 'ntyw [Steuer, Myrrhe und Stakte, Wien 1933]. It comes in -Utype vesselsand can be made into balls for putting onto a flame to bum. It is different from snl in [Wb Drog. 99-104]. some way but there is little difference in the usesof the two substances At Edfu the main use of the word is in the ritual Yms-Intyw Tringing myrrh' which occurs often in the temple . It is performed by the king, usually for Horus Behdet (6 times), with Hathor (9 times) or for Hathor alone ( 71imes).The word is spelled 1256,2,11140,9 VII 105,17 130,12 184.15 IV 386,15 ; Q3, 60 6

eS %'[I IV 250,8; king is shownholding vary, for example

IV 94,6 or with the detenninative SV 2--VIN&

159,5.In all scihes the

beforethe gods,but the vesselin the pawsof the lion can pl.33a 1st reg. pl. 1362nd reg. This

PLXI -2ndreg.;

particularcontainerfor the myrrh offeredis also usedto write trns-'ntyw in at least10 scenes a, 194,15 11133,17 111171.16In return for the offering Horus .

gives the king the two landswhich produce'ntyw - Punt and the God'sland, Fekhertand also the peoplewho produceit, qm3tyw hbstyw, comebringing their 'tribute, which stresses extentof the the power of the king. He canalsobe madem3'-brw (1429,3-10).The presence Hathor is as the of Lady of Punt andmistress the God'sLand who putslove of the king in the heartsof men andgods of for andshemakesthemrejoiceat seeinghim. Te ritual is alsoperformed Horus* Hathorwith the and and child godsHarsornthus Ihy : VI 162,2-164,17sim. 1235,9-18, to Harsomthus alone1431,16ff. , Yfyt and snd with Hathor V 361,9. Also to Isis and Nephthys1383,15 ff. who gives who gives , attributesof kingship, to Isis alone111171,16 172,8andto Nephthys with Khons111132-10 Also . kingship and protectionfrom the to Ptah who grantsHeb Sedsand kingship 184,15 , with Sakhmet diseasedemons198,14-99,10 and sim. 1498,7-16. Osiris 1 150,15 To larger groups of deities . including the four Renenet 1135,2 ff. ; 1587,1 ff. or to Mentet Mehyt Khons1256,2-17and to : , , , HorusandWetejeset VI 314,2ff. Hor This ritual beginsa 'Filling of the Eye' text wherethe procession 14 godsISled by Thoth and the of C775-, 6a& Also in one text Mdd and Hedjhotepoffer CEP 135,7-137,16. VIII I-Isttyw gods : .0



to PtolemyIV and Arsinoe,which is titled Vms =1 d=

n nb t3wY db3 mnbt I

430,10-431,5= XII 341. In thesescenes king wearsthe hemhemty by the crownsurmounted threefalcons,the crownor

The emphasis the text is on Intyw as an a very complexcrown incorporating or both of these. one of indicator of contactwith the divine and the subsequent of guarantee kingly power for the correct as performance theritual . It doesnot act,for example, a purificationritual. of Intyw canalso be burnt in k3p-'ntyw texts, usuallyfor Horuswho may be accompanied:Up 1110,8-18 in This happens conjunctionwith otherrituals IV 121,6for example.

in nLr r 9bw.f VI 305,2 ff and ir X9playing,the sistrurn for Hathor V 369,12 . Other such as burnt myrrh are Min : 1405,12 ; Shu 1476,13 ; Tanenetand Iunet IV 121,6. In recipientsof the it is the areaswhich produce'ntyw which are given and/or their inhabitants, plus the return again kingship and mY-trw The scenes the king putting Intyw into a burningvessel show . 6***

he wearsare the sameas for ms-lntyw cf. pl.20 (2nd reg.) ; pl. 141 (3rd and the crowns ). (anda sistra) pl. 154(2ndreg. however )hastheking holdingthreeincense arms reg.
The other ritual involving Intyw is rdit-'ntyw 59,13 VIII 57,5 Dr ht V

111144,12; am **

-. -j


VIII 140,13 and theseare all to Honrs and Hathor who give

in return the samekind of gifts The king wears the same crowns and the scenesshow him putting .

incense onto a burningvessel


e.g. pl.62 (4th reg.).

has A text in the Nn chamber a rite IY--J %a n it. f 1399.12 - 400,5 with the samekind of rewards a. ). (pl. type as)fms-'ntyw so it is to be includedin thosescenes 32a; 3rd reg. and scene TVoughout the Edfu texts Intyw occursoften and especiallyin the Laboratorytexts which indicate Arzneip.63-691. differenttypesof 'ntyw [c f. Germer, therewere Intyw nilm 'sweet(smelling)myrrh': =! Intyw-tp 'bestmyrrh': r: $T# m3' for your ka VII 105,17-106,1. 11194,13-, -J : bestmyrrh of %t'K,

V from the handsof Sheshmu 196,4

J )R IDl4 in is prepared with its ingredients the workshop1197.9 the nnib plant is usedin recipes11220,16.

lntyw sYn'myrrh of lotus' : this is offeredto Hathor in the laboratory11224.12-225,4 the scene and ). gives backthe p'tyw rejoicing at seeing shows c7Aas beingoffered(plA2b I st reg. The goddess
the king. -III_, I _; -


In the laboratory 'ntyw is associatedwith other types of incense such as nnib nwd 3hrn md

192,14 and a text about it says that it comes from the limbs of god and is put on the hair II 198,10-15. It is burnt in all the sanctuariesof the temple the fire in the noble house 11199,6-9

IV 14,11 ; IV 3,5 and also is burnt in the palace H 199.11.

is on

The word also occurs in the phrase: 'ntyw m irw. f F VII 130,14-15.1 tp rn ItJ
A text gives the origins of types of Myrrh

H 204,14 ; 1132,5 and the variation

from the Eye of Re and'C-j =0 * 13


is from the Eye of Osiris Therearealso 'ntyw-g3rw and 'ntyw-g3rt3 varieties11205,12.

208,10. This implies that the term Intyw covered a wide range of substancesand that if 'ntyw had ever represented one specific type then this meaning had been lost and 'ntyw was no more than a it to cover different concoctions of incenses. seemsit was essential to have the 'ntyw in general word the shrines of the temple perhaps as an indicator of divine presencec.f. 11217,9 . Horus is q '4 I: Lord of the Valley of myrrh Il 189,12 (see Lord of Myrrh VII 106,7 and also 11' (11" a int-'ntyw) Z R .C. while Hathor is 45i3, *Qo
G *Uc. ,m E7 o=, 0


Seautiful one mistress"of myrrh V 179,6 and Dum. GI1187[AUiot. RdEI4,1940pp. 227-81.

*A"* Note also the spelling q. q sZ :

Myrrh is also used to make the foundation bricks of the temple: I have received mud mixed with and mn-wr 'says the king as he makes the bricks R 61,1.


belittle befew , Wb 1207(7-8) MK

FromtheMK examples Ind themeaning theverbis clearbut it is used a morecomplicated in of of the way at Edfu : in a Sethkilling text a line of alliteration I uses word It 13 of "the 188.7-8 limbsof thedonkey Miminished thepriestwith theimy-wt standard'Yougo ?I; are , Apopis"'--j -*round trabe may m-'b m grg 11556,9.7bese however writingsof Idt massacre.

III. nd

light of the sun Wb 1207 (13) FCD 45 dawn


In the PyramidTexts (1679)this word clearly refersto the dawn


(2,; he rises to heavenat dawn' where the determinative of the sun sitting on the sky shows that this r , is the moment when the sun is still attached to the horizon but the whole disk is visible. The word continues in use in religious texts and into the Edfu material. Sethenoted that it may be the root of the barque of the sun'[ZAS 57.1922 p.30 n. 17]tand Sauneronfurther suggestedthat word m1ndtmorning it is the palenessof the dawn, the first sign of the coming of light brought by the m'ndt the boat of , the dawn [Esna V p.258 n.c (2) 1. The word occurs in a mirror text where Hathor grants "What Neret T 3 'a sees W0 dawn and Mehenyt by s)(3t evening' IV 238,11 [Husson Miroirs p.79 n.8]. The at (P
40,, C

term may also occur in the name or time of a festival at the temple

'Great Lord of

festival all the earth is light ? 'V 7,8 One of the four companies of guardians is . Light VI 329,9. Ile


'nt however is in the phrase in brt rn 'nt, for which Junker suggested most common use of

in particular 'bring heaven at first light/dawn' [Onuris p.5 and note 2; also various readings and Husson, Doc. 42 Dendera Room B, west wall, 2nd reg. left, the king is like the disk who rises= , dawn] Ibis epithet is applied to Horus Behdet : in hrt m at . -j 0 1119 (34) ; as

1287,11 and also there may be a female equivalent or variant in in trt r--. 1-j leRe-Harakhty %oe *U A r-- -j -r 111296,1., the litany to Hathor A 00 .00


stairway Wb'I 208'(3) Royal Tombs.*GR

I in Oris first attested a pun in the Litany to the Sun from the royal tombs [HornungSonnenlitanei p.203] iw isk rf s'r nAn sw r 42 this stairwayis depictedas a double stairway , where

Hall of the'Bookof Gates(scene Hornungcomments it resembles stepsin the Judgement the that and The sign Xa11 33) on which Osiris sits [Sonnenlit. nA59 p.1411. as may be the term dCth = Ir. and w6rd'r - s'r are mucholder

At Edfu the word applies to the actual stairways by which the procession at the New Year go up to the roof ;a description of the easternstairway uses' lind 1549,9 ;a priest with a standardpurifies V 6 upon which one goes forth' parallel to'rd from all evil 1564,1-2 and possibly because

of I we should read 'rq. n.f -e2S n 'q '3yt as 'r 'he has finished the stairway of of alliteration 1537,6-7. enteringthe sanctuary'



to go up , ascend Wb 141 (14 - 24) Pyr. DG 67,5 1-/) -kNFzI

CrAa; CED4; KH3

Originally Pr the initial I weakenedso that by the MK at the latest the word was written Or [Erman, , ZAS 46,1909 pp.98-991.In the stairway texts at Eau, the western is the one upon which one goes to the roof '=-=pJ t --J 1513,12 and the falcon .=,. ascendsat the coming of the

king 191,7-8 Generally the various determinativesusedin thesecasescan be used separatelyand read . as Or: spy as the falcon 42!k r 3ht 156.15 ; in a pun m rn pfy n 1'rt 'Go up in that

' 1115,12 - so here by alliteration Orseemsa likely reading. Also in the phrase your name of uraeus 423di 579,9.1 'qw 'Stairway for the ascensionof the Aku priests, where both stair signs perhaps read Or1

beforethe object : eN The verb canbe usedwithout preposition A x., I ,1q, to ascend the greatplaceIV 54,14. is A flame goddess described ,.= 'M I-J :ftf C=as ^1 1315,13.

ORnt 'py IV 50,2


nameof a canal IV 31,6 and 4tjO -Ii. 7 with its water.

This is the canalin 12thLE nome


goat V;b 1208 (10) Med

Known from the textsof the medicalpapyri whereblood of

Ebers425 and fat of -M

Ram.V XV are usedin the treatment variouscomplaints[Wb Drog. 1051. Edfu they are At of &- 1, listed with otherlivestocksuchas cattle gazelles which are sacrificedin the temple , 4 -i etc. , IH 298,6.They wereprobablykepton templelandandsupplemented sacrificialofferings. the

Wb 1210 (9-11) Med. Wb Drog. 105


DG 65,8 An unidentified usedin medicltreatments a varietyof illnesses for [Germer, Arznei259ff. ]. The tree Edfu geographical texts list the 'rw as a sacred in the Elephantine tree nome and in the Western nome 1337,6

1330,12 which, perhaps are coincidentally both at the ,

extremes thecountry.Oneof themounds Edfu visitedduringtheFestivalof Belidetis called of at it V 357,4so it may also havegrown at Edfu. In this connection is associated domainof this god [Derchain P.Salt825p.159-161 the with Osiriancultsandespecially funerary ,


Wb 1208 (4-7) Med.

&. This ma, the Irw tree and the branchesor leaves from it. However in the Edfu texts part sameas A

is in of the writing equipment a palettepresentation called


1167,14 and

vgt 'r 1 i,

] 63,7 Both scenes 40c 2nd reg.and 16 3rd reg. showthe king with a hmhmty crownholdingup [pl. . W 11V in his left for Khonsu.11ey seemto be usedfor, or a palettein his right handand Peasant, 1305 wherescribalequipment B muchearlierin theEloquent writing andarealsomentioned & -=J> includes ", of for writing couldbe twigs or pieces branchwith a chewed Brushes used .

frayedend, it is possiblethat they may comefrom the Irw tree.Alternatively if the 'rw is reed and 'then its end would be sharpened ' and split [eernj, Paper and Books, 1947 p. 12 ; Weber, pen, It is possiblethat Irw may also be a word for a small stick usedfor counting Buchwesen pA4-45]. II [Keimer,Gartenpflanzen p.741


lotus stemor stalk Wb 1208 (8-9) GR

textsand this is also the caseat Edfu a Wb recordsthat 'rt is the stemof a lotus plant in Dendera mirror text mentions' that nt nhb wr 'stemof the great lotus!1176,8. Ilis suggests W 'r and 'rt arewordsfor a stemor a branch. thoughit is not clearif theyareconnected with 'rw , and

heremayrefer to the lotushandle themirror. of + includesI-'Z1, The produce thepehuof Mendes andtheir spt IV 35.5-6andV 33,14.Ibis of k9: III and maybe (lotus)stems theirpetalsratherthanbeinga word for reeds.



bookroll, Wb 1208(17) to 209 (1) OK

From the Old Kingdom,whenusedalonethis refersto papyrus rolls, but from the MK certaintypes " ified 'r-t arespkc : 'rt nt dbr leatherrolls' [PXahun andGurobP1.19 20-21; 20,23-4and seeLA of ,
V 699-703 ; Weber, Buchwesen p. 131.Pap.Carlsberg Nr. VII -a list of hieroglyphic words was

written on 'rt nt msq in the temple of Osiris [Iversen, P.Carlsbergp. 131and Weber (op.ciL) suggests that at this time it may be more like parchmentparticularly if it was white and used for special texts. The library texts at Edfu list the bringing of n rnsq 'Great rolls of leather ' III

347,12, which were evidently kept here. These contained texts for the overthrow of Seth and the protection of the king and his palace. At Dendera, Hathor is and also Irt n msq at Philae <2921> Phot.856. in the library D Il 224,10


to rise up


Wb 1210 (1-3) GR This is the reduplicated form of 'r 'to go up'and at Edfu it is especiafly used to describethe inundation rising up over the fields at the time of the flood. It is followed by prepositions :rthe flood comes forth hr J*43hmw 'rising onto the -N -21,1325,17

s:! fields' 11251,13 ; the 'rty flood

r i3t 11254,7-8 ; and also

UA-S-ch-=Nun rww land 1264,5 and also 11257,6 - the serpent reading 'r is forn the word (i)rt for uracus . With Dr :a flood tr

0 )= )U-10


'hmw VIII 24,5-6 'A. k (with direct object) 1582,12 ; the Great green (flood)

With direct object : 'rty r &A VA& i3t 1113,1.1

With r-s3

the flood is broughthr --C7 0- X-C d=> .

(alliteration of r-s3 'hm.k 111100,5

Theword is alsofrequent Dendera. at


- heaven,sky roof,,-Wbl209(7)GR

Wb gives only one example of this word in a staircase procession :q4r,,


is pure from

impurity 1557,8. It is not clear if the roof or sky is meant here or even if this word is a mistake for rwyt 'gate' or 'portal' . It may be related to irt, but if truly 'rt it would derive from 'r and be 'that above' and if the text is not corrupt, then this word is a hapax. whichA4up


to squeeze, envelope.tie up Wb 1210 (23) to 211 (2) MK DG 66,3 alsoc f. DG 6,8

Cr.528a; CED 229restrict, surround WP(08)Wpi At Edfa W is usedalmostas a synonym verbsfor 'to hold' : Horusgivesthe king theTwo Lands of 9 ,, -J t7 Yhr 'held in his fist' VIII 118,13; of Atum 'eternity and everlastingp m In

3m are held in his fist' VIII 109,13-14 also the Breathof life and

3m.f is held in his m

'hold!'grip' the to 6. The verbliterally is 'to enclose' Edfu seems havedeveloped meaning fist 1128', and things . Thesecan be the objectof W, In the examples things 'held!are not concrete, physical the I-J it applies to unguents: m1J,, u7 ,held by Shesmuin his hand V 174,9 ; best normally and =. Ysm 'held in the handsof Shesmu'V 196,4.In this caseit may even Y-tntyw 'C=-J, V-lom-m Owy by squeezing the themin bagsto reduce liquid, so the for certainunguents be 'squeezed! wereprepared
nuance may be slightly different here. Also in a bag what runs from it is a quarter of if ir
C Cb4L --J

'if it is crushed finely

,J vy Il 206,7 ; pd nA nty m c=lJL- 141



gates, portal Wb 1211 (8-12) Pyr.

from at leastthe 5th This is a porticoor approach a temple,probablylightly roofedandis recorded to Templep.147ff. ]. At Edfu in the festivalof Behdet, It derivesfrom Vr'to rise up'[Spencer, -dynasty . to Sma-Behdet, staysinsidethe four moundsand stopsbeforethe 'j the procession goes
11* -


V 135,1.Alliot translated as 'gatesof Edfu' [Culte 11530n2l but Derchainreadit this

#rw 'trees',with a faulty determinative that a tree sign wasreadas a sail [Salt 825 p.160n.5 to so as xx In the Sokarprocession god grantsthat peoplekiss the earthat --A C-3 161]. the =>, king 187,17 . It may alsobe the scene ceremonial of executions Horus 'fells his foes : of the


at the gate MD III 83g .


to tie on , don (a garment) Wb 1211 (19-23) D. 18

The word is known from the 18th D. and is usedat Edfu in the context OL 'tying on garments : those in Mesen I-j Or 15 'dressedin 9-strand cloth' 1338,9 and also in a smn-)fvty text Or a .......rn . s9d

'tie on the headband' VI 55,10-11.The word is also usedat Dendera


to complete

Wb 1212 (3-7) 6.19


Ibis may be connected with the word 'rqi - the last day of the month,for it completes endsthe or beforethe 19thDynasty month,hencea verb 'rq 'to complete'.No examples the verb areattested of however,so it may be a late innovation.The earliestexamplefrom Wb is LD III 152afrom the Portico of the temple of Seti I at Gurneh :n4= k3t nbt....

In GR texts Irq normally refers to the completionof building'and especially the temple : 'the sanctuarywas complete(km) andNfr-swt 0-:; \' was finished'IV 7,7 ; its greatdoor and the IV 8,1 ; and t, 'r n 'q

in two leavesof the halls werecompleted Year 16 of his majesty "-",k VII 6,6 ; in alliteration,the king t,`

'3yt n 'pt IV 330,12; also 1-3

'3yt n 1py1537,6.7be templeis built 11,14.The sign

%::: 7\ m irw. s and completed with its images' II . usedto write the word indicates tied up papyrusroll and perhaps suggests a

that the roll is completeand tied up. The verb is also usedof completing'time : HB nD4 'you completeeternity'VI 272,7-8 or of performinga rite in the phrase'rq irw [seeVandier, P.Jumilhacp.150-n. 751 rn q-I performthe rite for the basof Heliopolis IV 135,10.

A noun'alsofrom this verb meaning 'end'.

(fromthe .n nrt'rn' -k at theendof 25 years

foundation)the templewasinscribedIV 7,10 [after de Wit CdE 36, No.71,1961 p.731.


Over Wb 1213 (10) GR-, f apyupo; ' c,.


