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ABT 317 TEACHING AGRICULTURAL MECHANCS LECTURE NOTES

ABT 317 LECTURE NOTES TABLE OF CONTENTS


LECTURES 1 PLANNING AND ORGANIZING FOR AN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS TEACHING PROGRAM - I 2 PLANNING AND ORGANIZING FOR AN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS TEACHING PROGRAM - II PROJECT DESIGN, LAYOUT AND BILL OF MATERIALS SHOP TOOLS AND FASTENERS WORK AND POWER ELECTRICITY PLUMBING CONCRETE AND MASONRY AGRICULTURAL MATHEMATICS PAGE 3

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ABT 317 LECTURE 1 PLANNING AND ORGANIZING FOR AN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS TEACHING PROGRAM PART 1

CONTENTS
I. II.

AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS DEFINED AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTERS

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III. PLANNING FOR AN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS TEACHING PROGRAM A. Planning for overall program goals B. Planning/revision of curriculum content

I. AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS DEFINED A. "The selection, operation, maintenance, service, selling, and use of power units, machinery, equipment, structures, and utilities used in agriculture." - Elmer L. Cooper, author of Agricultural Mechanics - Fundamentals and Applications. B. "....includes all the unspecialized mechanical activities performed on the farm and in agriculturally oriented businesses and services." - LLoyd J. Phipps, author of Mechanics in Agriculture. II. AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTERS A. Agricultural mechanics. 1.Electrician. 2. Construction worker. 3. Machinery and equipment repairman/mechanic. 4. Parts person. 5. Salesperson. B. Ornamental horticulture. 1. Construction worker. 2. Irrigation specialist. C. Plant and soil science. 1. Well driller. 2. Irrigation system operator. 3. Land surveyor. D. Animal science. 1. Waste handling specialist. 2. Equipment operator. E. Forestry. 1. Heavy equipment operator. 2. Surveyor. 3. Maintenance technician. F. Natural resources and rural recreation. 1. Equipment operator. 2. Water control technician. G. Agricultural business management. 1. Equipment appraiser. 2. Equipment auctioneer. III. PLANNING FOR AN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS TEACHING PROGRAM A. Overall program goals and objectives. 1. Per the American Society of Agricultural Engineers and others: a. "To develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture." b. "To develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture." c. "To develop an understanding of and appreciation for career opportunities in agriculture and the preparation needed to enter and progress in agricultural occupations." d. "To develop the ability to secure satisfactory placement and to advance in agricultural occupations." e. "To develop those abilities in human relations which are essential in agricultural occupations." f. "To develop the abilities needed to exercise and follow effective leadership in fulfilling occupational, social and civic responsibilities."

2. Per Lloyd J. Phipps, author of Mechanics in Agriculture: a. "To develop desirable work ethics." b. "To discover mechanical aptitudes." c. "To develop dependable judgment in agricultural mechanics activities. d. "To develop basic skills in agricultural mechanics." e. "To develop self-confidence in performing mechanical operations." f. "To understand the underlying principles of mechanical processes." g. "To be able to recognize quality work in agricultural mechanics." h. "To develop interest in and willingness to do agricultural mechanics jobs." i. "To understand and determine which mechanical activities can be done more economically by someone else." j. "To utilize opportunities for learning by doing." k. "To develop abilities necessary for doing the unspecialized mechanical jobs that a worker in an agricultural occupation needs to be able to do." l. "To develop the ability to work cooperatively and effectively with others in a school's agricultural shop." 3. Per Confucius: a. "I hear, I forget; I see, I remember; I do, I understand". B. Planning/revision of curriculum and curriculum content. 1. Determine student needs. a. Community surveys, advisory council input, suggestions of agribusiness leaders, former students, etc. b. A program (particularly at the specialization level) would be different in Woodland than in Los Angeles. 2. Assess available resources and facilities. a. Physical resources. (1). Buildings, land, equipment, tool inventory. (2). How would you teach ag mechanics without a shop? b. Budgetary resources. c. Personnel resources. (1). What are you and your associates equipped to do based upon your education, background and interests. 3. Develop topic areas (curriculum guide) and learning outcomes. a. See California High School Basic Core at:

http://www.calaged.org/ResourceFiles/Curriculum/RevisedBasicCoreCurriculum/rcore.htm

(1). Basic Core for Agricultural Mechanics includes the following lessons (lessons highlighted in italics are required to meet the core standards and are available for download at the above site): CLF 910 MEASURING AND LAYOUT CLF911 Measuring CLF912 Calculating Area and Volume CLF913 Sketching and Drawing CLF920 TOOL USE AND SAFETY CLF921 Basic Hand and Power Tools CLF922 Tool Use and Safety CLF923 Tool Fitting CLF930 SMALL ENGINES CLF931 Engine Operation CLF932 Small Engine Maintenance

b. See California Agriculture Core Curriculum Advanced Clusters at:


http://www.calaged.org/ResourceFiles/Curriculum/advcluster/2000.htm

(1). California Agriculture Core Curriculum for Agricultural Mechanics includes the following lessons (available for download at the above site): CLF2100 TOOL USE AND MAINTENANCE AND SHOP SAFETY UNIT (CLF2101) Shop Cleaning and Tool Storage (CLF2102) Shop Safety Practices (CLF2103) Tool Identification, Safety, and Use (CLF2104) Tool Selection for the Ag Mechanics Shop (CLF2105) Sharpening Hand Tools and Grinder Safety (CLF2106) Grinder and Wheel Selection (CLF2107) Tool Sharpening Procedures (CLF2108) Tool Handle Fitting (CLF2109) Cutting Tool Construction and Repair (CLF2149) Unit Exam CLF2150 MEASUREMENTS (CLF2151) Measurement Systems (CLF2152) Reading Measuring Tools (CLF2153) Calipers and Micrometers (CLF2154) Linear Measurements (CLF2155) Square Measurements (CLF2156) Cubic Measurements (CLF2157) Weights and Measures (CLF2199) Unit Exam CLF2200 FASTENERS (CLF2201) Types and Uses of Fasteners (CLF2202) Selecting Fasteners CLF2250 OXYACETYLENE WELDING (CLF2251) Oxyacetylene Equipment & Safety (CLF2252) Oxyacetylene Equipment Setup (CLF2253) Oxyacetylene Fusion Welding (CLF2254) Four Basic Oxyacetylene Welds (CLF2255) Oxyacetylene Brazing (CLF2256) Oxyacetylene Cutting (CLF2257) Oxyacetylene Heating of Metal (CLF2258) Oxyacetylene Cutting/Welding Project (CLF2299) Unit Exam CLF2300 ARC WELDING (CLF2301) Welding Equipment and Safety (CLF2302) Striking and Maintaining an Arc (CLF2303) American Welding Society (AWS) Classification System for Electrodes (CLF2304) Four Basic Weld Joints (CLF2305) Controlling Distortion in Arc Welding (CLF2306) Weld Testing (CLF2307) Career Opportunities in Welding (CLF2349) Unit Exam

CLF2350 METALWORKING (CLF2351) Metalworking Safety (CLF2352) Identification and Use of Basic Metalworking Tools. (CLF2353) Types and Properties of Common Metalworking Materials (CLF2354) Layout and Transferring on Metal (CLF2355) Sheet Metalwork (CLF2356) Cold Metalwork (CLF2357) Hot Metalwork (CLF2399) Unit Exam CLF2400 WOODWORKING (CLF2401) Selecting Wood & Lumber (CLF2402) Measuring & Marking Wood (CLF2403) Woodworking Hand Tools (CLF2404) Woodworking Power Tools (CLF2405) Fastening Wood Joints (CLF2449) Unit Exam CLF2450 PROJECT DESIGN (CLF2451) Preparing a Working Drawing (CLF2452) Project Planning & Construction CLF2500 CONCRETE/MASONRY (CLF2502) Concrete Proportions (CLF2503) Estimating Concrete Material (CLF2504) Form Preparation And Reinforcement (CLF2505) Placing, finishing, and curing Concrete (CLF2506) Laying Masonry Units (CLF2549) UNIT EXAM CLF2550 PLUMBING (CLF2551) Plumbing Materials (CLF2552) Plumbing Fittings (CLF2553) Plumbing Tools (CLF2554) Installation of a Plumbing Project (CLF2599) Unit Exam CLF2600 ROPEWORK (CLF2601) Selection and Use of Rope (CLF2602) Rope Identification and Care (CLF2603) Knots, Hitches, and Their Uses (CLF2604) Splicing Rope (CLF2649) Unit Exam CLF2650 ELECTRICITY (CLF2651) Principles of Electricity (CLF2652) Electrical Safety (CLF2653) Conductors & Overcurrent Protection (CLF2654) Wire Splices (CLF2655) Electrical Cord Repair (CLF2656) Simple Circuit Installation (CLF2657) Testing Electric Circuits (CLF2699) Unit Exam CLF2700 SURVEYING (CLF2701) Surveying in Agriculture (CLF2702) Surveying Equipment (CLF2703) Land Area Measurements (CLF2704) Differential Leveling

CLF2750 USE OF MANUALS (CLF2751) Operator's Manual (CLF2752) Service Schedules CLF2800 EQUIPMENT OPERATION & MAINTENANCE (CLF2801) Equipment Operation Safety (CLF2802) Oil & Oil Filter Maintenance (CLF2803) Air Filter Maintenance (CLF2804) Fuel Filter Maintenance (CLF2805) Battery Maintenance (CLF2806) Hydraulic System Maintenance (CLF2807) Hazardous Agricultural Chemicals (CLF2849) Unit Exam CLF2850 TYPES OF ENGINES (CLF2851) Engine Types and Operating Cycles (CLF2852) Engine Operating Principles (CLF2853) Engine Terminology (CLF2854) Engine Systems (CLF2855) Engine Disassembly and Reassembly (CLF2899) Unit Exam CLF2900 WORK AND POWER (CLF2910) Definitions and Terminology (CLF2911) Work and Power Formulas (CLF2912) Uses of Work and Power (CLF2913) Problems Using Work and Power (CLF2914) Safety (CLF2949) Unit Exam c. See Agriculture Content Standards, Grades 9 12 at:
http://www.calaged.org/ResourceFiles/Curriculum/curriculum.htm

(1). The content standards include the following standards and examples for agricultural mechanics: 6.1 Oxy-fuel Welding & Cutting Students will understand the principles and application of oxy-fuel welding and cutting and be able to explain the role of heat and the fusion process. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.1.1 Safely select, adjust, and operate oxy-fuel equipment to complete a project/task. 6.2 Electric Welding Processes Students will understand the electric welding process. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.2.1 Select, properly adjust and safely employ the appropriate welding apparatus. 6.2.2 Select the proper materials to construct a project and use multiple types of welds. 6.3 Chains and Rope Students will understand and demonstrate how to safely secure loads with chains and rope. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.3.1 Select and use the appropriate materials for securing a particular load. 6.3.2 Demonstrate basic knots such as the following: truckers hitch, eye splice, bowline, whipping knot, figure 8, and square knot.

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6.4 Surveying Students will understand the use of surveying equipment. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.4.1 Demonstrate surveying principles, survey instrument adjustment, and participate in land measurement activities. 6.5 Equipment Operation and Preventive Maintenance Students will understand the concepts of safe equipment operation and maintenance. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.5.1 Safely adjust, maintain, and operate various types of power equipment. 6.5.2 Use operators manuals to develop service schedules and keep maintenance records. 6.6 Types of Engines Students will understand the different types of engines and their major parts, systems, and principles of operation. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.6.1 Identify and compare the different types of engines and their major parts, systems, and principles of operation. 6.7 Agriculture Industry Employee/Employer Relationships Students will understand agricultural industry employee-employer relationships and work evaluation. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.7.1 Explain how wages are tied to job performance. 6.8 Safety Students will understand personal/group safety while working in an Agriculture Mechanics environment. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.8.1 Demonstrate the use of personal/group safety while working in an Agriculture Mechanics environment. 6.9 Electrical Systems Students will understand the basic principles of electricity, A.C. circuits, and D.C. circuits as used in agricultural machinery Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.9.1 Interpret basic electrical plans such as 3-wire farm structures. 6.9.2 Demonstrate proper usage of the following electrical testing devices: volt meter and circuit tester. 6.10 Agricultural Structures Students will understand the design, construction, and maintenance of agricultural structures. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.10.1 Design and construct a simple framed project requiring basic carpentry. 6.10.2 Use basic concrete/masonry, plumbing, and/or electrical wiring skills.

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6.11 Record Keeping Students will understand the principles of record keeping. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.11.1 Demonstrate record keeping utilizing a variety of methods and systems. 6.12 Interpersonal Leadership Development Students will recognize the traits of effective leaders. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.12.1 Participate in leadership training activities associated with the FFA. 6.13 Supervised Practical Experience Project Students will understand the relationship between a supervised occupational experience (SOE) and their preparation for a career in agriculture. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.13.1 Participate in a supervised occupational experience that employs skills and knowledge learned in the ag mechanics program. 6.13.2 Maintain an ongoing record book. 6.14 Measurement Students will understand the importance of a accurate measurement as it relates to project planning, construction, and troubleshooting. Examples of the types of work students should be able to do to meet the standard: 6.14.1 Read and use a variety of measurement tools to complete calculations for problems involving length, area, and volume. 4. Develop teaching activities and methods. a. Pure lecture - "I hear, I forget". (1). Involve the class by questioning: (a). "Why do we do it?" (b). "What is its purpose?" (c). "Where should it be done?" (d). "Who should do it?" (e). "How should it be done and which is better?" b. Teacher demonstrations/visual media - "I see, I remember". c. Directed shop activities - "I do, I understand". d. Assigned readings. e. Field trips/ tours. f. Group discussion with class. g. Panel discussion with outside experts. h. Guest lecture. i. Written reports

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5. Balance cognitive, psychomotor and affective instruction. a. Cognitive instruction - develop critical thinking skills. (1). "Knowledge is a means to and end to aid the problem solving and decision making process" - W. Forrest Bear and Thomas Hoerner, authors of Planning, Organizing and Teaching Agricultural Mechanics. b. Psychomotor instruction - successfully performing relevant manipulative activities. c. Affective instruction - demonstrating appropriate work values and attitudes. 6. Incorporate basic skills in reading, writing, math and communication. a. Examples: (1). Reading and interpreting maintenance instructions from an tractor operator manual. (2). Writing a bill of materials for a tractor storage shed. (3). Calculating the amount of anti-freeze to add to a radiator. (4). Phoning in a parts order to your tractor dealership. 7. Provide instruction in the sciences and technology, i.e., the basic principles. a. "The understanding of a simple principle serves as the stepping stone for more complicated applications."- W. Forrest Bear and Thomas Hoerner, authors of Planning, Organizing and Teaching Agricultural Mechanics. b. May make other courses in physics, geometry and sciences make sense or seem relevant to the interest and needs of the student. 8. Include systems management instruction. a. Give students exposure to a larger view of the farm system. b. Example: Importance of routine maintenance of farm equipment - Lack of scheduled routine maintenance is a major cause of equipment failure and downtime. - Cost of maintaining and repairing a $30,000 tractor will average around $3.00 per operating hour. Thus, maintenance costs are important when considering the cost of producing a crop.

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ABT 317 LECTURE 2 PLANNING AND ORGANIZING FOR AN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS TEACHING PROGRAM PART 2

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CONTENTS

I. PLANNING FOR AN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS TEACHING PROGRAM A. Planning for facilities B. Planning for tools and equipment C. Planning for reference materials

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I. PLANNING FOR AN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS TEACHING PROGRAM A. Planning for facilities. 1. General considerations and assumptions. a. Program size/content. (1). Student/teacher numbers. (2). Scope of program. b. Planned future growth/shrinkage. c. Site development. (1). Drainage/flood potential. (2). Utilities (existing water, electrical, gas, telephone). (3). Adjacent land use/structures (residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural). (4). Existing rights-of-way/easements. (5). Soil type and suitability for structures/drainage. (5). Other important physical features (existing trees, landscaping, etc.). (6). Access to roads. d. Local building codes, permit, variance and environmental assessment requirements. e. Climate (prevailing winds, orientation relative to sun, etc). f. Noise. (1). Provide acoustical treatment of ceilings and walls of classrooms and shop. g. Available funds. h. Handicap access. 2. Single line drawing layout plan a. Establish orientation and relationship between facilities 3. Detailed planning considerations. a. Office. (1). Space allocation (square footage). (a). 120 square foot per instructor minimum. (2). Floor plan layout. (a). Visibility outward to shops/laboratories. (3). Furnishings and equipment. (a). Desk, phone, filing cabinets, typewriter, etc. (4). Storage. (5). Lighting - fluorescent. (6). Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). (7). Electrical/gas/water utilities. (8). Restroom access. (9). Special requirements (safety, environmental, etc.) b. Classrooms. (1). Space allocation (square footage). (a). 45 sq. ft. per student in largest class or 840 sq. ft. minimum. (2). Floor plan layout. (a). At least 24 foot wide. (3). Furnishings and equipment. (a). Chalkboard, tack board. (4). Storage. (a). Textbook/reference book/magazine shelving. (5). Lighting. (a). Can room be darkened for projection equipment? (6). Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). (7). Electrical/gas/water utilities. (8). Restroom access. (9). Special requirements (safety, environmental, etc.). (a). Double doors for ingress/egress or demonstrations.

