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132/33 KV SUBSTATION EQUIPMENTS

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SYMBOLS OF EQUIPMENTS USED IN A SUBSTATION

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CHAPTER-2

SUBSTATION

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1.INTRODUCTION A substation may be defined as an assembly of apparatus, which transforms the characteristics of electrical energy from one form to another form. At generation stations the electric power is produced at low voltages. The electric power should not be transmitted at these low voltages due to large amount of line losses and economical reasons. To minimize the losses and for economical transmission the low voltages are stepped up to high voltages and transmitted to far off place. The consumers do not use such higher voltages directly and so they must be transformed to low voltages for distribution purpose and done in these substations .So the substation may be called as link between generation stations and consumers. The transmission voltages are 66KV,110KV,132KV,220KV,400KV etc. The distribution voltages generally used are 6.6KV,11KV and 33KV. Substations usually contain transformers in order to change voltage levels; they are connected to a "bus" via a circuit breaker. Specifically, substations are used for some or all of the following purposes: connection of generators, transmission or distribution lines, and loads to each other; transformation of power from one voltage level to another; interconnection of alternate sources of power; switching for alternate connections and isolation of failed or overloaded lines and equipment; controlling system voltage and power flow; reactive power compensation; suppression of overvoltage; and detection of faults, monitoring, recording of information, power measurements, and remote communications. Minor distribution or transmission equipment installation is not referred to as a substation.

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Substations present in the power system performs various operations depends on the application such as stepping up the voltage, stepping down the voltage, high voltage transmission and switching stations to route the power to desired load center.

Substations are installed to perform any of the following operations. 1. To switch ON and OFF the power lines,known as switching operation. 2. To transform voltage from higher to lower or vice versa,known as voltage transformation operation.

3. To convert A.C, into D.C. or vice versa,known as power converting operation. 4. To convert frequency from higher to lower or vice-versa ,known as frequency converting operation.

5. To improve the power factor by installing synchronous condenser at the end of the line,known as power factor correction operation.

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1.1 classification of sub-stations substations are classified according to service requirement and constructional features .

1.According to service requirement: A substation may be called upon to change voltage or improve power factor or convert a. c. power into d. c. power etc. According to the service requirement, substations may be classified into a. Transformer substation: Those substations which change the voltage level of electric supply are called transformer substations. These substations receive power at some voltage and deliver it at some other voltage. Obviously, transformer will be the main component in such substations. Most of the sub stations in the power system are of this type. b. switching sub-station : These substations do not change the voltage level i.e. incoming and outgoing lines have the same voltage. However ,they simply perform the switching operations of power lines. A switching substation is a substation which does not contain transformers and operates only at a single voltage level. Switching substations are sometimes used as collector and distribution stations. Sometimes they are used for switching the current to back-up lines or for parallelizing circuits in case of failure

c. Power factor correction substation


These sub-station which improve the power factor of the system are called power factor correction substation. These are generally located at receiving end of transmission lines. These substations generally use synchronous condensers as the power improvement equipment d. Frequency changer sub-station : Those sub-stations, which change the supply frequency, are known as frequency change sub- stations . Such sub-station may be required for industrial utilization. e. Converting sub-station : Those sub-station which change a. c. power into d. c. power are called converting s/s ignition is used to convert AC to dc power for traction, electroplating, electrical welding etc.

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f. Industrial sub-station: Those sub-stations, which supply power to individual industrial concerns are known as industrial sub-stations. 2. According to constructional features : A substation has many components which must be housed properly to ensure continuous and reliable service. According to constructional features the substations are classified as :

Indoor substation Outdoor substation Underground substation Pole-mounted substation

1. Indoor Sub-station :For voltage up to 11KV, the equipment of the s/s is installed indoor because of economic consideration. However, when the atmosphere is contaminated with impurities, these sub-stations can be erected for voltage up to 66KV. 2. Outdoor Sub-Station :Outdoor Substations are used for all voltage levels from 52 to 765 kV. They are built outside cities, usually at points along the cross-country lines of bulk transmission systems. They comprise switchgear like circuit breakers, disconnectors, instrument transformers, power transformers, surge arrestors and bus bars. The control and protection equipment is housed in central buildings or in small switching bay oriented containers in the switchyard . For voltage beyond 66KV, equipment is invariably installed outdoor. It is because for such Voltage the clearances between conductor and the space required for switches, C.B. and other equipment becomes so great that it is not economical to installed the equipment indoor.

3. Under ground sub-station :In thickly populated areas, the space available for equipment and building is limited and the cost of the land is high. Under such situations, the sub-station is created underground. The design of underground s/s requires more careful consideration.