The reading of

and the meaning of 'rq-wr

as 'silveewas first suggested by Brugsch [HD

p. 1018 and 1273, Harris, Minerals p.43-44]. It was also thought that the word was an Egyptian Greek word for silver 61pyupoq particularly as 'rq-wr derivation of the , does not really mean

can any root for it be seen in Egyptian [also Pleyte, ZAS 7.1869 p.82-3]. The word anything, nor 'gold' and is especially mentioned in the treasury : the temple is most often, appears with s3wy

supplied with s3wy

11271,10 ; also

and precious stonesH 276,11 ; s3wy n' 11297,8 ; the beautiful things of the temple .

is made of s3wy m-'b M6 IV 15,5 a collar

M'Y. '3t IV 6.1 Less often 'rq-wr appears with nbw . for ex=ple temple are s3wy . . 000

foundationbricks are madeof nbw M mn of the gods'sheis,

Lst 1132,9and 13. While Hathor is nbw-nLrw 'gold

imyt Psdt silver of the goddesses lapis of thosein and nirwt nnib

of 1572,1-2; sim IV 97,4.It is alsomentioned Ennead' with ji'm as part of the requirements the the treasury 11269,10. Il 278,2; quarriesof gold and mountains of M

trq-wr comesfrom the mountains

havebeenlocatedin Wawat which is namedas a sourceof lrq-wr [c.f. 11270,3. thesemay and 6 p.693] s3w and M DaumasOLA I It also comesfrom HethetandTer-nett V

IV 391,12and it is oneof the productsfor the 12thUpperEgyptiannome rT%

11530 [Beinlich SAK 6 p. 16nA5 for examples this text at othertemples1. of Harris [op.cit.] suggested by the GR period Dd as a generalterm for all kinds of silver was that In texts,Wawatis Greeka5pyupo; usedto referto purervarieties. theTreasury was and outdated so the M, 4n so the termswerenot mutually of anda mountain said to havea mountainof 0'. thereis a play on the words, wherethe text sayssbd H 289,15.In a necklace presentation exclusive M... hr. tm 'Making bright (silvery) her facewith silver' IV 96,10-11,thoughhow far this is an

intended is unclear. pun GR at The termis commonthroughout temples, especially Dendera.


canalor bodyof water Wb 1213 (11) GR

At Edfu this is a general word for a bodyof water,eithera canalor the inundation[Van der Plas.Crue 104]. Irty occursoften in Nile textswherein alliterationof ' it is described thus : Irty, 'rIr r 'jd the p..


flood water rises up onto the fields'

. I= --j :=::. m

1582,12; sim.: 1325.17and 1632. The

WOflood alsopoursout the bbb canal,the


and hapy,in a flood offering VI 33,8.Along with mYty canal, the lake of Horus,the god to whom the libation offering is made, of

lives on themIV 63,2. The word alsooccursat Dendera againit is a body of waterratherthana specificcanalname where -15 X. ,j MD 161 a, 3a canalwith <=> f-r Ij its water; MD 179,11lie bringsyou 4=. IT=


doorleaves Wb 1209 (3) GR

by Wb (Thes.255,36and266,9)areboth from the templedescription texts Ile two examples quoted -J Edfu and are the samesentence 'the GreatDoor:: =Z. : at halls werefinishedin Year 16 IV 8,1 = VII 6,6 fact from the CT IV 330d= Spell336: the fiery blastis evil wsbwt. f and the door leavesof its Thereis a muchearlierexamplein and the door leaves

arebroken[c f. FECT 1271 and272 n.26] . The wholemaybe relatedto a word Irryt 'doo [Spencer, Templep.1851which is found in the Book of the Deadand at latestfrom the 20th D. UEA 4.1917 as p.146-8].In BD 125 it is mentioned havinga right andleft half, so is eitherthe lintel or our word 'doorlear [op. Spencer cit.] derivesit from the samesource 'rrwt, that is the verb 'r as

'to approach, uV but in fact it may be connected with the word Irty 'jaw bones! comparingthe rise . two openingand closing door leaveswith the two parts of the lower jaw, in the sameway as r is 'mouth'and'dooe.



Wb 1209 (2) Pyr. The word and its 'determinatives showthat this is the word for the two halvesof the lower jawbone, that is the detachable of thejaw, for the top teethremainin the skull-jaw bone.The term is used part Horus as Urd of in medicaland other texts [Ufebvre, Tableau15 p.151.A text at Edfu describes Shentayet, who guards 44a d md I jaws and lips and uniteslimbs ' VIII 6,9.

The rite of the giving of the pse-kf to Osiris appears Edfu'and here this implementis associated at
with theJaws : s'r. i n. k du 'raise up'to yo'your 'jaws', the right one protects you

311 ,

the left one guards you ' VII 152,14-15 (also pl. 63 1), then 'I bring to you , ,

1 `%Z


together' VII 153,4.,This is copied from a much earlier Opening of the Mouth ritual [c. f. Hornung , Mund8ffhung 11p.7 16 and also p.97 scene37 'Giving the psUrl. , Ile knife was used to steady the

jaws of the deceased[Van Walsem, OMRO 59/60p. 200 and 205-6; also Cauville, Osiris p. 159 n.21. The epithet in VIH 6,9 suggeststoo this role for Horus in the ancient ritual.


paLace Wb 1214 (10-21) and'ot Wb 1214 (22) end 18th D.

Originally the place where the king actually'lived 1h from its determinative seems to have been a , rectangular walled structure with 11kr reeds at the top which was situated inside the 'palace facade enclosure wall [c E LA IV p.64-46]. ,II

At Edfu '4 is the term for the building containing the royal apartments used in the archaic ritual [actual examples see Goyon, Confrmation p. 83 n.3 ; P.Barguet in Hommages A Fr. Daumas pr-m-'h I pp. 51-541. In the daily rite perfbrme in the temple this is, the first event, when the king leaves his home toenter the temple'. It usually occurs in pairs : IV 49,10 ff and IV 202,4 ff on the exterior of the naos (west and east wall lst scene , Ists register),where the king appears respictively as the Lower Egyptian and then Upper Egyptian king : pr m (LE) andieft side (UE) I c"3 IV 68,16 and On the north wall, right side

IV 224,7 In all casesthe king is accompanied .

by two standardbearers,who purify the path and clear away foes, and a lunmutef priest who censeshis

end path andrecitesa prayer.Similarly on either, of the southwall of the Court:



V 35,7

VH 42,8 and wall and -1-1 V 136,8andoppositeon the outsideof the Enclosure R by has VII 189,10. A singleexample the king accompanied five standards his ka and following this are purification scenes,implying that the king is still VI 241,13 ff. The scenes -Aj to ritually impure at this point (c f. pl.90 Ist reg. pl. 113) or the texts can be abbreviated have the m33-njr text next (pl.89 and pl.88). in In all cases word '0 is not repeated the textsandthe palaceis labelledby a seriesof termssuch the that the term is an archaicremanent. The palaceis as mnqb , St-wrt , wrh . sbbt 0 pn suggesting W normally shownas

and largerUlanthe king.

ID can also denotethe houseof godsand especiallyof Horus. In the Myth one of the barquegenii


'attacks anyone who assaults


'VI 68,4-5 ; the temple iscalled


Vr-3bty H 9,12

Horus Behdet down to this day is called Ndm-'nb (Edfu) VI 112,5 In the pl ural it C3 of Ennead which are kept in 6i temple : they rest in refers to the shrines of the IV 20a ; the

Enneadare in the -templeIV 13,12 -,'the secret forms of gods are in great places of the I 176J. It is thus a euphemismfor a'sanctuaryor chapel and is spelled either as 'h or 'ht. I*f' 'residence AZO" Cr.24b [Kasser, BIFAO 66, A posssible Coptic derivation is E? or palace= _W 1968 p. 107-8]. Pryt-ib-'O She who is in the palace [Sauneron,BIFAO 77 1977 p.25 n.g] . n 3 which is restoredby the text editor to

The-phraseappearsin a Libyan dynasty stela Oine ) "2' 0

IN pr m htp 'one who lives in the palace! here describes the king in a literal way, s3

[Berlandini, BIFAO 78,1978 p. 157 and n.h]. It is also used in connection with the coronation of the king as an epithet of the goddesses associatedwith crowns and rites of the ceremony. The ' is treated temple where coronation ceremoniestake'place [Sauneronop.cit. ] and at Edfu, in a as the part of the 43jrj IV 76,10. Nbat text, the goddess is upon'the brow of the king as <? 4


name for the Edfu temple - palace in heaven

GauthierDG 1155
14, At Edfu, Behdet is the great god and lord of heaven in o-W C-3 Zbuilding of the temple'is described : 'Raise up C--JJ 0 111264,15 and the in its place, complete with

of shrines and beautiful places' IV 7,7. De Wit read this as ? 1ace, Horus',with an error in the text [CdE 36, No. 71,1961 p.73 n. 11 but the list of names of Edfu temple includes 4 44p qD V

396,6 'showingthat it wasreadas leaven ', not Hors.


to fight Wb 1215 (1-20) Pyr.

The earliestforms of this w6rd are written ih3 [Sphinx 12 p.107ff. ] but at Edfu the word is written 0 Is but it show the convergingof the vowel'sounds and it is usedpossiblyin strictlyread,as the phrasebt nb lt3 'everyweaponof fighting': Horus gives them to the king -O 144,3; the WoserKa is equipped with Houseof Montu'containi the -A' -VII VI 91,7



bow and arrow text has the parallel .A


111257,1, so

it may be not be this word [Sign list] [see- b'w-n-'031.

The verb 'to fighe is usedas in Wb :

With the preposition hr: Horus O;P br it. f fighting for his father VI 287,1.

Substantive from the verb *.in the phrase'h3 m h3w.f 'day of sm3r. n.f

in h3w.f, II 5,12-13

m h3wJ he has quelled fighting near him 1442,17-443,1. j 'stridingand fighting while killing foes'IV 78,17. In epithets: Horusnmt br

nb W

Lord of Fighting

Title of the priest at St-13bi (Heracleopolis) becausein the Struggle Between Horus and Seth when 1<7 Lord Horus slew the enemiesat Naref, he was of Fighting'. so this name was given to the priest here Iz:7 Gal VI 123,6 .7;, VI 124,5.


priestly title Wb 1216 (7) GR

'Fighting Arm' is a title held by the king in appropriate rituals, such as 'presenting the harpoon': 123 '-j VI 91,2 where it is accompaniedby other martial titles. The title is also found outside this temple as an epithet of the god Horus, an inscription from Dendera describes 'Horus of Gold Fighting arm' [stela of a man who was the son of the prophet of Amun at Dendera, line 5, Daressy W ASAE 18,1919 p. 183-1851;a tide of Horus Q11 rk Urk. VI 49,7; a butcher god is called Ql

;, IIiP. Dr. 22,22. Originally the title was applied to, the god and then to his priests by -Rh.

extension [c f. Ibrahim, Kingship p. 148-91.

]Vr. 'b3

HorustheWarrior Jt: a1rYh,4e'_7'J1122(20); 0 : ":

the -This namestresses warlike aspectof the HorusatEdfu :9 Q4cJN11179,1. 111294,9;

it It may also occur in the form Hr-hr. 'h3 when, appliedto the king (Horus)in the Myth VI 60,10and in a harpoon text'-%&'?110 IL? O VI 64,8 ; :k? &11


VH 132,1and it also appliesdirectly to Horus

VI 215,7 [c f JEA 29 p.4 n.c].



Wb 1216(13)

In theplural 'h3w is a word for weapons general, from asearlyasthePTsandin the singular wi th in' thecorrectdeterminative is a common it on word forarrow'from the MK [c f. Sin. B 62] for example includesa bundleof arrows a sarcophagus a Montubotepfrom Deir el Balu4a list of possessions of denoted as 280271. At Edfu, in bow andarrowtextslp is a variantword for gr etc. 04 04 king seizes -.. 111257,1 in a pun )11 fires at theenemies and and VH 143,12;the rkyw. f 'your [Lac'a'u', SarcophagesAnterieurs NouvelleKingdom I p.66-74= Kairo QLA

111135,15-16. thegodAmunin thesouthern Like arrow,it hasfoughtyour opponents! nomeof 0;; Neith, the king holdshis bow and in wereparticularlysacred Egypt. 111256,3, this waswherethebow andarrow for


the Fighter, (hippopotamus) Wb 1217 (6) GR

-At Edfu this occurs in suitable contexts and refers to the hippopotamus : slaying the hippopotamus r-1 PW Is stabbed in his hou? IV 58,14-15 ; in a crocodile text, Mesenty captures r3,,, W' 01

111137,13*,the harpooner casts his harpoon upon 213,14-214,1 and also

the mound of the Tightee IV

VI 66,11 7bis may hive been a mound where hippopotami were .

noted to wallow [JEA 29 p33-34 and note 23].


FightingGoddess Wb 1217 (7) GR

An epithetappliedto lion'headed goddess at Edfu : Mehyt es 314,17; Mentyt: OrWTQ

1131.15; )j lih ^ wrt I _!

"-"(; 1271,17; Sads: O-:. Nr2,, Pin'BehdetII54,11. b

In all cases g'-6ddesses the haveotherepithetsto stresstheir ragingpowersand also the fact that they for act asprotectors OsirisandHorus- so it'actsasa femaleaspect theHorus-POwer. of



Warship Wb 1216 (17-18) MK - GR Glossary 131'warship'. Jones, p.

foesanddestroys his in them. At Edfu 'D3t is the warshipof HorusBehdet, which he pursues Sethian in The texts make Horus and the king interchangeable their warship as they sail the river in it : dm. itrw m 0-.: 111257,15; 841, king killing hippopotamus of also IV

59,9 ; Horus phr. f m

111137,115 sails the river (sqd) tA Y-- killing the crocodile ; he III

killing the crocodileIV 212.6. The king is saidto appear Horusin as 28,11 and he,worshipsgod in 0,:A A. -, barque Qj

VI 72,12.The king is like Horus,raisedup in his

(harpoon) From this boat,Horus, protectsthe onewho hascreated 1424,10-11 * . 1114,3 for in the foes Q: C22fi. (, (tortoise)and slayshis 1115.1 crocodiles) him' , . I. n Q: t: k 0! %. III VII 152,10(crocodile)and Horus is iry-VU 'prow-man' boat cz 28,15(hippopotamus). herselfinto Isis, for the textssay.'His mothertransformed is equated In the Myth theboat itself with


Dr .A

him, to protect his body from the foes' IV, 18,11 ; "hermajesty transformed carrying

him' VI 59,6-7; 'his mothercarrieshim in containing


59,11-12; 'Isis makesher body secretin her form of

her son in nurses U %vi %

'IV 212,14-213,1 Hathor(asIsis) ;


VII 152.9. The analogy is almost that the boat is a womb or VI 79.5-6.

lap for the god Horus. The boat itself is praised mothers

The boat in which Horus is shown at Edfu is most likely to be an idealised,vessel rather than a true of a 'fighting ship! on the Nile. representation




Wbl221(17) GRin Wb is to a processional at Edfu : the king bumsincense the 'flameis in and text The only reference UP '1571,3, the scene the king holding an incense arm and putting incenseinto shows

the the endof it [pl.38 2ndfigure of king] ; alsoin a md ointmentaiiadoth presentation md at is said to be 'in 13 IV providedwith its ingredients' 278,12.The textsimply that the vesselis

The or a metalfor burningincense holdingunguents. sculptoror scribecouldhavemisread cup sign. of


as Ih'

or the writing of

may however simply read ' and thus be the '-vessel used

for incenseor unguents[c f. M. du Buisson, Vasespp-77-78 and n.1 and 117 n.51.

to stand Wb 1218 (3) to 220 (2) Old DG 68

Cr. 536b*, CED232; KH297 4)? _6 I

This follows the uses as set out in Wb and is most often spelled

With hr : s3b4wt

I V CL hr srh IV'40,3 ; the Nile Qr

'he standson'your banks,no

land is free from him' 1113.2.

With m: With im yw In the phrase: b3. f m pt 'his ba stands in heaven' IV 15,3. Y IV 40,6 ; ntk RI t, -09 I% Hor-nn
l ": -0-

IV 31911. IV 19,5


w jLtsn b n'. f s nb



'-as v


to feast . partake of food Wb 1219 (11-13) Pyr.

The antonymns V 'to stand!and hms 'to sit' were used together in early E gyptian texts to representa in daily life 'standing doing things, sitting doing things! *.It could be be translated as totality of activity juxtaposed the two words lose their original individual meaning's 'andthe phI 'to live!, so that when rase becomes an idiom [so Spiegelberg, RT 24,1902 p. 182-3 ; also Zaba, Ptahhotep p. 116-111 = Prisse 5,2 17 and 30 P--_t --AJ Wimporte quelle action]. Gardiner foll owed this in translating Rekhmire, line . as I spend my life ZAS 60,1925 p.69]

If the phrase is followed by a preposition however, usually rn or r it takes on a different nuance and' becomes 'to live on'. that is 'to eat, partake or. This use is seem as early as the PTs 214 b where , Unas h3 m0Wm bqt ; also 2026 b -2927a.

At Edfu the phraseis always usedas a variant of words 'to eae

With r : the temple'god


Y-! 5L_:

'r btpw df3w 1579,7 ; '1 give you aH good things -c>

, to eatwhat you wish' VII 176,17-18.

With m: almost in'parallel to the PT text", 4'. J f"m t3. hqt 1555,11-12 and it is especially used


in food offering texts : Harsomthus says to the king, YZY"I 2'0* im. s May you eat of it VII 160,16 Dtp-di-nsw

'3bt. k ' 1492,5 ; '3bt im. sn VII

60,16-61,1 ; iht WI%t


The phrase can be treated as one form, in the infinitive and when it is in the sdm. f form, both verbs must have a pronominal subject. The word has become nominalised in the temple description where the V3yt chamber is describedas nt 4& sjjf3. ti m ht nb nfr 'for eating, being supplied with all good things' IV 13,3.

CD 1164,13 ; CD The phrase also appearsat Dendera so it was sharedbetween the two places ,cC . IV 149,1.


to accedeto the throne

f. Wb 1219 (1-3) Pyr.

Literally 'to stand upon the throne', but at Edfu occurs as a noun 'successoe: the disk makes mighty the strength of ZN c-5 Montu in Behdee Il 40,5 ; and Horus exalts the king to be of

iuccessor on my throne' 1141,11. my

position , post Wb 1220 (7-9) OK Literally 'standingplace and used-in this W, at Edfu : b3tyw demons are ay demons at their dutiesVI 179,11';Thoth putsthe, JI 179,12; the followersof Osiris are I -cy j performing

their postsgoing aroundmesenVI

at their postsandat their places 1191,3.



,on the pylon, 'the king P. Jjj In a text

mk m bi3 erectsthe flagstaff (?) protectedby

VIII 4 1,11.This could refer to a'flag pole as 'thatwhich stana', but it may be a spellingalso copper' f o. 13'woodendoor leaf in this casethemaindoorof thetemple(seebelow).



--tt=:It' in This term occUrs the templedescriptiontexts: 'Completing door lea-ves vr- andfashioning its



[41 -c=r- I=r Again the word may be a writing of 13 8,8 = VII 7,5 Y-- with good coppeeIV -rz %L-- .

'door leaf with the No.72 p.2901.

I. de Wit readit as '4 'w [CdE 36, No.71,1961 p.76 and op.cit. signreadas

heap Wb 1220 (10) - 221 (1) OK


'heap'of offerings is still usedat Edfu, perhaps The word 141 most clearly in the net ritual, where a0 '3*7' -1Igreatamounts fish and-VJ sof all the confuses sign 0, manyheaps birds arecaught'VI 56,11.This writing of

indicatingthe normallyusedas determinative, with the granarysign,perhaps

term 'offerings' usedin parallelwith the many true spellinghadbeenforgotten.'4' became general a of at Edfu . With the determinative CEO it may indicate'heaps offerings' in other similar words general: Thebesis broughtcarrying
CD ,


IV 175A a wine offering, Horusgives Ott n

Osiris gives great in good things' 1450,12 ; in an '3bt consecration,

bw. nfr upon the altar 192,8. Thereis also the phrasein offering textsrdi h3w hr 'h'w ? Uttingexcess offeringsupon heaps! IV 77,6-7; in the Sebennytos nome IV 31,4-5.The sign f and the

following parallelsfrom the Mammisissuggest this phrase differently :I put that shouldbe interpreted for you excessupon YJ c-3 Mam. 66 13-4 ; sim.-t, ,
. M. C3

63,13 where the Nfam. ,

determinatives this suggest maybe word for a storeroom magazine;whenthegodWebenis brought or

in procession he has qI m-'f. m bt nb nfr 'a storeroom in his hand with aH good things! I ca3

4jA in 468,12-13;.Horus gives provisionsestablished -,v

IV 223,6.- This then seems be a to

from '"heaV or morelikely from the word'b"altae ortomb stela!or'tomb new derivative,perhaps offering table!This is not in Wb at anyrate. Also one examplewith uncertainmeaning: Horus gives btpw df3w n drwsn k3w food without end,their excess ) doesnot come(?) IV 64,7-8 (?


boats Wb 1222 (4-8) MK

Jones: Glossary 131-2a generalword for transportboats. travelboat, fishing boatandwar boat. p.


The word 'h'w maybe connected with the actualsign the ship

which is a mastfor a sail [GG P6 ] and

may then be no more than a ship with a mast.As most boats on the Nile would have

this some kind of sail [and do so from the earliest representations] servesto explain the general
application of the word. The word occurs at Edfu : in the festival at Edfu a journey is made to the Field of Sakhmet and his journey in the sky, he is 10,18 ; in the festival recites a spell of protecting I J Its .,Zdl @&4 mni ims many ships moor there' IV 19,3 -, when Re makes master of ships, settling upon a stairway of coppee III the boats transport this god V 126,7 ; in the Myth, 11oth of msntyw VI 128,4.

I lyt

sixth hour of the day Wb 1223 (10) GR

because 6th hour the This namefor an hourof theday is mentioned moreoftenin textsthantheothers, is the hour whenthe sunis at its, zenithandRe at his mostpowerful [c.f. alsoWb 1223 (8-9)midday] in It is attested textsfrom theNew Kingdom. At Edfu the text namingthe twelvehoursof the day, gives the sixth hour as

40 a



'Sixth hour its nameis Wyt 111220,15, when Isis slays Apopis with her spells and Re
comes forth 500,4. 4--1 VII 220,9 also ; incense and libation are given to Re at.

midday Wb 1223 (8-9) NK

In the Edfu texts,thereis no doubtthat in certaincontexts

means'midday' or more properly the 15 Re at

the sun : in a dw3-R' text, he is Khepri in the morning time of the zenith of

Thereare othertextswhereit is this onepoint of time Atuin in the evening' IV 56,12-13. middayand in the Myth, Horus fights with his foes -TU. G VI 119,8.Here the word can hardly be lifetime', it thoughFairmantranslated as 'for a long time' [JEA 21 p-311, and it would be realistic for Horusto fight at this time because a solargod this is whenhe is mostpowerful. as T The useof 't' as 'midday'is difficult to trace: Pap. PuR 133,10a magicaltext Sallier IV 11,8length, durationof this day JqqG tapause'(after Gardiner); C'3 ; An 117,1 '; P.Br-Rh24,20 .


