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Study on sex

sex differences in body temperature regulation and thermal comfort


when using airair-conditioners in summer
* ** *** **
* ** ***()
Ayako YASUOKA*, Hiroko KUBO**, Kazuyo TSUZUKI***, Norio ISODA**
*Graduate School of Nara Womens University, **Nara Womens University,
***National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
1

Table 1

City

Room A

Nara City

Room B
Room C
Room D

Osaka City
Suita City
Suita City

1)

3.1 2)

Pre-Test
-10
Air Temperature
Humidity
Globe Temperature
Air Velocity
Blood Pressure
Oral Temperature
Skin Temperature
Thermal Sensation / Comfort
Questionnaire
Hegiht/Weight

2.

85

34
19
85

11
3
1

3) 15:00-16:30 4) 17:00-18:30

Test Room(25)
30

60

Table 3
Average (SD)
Height (cm)

**

Weight (kg)

**

Body Fat (%)

Male

Subjects
Female

171.5 (5.8)
61.1 (8.8)

**

158.1 (5.0)
++

15.0 (5.4)

2009 8 100 (1829 )

Body Surface Area(m )

1 4

Between males and females

11

Continuously recorded every 60 minutes

2009/7/30-8/23
(except 8/4, 8/5, 8/10)
2009/8/4
2009/8/5
2009/8/10

Table 2

Period

1) 10:00-11:30 2) 13:00-14:30

Subjects
Male Female

Examination site

2 **
**

1.71 (0.11)
P<0.01

49.7 (6.0)
25.2 (5.4)

++

1.49 (0.09)

Natinal Average
Male
Female
170.6 (5.4)

158.6 (5.4)

59.5 (6.9)

53.5 (7.7)

1.69 (0.10)

1.54 (0.11)

Between subjects and national average

++

3.

(-10 )(

3.1

) 60

3) 3

25

(H:0.1,0.6,1.1,1.6m)(H:0.6m)

(H:0.6m)(H:0.6m) 1m

50 70%

P<0.01

Male

Female
(n=52)

(n=51)

(n=48)

(n=49)

0%

20%

20%

40%

60%

80%
100%
(n=30)

(n=70)

(n=50)

3.2
4

20% 40% 60% 80%


100% 0%
(n=50)

4)

(clo )
(SD) 0.43(0.10) clo 0.47(0.09)

0%

20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0%


(n=50)

20%

40%

60%

80% 100%
(n=30)

(n=50)

clo (P<0.01)

(n=70)

2.8(0.8)
0%

4.2(0.8)(P<0.01)

20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0%

Hardy and DuBois 5)


26.4(6.7) %
30.0(7.3) %
(P<0.01)
3.3
(10 )(60 )

(SD) 29.7(1.58)65.9(13.49)%
25.0(0.82)60.3(16.77)

Tor

SET*
Tsfore
head

5 3

60 (P<0.01)

Tspalm

(Tor) 30 (P<0.05)60
(P<0.01)60
(P<0.01)
(Ts-forehead) 0 (P<0.05)60
(P<0.01)
(Ts-palm) 0 60

Tsback
of
hand

*
Measured Value
0 min
30 min
Male
36.98 (0.30) 36.89 (0.26)
Female
36.92 (0.27) 36.81 (0.30)

Decreased
Male
Female
Measured Value
Male
Female
Decreased
Male
Female
Measured Value
Male
Female
Decreased
Male
Female
Measured Value
Male
Female
Decreased
Male
Female

0-30
-0.09
-0.11

of hand)

6) 2450%
120 34

30-60
-0.07
-0.13
*

all
0.45
0.10
all
3.5
1.1
all
28.2
7.2

0_60min P<0.01
0_60min P<0.01

**

0-60
-0.16
-0.24

60 min
33.9 (0.61)
33.6 (0.67)
0-60
-0.48
-0.57

0_60min P<0.01
0_60min P<0.01

0 min
34.2 (0.68)
34.0 (0.70)

60 min
33.2 (0.99)
33.1 (0.92)
0-60
-0.94
-0.94
60 min
32.6 (1.12)
32.5 (0.87)
0-60
-0.47
-0.96

0 min
33.4 (0.87)
33.4 (0.69)

**

60 min
36.82 (0.30)
36.67 (0.35)

**

0 min
34.4 (0.56)
34.2 (0.68)

0_60min P<0.01
0_60min P<0.01

0_60min P<0.01
0_60min P<0.01

**

Between males and females P<0.05 , P<0.01

Table 6

(P<0.05)
(Ts-back

80% 100%

Table 5

3.4.1

60%

Clo Value (clo ) Male Female


**ave.
0.43
0.47
SD
0.10
0.09
Number of clothing items Male Female
**ave.
2.8
4.2
SD
0.8
0.8
Percentage of Exposed Skin (% ) Male Female
**ave.
26.4
30.0
SD
6.7
7.3
Between males and femalse ** P<0.01

