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Symbols and notations

57

In the stratosphere T = TS = constant so:


p
1
p1
 =  and  = RT

p2
2
where R is the universal gas constant: R =
287.26 J/kg K
Table 3.5 shows the international standard
atmosphere (ISA). Table 3.6 shows the lesser
used US (COESA) standard atmosphere.

Table 3.5 International standard atmosphere (sea level


conditions)
Property

Metric value

Imperial value

Pressure (p)

101 304 Pa

2116.2 lbf/ft2

Density ()

1.225 kg/m3

0.002378 slug/ft3

Temperature (t)

15C or 288.2 K 59F or 518.69R

Speed of sound (a)

340 m/s

Viscosity ()

1.789  10
kg/m s

3.737  107
slug/ft s

Kinematic viscosity
()

1.460  105
m2/s

1.5723  104
ft2/s

1116.4 ft/s
5

Thermal conductivity 0.0253 J/m s/K

0.01462 BTU/ft
hF

Gas constant (R)

287.1 J/kg K

1715.7 ft
lb/slug/R

Specific heat (Cp)

1005 J/kg K

6005 ft lb/slug/R

Specific heat (Cv)

717.98 J/kg K

4289 ft lb/slug/R

Ratio of specific
heats (
)

1.40

1.40

Gravitational
acceleration (g)

9.80665 m/s2

32.174 ft/s2

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58

Table 3.5 Continued


Altitude
(m)

Temperature
(C)

Pressure ratio
(p/po)

Density ratio
(/o)

Dynamic
viscosity ratio
(/o)

(ft)

Kinematic
viscosity ratio
(/o)

a
(m/s)

0
152
304
457
609
762
914
1066
1219
1371
1524

0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000

15.2
14.2
13.2
12.2
11.2
10.2
9.3
8.3
7.3
6.3
5.3

1.0000
0.9821
0.9644
0.9470
0.9298
0.9129
0.8962
0.8798
0.8637
0.8477
0.8320

1.0000
0.9855
0.9711
0.9568
0.9428
0.9289
0.9151
0.9015
0.8881
0.8748
0.8617

1.0000
0.9973
0.9947
0.9920
0.9893
0.9866
0.9839
0.9812
0.9785
0.9758
0.9731

1.0000
1.0121
1.0243
1.0367
1.0493
1.0622
1.0752
1.0884
1.1018
1.1155
1.1293

340.3
339.7
339.1
338.5
338.0
337.4
336.8
336.2
335.6
335.0
334.4

1676
1828
1981
2133
2286

5500
6000
6500
7000
7500

4.3
3.3
2.3
1.3
0.3

0.8166
0.8014
0.7864
0.7716
0.7571

0.8487
0.8359
0.8232
0.8106
0.7983

0.9704
0.9677
0.9649
0.9622
0.9595

1.1434
1.1577
1.1722
1.1870
1.2020

333.8
333.2
332.6
332.0
331.4

59

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330.8
330.2
329.6
329.0
328.4

1.2172
1.2327
1.2484
1.2644
1.2807

0.9567
0.9540
0.9512
0.9485
0.9457

0.7860
0.7739
0.7620
0.7501
0.7385

0.7428
0.7287
0.7148
0.7012
0.6877

0.6
1.6
2.6
3.6
4.6

8000
8500
9000
9500
10000

2438
2590
2743
2895
3048

327.8
327.2
326.6
326.0
325.4
324.7
324.1
323.5
322.9
322.3

1.2972
1.3140
1.3310
1.3484
1.3660
1.3840
1.4022
1.4207
1.4396
1.4588

0.9430
0.9402
0.9374
0.9347
0.9319
0.9291
0.9263
0.9235
0.9207
0.9179

0.7269
0.7155
0.7043
0.6932
0.6822
0.6713
0.6606
0.6500
0.6396
0.6292

0.6745
0.6614
0.6486
0.6360
0.6236
0.6113
0.5993
0.5875
0.5758
0.5643

5.6
6.6
7.6
8.6
9.6
10.6
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.5

10500
11000
11500
12000
12500
13000
13500
14000
14500
15000

3200
3352
3505
3657
3810
3962
4114
4267
4419
4572

321.7
321.0
320.4
319.8
319.2
318.5

1.4783
1.4981
1.5183
1.5388
1.5596
1.5809

0.9151
0.9123
0.9094
0.9066
0.9038
0.9009

0.6190
0.6090
0.5990
0.5892
0.5795
0.5699

0.5531
0.5420
0.5311
0.5203
0.5098
0.4994

15.5
16.5
17.5
18.5
19.5
20.5

15500
16000
16500
17000
17500
18000

4724
4876
5029
5181
5334
5486

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60

Table 3.5 Continued


Altitude
(m)