Pt; Re shows himself


'at midday '. It may be that the final use of 'D' 'midday' did not

happenuntil the GR period (or Late period) when it was derived from 'b' life time!.


sacredsnake, guardiansnake Wb 1222 (12-15) NK

One of the earliest referencesto

'snake is on the 'snake stela! originally from Aduibis, and now ,

in Cairo museum which dates from the time of Amenhotep,III It has an inscription 'the king is . n pr Hr-hnty-hty '[Mariette Mon. divers 63b = Urk. IV 1755,4] At this date . is a 'good itrty .

snake' and Kees suggested that this stela and the 11snake in fact comprised the sign Also the word may be connected with ''-stela @

[Kees, ZAS 57, -1922 p. 122-1231.Other early

referencesare rare but in P.Leiden 347 (IX 2-3) there is a plural example 't'w serpentsof the field, and Renenet. the village ' in a prayer 'Me 'h1w 'Standing One' is so called becauseit stands on its each of . tail and in the phrase '' r can mean ' to stand for, to defend to take care of '. In the Amduat the , ''w protects Osiris and is called on for this purposein the P.Leiden Prayer [Zandee,Crossword Puzzle pp.55-6 1h' or W nfr are common at Edfu and Dendera where the snake is always 'good! In food offering . t exts the king himself is often called"hl. nfr who provisions the altars of the gods 1499,1 187,8 ; hrp-'3bt In 11aat texts too DIU 122.12 Uin f3i-iht scen6s- king B3qt 160,6; ZAof the temples n Itrty DU

of Egypt who enriches the two sources192.1. of the two lands and banks V 59,1-2 1Aalso DIV 175.3

n itrty DH 77,1. of the Two Lands

The epithet may also be applied'to Horus Behdet : wdn ttpw mirw Iraand fields VIH 89,8-9 ; in the list of his names he his the gods'at Effu is called this too f 13 tn IAN%.

n St-wrt 1125 (204) ; one of

St-wrt 1302,10. Harsomthus too is t IVA E. Mam. 203,13 ; and even Osiris

nfr lint itrty D 11164,9-10 (Lotus) ; Ihy in ]Vr-ldbwy 1 171,2.

Thereare two main aspects the title and to the namewhenit is appliedto a snakegod who exists to in his own right: (1) the god is a primordial serpent in a Maat text, Horusis called who

createdthe Primordialone (P3wty) V 157,3; in the lotus text above(DII 164,9-10) only is this a not


first creation text but 'h' is further equated with s343 the primordial serpent creator. This also happens in a hrw-I offering in St-wrt and s3-t3 in Wetejeset D IV 18,14-15., who

Offerings are made to the god in his own right: the king makes song and dance for drives away serpentsand foes 111106,9; the offering is raised to him Jj 64,13.17 ; Renent is accompaniedby

the son of Hathor D II

of St-wrt 1287,6. In the plural the Vw are 4J nrrw of the Temples

the primordial snake gods of Edfu : the Great gods of Edfu are called of Egypt VI 237.7 ; four snakegods are offering is made,to

nfrw in the Great Place VII 107,16 ;a food

mnbw -in, Wetjeset IV 918,34; the king making a libation is, n WIst-kir though they each ,

accompanied by three serpents collectively called have individual names1525 13 XH 366. . (2) 'b'-nfr is also usually mentioned in connection with)f3y

wdd, and Renenet [c.f QuaegebeurShai

p. 112] . All of these are agricultural entities, provisioners and makers of sustenance, but they are also gods of 'destiny and fate'. This suggestsa relationship between the word 'hl 'snake'and W lifetime! if % decides life'-, wdd 'commands!it then perhapsas a provider of food sustainslife - and note, 'reckoner of lifetime'IV $j 196,940. At the Temple of

in this context that Renenet is called Vsb

Opet too in a text there are brought: Shay upon a birth brick,

bv%Atand Wdd-mnb Opet 222.

These gods are the forerunners of the reek idea of the Agathodii-mon If it is primarily a generic term . forfroo'ki-smer serpents,then when it is applied to the king it shows his beneficial character [Quaegebeur . op.cit. p. 1531and with Renenet is the great god in St-wrt drives away harmful -who 41 and ba of Behdety to show his serpents near the king' VII 269,10 . The snake is also

identification with the temple god VII 269.7. ;-I As primordial beings, snakes were thought to live in the mud left behind by. the waters of Nun and they would be the first living things to emerge,so that snakesas primordial beings are a basic concept. See : Meeks Genies p.43 ' Quaegebeur,Shai p. 112 153 and 140-1 ; for Renenet see J.Broekhuis, , , Dogodin Renenwetet passim. and pA2. For the Agathodaimon: LA 194 , .

'w h.

lifetime lifespan , Wb 1222 (18) - 223 (7) Pyr. DG 69.1 lengthof life


Cr.24a; CED 18; KH 17 41E I '' is properly the'world-timeof


a personmarked out by the botaries of birth and death (Assmann, 1 1,

Zeit p. 18-19 ; related to nk4 and dt pp. 11 ff. ] and is used at Edfu as in Wb.

One of the main rewards given to the king for building the temple is a lifetime or an increase in his length of life :a reward of Y 'to as ruler IV 10,14 or even J-longer V'A,;. 106 the lifetime of Re, #6 of the

*' 10, which is eternity IV 6,10 ; Horus increases a- IV 16,4 ; the gods make long king IV 10,34 ; Thoth can also grant the king too gives the king (D k-L ' with no end 1572,17 ; Sokar 0 0

the lifetime of Re V-91.5 ; Osiris q3 n jjrw IV 272,1

As a solar god Horus Behdet is N-. -7 nome IV 26,9.

VIII 148,10 and especially in the pehd of the Xoite

Other gods associated with the lifespen as the Psb. lhl 'reckoner of lifetime: 91A [Boylan, Thoth p. 193 at Philae] he is also 13 , Renenet birth goddessis ,a E)I j who grants


great'Of lifespan VIII 148,1-2 ; 'and, to the followers of the king IV,

44,5-6 ; IV 196,9 11191,7[Broekhuis. Renenwetetp. 147

who reckons the king's life to be eternal and everlas6g

bmzier Wb 1223 (13-16) Pyr DG 69,4 JJ-2

Cr.22a CED 15 ; KH 15furnace oven , From the depictionsof the 'h at Edfu and in earlier OK scenes 'h was a rectangularor square the in madeof stoneor metal,with an oval depression the centre,which'stoodupona perhaps container, stand. Redhot charcoal could be-placed uponthis andmeatwasoffereduponit as a burnt offering or incenseburnt here [Sauneron, MDAIK 16 p276 n.g -,Mquier, BIFAO 19 p.88-901.Ile ritual of, W-'t 'Settingup the brazieedates from at least the OK whereit was a feastfor the dead.By the,

time the Ramesseurn DramaticPapyrus symbolicof the destruction waswritten the ritual had become of enemies[Sethe,Unt. X p.142] and in GR templesthis is the sole significanceof the ritual [c.f Junker,Giza V p.94 ff. tomb of Seneb; also Das Brandopferim Totenkult Misc.Greg.p. 109-117 , alsoBrandopferin ZAS 48,1910 p.721. I-

, 323

At Edfu the ritual is mainly performed before lioness goddesseswho have an affinity with consuming 11W 158,11-18 Mentyt IV 273,4-18 Mehit/Sakhmet Qfire: Tefnut IV 116,4-16 ;V 302,9-18 ; ; 4 Tj 0 Q-* -,Isis-Hededet 1490,5-11 ; 1182,15-83,6 ; Nekhbet VII 301,2-15 0

and Mehit and Nephthys 1313,10-19, also once Horus Behdet VIII 169,5-16. The gods receive the meat portions (from cattle, gazellesetc.) and in return grant that the enemiesof the king will fall before him, slain or burnt by the all consuming fire of the goddesses.The scenesshow the king, normally wearing the hmhmty crown, with his hands held down towards the brazier in whose flames bum meat portions. Two of the texts are beside gargoyles to stresstheir leonine and destructive power [IV 116,4 ff. and IV 273,4 pl. 92 also see pl. 35 c 2nd reg pl. 40 4th reg. and pl. 680] The table is depicted thus , vThe spellin* of 'h in the texts, is consistently. 13 g with either, + or as determinatives

Elsewhere in the temple texts make it clear that once animals have been slaughteredtheir meat is put onto the fire : meat of bulls is in 04 on wrun'90 r7 upon 0 04 'I 111VII 261,13-13 ; VII 316,6-7 ; the necks of ro-geeseare IV 46,11 cattle and gazelles make their places

VII 124.15 cattle sqn 1565.4.

The 1h can be associatedwith certain gods : bum meat on bums enemies of Maat 11 t7 41is

of Mentyt 1314,18-19


on her brazier 1252,14 ; in the Ijnt-i3bt

pehu the ceremony of

4-ILC-I the sanctuary of the god here IV 28,6 ; the foe are burnt on'u 0 performed outside ]Vr imy %nwt of this god YI 156,1

of the Lady of the Two Lands VI 90,2. The protection spells mention an VI 49,13 and in a meat offering, the hearts of the foe are put on , -0

This term also appearson an amulet against the evil eye and indicates the fiery nature of this aspectof Horus [Schott, 2AS 67,1931 p. 108-91. In the ritual one text specifies 'bending the right hand tr T0 '158,15 though usually the

king usesboth hands,and in this instancehe holds the brFsceptrein his left hand [pl. 116 2nd reg]. A text for the meat offering has Re-Harakhty giving to the king smsw 21 0 J6P j 478,12-13.. in the

Apart from meat incense could be burnt upon the 'h : 'ntyw and mn-wr upon .0 temple IV 3,5.

to lift up , raise up


Wb 1224 (2-6) , NK DG70, ItOhangup &jLt

Cr. 88b; CED50; KH53 to hang This verb is used from the NK onwards [c EFCD 431 and its- commonest use is in the phrase 't pt 'raise up the sky' which was used as an epithet of Ptah, in his aspect of Shu, son of Re. The phrase shows his role as the creator god who separatedearth from heavenby raising up the sky. The earliest example of this is from the NK on an offering basin [Anthes, Mit Rahineh (1956) Fig. 5 B 31 ; also Ptah Hymn VIH 2 'O-'j Ij he is, 2 'F robe offering 0 [Kurth Statzen p. 102-31. At Edfu the phrase is applied to Ptah :a 1157,2 [for Ptah as creator see : Sandman-Holmberg,Ptah p.31 ff. ],,

but it can be slightly modified to fit the nature of Horus Behdet He is the creator at Edfu and this is .
the nuance of 'h-pt


but he is 'h-pt n b3. f 'He who raise the sky for his ba!


50,34 (building the temple)

VII 134,14(h); . SokarOsiris'is 17 (incenseand libation) 181,17. once

13, o


0 shm.f 1376,12 ; Re Horakhtytoo C7_8 V 'Mere is also a festival of


n b3.f grg Un co T169,5 to makehis ba high 1500,9


[c f. LA 11177n.1141. nwt n it. f 111238,12 brt

C7 Horus a 413 The verb can take other objects : X$ aTo

lf 103) for the divine beetle 111237.16 alliteration of ', Horus *,

to Re carrying Osiris H 26,12.

'3yt nt 'py 111264,15-16 ;

The act of lifting

hands of the two sisters

OT 130

is the 'work! of Shu 1125,14 though the sky can I also be raised on the , 1162,4.

As Kurth notes however [StUtzen'p. 144] there are no scenes with the title 'b-pt for this is the actual act of separation, of creation, while the tw3-pt 'supporting heav en' is the guara I nte of its continuation and thus more lasting.

to fly -,

Wb 1225 (7-11)'MK This first occursin SinuheR 21 in the form I-j 0.4; W which describesthe king as a falcon, ,

'flyine with his retinue.It is thususedto describe identicalto the later birds flying and is semantically
form 1h In GR texts 'JI is written 'h and is used of Horus Behdet as a falcon or ba-bird, or as the V . %F


winged beetleand disk. It is usedin alliteration of

a priest in procession says,Iq r 13tkcla 13t 'qQ

fly Apopisis dcad'1543,10. IPP'd'Enter your sanctuary, in heaven,

direct object : 0 'y"5-51 hrt he flies the sky in the morning 1 552,2-3 With (b 13yt 111187,5-6 ;W 00 tkk hr '3Lf VI 332,16. 1py VO 14G

With prepositions:
M VO %L-prt IV 10 11 -



hrt 1255,9

q; o-

n b3.k,.... m 3ht v

Obt H 11,16.
m-lLnw: JqORG; Om. f = J373 Nwt 1 514,3

7 disk -, j qs; ---=- 3bt 111236,10 : niwt. f 122,12. the ; r: cm __j qEW dnhwy 'flying of her wings, goesto the God'sLand!VI by Noun 'flying': the uraeus, 0 qq V. 3, 302,9-10.


wings Wb1225(12) Late

fromtheverb'h 'to fly' andwhichWb notes a A nounderived only in a NK papyrus whichcontains W j v q, C7 G;

list of amulets.Oneof theseis describes amulet the C= 4%

Iuraeus - she opens her wings'. which_

ZAS 45,1908 p.14-21, especiallyp.18 n35 andTf.2]. [Capart, 'You are the Lord of

U 1; The word also occursat Edfu in the Westernnomeof Horus : ntk wn 0 g 23,10 Possiblyin the hnt-i3btt nomehe is nb 011:: who openshis wings' IV one the wing (or of Flight/flying) IV 33,11.

to quench slake . Wb 1224 (15-16) Pyr. The underlyingmeaningof ' bm is 'to stop' or to negate something, that fire or thirst is 'annulle& so . in this respectit may come from the sameroot as ibm 'to annul' (Wb 1.125,13)and b rn 'not and know'and ibm in ibm-wrw. The root then would be an negatorybm. The verb is usedat Edfu, as in Wb, of slakingthirst : the king in a libation text 11260,18 beeris brewedto ; god' nd3 with choiceportions of the foe 1551,17.
13 Q)

'slakesthe thirst of

nd3 'slakethirst! IV 45,9 ; also



river bank Wb 1225 - seeihm t Wb 1125 (17) V

B The original spelling of the word is ihmt, as in Pyr. 279 and Peasant F, 6. In GR texts it is W -J 1583,2-34, 'hm andmay havebeenpronounced : theNile risesover, 0 thus written as harpooner hereto throw his weaponat the hippopotamus the king says,lh'. kwi hr the stood It' to IV hippopotamus 213,8, andin theMyth, theking is compared Haroerisr andthrow at the VI 77,2.


unguent Wb 1224 (20) GR

Wb records this only at Edfu and it is usually found in the phrase Ihm-sb3qt. It most often appears

in the md and cloth offering texts,. so it seems to be a funerary preparation and is associated with

iht-nhh 0..
iht-nhh ..

: 'Take iht. nhh .. It

C: Arp 1 0,. .. -%-11dy// %

r hts &A
r nLri as the work of the two sisters 1376,4-5

1 188,2 ;

; 'Your body is

glorious crio -Pj



idmi h'w. nLr. k 164,1 ;I anoint his body with -J x_-=

SM 1178,15-16. All of these are translated by Cauville 'the oil which makes sound the cloth!

(of whatever kind) [Cauville, Osiris p.62 n.7 and p.85 n. I]. There is also a damagedmd offering, 'Take CIO4 13. IN
-Cr -

140,10-11' and the term also occursat Dendera 11137,11-12r-111 ,D


In onemd text the substance appears slightly differently as of Re! 146,2-3.

of the Eye

into The unguentmay havebeenusedto fix mummybandages positionand thus it waspouredover The origins of the term are unknown,but it may be the mummy 'makingwhole' the cloth wrappings. connected with theverb 'hm 'to slake. %P


twigs , leaves or smallbranches , Wb 1226 (12-13) Med. Wb Drog. 108-9

The Wb Med. suggests 'Jim are probablysmall branches with leavesstill attachedwhich were that In usedin medicaltextsin treatments. Magical texts too they could be usedfor protectivepurposes.


Originally written 'Jim but at Edfu it is 'hmw As the creator god, Horus 'makes fresh/green

%it all the branches the field 'III nb n of

O Ut is 169,4 ; the wind blows and wbg 'makesbranches bloom' 111 145,11: the Field of I
V0 t Ancestors is brought with r-III

'which refreshthe nosewith their scent' 111102,5. The ILr prt nb

hmw also hold the seedsof plants : the Nile brings plants ircluding v imy. sn 1583,6 ; the god 'makes fruit and -ahr prt nb VI 225,15-16. green Thewordalsooccurs Dendera Philae. at and


cult imageof godor a falcon Wb 1225 (15) to 226 (5) DG 70,8 f falcon &ZLOM eagle,

,3 KH 17 Cr.25a; CED 18;

This refersto concreteimagesof godsfrom the MK andwas extended includereliefs in the Late to Period.It may be relatedto sbrn (image)> sYniandGardinersuggested it camefrom lin > 'Jim that which meant'toseize'andcouldthusbeappliedto animalsof prey,suchas crocodiles falconsWE or 11,1957p.51 n.8 ; GNS p.110 I or dangerous animalsin religious texts 1098andCT VII 967 [Horming,Mensch Bild, 1967p.128). als
At Edfu, 'hni applies to the falcon image of Horus kept in the temple and generally to Horus in falcon form. This aspect of god, as a falcon is sometimes shown as a munimiforin falcon and is

j ik"



known from early times [the gold falcon head from Hieraconpolis was thought to come from such a cult image, seereconstruction in B.Adams, Hicrakonpolis H pl. 471. 'T Ypsand refers to Horus Belidet as the sia falcon"O: In the singular the word was often qualified by

ps, sharp of claws V 152,6


o, ips VIII 107,11 ; as Horus Behdet', : c3--'* co Xps 11187,11

Xps he divides the land with his wings IV-46,10 ; he is jm3-1 7rA 9ps rn Hr-ww 1234,17-; .C It can also be

%' who- opens his wings 1412,12 ps

slaying foes 1165,15-16 and unqualified it can refer to the great secret Q C7 IV 10,11 ; the bik falcon flying in heavenv=-j

form of Horus, flying in the sky VI 249,16 or the

is the form in which Horus comes to rest upon the temple IV 18,3

In the plural, Tmw are all the forms of Horus as a falcon in the temple and he takes care, 'to hide his


corpse, his sbmw forms and

in the crypt! V 8,6 ; he watches over

UO. S'_

engravedon the temples walls 118 (43) and he makes secretthe shrines containing --2 r_-

-SS- I V-

0a, X* 57,19.Horusmanufactures 1553,4- they areengraved shrinesUO ; on andshmw II%41V 1110,2-,they are painted o Wo,
fcultimages': E7 ec--Jk', ' o 1113,10;
13 r_-

IV 17,14. Horus protects the sanctuarieswith these

IV 55,9 ; 'c=3 c_--


VI 92,9 and they are


the images in the irtry

'l I Tk

IV 17,1. Horus made the earth for 6,11


118 :2* E 153.16 and C3

U,, food from him VI 349.7or areprovisioned their houses Oin receive

IV 42,12.


synonym of Maat

U0 The goddesscan be referred to as 'ILm in Maat texts: I bring you C_Maatbeforeyou 43,7 saysthe king ; n27,3-4 I present -SPerhaps general termfor an imageof ? a *bat.

A m3't. k wrt 'I

A pw n.k she is your image!.

p3-'hm. 'nb

the living image

This combinesthe king and Horusinto one form, for Horus is the IlLm 'cult image and the living imageof Horus is the king In the Litany to Sakhmet,the king is c1l passimin VI Z'O-. VO J in the invocation to the year also a= 263,15-269.12; VI 93-99 and elsewherein , EIVO C7 invocationsto gods: 'he stands VI 92,15;0 uponthe serekh c-as the ba of Re stands uponhis throneVIII 109,15.


to fly

Wb 1225 (2) Late, GR The earliestexampleon the Metternichstelaseems be genuinely'brn andnot just Ih 'to fly'plus to m, though this may still be the root of the verb : s13m bik 0--i a falcon flies in heaven 225/6and also line pt the Sia as a p.116].