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The size of the s/s should be as minimum as possible. There should be reasonable access for both equipment & personal. There should be provision for emergency lighting and protection against fire. There should be good ventilation

4. Pole-mounted sub-station :This is an outdoor sub-station with equipment installed overhead on double pole or 4-pole structure. It is the cheapest from of s/s for voltage not exceeding 11KV (or 33KV in some cases). Electric power is almost distributed in localities through such sub-station. The 11KV line is connected to the T/F through gang isolator and fuses. The lighting arresters are installed on the H.T. Side to protect the sub-station from lighting strokes. The T/F step down voltage to 400 V, 3 phase, 4 wire supply. The voltage between any two lines is 400 V & between line & neutral is 230V. The oil circuit breaker installed on the L.T. side automatically Isolates the mounted sub-station.T/F are generally in the event of fault generally 200 KVA T/F is used.

FUNCTIONS OF SUBSTATION:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Supply of required electrical power. Maximum possible coverage of the supply network. Maximum security of supply. Shortest possible fault-duration Optimum efficiency of plants and the network. Supply of electrical power within targeted frequency limits, (49.5 Hz and50.5 Hz). Supply of electrical power within specified voltage limits. Supply of electrical energy to the consumers at the lowest cost

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CHAPTER-3

EQUIPMENTS IN A SUB-STATION

The main equipments in a sub-station are: 1. BUS BARS 2. INSULATORS 3. CIRCUIT BREAKER 4. INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER 5. POWER TRANSFORMER 6. WAVE TRAP 7. SWITCH GEAR 8. ISOLATORS 9. MISCELLONOUS EQUIPMENTS 10. PROTECTIVE RELAY 11.

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1.

BUS BARS

When a no. of lines operating at the same voltage have to be directly connected electrically, bus-bars are used, it is made up of copper or aluminum bars (generally of rectangular XSection) and operate at constant voltage. Duplicate bus-bar, generally it consist of two bus-bars a main bus-bar and spare busbar. The incoming and outgoing lines can be connected to either b/b. With the help of a busbar coupler, which consist of a circuit breaker and isolators. However, in case of repair of main bus-bar or fault accusing on it, the continuity of supply to the circuit can be maintain by transforming it to the spare bus-bar for voltage exceeding 33KV, Duplicate bus-bar is frequently used. Bus bars , or buses, are conductors. Or group of conductors, that serve as a common connection for two or more circuits. The bus bars experience forces when currents flow in them. These forces can be great when short-circuit currents flow. A bus bar must be able to withstand the forces caused by the flow of fault currents. Bur bars are the important elements in the electrical substation. Bus bars acts as nodal point in the substation, which connects different incoming and outgoing circuits. Bus bars used in the substations are generally rectangular or circular cross section bars. These bus bars can be either solid or hollow structures. Hollow circular cross section bus bars are employs in EHV substations to reduce the corona effect. An aluminum or copper conductor supported by insulators that interconnects the loads and the sources of electric power in an electric power system. A typical application is the interconnection of the incoming and outgoing transmission lines and transformers at an electrical substation. Bus-bars also interconnect the generator and the main transformers in a power plant. In an industrial plant such as an aluminum smelter, large bus-bars supply several tens of thousands of amperes to the electrolytic process. See also Electric power substation. The size of the bus bar determines its application and the amount of current that it can carry safely. They can be tubular, solid or flat depending on the application and to serve different needs. Various incoming and outgoing circuits are connected to bus bars. Bus bars receive power from incoming circuits and deliver power to outgoing circuits.

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Bus bars are usually made up of Aluminum or copper and they are able to conduct electricity to transmit power from the source of electric power to the load. They are usually supported by insulators and conduct electricity within switchboards, substations or other electric apparatus. Some typical applications of these devices can be to form the interconnectedness of the incoming and outgoing electrical transmission lines and transformers at an electrical substation; supplying huge amounts of amperes to the electrolytic process in an aluminum smelter by using large bus bars and also interconnecting generators to the main transformers in a power plant. Different types of bus bar arrangements are employed based on the voltage, reliability of the supply, flexibility in transmitting power and cost. The other aspects considering in designing the bus bars arrangements are: 1. Simplicity in the design 2. Maintenance of different elements without interruption in the power supply 3. Future expansion feasibility 4. Economical in cost of installation and operation Different bus bar arrangements: Some of the switching schemes are bus bar arrangements employed in the substations are listed below: 1. Single Bus-bar arrangement 2. Double Main Bus-bar scheme 3. Main and Transfer bus-bar scheme 4. One and half breaker scheme 5. Ring Main arrangement scheme 1) Single Bus-bar scheme:
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This is the simplest bus bar scheme available which consists of single set of bus bars connected to the generators, transformers and load feeders. All the feeders are connected by circuit breaker and set of isolators. This arrangement helps to remove the connecting elements (Generators, transformers, etc ) for maintenance by opening the circuit breaker contacts and further opening the isolators. The entire Sub Station is lost in case of a fault on the bus bar or on any bus bar isolator and also in case of maintenance of the bus bar. Another disadvantage of this switching scheme is that in case of maintenance of circuit breaker, the associated feeder has also to be shutdown.

