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CHAPTER 1 The Problem and a Review of Related Literature Food is the source of nourishment of people enabling people to perform activities of daily living. It is one of the physiologic needs of every individual and it should be sustained for survival. Regardless of economic status, food is considered part of life and man will do all means just to satisfy the hunger without understanding the appropriateness of the food preparation. Food sanitation is a series of protocols which are designed to prevent the contamination of food, keeping it safe to eat. Numerous nations have specific laws in place concerning food sanitation, along with lengthy lists of recommendations from public health agencies. The key to food sanitation is keeping food safe and clean, with all of the handlers observing personal hygiene to avoid introducing harmful elements to food, and complying with food sanitation recommendations concerning safe holding temperatures for food, safe cooking temperatures, sterilization of cutting boards and other implements and so forth. (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-food-sanitation.htm). Food sanitation and safety is a practice of keeping foods from cross-contamination, storing perishable food at the appropriate temperature (41 degrees), and heating food to a temperature that will inhibit bacterial growth (at least 180 degrees). Remember bacteria is always present, trying to keep it from growing is our goal. (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_food_sanitation_and_safety#ixzz1b1TtU5wJ).

The rapid change in the eating habits of the Filipinos in the fast food establishments particularly those in the urban centers increases the risk of the segment of the population to foodborne infection due to unsanitary handling preparation of food (PHN 2007). Food facilities and equipment must be constructed and be maintained to ensure that they can be effectively and efficiently cleaned and sanitized all the time. The removal of all food materials is critical. This means preventing bacterial increase, survival, growth, and reproduction. This includes product and non-product contact surfaces. Hygiene during handling and cooking of foods should be. It has been observed do not wash fresh foods properly. Vendors who sold fish and chips washed their raw foodstuff only once because they did not have enough water (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-food-safety.html, MalcolmTatum, Copyright

Protected: 2003-2011). The food vending business plays an important role in developing the place in meeting the food demands of the urban dwellers. Food prepared by vendors feed thousands of people daily with a wide variety of foods that are relatively cheap and easily accessible. According to FAO reports, the food industry offers a significant amount of employment, often to persons with little education and training and that foods have significant nutritional implications (nutritional balanced diets, sufficient in quantity and presenting options for variety and choice) for consumers, particularly from middle and low-income sectors of the population who depend heavily on them. In Perpetual Help College of Manila, the researchers observed that most of the people in University of the Philippines prefer to buy foods from the vendors especially the vendors within

the university premises, rather than preparing for their own, it may be because of time availability causing the people to avail products without even considering its safety. There are only few studies on unsanitary practices of food handling of vendors in University of the Philippines. It is within this context that the researchers are therefore concerned with the potential health risk brought by food vendor, thus the researchers are interested to conduct this study. Review of Related Literature Food is a basic requirement of man. It is the source of nutrients and provides the energy required for all activities of a human body, such as growth, repair of damaged tissues, reproduction and sustenance. Food is the source of energy. The world food requirement is directly related to population and population growth. It is imperative to achieve the food production target and ensure the quality standard to combat hunger and food related diseases worldwide (http://www.fao.org/trade/docs/LDC-foodqual_en.html) Food sanitation is a series of protocols which are designed to prevent the contamination of food, keeping it safe to eat. Numerous nations have specific laws in place concerning food sanitation, along with lengthy lists of recommendations from public health agencies. The key to food sanitation is keeping food safe and clean, with all of the handlers observing personal hygiene to avoid introducing harmful elements to food, and complying with food sanitation recommendations concerning safe holding temperatures for food, safe cooking temperatures, sterilization of cutting boards and other implements, and so forth. (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-food-sanitation.htm).