Xwt 'youflyasashadow[ZAS45,

VO T At Edfu the word occurs in similar phrases: the noble falcon 411.2.

bik 'flies as the falcon' 1



to go Wb 1225 (3) GR

Wb has only one example: Horus receives his house and says,


hwt-nlr and I walk in

the temple'II 63,5.Probablya derivationfrom 'bm to fly'with a new determinative.


to shut Wb 1226 (14) BD, Magic

The word appearsfirst in the Coffm Texts : CT Il 382a

rk irt. k 'Close your eye'; CT

V 369g and also DD 113.16[FECT I p.139n.111.A sun hymn in the tomb of Imiseba[TT 65] has the spelling. 'men v-qjb4EB. shut (probably= sleep)at his settingin the west'.The verb is also

U %% -J found at Edfu : Horus 'opens his eye and and makes day , e j3a. ~., sw he closes it and makes nighe Y--


here in parallel to wn it is clearly 'to shut' as also in : wn irty. f bpr hrw ,r-J Ei3; OTr ,

bpr gr IV 323,8. CA>


audience chamber Wb 1226 (16) - 227 (2) MK FCD 48

This term applies to part of the Residenceand by extension to a part or the whole of the temple as the Residence of god. At Edfu : in a brick making text, Horus gives to the king

Wj e

complete as his work, equipped with all things 1132,11 ; adoring Mesen. Horus gives Vj?. c-3 chamber of the throne to the king 193,6.

call , summon
Wb 1227 (4-15) Lit. MK DG 71,5 Cr.533a; CED 231 ; KH 296 WN The verb canbe usedwith direct objector with theprepositionn. At Edfu it hasthe meaning 'recite' Cel lb 'readout' : or n r3w n W-ibt in p3 d ind3t-nir Reading the spells of setting out
&7 dw3

the offering by the scribe of the divine booV V 131.7 and this text continues hr-b3t in and a .... .9 J

'reciting the adoration of go-T V 132,5 Here it is analogous . -


Yd. to


fir wood Abiescilica

Wb 1228 (1-5) OK LA 111264-6 DG 71,4

At Edfu the main use of the wood is for making the door leaves of the temple and its shrines. In the 17 temple descriptions '3wy ra Q 'J' from the terraces IV 13,3 worked

V 4,3 Q Cr SLt VII 19,9-10 mY nbd nWn with copper IV 19,12 CM '- "r-j 11 VII 19,7 As Gardiner suggestedI was also the flagpoles at the front of the temple are . .m usedas a general word for fir trees and at this period it was usedconventionally rather than realistically though there are no actual doors from Edfu to analysetheir wood [AEO I p.8 n. 11. Also sec, mr4t-'X and Wn-'9.


many , numerous Wb 1228 (8-26) OK DG 72,3 Cr. 22b ; CED 15 ; KH 16 4NA I

At Edfu, used as in Wb, both as an adjective and verb. In epithets: 4EN C:3 Its is Horus IV 57,5 SRI. &51 got 11, VI 275,5 and in the phrase%nbt 193 48.6; VI 111,7 and 'V 'VI

inm the multi coloured,falcon 112,2. Adjective : dbw much milk. c8*\

IV 15,5 ; rnpwt

'93 IV 19,2 amd also mbn

IV 19,2

With a verb : when geeseare brought to the temple c9tnecks IV 47,2.


there is much wringing of

With wr : Horus is Lord of hb-sd

very manyHeb SedsV 5,1.


largeamountWb 1229 (14)

In the phrasemi-'93 'as most of....: : everyoneis a happymi lot

1105,13 ; presenting'a


greatoffering, with breadandbeermi --




Wb 1229 (14) NK , GR

The word is used from the 18th Dynasty and also appear as T [TT 50 Mem.Mss. V pl. 3,23 Wb I , 229 (13) and '9 [Wb 1.230,11 and more consistently as r= in texts

[Amenemope 14,8] It is a name for some part of the neck and Lefebvre suggestedit was the larynx and thus connected with the verb Vto call' as the throat makes the sound of speech.The reduplicated form, according to Lacau, is appropriate for langage enfantin' [Lefebvre, Tableau p.22-23 ; Lacau 170 and 172 p.671.The term is not found in medical texts, so is not a technical term, but it does continue in use in GR texts. At Edfu, as with other words for'diroae. it is used in a Maat text where Maat is

42N 4.1

your throat which drives away your hunger/thirst,you cat and drink with if IV

257,15-16 Whateverthe origins of the term,by this time is is simply a variantfor 'throaf, asalsoat . " 03'fl Dendera CD 11146,10-12 ': Cl: 16 ja 4 However also at Dendera, Hathor as the southern chantress is called nwt oo -j a. mistressof .r-j C3S3 CL
the throat' CD 11150,4and the connection between the sound produced by the throat and this word

that suggests it is 'larynx.

In earlier texts: P.Berlin 3162 there is a list of functions of parts of the body : ears hear eyes see, , tongue speaks and lips say 1-j rm CM N-,:; m the throat breathes ? [OLZ 17 1914 p. 150 2nd ,

epithets-SrA, sectionline 5a mortuarytext for a womanMwt. mntyl alsoNav.7b 172,18-19 f rv, t en thoughcited as an exampleis in fact '3 130t and thus not this word' t.. -a,
Amenemope .'q. 14,8 , -i 2=3 c=3

-J II , -j c=3 cL. 5,8 Ch.BeatL VIII obs. has c=3

wind pipe with

Jj-j ,j tongue,eyes' [Gardiner,HPBM 3rd p.731andvs. VII 3,4 c= c=

a demondoesnot standin

the throat [op.cit. p.63 and review by Blackman in JEA 22,1936 p. 105 'gullet]. Only used in religiousor magicaltexts.



to enter DG 7295 L --5 SCr. 579b; CED 227; KH 290 to enterheart, be content wK Wb 1230 (3) to 232 (9) Old


At Edfu 'q is usedas in Wb.

With direct object :a st-nfrt .8 V 4,1 St-R' IV 10,11 ; -a, --2n vf niwt. f IV 14,2; st-wnp IV 50,15

B3JLtt V 8,2


IV 5,11 and in

alliteration With mm

of ':

-M6 V-

'3ytJ IV 9,3. m

feet enter Balance of the Two lands 111132,1; -gsA mh3t-t3wy


3ht IV 51,14 ;

the harpoon enters the hide VI 73.4 ; 1145,6 ; the flood 'q m

t3'enters the earth' to make the fields grow 11250,10-,H 253,10-11. With r With Dr : With br : 00 Pp. wt-njr 1113,8 .

'90t 1569.8. IV 53,2.

'Entering the temple' is the title of a rite at Edfu connectedwith kingship rituals. On a smaller scale,' the on either side of the exterior of the sanctuarywe, 'q r bw dsr 'entering the sacredplace' texts: 154,3-13 and pl. 16 167,3-13 and pl. 17. 'Me king here is a priest, the son of

Thoth and in return for his ministrations he receives his inheritance in Egypt and the guaranteeof the' kingship. The first scene shows the king with the Red crown and in the second he wears the White crown, so together they are the whole kingship. The king standswith both hands lowered before the god. On the same wall is I\ --:: the king greets the god and receives fear and r pr-nlrw where

Vyt 168,8-15. Further entry rituals are concerned with the kingship, for by his right'to enter' the temple and the sanctuary the king is shown as the legitimate heir of ihe gods. In the Hall of offerings! he performs --=\= tt& 'Entering backwards and giving out the offerings, pacifying the gods with'

-1; their fragrance' I 501,16-502.6.7bis is in fact Episode 35 of the Ritual of the Royal Ancestors too ad in return Harsomthus gives the king lands in obeisance, a loyal Egypt and defeated foes. The scene shows the king going backwards to perform the reversion of offerings in the Hall of Offerings [c C Fairman, Kingship p. 103-3 and David, Abydos p. 155-6, p. 161 and Guide to'Abydos p.85 it is one of the concluding scenes in the Daily Ritual ; Cauville Essai p.97 n. 1 for 'q-m-hm. ]. 7be scene in , pl. 35b (4th reg.) shows the king wearing a White crown and holding the libation vessel

Most important the.king has pr m It'corne from the palace and 46

r wj-ujr 'tutus, the"

NI'MA-2AIAl (pIAM temPle

the, opWmg thedoors ihetemplebi of of

ft lDdftA)6n% Nv'h'D ZodNvIth for Peeks vi ahymn.Thecontrast pr andq is important pr ns, m. of ,


pr. f r .4 -P

r bwt-nLr 'the king leaves his house to enter the temple' VI 241,8 and it can be enters the mouth of Nut and pr m ih-ty

interpreted as analogous to birth for the sun child r-j bj .

comes forth from her thighs' 1295,1 and the act of birth is coming from the womb and entering the world. In a sensethis could symbolise the re-birth every day of the king. The antonyms for 'coming out and going in' are expressedas AN [Wb and Gutbub, Textes

p. 159] which combine with bs to suggest the king is led by the gods to come forth and enter the temple. This occurs in two texts as a bridge between the pr-m-'# and pd-dr ceremonies:A &1? r wt-njr 1130.7-17 pl.40d the king is led by Hathor &A; 'q r bwt-nir 111329,16 pl. 58 led

by Harsomthus Or having left the palace the king .

goes to perform the daily ritual in the temple Dr kM to enter

nsw r bwt-nir VI 244,17 and the Ennead.take the king to Mesen IUL before his ka IV 53,3 and 8. -A

1104,5 pl. 253 shows all the temple gods taking the king ,

to sm3 '3bt for his father 1105,11 In all cases the purity of the king and his kingly qualities are . stressed. The signs A. may read pr-'q or bs which may be rather 'to lead out and in' which comprises a -A for Nekhbet says, -/I b. complete action, e dQ r 'ht 1104,18 and Montu r 'ht 1105,4.

The inundation is also described as 'q pr 'one who enters and leaves' (the soil): 1325,17 11257,7 ;1 106,2 - emphasising the coming and going of the flood on a regular annual basis [Van der Plas, Crue p.67-681.


'shewho enters!,,, Wb 1232 (14) GR


A MK term 'qt means'femaleservant![FCD 50], that is 'one who enters(to serve)' At Effu and . Denderait is a female personificationof lqm'provisions'.In offering texts, the king is s3h n-j4 s3 Npy IV 233,14; or heir of the processions king brings


born of Menketand son of SekhetIV 382,11 In offering . carryingbreadandprovisionsIV 45,2 ; and also .4

food offering whose title is lost, is made to .A ,

1364,9.In these

it it, cases is not a title of Hathor,thoughat Dendera is morelikely that shewould be identified as a providerof food as the 'qt is at Edfu (c f. D Il 176,12 D VIII 104,12).


tq. s

nameof a festival

Ibis appears in the temple descriptions, where the length of time between the stretching of the cord - `is thus the festival for the dedication of the temple'r- 'ZO7 and 'festival of entering ie is recorded. It VII 7,8 ; '-4- '31--' IV 9,3.


becorrect,exact Wb 1233 (5-15) MK

in Usesasdescribed Wb. 9q3is a word of Maatfor it canindicate'balance a personal of as virtueandcanbe 'straightness! a path or speech At Edfu, it is mostoftenusedin epithets the Idng of . 'q3-ib the king has this title in a priestly role, for he needs preciseand accurate mind to read the a to ensure correctritual procedure sn-t3 DII '& 14 VII 193,5 the texts and recite them correctly : dw3-nLr Sh 1-10 1496,14; VII 155,10; wine or beertext a 129,10 1142,2 ; Nfaattexts'2

V 334,3 he is'-; -

1508,7.Whenthe king goesbeforethe gods

+ Dr nirw 11115.9 It is also given to the king as a gift from the gods : ms p3' . _, )) C43 VI 283,6 is given IV 245,8-9 mnw the king a Maat ritual, the king is and .A -6'& 1 11 1522,3 ' In thesecases lq3-ib is paralleledby similar gifts. In the purification given the of the king by Thoth and Horusthe q3 can also be usedas an adjective: ib A5 qaII a r-3 heart(of the king) is 'straight!V 37,5. precisein its placeV 57,8 and it is also

ti '-J 11 1368.1. 115,3 usedin parallel with the phrasehLtph3 in beerofferings: V)a 'J2: 711 VIII 54,9 [Otto, GuM 77-78and 113-1151. Hathorcanalsobe described as pp. Iq3-r3 held by the king in rituals : dw3-St-wrt .-J- <> 1,67 1 Il 34,5. IV

UQ 'q3-rdwy 'exactof feet", held by the king in rituals wherehe is closeto the god :, 208,3 ; 111182,16 171,1; ;V .4 -Aff VI 181,7'; 111132,1 IV 344,11

IV 356,12[Ibrahim,Kingshippp.149-501. 'q3-dd held by king in rituals : dw3. nL'r''

IV 358,1

14 1,15 VII 194,7.


m. fq3



Wb 1233 (18-20) MK is At Edfu this preposition usedto describe positionof the sunrelative to placesor thingson the the earth,for it is high in the sky over (thatis 'opposite)them. inManu. 51,61 The sungod appears 110 heavenTYC in n prJ 'oppositehis house'1284,9 HorusBehdetstands

t7 r' nb 'oppositeit (temple)every day' IV 2,5 ; IV- 1.3 Horus stands.a 11 3bt VIIII52,16; thesun, '5141 his moundin sight of his nomesVIII 92,17 opposite the horizon(temple)containinghis ba 1304,10; the Placeof Re is like heaven no cloudscomeC-. C: 7 oppositeit (that is over it) VII 41,3. V 30,5.

Note also in the festival,whenthe boat sails,'Nun quellshis-rage,Hapy is in joy'Q1'tdj

Fairmantranslates 'makinghimselfsmooth'[MSS note] andthustakesit as 'q3 the verb.It could this also mean'oppositehim' i.e. 'underhim'.


p. cf. Charpentier271and272, 182-3 '_ 9 0 br snsn

In a collar presentation Edfu, the king brings the collar iry-hb at

The 'it uniteswith ? andjoins your throat!111191,2. word 'q is difficult herebut there 'q be help from demotic.A demoticmedicaltext hasa substance , which the text editorsthought may be 'q 'rations'[Devauchelle Pezinin CdE 105,1978p.61] but also noteda word from the and could templeof Kawa --J to be a lump of incense resin [Kawa I p.10 (20) after,Vemus, or which seems

BI1-AO75,1975 p.53 (p)]. At Denderaa text for giving the mnw vesselto the temple,showsthe king offering a pot thus,-6 'grain mixed with T CD 111111,3 307] which contained%bw -'aO smn T ?D and [CD III-pl. so* so Noneof the Edfu textsfor this offering repeatthis line but they do imply CD IV 246,34 0 ID be in the vessel To go backto the original exampleIq maybe some that both grainand incense could . for kind of materialfor makingbeads collarsandpossible resinous substance a usedalso as incense . textsthe The only problemis that in both the Edfu andDendera bdt grain or incense. be miswritingsof ICY may

#qw Wb 1232 (16) to 233 (2) MK


DG 73,1

Y-6, Of-I K K LOI

Cr. 254a ; CED 120 ; KH 140 bread

The Wb and FCD 50 both suggestthatqw can be a general term forprovisionsand may derive from" in', thus be incomings or revenue.In the NK texts pdied by Helck [Materi 'nlVp. 4711 Iq'to come and also in the Deir el Medina ostraca 'qw is 'bread' and this view is strengthenedby the fact that the' Coptic OEIK CP derives from it [Janssen p.344-6]. It would seemreasonableto supposethat 'qw,

was always a word for breadon a daily basis. At Edfu it occurs as the produce of the 7th LE nome :j the king establishes (smn) c= ,4 IV 26,11 and in offering texts-

for the gods 1400,1S.


priests (who enter, or who have accessto the temple) Wb 1232 (12) GR

In fact a title known from a MK stela found at Edfu [Engelbach, ASAE 21,1921, p.65 = Cairo 46784,lines 6 and 7, found by sebakhin] recognised by Daressy anotherMK Edfu stela first and on [Cairo 46200] who suggested it referredto the men who were permittedto enter ('q) into the that temple[ASAE 17,1917 238-239].It wasusedin the 2nd IP [CairoJE 38917line 16, publishedby p. RXI-Sayed,BIFAO 79,1979 169and 184n.66] andinto theNK, whenit appears-outside Edfu at, p. . Karnak,and the greatwaabpriestsbearthe title: Z q dM! 11 --., [Cairo 42138 (e) in -

Cat. Gen.of LegrainseealsoLefebvre,GrandPr8tres 15and 1721 alsoAmenemhet high priestof ; p. , Amun underAmenhotep is II m33 rity ims Tnterer of heaven. seerof what is in ie

[Lefebvreop.cit. p.239].Later underTaharqa block statue from Karnakof a mancalledPesdimen has a a list of priestsincluding [B 61which Leclantsuggested not be simply may

the verb 'to enterbut an "ample of thetitle lqw [Enquftessacerdoces 50 n.(O)I. p. P.Ryl.Dem. 1119 col. 7.8 hasa title 'qiw which de Meulenaere to considered be 'a group of people, 1951 priestsor others,who wereallowedto enterthe temple' [de Meulenaere review in Bi.0r. V111/6 5, in p.220-223]and 'qw is a regularexpression demoticfor a priestly class[WIngstadt.Or.Suecana 1956p.17 ; Reymond, JEA 60,1974 p.194]. At Edfu the 'qw priestsare found in apun: one of the doorsof the temple"V-9*'the'qw

it it whencoming in the lake to perform their duties'VII 18,3 so in this sense hascomefull enter


circle , back to Edfu and its origins explained and the priests enter the temple having purified themselves in the sacredlake. It is also found at Dendera : MD 163 ;D VIII 151,7 so seems to be a predominantly Upper Egyptian priestly title.


First attested in the Coffin Texts : CT I 218b hw. Ln ir. tn -j-j . -u

Trotect ye the

lqnw-r 1'. Faulkner comments that 'qn is a stem of unknown meaning and this is also the name of ferryman [FECT I pA6 n. 14 and c f. Wb 1235 (1) ferryman]. He is found also in the Book the celestial of the Dead [Kees, G6ttinger Totenbuch Studien 1950p.85 1. Qa

1-i 'qn-Dr with boats: in the protectionspellss3 uu%! A text at Edfu connects

his protection

Schutzp.1051. is that of 'qn-Dr in theprow of thebarque Re VI 150,4-[afterJankuhn, of


to roast Wb 1173 (8) = 'wg Med.

In the medical texts 1wg is used to describe 'roasting' emmer [Wb Med. p. 136 Eb.54,13 ; 12,121and V-j ZX in BD Nav.Th 63 Al there is a spell entitled 'Spell of not :m bt 'being dehydrated (or

by fire'. This seemsto be the true nuanceof 'Wg 'to dry out by heat or dehydrate% roasted)

At Edfu

'g3 seems fit with this meaning. In a text for killing Apopis : '3pp -jjs to verb spelled ,a

r20 'dt 'A 'Apopis is burnt (roasted) III the sunboat is safe'. 138,1,wherethe specific meaning and s. . 'g3 hasbeendroppedin favourof the moregeneral'bum , roast'.Also on the morningof the New. of Year festival, it is saidof Sakhrfiet 111319,12.


talon Wb 1235 (10-12) D.20 GR

193 is derivedfrom the verb 3h! (Wb 119.6-12MK) meaning'to scratch'so an 'g3t is 'that which t to the claw of a lion or talon of a bird of prey. SomeNK textsalreadyspell 3W and scratches' refers r4= -zra e- '" his claw' Med.Habu 85. g3 as Ij (Wb 1235.8) the foesof Merneptah'fallunder AtEdfu, the claw canbelongto the lion gargoyle: s or who are ZCly it, q7 It, 'who extendtheir claws'IV 286,1-2

'sharpclawed'IV 286,4-5.