Temperature
(C)

Pressure ratio
(p/po)

Density ratio
(/o)

Dynamic
viscosity ratio
(/o)

(ft)

Kinematic
viscosity ratio
(/o)

a
(m/s)

5638
5791
5943
6096

18500
19000
19500
20000

21.5
22.4
23.4
24.4

0.4892
0.4791
0.4693
0.4595

0.5604
0.5511
0.5419
0.5328

0.8981
0.8953
0.8924
0.8895

1.6025
1.6244
1.6468
1.6696

317.9
317.3
316.7
316.0

6248
6400
6553
6705
6858
7010
7162
7315
7467
7620

20500
21000
21500
22000
22500
23000
23500
24000
24500
25000

25.4
26.4
27.4
28.4
29.4
30.4
31.4
32.3
33.3
34.3

0.4500
0.4406
0.4314
0.4223
0.4134
0.4046
0.3960
0.3876
0.3793
0.3711

0.5238
0.5150
0.5062
0.4976
0.4891
0.4806
0.4723
0.4642
0.4561
0.4481

0.8867
0.8838
0.8809
0.8781
0.8752
0.8723
0.8694
0.8665
0.8636
0.8607

1.6927
1.7163
1.7403
1.7647
1.7895
1.8148
1.8406
1.8668
1.8935
1.9207

315.4
314.8
314.1
313.5
312.9
312.2
311.6
311.0
310.3
309.7

7772

25500

35.3

0.3631

0.4402

0.8578

1.9484

309.0

61

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308.4
307.7
307.1
306.4
305.8
305.1
304.5
303.8
303.2

1.9766
2.0053
2.0345
2.0643
2.0947
2.1256
2.1571
2.1892
2.2219

0.8548
0.8519
0.8490
0.8460
0.8431
0.8402
0.8372
0.8342
0.8313

0.4325
0.4248
0.4173
0.4098
0.4025
0.3953
0.3881
0.3811
0.3741

0.3552
0.3474
0.3398
0.3324
0.3250
0.3178
0.3107
0.3038
0.2970

36.3
37.3
38.3
39.3
40.3
41.3
42.3
43.2
44.2

26000
26500
27000
27500
28000
28500
29000
29500
30000

7924
8077
8229
8382
8534
8686
8839
8991
9144

302.5
301.9
301.2
300.5
299.9
299.2
298.6
297.9
297.2
296.5

2.2553
2.2892
2.3239
2.3592
2.3952
2.4318
2.4692
2.5074
2.5463
2.5859

0.8283
0.8253
0.8223
0.8194
0.8164
0.8134
0.8104
0.8073
0.8043
0.8013

0.3673
0.3605
0.3539
0.3473
0.3408
0.3345
0.3282
0.3220
0.3159
0.3099

0.2903
0.2837
0.2772
0.2709
0.2647
0.2586
0.2526
0.2467
0.2410
0.2353

45.2
46.2
47.2
48.2
49.2
50.2
51.2
52.2
53.2
54.1

30500
31000
31500
32000
32500
33000
33500
34000
34500
35000

9296
9448
9601
9753
9906
10058
10210
10363
10515
10668

295.9
295.2

2.6264
2.6677

0.7983
0.7952

0.3039
0.2981

0.2298
0.2243

55.1
56.1

35500
36000

10820
10972

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62

Table 3.5 Continued


Altitude

Temperature
(C)

Pressure ratio
(p/po)

Density ratio
(/o)

Dynamic
viscosity ratio
(/o)

Kinematic
viscosity ratio
(/o)

a
(m/s)

(m)

(ft)