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c. Classroom storage. (1). Space allocation (square footage). (a). Approximately 10' x 12' desirable. (2). Floor plan layout. (a). Accessed from classroom. (3). Furnishings and equipment. (a). Shelves/cabinets. (5). Lighting. (6). Electrical. (7). Special requirements (safety, environmental, etc.) d. Classroom laboratory. (1). Space allocation (square footage). (a). 432 square feet (18' x 24') minimum. (2). Floor plan layout. (a). Window between classroom and classroom laboratory. (3). Furnishings and equipment. (a). Acid resistant sink and counter work space. (4). Storage. (a). Cabinets. (5). Lighting. (6). Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). (7). Electrical/gas/water utilities. (a). Special (220/240 V) for test equipment. (8). Restroom access. (9). Special requirements (safety, environmental, etc.). (a). Exhaust system for lab experiments. e. Agricultural mechanics laboratory. (1). Space allocation (square footage). (a). Minimum of 150 sq. ft. of free floor space for each student in the largest class. (b). Minimum of 1400 sq. ft. of extra floor space to be occupied by work benches, power tools, etc. (c). For example - one teacher department with 16 students. 150(16) + 1400 = 3800 sq. ft. (d). Recommended optimum dimensions for operational areas (includes safety zone): Work station Side to side (in.) Depth (in) Arc welder 72" 36" Bench and vise 72" 36" Drill press 60" 27" Forge and anvil 80" 72" Grinder-buffer 80" 30" Machinery repair 2 times the area of the machine Oxy-acetylene welder 84" 30" Radial saw 384" 48" Table saw 144" 384" Tool grinder 60" 28"

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(2). Floor plan layout. (a). Length to width ratio of between 1:1-1/2 or 1:2. (b). Minimum width of 44' to 50' most convenient. (b). Workbenches along/near walls to leave large unobstructed area for work on large equipment. (3). Furnishings and equipment. (a). At least 150 to 200 linear feet of bench space. (b). Desk/file cabinet/bookcase for instructor. (c). Overhead safety hoist built-in to the roof trusses. (4). Storage. (a). Minimum 320 sq. ft. locked storage area for consumable supplies and special tools. (b). Storage space for lumber and steel (minimum 24' long and preferably with outside access. (c). Tool storage room with cabinets, shelving, drawers, and a counter/bench space. (d). Locked area for storing potentially dangerous articles such as paints, grease and solvents. (e). Locker area for student clothing/projects. (5). Lighting. (a). 100 foot candles of light at bench tops with a shadow. (6). Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). (a). Independent control of HVAC for night classes? (b). Hood and exhaust fan for welding area. (7). Electrical/gas/water utilities. (a). 120V plug outlets located at 8' to 10' intervals along the walls. (b). Welding electrical outlet near overhead door. (c). Availability of single- and three-phase circuits for large electrical equipment. (d). Master electrical turn-off switch should be conveniently located in the shop area. (8). Restroom. (a). Large washing area and showers. (9). Special requirements (safety, environmental, etc.). (a). Dust and exhaust fume collection systems. (b). Sump type floor drain at overhead door location. (c). Color coding of walls, machines and work areas. (d). Overhead door at least 14' high and 20' to 24' wide. f. Outdoor machinery/vehicle storage. (1). Space allocation (square footage). (a). Large enough for 6 to 10 machines/vehicles? (2). Floor plan layout. (3). Furnishings and equipment. (4). Storage. (a). Outside bunker storage for concrete, gravel, sand. (5). Lighting. (a). Outside security lighting (6). Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). (7). Electrical/gas/water utilities. (8). Special requirements (safety, environmental, etc.). (a). Outside wash rack. (b). Loading ramp/dock.

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g. Horticultural center. (1). Space allocation (square footage). (a). Minimum of 800 sq. ft. divided into two separate greenhouse areas with separate climate control. (b). Minimum of 300 sq. ft. in head house. (2). Floor plan layout. (a). Provision of separate head house and greenhouse structures. (3). Furnishings and equipment. (a). Soil mixer and sterilizer in head house. (b). Sink, workbench and drain in head house. (4). Storage. (a). 50 gallon barrels in head house for soils, pearlite, vermiculite. (5). Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). (a). Separate heating, cooling and humidity control for each greenhouse unit. (6). Electrical/gas/water utilities. (7). Special requirements (safety, environmental, etc.). h. Field lab. (1). Space allocation (acreage). (a). Probably a minimum of one acre (approx. 200' x 200') to allow for equipment access. (2). Field layout/slope. (a). Square or rectangular preferred. (b). Slope to approximately 0.10% for surface irrigation. (3). Irrigation/drainage system. (a). Dependent upon climate, soils and practices in the area. (b). Surface irrigation (flood, border check or furrow) most common in California. (4). Special requirements (safety, environmental, etc.). (a). Noise, dust, pesticide drift to adjacent properties should be considered. (b). Security for crop pilferage. i. Facility parking/traffic flow. B. Planning for tools and equipment. 1. General considerations for selection in re the program: a. Nature of the program, i.e., content and activities. (1). Degree of emphasis on construction and major projects. (2). Degree of emphasis on adjustment and repair of equipment. b. Number of students. c. The degree of skill to be developed. d. Acquire the basic tools first. 2. General considerations for selection in re the tool/equipment: a. Capabilities and accessories of the tool. (1). Do you really need an AC/DC welder or will an AC welder serve the purposes and needs of your curriculum? b. Quality of the tool. (1). Cheap tools are the most expensive in the long run.

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c. Quantity of specific tools. (1). Not uncommon to have $50,000 to $75,000 worth of tools in a agricultural mechanics curriculum. (2). Replacement budget may be 10% of tool value every year! (3). When students have to wait to use tools, instructional costs go up (due to inefficiencies) and management problems may occur. (4). Completely equip each instructional program/area rather than purchasing a selected few items in each program area. d. Ease of maintenance/repair. (1). Is "special tool" number 123 required to repair/adjust? e. Dealer backup/reputation. (1). Are spare parts/component parts in stock and readily accessed? 3. Specifying tools (use actual tool specifications, i.e., don't specify something that does not exist). a. Size of tool/machine. (1). 1/4" drive socket or 3/8" drive socket. b. Capacity of tool/machine. (1). 180 amp AC welder vs. 400 amp AC welder. c. Type of construction. (1). Plastic body hand drill vs. metal body hand drill. (2). Hobby grade vs. commercial grade tools. d. Adjustments on the machine. (1). Largest stock size that can be utilized on a cut-off saw. e. Type of motor/engine. (1). 20% duty cycle power source vs. 60% duty cycle on AC welder. (a). Duty cycle is that percent of a 10-minute period that the welding machine can deliver its rated load without damage to the welder. f. Safety features. (1). Flashback arrestor with oxyacetylene welding set. g. Available accessories. (1). AC welder vs. AC/DC welder. 4. List of tools and equipment to consider (see attached list by the following categories): a. Stationary power tools. b. Hand tools for: (1). building and construction. (2). painting and glazing. (3). electrification. (4). soil and water/forestry/conservation. (5). power and machinery. (6). construction and maintenance. C. Planning for reference materials. 1. Factors to consider in choosing references: a. Date of publication. b. Objectives of your course vs. objectives/content of reference. c. Depth of coverage in reference. d. Reading level of reference. e. Organization relative to your course outline. f. Classroom exercises and problems (with answers and instructor guide) included in the reference. g. Related instructional materials complementary to the reference such as transparencies, film, video, slides, etc. h. The author's background and experience. i. Cost.

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2. List of published references to consider: a. Agricultural carpentry and structures. b. Concrete construction. c. Electricity in agriculture. d. Electric motors and controls. e. Arc welding. f. Oxy-acetylene welding. g. Metals. h. Small gasoline engines. i. Tractor power. j. Agricultural machinery. k. Soil and water management practices. l. General and specialized agricultural mechanics. 3. Other sources of information/references. a. Experts in the field. (1). Local farmers. (2). U.C. Farm Advisors and U.C. Extension Specialists. (3). Teachers in the industrial arts in your school. b. Advertisements in trade journals. c. Yellow pages of the phone book. d. Do-it-yourself books. e. Trade shows. f. Craft shows on television. g. The Internet. h. Local businesses.

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ABT 317 LECTURE 3 PROJECT DESIGN, LAYOUT AND BILL OF MATERIALS

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CONTENTS

PROJECT DESIGN I. What is design II. Reasons for design III. Design considerations IV. Design information V. Design resources VI. Fundamentals of the design process PROJECT LAYOUT I. Defined II. Forms of drawings and sketches BILL OF MATERIALS I. Components of a bill of materials

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References: 1. Mechanics in Agriculture. Lloyd J. Phipps. 2. General Metals. John L. Feirer. 3. Agricultural Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications. Elmer L Cooper. 4. The Metal Craftsmans Handbook. William T. Squires.

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PROJECT DESIGN
I. WHAT IS DESIGN A. The act of creating a device, machine, structure or system which will fulfill a particular need or solve a particular problem. 1. Device: Lowcost mechanical nutcracker. 2. Machine: Strawberry harvester. 3. Structure: Roadside farm sales structure. 4. System: Electronic sensors to record and indicate need for engine maintenance. 5. Problem: Teaching metalworking class without a shop. II. REASONS FOR DESIGN A. To insure "fit" of component parts of the object; insure efficient layout between rooms of a structure ; and eliminate bottlenecks in a proposed system. and, B. To create an object, structure or system with economic worth and financial feasibility. and, C. To choose an optimum alternative solution. and, D. Insure strength and function ability of the part or structure or system. and, E. Helps to guarantee desired specifications and standards associated with the part or structure or system. III. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS A. Commercial availability and standardization: 1. Can I buy the part or structure rather than fabricating it? B. Function of the part or structure or system: 1. Load bearing or non-loadbearing part? a. Compare with existing parts with similar function for ideas. 2. Does the structure have unique uses or requirements? C. Load and stress considerations for parts or structure: 1. Analytic consideration for design, which considers: a. Magnitude and nature (i.e., static or dynamic) of the load on the part. b. Snow loads on structures. D. Layout of the part or structure: 1. Is the part easily manufactured? a. Consider molded assemblies rather than bolts or rivets. b. Use spot welding instead of bolts or rivets. c. Use asis surfaces whenever possible. d. Use lowstrength steels instead of allow steels when possible. e. Consider belt drives rather than gears or chains. f. Use tubing rather than bar stock. 2. Is the part easily maintained and repaired? a. Does it take a special tool to service or gain access to a component? 3. Does the structure meet you needs? a. Are space needs adequate? b. Are rooms convenient for internal and external traffic flow, i.e., ingress and egress. c. Are noise considerations made? d. Are orientation for heat gains and losses made? e. Are future expansion needs considered?

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E. Appearance: 1. Improve the appearance of the part or structure. a. Chrome plating on appliances and tools is commonly used for cosmetic reasons. b. Exterior painting of structures. 2. Prevent corrosion or wear or the part or structure. a. Corrosion results in the weakening of metal structures as well as a deterioration in appearance. b. Application of coatings to decking to reduce deterioration due to outside elements. 3. To improve the wearing quality of the surface of the part or structure. a. Hardfacing the tips of agricultural tillage tools significantly extends the wear life of such tools. b. Application of resins to tabletops for improved wear resistance. IV. DESIGN INFORMATION A. Pure technical specifications such as: 1.What is the tensile strength of Type A-213 aluminum? 2.What is the average air temperature during August in Davis, California? B. Information on standards, requirements, regulations, professional or trade practices such as: 1. How should underground fuel storage tanks be constructed to avoid earthquake damage? 2. Are there appearance standards for mung bean sprouts? 3. What size electrical wire should be used to supply power to an electric range in a hotel kitchen? 4. Commercial information on suppliers of parts, prices, standard or most common sizes, materials, etc., such as: a. Where can I buy a small electric pump? b. Who could make a small plastic part for me? c. What is the cost of liquid oxygen? C. Financial, legal or market information such as: 1. Is the Thermoscan in-ear thermometer patented? If so, by whom? 2. How many bean sprouts are sold in the Bay Area? How many are sold in Rapid City, S.D.? 3. How do I avoid being sued for product liability? Is insurance available? 4. How many compact automobiles were sold in 1997? V. DESIGN RESOUCES A. Product catalogs. 1. General. a. For example, Grainger (in print or electronic form: http://www.grainer.com) 2. Specific. a. For example, Dodge Gear catalog. B. Technical manuals. 1. Specific to a product (such as engine, tractor, drill press, etc.) C. Internet. 1. Especially useful for commercial information and recent developments. 2. Beware. Unless you know the source of the information you find on the Internet, you should be extremely skeptical of the quality of the information. Ideally, you will use a combination of Internet and academic sources of information. The URL is not the source of the information, it is the location. For example, http://www.uspto.gov is a location for getting patent information through the Internet. The source is the United States Patent and Trademark Office. D. Textbooks. E. Consultants. F. Technical sales representatives.

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G. People who will ultimately use the part or structure or system. H. The library. 1. Melvyl searchable on-line database at U.C. Davis. I. City, state and federal offices. 1. Standards, regulations and trade practices are often obtained from legal entities such as city, state or Federal codes. J. Trade associations. 1. Often trade associations can provide generally accepted guidelines for performance or standards. 2. Example: ASAE (American Society of Agricultural Engineers) publishes standards for farm machinery, farm machinery management, tractor tests, etc. 3. Other information may include sales tracking. a. The Equipment Manufacturers Institute (EMI) tracks farm machinery sales. b. See http://www.emi.org K. Industrial guides such as the Thomas Register. 1. A huge listing of companies with contact information and products produced. 2. Available in print and electronic form: http://www.thomasregister.com L. Yellow pages and telephone. M. Controlled circulation trade and technical magazines. 1. New products are advertised in such magazines. Those magazines usually have reader response cards where you can request more information on specific products. VI. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE DESIGN PROCESS A. Define the problem (IT ALL STARTS HERE!!!) 1. Whats the need. Example: You are considering doing roadside marketing of farm produce. What are your structural and environmental needs. or, 2. Whats the problem. Example: You and a friend are hiking in Alaska and see that a grizzly bear is beginning to run at you from a distance. What is the problem? or, 3. Whats the difficulty. Example: You cant seem to get all of your orchard spraying done in a timely fashion using your old 120 gallon orchard sprayer. What is the difficulty? then, 4. Gather information, understand the problem. then, 5. State the problem. then, B. Generate alternative solutions. 1. Brainstorm. then, C. Decide the course of action. 1. Evaluate alternatives: a. A unique, custommade solution from scratch. b. An offtheshelf solution. c. A bunch of existing stuff that is adapted and combined.

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2. Determine constraints. a. Economic. b. Environmental. c. Code. d. Legal. e. Space. f. Safety. g. Ergonomics (human factors). 3. Make a clear, concise, complete description of the solution. then, D. Implement the solution. then, E. Evaluate the solution. then, F. Iterate procedure at any time.

PROJECT LAYOUT
I. DEFINED A. Layout is some form of drawing or sketch that presents the shape, size and arrangement of components of the part or object or structure. II. FORMS OF DRAWINGS AND SKETCHES A. Sketches 1. Informal (rough) drawing to present the general shape and arrangement of part or structure or idea. 2. Not to scale, but in general conformance to actual size/shape relationships. 3. A great way to record ideas for present and future use. 3. A precursor to a formal drawing or blueprint.

B. Drawings and blueprints. 1. Formalized drawing done to accurately represent the part or structure. 2. Consists of: a. Title block with: (1). Name of drawer/architect/engineer. (2). Date when the drawing was completed. (3). Name of the drawing. (4). Scale of the drawing.

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b. Views: (1). Three-view drawing. (a). A drawing that shows separate top, front and side views of the object, part or structure on the same drawing. (b). Views are dimensioned to indicate exact part measurements, thicknesses of materials; location of construction or manufacturing details, etc.

or, (2). Pictorial drawing. (a). View is dimensioned to indicate exact part measurements, thicknesses of materials; location of construction or manufacturing details, etc.

BILL OF MATERIALS
I. COMPONENTS OF A BILL OF MATERIALS A. Itemized list, description and cost of materials necessary to complete the job. 1. For each component of the part or structure or system, the bill of materials might include: a. Component or part name. b. Number of pieces required. c. Type of material. d. Size of the part or pieces. e. Description of the part. f. Total length or number required. g. Unit cost of the part or piece. h. Total cost.

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ABT 317 LECTURE 4 SHOP TOOLS AND FASTENERS

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CONTENTS

SHOP TOOLS I. General safety rules for shop tools II. Nomenclature, care, safe and proper operation of hand tools III. Nomenclature, care, safe and proper operation of power tools FASTENERS I. Importance of fasteners II. Bolts, cap screws, nuts and locking devices III. Screws, keys, studs, pins, snap rings, and rivets ADDITIONAL INFORMATION I. Drill Speeds in RPM for Steel II. Taps and Drill Sizes

PAGE
30 30 30 34 36 36 36 39 41 41 42

References: 1. Draft Tools ID list. See: http://www.calaged.org/ResourceFiles/CCode/ 2. Mechanics in Agriculture. Lloyd J. Phipps. 3. Agricultural Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications. Elmer L. Cooper. 4. Shop Tools. John Deere Fundamentals of Service. 5. Fasteners. John Deere Fundamentals of Service. 6. This Old House Guide to Building and Remodeling Materials. Bob Vila. Warner Books.