Both of these attributes are also applied to Horus the falcon : s U who rips apart the foe 1270,13 ; the falcon Of U its


VII 323,5 f Of

1306.17 as the 'tm -nIr

into the enemy allies "7 %' zr 0.9 extended of claw VRI 21,4 ; and Heter-Horus, his Wons are extended

A. e> 1I1186,11.Birdsingeneralaredescribedasdm-'g3sharpclawe&andthistermmayrefertoa


bird : the pehu of the 19th LE nome contains birds and here Horus is nb -- ZS particular speciesof rl&S-f A 'ZON'M IV 38,1, with the variant nb Li --5 0L and CO V 26,2. The Abydos nome pehu has birds IV 1793 1. Ile Fishing and Fowling god Wh',

'UU '3, which are s9

comes with hbsw birds which have tA

sharp claws 11194,2-3and in a papyrus and geese 1-y4tL zr lk q. with

offering, both Horus and Khent labet give the king for his daily ration' all birds

sharpclaws' IV 120,14and zS

V C; &

IV 120,17. 'Similarly Horusgivesthe qbh-Hr

em __j '; kq- -Y- IV 360,9andthese birds aie'cut up andburnt as offeringsin the temple containing IS



11,11. IV
canal in Mendes Wb 1236 (7) GR also called 'qnw Wb 1235 (2) GR Gauthier DG 1158 and 159

In the geographical texts of Edfu and Dendera the name of the Mendes nome canal is lg3-nt : u16 containing Upper Egyptian water, come from the cavern of hapy IV 34,12.13 ; in the parallel has Lower Egyptian water from the IL3t. idhw (Delta marshes) V 23.7.8 - thus 0 these texts give water sourcesfrom both directions . At Dendera the Mendesian nome brings , -J

Dum. GI 11123 IV 122 and

hasLower Egyptianwaterfrom the Delta marshes

I-VU ee%=:M I MD I 66a also. In the other setof geographical textsat Edfu the canalis alsocalled

334,6which confirmsthe text on the Mendesstela describingthe divine barquesailing on , Urk.II 37,10. All of these examples referto the samewaterway.



a substance to makekyphi used Wb 1236 (3) GR

'D ' F&qq *. In recipes 3 debenof a

0 are required11203,8 ZY

is also called nkpt

(accordingto a gloss) and 2 deben kite are needed11211,7 . It is also one of the sevenb3w .5


substances The tree determinative indicates that it is some kind of organic product - perhapsa resin or spice or fruit and the only referencesfrom Wb are at Edfu [c f. Charpentier p. 184-5 (278)


= 1gyo overturn , capsize Wb 1235 (9) NK = 'qw kenntern

In a text about Edfu, the Throne of Horus, the d3isw'who

are in it tr 0 01

'03w n tkn. f

'overturn the warships of the one who attacks it' VH 34,12. There is no word like this anywhere , but 0. -_j [Grimal'chaviree there is a word s'g3 'to capsize!(Wb IV 56,15) from the Piankhi Stela 54

] and it can also describethe action of divine power over humans[Sin.B 43, GardinerRT 32,1909 the 218 andGrimal,Pianchip.66-67n.160].In theEdfu example sign orderhasbeenmuddled, the p. in be erroneous the wholecouldbe a transitiveexampleof 'g3 , which is well attested the and may NK (and also in an AmasisinscriptionRT 22 p.2 line 17 1-i ly - 11w. their boat capsizes, sn

vesseland deprivedof a helmsman').It is howevermore likely to be a mistakefor p gs , as the 17. (q. couldbe very easilyconfused v.). p-sign 4" 1, -. I

limbs joints of meat , Wb 1160 (14-23)

51,10 <,Yli-5' DG eOldCoptic Hoy CED42; KH47. doesnot help

A general term for a part of the body of 'ajkrson or animal. Ile determinative (LQ

to be any more specific.It doesrefer to'whole limbs as opposed piecesof flesh (suchas 'w and to W) [Lefebvre.Tableau5 p.6ff]. it WL may also stand At Edfu the word is quite frequentbut unless is spelledout writings suchas O. for 4'w or W. suggesting the termswere to Some extentinterchangeable all had a general and that meaningby this time. It refersto humanbodies: Horusmakes of the kine pure from impurity 1471,13(and 9.4 &I'l of the king 1312,3 when his limbs IV 50,4.

*, gives axLa- Wb and makeswell censed) Tanenet are

of Im"J, the king comesfrom the palace, peoplesmell the fragrance ', iii

bodies especiallyin their completeform : Horus in the 5th LE nomeis twt It referringto god;O ,


-7mj'pr (Ltq- tm m irw. k m Itin IV 25,5 ; an epithet of Osiris is dmd-'t *.in the 9th LE nome :. 494
Q. 'Lis

'1; 711

332,9andof Sokaris also


1180,6 [Cauville,Osiris p.4 and 1811.

Or wdow VIII 169.11 ; at the slaughter of 'cut up

Limbs of animals : the altar is set up and *Z a. the bull the king gives -J 4`4. their limbs' IV 57,12.

-j of bulls 1496,6 ; at the slaying of a crocodile W,am QL

Usesof I are as for earlierperiods, exceptfor a text in the laboratory, where.

T -qj-

in a recipe

for mrtt oil, refers to the 'stem of the papyrus planf 111210,2(Wb 1160,3) so it can also be used of



chamber ---11.1Wb 1160 (1-13) MK DG 51,9

This word for a room or a house at Edfu applies to a room in the temple : the flood rises up and
C-3 7 d% purifies ---j '1:

every room from impurity 1325,18.


chamberof thecrew'= law court H.Fairman, ZAS 91 p.5

In Maat texts the divine judges are hnt SAm in '. -cj: i

VIII 122,15-16and here the personified god

hears the petitions of those who are and those who are not VIII 123,11. Also

I qq -JC3q C-3 juges decide Maat from isft in -c3, the

VI 311.7-8. VIII

In a crown of justification text, membersof the d3jJ3t decide disputesin;; -CJ3

120,8-9. These are all referencesto the divine tribunal, but the term with the word Ist in it is of suggestive workmeA villagesandpossiblyDeir el Medina. I

to sieve press out ,

I Wb 1236 (13) to 237 (4) OK [Ti Hall Il west] [for the processsee: Monta,

Tle oldest forms of this word write it as

Scenes la vie p.2491but by later textsit is written 'th 7te verb derivesfrom the original form itb de . W 'to pull, to draw out' (Wb 1148,25)but.'th is more specifically the action of pressingthe beermash V


through a sieve in order to obtain beer without too many particles in it, so it is best treated as 'to sieve' orto strain' [FCD 51, Helck, Bier pp. 31,36 to brew]. Tbough 'this one technical processit 0 brewing. A beer offering text at Edfu has beer'-: -=>-' can refer to the whole processof strained by

0 (a beer goddess), with her own hands' 1467,4 ; also the qbbw water of the Nile is -e-i her majesty A, J n 3st m 'wys ds. s 'is squeezedout by Isis with her own hands ' 1377,1. The butler of

Re a

-.- wdb.f n.k irp 'he hasstrainedout,water and offers wine! IV 45,6 ; in a hrw-' v-- -0 dr nd3 'it is strained(that is brewed)to removethirst' II r

4j 'T-

text, the waterandgrapemixture 70,16.

The sign %-j mayalsoreadW 'to tie up in a bundle!(e.g. VII 226,8)andis also the determinative here.The bag in the sign is usedto but ' for h3y 'to measure (VI 162,12), this doesnot fit the sense liquid. Dernotichasa nounIth Ireweewhich derivesfrom this word [de of strainsmallerquantities , it d6motique 125,210,225] and Westendorfcompares with a Coptic Cautionnements Cenival, pp. W T term (B) KH 298 ; Vycichl, DELC p.252b.


piecesof fat Wb 1239 (8-16) OK (17) put onfire D. 18 DG 74,3 Y

Cr.531 b; CED 230; KH 295 WT of A word for the fat of butchered animalsfrom the earliestscenes butcheryand usedthroughout [LA 11204-5,Fett]. At Edfu the Idt is found in the ritual rdi 'dt Dr ht "putting fat Egyptian texts by foesbeingutterly annihilated burning fire'. wherethe piecesof fat symbolise defeated the uponthe exist that will in the fire. At Edfu : HorusBehdetpromises enemies -fall on the block and their names ZV no more X=rburningof foes )=:, QL1478,6-13; it the 146,542 ; Re Harakhtypromises 1489,13-490,3 the who againpromises

is also a mortuaryritual performedfor Osiris rdit destruction foes . Here of

IL comesfrom animalsof the desertand is contrasted with mrht n

'grease geese', it would seemto be animalfat in general1489,16-17. Ilese scenes showthe so of r3 king with his handsdown over a tableor altar with piecesof meatand animal flesh on it [pl.35b, 3rd placessuchas the Hall of ; 35c, 2nd reg. and 119 5th reg.] and they are situatedin appropriate reg. Offeringsand Court.Othertextsconcerned with settingup the altar can specifyputting fat on'the fire,


' too : Q-

his fat go*to the m3wA pieces of e VI 89,11 and the

When Seth is hacked to pieces

71 oil (L

the hippopotamusare given to the snakesV 85.9 . It is possible these were the cuts of an of v

animal which were not to be eaten.


be complete Wb 1237 (11) to 238 (12) be safe MK GR make whole

Id is 'safe! or 'whole' in the sensethat something is complete and sound It is not a synonym of twt . or tm but is complementary to wA3 and 'nh, where they all refer to the physical wholeness of a body %0 and a healthy state. The eyes of Horus are 'safe! in their places The flesh of the god 1495.7 162,6 1145,8

c&2L 'Your flesh is sound' 1 61A and Anubis ensuresthat %=: `. 04'

1171,15 ; sacredrelics in the nomes are ; c=:r- 'and not violated'I 333,1 The crook offered to the . , 10 1480.8 (c f. the name of the nome Oq3-'Il 13th LE). Id is also used in king is described as , puns on the word for the sun boat (m)1ndt: 13pp m 'ddt safe' (under '3pp). 7be sun boat goes to the west rn 'dApopis is slain and the sun boat is

1115,14 and when it sets 'py)c: DL

13t m w'b '3pp m Id 13 'the winged disk is safe, the sanctuary pure and Apopis is slain' 1345,11. At the festival of Behdet the king is likened to the sun when 'q. f niwLf in safety'IV 14.2. The verb implies in the case of the sun that it is the moment when the sun sets, when it is a perfect sphere in the sky . Ibis is the ultimate example of the state of implies this perfection. and in decribing flesh in this way it lie enters his city

to bum , to roast Wb 1239 (15) GR' Wb hasonly two references this verbwhich appears the sametext at both Edfu andDendera At in for . Edfu in an offering procession: portions of foes are cut up-by the king Irt-Hr 'dt VW

im. sn in ir ntr tit,-n6d 'the eye of Horus is safe and bums the limbs of them to make perfect the tit-nbd '1565,14 ; at Denderaalso sk III (the two signsare different) MD_ 74d.


to cut to pieces, slaughter Wb 1238 (17-22) MK The verb canbe usedof hackingup thegroundor hackingup fleshof enemies it is this latteruse and which is mostcommonat Edfu . It is often usedwherethe objectof the verb alliteratesthe ': Horus ;='3mw 1370,7 ; br IR-` 4 71 IV 343,13-14;'A it I IV 13,10; and especially'q '3t. k

'h '3t '3pp

1 543,10 (in the priestly procession). f snit 'he has6g the foudations n.

It is alsousedof 'digging'groundor similar : the king -BPG; BLof the templedownto NuW123,6.

1C=r-iLr-JIt is also used,apparently,with w3w3 in the templedescription for rope' VII 8.8 . This mustbe a mistakein the text composition,

'settingout the

neverhasthis use- theremay

be a copyistmistakeby the original scribefrom the hieraticas an error for w'


slaughter, massacre Wb 1239 (14) MK

At Edfu 'dt is most often found in the phrasem -Idt 'slain' : enemiesof the eye m 75,3 V 186,13; alliteration of xZ I13pp I IT 5,10 ;andzV

175,14-15; '3pp 13t As 'dt '3 : your foes

VII 200,13-14. 177,16 ; Il 74,8. of thosewho are disloyal 169,1 the butcherhr
do %=^ I

As the object of ir 'makea massacre': <a> <zs*

cL 111178,11-12 his heartis happyr 29=L ; W

V 144,3

q44 c> cir,

hftyw. f VIII 77.14-.Hathorsays,'I receive m 10 you havedoneto Apopis'IV 306,3. 4W As object of s'3 'to increaseslaughtee: s13.1xo=y.0

n '3pp the slaughter which

of thosewho are disloyal V 152a ; s'3.i

VII 310,2. X=C m dns 1131,11.

4= -

After wd : Horus

In a slaying Apopis text, Horus unites with heaven hy. f v

hftyw. f and raisesup the U

[MSS notes]. of m4cre of his foes'VI 333,3.Fairmanreadsthis asa speRing 'dt 'massacre!


'dt occurs frequently at Edfu and is usually used with an eye to alliteration.



Wb doesnot recordthis word,but thereareexamples Edfu where'd canbe translated Icnife : in as at killing a turtle, the king says,' srwjjJ m qswJ 'I make strong your knife in his,.

bones'll 74,7.It canhardlybe 'massacre' here. Possiblyalsoin killing Apopis: 'I give foeskilled by your knife and hostilesfallen at 'Iv"' C=L 4=b

o c=;

Iyour blades'7 111138,10-11. with As

otherpairsof verbsor nounsof slaughter knives,the 'dt knife derivesfrom 'dt 'massacre. and


edge,margin Wb 1239 (6) MK

is At Edfu '11t a termfor kindsof landsor fieldswhicharecovered theinundation usedto grow by and In Sin. B9 it is land at the edgeor marginof the cultivation "', crops. -s [GNS p.9 spelling

variations],but thereis nothingin theEdfu textsto confirm that the word wasstill usedwith precisely
this meaning. In the texts : Hapy at his time makes bloom 471,3 ; 1484,15 and in alliteration 'rty-flood Or Yrnfields with his outpouring I 'overflows your land' 1582,12. So far it

is merely a general term for land which was flooded. In the pehu of the Ity nome, the god is called
X=C v IV 29,5 In the Myth of Horus he is 'a man of 8 cubits standing on . n- i It . , CP-

is a hill overlooking the river or perhaps the river bank . is almost a parallel to this in a hippopotamus slaying where the king says 'I stand upon C7 There o It, and throw (the harpoon)' IV 213,8. This implies the 'dt does overlook the river and is a

bank of 20 cubits' VI 216,10. Here the It

convenient waiting place for huntersand harpooners. An Edfu text also notes that the flood '(goes upon) 3s: 0 k--. III 1322,7-8 - CD 158,5

where 'dt seems to be a word meaning 'edge' of a particular type of land [c f. FCD 51

edge of cultivated land] . Demotic has a word 'd 'side, barX [DG 74.4

which in

measurements boundariesmay be used to denote 'sides' of areasof land (marked by a small of embankment) ratherthana shore[Nims, JEA 33,1947 p.921.


to perceive


Wb 1238 (14) MK The verb 'nd is alreadywritten as 'd by Admon. 12,2 51- 1 he examples had collectedfrom the MK texts: BM 574 (Gebelein) j 'in knowledge [GAS 81]. of irw. f iwn.f 'his andGardinerlisted the fairly rare bit perceivequality ; BM 1372

At Edfu the verb is also found and Horus Behdetis given the epithet form andcolourarenot perceived'I340,4.

The verb can alsohavespecificareas perception With an ear determinative can mean'to hear' it of . (Wb 1238,15): Isis says 'I seeyour forms x=:r-M

d3isw I hearyour words'l 483,11; ==c


.. 1-

it I snsw. I haveheardyour songs'Il 64.1.With a nosedeterminative, mews 'to smeir k


1238,16) : in an incensetext, Min says 4C

hnmt. f I smell its perfumel 489,9

"22, bnmt. f 'you have smelledits fragrancesaysthe king to the gods 1176,16; also C a bnmty. i n mn.wr Re says,'My nostrils smell your incenseV 83,4. from Edfu, seeWb Beleg. ). it With an eyedeterminative, canmean'tosee,(no examples by 'A is a goodexample how themeanings verbscanbe changed determinatives. of of


a plant Id Wb 1237 (5) GR 239 (7) GR

Theseare probablythe sameplant, evidentlyonly known at Edfu : in the laboratorytexts a type of --I is described as dry and stretched out (dwn) like .e!F- Tk wood
in Nun and m-O 11207,14.

This seems to indicate a plant growing on land or in water[Charpenticr p. 188-9 no.286]. Also in an offering text the kingship is inscribed :! A, 13 1395 and'XII 333

for is The plantheremaybe somesomething needed writing , or the writing wherethe sense unclear. could be for 9d and thusa writing of i9d-tree.


asa priestly title Wb 1240 (12) -GR administrative (7-11) OK title

In the administrativespherethe 'd-mr was an hereditarytitle of a nomeadministratorfrom the OK at onwards, leastfrom the 3rd DynastywhenMetenwasthe 'd-mr of Lower Egypt. Originally it may havemeant'overseer the StapelplAt& [Helck - Verwaltungp.196and 199; LA H 420-422andM; of


Meten AA 29,1975 passim Fischerin WES 18 p.139n.36 1. , ,

At Effu 'd-mr is a priestly title of the king in offering rituals such as Is-ibt t>4 V 148,11;, -, ofs3b4wt

texts IV 219,10alsoandhe hasthis wholetitle beforeoneof thecosmogonical. 4.47-4 who hasknowledgeof the books of Re - lb n Hr-nht IV 55,4 and in giving the Two

n s3b-XwtVI 181,9. Also in nis-dbtw 129,8; m33-nLr and controls the priests111 Landshe is

mhnt psd m Obt 1 141,18.

It is applied to the king in offering scenes,where above all he is responsible for getting offerings to the altars [c f. Ibrahim, Kingship p. 150-1; also Sauncron,BEFAO63,82-3].


throne seat
V. in,

Qf A word not recorded in Wb. but which is used at Edfu : in a crowning text, the king is Z--j is 'IA 'vQ' ftupon his throne as ruler VII 98,2 ; incense text, he is ? -J AV upon his throne as bity

his temple VII 258,7 ;a cloth text, he is gods VII 260,16.

on his throne as sovereign before the


Ibis set of texts on the outside of the enclosurewall use a different word as far as possible for'throne' in each rite and this is one of them. Apparently unknown elsewhere. i to exult, rejoice Wb 1241 (11-14) NK A word used in Egyptian from the NK onward. It usually describespeople exulting. such as the army T "-J '-J \ It Med.Habu 35, and this is usually the case at Edfu when the king is carried in his 0 C, the Great Prince in his sanctuary' V 39,3 n rejoice at rejoices for you VII 28,11 everyone hr at seeing the king VI 190,10 c.f. Urk. 11

processional chair, 'people everyone rejoices at the king

n. k hr-nbw 12932 ; and also r-nbw 36,6.

The term is also applied to birds : at seeing the uraei p3yw

birds rejoice 1115,17-18.

Like most reduplicated verbs it implies a strength of feeling and in this case of absolute joy and exultation. There does not seem to be a root Id'be happy' or the like, and it may even be a loan word. -,



in the name of Amun p3-, dr and Min Wb 1242 (5-7) NK P.Vernus, Hom. Sauneron1,1979 p.463-476.

The cult of Amon P3-'dr flourished originally at Ibebes and may have been introduced to Edfti, where his name occurs quite often, by a colony of Thebanswho came to live there. He is named as one of the gods of the temple : Imn 'X tA rR' 9 1359,3 ; Imn 0V !rA 395,12 ; the great offering list

for all the temple gods includes Imn J-_UjS New Years Day Imn, 013-

-4*J H 25 (192) ; in the procession to the roof on a bull who copulates with

lives in Behdet OW W-nfrw who

J;; \s-i IV the sight of whom women rejoice 1575,13-14 .A column with Imn 0 maidens , at 1 1146 297,19 and Imn 11 V 298,7 has an offering of the is-wst which is made to Amon 13 4j
-a5 . Ala Cn35 21,

who lives in BehdetV299,15. An offering of

(cakeor bread)is for Imn 4IJ -24"" Il 47,8. In


in 105,12and the samescene the HypostyleHAU(2nd) has jVII %. -. 4KO, 3k' rX -O is Min Amon Chamber Min he of too A -ITY


At the root of p3-'dr is Semitic

[Burchardt, Fremdworte 11p. 17 no.3031and it is written

by syllabic orthography in Egyptian. The word means 'to help, to assist' so this aspect is Amun 'the Helpeewho was expectedto help people in their daily lives [also JEA 36,74 n.84 for comment]. The term is also found in the plural applied to genil in the temple, where the IA Ih-914 ! Great ftell ,

Helpers of Great Fear protect the Sia falcon Ul 33.12 and here they threatenattackers[Goyons, Gardiens p. 81 n.21.

#it t

part of a building Cauville-Andreu, RdE 30,1978 p. 12

qq [CP First notedby Janssen p.3934] from O.DeM. 195 vs.1 (20th D.) bt 25P3-c3

it seems to

be a part of a building and from this ostraconis of mediumprice and here madeof wood. Osing this translated as'Mrsturz' [Nom. 118081. At Edfu thereis a text whereSatisand Anukis arecalled,Trotectorsof the godsand C3 04

the 'dyt of black stone'IV 278,4.The mostimportantobject in the templeof black stone of guardians is the naos,wherethe cult imagewaskept, so 'dyt maybe a word for a shrine,implying that the Deir is Medinaexarnple part or wholeof a woodenshrine.It may derivefrom 'dbe safe for it keeps the el


=x image inside it 'safe!.Alternatively it could be argued that r.. light of earlier terms this is unlikely.

readsonly as '(3y)t 'shrine' but in the.