Advantages:
1. This bus bar arrangement enjoys less cost of installation 2. Less maintenance 3. simple operation

Disadvantages:
1. Fault on the bus bar all the feeders connected to the bus bars should be disconnected 2. when Bus bar is under maintenance total supply and all feeders should be disconnected 3. Least flexibility and reliability

2) DOUBLE BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT: In this double bus bar arrangement , Each circuit can be connected to either one of these bus bars through respective bus bar isolator. Bus coupler breaker is also provided so that the circuits can be switched on from one bus to the other on load. This scheme suffers from the disadvantage that when any circuit breaker is taken out for maintenance, the associated feeder has to be shutdown. This Bus bar arrangement was generally used in earlier 220 kV sub stations

3) Main and Transfer Bus bar Scheme:


Main and Transfer bus bar scheme is similar to single bus bar arrangement with additional transfer bus connected. Tie circuit breaker is provided to tie both the main and transfer bus. During normal operation all the circuits are connected to the main bus. When circuit breaker connected to the circuit (transmission line) is required to trip for

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maintenance, tie circuit breaker connecting the main and transfer bus is closed. The relay protection for the circuits connected to the transfer bus is taken care by the tie circuit breaker.

Advantages:
1. Low initial cost 2. Any breaker can be taken of circuit for maintenance

Disadvantages:
1. Requires one extra breaker for bus tie 2. Switching is somewhat complicated when breaker is under maintenance

4) One and Half breaker Bus bar scheme:


In One and half breaker scheme, two circuits are connected between the three circuit breakers. Hence One and Half breaker name was coined for this type of arrangement. Under normal operating conditions all the breakers are closed and both the bus bars are energized. Any Circuit fault will trip two circuit breakers and no other circuit will be affected in this arrangement. When a bus bar fault occur only breakers adjacent to bus bars trips and no circuit will loose power. Two bus bars can also be taken out of service without affecting the power flow if the power source circuit ( alternator circuit) and receiving circuit (transmission line) available in the same bay.

Advantages:
1. Most flexible operation possible 2. High reliability 3. Bus failure will not remove any circuit from service

Disadvantages:
1. High cost 2. Relaying is somewhat complicated since the middle breaker must responsible for both the circuits on either direction and should operate

5) Ring bus bar scheme:


In this ring main bus bar scheme arrangement, breakers are connected in ring and circuits are connected between the breakers. There will be same number of circuits as the number of breakers in the arrangement. During normal operation all the breakers are

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closed. During circuit fault two breakers connecting the circuit trips. During breaker maintenance the ring is broken but all the lines remain in service.

Advantages:
1. Low cost 2. Flexible operation for breaker maintenance 3. Any breaker can be taken out of service without interrupting load 4. Power can be fed from both the direction

Disadvantages:
1. Fault occur during maintenance will break the ring 2. Relaying is complex 3. Breaker failure during fault will trip one additional circuit

Major Type of Bus bar


The major types are

(1) Rigid bus-bars, used at low, medium, and high voltage


The rigid bus-bar is an aluminum or copper bar, which is supported by porcelain insulators. The rigid bus-bar provides a quick and qualified installation, the necessary compensation of linear thermal deformations of buses and minor errors in the installation of bus-bar supports

(2) Strain bus-bars, used mainly for high voltage


The strain bus-bar is a flexible, stranded conductor which is strung between substation metal structures and held by suspension-type insulators.

(3) Insulated-phase bus-bars, used at medium voltage


The insulated-phase bus-bar is a rigid bar supported by insulators and covered by a grounded metal shield. The main advantage of this system is the elimination of short circuits between adjacent phases.

(4) Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)-insulated bus-bars, used in medium- and highvoltage systems
The sulfur hexafluoride-insulated bus-bar is a rigid aluminum tube, supported by insulators and installed in a larger metal tube, which is filled with high-pressure sulfur hexafluoride gas.

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Advantages of Bus bar


View Fitting of any modular device with the same mounting height Components interchangeable at any time Compact energy distribution up to max. 150A Full scope for the future Completely touch proof

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2.INSULATORS
Insulators are materials that resist the flow of electricity, so electricity does not easily pass through. Examples are plastic, wood, rubber, cloth, air, glass. Some materials are better electricity insulators than others. These are made up of porcelain or fiber glass. The most commonly used material for the manufactures of insulators is porcelain. An insulator type usually made of porcelain that can be stacked in a string and hangs from a cross arm on a tower or pole and supports the line conductor.

Used for Insulation purpose. Different types of insulators are porcelain, Glass, Epoxy.