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SHOP TOOLS
I. GENERAL SAFETY RULES FOR SHOP TOOLS A. Use the right tool. 1. A mis-sized tool can be dangerous. B. Maintain tools with care. 1. Tools which are not adjusted/sharpened/cleaned can be unsafe. C. Use safety glasses. 1. A good routine safety habit. D. Keep guards in place. 1. Don't disable safety systems of any kind. E. Keep children away. 1. All non-workers should be kept out of harms way. F. Store idle tools. 1. Keep unused tools out of the way and unplugged. G. Wear proper apparel. 1. Loose clothing can get caught in moving parts/machinery. H. Secure work. 1. Use clamps or a vise to hold work to be sure that it does not slip away. I. Don't force the tool. 1. Avoid tool breakage and/or muscle pulls/tears. J. Don't overreach. 1. Keep your balance. K. Pull on wrenches - don't push. 1. Avoid knuckle busting. If you have to push, do so with an open palm. L. Hold pointed tools away from your body. 1. Avoid injury when the tool slips. M. Ground all power tools. 1. Use a three-pronged plug or an adapter. N. Have good lighting and ventilation. 1. You need to be able to see hazards. 2. Fumes from welding/painting/gluing need to be removed. O. Keep a first-aid kit handy. 1. Treat all injuries immediately to prevent infection. II. HAND TOOLS A. Screwdriver. 1. Common. a. Head can be ground to a new point. 2. Phillips. a. Can not normally effectively grind head back to shape. 3. Use/care/safety considerations: a. When grinding the head of a common screwdriver back to shape, do not overheat the tip. Frequently dip the tip in water. Overheating will cause the tip to loose its temper and it will become too soft for effective use.

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B. Hammers. 1. Curved claw (carpenter's or nail) hammer. a. Used to drive and pull nails in general construction. 2. Ball pein. a. Used to round over rivets or to pein after arc welding cast iron. 3. Soft hammers. a. Lead, rawhide, brass and rubber. b. Used to protect machined/soft/easily breakable surfaces. 4. Use/care/safety considerations: a. Do not use with a loose head. b. To temporarily tighten the hammer head on the handle, strike the handle end against a hard surface. C. Pliers. 1. Combination (slip-joint) pliers. a. Used to hold work - not the best way to tighten or loosen nuts. Most jaws have a wire cutter. 2. Diagonal cutting ("dikes" or automotive) pliers. a. Used to pull or spread cotter pins. b. Use to cut small diameter (gage) wire. 3. Side cutter (lineman's or fence) pliers. a. Used to cut larger diameter (gage) wire. 4. Needle-nose pliers. a. Used to handle small objects or to reach into small places. 5. Channel lock or tongue and groove pliers. a. Adjustable jaws for holding work such as pipe. 6. Lock-grip or vise-grip pliers. a. Used for clamping objects such as to act as a jig for a weldment. b. Used for gripping hard-to-reach nuts, bolts or fittings. c. Jaw tension can be preadjusted. D. Wrenches. 1. Open end wrench. 2. Adjustable (crescent) wrench. a. Place on the nut such as to apply pressure to the stationary side of the jaw wrench (i.e., there is a right and a wrong way to turn the wrench). b. Fit on the nut tightly such as to prevent rounding off of the nut. 3. Box end wrench. a. Used to hold the nut/bolt without slipping. b. Different nut size on each end of the wrench. 4. Combination wrench. a. Open end on one end and box end on the other end of the wrench. b. Loosen the nut with the box end (to prevent slippage off of the nut) and turn off with the open end (for speed). 5. Tubing wrench. a. Slightly open box type wrench to allow slipping over tubing to remove fitting nut. 6. Socket wrench. a. Used for rapid removal or installation of nuts and bolts. b. Components: (1). Ratchet handle. (2). Extension handle. (3). Sliding "T" handle. (4). Speed handle. (5). Universal joint. (6). Breaker bar handle. (7). Normal and deep set sockets (the latter for spark plugs).

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c. Size specification determined by dimension of square piece (drive) that fits into the socket. (1). 1/4", 3/8", 1/2" and 3/4" drive are common sizes. 7. Set screw (allen) wrench. a. Used for machine screws or plumbing plugs. 8. Torque wrench. a. Used to apply a measured amount of torque (twist) to a nut per specifications. 9. Pipe wrench. a. Used for tightening or loosening pipe fittings. H. Chisels. 1. Flat cold chisel. a. Used to cut metal, split nuts and/or break off rivets. b. Be sure that the hammered end does not become mushroomed. This can result in flying metal pieces when the chisel is used. Always use goggles when using, regardless of the condition of the head. c. The chisel end can be reground when dulled. Care should be taken that the tip is not overheated - this will result in loss of temper and the tip will become too soft. 2. Wood chisels. a. Used to remove wood for door locks, hinges and other recessed items. I. Punches. 1. Center punch. a. Used to mark the location of a hole to be drilled. b. Use same care as with the head of a chisel. 2. Aligning punch. a. Used to shift parts relative to one another to align holes. J. Files. 1. General characteristics: a. Types of cuts: (1). Single cut. (a). Teeth run in only one direction. (b). Used for slow, careful filing. (2). Double cut. (a). Rows of opposing teeth. (b). Used for quick, coarse work. (3). Rasp cut. (a). Straight rows of individual teeth. (b). Used on soft metal or wood. (4). Curved tooth. (a). Teeth are milled in an arc. (b). Used on flat metal for rapid stock removal and a fairly good finish. b. Coarseness of file (teeth spacing) in order of abrasiveness from coarsest to smoothest: (1). Coarse. (2). Bastard. (3). Second cut. (4). Smooth. c. File shapes: (1). Flat. (2). Triangular. (3). Half-round. (4). Half-flat. (5). Round shapes.

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2. Mill file. a. Single cut file used for removing small amounts of metal. 3. Machinist or bastard file. a. For general use. 4. Triangular file. a. Use for filing notches and to straighten or clean out burred external threads. 5. Rat tail file. a. Used on holes or to round off edges. 6. Use/care/safety considerations: a. Always file across the work and raise the file on return. (1). The exception is draw filing for extremely fine work. b. Always use a file with a handle. K. Handsaw. 1. Crosscut saw. a. For cutting across the grain of wood. b. Used for 80% of woodcutting requirements. c. Cutting occurs of forward stroke, backstroke scores the wood for the following cut. 2. Ripsaw. a. For cutting with the grain of wood. b. Cuts only on the forward stroke. 3. Backsaw. a. Has a rigid back, thin blade, blunt front end and fine teeth for cutting joints. Usually used with a miter box. 4. Compass saw. a. Swordfish-like blade enables one to cut a shape out of the center of a board. b. Good for cutting curves. c. Requires drilling a hole as a starting point. 5. Hacksaw. a. Used for cutting pipes, rods, bolts or other metal or plastic objects. a. Interchangeable blades for differing types and thicknesses of material that can be cut: (1). Blade is inserted with teeth pointing away from the handle. (2). Blades are available with 14, 18, 24 and 32 teeth per inch. L. Taps and dies. 1. Taps. a. Used to cut internal threads. b. Types: (1). Taper. (a). Used when tapping completely through a piece of material. (2). Plug. (a). Used to tap part of the way through a hole. (3). Bottoming. (a). Used to thread to the bottom of a hole. c. Usage: (1). Determine the diameter of the threaded bolt required. (2). Determine the threads per inch of the bolt. (a). Will be UNC (coarse) or UNF (fine) threads. (3). See chart to determine the correct tap drill size. (4). Drill the hole for the tap in the part. (5). Insert the tap and thread the hole. (a). Go forward 2 turns and then back 1/4 to 1/2 turn to clear out thread chips. (b). A thread cutting oil should normally be used.

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2. Dies. a. Cuts external threads on round stock. b. Usage: (1). Determine the diameter of the round stock to be threaded. (2). Determine the threads per inch to be cut on the round stock. (a). Will be UNC (coarse) or UNF (fine) threads. (3). Select the appropriate die (diameter and threads per inch) and mount it over the round stock. (4). Begin turning the die - go forward 2 turns and then back 1/4 to 1/2 turn to clear out thread chips. (a). A thread cutting oil should normally be used. M. Tubing cutter. 1. Used to cut off tubing. III. POWER TOOLS A. Bench grinder. 1. Replaceable components: a. Grinding wheel. (1). Smaller size have 6" to 7" diameter wheels 1" wide. (2). Larger sizes available to 12" in diameter and 2" wide. (3). Available in different coarseness ratings. (4). The wheel must have the correct speed rating for the motor on the grinder. (5). Be sure that the hole in the wheel matches the shaft diameter on the grinder or that the appropriate bushings are available to make the fit. b. Wire wheel. (1). Used for removing paint/rust from parts. 2. Use/care/safety considerations: a. Use safety goggles or a safety shield. b. Be sure that the tool rest is no further away than 1/8" from the grinding wheel. c. Be sure that the tool rest is slightly above the center of the wheel. d. Stand aside for several seconds after turning on the wheel in case of disintegration. e. Grind with only a moderate amount of pressure. f. Do not grind brass or other "soft" metals. They will load up the pores of the wheel and the wheel can expand and disintegrate. B. Horizontal band and reciprocating (hacksaw) power saws. 1. Replaceable components: a. Coolant may be used on faster cutting saws. b. Rigid blade (3/4" to 1" wide and 12" to 18" long) for the reciprocating power saw. c. Flexible, continuous blade for the horizontal saw. 2. Use/care/safety considerations: a. Be sure that at least two teeth of the blade are engaged with the metal to be cut. (1). Guidelines for hack saw blades: (a). 14 teeth per inch for stock 1" and over. (b). 18 teeth per inch for stock between 1/4" and 1" (c). 24 teeth per inch for stock between 1/8" and 1/4". (d). 32 teeth per inch for stock less than 1/8". b. Ease into the metal when beginning the cut - this will prevent blade breakage.

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C. Drill press. 1. Replaceable components: a. Drill bits. 2. Use/care/safety considerations: a. Note the speed chart and be sure to set the appropriate rotational speed for the drill bit used. (1). General guidelines for rotational speed of drills. (a). 5000 to 6700 RPM for 1/16" drill. (b). 1200 to 1700 RPM for 1/4" drill. (c). 800 to 1000 RPM for 3/8" drill. (d). 600 to 850 RPM for 1/2" drill. b. Use goggles. c. Use a hold-down vise to mount the work to be drilled. d. Always center punch the hole location before drilling. e. Watch loose clothing so that the operator is not drawn into the rotating components. f. Stand such that if the component to be drilled comes loose, it will turn (twist) away from the operator.

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FASTENERS
I. IMPORTANCE OF FASTENERS A. They simplify manufacture of parts. 1. Eliminates the need for one-piece parts - it is normally much simpler to make components and fasten them together. B. They simplify repair of parts/engines/equipment. 1. Individual component parts can simply and quickly be separated for inspection, repair or replacement. C. The provide safety. 1. Assure that once an assembly is fastened together it will hold together. II. BOLTS, CAPS SCREWS, NUTS AND LOCKING DEVICES A. General terminology/specifications for bolts. 1. Size. a. Diameter of the crest of the threads. 2. Length. a. Measured from the bottom of the bolt head to the end of the threads. 3. Threads. a. Specified by the number of threads per inch and manufacturing tolerance of threads. b. Threads per inch: (1). UNC designated threads (coarse) are the most common in agricultural components. (2). UNF (or SAE) designated threads (fine) are used in special conditions, for example, where parts being joined have thin walls. c. Manufacturing tolerance (re fit) of threads (1). Thread class symbol such as 1A, 2A, etc. A refers to external threads (bolts) and B refers to internal (nut) threads. (a). Class 1A threads are for work of rough commercial quality where loose fit for spin-on-assembly is desirable. (b). Class 2A threads are the recognized standard for normal production of the great bulk of commercial bolts, nuts and screws. (c). Class 3A threads are used where a close fit between mating parts for high quality work is required. (d). Class 4A threads are obsolete. (e). Class 5 threads are for a wrench fit. They are used principally for studs and their mating tapped holes. A force fit requiring the application of high torque for semi-permanent assembly.

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4. Grade (or property class) of bolts. Grade Marking* Specification Material No lines SAE Grade 0 Low carbon steel No lines SAE Grade 1 Low carbon steel No lines SAE Grade 2 Low carbon steel 3 lines SAE Grade 5 steel, quenched and tempered SAE Grade 7 steel, quenched and tempered SAE Grade 8 allow steel, quenched and tempered Medium carbon

Tensile Strength (psi) 60,000 74,000 120,000

5 lines

Medium carbon

133,000

6 lines

Medium carbon

150,000

*Radial slashes on bolt head which are present on all bolts 1/4" or greater in diameter. 5. Descriptive symbols for specifying bolts. a. Example: 1/2 - 13 UNC - 2A x 3 where, 1/2 = Bolt size (diameter) in inches 13 = Number of threads per inch UN = Stands for Unified Screw Thread Standard C = Coarse thread 2A = Thread class (fit) symbol 3 = Length of bolt (inches) B. Types and uses of bolts. 1. Common (hexagonal or square head) bolt. a. Most have a hexagonal (6-sided) head although some older bolts have a square (4sided) head. 2. Round head bolt. a. Most have a round head with a square neck under the head although some have round, countersunk head. b. Used to fasten wood parts or steel parts with square punched holes. 3. Plow bolt. a. Have a flat, tapered head that fit into countersunk holes in the plowshare or other part. b. Used when it is necessary for the head to lie flush with the surface of the part. c. There are differing styles of plow bolt heads. 4. Hex socket cap screws. a. Head of the screw has a hole for a hex (Allen) wrench. b. Used in recessed holes or in confined spaces where the small head size may be an advantage. 5. 12-point flange head screw. a. External teeth around the head of the screw allow use of a small 12-point box end wrench to be used. b. Used where small diameter high strength screws are required.

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C. General terminology/specifications for nuts. 1. Thickness. 2. Distance across flats. 3. Inside diameter. a. Same as diameter of bolt to be used. 4. Threads. a. Same as for bolt to be used. D. Types and uses of nuts. 1. Hex and square nuts. a. Most common. 2. Jam nut. a. Normally thinner than a normal nut and used to lock a threaded part into place by running the nut against a normal nut. 3. Castellated and slotted nut. a. Used when a cotter pin is placed through a hole in the bolt to secure the nut so that it cannot come loose. 4. Self-locking nut. a. Once tightened, the nut stays firmly in place because of the way that they are made. b. Commonly known as "elastic", prevailing-torque or plastic-insert nuts. F. Types and uses of washers. 1. Plain washer. a. Steel disk with a hole in the center. b. Used to reduce the stress under a bolt or nut. c. Dimensions specified by: (1). Actual outside diameter. (2). Bolt size that will fit through the inner hole. (a). Inner hole diameter = bolt size plus approx. 1/32". d. Thickness usually specified by the gauge of the metal from which the washer is made. 2. Lock washer. a. Helical spring washer. (1). Made of tough, spring steel and normally installed under the nut (but can be used under the bolt). (2). Dimensions specified like a plain washer. b. Toothed ("Shakeproof") lock washer. (1). Gives special holding power because the many sharp, heat treated teeth to dig into the surfaces pressing against it. (2). May have external, internal or external/internal teeth. G. General terminology/specifications for cotter pins. 1. Diameter specified in fractions of an inch. 2. Length is from the bottom of the head loop to the tip of the shortest prong. H. General terminology/specifications for lock wires. 1. A wire is pushed through bolt holes and twisted in such a way that the wire will tighten if the bolt loosens. I. General terminology/specifications for flat metal lock. 1. Ears of the flat metal piece are bent up against the flat of the bolt to prevent the bolt from turning.

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III. SCREWS, KEYS, STUDS, PINS, SNAP RINGS AND RIVETS A. General terminology, specifications, types and uses of machine screws. 1. Screws are threaded lengths of steel rod with a head on one end. 2. Machine screw specifications (for those less than 1/4" in diameter). a. Size: Screw Approximate Number Diameter (in.) Fraction No. 2 0.086" >5/64" No. 3 0.099" >3/32" No. 4 0.112" >7/64" No. 5 0.125" 1/8" No. 6 0.138" >9/64" No. 8 0.164" >5/32" No. 10 0.190" >3/16" No. 12 0.216" <7/32" b. Length: (1). Distance from the bottom of the screw head to the tip of the thread. c. Number of threads per inch. d. Head shape: (1). Pan head. (2). Flat head. (3). Cross-recessed head (Phillips head). B. General terminology, specifications, types and uses of sheet metal or thread-forming or tapping screws. 1. Used to attach light, thin parts made of sheet metal, soft metal castings, plywood, fiberglass, plastics, etc. 2. The screw forms its own threads in the parts that they are screwed. 3. Specifications are the same as for machine screws. C. General terminology, specifications, types and uses of set screws. 1. Used to hold a collar, pulley, gear, etc. to a rotating shaft to prevent relative rotation between the two. 2. Commonly have a hex (Allen) head but may also have a square or slotted head. 3. A variety of point (tip) styles are available ranging from cupped to flat to cone shape. 4. Not especially strong type of fastener and will normally score or raise a burr on the shaft which may make the part held to the shaft difficult to remove. D. General terminology, specifications, types and uses of keys. 1. A common way to hold a gear, pulley or other part to a shaft. 2. Both the shaft and the part to be held have a groove (keyway) cut into them. 3. Keys may be square, rectangular or semicircular (Woodruff) in shape. a. The Woodruff key locks the part to the shaft in one place and tends to eliminate "rocking" that may occur with square or rectangular keys. E. General terminology, specifications, types and uses of studs. 1. A steel rod with threads on both ends. 2. One end is screwed into a part, while other parts are assembled over the studs and screwed into place with a nut. a. A good example is the studs in an engine block over which is installed the head of the engine. 3. Many studs have coarse ("interference") threads on one end and fine threads on the other. a. The "interference" threaded end goes into the pilot hole and compress when screwed in to create the locking action.