According to the Presidential decree No. 856 code on sanitation, whereas, the health of the people, being of paramount importance, all efforts of public services should be directed towards the protection and promotion of health and the advancement in the field of sanitation in recent years, there arises the need for updating and codifying our scattered sanitary laws to ensure that they are in keeping with modern standards of sanitation and provide a handy reference and guide for their enforcement. The food products have to satisfy the stringent requirements with respect to human safety, freedom from microbiological and physicochemical contamination, organoleptic and nutritional quality, aesthetical appeal, total compliance within food laws and environmental safety regulations. One of the most important aspects of practicing food safety involves preventing foods from becoming contaminated. Making sure foods are stored properly goes a long way in avoiding any type of food contamination. Meat and vegetables should be placed in airtight containers and placed in a freezer. Items such as flour, sugar, cornmeal, and spices should also be stored in containers that provide an effective barrier to airborne bacteria, and can be stored in pantries when not in active use. (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-food-safety.html) Food safety implies absence or acceptable and safe levels of contaminants, adulterants, naturally occurring toxins or any other substance that may make food injurious to health on an acute or chronic basis. It doesn't matter how delicious or complicated your recipe is: if the food makes people sick because of improper cooking or handling, all your efforts will be wasted. You can't tell if a food is safe to eat by how it looks or tastes. Proper storage, cooking and handling are the only ways to ensure safe food. Food quality can be considered as a complex characteristic

of food that determines its value or acceptability to consumers. Besides safety, quality attributes include: nutritional value; organoleptic properties such as appearance, color, texture, taste; and functional properties. Poor food preparation, handling, or storage can quickly result in food being contaminated with germs and may lead to illness if the contaminated food is eaten. Food sanitation and safety is a practice of keeping foods from cross-contamination, storing perishable food at the appropriate temperature (41 degrees), and heating food to a temperature that will inhibit bacterial growth (at least 180 degrees). Remember bacteria is always present, trying to keep it from growing is our goal. (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_food_sanitation_and_safety#ixzz1b1TtU5wJ). The importance of food safety and sanitation has everything to do with economics and survival in the business world. Businesses lose consumers confidence and market share experience, economic costs and hardship, face extensive and costly litigation, and/or may even go out of business altogether if their firm is found to be responsible for a foodborne outbreak.(http://wiki.answers.com/Q/The_importance_of_food_safety_and_sanitation_as_the_ba sis_for_preventing_foodborrne_illness_in_retail_food_establishment). Food-borne diseases impose a heavy social and economic burden on communities, affecting their economic productivity. They encompass a wide spectrum of illnesses caused by microbes, parasites, or chemical contamination of food. Recent trends in food production, processing, distribution, and preparation are creating an increasing demand for food safety research in order to ensure a safer food supply (http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/225651/foodsafety-awareness-week, Copyright 2011. Manila Bulletin).

Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Debates on genetic food safety include such issues as impact of genetically modified food on health of further generations and genetic pollution of environment, which can destroy natural biological diversity. In developed countries there are intricate standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries the main issue is simply the availability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. In theory food poisoning is 100% preventable. The World Health Organization has estimated that there are 1.8 million deaths every year due to diarrheal diseases and most of the cases of death can be attributed to water and food contamination. Five key principles of food hygiene, according to WHO, are to Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests, Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods, Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens, Store food at the proper temperature, Use safe water and raw materials. Synthesis of the Review. The insights and concepts obtained from the literature is very much related to the present study. The concepts help the researchers in the constructions of the conceptual framework of the study particularly in the identification of the variables; Food Sanitation Practices, Cleaning food utensils, Food display, Cooking method, Storage, Storage containers, Disposal, Food service, Food preparation. This Review of the literature is applicable to the study because it shares ideas that could help in explaining the food safety. The World Health Organization has estimated that there are

1.8 million deaths every year due to diarrheal diseases and most of the cases of death can be attributed to water and food contamination. Food safety is generally defined as the assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use. On the other hand, the cited literature differs from the present investigation in terms of social and economic burden on the communities affecting their economic productivity.