132kV Composite Substation Insulator:


Features: 1) End fittings are crimped onto fiberglass rod with voice-operated displacement type crimper 2) The connection location between end fittings & rods is fused with sheds housing by the overall high temperature vulcanized silicone rubber injection molding as it could minimize the interface. Materials: 1) Silicon Rubber housing

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2) ECR fiberglass reinforced epoxy resin rod Electromechanical Specifications: 1).Rating voltage: 132kV 2).Specialized mechanical bending load:20kN 3).Structure height: 12002mm 4).Min arcing distance: 1024mm 5).Min creep age distance: 3150mm 6).Lightning impulse voltage: 450Kv 7).Power frequency wet withstand voltage: 185Kv

Function of an insulator:
An insulator is used to isolate current carrying components from conductive non current carrying components. The insulator serves two purposes. They support the conductor and confine te current to the conductor. Insulators are materials that resist the flow of electricity. They support bus bars and provide insulation to the bus bars. Insulator prevents the flow of current to the earth. There are several types of insulators but the most commonly used are pin type, suspension type, strain insulator and shackle insulator.

1.Pin type Insulators :


As the name suggests, the pin type insulator is secured to the cross-arm on the pole. There is a groove on the upper end of the insulator for housing the conductor. The conductor passes through this groove and is bound by the annealed wire of the same material as the conductor. Pin type insulators are used for transmission and distribution of electric power at voltages upto 33 kV. Beyond operating voltage of 33 kV, the pin type insulators become too bulky

and hence uneconomical.

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Pin Type Insulator

2.Suspension Type Insulators :


For high voltages (>33 kV), it is a usual practice to use suspension type insulators shown in Figure. consist of a number of porcelain discs connected in series by metal links in the form of a string. The conductor is suspended at the bottom end of this string while the other end of the string is secured to the cross-arm of the tower. Each unit or disc is designed for low voltage, say 11 kV. The number of discs in series would obviously depend upon the working voltage. For instance, if the working voltage is 66 kV, then six discs in series will be provided on the string.

Suspension Type insulator

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Suspension Type Insulator

3.Strain type Insulators:


When there is a dead end of the line or there is corner or sharp curve, the line is subjected to greater tension. In order to relieve the line of excessive tension, strain insulators are used. For low voltage lines (< 11 kV), shackle insulators are used as strain insulators. However, for high voltage transmission lines, strain insulator consists of an assembly of suspension insulators as shown in Figure. The discs of strain insulators are used in the vertical plane. When the tension in lines is exceedingly high, at long river spans, two or more

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Strain Type Insulator

strings are used in parallel .

4.Shackle type Insulators:

shackle Type Insulator In early days, the shackle insulators were used as strain insulators. But now a days, they are frequently used for low voltage distribution lines. Such insulators can be used either in a horizontal position or in a vertical position. They can be directly fixed to the pole with a bolt or to the cross arm.

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3.CIRCUIT BREAKERS
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. Circuit-breakers are used to make or break electric currents in circuits during normal operation of the system, during system faults and during system disturbances. Most highvoltage circuit breakers are physically located in the switchyard but are operated frompanels provided in the control room. A circuit-breaker is expected to have the following characteristics. It must be capable of closing on to and carrying full load currents. It must have an appropriate mechanism to automatically disconnect the load under prescribed conditions. It must be able to successfully interrupt short-circuit currents flowing through the lines controlled by it. The gaps between its contacts must not flash-over when the circuit breaker is open. The circuit breaker, when closed on to a circuit in which a fault exists, must be able to reopen to isolate the faulted section without being damaged. It must be capable of withstanding the flow of short-circuit currents until they are interrupted by an adjoining circuit breaker. It must be capable of withstanding the electro-magnetic forces and thermal stresses caused by the flow of short-circuit currents.

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Circuit breaker Different types of circuit breakers are used in the substations which depends upon maximum voltage level, maximum continuous current carrying capacity and maximum interrupting capacity.

Low Voltage Circuit Breaker:


These breakers are made for direct current (DC) applications and are commonly used in domestic, commercial, and industrial fields. They can be installed in multi-tiers in LV switchboards or switchgear cabinets. Low voltage circuit breakers are usually placed in draw-out enclosures that permit removal and interchange without dismantling the switchgear. Miniature circuit breakers (MCB) and molded case circuit breakers (MCCB) are some common types of low voltage circuit breakers. Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers: These breakers can be assembled into metal enclosed switchgear line used for indoor applications, or as individual components for outdoor applications like substations. Medium voltage circuit breakers use discrete current sensors and protection relays, and can be attached into the circuit by bolted connections to bus bars or wires. Vacuum circuit breakers, air circuit breakers and SF6 circuit breakers are some examples of medium voltage circuit breakers.

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High Voltage Circuit Breakers: These breakers help in protecting and controlling electrical power transmission networks. They are solenoid operated and are employed with current sensing protective relays that function through current transformers. Magnetic Circuit Breakers : These breakers use a three dimensional electromagnetic coil whose pulling force increases with the current. The contacts are held closed by a latch so that when the current in the coil goes beyond the rating of the circuit breaker, the coil's pull releases the latch which allows the contacts to open with a spring action. Thermal Circuit Breakers: These breakers employ heat to break the circuit current flow and consist of a bimetallic strip, made of two types of materials welded together. At high heat levels, this strip bends at an angle that pulls the lever down and breaks the connection between the circuit breaker's contact plate and the stationary contact plate. Rated circuit breakers, common trip breakers, Earth leakage circuit breakers are another type. One of the most important difference between circuit breakers and fuses is that circuit breakers can be reset either manually or automatically to resume normal operation, whereas fuses once used, have to be replaced.