Meeks suggestedthat 'dyt was an architrave [An. Lex. 78.0833] and noted a word in FECT 111101 CT VII 205b There is also a possible example in the prayer on a stela in Turin . '1 am one who said a bad oath to lah

of a man called Huy to lboth IjJ3 Vh hr 0 aboutthecomiche '[E. Suys, Orientalia2,1933p. 180-31.


quailchick +L

Writings - Direct:




BEFAO 43 1943 p.69 ,

suffix c. 3rd plr: ai Wb 1243 (12-14) NK DG 75,3 KH 264 -oy

occursfrom the 18thdynastyat the earliest[GG 34 p.391and is the Late Egyptianform of the .w basicallyNfiddleEgyptian,this form pluial. It is usedoftenat Edfu, showingthat,thoughthe texts'are influence. hadbecome late Egyptian through accepted It is usedoften in thephrase 'offerings(for example) in sdm.f forms : the uraei w1b 'theyare pure'IV 25,6 , andalso 'they maketheir place betweenyour brows' IV 52.13 ; Onw

E h. k Oil 'thesehenu nn m. r plants, they protect Your majestyagainstharm' V11 173,8. to

land field agricultLu-A , Wb 1243 (1-6) OK

From the MK w replaced sp3t as the term for a 6me', 'but by the Late Period it had itself been by q'O and at Edfu the commonestuse of the term is to refer to agricultural land used for the superceded. [see LA 11pA20-1 Helck I, Gauverwaltung]. This is the case throughout the GR growing of crops temples and at Edfu w is virtually synonymous with sbt 'field! [M-T. 'Derchain-Urtel, GM 30,1978 p.29-30]. A transladon 'rural district! covers the possibfity of the term being used in a general or

[VandenBoom,Vizier pp.174-5]. 'specificsense The w areas are inundatedby the Nile flood igb 99011* IV43,9; inhIpi-c=-ajj

V: 581,14 C '01t 1582,5 it risesup to' C-eand

H 270,13. tenncanbepluralor singular The to

to that or aft show it refers fieldsin general perhaps Egypt, whichis metaphorically treated onefield as area. or growing In theLowerEgyptian texts geographical a number specificallynarned areas found,andin of are ww


textslist the nome,its pehu,its canalandits agriculturallands particularthe ww-kir. Geographical

and, in certain nomes these are the ww areas : ww. Hr k is mentioned in .g

14,10.11 15thLE nome ; grows grain ; 20th LE nome A

c A:

c 19L



It!- 72h IV 34.3.4and

V 22,13.14

IV 38,8.9and

V 26,10.11grows,

fertile which may explainwhy greenery vegetation These Deltalandsandassuchespecially and are . 1,A. ' the ep-is named oneof the areas as aroundEdfu itself in the FestivaltextsV 397,2.Ile
IV 48,15 and it also contains bird-ponds which are 1582,3 [see Gauthier DG 1192].

Sht-d' too grows all plantsof v

flooded by the inundation P- ',I :k eIle 31-E

'field of the benu bird'is in the Hnt-13bt nome IV 33,6.7 and

V 22.1-2 which grows green plants [also DG 11891. Inthe6thLEnomeis e- bww ny V 17,4 which grows 3hw and excellent things [DG I

192-31. In a moregeneralsense, list of areas the 16thLE nomehas a of 334,8. 13rt as its fields I


to be far from , to fall Wb 1245 (3) to 246 (4) Pyr DG 78,2 Cr.470b ; CED 209 ; KH 266 I OYC Wei

w3i occurs at Edfu and is one of the family of words with the root W, such as w3troad! and w3i 'to plot', which all imply a senseof going away and distance.

o4) 4 w3i ..... r with nounor pronoun:, L 5 1,11; Maat causes give you your roads = & -A

ib n RI-c> dw 'the heart of Re is far from evil II 'evil to be far from you' 1241,8 ; Horus to the king, I M --k-h Maat

w3s far from ruWdecay'111117,4 Also with br .


irf tr m.k 'is not far from yourmajesty' 254,11. VII

When w3i-r is followed by a verb, thcn,it can have the meaning'to be about to, to begin to! as Breastedsuggested[Varia, PSBA 23,1901 p.239ff.], though the real meaning is 'to fall into happening'. This temporalnuancegives the phrasea present/future import and is the Coptic future auxiliary oyk[Cr.470a ; CED 209 ; KH 2641.It also hasa sense deterioration of aboutit and , j


suggests eventsmovingin the wrongdirection[GAS p.531andthis is still implied in Edfu texts: in the templedescription hnn 0: 0, rn-s3 'the disturbances came'aboutafter ' [de Wit

CdE36, Nr.71,1961 p.741. Hereevents movingin a harmfuldirection. ' are w3i is alsousedadverbially: 'he looksat 4:1 T'Horus U 'far away'VI 222,4.


to come
Wb 1246 (10-13) MK oft GR

This derivesfrom w3i I)e far'and'to fall'and occursin an examplefrom Siut IV 13 (PI.13,13)snd 4-13 Or 'wsn 'fear fell upon their bodies' . thus 'came upon their bodies'. In GR texts w3i 'to fall' hasachievedthe full changeto the nuance'to come!and it is written with -A as the

determinative In the phrasebbA tkn Omty m w3y.f 'the harpoonattacksHemty at his coming' . 1560,13; -614 VI 65,8 HereFairinantranslated first 'the harpoon goes at .

Henity though he was afar', taking this as w3i 'be far away' [JEA 29, p.7] but this was near , Hemtyashe drewneae[JEA 30 p.79 line 91 coming to subsequently corrected 'theharpoon attacked , into line with this useof w3i. A further exampleis also difficult : 'he brings offerings to your ka everyday IV whenyou comein peace! 45,12. The determinative

hereis probablydue to confusionwith w3i 'to plof. -and 'when you plot in peace' doesnot suit the context. w3i is also used to describethe wind coming in the phrase,god ptrr. ti r swV m w1f IV 63,11-12 IV 269,5-6 2' VI 270,12

it H 14,22'god speeding morequickly thanthe wind as it comes'. De Wit translated of as 'wind when it rises up' which catchesthe essence the original verb, though is not the way it As [CdE 57,1954 p.42 n.1591. a justification for 'risesup'. seeAdmon.7,1 a cameto be understood 4L'--%, S-11t ti r q3 rising fire up on high.


to plot (against) Wb 1244 (10-13) MK

From MK literature there is an injunction :m -IFTh. Ik ntt n fit 'do not brood on that which B hasnot come' [Peasant 1271 and FCD 52] wherew3fis not a physical movement away,but a ,


mental 'falling or distancing' and thus 'plotting'. - In the Coffin, Texts w3i is already used of a
A Osiris by Seth [CT I 215e] conspiracy agV and at Edfu w3i is invariably the action of the enemies of Horus and Osiris. It occurs as a participle with the object dw evil, kill them I' 1223,14. dw 'those who plot

With r for indirect object 214.11 ; Horus punishes nfy nty

k 'eon

'those who plot evil against you are on the block! V

UISS-B! k 'those areplotting m. against majesty', your who

IV 305,17 - 306,1 ; Sakhmet fires her arrows at 'those who conspire against you are in the fire' III suggeststhere is confusion with w3i 'to be far. to falr though

IV 151,3.
With ni : Hathor fells nfy ntyTfe'i e 4el 4+ 111291,3 ; and

139,7-8. The determinative

in essence two are not so far apart. the ep-also w3w3 and the spellings above with could be read as w3w3.

w3ty ; I

conspirator Wb 1245 (2) Late, GR

Derived from the verb 'to conspire!, this is a term for the enemiesof the king and the cosmic order are sent to the slaughter block Urk VI 63,17 ; similarly -P I,, k all

block MD IV 29 ; and at Edfu a ka gives the king weapons to stay (sm3)f+, -k plotters are on the Q 41, el %% oil -91 IV 1 111156,8.

w3y ,


Harris,Mineralsp.166andRdE 29 p.7 At Edfu a list of mineralsusedin the constructionof the templeincludes: w3dw VI 203,2.Harris suggests this is not a hapaxit is an error for ht-w3y if . 4IW4


to roast Wb 1244 (9) Med.,

In the medical texts this verb is usedof roasting grain under 101ft [Eb.12,12also Verhoeven,


Grillen pp. 73-84 related to w3m and 3m, and thus also w3w3t

(Wb 1250,4) and the noun

w3w3w rays of the sun (Wb 1250,3] and it is still used at Edfd , in a text where a foe is burnt and 4 rIh,,, + r 'You are roasted by the hand of Sakhmef VI 160,5. This text uses many -mdifferent words forroast, burn! or the like and it is possible this word occurred in the archaic source.


flood water, sea Wb 1249 (3-5) MK

The word is used of the sea from MK texts (SS 40 and 110) and in GR texts can be used of flood water or as at Edfu of the first primeval waters : the lotus is personified as a god 'no-one knows him,

moving upon .

6L qq


I- = w-the waters-, he shows himself in heaven' VI 248,9. Attested also

&-A-*- 4),

W at Dendera

118, Il 16a).


to plot
Wb 1249 (6-15) D. 18

w3w3 is a later reduplicated form of w3i 'to ploe, which came into Egyptian from the 18th dynasty least. Like w3i it can take a direct object dw 'evil'and is then followed by -=at O 62,7-8 ' Horus kills -6-1(- '2" -23VII 'againse

r WLst on his chopping block VII

11, I-2; -&-'*-&k


plot evilly against Akhu 1194,7.

With r: the gods give the king might against *4 -FJh * 'those who plot against him' VIH 144,9 ;a geni of the temple gores r4A-, -17'on-e-whoplots against the temple' VI 68,5 ; when the I? nb. s'n 'there is"no plotting against their lord' nb. sn who plot against their lord' VI 110,3.

army of Re goes with him nn iw VI 109,10 ; Re says 'I see enemies

The contrast in the last two is between the loyal army which does not plot and the bad army which

does. 'With the fire of Horusgoesinto the belly of one who plots aganisthim VI VI 264,11-12; the arrow of Sakhmet goesinto

from 89,1 ; Horus is rescued


bftyw r. f m W3w3t 'the foe plot againsthim in

is also usedA- -fL .4b The pun on w3w3

for Wawat'VI 8,6 which givesa pseudo-etymology thenameof WawaL


4L ce--3P- i f 1488,1-2 There is also the problem over how to read m. and also 245,2. They could read as w3 or w3w3 ..... but as the translation would be the same, sthere is ...... little change in emphasis. Other examples are not so clear: in the cosmogonical texts,'Go ye to my sanctuaryCP'9 M

tp-D b 'to plan it quickly' VI 175,15. This seemsto be a rare example of w3w3 in a good sensebut it is most likely to be a mistake for wb' w3w3 'to spreadout the cord' in view of the fact that this is a pd-s)fr text.


light of the sun Wb 1250 (3) BD GR

This is the reduplicated form of w3 'to bum, roasf and is always used of the light of the sun. The earliest examples from the 18th Dynasty are used in this way : Totb Nav.64,33 'May I hold aloft r5k-fIry! h&O brightness as the light of my eye! [after Allen p.57] ; Anastasi 13.7 (Ostr.Queen's im4t 'the sheen in the underworld' [Gardiner, Lit. Texts X.

College 19b) 'May you see S. eRm %

p. 8*] ,a sun hymn in TT 107 [Piehl 1.1118 b] 'You give

4L 4L These uses are also found at Effu where, in hymns to the sun w3w3 is the sun light: bd , fR "a'. St-niry St-wrt VIII 93,1 ; the sun shines with -CL-Fl-R '21 VIII 154,8 ; mE -. : -f-R 'his beams light the Place of Two gods' 1574,3 ; Horus Akhty I%. *%A-6L in Nut VIII 90,12 ; the processional standard X is called wbn iMtt. 0 whose beams shine 7PLIVOshining light'

1538,14. The word is used in parallel with synonymous terms such as m3wy : 'his rays (m3wy) illumine the whole earth and likewise -61 Si 9' Dddwy as -fLf A. Rill his light in heaven' 1135,15 ; Horus makes

the brightness of his disle 1499,6 ; and also Urk. VIII . 9b> -IrRirl.


snake pr Im.t n

In the liturgy to Sakhmet,she is askedto 'rescuethe king from

mwt.f nsn serpents which comefrom you, so he doesnot die by them'VI 267,12.This word does it thoughGemond suggested may be relatedto w3mmty andthereis a possible not occurelsewhere, variant in an offering text wherethe god 'stabsthe throat of fASa. eau JArvt IV 77,12.As C


can read W, this could be readas w3w3 [c f. Germond,Sekhmetp.94 n.501.Further Germond that suggested thesemaybe thesnakes which comefrom theriver at the time of theflood. In origin the word could be from w3w3 'a cord'. or morelikely from the verb w3w3 'to conspire! from 'thosewho plot especially earlierin this liturgy, theking is rescued as, hereis dangerous, The serpent thoughcontrolledby Sakhmet. him'VI 264.11. -qgainst


distant Wb 1249 (17) GR

As Wb notesthis is an errroneous of w3i I)e distant!but the exampleit cites,Mythe pl.-XI writing VI 89,1 is actuallyw31'to plot! The Urk VIII < 15h>exampleseems genuinelya spellingof w3i . as w3w3.


fire Wb 1250 (4) D.18

and thus more emphaticword. In the w3w3t is derivedfrom w3i 'to roaseand is the reduplicated is the flame which bums up the enemies Osiris (e.g,. AmduatXI texts of the underworldw3w3t of +-LW-Y'bA' 77 [Zandee, HornungAmduat1189,4) and so it is destructiveand dangerous = Apopis. consumes C- his fiery glory'

3.. '--1r1t,.f4 Deathp.134] as later in P.Br-Rh 24,15, wherethe -kl , In fact the word is earlier,for in CT VI 28lj Sokarappearsin -FL - -9

of andthis early useshowsthatit is a divine fire for the destruction hostileforces. At Edfu, in a meatoffering, a genie -Z!

q, IM 01-61r&-F 44-.

puts the fire againstthe

(like Horus,perhaps This minor deity is hawk headed because his evil'VI 160,11-12. of wbr-serpent ]. a solargod with a solarflarne) [p.1453rd reg.


ocrd Wb 1250 (2) D.18

form of a word w3.t 'cord' or 'rope'attested from the 18thDynastyand This maybe a reduplicated possiblyearlier [c E Wb 1244,1-3and4-5] andalsorelatedto w3r.tcord7 [Wb 1252,3-8BD]. is only usedin the phrasewb'. w3w3t 'loosening"unrolling' the cord' which is part of the w3w3t


foundation ceremony of temples and buildings. This was the third main part of the ceremony and may have involved unravelling a string to delimit parts of a new building within a sacred area. Badawy suggested it was related to w3w3 'to plan' and w1t 'cord' or planning net,,so he translated it 'to spread out the plan nef [Ancient Egyptian Architectural Design p.91. It is first attested from D. 18 (e.g. Tuthmosis III Urk. IV 166) [Weinstein, Foundation Deposits p. 11-121. At Edfu the ceremony is often mentioned,but it is never the title of a ritual act. When it does apear it is in close connection with pd-dr, and it is this which is the title of a ritual foundation ceremony and it is similar in meaning'to stretch out the cord'. The two phrasesare virtually synonymous, for in * *A q- in Throne of the gods IV 352,10 ; stretch the cord in pd-sgr rituals : in Wetjeset Hor Hor-Maa W -FLItin Throne of Re 111114,17-,stretch the cord in Mansion of Behdet A94 in joy 111105,12; stretch the cord in the House of Horus 6W ft -fL in Wbn-Ur

111167,10; in a cosmogonical text (that is the temple building is paralleled with the First Occasion) one of the builder gods says , wb'. n q'f4'AQeani St wrt VI 174.1 IV 14,7 but most often it is the king who ,

f Tl Seshatcan perform this act does it in imitation of her 90 -AQ-

111115,2 and he also does it throughout all cities and 123,13. 00; JL VII by

111115,3and he can do this with the help of Ptah 41 r.2%. nomes

The Building texts in the temple mention this ceremony often: (W 4141 in the Mansion of'Behdet IV 7,7 5,6 ; FX ! -0, -4011

VII 9,4 ; (W -*L-ft

the king himself V 6.3. The pd-sXr ritual shows the king and Seshat marking out the plan (sni) of the building using poles and a cord. They have to put the poles in the ground, align them by using astronomical observationsand put the cord around them. Part of this is the action of winding the cord round the poles and this is the actual wbl-w3w3t, pl. 369 for illustration]. Once at Edfu w3w3t is the object of a verb transcriptionof VII 8,8 - but this may be an erroneous but the whole cermony is the pd-sYr [see XII

40 from the master text (it is also applied to sni later in this text ), rea 'd.

w3w3tyw conspiratorsWb 1245 (2) GR Derived from the verb w3w3 to plot. at Edfu they are dealt with severely: sm3 frAg


IN.Tin the whole of the Two Lands111156,8 whenthe Ung goesfrom his palacenn wn Ow 1.1, - - IV 50,13; two goddesses slaughter of the king V 238,6.It also The occursat Dendera. earliestattestation this nounis Urk.VI 63,18 of is an alternativeform of w3ty 'conspirators! .. -EVA, I k which


root Wb 1250 (9-11) Med. GR _


Wb Drog. 122

in It The Primaryuseof w3b is asthe root of plantsandis well attested medicalrecipes. canalsobe the'rooe of teethandperhaps socket theeye[FCD 53 andWBI. In theLaboratorytextsat Edfu the of for it is usedin md recipesto describe one of the ingredients the unguent: nswt 11227.10; also11227,16; -61 192,1. is also usedin a slightly different way in texts describingthe slaying of, enemies: the king w3b
sm3 sbiw ftq -fL. 1 -V IL3kw. ibw VII 320,15 ; also VII 263,172. ftq means

e) tW

n nswt seemsto be the primary sourceof mli H

'to sever, divide' and the latter part of this phrase may mean 'sever,the roots of the rebellious of heart',, a metaphorical device, otherwise unattested. In origin w3b may derive from w3b 'a type of roW, so that it specifically refers to 'stringy' roots rather thanjubular ones. Blok [Acta Orientalia 8,1930 p.232] suggested that it came from wnb 'lotus' which does not seemfeasible.

w3mmty Apopis serpent Wb 1251 (14) Cr in The earliestform of this word appears Cr,,VH 117pwhere is the nameof a

In become one genkandat this time it is written without determinative. later texts the w3mmty had, togetherwith dw-qd , wbr and hmhmti , and in mortuaryliteratureit is of the four Apopis snakes, not only a foe of the deadbut also a judge of the dead[c LBD 125].w3mmty can be mentioned as breathingfire which may indicatean origin for the word, for thereis a verb w3m, (Wb 1251,9-11) known from Medical texts which means'to roaseand also a verb W 'to roast!(q.v.) [c f. Hornung Amduat II p.106-7n.3951 and (Seti 1) , In P.Br-Rh 33.12 it is


'the enemy'iP21,7, -,7* [Faulkner in JEA 24 p.53 Apopis At Edfu thew3mmtY always appearsin its hostile incarnation : in the processionof standard -ATIR43w, 6tk on the Mound of Pg3 1 191,5 ; Edfu is st-wnp n wnp stabbing of stabbing the snake 152,12 ; hack up the eyeball of eput on a fireand buriil --is '3s 538,2 ; in the Chamber of Sokaris W 14 kezyx the place of

e -9 FIL

162,9 (sqr-hm3 0

text). By using alliteration the destruction of the serpent is assured : wnp

(wnp nhs) IV 78,8 ; the ball in a sqr-DM3 rite is compared the sbq3t-eyeof to InM,



149,11. this casethe association In with Apopisis clearand which is subsequentlycrushed-1V

further at Kom Ombo,KO H no.635,2 w3minty is described 'the enemyof Re [seeBorghouts, ' as JEA 59,1973 p.118n.41.

w3r A tet for the presentation meatportionsdescribes kinIgas a butcheriry-sh n the of k

IV 128,2.Wb notesthat the priest at Kom Ombois calledw3r (Wb 1252,10)but this may not in be related.At Kom Ombo w3r is mentioned lists of priests KO 11878p.245 and

is the waabpriest of Isis Nephthysand Horus KO 1167 p.613. T'heword is probably "v3r'rope' and as it is'found with butcher, he'may be the priest who garrottes connectedwith (especially birds) with a rope,or-hemaybe the priest who lassos andties up animals,too sacrifices little is saidabouthis role to be definite.


cord, rope Wb 1252 (3-8) BD

FishingandFowling, the w3rt is the draw rope which In BD 393,5-6 and alsoin a NK text aboUt Lit. pulls the two wings of a clap net shut [Caminos, Frag.p.15 B 4,71.At Edfu the

w3rt rope is used inother'Ways: it is the rope'of the'harpoon)in casting the harpoon at the I hippopotamus, king holds onto the '-6L cIV 343,5; in killing foes the king holdsA the in his left handand the harpoonin his right V 283,10-11. PI.134,10th col. left showsthe king heri foe which he holdsin his left hand, andhe hasthe harpoonin his with a rope aroundthe neckof a , Also Horus Behdetis calledLord of the haroonand right. Chis rope is in his hand


VIII 7,12 also he holds"t I



up his foes VII 149,17. "C--'-' ntt m rdwy

The rope is also used to hobble the calves in the Driving of the'Calves'

irw 111168,11 is clearlyshownin all the scenes the rite.' and of The word may also apply to the cord usedin w'-w3w3t for the hands'ofthe king are upon '7-8",but it U-27, Iusedto reckonland may b specifically, word for a measunng a rope, lengths. In the Elephantine nome,Horus'is Khnum, who reckonswhat is in itby 41er" 'stretches his the measuring cord V 107,1; at the appearanci Sokarthe king-; dwn (L of out beforethe templelike Horusin MemphisVI 282,3;cf. Urk. VHI <65e-, 'wherethe king, measure

brings Amon the field and says dwn.i n.k

A, in'dr B31Lsb.l n.k


M3nw I put out the rope in the East and I measurefor you the distance to the Wese. The rope has therefore many uses and it is also found in an-epithet of the god Khnum hnt-w3r. f. w The text from the Elephantine nome mentioned above, suggests it may apply to Khnum in his' capacity as the god of fields and measurement,but it is more Iiiely to be as a god of fishing and fowling, and thus he is the user of the net Before the two 'netting' texts at Edfu, Khnum is present


VI 56,4

VI 236,9 in appropriate offering

texts,the king is'son of Klmum '& suchas the papyrusand geese rituals is Rie "13?*1 "'CE 1 geese offering, the king called


111 193,2

VII 125,34 ; in' the 2nd LE nome,Horushere is

IV 23,3 This thendoesseemto be Khnumas a bird catcherandoperator

par excellence the clap net [Badawy,Chnump.281.Ibis may be associated of with the priestly title w3r at Kom Ombo(q.v.), thoughthe godshereareSobekandHaroeris. The origin is in an OK verb w3r (Wb I 252,2)'to tie upa net with cord, so the verb seems tobe it is probable ounis older thanthe attested. older, though

W3 , '-

to pd down ', liy' ' set Wb 1253 (1) t6 257 (6) Old DG 76,7" ID Cr.505b; CED 222; KH285'Oyu3Z oy"L

An old verb with variousnuances somereflectedat Edfu , . To lay down put : cro%nlj . imyt wpt n brow IV 255,5-, two plumes head


89,13 ;Tj

tr b3w put meat on the altar VII, 261,13-14. In temple building nJ stpw

lissw grg wrmw lay down comers, found roof IV 14,5. To offer especially in w3b-ibt : often at Edfu as the title of an offering ritual and also within , 0V offering texts (q.v. under ibt) spellings: 1382,11-12 1479,9-. tj waterl361,10'. 1146,9

V 131,7-8. Other offerings TI

-A. I

1491,15 Theseare all food and drink offerings,so in practicethe verb may be the .

the actionof laying down,or settingdowna tray containing offerings. ) Also in WO-lt 'set out the altar'. a ritual (-see'h. IV 28,6.