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4. Specifications: a. Diameter. b. Type of thread at each (stud and nut) end. c. Thread length at each end. d. Combined thread and grip length of the nut end. F. General terminology, specifications, types and uses of pins. 1. Spring (roll pins) pins. a. Hollow cylinders of spring steel which are split lengthwise and chamfered at both ends. b. Pins are made slightly oversize such that when they are driven or pressed into place the are compressed. c. Specifications: (1). Length and diameter. 2. Dowel pins. a. Solid round steel pin. b. Used to assure that fastened part align exactly as they are designed. c. The diameter of the dowel pin is slightly larger (0.0002" over) than that of the hole it is to be driven into. 3. Quick-lock pins. a. Convenient and quick method of attaching one part to another. b. Commonly found on 3-point hitches of tractors and implements. c. Specification: (1). Diameter and length of pin. G. General terminology, specifications, types and uses of snap rings. 1. Provide a removable shoulder to accurately locate, retain or lock components together. 2. Internal snap ring. a. Fit inside a groove in a hole. b. Specifications: (1). Inside bore (hole) diameter. (2). Groove diameter. (3). Ring width. 3. External snap ring. a. Fit inside a groove on a shaft. b. Specifications: (1). Outside shaft diameter. (2). Groove diameter. (3). Ring width. H. General terminology, specifications, types and uses of rivets. 1. Soft metal pins with a head on one end. 2. Common solid rivet. a. Used primarily to hold two or more flat parallel parts together. b. Specification: (1). Diameter and length. 3. Blind rivet. a. Can be installed in a joint which is accessible from one side only. b. Intended for light duty only.

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IV. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DRILL SPEEDS IN RPM FOR STEEL


DRILL SIZE 1/8 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 11/16 3/4 13/16 7/8 15/16 1 RECOMMENDED DRILL SPEED (RPM) 2100 to 2450 1400 to 1600 1000 to 1200 850 to 950 700 to 800 600 to 700 450 to 600 425 to 550 400 to 500 375 to 450 350 to 400 325 to 375 300 to 350 275 to 325 250 to 300

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TAPS AND DRILL SIZES


NATIONAL COARSE THREADS (NC)
SIZE OF BOLT OR SCREW AND TAP #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 #12 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 SIZE OF DRILL TO USE #53 or 1/16 #50 #47 or 5/64 #43 #38 #36 or 7/64 #29 #25 #16 #6 or 13/16 1/4 5/16 23/64 27/64 31/64 17/32 21/32 49/64 7/8

NATIONAL FINE THREADS (NF)


SIZE OF BOLT OR SCREW AND TAP #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 #12 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 SIZE OF DRILL TO USE 1/16 #50 #45 #42 or 3/32 #37 or 7/64 #33 #28 or 9/64 #21 or 5/32 #14 #3 or 7/32 17/64 21/64 25/64 29/64 33/64 37/64 11/16 13/16 15/16 THREADS PER INCH 72 64 56 48 44 40 36 32 28 28 24 24 20 20 18 18 16 14 14

THREADS PER INCH 64 56 48 40 40 32 32 24 24 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8

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ABT 317 LECTURE 5 WORK AND POWER

44

CONTENTS
I. II.

DEFINITIONS AND FORMULAS USES OF WORK AND POWER

PAGE
45 46 55 61 61 64

III. PROBLEMS IN WORK AND POWER IV. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION A. Formulas B. Mechanical Power Transmission Systems References: 1. California Agricultural Core Curriculum - Advanced Core Cluster: Agricultural Mechanics. 2. ABT 147 (Farm Equipment Management) Lecture notes, J. Rumsey.

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I. DEFINITIONS AND FORMULAS A. Work defined: 1. The specific application of energy to move something somewhere. a. Implies the use of a force and a distance moved. 2. Energy is the capacity to do work. Forms of energy include: a. Potential energy (1). Energy which is not active, but is stored up. (a). A coiled spring. (b). A ball at the top of a hill. b. Kinetic energy (1). Resulting from a body in motion. (2). Proportional to the mass of the body and velocity squared. (2). Noise energy - movement of air particles to produce sound. c. Heat energy. (1). Produced from friction or energy conversion. d. Force energy. (1). Produces or alters movement of another mass. e. Electrical energy. (1). Produced from movement of electrons through a conductor. f. Embodied energy (inherent property of the matter). (1). Fuels energy. (2). Chemical energy. B. Power defined: 1. The rate of doing work. a. Involves force, distance and time. Power is: (1). pulling a force over a distance during a period of time. (2). lifting a weight a distance during a period of time. (3). providing a torque at a rotational speed. (4). providing an amount of flowing fluid at a pressure. 2. Types of power: a. Fluid. (1). High pressure hydraulic fluid to run motors, pressurize a hydraulic ram, etc. b. Engine. (1). Brake horsepower. (a). For tractors, rated horsepower of the engine denotes maximum sustainable horsepower. (b). Commonly used to designate the power rating of crawler tractors. (2). PTO horsepower. (a). Power as measured at the PTO shaft. (b). Commonly used to designate the power rating of 2-wheel drive and many 4wheel drive tractors. (c). Typically 10 to 15% less than engine horsepower. (3). Drawbar horsepower. (a). Pulling power of the tractor developed by way of the tires or tracks. (b). Dependent upon soil surface, type of tire (radial or bias ply), tire inflation pressure, tractor weighting, type of hitch, etc. (c). Commonly used to designate the power rating of crawler tractors. c. Electrical. (1). As provided by power company via electrical outlets in your farm shop/home. (2). As generated by a portable motor-generator set to, for example, drive an AC/DC arc welding set-up.

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II. USES OF WORK AND POWER A. Simple machines - used to compound (multiply) forces and increase the efficiency of work B. Levers: 1. Used to multiply force, extend the reach of a machine or reverse direction of an applied force. 2. Class I lever - pivot falls between applied force and resistance (weight).

a. Formula: Applying the principal of moments; F x DF = W x DW or, F = W x (DW DF) where, F = the effort (push) required to just lift the weight W W = the weight to be lifted DW = distance from the pivot point to the weight DF = distance from the pivot to the pushing force F b. Practical significance: (1). Mechanical advantage to "multiply" the effect of the pushing force F. (a). As long as DF is longer than DW, it will take less effort (i.e., pushing force F) to raise the weight (W). (b). Keep DF long and DW short. c. Application: (1). Pry bar. (2). Mechanical jack.

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3. Class II - resistance (weight) falls between the pivot and the applied force.

a. Formula: Applying the principal of moments; F x DF = W x DW or, F = W x (DW DF) where, F = the effort required to just lift the weight W W = the weight to be lifted DW = distance from the pivot point to the weight DF = distance from the pivot to the lifting force F b. Practical significance: (1). Mechanical advantage to "multiply" the effect of the lifting force F. (a). As long as DF is longer than DW, it will take less lift to raise the weight (W). (b). Keep DF long and DW short. c. Application: (1). Wheel barrow.

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4. Class III - applied force falls between the resistance (weight) and the pivot.

a. Formula: Applying the principal of moments; F x DF = W x DW or, F = W x (DW DF) where, F = the effort required to just lift the weight W W = the weight to be lifted DW = distance from the pivot point to the weight DF = distance from the pivot to the lifting force F also, from basic geometry Movement at W = Movement at F x (DW DF) b. Practical significance: (1). Mechanical advantage to "multiply" the effect of the movement applied at the point of the lifting force F (a). Because DW is always longer than DF, the movement at W will always be greater than the movement at the point of application of force F. (2). Not a mechanical advantage in terms of force, i.e., it will always take more force F than weight W to lift W. c. Application: (1). Front end bucket loader on a tractor.

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C. Inclined plane (ramp): 1. A method to ease the job of getting a weight up a vertical distance (height). a. Formula: Lifting energy = pushing (or sliding) energy or, Lifting energy =WxH where, W = the weight to be lifted H = vertical distance of the lift and, Pushing energy = Distance along the inclined plane x Force to push the weight up the inclined plane =FxL where, F = force to push the weight along the ramp = (H D)(W) where, L = length along the sloped surface of the ramp therefore, Lifting energy = pushing energy WxH =FxL and, F = (H L)(W) b. Practical significance: (1). Mechanical advantage to "reduce" the amount of lifting force to raise the weight up from the floor. (a). Because L is always greater than H, it will take a push less than the amount of the weight W to get the weight up the ramp. (2). The slope eliminates the lifting of the pure weight of the object straight up at the expense of pushing it up an incline with a force less than that of the dead weight but over a longer path (distance).

50

D. Gears: 1. Used to: a. Change the speed of rotation (RPM) between two shafts. b. Reverse the direction of rotation of the two shafts. c. Change the amount of torque (twisting force) between two shafts. d. Change the direction of shafting, as with bevel gears (see page 67).

e. Formulae: (1). Speed of rotation: Speed of driving gear (i.e., RPM) x number of teeth on driving gear = speed of driven gear (i.e., RPM) x number of teeth on driven gear or, (RPMdrive) (NTdrive) = (RPMdriven) (NTdriven) therefore, (RPMdriven) = (RPMdrive) [(NTdrive) (NTdriven)] (2). Direction of rotation: Direction of rotation reverses from gear to gear. (3). Torque transfer: Horsepower at drive gear (Tdrive)(RPMdrive) 5252 therefore, (Tdrive)(RPMdrive) (Tdriven) or, (Tdriven) = Horsepower at driven gear = (Tdriven)(RPMdriven) 5252 = (Tdriven)(RPMdriven) = (Tdrive)[(RPMdrive) (RPMdriven)] = (Tdrive)[(NTdriven) (NTdrive)]

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b. Practical significance: (1). If the number of teeth in the drive gear is less than the number of teeth in the driven gear, then the speed of the driven gear is less than the speed of the drive gear. or, going from a small gear to a large gear results in a speed reduction. (2). If the number of teeth in the drive gear is more than the number of teeth in the driven gear, then the speed of the driven gear is greater than the speed of the drive gear. or, going from a large gear to a small gear results in a speed increase. (3). If the number of teeth in the drive gear is less than the number of teeth in the driven gear, then the torque of the driven gear is more than the torque of the drive gear. or, going from a small gear to a large gear results in a torque increase. (4). If the number of teeth in the drive gear is more than the number of teeth in the driven gear, then the torque of the driven gear is less than the torque of the drive gear. or, going from a large gear to a small gear results in a torque decrease. c. Example of gear set to reduce rotational speed and reverse direction of rotation of the driven shaft:

d. Example of gear set to reduce rotational speed and maintain direction of rotation of the driven shaft:

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E. Sheaves: 1. Used to change the speed of rotation (RPM) between two shafts and/or to change the amount of torque (twisting force) passing through a power transmission mechanism.

SHEAVE A

SHEAVE B

a. Formulae: (1). Speed of rotation: Speed of driving sheave (RPM) x diameter of driving sheave = speed of driven sheave (RPM) x diameter of driven sheave or, (RPMdrive) (Ddrive) = (RPMdriven) (Ddriven) therefore, (RPMdriven) = (RPMdrive) [(Ddrive) (Ddriven)] (2). Direction of rotation: Direction of rotation does not reverse from sheave to sheave. (3). Torque transfer: Horsepower at drive sheave (Tdrive)(RPMdrive) 5252 therefore, (Tdrive)(RPMdrive) (Tdriven) or, (Tdriven) = Horsepower at driven sheave = (Tdriven)(RPMdriven) 5252 = (Tdriven)(RPMdriven) = (Tdrive)[(RPMdrive) (RPMdrive)] = (Tdrive)[(Ddriven) (Ddrive)]

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b. Practical significance: (1). If the diameter of the drive sheave is smaller than the diameter of the driven sheave, then the speed of the driven sheave is less than the speed of the drive sheave. or, going from a small sheave to a large sheave results in a speed reduction. (2). If the diameter of the drive sheave is more than the diameter of the driven sheave, then the speed of the driven sheave is greater than the speed of the drive sheave. or, going from a large sheave to a small sheave results in a speed increase. (3). If the diameter of the drive sheave is less than the diameter of the driven sheave, then the torque of the driven sheave is more than the torque of the drive sheave. or, going from a small sheave to a large sheave results in a torque increase. (4). If the diameter of the drive sheave is more than the diameter of the driven sheave, then the torque of the driven sheave is less than the torque of the drive sheave going from a large sheave to a small sheave results in a torque decreases.

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F. Wheel and axles 1. Allows creation of a multiplied force for lifting objects:

PULL
RADIUS OF WHEEL RADIUS OF AXLE (RA) RW

W
a. Formulas pertaining to wheel and axle: Applying principal of moments: Pull (P) x RW = W x RA therefore, P where, P W RA RW = (W)(RA RW) = pull force exerted on the rope to lift the weight W = weight being lifted = radius of axle = radius of wheel

b. Practical significance: (1). The wheel and axle arrangement gives a mechanical advantage. The amount of pull to lift the weight W is in direct proportion to the ratio of the diameters of the wheel and axle.

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III. PROBLEMS IN WORK AND POWER A. Energy problems: 1. Heat energy. The amount of energy to heat up a given amount of water is given by: Q = (M)(C)(TF - TI) Where, Q = AMOUNT OF HEAT REQUIRED IN BTU'S M = MASS OF THE WATER TO BE HEATED IN LBS. C = CONSTANT (EQUALS 1 FOR WATER) TF = DESIRED FINAL WATER TEMPERATURE TI = INITIAL WATER TEMPERATURE From the above formula, determine the energy required to heat 100 gallons of water to 140F (by setting your thermostat on your hot water heater) as compared to the energy required to heat 100 gallons of water to 180. You can assume that the initial water temperature is 60F in both cases. Determine the cost differential if electricity is costing $0.10 per KWH. Given: Water weighs 8.34 pounds per gallon TF = 140 and 180F TI = 60F To convert BTU'S to KWH, divide by 3413 Solution: Q = (M)(C)(TF - TI) Where, M = 100 gallons x 8.34 lbs/gal = 834 pounds C =1 TF = 140 and 180 F. TI = 60 F. Therefore, @ 140 F Q = (834)(1)(140-60) = 66,720 BTU's Q = 66,720 BTU x 1/3413 KWH/BTU = 19.55 KWH Cost = 19.55 KWH x $0.10/KWH = $1.96 @ 180 F Q = (834)(1)(180-60) = 100,080 BTU's Q = 100,080 BTU x 1/3413 KWH/BTU = 29.32 KWH Cost = 29.32 KWH x $0.10/KWH = $2.93 Cost differential = $2.93 - $1.96 = $0.97

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2. Irrigation pumping energy costs. The energy to pump irrigation water is given by the formula: KWH/ACFT = (1.024)(H) E WHERE, KWH/ACFT = pump energy in kilowatt hours per acre foot of water pumped H = total lift of the pump in feet E = pump efficiency as a decimal Pump efficiencies may vary between 30 and 70 percent. Assume that your electricity is costing you $0.08 per KWH. Also assume that your pump lift is 100 feet. Finish the chart below to calculate the pump energy per acre foot and the pumping cost per acre foot for the various pump efficiencies. Given: H = 100 feet E = 0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60 and 0.70 Cost of electricity is $0.08/KWH PUMP ENERGY EFFICIENCY REQ'D (KWH/ACFT) 30% 341.3 40% 50% 60% 70% 256.0 204.8 170.7 146.3 COST $/ACFT $27.31 $20.43 $16.38 $13.65 $11.70

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3. Gears. You are trying to determine the relative rotational speed between a series of gears off of a ground drive on your sprayer. You have a 16 tooth drive gear to another gear with 32 teeth. On a common shaft, another 18 tooth gear drives a fourth gear with 30 teeth. If drive gear A runs at 540 RPM, how fast does the shaft with driven gear D turn?

Solution: Formula: (RPMdriven) = (RPMdrive) [(NTdrive) (NTdriven)] Therefore, (RPMGear B) = (RPMGear A) [(NTGear A) (NTGear B)] And, (RPMGear B) = (540)[16 32] = 270 RPM Since the Gear B and Gear C are on a common shaft, the RPM of each is the same, i.e., 270 RPM. Then, (RPMGear D) = (RPMGear C) [(NTGear C) (NTGear D)] Therefore, (RPMGear D) = (270)[18 30] = 162 RPM

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4. Levers and pressure. You are pulling up on the lever at point A with a force of 50 pounds. The lever pivots about point B and pushes down on the piston at point C. How much of a load can be lifted at the larger piston?