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4.INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
A current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. Current transformers, together with voltage transformers (VT) (potential transformers (PT)), are known as instrument transformers. Main information on the state of the power system and the substation equipment is acquired by measuring various parameters. The measuring, monitoring, control and protection devices measure and use parameters such as current. voltage. power factor. frequency. active power, reactive power. direction of power flow. load balance. and phase angles. These parameters are measured by using two types of analog sensors. current transformers (CT) and voltage transformers (VT). These transducers provide the instantaneous values of currents and voltages. The remaining parameters are derived from these measurements. Older substations have instruments that are operated by analog signals from the transducers. In modem substations, currents and voltages are acquired in the form of quantized samples using analog to digital converters. The samples are then processed by digital signal processors to estimate the desired parameters. Instrument transformers are used for measuring voltage and current in electrical power systems, and for power system protection and control. Where a voltage or current is too large to be conveniently used by an instrument, it can be scaled down to a standardized low value. Instrument transformers isolate measurement, protection and control circuitry from the high currents or voltages present on the circuits being measured or controlled.

Current Transformer
A current transformer is essentially a step-down transformer which steps-down the current in a known ratio, the primary of this transformer consist of one or more turn of thick wire connected in series with the line, the secondary consist of thick wire connected in series with line having large number of turn of fine wire and provides for measuring instrument, and relay a current which is a constant faction of the current in the line. The current transformer (CT) is often treated as a black box. It is a transformer that is governed by the laws of electromagnetic induction: = k AcNf Where = Induced voltage = Flux density Ac = Core cross-sectional area N = Turns f = Frequency k = Constant of proportionality

Current transformers are basically used to take the readings of the currents entering the substation. This transformer steps down the current from 800 amps to 1 amp. This is done because we have no instrument for measuring of such a large current. The main use of

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this transformer is (a) distance protection; (b) backup protection; (c) measurement. A current transformer is a transformer designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary coil. When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. A current transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. Along with voltage leads, revenue-grade CTs drive the electrical utility's watt-hour meter on virtually every building with three-phase service and singlephase services greater than 200 amps. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Often, multiple CTs are installed as a "stack" for various uses. For example, protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs to provide isolation between metering and protection circuits, and allows current transformers with different characteristics (accuracy, overload performance) to be used for the devices.

Current transformer

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Voltage Transformer:
It is essentially a step - down transformer and step down the voltage in known ratio. The primary of these transformer consist of a large number of turn of fine wire connected across the line. These secondary winding consist of a few turns and provides for measuring instruments and relay a voltage which is known fraction of the line voltage. Voltage transformers (VTs), also referred to as "potential transformers" (PTs), are designed to have an accurately known transformation ratio in both magnitude and phase, over a range of measuring circuit impedances. A voltage transformer is intended to present a negligible load to the supply being measured. The low secondary voltage allows protective relay equipment and measuring instruments to be operated at a lower voltages. Both current and voltage instrument transformers are designed to have predictable characteristics on overloads. Proper operation of over-current protective relays requires that current transformers provide a predictable transformation ratio even during a shortcircuit.

A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), or capacitance coupled voltage transformer (CCVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal, for measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the transmission line signal is split, an inductive element to tune the device to the line frequency, and a transformer to isolate and further step down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. The tuning of the divider to the line frequency makes the overall division ratio less sensitive to changes in the burden of the connected metering or protection devices. The device has at least four terminals: a terminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a ground terminal, and two secondary terminals which connect to the instrumentation or protective relay. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of wound primary voltage transformers would be uneconomical. In practice, capacitor C1 is often constructed as a stack of smaller capacitors connected in series. This provides a large voltage drop across C1 and a relatively small voltage drop across C2. The CVT is also useful in communication systems. CVTs in combination with wave traps are used for filtering high frequency communication signals from power frequency. This forms a carrier communication network throughout the transmission network.

The standards define a voltage transformer as one in which "the secondary voltage is substantially proportional to the primary voltage and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections.

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Voltage transformer

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5.WAVE TRAP
Line traps prevent the transmission of high frequency carrier signals on high voltage transmission lines to unwanted directions without a loss of energy at power frequency. Line traps are a key component in PLC (Power Line Carrier) systems used for remote control signals, voice communication, remote metering and control between substations in the electrical T&D network. The Alstom Grid line trap is reliable and lightweight and requires little or no maintenance. Line trap also is known as Wave trap. Wave traps are provided in the substation because, there are multiple reasons for this, depending on the configuration. If the wave traps are on different lines, they are likely tuned to different carrier frequencies and are used to filter out the carrier for the line they are installed on. If they are installed on the same line, there may be multiple carrier frequencies used, or carrier is applied to multiple phases if on different phases. Line Trap consists of Inductive coil usually connected in the outdoor yard incoming line. Line traps are usually mounted above Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT) or on separate structure.