To add w3b-qd.f / w3h-qi. f (Wb 1254,16-17 GR) 'who addsto his form' referringto the waxing , , T, 147Jy'to add of moon.In a text for the presentation the wd3t eye,the king is begotten to his form as the moonand illumine the land like the disk! 187.1 in the lunar text Khonsuis T .4P. 111207,9 Urk.VIII <89b> : 15,2 71 4,al. g Q-3 Rhind Uusson[Miroirs

one who lets his form grow [Moller, P.Rhind Edinburghp.27 and p.82 n.74 'whoseimagedoesnot cease waxing'. p.88 n.4 ; 105n.6 ; 196n.13 with examples] fIA To put down - kil I: not Wb , but at Edfu, the king 283,15. The determinative the extends meaning thebasicverb. of To endure: as an epithetof the king for ever IV 2,8 'tr IV 12,2 S1

nbd 'puts down the enemy' V

for endures eternitybeforethe living kas HorusVIII 14831.


water plant Wb 1257 (11) GR

It is unclearwhetherthis is to be readas onecompound as word, or whetherit is to be understood 'garlandof the lotus' [seeDittmar, Blumenp.501.The pehuof the Mendesnomecontains,'stemsand their leaves (sp.t) is rn II It\. J. J-C bum. GI IV 122 7JTJJJ IV 35,6 = Den. sametext

for A phrasesuchas 'garlanX of buds'may well be a euphemism the whole flower of the lotus plant. The phraseis also usedin ms-msw offerings: 'RejoiceaVwith VI 246,12and in a lotus offering the king brings , Vk saysthe king

VI 247,18; in a rnpwt offering

T there are


hnt Nwn offeredYl 250,4 at Denderaa list of plantsincludes

from Nun' MD I 15b (which led,Wb to suggest that this was a water plant). That this is not


'garland of buds' is suggested the fact that w3o does not have its own determinative. by

There is also a mineral or drug usedon the headin the EbersPapyruscalled

Eb.260 (Wb Drog. p. 124) which again suggests that this is one word not composed of distinct


w3b. brpw, plants , A similar problemexistshereas with w3b-nbbt In the sbt-X thereis a list of plantsand grains . I 11 13, in it including IV 49,3. From the contextW is not a verb , but an grown theplant,thoughagainit couldread'garland hrpw-plants'.It is a hapax. of elementof


lay down the head= bow the head(in obeisance) Wb 1257 (1-2)

This. term is used from. the Pyramid Texts and at Edfu it describes the subjects of the king, who are given to him m W-tp 'with bowed head' : p't rDyt, ly 56.7. 3tf. f 'bow the head to his ater 11402.

As a verbal form (stative) : the bnty-Y people


garland Wb 1257 (13-14) Pyr.

One of the earliestexamples this word (Pyr 1213d/e) showsthat the w3h. garlandcould be of on the heador at the throatand it kept this two fold,use.The term may haveoriginatedfrom placed from the meaning'endure'with the verb w3b 'to put , place',as it is'placed'on the head,or perhaps the symbolic hope it will grant enduring life (c f. Inhw bunches).From the MK the word was in by m3b perhaps of with somedegree confusion,but it doesappear GR templesand superceded Dendera role in thecult of Hathor. garlands play animportant at where especiaUy Edfu, in festivals (tW 0n At hffw rn tpsn 'garlandsof flowers are on their heads'IV 19.6. -

Here the garlandis madeof flowers , but it could well be madeof-gold and be more like a type of (6 f. D 11125,8-9 seealso the floral circlet of PrincessKhnumetfrom Dahshur,Aldred, and crown London,1978pl. 14). Jewelsof the Pharaohs,



harvest grain , Wb 1258 (7-9) D. 18 oft. GR

There is an older word w3hyt, which meansofferings in general (Wb 1258,2) and derives from w34 'to offee, hence w3hyt is 'what is set down or offered. From the New Kingdom however w3hyt, that it representedan with grain determinativesrefers specifically to grain, though Gardiner suggested idea similar to Latin 'copia! and rendered it as 'abundance (see Urk. IV 116,15 for examples and Caminos LEM p.415-6). At Edfu Wy clearly refers to grain, probably not one specific tye, but various kinds together. for in the Driving of the Calves ceremony it is w3hy which is on the threshing floor, where it is , o,116, IV 242,11 trampled by the calves : Amon gives the threshing floor heavy with ; the


calves are driven to trample the threshing floor with grain, who created kqq :o 111169,10-11. ? **0*? 1 . *

V 87,6-7 ; Horus is Lord of npr

Fields contain this grain : Field of Meru has

VI 226,8 ; the land of the 6th LE nome

is brought with no animals having trodden on

qq &-W**&

its grain IV 26.6 ; the field of the

T. drtyw and Lord of the Ennead create harmcomesto T1006 1486,3 ; god gives

with all goodthingsIV 43,13with the flood, no rqq '-. ' 1525,11(the last purified from pestilence (by the flood of the Nile) I

in libation texts).Also granaries suppliedwith 7 -*0 two are 582,10.


to be flooded to be green to make green , , Wb 1258 (13) to 259 (9) PT oft GR

This verb seems to have begun properly as 13b-w3b 'to flood' (see also Wb 133) in the Pyramid Texts. In turn, this gave rise to 3bt 'flood season'[Sethe, Pyr.Komm. 11p.52 = 343 01. The verb in these texts could also apply to other things, apart from water, such as offerings : q-4kSqq -, ,

by m htpw-nirw 'he is flooded with offerings"',but also translated SeLhe 'he enjoys the as offerings (sich welgen)'PT 1158b[see Sethe,Komm. V p.56andc.f. PT 411b ; 1197cl.In all i thesetextsthe word is spelledw3b and after the OK examples rare and seemingly pre-Ptolemaic are Nr. 192(= RB 74,12)'this divine nestof Horus,.Texamples confinedto Wadi Hammamat are graffiti: - nir -Roo) pn lm.f this god enjoys it! , Ile determinative rather than a flood or water


sign suggests that there is more to the word than just 'flood', either of water flooding a land, or a person being flooded with offerings In fact the underlying nuanceis the same,for flooded land grows . strong plants and a person flooded with food is made strong In this respect the root 3h is important . 1J for the understandingof the verb, for it suggestsa life force or power as the underlying implication A translation of 'refresh"revitalise! may then be closer to this concept. As noted the verb appearsonly rarely between'the Pyramid texts and Ptolemaic texts but there is a . 'fresh plants, verdure' used in the BD : 41109 (BD, Budge 228,14) and also -61 noun w3h to 'revitalising watee is the name of a canal in the underworld (Wb 1259,11 = Nav. Totb I 10 Aavignette 7bis is the first time a water determinative is used in connection with this .

Q-jh. -=O-A From the late New Kingdom a modified form of Wh appearsin use: rwdt plants %0 are refreshed' P.Berlin 3049,8,8 and in Ptolemaic texts the word is invariably spelled w(3)rh. It is used in rather more extensive ways than w3b but has the same underlying concept. It is not usually used of the inundation as a word 'to flood', which may confirm that this is not the original meaning of w3b. It is used of incense : 79 k M fdts Or 1558,16 fnd. k, 1142,13-14

-9 9b %k

fnd m bnmt 1451,14;

f S! jinmmty


'5"? fnd. k 1531.4 -C=P.

1 181,5 ; md52" 4=1-

'P A m sty 1 134,3 ; perfume of the lotus -&I CED

fnd. tn V 84,17; myrrh being burned f1rW: Qc %Rb, fnd. kV1306,3. Light beams : Wetjeset Horus IRIG: " 1-k t3wy m hddwy 1364,1; MW also V 217,18 Plants : deities "a V, fnd. k 1117,12; m mw. f VII 111,12 *.Re Horakhty m ws.k beams shine in your window 1538,14. m h3w. k IV 102,12 1.0 Ve

'w. k n m33.s 'your body is refreshed at seeing her' VII 290,9. M hrrwsn 'they make green their flowers for you' H 176,8-9

the Nile has made green your fields with plants 1322,2 ; when the sun comes out -'*' a o. sm3w plants are green 1371,1.

The nameof god in the Sopdunomeis skin' IV 39J.


gleamingof hair, blue of

The underlyingnotion is that w3rh represents 'gleaming'of new plants,of light, of incense the as v


it bums,of hair andso on so thatit is the translucent by effectcreated the strongEgyptiansunlight , which is often very noticeable plants in Egypt.MS 'gleam'indicatesfreshness life hence on and incenserefreshes nose,Wat refreshes body they all have the ability to bring life and the the revitalise- andthe signof life is 'shining'or brightness.


forecourt (FCD54) pillaredhall , columned Wb 1259 (12-13) MK

The determinative this MK term of

it relates to the verb w3h, thus Borchardttranslatedthe

nounas Inundationhall' [ZAS 450,1902pA8]. Gardiner that suggested w3h wasthe openforecOurt by surrounded columnsnearthe main entrance the palace[GNS p.961.Like the verb w3t in the of Ptolemaicperiod the noun w3b becomes wrb. At Edfu the term is usedas a voant for pr-m-'h texts : the king says,'I comeforth from 'I comefrom A5 0 a C-3 in the

V to the horizonof heaven! 35.8

- C-3 to go to the GreatPlace'VII 420; IH 159J.

Wb quotes example from 1128,16in the epithets Hathorasthe first wife of Re who refreshes an of fVIF00i rn nfrws ' the housewith her beauty'.

The useat Edfu suggests the original meaning beenlost and that it wasa generalterm for had that any building with columnsin it. It maybe relatedto a termfrom the Chapelof Hatshepsut Karnak at for w34t which is a processional stationor pedestal a barque[Lacau-Chevrier, Chap. Hat. p.1611 way and derivedfrom w3h 'to put or place', for thebarquein procession could be placedhere [Spencer, Templep.1031.


dominion power , Wb 1260 (6) be mighty Pyr.

As Wb notes

is mostoften foundin connection with



that it meant'power'or 'dominion'ratherthanVohlergehen GRIcleMnuscula Lexica,Fs. Grapow. Berlin 1955p.2 I and it hasfurther beenshownthat in GR templetextsw3s is Might! in the sense of physicalpower [Winter, Tempelreliefs 84-51.. appears Edfu in the offering ritual dilrdi at pp. -w3s LI I by 'f to Osiris accompanied Nephthys,in a pun :I 219,11-220athe king presents they say,,, I he dt. k mI make your body powerful as Osiris! I 220a ;1 4252-10 offers the two


to Horus who hold


and is 'Iz7

Lord of Life and power (see pl. 25a 3rd

I ft I reg. and 33a 3rd reg.)."The ritual bnk

? resenting life stability and power' is more frequent , I The offering is rewarded with the kingship of Egypt so that the is seen as the means by which .

the king is able to rule. w3s is subordinate to 'n however which dominates in the texts for this ritual. The king can be 'mighty' against foes as a reward for the offering (1154.16 ff. I

233,18 ff. 1310,19 ff. 168,5-16) and also wsr bm. k m Wsir 'Your 11ajesty mighty as Osiris' is VII 111,14-112,11. Recipents of this offering are all gods concerned with kingship : Horus, Osiris, Nfin (1407,14-408,8) and Ptah. Variants of this ritual are : rdi ms tfl IH ,or -L t9 I for Osiris 1481,8-15 the king4a , ch nUtywrib;

299,5-10. The king usually wears the Double Crown or an equivalent (Red crown to show that he is the legitimate ruler and holds up Itf (pl. 26a 2nd) or

plus atef)

(pl. 35b 4th reg) where the amulets symbolise the appropriate qualities. The sign in the temple decoration and on friezes alternating with InD signs. Gods hold it appearsoften in their hands as a stave to'show it is 'divine powee and it is an attribute of the king IV

56,3 or a reward for his temple building IV 331,5. Winter studied the rite of offering 'nb, dd and in GR temples and conculded that the sign dd represented Osiris flanked by Shu ('nb) and w3s , Tefhut (w3s) so that the rite has other implications [Winter, Tempelreliefs pp.69-102]. ,


sccptre DG 77 Wb 1259 (16) Pyr.

The w3s sceptre or stave is prehistoric in origin and possibly was used to show a prop of heaven

denotes ideaof might.It is thuscarriedby godsandgoddesses also it is a possession and the of andso the king to enablehim to jirform his role. In the later afterlife literature it can be carriedby any StOcke 7 andpp. 18-20; 189-194; Fischer p. non-royalperson[Hasan, ,M 13 ff. ', andreview ,2

has by Fischer of Hasanin JEA 64,158-162] The-sccptre an animal head perhapsa donkey or , rods) [LA VI 11524]. or mythicalanimal(c f. thed'm sceptre snake At Edfu, in certaincases canbe a physicalsceptre ratherthanthe 'might!or powee though 3m.f 'nh"he holds the was and

For example: the king br the distinction is ambiguous.


grips the ankh sign' IV 55,11 . In the offering rituals noted above, the king offers the w3s amulet as

pp. a symbolof 'might' [Winter,Tempelreliefs 67-1021


to be ruined , Men down

Wb 1260 (9) to 261 (1)

laterform spelled w3m ? Wb 1261 (2-7)


The verb is used to describebuildings which are ruined or derelict: bricks are made to 'build m itrty. k what had fallen down in your Two Shrine rows! 111114.5; the king 'renews in the Two Shrine rows' 1157,6. This may be read as Wm however, which may have gradually replaced w3s in Egyptian from the l8th Dynasty onwards. 71is seemsthe only way to read the M, unless it is a consistent mistake where w3s -m due to confusion with fm has become w3m. Faulkner notes that is

[FCD 551 but writings such as this are most probably only Xm. , dt 'you renew you do not decay ...-

As in the hymn to the Good Year: n

(or are weakened) nor does he decay evee VI 99,6 Here perhaps 'disappi. decay 'fits best [after . Meeks, An. Lex. 78.0866 'ddpdris']. Germond reads this as d! m but in a note suggestsw3s also UL a Donne Annde, p.571. In puns examples can be more certain: Horus gives the king w3t WAi a road far from ruin'111 117A. In the GR period the meaning of the verb is extendedwhen it is used transitively 'to make fall'. Yft records two uses of this from Edfu :a minor deity says dU n. k 'I give you might to fell those disloyal to you' 1190,1 ; the divine bas wn mw. k Wmmty

hr 13t-Pg3 'destroy the snake on the Mound of Pega!1191,5-6. From the alliteration of w it seems that ITIPis read as w3s/w3m, so that the examples above may be treated in the same way. 'to overtum turn to flight! [DG 96,8] and Coptic C)ywk-, ,

The dernotic word wls

[CED 211; KH 270] may come from the transitive use of w3s and confirm that the word is read as w3s in the Late Period [though c f. Cr.477b lean be bent confounded] , , from metathesisof w-s(r) and confusion with wsr. where the I>s comes


citizens Wb 1260 (5) GR

This term is used at Edfu and Denderalo, denote ordinary people It derives from the name of Thebes


w3st 'the city', thus w3styw are citizens of this city in particular. The word is used in a 'good sense Xpsm' Yps'w 'provide citizens with provisions' MD 11121 y; swd3 i =1b 'I provision your citizens' VII 230,1 and from the 1wnt

MD I 30a Horus says, drp. 1

context the word is not 'fallen ones' or 'foes'. In a hippopotamus slaying the wnnyw inhabitants of Dendera are paralleled with the I b III' L" 0 nfrw n MD III 73b.

There is also a reference to the derivation of the word in a text for presenting P cakes to Amon P3-'dr for he says to the king , , tit 10 ib4n im. k 'your people, their hearts are yours' H

47,11. This aspect of Amun is from a local Theban cult so the appearancehere of w3styw is most , appropriate [Vernus, Hom.Saun. 1463476]. - Meeks derives the term from w3s'to govem'meaningthose who are ruled! [Donations 14 (7)].


to worship Wb 1261 (9) to 262 (8) Pyr.

In the earliesttextsw3 is very muchassociated with wordssuchas shm,'mighe,spd ,W 'power' which all refer to qualitiesof godsand theydivide into two pairs w3Yandspd , b3 andsbin where is the first in eachpair is spiritual in meaning, the second physical[Sethe,Komm. III p.150-151], * though'they can be variously combined. w3Y is used in namessuch as w3X-pto in the Old in Kingdom,. the sameway thatshm andW are [RankePN 1741.They areattributes 'verklartheit' of (radiance transfiguration) and -w3Y may be taken as 'worshipfulness', in the way that *gfyt is , 'awefulness'and. the MAS49 p.118 determinative showswhich attributeit is [seeAssmann,

of andn20 for combinations thefour attributes]. In the Edfu textsw39 is usedasa verb 'to worship, to revere! With-direct objed - sistratext, 'menand womentr revereyou'l 153,16. shmAi 'shrewd

It' is- used in connection with shm : the Table god is spdAi QR

and mighty' VI 153,8[after Blackman, JEA 31 p.591; possiblytoo. an offering bearer worshipful rl 013 4 'a' with grain -F1 is 1466,9.In theseinstancesit certainlyusedarchaically. .,,

The transitiveform of w3 is alsousedin parallelwith otherverbsforpraise; revere, in particular , 1 tWb indicatesthis is a GR use) : the greatwaabpriestshr '2- b. D q kn the templegcd!IV e cr -'; 415,2 ; and also 'all places n HB st n wbn R' -'revere


P-I Horus and adore the rising of Re 1463,14 ; the lector priest hr C313 . ,


nb bkn sw3Y

n k3. k adores the Lord of Praise and worships your ka' 1557,18 ;cf. Urk VlH 55f -I C= nUn w3b-qd. f in w'rtyw m'njit. , 0, r

[Barucq, Louage p.32-33 deals with sw3Ybut not w3g]



This occurs at Edfu, in parallel with other terms for 'foes'. Ile text of the md3t rtb p't begins , ic-6L IL3kw-ibw VI 235,6-7 translatedby Fairman as 'vain glorious ones'rth

[MSS Fairman] ; and in a slaying foes text this is repeated -R]kmV rt4 ,

bb IL3kw. ibw IV

78,17.If this doesderivefrom w39it is this qualityin a badsense, indicated Fairman,and th. by as to only oneof theseattributes be so used.


side, way Wb 1246 (17) to 248 (13) Pyr. C.f. Cr.472a; CED209; KH268 OyOf-l' oyol

w3t is used conventionally at Edfu , especially in texts such as the pr-m-1h where the 'way' of the, king has to be purified and protected by the removal of foes and hostile forces. For example, the, speechof the lunmutef priest where w3t is spelled, IV 51.1-11 and introduction IV 50,177. IV49,10).

This all constitutes the wp-w3t 'opening /clearing of the road'( %f'Cr w3t is usedafter certain verbs

s9p tp w3t 'to begin a journey' (Wb 1247.6) in the canal of the 5th LE nome HB im , QVRR 'begins his journey outside heaven' IV 25,8


rdi-w3t 'to give freedom of way' (Wb 1247,11-13) Ibis applies especially to the ritual of 'freeing . four birds' [ Esna V p. 178 n. (h)] analogous to 'Firing the four arrows', which symbolises the spread of the power of the king to the four compasspoints, so that the four different birds act as messengers for the king especially as part of the coronation ceremonies [LA VI 1044-10461 Ite ritual is known . from the New Kingdom in detail, particularly at Karnak and Medinet HAW [Schott, ZAS 95,1968 p.54 - 65]. The ritual is shown at Edfu in a scenesimilar to one found at Karnak. At Edfu three birds by the king before Horus [XII pl. 368] but the text is not as falcon vulture and ibis - are rele, ased a ,


the Karnak texts and does not give the title of the rite [1112 to 16] At Medinet Habu extensive as Li 19, 1= a1-1 - 4% 91 1

at the feastof Min and is connected with the reinforcingof kingship . The festival calendar Edfu of Q.2' ir*i-oi V 125,3; 'prw birds detailsaboutthe ritual: A-JI C3 gives
r rsy mh.t l3bt imntt are freW6 cast and west when the king south - north ,


'Setting free

foar birds' MH IV p1205,25 it is one of the ceremonies

Lj in appears heaven'V 312,4; ur, -A-A %..