Solution: Force @ C x 1" = Force @ A x 5" Therefore, Force @ C = Force @ A x 5" 1" = (50)(5) = 250 pounds Pressure under C = F A = 250 lbs. 10 sq.in. = 25 psi. Pressure is transmitted uniformly to under the larger cylinder. Therefore, Pressure under large cylinder = 25 psi = Load Area of large cylinder And, Load = Pressure under large cylinder x Area of large cylinder Load = 25 psi x 60 sq. in. Load = 1,500 pounds

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B. Power problems: 1. Hydraulic horsepower. The rated flow of hydraulic oil from your 90 PTO horsepower wheel tractor is 15 gpm at 2320 psi. What percentage of the 90 PTO horsepower is used to pump hydraulic oil at maximum flow and rated pressure? Solution: HHP = (F)(P) (1714)(E 100) Where, F = 15 gpm P = 2320 psi E = 90% Therefore, HHP = (15)(2320) (1714)(90 100) HHP = 22.6 horsepower Percentage of rated horsepower = 22.6 x 100 90 = 25.1% 2. Water horsepower. You are interested in sizing a pump for an irrigation system. You need the pump to lift water a vertical distance of 5 feet. You will be pumping 900 gallons per minute. Assume the pump efficiency to be 65%. What pump size do you need in terms of horsepower? Solution: WHP = (GPM)(H) (3960)(E 100) Where, GPM = 900 gpm H = 5 feet E = 65% Therefore, WHP = (900)(5) (3960)(65 100) WHP = 1.8 horsepower

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2. Drawbar and PTO horsepower. Calculate the drawbar and tractor (THP) horsepower (for a 2-WD tractor) requirements for the following implement: A 15 foot wide landplane operated at 3.0 miles per hour in a tilled, reasonably firm soil. Solution: DBHP = (UD)(W)(S) 375 Where, UD = 500 lbs. per foot of width (from table on page 6) W = 15 feet S = 3.0 mph Therefore, D = 500 lbs. per ft. x 15 ft = 7,500 lbs. Thus, DBHP = (7,500)(3.0) 375 = 60.0 HP THP = (1.15)(DBHP) Kw Where, Kw = 0.67 (from table on page 50) DBHP = 60.0 HP Therefore, THP = (1.15)(60) 0.67 = 103.0

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IV. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

FORMULAS A. Work: 1. Work (ft-lbs) = Force applied (pounds). x Distance moved (feet) 2. Electrical energy: a. Work is moving charges against resistance b. E = I * R where, E = electrical energy (watt-hours or kilowatt-hours) I = electrical current (amperes) R = electrical resistance (ohms) 3. Heat energy: a. Q = (M)(C)(TF - TI) where, Q = Amount of heat required to heat up a given amount of matter (BTU's) M = Mass of the matter to be heated (lbs.) C = Constant (equals 1 for water) TF = Desired final temperature of the mass TI = Initial temperature of the mass 4. Pump energy: (1). The energy to pump irrigation water is given by the formula: KWH/ACFT = (1.024)(H) (E 100) where, KWH/ACFT = pump energy in kilowatt hours per acre foot of water pumped H = total lift of the pump in feet E = pump efficiency (%) B. Power: 1. Fluid: a. HHP = (F)(P) (1714)(E 100) where, HHP = Required size of hydraulic pump (horsepower) F = Flow of the hydraulic oil pumped (gallons per minute) P = Pressure of the pumped oil (psi) E = Pump efficiency (%) b. WHP = (GPM)(H) (3960)(E 100) where, WHP = Required size of water pump (horsepower) GPM = Flow of water pumped (gallons per minute) H = Hydraulic head (feet) E = Pump efficiency (%)

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2. Tractor: a. Drawbar horsepower DBHP where, DBHP

= (D)(S) 375 = (UD)(W)(S) 375

= Drawbar horsepower = power transmitted through the drive wheels (or tracks) to move the tractor and the implement through or over the crop or soil. D = Total draft of the implement (lbs) = total pull exerted on the implement by the tractor UD = Unit draft of the implement (lbs) = pull exerted on the implement by the tractor per foot of width of the implement (see page 6 for typical values of UD) W = operating width of the implement (feet) S = Speed of the tractor (mph) Note: D = UD x W is the total draft of the implement. b. Tractor horsepower (wheel tractors only) THP = (1.15)DBHP) Kw = (1.15)(D)(S) (375)(Kw) or, when a unit draft is available THP = (1.15)(UD)(W)(S) (375)(Kw) where, THP = Required horsepower of the wheel tractor as measured at the PTO DBHP = drawbar horsepower = power required for pulling a implement through the field. D = Draft of the implement (lbs) = total pull exerted on the implement by the tractor UD = Unit draft of the implement (lbs) = pull exerted on the implement by the tractor per foot of width of the implement (see page 15 for typical values of UD) W = operating width of the implement (feet) S = Speed of the tractor (mph) 1.15 = A factor which adds 15% to the calculation to account for horsepower reserve for hills, acceleration, etc. Kw = Tractive efficiency factor for wheel tractors (see the following page for typical values) c. Rotary PTO horsepower RPTOHP = (T)(R)/5252 where, RPTOHP = PTO horsepower from the PTO shaft T = Torque (lb-ft) provided by the PTO shaft R = Speed of rotation of the PTO shaft in RPM 3. Electrical: a. P = I*E*pf where, P = power in watts E = electrical energy (watt-hours or kilowatt-hours = I x R pf = power factor encountered in AC power with inductive and capacitive loads, I = current flow (amperes) b. For DC applications: P = I x E = I x (I x R) = I2 x R

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UNIT DRAFT REQUIREMENTS OF FARM IMPLEMENTS


Implement Moldboard Plow light soil medium soil heavy soil Lister light soil medium soil heavy soil Field cultivator Light disc harrow Medium disc harrow Heavy disc harrow Row crop planter Grain drill Spike tooth harrow Roller Landplane Chisel plow Spring-tooth harrow Unit draft (UD) 500 lbs per foot of width 800 lbs per foot of width ll00 lbs per foot of width 400 lbs per foot of width 600 lbs per foot of width 800 lbs per foot of width 290 lbs per foot of width 250 lbs per foot of width 600 lbs per foot of width l000 lbs per foot of width l50 lbs per foot of width 70 lbs per foot of width 40 lbs per foot of width l00 lbs per foot of width 500 lbs per foot of width 500 lbs per foot of width l90 lbs per foot of width

KW FACTORS FOR WHEEL DRIVE TRACTORS


Soil Conditon/Tractive Condition Concrete Firm, untilled soil/Good Tilled, reasonably firm soil/Moderate Freshly plowed soft soil/Poor Kw Factors 2-WD 4-WD 0.87 0.88 0.72 0.78 0.67 0.75 0.55 0.70

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MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS A. Shaft. 1. A direct and positive connection between the power source and the point of use when they are directly in line and relatively close together. 2. Connecting couplings: a. Universal joint. (1). Allows a slight out-of-alignment between the two ends. b. Torque (flex) coupling. (1). Absorb shock loads and allow for a point to disassemble the two end points. c. Chain coupler. (1). A low maintenance shaft coupler that will allow a slight amount of misalignment.

3. Couplers are available for transferring power of 200 horsepower and more. B. Chain and sprocket. 1. A positive connection between the power source and the point of use when they are parallel. 2. Types of chains: a. Hook link (or detachable link) chain. (1). A slow speed application chain which can be run dry and in dirty conditions. Chain is hammered together and apart at any link.

b. Roller chain. (1). A high quality, high speed chain which can be operated fully in oil or semi-dry.

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3. Specification of roller chains and sprockets: a. Chain size (or number) is delineated by: (1). Pitch which is the distance between the centers of the links. (2). Width which is the distance between the inside edges of the side bars. (3). Common chains with their corresponding pitches and widths are: Chain No. Pitch Width 40 1/2" 5/16" 50 5/8" 3/8" 60 3/4" 1/2" 80 1" 5/8" 100 1 1/4" 3/4" 120 1 1/2" 1" 140 1 3/4" 1" 160 2" 1 1/4" 180 2 1/4" 1 13/32" 200 2 1/2" 1 1/2" b. Sprocket size is specified by: (1). Number of teeth (same pitch as the chain). (2). Type of hub. (3). Hub bore diameter. c. Chains and sprockets are available for transmitting power of 200 horsepower and more. C. Belt drives. 1. A connection between the power source and the point of use when they are parallel and when some slip or torque release between the two shafts is allowable or desirable. Also allows a change of speed between the two shafts if desired. The belt runs on a sheave which is connected to the shafts. 2. Types of belts: a. Flat belt. (1). A thin, flat belt that relies on tension to give traction at the sheave (which is slightly crowned in the middle). b. V-belt. (1). The most common belt which rides in the "V" of the sheave. (2). V-belts are specified by: (a). Length. (b). Cross-sectional width. (c). "V" depth of the belt.

c. Toothed belt. (1). A positive drive (no slippage) belt with teeth. (2). Used for timed power transmission applications. (3). Available in five standard pitches - 1/5, 3/8, 1/2, 7/8 and 1-1/4.

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3. Sizes of and designation of agricultural V-belts:

c. Note:

Double angled belts (HAA through HDD) are designed for uses where the to and bottom of the belt must contact sheaves (as in a serpentine drive).

D. Gear drive. 1. A gear connection between the power source and the point of use which can be inline, parallel or around the corner and which also allows change of shaft speed between the two. 2. Types of gears: a. Spur. (1). A straight cut gear which must run with parallel shafts. b. Helical. (1). Can be either spur or bevel cut but without straight teeth. The slanted teeth allows for longer teeth contact and superior wear characteristics.

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c. Bevel cut. (1). Straight cut gear which are beveled to allow shafts to run up to 90 apart. d. Hypoid. (1). Spiral bevel have curved teeth which mesh quietly and wear characteristics. (2). Used extensively in differentials.

e. Worm. (1). A shaft which has teeth cut around it with screw-like threads meshing with a helical cut gear. (2). Used on steering gears on tractors. f. Rack and pinion. (1). Commonly used in steering systems.

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E. Fluid power systems.

1. General components: a. Pump. (1). Produces flow of hydraulic fluid to other parts of the system. (2). Pump types: (a). Gear. (b). Vane. (c). Piston. b. Valves. (1). Allows for control of oil pressure and/or flow volume and direction. (2). General types: (a). Pressure control. (b). Directional control. (c). Volume control. c. Fluid actuator. (1). Component at which the hydraulic fluid actually does work. This is normally in the form of rotary or linear motion. (2). General types: (a). Cylinder or ram. (b). Motor.

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d. Reservoir. (1). Provides oil storage, cooling, de-airification and cleaning of the hydraulic fluid. e. Accessories. (1). Components that provide increased utility or life of the hydraulic system. (2). Examples: (a). Oil filter. (b). Oil coolers. (c). Accumulators (store hydraulic fluid for shock loads or additional flow requirements). f. Hydraulic lines and couplers. (1). Provide pathway for fluid flow and connectors between hoses in the system. g. Hydraulic fluid. (1). Petroleum based fluid that flows through the system.

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ABT 317 LECTURE 7 ELECTRICITY

71

CONTENTS
I. II.

FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY CONDUCTORS AND OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

PAGE
72 79 80 80 83 84 84

III. ADDITONAL INFORMATION Electric Motors Simple Electrical Circuits Testing Electrical Circuits Safety

References: 1. Energy Use and Management in Agriculture. B.A. Stout. 2. Saving Energy on the Farm. PG&E. 3. Selecting Electric Motors for Maximum Efficiency. Leaflet 21240. Division of Agricultural Sciences. University of California. 4. Cutting Energy Costs for Pumping Irrigation Water. Leaflet 21288. Division of Agricultural Sciences. University of California. 5. Practical Electrical Wiring. Richter, Herbert R. and Schwan, W. Creighton. McGraw-Hill. 1987. 6. Understanding and Using Electricity. McKenzie, Bruce and Zachariah, Gerald H. The Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc. Danville, Illinois. 1982. 7. Automotive Electrical Handbook. Horner, Jim. HP Books. Los Angeles, Ca. 1986.

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I. FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY A. What is electricity. 1. A science, just like optics, hydraulics, etc. a. Involves current, voltage, resistance and power generation. b. Present in housing, automobiles, farm structures, tractors, computers, etc. B. Electrical terms 1. Current a. The flow of free electrons along a conductor. (1). An electron is a negatively charged particle which travels in an orbit around the nucleus of an atom. (2). A conductor is a material made up of atoms which contain readily movable electrons. b. Units of current are amperes and current is usually designated by the letter I. c. The amount of current is measured by the number of electrons flowing by a point on a conductor in one second. (1). 6 billion electrons in one second equals one ampere. d. Analogous to water flow (gpm). 2. Voltage. a. Electrical pressure (potential) which provides the energy for the movement of electrons along a conductor. b. Units of voltage are volts and voltage is usually designated by the letter V (or E). 3. Resistance a. Ability of a material to resist electron flow. b. Units of resistance are ohms and resistance is usually designated by the letter R. c. A conductor is a material through which electrons flow freely, i.e., low resistance (such as copper or aluminum). An insulator is a material that provides great resistance to electron flow (such as rubber). 4. Power supply. a. A device which imparts energy to move electrons. b. Does not create electrons, just gets them moving. 5. Mathematical relation between voltage, amperes and resistance: a. V = I x R Where, V = Electrical potential (volts) I = Current (amperes) R = Resistance (ohms) b. Example: You wire a branch circuit in your house for 120 volt service. The appliance in the circuit has a known resistance of 100 ohms. What will be the current flow in the circuit? V =IxR Where, V = 120 volts R = 100 ohms Therefore, I = V R = 120 100 = 1.2 amperes

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c. Calculation of current flow in a series circuit:

SERIES CIRCUIT
12 VOLT BATTERY

I
RESISTANCE

(1). Current flow in a series circuit: I =VR d. Calculation of current flow in a parallel circuit:

PARALELL CIRCUIT
12 VOLT BATTERY

I I1
RESISTANCE #1

I2
RESISTANCE #2

(1). Calculation of equivalent resistance in the parallel circuit: Requivalent = [(R1)(R2) ] (R1 + R2) (2). Calculation of current flow in a parallel circuit: I = V Requivalent I1 = V R1 and, I2 = V R2 and, I = I1 + I2 6. Energy a. Electrical energy is the amount of work that can be done by voltage and current over a specific period of time. b. The units for electrical energy is watt-hours (more commonly specified as kilowatt hours which is 1000 watt hours) and is usually designated by the letters kWh. c. Mathematical relation between voltage, amperes, resistance and electrical energy: (1). kWh = P x T 1000 where, P = Power (watts) T = time (hours)

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7. Power a. Electrical power is the amount of work that can be done by voltage and current. b. The units for electrical power is watts and watts are usually designated by the letter W. c. A watt of power is equal to one volt pushing one ampere of current through a conductor with one ohm of resistance. d. Mathematical relation between power and voltage, resistance and amperes: P =IxV Where, P = power (watts) I = current (amperes) V = electrical potential (volts) e. Example of usage: (1). Most household/farm/shop appliances and equipment are rated in watts (see the nameplate or manufacturers specifications). Knowing the rating in watts and the voltage to be used (normally 120 or 240 volts in AC power and 12 volts DC in your car or tractor) we can calculate the flow of current in he circuit for the appliance/equipment. (2). You have purchased a 24 watt parking light bulb for your tractor. Your tractor has a 12 volt battery and the light is wired in series with the battery. How much current will the parking light draw? P =IxV Or, I =PV Where, P = 24 watts V = 12 volts. Therefore, I = 24 12 = 2 amperes f. Mathematical relation between power and voltage, resistance and amperes can be rewritten as: (1). P = I x V And, V =IxR Therefore, P = I x I x R = I2 x R C. Sources of electricity: 1. Friction: a. Electric charge produced when certain materials are rubbed together. (1). Walking across carpeted floor, sliding across automobile seat covers results in static electricity (buildup of charge without current flow). b. Little practical value - tends to be a nuisance or hazard. 2. Heat: a. Connect two dissimilar metals (copper and constantan), heat at the junction and electrons will pass from one metal to the other. b. This is called the thermoelectric process. c. Used in furnaces to sense the presence of heat to hold open the fuel supply. When the furnace goes out, lack of heat causes current flow to stop which can shut off the fuel supply. 3. Light: a. Some materials have the property of producing electricity when they are subjected to light. b. These materials are said to be photovoltaic. c. Used in remote areas, communications satellites, etc. where it would be impractical to run in lines or provide batteries.

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4. Pressure: a. Some materials produce electricity when a force is applied that changes their shape. b. These materials are said to be piezoelectric. c. Quartz is such a material. d. Phonographs using a crystal cartridge utilize the piezoelectric principal to convert the movement of the needle to an electric signal which is amplified and played through speakers. 5. Chemical action: a. Primary cells: (1). Combination of certain metals in an electrolyte solution will produce electricity. (a). Copper and zinc in sulfuric acid. (2). Dry cell (paste-like electrolyte, carbon and zinc electrodes) or mercury batteries. (3). Zinc is used up in the process and the batteries will eventually go dead. b. Storage batteries: (1). Similar to primary cells except that the process can be reversed and the battery can be recharged. (2). Lead-sulfuric acid battery used in automobiles, tractors, etc. (3). Nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery used in flashlights, radios, etc. c. Fuel cells: (1). A container in which fuels react in the presence of an electrolyte and electrons are made available at the negative electrode terminal. (2). Oxygen and hydrogen are used as fuels in space vehicles to produce electricity. 6. Magnetic action: a. Flow of electrons is produced in a coil of wire which is moving within a magnetic field. (1). Magnetic field can be provided by a stationary magnet. (2). Movement of the wire can be provided: (a). by falling water turning a turbine shaft. (b). by atomic power producing steam which turns a turbine shaft (c). or by an internal combustion engine turning a shaft. b. This is by far the most common method of producing electrical energy in large quantities to serve the home, farm and business. D. Types of electricity: 1. Direct current (DC). a. Electrons flow constantly in one direction. b. Produced by all batteries. 2. Alternating current (AC). a. Electrons flow first in one direction and then in the reverse direction at a certain rate of reversal (cycles per second). (1). In the U.S., 60 cycle per second (60 Hertz) is the standard. b. AC current has many advantages over DC, i.e., transformers to increase or decrease voltage can only be used with AC current.

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3. Single phase power. a. Typical power supplied to households and businesses where power requirements are not too high. (1). Voltage is typically 120 or 240 volts. b. Can be provided by two wires (but normally 3 are used). c. A diagram of single phase, 60-Hz alternating power is:
1/60 SEC.

4. Three phase power: a. Designed especially for large electrical loads. (1). Typically provided as 240 volts. b. Requires at least three wires. c. A combination of three single phase currents so that peak currents are equally spaced. d. A diagram of three phase, 60-Hz alternating power is:
1/60 SEC.

VOLTAGE

VOLTAGE

FIRST PHASE

SECOND PHASE

THIRD PHASE

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E. Electrical system (circuit) components: 1. Electrical source: a. Battery. b. Generator/alternator/magneto in engines. c. Electrical supply from power company. 2. Electrical load: a. Devices to which electrical power is directed and used for their operation. (1). Ignition system (spark plugs), starter, horn, lights, radio on a tractor or automobile. (2). Lights, heating/air conditioning unit, hot water heater, band saw, motor, etc., in the shop or home. 3. Electrical path: a. Wiring, switches, and fuses which conduct electricity from the source to the load and back. F. Electrical system types: 1. Closed circuit: a. A circuit that is continuously providing a complete path for the flow of current.