30 kHz to 500 kHz frequency range Operational up to 800 kV, the line trap can be used within the 30 kHz to 500 kHz frequency range. It complies with IEC, ANSI or the equivalent standards. Lightweight, reliable, and maintenance-free Line traps are air core, dry types, with mounting flexibility and can withstand high, short-

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circuits. They are lightweight, can be used outdoors, and are doted with a reliable, openstyle and maintenance-free design. The line traps provide excellent cooling, are equipped with extremely reliable tuning devices and have a self-resonance frequency greater than 50 kHz.

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6.POWER TRANSFORMER
Power transformer is a static electrical device, involving no continuously moving parts, used in electric power systems to transfer power between circuits through the use of electromagnetic induction. The term power transformer is used to refer to those transformers used between the generator and the distribution circuits, and these are usually rated at 500 kVA and above. Power systems typically consist of a large number of generation locations, distribution points, and interconnections within the system or with nearby systems, such as a neighboring utility. The complexity of the system leads to a variety of transmission and distribution voltages. Power transformers must be used at each of these points where there is a transition between voltage levels. Power transformers are selected based on the application, with the emphasis toward custom design being more apparent the larger the unit. Power transformers are available for step-up operation, primarily used at the generator and referred to as generator step-up (GSU)transformers, and for step-down operation, mainly used to feed distribution circuits. Power transformers are available as single-phase or threephase apparatus. Transformer is a vital link in a power system which has made possible the power generated at low voltages (6600 to 22000 volts) to be stepped up to extra high voltages for transmission over long distances and then transformed to low voltages for utilization at proper load centers. This flux induces an electro-motive force in the secondary winding too. When load is connected across this winding, current flows in the secondary circuit. This produces a demagnetizing effect, to counter balance this the primary winding draws more current from the supply so that IP NP=IS NS

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Electrical Power Transformer is a static device which transforms electrical energy from one circuit to another without any direct electrical connection and with the help of mutual induction between to windings. It transforms power from one circuit to another without changing its frequency but may be in different voltage level. Power transformer takes the AC mains (wall) supply voltage and converts it into one or more AC voltages that are more convenient for our needs. For a valve amp this usually means a low voltage for the heaters and a high voltage for the anode supply, at the very least.

Working Principle of transform


The working principle of transformer is very simple. It depends upon Faraday's laws of Electromagnetic Induction. Actually mutual induction between two or more winding is responsible for transformation action in an electrical transformer.

er

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Faraday's laws of Electromagnetic Induction


According to these Faraday's laws,"Rate of change of flux linkage with respect to time is directly proportional to the induced EMF in a conductor or coil". An Ideal Transformer is an imaginary transformer which does not have any loss in it, means no core losses, copper losses and any other losses in transformer. Efficiency of this transformer is considered as 100%.

Types of Transformer
Transformers can be categorized in different ways, depending upon their purpose, use, construction etc. The types of transformer are as follows, Step Up Transformer & Step Down Transformer - Generally used for stepping up and down the voltage level of power in transmission and distribution power network. Transformer & Single Phase Transformer - Former is generally used in three phase power system as it is cost effective than later but when size matters it is preferable to use bank of three Single Phase Transformer as it is easier to transport three single phase unit separately than one single three phase unit. Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer & Instrument Transformer Transformer generally used in transmission network is normally known as Power Transformer, distribution transformer is used in distribution network and this is lower rating transformer and current transformer & potential transformer, we use for relay and protection purpose in electrical power system and in different instruments in industries are called Instrument Transformer. Two Winding Transformer & Auto Transformer - Former is generally used where ratio between High Voltage and Low Voltage is greater than 2. It is cost effective to use later where the ratio between High Voltage and Low Voltage is less than 2. Outdoor Transformer & Indoor Transformer - Transformers designed for installing at outdoor is Outdoor Transformer and Transformers designed for installing at indoor is Indoor Transformer. EHV power transformers are usually oil immersed with all three phases in one tank. Auto transformers can offer advantage of smaller physical size and reduced losses. The different classes of power transformers are:

Oil immersed, natural cooling Oil immersed, air blast cooling Oil immersed, oil circulation forced

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Oil immersed, oil circulation forced, air blast cooling

Power transformers are usually the largest single item in a substation. For economy of service roads, transformers are located on one side of a substation, and the connection to switchgear is by bare conductors. Because of the large quantity of oil, it is essential to take precaution against the spread of fire. Hence, the transformer is usually located around a sump used to collect the excess oil. Transformers that are located and a cell should be enclosed in a blast proof room.