J: n 'cr, 'prw V 358,4; " it

imnt i3btt V 132,10-1l. 'This latter text is recited by the scribe of the divine r rsy m4t book and igoes on to explain the significance of the ritual the southern bird is Imsety, northern

four geese actuallyequated Qebsenuef so these with the Duamutef eastern are Ibpy, western and one I is followed byIthe Shootingof Fouriri-6ws but thoughit is part of the four sonsof Horus.This rite
festival calendar it is referred to only once on the temple walls. A vignette shows the king offering falcon, vulture and ibis 11 14 ' This is followed by a decree of Re which gives md-unguent to a control of all lands t6 the king 1113. way'(sacred way) Wb 1248 (1-2) w3t-nir'god's in the temple along which'ihe god would be carried in At Edfu this term applies to the actual paths doors in the Hypostyl'is alled* V7processions.One of the 'door of the god's way'

into the Great Place. Presumably then the Gods way led Eromthe quay V 4,1 and by this Hathor came is the main approach or'dromos' [An. Lex. 79.0585]. The door in the south of the to the temple , thus (L) is calledGreat door before Wetejeset Horus and temenos wall in the klwt-mn-bit (Edfu) VIrI 169,2 - ptibly A' of Harsonithus at rest

another main entrance gate for festivals .


be green fresh, well , Wb 1264 ff DG 104,4 Cr.493a; CED 217 ; KH be raw', fresh. green OYWT

is the papyrusplant, a green, living symol of healthand freshness which encompasses a w3d numberof Englishideas. described being To be ffeen (Wb 1264,12-14):driving thecalves, calf is erroneously one as
101,8. As an'adjective : the namesof foes were written in execration texts in green ink on''clay statues




VI 235,5. it makes greenyour right eye',

To makegreen(transitiveWb 12653 GR) : greeneyepaint 184,6 ; greencloth I\ --I-

and it makes greenyour skin 1244,17; both of theseare ambiguous

couldbe translated'make whole, makewell'. Befresh (Wb 1265,2-14): to describeincense : mnwr freshmyrrhfor thehair I 206a. To thrive Rm= '5\ (Wb 1265,16-266,9) altars '1\ : thrive with k3w offerings1471,18; offerings 11210,3,;IntyW freshincense

tP wdhw.k in offering texts 1450,12.

Make thrive (from the NK) commonat Edfu in the phrase t3wy rn w3jl'who makesthrive (or w3d
Hathor 7,77 makes green) the two lands wiLh her papyrus sceptre : rn w3jLs 111120,4 C3 c3

Wadjet .5; Sakhmet

m w3js

IV 72,6-7 Ile verb applies to other things also,: ..

prosperthe offering vessels the falcon VI 155,8 when Horus of wdw pn makes im. f nn mwt. f he causesto 4tY 4L VII 102,3. Lbn iLkrw.

then 'onedoesnot live or shootsthe arrow of Sakhmet thrive by it andonedoesnot die! I 3132 alsoLord of Mesen ;

In phrases: w3,d-msh' (Wb,1265,25 GR) an epithetof Horus Behdet 91\ '25 dsr-hprw 1128,3 (pl. 262) in an offering of four caskets cloth. of W Also at Dendera.


papyrus plant

Wb 1263 (7) to 264 (4) DG77 Cr. 493b ; CED 217 ; KH 279 greens general in w3d is a papyrusstalk with the leafy flower headat the top. It is symbolicof Lower Egypt where therewere papyrusswampsin ancienttimes and it was herethat Horus was hiddenfrom Sethand broughtup. The plant is the symbolof vitality andalsoof protectionandboth of thesequalifieswere of associated W3dt , the uraeu goddess Buto , PeandDep. with The plant is the objectof several with Lower Egypt andrelatedto the offering rituals, all connected 134-143]. inheritance the kingship[seeDittmar, Blumenp.50,99ff., of productsof the 'Offering papyrusand geese.,: togetherthey are the two abundant Dnk/hrp w3d r3


Delta marshes Horus, who most often receives the gift, is in his aspect Horus Lord of Mesen and . Lord of 13rw - never Horus Behdet. He returns to the king produce of the earth the flood and field , 7 ltA' 1476,4-11 ; or the king receives supremacyover and from the whole of the Two lands Nine Bows 7' the Two Lands and 7 IV 391,16 ; Horus slays the enemies of the king VII

101,8-102,3. The god can be accompanied by Unt-13bt, the Lower Egyptian form of Hathor and 7 1374,10-375,6 ; together they ensurea provision of birds and geeseand fields with their produce: IV 120,4-121,4 -, rt 0 7, IV 276,12-277,10 There is also punning on w3ji: . 4'w. k m U brp 7V (8)111

also says ., sw3tW tie 71, is offered to Horus accompaniedby a series 192,18-193,12.In the Chamber of Behdet too s; Lower Egyptian minor deities who guarantee the kingship and all produce of the Delta 1 of 306,12-307,14. Usually the king wears the Red Crown plus atef for this offering (PI.63 4th reg) : the (pl. 30blst reg.); hemhemty (pl. 107 4th rcg.) and he holds up a bundle of papyrus plants atef alone

and here. Khent-labet


is offered to Wadjetas

111231,13-232,3 V 100,11-101,4 where she

king from evil and harm and makes his body thrive. The king wears the Blue Crown and, protects the Red Crown respectively. is also made to Horus Behdet, Lord of Mesen, to establish his identity as the Horus of Ibis offering the Delta marshes: VII 258,16-259.12 Sma-BehdetVH 173,6-174,3. The offerings have the two-fold purpose of ensuring the 'health' of the king and of his dominance over Lower Egypt. Ile uniting of the papyrus plant and Upper Egyptian reeds symbolises the union of the Two Lands, as in the writing of t3wy as 450,11 ; snsn swt dmd'm-'b T7 T 4$\ Ve and it is often alluded to : swt 1 14 IV 55,11 ; s'rw reeds are united with are united by BB I VII 173,12. with bnw plants are offered to Amun . Lord of

The plant has a number of other qualities sitn hr brightens the face of the god or king: 1555,15; 'Twill 1565,8 and in papyrus texts passim: e.g. 1476,7

Goddessesin the Late and GR periods often carry one w3d-papyrus stalk as the counterpart of the, [c f. LA IV p.671-2]. From the Rarnesside period in particular lioness headed male wsr sceptre goddessescarry the papyrus, especially Bastet, Sakhmet, Menhet and the papyrus as a symbol of,


of with Hathor.From the,,., andaboveall of the vital forceandtherenewal life is connected protection Old Kingdom the ritual of W w3d is performed Hathor andas a Delta cow shecanbe shown for by It is impliedthat sheis thenurseof Horusin the marshes.Lioness surrounded papyrus marshes . her and Khent-labet with papyrus goddesses theragingform of Hathorso theyshare association are V wearsthe ) headdress Hathor(e.g. pl.93 3rd reg. [Montet,Kbni 14.1957 p.102-108 of .

K.Sethe, ZAS 64,1929 p.6-91. The papyrusenjoysfast and luxuriant growthand like the lotus grows up greenand living out of decayed that it is a potentsymbolof renaissance life from death.In the hands and matterandmud so Sakhmet-Hathorwho controlsdangers the time of the renewalof the year,the w3d sceptreis of at , his king and guarantee life -Sh aV#et is thus the symbolof her powerto grantthe re-birth of the is Frequently scePtm usedthus '7 Lady of thePaprus 268,5[Germond Sekhmet the VI P-267-2701 . W3dt w3d t3wy ra YI IV 72,6-7 Hathorsw3d ldbwy m V 101,2; sw3d b'w. k m 71 IV 109,5also IV 132,16


in my handV 225.2

Z,\, bm.k ds. k IV 120,5-6. Ile sceptre protects(bw) [J.C.Goyon jConflumdon p.119no.3081:
dt. k from evil VII 173,7 ; and Horus grants that the body of the king

of Wadjet111232,1

is -

healthyby means the papyrusVII 101.17 The sceptre be further qualified as the w3d n 'nb can of . 'papyrus life (from GR texts) : Sakhmet protectsthe falconwith of TDWadietvi 155,10; Wadiet 1=0 T74 -7/ in her handas

I protectyour majestyfrom harm and 7P Tie1423.17 ;

111232,3 in a greencloth offering Vadjet makesthrive your body with ; ,

t! 7 Ik Horusgivesthe king driving away evil from your body this your beautifulpapyrus 13 =-w ( text VII 296,1 ; Wadjetsays 'I adornyour majestywith Y!A I the noblepapyrusand I drive. , awayyour enemies'VI 51,13. In the'17th LE nome,the pehutext alludesto the mythical importance the papyrusplant The of .
has mnh plants and'-r-3"ma, pehu 'a'-' imn m,
C313 -%m

hwn 'and its paths hidden in

secret papyrus of the child [Gardiner, 'trackless papyrus' JEA 30,1944 p.53 and see Montet , OP-CitT-* IV ; y p. 107] IV 35,18-36,1 in the Khent-labetnome, the land containsgreener and

Sekhethas--"'fN V- -- plantsin her hands1565,10-11. 33,8 ; the goddess d wasalso a generalterm for plantsandis usedin this way in Coptic anddemotic. The papyrus w3,


for its greenessand luxuriant growth is the representativeof plants in general but it is difficult to say where texts specifically mean papyrus or plants (Wb 1266,11 GR). The Edfu examples quoted by Wb for 'plants' come partly from w3d and 0 offerings and partly from contexts where a general term would serve as well as 'papyrus' (for example 1555,15-16 even here this is followed by a referenceto dw3d may have served in temple texts for the general term leaving w3d to Khemmis). T'he term w3, refer to 'papyrus' plants and all its implications.


column papyrus Wb 1264 (8) MK alsoLA V 345-7

featureof Egyptianarchitecture, earliestknown is from the Step the Papyrus columnsarea common into the temple: the Temple p2371 and at Edfu they are incorporated Pyramidcomplex [Spencer. Hypostyle Hall contains I +'T VI 10,8 ; the columnshave capitals of nw-plants .

T ve IV3,7. mntw-plants bnr-trees and


grain Wb 1266 (12) Late GR ' Charpentier 307 no.

that the field is producinggrain and oneof the variantnames In a bnk sbt text, it goeson to stress for grain is w3d: 'T? Tefor 'grain is green'VI 260,14. Thereis a precedent this in a

# Periodat Karnak: in the court north of the IM of annals the Third Intermediate text of tpy4mw //// Wb Beleg Karnak <680> It. may have been in more general use than r0m, here. suggested


child, son Wb 1264 (5-7) GR

Literally this is 'offshoof.' derived from w3jj 'a living papyrusstalk! i.e.son. It is almost always followed by a complementshowing the king or god as the son of a god e.g. ]Vr des [Cat. Mon. I p.57] and at Edfu Hr. w3d-Shmt and w3d-n-W3dt ]Vr.w3d-Shmt [examples collectedby J-C. Goyon,BEFAO74 , 1974p.76-8] . Goyon of that 25 of his 27 examples were directly connected with rituals to avert the dangers the noticed Wsir


in The termis first attested theyear, pestilence emissaries thelioness goddess. of of changeover and LO GR It occursin the longer phrasekir w3JJn Sbmt b3-tp the NK and is especiallytin temples S T lete iwf= -tm n 'nb 'child of Sakhmet is aroundhis (sim) limbs , comp in lif e' : %% who 7,, III 111309,2 VI 99,14-15; VI 156,3; VI 269,5-6; VII 177,16-17 VII 178,34 and ; J; Tj) VIII 80,16 . 12 317.7.Also offering of the Two Greatsof Magic the king is A greencloth offeringthe king is for of explanation this : "rake W31it 145,8 .A papyrusoffering text offers a kind s3 ':N. 7 your body which strengthens is your nameand your

headiw.k rn 7%7-aoe nb iy you are Horus the son of majestyappears the falcon on his as Part of the reasonfor this may be the similarity Sakhmet Lord of the papyrus' VII 258,16-17. and thus a pun on signs.This may also be alluded to as early as the, signs and 711\ 'the two Horus (alsoUquier, Mon.Fun.,-,, 7" offsprings! PyramidTexts: Pyr 451c "61 betweenthe de Pepi II ,I Sekhmet 91 n2l ; U06re, ZAS 84,1959 20) [c L alsoGermond, p. and pl. 13 1.1055 7 I

p.94 (a) - p.951.

In sistra texts the king has a title

n Sbmt IV 357,7 ; also

V 258.11 , which

Ibrahim interpreted as a priestly musician tide [Kingship p. 1521. to the king at Edfu in papyrus offerings w3d-n-W3dt : also applied 231,17 ; or papyrus and geeseofferings 2-3) ;T ointment text TT INT Wadjet in Khernmis III of 7N 1A7? " -

III 1932(also the falcon is

A T J/ 7 VII 308,3 ; in amd IV 120,11 ; IV 276,18 and in a sistra text 4M try 0n Ur VI 100,11 ; and in a purification text

122,11.[Ibrahim.Kingshipp.151-2believes to be a Lower Egyptianpriestly tide 1. this -

Dry-W. d. f The epithet can be applied to Horus at least from the NK when a list of Memphite gods in the Neferturnchamberof the Abydos temple mentionshim [Abydos I 39b]. Horus was raised in the to papyrusmarshes whenhe became enough tackleSethhe flew to the top of a papyrusstalk and old to announceie was ready . Ijr-try-w3d. f is thus Horus as the grown form of the falcon . It may the an alsorepresent equivalence HorusandNefertum, suggesting primordialcreation.At Dendera, of 48a)- so this can Edfu Horuscanbe equated on with a snake(andshownasa snake the lotusD11 and further aspect'of thenameI.,In the late period bronzesshowing Horus on a lotus were made be a


[Schl6gl -Der Sonnengottauf der Blilte, 1977 p. 15-16 with notes; Morenz -Schubert, Der Gott auf

der Blume, 1954pp.64-68with examples]. 'no671 At Edfu : Horus 155,12 ; in the list of names HorusBehdethe is Hr 'TN of ro-v 1 182 (44) 23 (105) ; slight variant Hr 21& and is called : "Y 1 265,11 In the .

procession priestscarrying standards one is of , 563,11. The epithetcan also apply to Khonsu

1538,5 *,I

1258,18 ; 1273,16 ; 1249,2 ; the Houseof the

7 1250,6 Khonsuhere is Leg belongsto r-1 equatedwith Neferturnas a moon child and . symbolof renewal. I


raw meat Wb 1268 (4) D.18

BI, 2,461andthe word In Nddle Kingdomtextsw3d could be appliedto food [P.Kah.5,5 Peas. is attested a tomb of the l8th'Dynasty and on New Kingdom stelae. It derivesfrom w3d in the in it I)e sense fresh',so that whenappliedto meatit means is raw. At Effa in a gargoyletext, the lion 'his heartis contentat wnm foes' IV 279,17 blood'. also Urk VIII <48,1> Montu wnm .cE 5\ C i i eatingdie raw of his

s'm snf cats flesh and drinks


greeneyepaint WbI267(9-M Haffis, Mineralsp.145

In generalw3d canrefer to all greenpigmentsand eye paints,mainly malachite,but also verdigris andchrysocolla. At Edfu w3d is usedin the ritual of presenting cosmeticswhere it is often paired with black eye msdmt . The rite is introducedas pnk 286,15 ; bnk di for Horus'Behdet1425,11 ; with Hathor 184.4 ;R VI 277,10. It is also in the form

'msdmt to Min V 191,11; with Isis

Hathor 111 Onk I. % r imnt. f 143,17; TsisH msdmt to msdmt r i3bt. f to Min and. .....

84,13. In all casesthe king has mining epithetssuchas sr-bi3 or md3y or is connected with the God's Land He can also be comparedto Min the Coptite, whosecult centrewas the point from .


The mineral is said to come from Pant the Yt3w mines and where roads went to the mining regions. , the God's Land - showing its easterndesertand ? unf origins. In return the gods promise domination over foreign lands, the produce of Punt , Gods Land and the mines and becausethis is a cosmetic for the eyes 'all that the eyes (i. e. sun and moon) see' and the protection of the eye. The king is shown most often with -tScrown (e.g. pIA5b) or Double Crown (XII 339) offering two bags containing In a practical sensethe cosmetics were for the protection of the

the minerals to the gods le

eyes from disease,but it can also be connectedwith the Eye of Horus and making it whole in order to maintain the balance and perfection of the cosmos.Often by this offering the king'supplies the wWt eye with its needs'(184,11). The texts also pun on w3d: 7ake it is for the right eye above all from the irt-UrT7. HI144; VII277,11. 17% n.f green cosmetic it makes the eye well ' 184,6 111143.18 VI 191,12-14 and it also comes

The Edfu texts show the pattern of the ritual which is also found at Dendera,Philae, Kom Ombo and has beenstudied in detail by El-Kordy [Voffrande des fards dans les templesPtoldmaiques,ASAF- 68, 1982 p. 195-2221. I

Elsewhere in the temple w3d is used to fill the eye (as one of its requirements) and it is the first named in the list of substancespresented by Re-Harakhty : mo wjj3t = T% : -41- Vem -

VIII 136,6 [destroyed in MIA I p. 104 (15)] In a list of lands and their mineral products . is brought by


where it is said to be from the east 'efflux of your (Horus) two eyes and

drives away harm/dirf VIII 74,7-10.

dw w3.

Wb 1264 (11) GR

In the Laboratorytextsat Edfu, HorusBehdetas theLord of God'sLand is declared as m iswy n 'py 'Lord of spices(or plants?) in the workshopof the wingeddisk! 11194,15.A later text has 'NUke sweethis efflux with -771' 11227,9which implies that w3dw is sweet

smellingand thusis unlikely to be a plant here. In a myrrh offering , Hathor givesthe king the God's land with what is in it namely , At Denderaalso,; 1419,14- againmore likely to be resinsor spiceshere. i'b. ti rn

from Punt DII 218,3 : in the burningof incense


r. t nfrmingle

with your beautiful face! MD IV 9. The word may derive from w3d 'fresh resin'.


Wb 1269 (12-19) Pyr.

The GreatGreen,from the earliesttextswas regarded the primevaloceanwhich surrounded the as by Land of Egypt.In Pyr 707bPepiis called'theprimevalmoundof the world surrounded w3d-wr' andrepresentations theworld showit asa circle of wateraroundland (Egypt),which couldalsobe of Yn-wr [J.J.Cl6reMDAIK 16,1957p.30 ff. ]. The term could apply to any largebody of water called Sea outsideEgypt suchas the Mediterranean [KRI 11345,13]or the Red Sea[Sinai Inscr.Nr.211 Helck MIO 2,1954, p.192] or the Fayum [KRI Il 880,13]and it could also be water in general, to closingin over the land particularlythe inundation waterswhich might seem be theprimevalocean [c f. LA III col.1276-79 Meer; Vander Plas,Cruep.135-61.

T At Edfutheterm apply theprimeval : Seshat theIdngthenorth thenmit to of gives to seas can &=VI 338,1 flood in 1164,15fear thekingis put, lands ; of the asfaras"'"=' ; overflows .
in the middle of, "Fv -WIC comes from the hwt-3htT and islands of the kj3w-Nbw 1,500.11 ;, libation. water for the ritual T,"f 31'=` 1500,6. Horus Behdet is the god who controls the

*"' T\ -2"" j: r- V 1,2 hrp ; and it comesout of him "w3d-wr : h' drivesthe Angry,Oneto the seaV 144,8 e

VIII 9,7-8 ; also--->

More generallyw3d-wr is a word for the inundation Vx=:r is broughtflowing over the mounds 1113,1 the Nile in flood is ; wnwn.f hr ww.k it flows upon your land 1582,5

floods the sandbanks IV 46,1. It is also containedin canals : the hn-sm3 canal (in Sma-Behdet nome)has poursout aroundthe h3w-nbw IV 35,11. It is also the which 1125,14.

lake,-where king purifieshimself in the sacred the water

d-n-rnpt-nfrt w3. The rnpt. nfrt is Sakhmetso this phraseis synonymous with w3d-Shmt : Maat is receivedlike Re receives VII 195,2and also, 7-- 1 VII 57,13-14 In other temples .

Re 9sp YVfjL at a Menat offering Philae 1230 (18) ; Maat is on the hands of the king like-Re receives Benddite Philae 42,6 ; Maat is received as Re receivesl' , IIZ; =:,"-,-,


CD IV 25,5. Here the role of the papyrus is protective, as it protected Horus at Khemmis


w3d-9m' Upper Egyptian green stone Wb 1267 (5-6) 18th Dynasty In the Book of the Dead this mineral is used for a variety of purposes: spells are written on mummy T bandagesin c=1 ,j Spell 163,15-16; the wings of the falc6n are madeof

T Spell 77,3 ; it also adorns Nfin-Amun at Luxor

KRI H 626,3. It is also used to make-

T &