CLOSED CIRCUIT
12 VOLT BATTERY

L
LIGHT (24 WATT)

2. Open circuit: a. A circuit that has been disconnected by a switch, fuse, circuit breaker or other opening in the line.

OPEN CIRCUIT
12 VOLT BATTERY

L
LIGHT (24 WATT)

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3. Short circuit: a. Improper or accidental contact between two or more wires in a circuit.

SHORT CIRCUIT
12 VOLT BATTERY

I1

I2

L
LIGHT (24 WATT)

4. Fault: a. A leakage of current (a high resistance or arcing connection) from a hot wire to a ground connection which may be of such low amperage that the circuit protection will not trip. b. A ground fault circuit interruption device (GFCI) is a device that measures fault current and automatically opens the circuit at a preset value (usually 5 to 7 milliamperes). The purpose is to protect people from a fatal shock.

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II. CONDUCTORS AND OVERCURRENT PROTECTION A. Conductors: 1. Basic composition of conductors. a. Normally copper (the best) or aluminum. b. May be solid wire or many strands bundled together. (1). Stranded wire improves flexibility and conductivity. 2. Sizes of conductors: a. Specified by American Wire Gauge numbers: (1). No. 14 is rated for 15 ampere circuits. (2). No. 12 is rated for 20 ampere circuits. (3). No. 10 is rated fro 30 ampere circuits. b. The smaller the number, the larger the diameter of the wire. 3. Types of conductors: a. Wire: (1). A single conductor which may be bare or insulated. (2). Generally used for permanent installation in conduit or electrical metallic tubing. b. Cable: (1). Protective sheath containing two or more insulated wires. (2). May also contain a bare ground wire. (3). Generally used for permanent indoor installation. c. Cord: (1). A conductor containing two or more insulated stranded wires. (2). May have a ground wire. (3). Generally used where flexibility is required. B. Overcurent protection 1. Fundamentals of overcurrent protection. a. Each wire size is rated to carry a certain amount of current. Wires carrying beyond that amount of current will heat up and can cause fire. b. Overcurrent devices limit the amount of current that can flow through a wire (circuit) to prevent overheating, damage to circuit components and/or fires. 2. Fuses a. Device containing a strip of low-melting-temperature metal, which, when inserted in the circuit, will melt, thus opening the circuit and preventing damaging levels of current. b. Types: (1). Plug fuses (a). Ordinary plug fuses range in size from 3 to 30 amps and should not be used in circuits with motors that have a high starting current requirement. (b). Time-delay plug fuses range in size from 0.4 to 30 amps and are designed to carry temporary current overloads in circuits with electric motors. (2). Cartridge fuses (a). Ferrule cartridge fuses range in size up to 60 amps. (b). Knife-blade contact cartridge fuses are available greater than 60 amps. 3. Circuit breakers a. Current overload protection devices that can be reset and used again after the overload.

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III. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ELECTRIC MOTORS A. Advantages of electric motors: 1. Low first cost. 1 HP motor costs between $150 to $250. 10 HP motor costs between $500 and $650 ($450 to $950 for 4 stroke-cycle 10 HP gasoline engine) ($1800 for 10 HP diesel engine) 100 HP motor costs between $5500 and $7500 250 HP motor costs between $9500 and $15000 2. Simplicity. a. Easy to operate and use. b. Normally switch or button to control on/off. 3. Low operating costs. a. Electricity rates less subject to variation of fuel prices. 4 Efficiency. a. Typical efficiencies range between 65 to 85 percent. 5. Quiet operation. 6. Convenience of control. a. Can be controlled from a distance with switches. 7. Long life. a. Few moving parts. 8. Safe operation. a. No exposed electrical wires, not exposed moving parts, no exhaust fumes, not flammable fuel source. B. Types of electric motors. 1. Single phase AC electric motor types: a. Split-phase (1). Horsepower range: 1/20 to 1/3 HP. (2). Load starting ability: Easy starting loads; motor can develop 150% of full-load torque. (3). Starting current: High. Five to seven times the full load current. (4). Characteristics: Inexpensive and simple construction. Nearly constant speed with varying load. (5). Electrically reversible: Yes. (6). Typical uses: Any load that increases as speed increases. Fans, centrifugal pumps, small drill press. b. Capacitor-start induction-run (1). Horsepower range: 1/8 to 10 HP. (2). Load starting ability: Hard starting loads; motor can develop 350% of full-load torque. (3). Starting current: Medium. Three to six times full-load current. (4). Characteristics: Simple construction, long service life, good general purpose motor. Nearly constant speed with varying load. (5). Electrically reversible: Yes. (6). Typical uses: Air compressors, table saw, crop drying fans, auger and chain conveyors.

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c. Capacitor-start capacitor-run (1). Horsepower range: 1/2 to 20 HP. (2). Load starting ability: Hard starting loads. Motor can develop 350% of full-load torque. (3). Starting current: Medium. Three to five times full-load current. (4). Characteristics: Simple construction, long service with minimum maintenance. Nearly constant speed with varying load. (5). Electrically reversible: Yes. (6). Typical uses: Materials conveyors, crop drying fans, heavy duty shop machines. d. Repulsion (1). Horsepower range: 1/6 to 10 HP. (2). Load starting ability: Very hard starting loads. Motor can develop 350 to 400% of full-load torque. (3). Starting current: Low. Two to four times full-load current. (4). Characteristics: Requires more maintenance because of brush wear. Running current varies only slightly with load. (5). Electrically reversible: No - brushes must be shifted. (6). Typical uses: Conveyors of all types, deep well pumps, irrigation pumps. e. Series or universal (1). Horsepower range: 1/150 to 1 HP. (2). Load starting ability: Hard starting loads. Motor can develop 350 to 450% of full-load torque. (3). Starting current: High. (4). Characteristics: High speed, usually direct connected to the load (as opposed to running through gears/pulleys/etc. Speed varies with variations in the load. (5). Electrically reversible: Yes - some types. (6). Typical uses: Portable tools and appliances. 2. Three phase AC electric motor types: a. Constant speed squirrel cage (1). Characteristics: Speed varies slightly with load. b. Wound rotor

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C. Reading the nameplate of an electric motor. 1. RPM: Speed of the motor under rated load conditions. 2. H.P.: Rated horsepower of the motor. 3. PHASE: Single or three phase power required by the motor. 4. VOLTAGE: Voltage required by the motor. Motors are typically rated at 115, 230 or 460 volts (even though the power company is delivering you 120, 240 and 480 volts. 5. DUTY RATING: Durability designed into the motor. a. Continuous duty: Motor will deliver rated horsepower for an indefinite period of time without overheating. b. Limited duty: Motor will deliver rated horsepower for a specified period of time before overheating and the motor will burn out if continuously operated at rated load. 6. SERVICE FACTOR: Indication of the amount of load that the motor can tolerate. For example, a Service Factor of 1.15 means that the motor can tolerate a 15 percent overload, continuously it is so rated, without burning out. 7. TEMPERATURE RISE: The extent (in number of degrees) to which motor temperature can exceed the surrounding air temperature at rated load. For example: A motor with a continuous duty rating and a 72 F temperature rise is a good general purpose motor. 8. THERMAL PROTECTION: A temperature sensing device built into the motor that disconnects the motor from its power source if the temperature becomes excessive due to failure to start or overloading of the motor. Types are: MANUAL RESET An external button must be pushed to restore power to the motor. AUTO RESET The motor is automatically restarted after it cools.

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SIMPLE ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS A. Fundamentals of circuits: 1. Circuit terms: a. Simple circuit: (1). Consists of an electrical source (such as a battery or alternator), an electrical path (wiring to and from the load) and an electrical load (such as a light). b. Branch circuit: (1). Circuits beginning from the service entrance panel and branching out to a variety of places (re rooms) for a variety of purposes (lighting, stove, hot water heater, AC, etc.). 2. Components of a simple two-wire circuit a. Wires (1). White wire which is the neutral or ground wire. (a). Connected back to an underground water pipe or a ground rod through the service entrance panel. (b). Always connected to a silver-colored neutral terminal. (c). Never has a fuse or breaker or a switch. (d). Must be electrically continuous. (2). Black wire which is the "hot" wire. (a). Voltage always exists between the black and white wire. (b). One black and one white wire must run to every outlet. b. Electrical boxes: (1). Rectangular or octagonal metal or plastic boxes that: (a). Anchors the cable or conduit so that there is not stress on the electrical wire. (b). Fixed to the building in order to support outlets, fixtures or switches. (c). Contains all wire connections made outside of fixtures. c. Outlets: (1). Every point where power is taken from wires to be consumed. (2). Duplex receptacle outlet is the most common. d. Fixtures: (1). Bases or housings for light bulbs, fan motors and other electrical devices. e. Switches; (1). Provides a means to open (stop current flow) and close (allow current flow) a circuit. (2). Always wired back to the black (hot) wire. (3). Number of poles indicate the number of hot wires feed through the switch. (4). Number of throws indicate how many locations a switch can be operated from. f. Overcurrent protection devices: (1). Fuses and circuit breakers. (2). Always wired to the black (hot) wire. g. Entrance switch: (1). A switch placed ahead of the fuse in the hot wire where electricity enters the building.

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TESTING ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS A. Types of electrical circuit testers: 1. Test (continuity) light: a. Can be used to troubleshoot circuits for shorts, opens, grounds and voltage. 2. Three-prong circuit tester: a. Commercially available and plugs into outlet of the circuit. b. Indicates: (1). Correct wiring. (2). Open ground. (3). Reverse polarity. (4). Open neutral. (5). Hot and ground wire reversed. 3. Voltage testers (Wiggies) a. Indicates voltage on a scale and buzzes when the circuit is hot. b. Can be used to troubleshoot circuits for shorts, opens and grounds. 4. Volt-Ohm-Milliamp meter (VOM meter): a. Indicates presence and magnitude of voltage, current and resistance (ohms) as well as an audible indication of circuit continuity. SAFETY A. Electrical hazards: 1. Shock a. The body's reaction to the passing of electrical current through it. b. Amperage is what will cause injury or death - voltage, bodily resistance is what determines the amount of current flow. c. Amperage in the range of 15 to 50 milliamperes can be fatal depending upon age, health, etc. 2. Fire a. May occur when electrical conductors overheat or when a spark is produced. B. General safety rules: 1. Follow the manufacturers instruction for installation and use of all electrical equipment. 2. Never disconnect or damage an electrical safety device that is provided by the manufacturer. 3. Do not touch electrical appliances, boxes, or wiring with wet hands. 4. Do not remove the long ground prong from three-prong 120 volt plugs. 5. Discontinue using any extension cord that feels warm or smells like burning rubber. 6. Do not use any switches, outlets, fixtures, or extension cords that are cracked or damaged in any way. 7. Do not place extension cords under carpeting. 8. If a fuse is blown or a breaker is tripped, find and correct the problem before installing a new fuse or resetting the breaker. 9. Do not leave heat-producing appliances such as irons and soldering irons unattended. 10. If attempting to rescue a person being electrocuted, touch the person only after the circuit has been opened or use an insulated object to move the person off of the hot wire.

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ABT 317 LECTURE 7 PLUMBING

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CONTENTS
I.

PLUMBING SYSTEMS Water system Drain-waste-vent (DWV) system Gas system

PAGE
87 87 87 87 88 88 91 92 92 92 93 93 93 93 93

II.

PIPE AND PIPE FITTINGS Types of pipe Pipe fittings TOOLS Common Specialized SIMPLE REPAIRS Water faucet and valve leaks Leaks in pipes and tanks Thawing frozen pipes Clogged drains

III.

IV.

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I. PLUMBING SYSTEMS A. Water system. 1. Purpose: a. Provide pressurized (typically 50 to 60 psi) supply of potable water to the structure. b. Provide distribution system for hot and cold water throughout the structure as required. 2. Arrangement and layout. a. Supply: (1). Entry through a black steel or galvanized steel pipe from either the municipal water domestic water well system. (a). Water meter located between two valves on municipal water systems. (2). A branch from the main supply line is connected to the water heater. b. Service (hot and cold water supply lines): (1). Hot and cold water lines are normally run parallel throughout the structure. (2). Locating fixtures in a continuous line saves money. c. Materials: (1). Copper or chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CVPC) pipe. B. Drain-waste-vent (DWV) system. 1. Purpose: a. Carries away (by gravity flow - not normally a pressurized system) water and waste to a municipal sewer or on-site septic tank system. b. Vents potentially harmful gases to the outside. 2. Arrangement and layout. a. Drain: (1). Carries away waste water (gray water) from sinks, washing machines, etc. b. Waste: (1). Carries away waste and water from toilets. c. Vent: (1). Allows gases from the DWV system to be vented (expelled) to the outside atmosphere. b. Materials: (1). Outside the structure: (a). Vitreous clay, bituminous fiber, plastic, drainage type copper (DWV) or cast iron. (2). Inside the structure: (a). Plastic ABS or PVC pipe. C. Gas system. 1. Purpose: a. Provides pressurized gas for use for stoves, hot water heaters dryers, etc. 2. Arrangement and layout. a. Supply: (1). Entry through a meter located outside the structure. b. Materials: (1). Service lines of black steel pipe. (2). Connectors to appliances can usually be flexible brass pipe.

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D. Local building codes provide a set way to do every major plumbing task. E. Precautions: 1. Be sure that there are no leaks in the drainage or venting system through which sewerage or sewer gases can leak. 2. Be sure that there are no cross-connections between the water supply system and any other piping carrying gas or sewerage. 3. Be sure that all fixtures are designed such as to prevent back siphonage from the fixture into the water supply system. II. PIPE AND PIPE FITTINGS A. Types of pipe: 1. Cast iron. a. Uses: (1). Seldom used indoor anymore. (2). Only in the DWV system and then near tree roots or beneath driveways. b. Types: (1). Service. (2). Extra Heavy. c. Sizes and lengths: (1). 2" to 6" diameter. (2). 5' to 10' lengths. d. Methods of connection of pipe lengths: (1). Hub coupling: (a). Older cast iron pipe has hubs and pipe lengths were sealed with molten lead and oakum (a ropelike material that makes a watertight seal when it is compacted). (2). Hubless: (a). Modern cast iron pipe is sealed by sliding a lubricated neoprene gasket over the joint and then sliding and tightening a rustproof stainless steel pipe clamp band over the joint. 2. Galvanized pipe. a. Uses: (1). Main supply line in hot water and steam systems. b. Types: (1). Only one type - coated with zinc on the inside and outside of the pipe. c. Sizes and lengths: (1). 1/8" to 12" nominal (inside) diameter. (2). Wall thickness: (a). Standard pipe. (b). Extra heavy pipe. (c). Double extra heavy pipe. (2). Unthreaded pipe sold in 21' lengths. (3). Threaded pipe sold in 10' lengths. (a). Threads according to IPT (International Pipe Thread) standards. d. Methods of connection of pipe lengths: (1). Threaded fittings (a). Straight or reduced couplers. 3. Copper pipe (tubing). a. Uses: (1). Water supply and DWV lines. (2). Often used in place of steel pipe because it resists corrosion, is easy to handle and and withstands freezing better than steel. (3). Higher in cost than steel pipe and can result in green stains in sinks and tubs as well as a bad water taste if the water is acidic.

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b. Types: (1). By flexibility: (a). Soft (tubing). (1). Can be bent (be sure to use the appropriate bender) and eliminates the need for some fittings. (b). Rigid (pipe). (2). By wall thickness: (a). Type K. (1). Thickest wall. (2). Generally required when pipe is to be buried. (3). Available in both soft and rigid forms. (b). Type L. (1). Medium wall thickness. (2). Can be minimum acceptable size when used in buildings - check your local building codes. (3). Available in both soft and rigid forms. (c). Type M. (1). Thinnest wall. (2). Available in rigid form only. c. Sizes and lengths: (1). Sized by nominal (approximate inside) diameter. (a). Generally available from 3/8" to 12". (2). Type K. (a). Rigid - 20' length. (b). Soft - 60', 100' and 200' coils. (3). Type L. (a). Rigid - 20' length. (b). Soft - 60', 100' and 200' coils. (4). Type M. (a). Rigid - 20' length. (b). Soft - not available. d. Methods of connection of pipe/tubing lengths: (1). Copper pipe: (a). Sweat soldering. (b). Threads. (2). Copper tubing: (a). Compression fitting. (1). Assembly consists of a compression ring slid over the pipe, over which a threaded nut is screwed to seal between the pipe and pipe fitting.

(b). Flare fitting. (1). Assembly consists of flaring the end of the tubing, over which a threaded nut is screwed to seal between the pipe and a beveled pipe fitting.