Power transformers

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7. SWITCH GEAR
One of the basic functions of switchgear is protection, which is interruption of short-circuit and overload fault currents while maintaining service to unaffected circuits. Switchgear also provides isolation of circuits from power supplies. Switchgear is also used to enhance system availability by allowing more than one source to feed a load. In an electric power system, switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This type of equipment is important because it is directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply. The very earliest central power stations used simple open knife switches, mounted on insulating panels of marble or asbestos. Power levels and voltages rapidly escalated, making opening manually operated switches too dangerous for anything other than isolation of a de-energized circuit. Oil-filled equipment allowed arc energy to be contained and safely controlled. By the early 20th century, a switchgear line-up would be a metal-enclosed structure with electrically operated switching elements, using oil circuit breakers. Today, oilfilled equipment has largely been replaced by air-blast, vacuum, or SF6 equipment, allowing large currents and power levels to be safely controlled by automatic equipment incorporating digital controls, protection, metering and communications. High voltage switchgear was invented at the end of the 19th century for operating motors and other electric machines. The technology has been improved over time and can be used with voltages up to 1,100 kV. Typically, the switchgear in substations is located on both the high voltage and the low voltage side of large power transformers. The switchgear on the low voltage side of the transformers may be located in a building, with medium-voltage circuit breakers for distribution circuits, along with metering, control, and protection equipment. For industrial applications, a transformer and switchgear line-up may be combined in one housing, called a unitized substation or USS. There are many different types of switch gears. To the common types of switchgears are included vacuum switch gears, oil insulated switch gears ,and gas insulated switchgears. Also there are simple open air switchgears. The vacuum circuit Switch gear is the type of Switchgears that has minimal arcing. when the arc is stretched to less than 2 to 3 mm ,it quenches. They are frequently used in modern medium voltage switch gear of up to 35000 volts. The oil insulated switchgear depends on the oil vaporization blast through its arc. The gas insulated switchgear stretches the arc with a magnetic field. it also depends on the dielectric strength of the gas to quench the stretched arc.

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The open air switch gear circuit breakers use compressed air to blow out the arc.whe the displaced air is trying to escape, it blows out the arc.

Switch gear

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8.ISOLATORS
Isolating switches are also called isolators. disconnects, disconnecting switches. Isolators are provided for isolation from live parts for the purpose of maintenance. Isolators are located at either side of the circuit breaker. Isolators are operated under no load. Isolator does not have any rating for current breaking or current making. Isolators are interlocked with circuit breakers Disconnector or isolator switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de-energised for service or maintenance. Such switches are often found in electrical distribution and industrial applications where machinery must have its source of driving power removed for adjustment or repair. High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance.

Function of Isolators :
Isolating switches are used to disconnect circuit-breakers. sections of bus bars and parts of the system. An isolator is used to open a circuit only after the flow of current has been interrupted by another device. These switches are slow moving devices but are inexpensive compared to load switches and circuit breakers. These switches are also used to transfer circuits from one bus bar to another and to provide flexibility during system operation These switches must be able to: carry normal load currents continuously, carry fault currents until they are cleared by an interrupting device and, make and break small currents when the voltage difference across their terminals is not significant. The open and closed status of an isolator can be visually verified. Often, video cameras are placed at strategic locations in a switchyard to visually inspect the operation of an isolator without leaving the control room. These cameras are remotely controlled and can be pointed towards selected equipment in the substation.

In substation , it is often desired to disconnect a part of the system for general maintenance and repairs. This is accomplished by an isolating switch or isolator. An

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isolator is a switch and is design to often open circuit under no load, in other words, isolator switches are operate only when the line is which they are connected carry no load.

The major difference between an isolator and a circuit breaker is that an isolator is an off-load device intended to be opened only after current has been interrupted by some other control device. Safety regulations of the utility must prevent any attempt to open the disconnector while it supplies a circuit .

For example, consider that the isolator are connected on both side of a cut breaker, if the isolators are to be opened, the C.B. must be opened first.

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frequently used in different Electrical Isolators (Outdoor Isolators) are used to protect from the direct contact of electricity. They are the very essential part of electrical equipments. We offer different types of electrical Isolators which include Electric Fence Isolators and Electric Current Isolators. All these types are of supreme quality. They are made shock proof by special technology. They are being industries with total comfort. We are among the leading Electric Current Isolators Suppliers in India who supply all the famous brands of electric switches.

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MISCELLONOUS EQUIPMENTS
Metering and Indicating Instrument: There are several metering and indicating Instrument (e.g.Ammeters, Volt-meters, energy meter etc.) installed in a Sub-Station tomaintain which over the ckt quantities. The instrument transformer areinvariably used with them for satisfactory operation.

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Surge Arrestors or Lightning Arrester:


A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation on the system from the damaging effect of lightning. The typical lightning arrester also known as surge arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge or switching surge travels down the power system to the arrester, the current from the surge is diverted around the protected insulation in most cases to earth. Surge Arresters or Lightning Arresters discharge the over voltage surges to earth and protect the equipment insulation from switching surges and lightning surges. Surge arresters are generally connected between phase conductor and ground. In a Substation surge arrester is located at the starting of the substation as seen from incoming transmission lines and is the first equipment of the substation. Surge arresters are also provided near the transformer terminals phase to ground. Two type of surge arresters are available 1) Gapped Arresters 2) Gapless Zinc Oxide arresters.