5860

3.4

40%

Table 4

4
SET*

20%

Fig.1

Systolic
pressure (torr)
Diastolic
pressure (torr)

Male
**
Female
Male
**
Female
Male
Mean
**
pressure (torr) Female
** Significant difference P<0.01

0min
114(14)
98(13)
73(13)
61(9)
87(12)
76(10)

30min
60min
110(16)
110(13) 0-30min, 0-60min (P<0.05)
**
** 96(10)
96(11)
69(13)
71(12)
0-30min (P<0.05)
**
**
61(10)
62(9)
84(13)
84(12)
**
**
75(9)
73(8)
0-60min (P<0.01)

3.4.2

very hot
hot
warm
slightly warm
neutral
slightly cool
cool
cold
very cold

very hot
hot
warm
slightly warm
neutral
slightly cool
cool
cold
very cold

(0-60 )
(0-60 )(P<0.01)0-60

Whole Body

4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

**

Hand

Thermal Sensation

2
(-10 )
0

3060
60

very hot
hot
warm
slightly warm
neutral
slightly cool
cool
cold
very cold

24.0
25.0
SET*()

Thermal Comfort Sensation

26.0

27.0

slightly
comfortable 1
neutral 0
slightly -1
uncomfortable
uncomfortable

-2
-3
-4
22.0

23.0

24.0
25.0
SET*()

26.0

27.0

4 SET* (60 )
very comfortable
comfortable

3
2

slightly
comfortable 1
neutral 0
slightly -1
uncomfortable
uncomfortable
very uncomfortable

-2
-3
-4
-2

P<0.01 **

Thermal Sensation

5 (60 )

5
very hot

hot

-1

warm

P<0.05 *

-3

slightly warm

Male
Female
Male
Female

-4

neutral

- 0.01 x + 0.54
R = 0.47 **

-5

slightly cool

y=

-0.19 x 2

cool

y = -0.43 x 2 - 1.02 x + 0.66


R = 0.44 **

cold

Comfort Sensation

-4

-20-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

23.0

very cold

SET*

-3

Time (min)

-5
22.0

SET*23.525.5
SET*26.5

Male
Female

-2

Thermal Comfort Sensation

4 60 SET*

0
-1

-3
-4

comfortable

Male
Female

3 60 SET*

3.5.3 SET*

**

very
comfortable 3

very
uncomfortable

3.5.2 SET*

**

**

0
-1
-2

**

3 SET* (60 )

SET*

23 SET*

-20-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

3
2
1

Back

5
4

Male
Female

30

25

**

Time (min)

3.5.1

3.5

very
comfortable
comfortable
slightly
comfortable
neutral
slightly
uncomfortable
uncomfortable
very
uncomfortable

**

**

5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

(P<0.05)(P<0.01)

very hot
hot
warm
slightly warm
neutral
slightly cool
cool
cold
very cold

**

5 -20-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

630
(0-30 0-60 )

5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

**

32 60

3.5.4
560

25

60

1)

2560

2) 2560

3)

4) 2560

7)

10

5)

25

25

60

9)

Beshir

1)

Beshir
43.3

10)

1) Beshir, M.Y., Ramsey, J.D., Comparison between male and


female subjective estimates of thermal effects and sensations.
Appl. Ergon. 12.1, pp..29-33 (1981)
2) Nakano, J., Tanabe, S., Kimura, K., Differences in
perception of indoor environment between Japanese and
non-Japanese workers. Energy and Buildings. 34,
pp..615-621 (2002)
3)
1997-98
JIS 2000
4) ISO 9920, Ergonomics of thermal environment-Estimation of
the thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of a clothing
ensenble. (2007)
5) Hardy, J. D., DuBois, E. F., The technique of measuring
radiation and convection, Journal of Nutrition, 15, pp461-475
(1938)
6)
-
-, , 542
, pp.35-40 (2001)
7) Lee, Y.H., Tokura, H., Thermophysiological significance and
the role of local clothing in ambient 10oC environments.
Appl. Human. Sci. 17(1), pp..19-26 (1998)
8) Lu, S.-H., Dai, Y.-T., Normal body temperature and the
effects of age, sex, ambient temperature and body mass
index on normal oral temperature: A prospective,
comparative study. Int. J. Nur Stu. 46, pp.661-668 (2009)
9) Parsons, K.C., The effects of gender, acclimation state, the
opportunity to adjust clothing and physical disability on
requirements for thermal comfort. Energy and Buildings.
34 (6), pp..593-596 (2002)
10) Grivel, F., Candas, V., Ambient temperatures preferred by
young European males and females at rest. Ergon. 34 (3),
pp..365-378 (1991)