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4. Plastic pipe. a. Uses: (1). Cold water systems. (2). Some local codes may allow for hot water systems. (3). Drain and vent systems. (4). Subsoil drainage and lawn sprinkler systems. b. Types: (1). PVC (Polyvinyl chloride). (a). Characteristics: fire resistant. (b). Applications: drain waste, vent applications, lawn sprinkler systems. (c). Types of joints: solvent, threaded, transition (a special fitting to join plastic pipe to copper or steel pipe). (2). CVPC (Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride). (a). Characteristics: fire resistant, nontoxic. (b). Applications: hot and cold water supply. (c). Types of joints: solvent, compression, flared, transition. (3). PE (Polyethylene). (a). Characteristics: good flexibility, comes perforated and corrugated for subsoil drainage systems. (b). Applications: low pressure water distribution systems, foundation drainage systems. (c). Types of joints: insert, transition, compression, flared, heat fusion. (4). PB (Polybutylene). (a). Characteristics: good flexibility. (b). Applications: only flexible tubing suitable for both hot and cold pressure water. (c). Types of joints: insert, transition, compression, flared, heat fusion. (5). ABS (Acryaonitrile-butadiene-styrene). (a). Characteristics: excellent low temperature strength. (b). Applications: mobile home and residential drainage systems, gas service systems, electrical conduit underground. (c). Types of joints: solvent, threaded, transition. (6). SR (Rubber modified styrene). (a). Characteristics: lightweight, brittle at low temperatures. (b). Applications: used for underground downspout drains, foundation drains, septic tank absorption fields. (c). Types of joints: solvent, compression, transition. (7). PP (Polypropylene). (a). Characteristics: very high chemical resistance, light-weight. (b). Applications: P and J traps. (c). Types of joints: compression, threaded, heat fusion. (8). Acetal (Polyacetal). (a). Characteristics: approved for potable water. (b). Applications: water lines, faucet bonnet and valve stems. (c). Types of joints: transition, threaded. c. Sizes and lengths: (1). Schedule 40 and Schedule 80 delineate wall thickness with Schedule 80 being thicker walled. (2). Rigid pipe in 10' lengths. (3). Flexible pipe in rolls of varying lengths.

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d. Methods of connection of pipe lengths: (1). Insert. (a). Join lengths of flexible pipe by inserting fitting into the flexible pipe and tightening a steel clamp over and down on the serrations on the fitting. (2). Threaded. (a). Typically a straight or reducer coupling. (3). Transition. (a). A special fitting to join plastic pipe to copper or steel pipe - one end is threaded, the other not. (4). Compression. (a). Assembly consists of a compression ring slid over the pipe, over which a threaded nut is screwed to seal between the pipe and pipe fitting. (5). Solvent weld. (a). Fittings have specially formed sockets into which the plastic pipe or tubing is inserted and fused with a chemical weld using a solvent or cement compatible with the type of plastic being connected. B. Pipe fittings: 1. Straight nipples. 2. Reducing nipples. 3. Couplings. 4. Reducers. 5. Bushings. 6. Floor flanges. 7. Elbows. 8. Street elbows. 9. Side-outlet elbows. 10. Tees. 11. Crosses or 4-way tees. 12. Y (Wye) bends. 13. Unions. 14. Caps and plugs.

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III. TOOLS A. Common plumbing tools: 1. Pipe wrench. 2. Hack saw. B. Specialized plumbing tools: 1. Strap or chain wrench. 2. Pipe and tubing cutter. 3. Tubing-type tube bender. 4. Lever-type tube bender. 5. Flaring tool. 6. Seat dresser. 7. Faucet spanner. 8. Basin wrench. 9. Adjustable spout or trap wrench. 10. Plumber's force cut. 11. Toilet/closet auger. 12. Drain/trap auger. 13. Burr reamer. 14. Bench yoke vise. 15. Chain vise.

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IV. SIMPLE REPAIRS A. Water faucet and valve leaks. 1. Disassemble and replace seat washer. a. Be sure to shut off water! b. If the faucet still leaks, take a look at the seat upon which the washer sits. If the seat is damage or worn, a seat-grinding tool can be used to regrind the seat area. B. Leaks in pipes and tanks. 1. Near threads. a. Unscrew and coat threads with thread compound or Teflon tape. 2. Small leaks in a pipe. a. Use a rubber patch and a metal clamp and sleeve. 3. Larger leaks in a pipe. a. Cut out a section of the pipe and replace with a new section. At least one union will be required. C. Thawing frozen pipes. 1. Use electric heating cable or cover with rags and pour over the frozen pipe with hot water. 2. A blowtorch is not normally recommended as steam may form inside the pipe and rupture the pipe. 3. Start thawing at the outlet end of the pipe and work back to the water source. This will allow water to flow out and not expand and break the pipe. D. Clogged drains. 1. Plunger or "plumber's friend". 2. Cleanout augers or "snake". a. Note location of cleanout plugs. 3. Chemical cleaners.

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ABT 317 LECTURE 8 CONCRETE AND MASONRY

95

CONTENTS I. CONCRETE Terminology Tools and equipment Mixtures and proportions Specifications when ordering ready-mix concrete Determining quantities Pouring and curing Reinforcing II. MASONRY Terminology Tools and equipment Mixtures and proportions III. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Sidewalks Driveways Floors

PAGE 96 96 96 96 98 98 100 101 102 102 102 102 104 104 104 105

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I. CONCRETE A. Terminology. 1. Concrete - a mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water, which, when put together in proper proportions sets into a mass of "home-made" stone. a. Quality, strength and durability depends upon: (1). The quality and amount of cement used. (2). The kind, size and amount of aggregate used. (3). The amount of clean water used. (4). The way ingredients are mixed and placed. (5). The proper curing of the mixture after it is placed. 2. Cement - a mixture of limestone and clay or shale which is ground and then heated until it melts together. This product is then ground into a fine grayish powder which is cement. 3. Aggregates - materials that give bulk to concrete and are commonly known as fine and coarse aggregates. a. Fine aggregates - material which will pass through a 1/4" mesh screen. Sand or crushed stone screenings are commonly used. b. Coarse aggregates - any suitable materials ranging in size from 1/4" on up. Gravel, pebbles or crushed stone are commonly used. (1). Maximum size depends upon the thickness of concrete to be poured. In thin slabs, the largest size of aggregate should not exceed 1/3 the thickness of the concrete being placed. c. All aggregates should be clean and hard and free from dust, loam, clay or vegetable matter. d. Stone containing a considerable amount of soft, flat or elongated pieces such as shale or soft sandstone should not be used. 4. Water - should be clean and free from oil, alkali and acid. 5. Ready-mix - concrete which is delivered to the job ready for pouring. 6. Quickcrete 90 lb. bag containing cement, pebbles and sand. Add water to make concrete. B. Tools and equipment. 1. Water and pail for washing tools. 2. Square-pointed shovels for turning and mixing. 3. Tamper for compacting concrete. 4. Steel pan wheelbarrow for moving aggregates and concrete mixtures. 5. Mixing box or platform if concrete is mixed by hand for small jobs. 6. Straightedge for leveling concrete. 7. Wood float and trowel for finishing concrete.

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C. Mixtures and proportions. 1. Proportions: a. Specified in terms of proportions of the materials by volume (typically cubic feet). (1). A 1:2:3 mixture consists of 1 cubic feet of cement, 2 cubic feet of sand and three cubic feet of pebbles. (2). Note that a 1:2:3 mixture of cement will not produce 7 cubic feet of concrete (it will be more like 4 cubic feet) due to filling in of pore space with the smaller (cement and sand) components. b. The amount of water to add is specified on a per sack of cement basis. (1). The amount of water to be used varies with the wetness of the aggregates used. (2). Excess water weakens the concrete. 2. Mixtures: a. A "workable" mixture can be placed in forms readily and, with spading or tamping, will result in dense, strong concrete. (1). Such a mixture contains enough sand and cement to give smooth surfaces, free from rough spots called "honey-combing". (2). Such a mixture will bind the pieces of coarse aggregate into the mass such that they will not separate out when handled. (3). If the mixture is too stiff or dry, it will not pack tightly enough, especially in corners and thin sections. (4). If the mixture is too sloppy or wet, the heavy components may settle to the bottom of the pour and the resulting concrete will be weak. 3. Recommended mixtures per sack for various kinds of concrete work: RECOMMENDED QUANTITIES PER SACK
Kind of Work Gallons of WATER to add per sack of cement if sand is: Very Wet Topping for heavy wearing surfaces Fence posts; work of very thin sections Watertight floors or walls, sidewalks, feeding floors and all reinforced concrete Foundation walls, footings 4-1/4 3-3/4 4-1/4 Wet 4-1/2 4 5 Damp 4-3/4 4-1/2 5-1/2 CEMENT # Sacks 1 1 1 Amount of AGGREGATE (cubic feet) Sand Pebbles (Max. Size) 1 1-3/4 (3/8") 1-3/4 2-1/4 2 (3/4") 3 (1-1/2") 4 (1-1/2")

4-3/4

5-1/2

6-1/4

2-3/4

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D. Estimating quantity of materials needed for a concrete project. 1. Determining cubic yards of concrete needed for the job. a. Measure the surface area of the job in square feet. b. To determine the cubic yards of concrete required, multiply the surface area (square feet) by the thickness (inches) and divide this by 324. or, c. Fill out the table below: DETERMINING CUBIC YARD REQUIREMENT FOR CONCRETE Column I Length (feet) Column II Width (feet) Column III Thickness (inches) Column IV Cubic Yards1

Note: Cubic Yards

d. Example: You are planning to pour a shop floor that is 20' x 20' and is 4 inches thick. How much ready-mix concrete should you order? Column III Column IV Thickness Cubic Yards1 (inches) 20 20 4 4.94 1 Note: Cubic Yards = Length x Width x Thickness 324 = Column I x Column II x Column III 324 2. Determine the quantity of each material needed per cubic yard of concrete. a. Use the table below: INGREDIENTS NEEDED PER CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE
WATER (gal/sack) Uses of concrete Acid-resistant,alkali resistant; dairy, creamery floors Medium wear; reinforced;watertigh t;floors, tanks, etc. Medium wear, indoor, underground Dry Sand 5 6 7 Damp Sand 4 3/4 5 1/2 6 1/4 Wet Sand 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 Very wet sand 4 1/4 4 1/4 4 3/4 Cement (sacks) 8 6 1/4 5 Sand (cu. ft) Gravel (cu. ft.)

= Length x Width x Thickness 324 = Column I x Column II x Column III 324

Column I Length (feet)

Column II Width (feet)

14 14 14

16 19 20

b. Enter your results below: INGREDIENTS NEEDED PER CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE Water Cement Water Sand (gallons/sack) (sacks) (gallons) (cubic feet)

Gravel (cubic feet)

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3. Determine total amount of each material needed. a. Multiply the result from step D.1.c. (Column IV) by the results from step D.2.b. TOTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A CONCRETE JOB From D.1.c. (col. IV) From D.2.b. Total requirement

Water (gallons)

Cement (sacks)

Sand (cubic feet)

Gravel (cubic feet)

4. Example: You are planning to pour a shop floor that is 20' x 20' and is 4 inches thick. Determine the cubic feet requirements of concrete as well as the total requirements of water, cement, sand and gravel. Assume that the sand is dry. a. Cubic foot requirement: DETERMINING CUBIC YARD REQUIREMENT FOR CONCRETE Column I Column II Column III Column IV Length (feet) Width (feet) Thickness Cubic Yards1 (inches) 20 20 4 4.9 1 Note: Cubic Yards = Length x Width x Thickness 324 = Column I x Column II x Column III 324 b. Ingredients needed per cubic yard of concrete (see paragraph D.2.a): INGREDIENTS NEEDED PER CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE Water Cement Water Sand Gravel (gallons/sack) (sacks) (gallons) (cubic feet) (cubic feet) 6 6 1/4 37.5 14 19 c. Determine total amount of ingredients TOTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A CONCRETE JOB From D.1.c. (col. IV) From D.2.b. Total requirement 4.9 Water (gallons) 37.5 183.8 4.9 Cement (sacks) 6 1/4 30.6 4.9 Sand (cubic feet) 14 68.6 4.9 Gravel (cubic feet) 19 93.1

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E. Specifications when ordering ready-mix concrete. 1. Amount needed (cubic yards). 2. Use to be made of the concrete, i.e., will it be used for flat work or formed work. 3. Amount of exposure the concrete will receive. 4. A guide for ordering ready-mix - specifies number of sacks per cubic yard of concrete as well as maximum gallons of water per sack of cement. FLAT WORK FORMED WORK

(USING 1-1/2" MAX. AGGREGATE) SEVERE NORMAL MILD EXPOSURE EXPOSURE EXPOSURE When ordering concrete for: Dairy floors Sidewalks, farm buildings Footings

(USING 3/4" MAX. AGGREGATE) SEVERE NORMAL EXPOSURE EXPOSURE Mangers, manure pits Reinforced concrete 6-1/2 6

MILD EXPOSURE Concrete improvements 5-1/2 7

Minimum number of sacks of cement per cubic yard of concrete*: 7 6 5 7-3/4 Maximum gallons of water per sack of cement: 5 6 7 *Common specification, i.e., 6 sack concrete. 5

F. Pouring and curing. 1. Forms. a. Necessary to mold and hold new concrete until it has set. b. Should be strong enough to prevent sagging, bulging and spreading. c. Normally made of wood - strips of metal can be used to round off square corners. d. Wooden forms can be removed easily and reused if they are greased on the inside with crude oil or old crankcase oil. e. A straightedge and level should be used to level the top surface of the forms. 2. Placing concrete. a. Concrete should be placed as soon as possible as it will begin to set within 30 to 45 minutes after the water has been added. b. Concrete should be placed in layers about 6 inches deep. c. The concrete should be tamped and spaded thoroughly to eliminate air pockets and force the concrete around reinforcing bar (if present) and up against the sides of forms. d. The tamping also forces the larger pieces of aggregate into the concrete leaving a smooth surface of dense materials. e. Tamping can be done manually or with an electrically powered tamper.

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3. Striking off poured concrete on flat work. a. A flat board (usually a 2" x 4") is drawn across the surface of the concrete at a slight angle and with a see-saw motion. b. This flattens off the surface, forces larger pieces of aggregate beneath the surface and leaves a smooth surface finish. c. This can be done several times. 4. Finishing the concrete surface. a. A wooden float can be used to develop a surface that wears well such as that used for walking or moving machinery. b. A metal trowel brings a thin film of concrete to the surface making a very smooth surface. This thin film is not strong and is slippery when wet. 5. Curing concrete. a. Concrete hardens because of a chemical setting process that takes place when water is added to the cement. It is critical that excessive evaporation not take place from the poured concrete. (1). Special precautions such as covering should be taken during hot, dry periods when evaporation is high. b. Concrete reaches about 80 to 90% of its full strength in 7 days and full strength in 28 days. 6. Removing forms. a. Forms should only be removed when the concrete is not damaged in the process. b. Forms can be removed in 2 or 3 days during hot weather - in cold weather they can be removed in 4 to 6 days. c. If forms are to be reused, be sure to clean concrete from the boards. G. Reinforcing. 1. Concrete is strong in compression (loads that crush) but weak in tension (loads that pull apart). 2. Reinforcing material is typically steel mesh or bars. 3. Fiber can be added to Redi-Mix that takes the place of steel mesh and saves the time required to place steel mesh (typically hog wire). 3. All reinforcing material should be covered by at least 3/4" of concrete.

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II. MASONRY A. Terminology. 1. Masonry - use of bricks, stones or concrete blocks plus a bonding agent (mortar) to construct structures (fences, fireplaces, walls, etc.) 2. Mortar - a combination of cementitious material (portland cement, masonry cement, lime or a mixture of these), sand and water used to: a. Bonds the units together. b. Keeps water out of the structure. c. Compensates for size variation between bricks or stones in the structure. d. Contributes to the beauty of the structure by providing shadow lines and contrasting color. 3. Sand - use either manufactured or natural sand, but never beach sand as the salts may weaken the mortar. a. The sand should be clean. b. The sand should have at least 5 to 15% fines or the mortar will be hard to work. 4. Water - suitable drinking water that is free of acids, alkalines or organic matter. 5. Lime - Type S lime which can be purchased in 40 pound bags. a. Lime putty can also be used - it comes in 80 pound bags, 40 pounds of which is water. B. Tools and equipment. 1. Wheelbarrow. 2. Mortar box. 3. Hoe. 4. Hod. 5. Hawk. 6. Spoteboard. 7. Brick trowel. 8. Bricklayer's chisel. 9. Bricklayer's hammer. C. Mixtures and proportions. 1. A "workable" mixture. a. Needs to be aerated, fluffy and buttery such that you could smear a 1/2" thickness on a vertical surface and have it hold without losing shape, drip water or slip off. b. Mix only enough for an hour to an hour-and-a-half worth of work. c. Let the mixture stand for 10 to 12 minutes before using it. d. If the mixture dries out a bit, it is permissible to add more water only once - if it dries out again, discard the mixture and start a new one. 2. Types of mortar. a. Portland cement mortar. (1). Used chiefly by professionals for high walls. (2). Develops high compressive strength but hardens quickly and is difficult to work. b. Portland cement lime mortar. (1). Generally favored. (2). Can be used both above and below ground. (3). Provides good bond strength and durability. (4). Cement and lime are mixed together first, followed by the correct proportions of and water. c. Masonry cement mortar. (1). Sold as bagged (70 pounds) mortar mix and correct proportions of sand and water are added. (2). Contains portland cement, lime, an air-entraining additive and gypsum.

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d. Pre-mixed (ready-mix) mortar. (1). Good for small jobs by the amateur. (2). Comes in 60 or 80 pound bags. (3). Contains approximately 70% portland cement, 30% lime and sand at a mixture of 1 part masonry cement to 3 parts sand. (4). User need only add water (about 5 to 6 quarts per 60 pound bag). 2. Proportions - general. ***PROPORTIONS (PARTS OR UNITS)***
PORTLAND CEMENT 1 or, 1/2 MASONRY CEMENT 1 APPLICATIONS Foundation and exterior walls: concrete block and brick walls below and above grade, reinforced walls and general use. Bonding stone, reinforced high exterior load-bearing and concrete walls. Exterior brick veneer walls or load bearing interior walls. Interior no-load bearing walls. TYPE S HYDRATE D LIME 1/2 DAMP SAND 4 1/2 4 1/2 WATER Always use the maximum amount of water that will produce a workable mortar Same as above.

1 or, 1

1 1/4 1

6 3 3 1 2 6 9

N or, 1 O 1

Same as above.

Same as above.