Lightning Arrester or Surge Arreseter

Air-Break Switch

an electric switch in which the opening and closing of contacts and extinguishing of the electric arc are accomplished by means of compressed air. An air-break switch consists of three basic structural elements: a reservoir with a supply of compressed air, an arc extinguisher, and an electropneumatic actuator. The principal advantages of air-break switches lie in the fact that they are fireproof and explosionproof, have rapid connect and disconnect operation, and are relatively simple in design. The presence of equipment for the production and storage of compressed-air supplies is a disadvantage. Air-break switches at currents up to 750 kV, which are generally used at high-voltage power plants and substations, are manufactured in the USSR. Modern air-break switches are provided with an enclosed isolating switch whose contacts are housed in an insulated casing that fills with compressed air upon disconnection . Airbreak switches at currents of 110 kV and higher (up to 750 kV) are manufactured with airfilled isolating switches..

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An air break switch comprising one or more fixed contacts and one or more movable contacts which are movable between open and closed positions, and a coil which, preferably in conjunction with The function of a switch is to open or close a path for electricity.

Low voltage kife switch


A knife switch has a simple handle that swings back and forth to open or close a circuit. The switch itself is not covered with insulation. It is easy to see if the switch is open (on) or closed (off). The knife switch in the photos below could be used to turn off a power tool or other equipment. A simple knife switch is good for doing experiments with electricity of low voltage. Dry cells have low voltage and are often used for these experiments. If you touch the metal of the switch, you should not get hurt when using very low voltage with dry cells!

Earth Switch:
Station Earthing System includes Earth Mat and Earth electrodes placed below ground level. These Earth Mat and Earth electrode is connected to the equipment structures, neutral points for the purpose of Equipment earthing and neutral point earthing. Function earthing system is to provide low resistance earthing for 1. Discharging currents from the surge arresters, overhead shielding, earthing switches 2. For equipment body earthing 3. For safe touch potential and step potential in substation.

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Earth Switch is used to discharge the voltage on the circuit to the earth for safety. Earth switch is mounted on the frame of the isolators. Earth Switch is located for each incomer transmission line and each side of the bus bar section.

Battery
A battery is a device that converts the chemical energy contained in its active materials directly into electric energy by means of an electrochemical oxidation-reduction (redox)reaction. In the case of a rechargeable system, the battery is recharged by a reversal of the process.

Batteries Room
Batteries are very important part of the grid. It works as a standby storage device, that provides D.C power to the grids dc supply equipment in case of failure of A.C supply. Different protection devices i.e relays, circuit breakers and other control equipment of relay room, 11KVcontrol room, 132KV control room and yard operates on 110 D.C volt supply that is normally supplied by a rectifier. In case of failure of A.C power batteries works as a standby source of 110 D.C supply. No. of cells installed = 552 Volt/cell, 150 AH Total Output Voltage = 110 Volt. Recommended Float Voltage = 202 Volt/cell at 25 CRecommended Boost Voltage = 2.4 Volt/cell Minimum2.8 Volt/cell Maximum Total Float Voltage = 121 Volt

Capacitor
Capacitors are used in substation to improve power factor.

Series Reactors
Series reactors are used to limit short circuit current and to limit current surges associated with fluctuating loads. Series reactors are located at the strategic locations such that the fault levels are reduced.

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Series Reactors

Lightning Protection:

Lightning protection is used to protect substation equipment from direct lightning strokes. Lightning Masts are located at the outdoor yard. Overhead Shielding wires are used to cover entire outdoor yard

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Lightning Masts

Neutral Grounding Equipment:


Neutral Grounding Equipment are Resistors and reactors. They are used to limit the short circuit current during ground fault. They are connected between neutral point and ground .

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FUSES
A fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide over current protection, of either the load or source circuit. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. Short circuit, overloading, mismatched loads or device failure are the prime reasons for excessive current. A fuse interrupts excessive current (blows) so that further damage by overheating or fire is prevented. Wiring regulations often define a maximum fuse current rating for particular circuits.Over current protection devices are essential in electrical systems to limit threats to human life and property damage. Fuses are selected to allow passage of normal current plus a marginal percentage and to allow excessive current only for short periods. Slow blow fuses are designed to allow higher currents for a modest amount of time longer, and such considerations are and were commonly necessary when electronics devices or systems had electronic tube tech or a large number of incandescent lights were being powered such as in a large hall, theater or stadium. Tubes and incandescent lights each have reduced current needs as they heat up to operating temperatures for their internal resistance grows as they are heated the same physics principle causes the fuse material to melt, disconnecting the circuit from power.

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