10999
11277
11582
11887
12192

36089
37000
38000
39000
40000

56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3

0.2234
0.2138
0.2038
0.1942
0.1851

0.2971
0.2843
0.2710
0.2583
0.2462

0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947

2.6751
2.7948
2.9324
3.0768
3.2283

295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1

12496
12801
13106
13411
13716

41000
42000
43000
44000
45000

56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3

0.1764
0.1681
0.1602
0.1527
0.1456

0.2346
0.2236
0.2131
0.2031
0.1936

0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947

3.3872
3.5540
3.7290
3.9126
4.1052

295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1

14020
14325
14630
14935
15240

46000
47000
48000
49000
50000

56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3

0.1387
0.1322
0.1260
0.1201
0.1145

0.1845
0.1758
0.1676
0.1597
0.1522

0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947

4.3073
4.5194
4.7419
4.9754
5.2203

295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1

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295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1

6.9652
7.3081
7.6679
8.0454
8.4416

0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947

0.1141
0.1087
0.1036
0.98781
0.94141

0.85791
0.81761
0.77931
0.74271
0.70791

56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3

56000
57000
58000
59000
60000

17068
17373
17678
17983
18288

295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1

8.8572
9.2932
9.7508
10.231
10.735

0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947

0.89721
0.85511
0.81501
0.77681
0.74031

0.67461
0.64301
0.61281
0.58411
0.55661

56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3

61000
62000
63000
64000
65000

18592
18897
19202
19507
19812

295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1

11.263
11.818
12.399
13.010
13.650

0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947

0.70561
0.67251
0.64091
0.61081
0.58221

0.53051
0.50561
0.48191
0.45931
0.43771

56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3

66000
67000
68000
69000
70000

20116
20421
20726
21031
21336

63

295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1

5.4773
5.7470
6.0300
6.3268
6.6383

0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947
0.7947

0.1451
0.1383
0.1318
0.1256
0.1197

0.1091
0.1040
0.99091
0.94441
0.90011

56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3
56.3

51000
52000
53000
54000
55000

15544
15849
16154
16459
16764

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64

Table 3.6 US/COESA atmosphere (SI units)


Alt
(km)

/o

p/po

t/to

temp.
(K)

press.
(N/m2)

dens.
(kg/m3)

a
(m/s)

(106 kg/ms)


(m2/s)

2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36

1.2067E+0
1.0000E+0
8.2168E1
6.6885E1
5.3887E1
4.2921E1
3.3756E1
2.5464E1
1.8600E1
1.3589E1
9.9302E2
7.2578E2
5.2660E2
3.8316E2
2.7964E2
2.0470E2
1.5028E2
1.1065E2
8.0709E3
5.9245E3

1.2611E+0
1.0000E+0
7.8462E1
6.0854E1
4.6600E1
3.5185E1
2.6153E1
1.9146E1
1.3985E1
1.0217E1
7.4662E2
5.4569E2
3.9945E2
2.9328E2
2.1597E2
1.5950E2
1.1813E2
8.7740E3
6.5470E3
4.9198E3

1.0451
1.0000
0.9549
0.9098
0.8648
0.8198
0.7748
0.7519
0.7519
0.7519
0.7519
0.7519
0.7585
0.7654
0.7723
0.7792
0.7861
0.7930
0.8112
0.8304

301.2
288.1
275.2
262.2
249.2
236.2
223.3
216.6
216.6
216.6
216.6
216.6
218.6
220.6
222.5
224.5
226.5
228.5
233.7
239.3

1.278E+5
1.013E+5
7.950E+4
6.166E+4
4.722E+4
3.565E+4
2.650E+4
1.940E+4
1.417E+4
1.035E+4
7.565E+3
5.529E+3
4.047E+3
2.972E+3
2.188E+3
1.616E+3
1.197E+3
8.890E+2
6.634E+2
4.985E+2

1.478E+0
1.225E+0
1.007E+0
8.193E1
6.601E1
5.258E1
4.135E1
3.119E1
2.279E1
1.665E1
1.216E1
8.891E2
6.451E2
4.694E2
3.426E2
2.508E2
1.841E2
1.355E2
9.887E3
7.257E3

347.9
340.3
332.5
324.6
316.5
308.1
299.5
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1
296.4
297.7
299.1
300.4
301.7
303.0
306.5
310.1

18.51
17.89
17.26
16.61
15.95
15.27
14.58
14.22
14.22
14.22
14.22
14.22
14.32
14.43
14.54
14.65
14.75
14.86
15.14
15.43

1.25E5
1.46E5
1.71E5
2.03E5
2.42E5
2.90E5
3.53E5
4.56E5
6.24E5
8.54E5
1.17E4
1.60E4
2.22E4
3.07E4
4.24E4
5.84E4
8.01E4
1.10E3
1.53E3
2.13E3