3. Proportions - batch mixes.


BATCH SIZE (CF) 2 6 12 PORTLAND CEMENT (# 94 LB. BAGS) 1/4 1/2 1 MASONRY CEMENT (# 70 LB. BAGS) 1/2 1 1/2 3 READY-MIX BATCH SIZE (CF) 2 6 12 (# 80 LB. BAGS) 2 6 12 HYDRATED LIME (# 50 LB. BAGS) 1/2 1 2 HYDRATED LIME (# 50 LB. BAGS) WATER GALLONS TO ADD IF SAND IS: SAND (CF) 1 1/4 4 1/2 9 DRY 1 1/4 2 1/2 5 DAMP 1 1/8 2 1/4 4 1/2 WET 1 2 4

WATER GALLONS TO ADD IF SAND IS: SAND (CF) 1 1/2 4 1/2 9 DRY 7/8 2 1/2 5 DAMP 3/4 2 1/4 4 1/2 WET 5/8 2 4

BATCH SIZE (CF) 2 6 12

HYDRATED LIME (# 50 LB. BAGS)

WATER GALLONS TO ADD IF SAND IS: SAND (CF) DRY 7/8 2 1/2 5 DAMP 3/4 2 1/4 4 1/2 WET 5/8 2 4

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III. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USES OF CONCRETE IN AGRICULTURE A. Sidewalks. 1. Preparation of the base. a. Prepare a level, compact base. Build up the base such that the top of the sidewalk will extend 2 inches above the ground. b. The base can be soil if it is sandy and gravelly and drains well. c. If the base is clay or heavy soil, then it should be dug out and filled with coarse gravel and tamped. 2. Forming. a. Use 2"x4"s for form sidewalls with stakes to hold the forms in place. b. Level the tops of forms to the desired thickness (4" is normally adequate). A slight side slope (1/8" per foot) will allow for surface drainage. c. Place partition strips at 4' to 6' intervals to allow for multiple pours. 3. Course construction. a. The sidewalk can be poured in one pour. 4. Pouring. a. Pour the concrete in alternate sections. b. Tamp solidly and spade next to the form boards. c. Level with a straightedge or strike board. d. Pour the concrete in the alternate (missing) sections when the first sections have hardened enough to allow removal of the partition strips. 5. Finish. a. Finish with a wooden float. 6. Curing. a. Only if necessary, cover with earth or sand and allow to cure for 10 days. B. Driveways. 1. Preparation of the base. a. Prepare a level, compact base. Build up the base such that the center of the driveway is 1 inch higher than the two edges. b. The base can be soil if it is sandy and gravelly and drains well. c. If the base is clay or heavy soil, then it should be dug out and filled with coarse gravel and tamped. 2. Forming. a. Use 2"x6"s for form sidewalls with stakes to hold the forms in place. b. Level the tops of forms to the desired thickness (7" is normally adequate). c. Place partition strips at 20' intervals to allow for multiple pours. 3. Course construction. a. The driveway can be poured in one pour. 4. Pouring. a. Pour the concrete in alternate sections. b. Tamp solidly and spade next to the form boards. c. Strike-off with a strike board that has been curved to allow for the 1" hump in the center of the driveway. d. Pour the concrete in the alternate (missing) sections when the first sections have hardened enough to allow removal of the partition strips. 5. Finish. a. Finish with a wooden float on a long handle or a stiff strip of heavy rubber. 6. Curing. a. Only if necessary, cover with earth or sand and allow to cure for 10 days.

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C. Floors. 1. Preparation of the base. a. Prepare a level, compact base. b. The base can be soil if it is sandy and gravelly and drains well. c. If the base is clay or heavy soil, then it should be dug out and filled with coarse gravel and tamped. d. Give the base a slope of 1/4" to the foot for drainage. 2. Forming. a. Use 2"x4"s for form sidewalls with stakes to hold the forms in place. b. Level the tops of forms to the desired thickness (4" is normal). c. Lay the forms in 10 feet square sections. 3. Course construction. a. The floor can be poured in one pour. 4. Pouring. a. Pour the concrete in alternate sections. b. Tamp solidly and spade next to the form boards. c. Level with a straightedge or strike board. d. Pour the concrete in the alternate (missing) sections when the first sections have hardened enough to allow removal of the partition strips. 5. Finish. a. Finish with a wooden float to obtain a roughened surface that will not be slippery. 6. Curing. a. Only if necessary, cover with earth or sand or straw and allow to cure for 10 days.

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ABT 317 LECTURE 9 AGRICULTURAL MATHEMATICS

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CONTENTS
I. II. WHY?

WHAT IS IT?

PAGE
108 108 109

III. EXAMPLES

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I. WHAT IS IT? A. Basic level mathematics: 1. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and algebraic manipulation. B. Applied level mathematics: 1. Use of basic mathematical skills to solve problems of the four general forms: a. Basic form: (1). Example: Given: 20 3/4 - 8 1/2 = ? Solution: 20 3/4 - 8 2/4 = 12 1/4 b. Units form: (1). Example: Given: 20 3/4 gallons - 8 1/2 gallons = ? Solution: 20 3/4 gallons - 8 2/4 gallons = 12 1/4 c. Word form: (1). Example: Given: A tractor fuel tank holds 20 3/4 gallons of diesel fuel. You have taken out 8 1/2 gallons to fill another tank. How many gallons are left in the tractor's tank? Solution: Full tank = 20 3/4 gallons Amount removed = 8 1/2 gallons Amount remaining = 20 3/4 gallons - 8 1/2 gallons Amount remaining = 20 3/4 - 8 2/4 gallons = 12 1/4 gallons d. Formula form: (1). Example: Given: The resistance of a light in a simple series circuit is 10 ohms. The voltage supply to the circuit is 120 volts. What is the current flow through this circuit? Solution: I =VR Where, V = 120 volts R = 10 ohms Therefore, I = 120 10 = 12 amps. II. WHY? A. Critical basic skill along with reading and writing. B. Enables student to: 1. Compete. 2. Progress. 3. Insure a productive and efficient job. 4. Insure a safe job.

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III. EXAMPLES A. Basic skills: 1. Math form: Given: You need a piece of 2" x 4" lumber 8 1/2 feet long. You measure a piece of 2" x 4" you found in the barn and find it is 10' 8" long. How much do you cut off of the board to get the 8 1/2 foot long board. Solution: a. Convert to feet and inches format to enable subtraction: 8 1/2 feet = 8' + (1/2 feet x 12 inches per foot) = 8'6" b. Subtract the two measurements: 10'8" - 8'6" = 2'2" to cut off. 2. Units form Given: You are about to contract for irrigation water delivery from a water agency that delivers water in terms of CFS (Cubic Feet of water per Second). You are used to understanding water flow in terms of GPM (Gallons Per Minute). In order to understand the relation between CFS and GPM, derive a table to convert flow of water from CFS to GPM. You know that 1 cubic foot of water is equal to 7.48 gallons of water. Solution: a. Convert from cubic feet of water to gallons of water: 1 cubic foot of water = 7.48 gallons of water b. Convert from cubic feet per second to gallons per second: 1 cubic foot of water per second = 7.48 gallons of water per second or, 1 CFS = 7.48 GPS c. Convert from gallons per second to gallons per minute: 1 CFS = 7.48 gallons per second x 60 seconds per minute = 449 gallons per minute d. Develop table using the relation between CFS and GPM: CFS GPM 1 449 2 898 3 1346 4 1795 5 2244 6 2693 7 3142 8 3590 9 4039 10 4488

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3. Word problem form: Given: A former employer of mine was distressed by the fact that it had not rained over a 10 day period. We were growing processing tomatoes in Ohio and Michigan where it was not common to have supplemental irrigation systems. He asked me to make arrangements to apply water to the fields with trucks and water tanks in the amount that had been used over the last 10 days. I was able to make a few simple calculations to show him that his idea was totally impractical. My only assumption was that the ET for processing tomatoes was 0.20 acre-inches per acre per day during the 10 day period. ET (evaportranspiration) is the amount of water transpired (i.e., used) by the crop plus that amount of water evaporated from the adjacent soil surface. Make a set of calculations to make your point against applying the make-up water from trucks. You know that 1 acreinch of water is 27,154 gallons. Solution: a. What's the question - how much water needed per acre (gallons per acre). b. Calculate the total amount of water used per acre over the 10 day period: The rate of water use is 0.20 acre-inches per acre per day for 10 days. or, 0.20 acre-inches/acre-day x 10 days = 2.0 acre-inches per acre c. Calculate the total gallonage of water required per acre: 2.0 acre-inches/acre x 27,154 gallons per acre-inch = 54,308 gallons per acre d. Do a reality check: In other words, if I could acquire 500 gallon water trucks, I would have to apply 109 truck loads of water to every acre (1 acre is 209' x 209'). Slightly impractical!!!!!

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B. Applied examples: 1. Welding: Given: You are planning a welding exercise and want to make a good estimate of how much welding rod to buy. The exercise involves 50 students welding a "T" joint utilizing a three pass weld technique. Each welding pass will be made across a 4 inch joint. It is common to estimate that for every inch of weld, you will use 3/4" of welding rod. A welding rod has 12 inches of usable length per rod. How many welding rods should you have available for the class. Solution: a. Calculate the total linear length of the weld: 4 inch joint x 3 passes = 12 inches of weld per joint. 50 students x 12 inches per joint = 600 inches of weld b. Calculate the total length of welding rod required: 600 inches of weld x 3/4" of rod per inch of weld = 450 inches of rod c. Calculate the number of welding rods needed: 450 inches of rod 12 inches per rod = 38 rods 2. Metal Working: Given: You are planning to lay in a stock of steel for your welding class. You order 10 each 20 foot lengths of steel that weighs 2 pounds per foot of length. The catalog price is $0.50 per pound. How much will the steel cost? Solution: a. Calculate the total length of steel required: Total length of steel = 10 pieces x 20 feet/piece = 200 feet b. Calculate the total weight of steel required: Total weight of steel = 200 feet x 2 pounds per foot = 400 pounds c. Calculate the total cost of steel: Total cost of steel = 400 pounds x $0.50 per pound = $200.00

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3. Project design/layout: Given: Your Vo-Ag program has just received a plot of land for use as a crop production area. The area is pictured below with dimensions. What is the area of the plot in acres?

Solution: a. Partition the area into recognizable parts:

b. Calculate the area of parts "A" and "B": Area of part "A" = area of a triangle = 1/2 base x height Where, base = 1320 feet height = 1320 feet Therefore, Area of part "A" = 1/2 x 1320 x 1320 = 871,200 square feet Area of part B" = area of a square = side x side Area of part "B" = 1320 x 1320 = 1,742,400 square feet

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c. Convert square feet to acres: 1 acre = 43,560 square feet Therefore, Area of part "A" = 871,200 43,560 = 20.0 acres Area of part "B" = 1,742,400 43,560 = 40.0 acres Total acreage = 40.0 + 20.0 = 60.0 acres 4. Concrete/masonry: Given: You are planning to pour a cement floor in your farm shop. The internal measurement of your shop is 50 feet x 50 feet. You plan to pour a floor that is 6 inches thick (deep). How much concrete should you order? The order should be in cubic yards (CY). Solution: a. Calculate the volume of the floor in cubic feet (ft3): Volume of floor = 50' x 50' x 6" = 50' x 50' x 6/12' = 1250 ft3 b. Convert cubic feet to cubic yards (CY): 1 foot = 1/3 yard 1 foot3 = 1/27 cubic yards 1 cubic foot = 1/27 cubic yard c. Calculate cubic yards of concrete required: 1250 cubic feet x 1/27 cubic yards per cubic feet = 46.3 CY. 5. Electricity: Given: You are computing the general lighting load for your shop and the minimum number of 120 volt branch circuits required for lighting. Your shop is 60' by 40'. You use the general assumption of lighting load at the level of 3 volt-amperes per square foot of floor area. You choose to use 20 amp branch circuits. What is the minimum number of 20 amp branch circuits required? Solution: a. Calculate the total lighting load in volt-amps (power): Total lighting load = (60 x 40') square feet x 3 volt-amps per square feet = Total lighting load = 7200 volt-amps. b. Calculate the total amperage of the lighting: Current = 7200 volt-amps 120 volts = 60.0 amperes c. Calculate the number of 20 amp branch circuits required: Number of branch circuits required = 60 amps 20 amps per circuit = 3 circuits Therefore, Use 3 circuits

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6. Work and power: Given: You wish to select a 4-wheel drive tractor for your small farming operation. You have decided that the heaviest work for your tractor will be to pull a 6 foot wide offset disc. You plan to pull the disc at 4 miles per hour and anticipate that the worst soil conditions that you will be working in will be tilled, but reasonably firm soil. Solution: a. Present the applicable formulas: PTOHP = (1.15)(DBHP) Kw or, when a unit draft is available PTOHP = (1.15)(UD)(W)(S) (375)(Kw) Where, PTOHP = Required horsepower of the wheel tractor as measured at the PTO DBHP = Drawbar horsepower = power transmitted through the wheels of the tractor to move the tractor and the implement through or over the crop or soil. D = Draft of the implement (lbs) = total pull exerted on the implement by the tractor Kw = Tractive efficiency factor for wheel tractors (see Lecture 5, page 6 for values) UD = Unit draft of the implement (lbs) = pull exerted on the implement by the tractor per foot of width of the implement (see Lecture 5, page 6 for typical values of UD) W = operating width of the implement (feet) S = Speed of the tractor (mph) 1.15 = A factor which adds 15% to the calculation to account for horsepower reserve for hills, acceleration, etc. b. Calculate the required drawbar (implement) horsepower: DBHP = (UD((W)(S) 375 Where, DBHP = Drawbar horsepower UD = Draft (lbs.) = pull exerted on the implement by the tractor = 600 pounds per foot of operating width of the implement W = Operating width of the implement (feet) = feet S = Speed of the tractor (mph) = 4 miles per hour Thus, DBHP = (600)(6)(4) 375 DBHP = 38.4 horsepower c. Calculate the required tractor (PTOHP) horsepower: Kw = 0.67 (see page 50) PTOHP = (1.15)(38.4) (0.67) PTOHP = 65.9 horsepower

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7. Engines: Given: Calculate the displacement of a six cylinder engine with a bore of 4-1/4" and a stroke of 43/4". Solution: a. Calculate the volume (displacement) of one cylinder: Volume of one cylinder = 3.1417 x bore2 x stroke 4 Where, bore = 4-1/4" = 4.25" stroke = 4-3/4" = 4.75" Volume of one cylinder = 3.1417 x 4.252 x 4.75 4 Volume of one cylinder = 69.39 cubic inches b. Calculate volume of the whole engine: Volume = 67.39 cubic inches per cylinder x 6 cylinders = 404 cubic inches 8. Irrigation: Given: You are trying to make a decision as to whether it is better economically to pump water utilizing a deep well or whether it is cheaper to buy the water from a surface water (canal) source. If you buy the water from the canal it is priced at $15.00 per acre-foot. To pump the water, you assume that the lift (depth to the water table when the pump is running) is 120 feet, the cost of electricity is $0.12 per kWh and the pump efficiency is 65%. The formula for the cost of pumping water is: KWH/ACFT = (1.024)(H) E Where, KWH/ACFT = pump energy in kilowatt hours per acre foot of water pumped H = total lift of the pump in feet = 120 feet E = pump efficiency as a decimal = 0.65 Solution: a. Calculate energy used per acre foot of water pumped: KWH/ACFT = (1.024((H) E KWH/ACFT = (1.024)(120) 0.65 = 189.05 kWh/ACFT b. Calculate cost of water per acre foot of water pumped: Cost per acre foot of water pumped = 189.05 kWh/acft x $0.12 per kWh = $22.65 per acre foot c. Compare pumping cost with canal cost: Pumping cost = $22.65 per acre foot Canal water cost = $15.00 per acre foot Therefore, Choose canal water

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9. Machinery set-up and calibration: Given: You are making a field check of a dry fertilizer spreader that is supposed to apply fertilizer at the rate of 200 pounds per acre to your walnut orchard. The fertilizer rig holds 1200 pounds of fertilizer. You note that your run the rig out of fertilizer after applying it on 6 rows of trees in a field that is 1/4 mile long. Your between-the-row tree spacing is 28 feet. Is your application rate (pounds per acre) too high, too low or just right? Solution: a. Calculate the acreage covered: Area = Length of field (feet) x Width of coverage (feet) 43560 Where, 1 acre = 43,560 square feet Length = 1/4 mile x 5280 feet per mile = 1320 feet Width = 6 rows x 28 feet per row = 168 feet Area = 1320' x 168' 43,560 = 5.09 acres b. Determine the actual application rate: Actual application rate = 1200 pounds per 5.09 acres = 236 pounds per acre c. Make your decision: Desired application rate = 200 pounds per acre Actual application rate = 236 pounds per acre Therefore, Actual application rate is too high 10. Safety: Given: You measure the electrical resistance of your body and determine that when your hands are wet it is 200,000 ohms and when your hands are dry it is 75,000 ohms. The open circuit voltage of your arc welder (see the specifications) is 80 volts. What is the amount of current that would be conducted through your body under dry and wet skin conditions? What effect would both currents be expected to produce? Solution: a. Choose the applicable formula that relates current, voltage and resistance: I =VR Where, I = current V = voltage = 80 R = 200,000 ohms dry R = 75,000 ohms wet b. Calculate the expected current flow through the body: Idry = 80 200,000 = 0.0004 amps = 0.4 milliamps Iwet = 80 75,000 = 0.0800 amps = 80 milliamps c. Determine the expected effect from current flow: Idry = 0.4 milliamps Result: No sensation Iwet = 80 milliamps Result: Ventricular fibrillation and death