Conceptual Framework of the Study


The study is anchored of the concept of Florence Nightingales Environmental Theory (1860) which emphasized greatly the role of the environment in the care of the patient. Environment is defined as the external conditions in the influences affecting the life of organism and capable of preventing, surprising, or contributing to disease, accidents or deaths. Central to Nightingales Theory is the concept of the environmental sanitation, It includes proper ventilation, adequate lighting, cleanliness, adequate warmth, quite and diet. Food provides majority of the nutrients which the human body needs to stay healthy and it is the key in keeping you and your family in good shape. It is an undeniable fact that health comes above all things, thus food sanitation must be taken into consideration as much as it could be. The environmental theory of Florence nightingale (1860), serves as the springboard of this study. It states that the environment must be properly utilized for the patient to attain wellness and reduce mortality rate brought by nosocomial infections. It is highlighted on her theory that sanitation plays a vital role in the healing process and food preparation is at the top of that considering that the food we eat directly enters the body and it rapidly affects body function as it is metabolized and absorbed by the body.

Important variables in the study include the cleaning food utensils, food display, cooking method, storage-storage containers, disposal, and food preparation. Cleaning food utensils. Properly cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils should be bacteriologically safe prior to use. Should contamination be suspected, the equipment and/or utensils should not be used, but recleaned and sanitized. Food display. Is important as the customers who come into the store also get to buy things impulsively. It is hence important that commercial businesses put up a good food display. Cooking Method. When you cook with a different method, you get a different taste. But that's not necessarily it. There are various health benefits from different cooking methods. Like grilling drains the fat away. Steaming makes food easier to digest. They are all different, and all have different advantages and disadvantages. Storage Containers. Proper food storage techniques will not only aid in retaining freshness, but can also eliminates wastefulness; reduce the risk of contamination and unnecessary spending. Right proper food storage is vital to avoid spoiling. It will not only save your money, but it can keep food from becoming. Disposal. Properly disposing of waste is not just a personal responsibility; some kinds of waste, usually hazardous, must be properly disposed of according to law set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency. Toxic waste can seep into the ground and contaminate our water supplies, and sometimes cause widespread disease. Even non-toxic waste causes pollution that contributes to global warming and a general negative impact on the public health.

Food Service. Defined as the practice or business of making, transporting, and serving or dispensing prepared foods, as in a restaurant or commissary. Food Preparation. The act of preparing foodstuffs for eating, which generally requires the selection, measurement and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure to achieve a desired result. It includes a vast range of methods, tools, and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavor and digestibility of food (Sabida, Roy C. (Ed). (2004). Food service and catering management-a practice guide.Philippines: Orogen International Publishing co, Inc.). The interplay of the variables is shown on the schematic diagram of the study, figure1.

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Profile of the vendors of: Age Sex Highest Educational attainment Sanitary permit Number of years as street food vendors

Food Sanitation Practices Cleaning food utensils Food display Cooking method Storage, Storage containers Disposal Food service Food preparaion

Figure 1.Schematic Diagram of the study.

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Statement of the Problem This study aimed to determine the food sanitation practices of the food vendors in University of the Philippines. Specially, this sought to answer the following question: 1. What is the profile of the participants in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Sex; 1.3 highest educational attainment; 1.4 availability of sanitary permit; 1.5 number of years as street food vendor? 2. What are sanitation practices of the vendors as prescribed by themselves and consumers as to; 2.1 cleaning food utensils; 2.2 food display 2.3 cooking method 2.4 storage container 2.5 disposal 2.6 food service 2.7 food preparation 3. Is their significant difference of the sanitation practices when they are grouped according to their profile.

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Hypothesis At .05 level of significance, there is no significant difference of the sanitation practices when they are grouped according to their profile.

Significance of the Study


Food sanitation is one of the essential physiologic needs of an individual that contributes to its total well being. The importance of proper handling and preparation and its vital role in derive a safe food and cannot be over emphasized. This will study enables the consumers and the citys health office department be aware of the way how these vendors prepare their handle products it furthermore their research would benefit the following: Participants. The result of this study will enable the participants to be oriented with the proper way of preparing and handling their products. Citys health office. The result of the study will provide the concerned authority the basis for their priority interventions that must be emphasize for the security of the people. Consumers. This study will ensure the security of products that they will consume.

Scope and Limitation


This study focused on the food sanitation practices of vendors University of the Philippines . 30 respondents were randomly selected who supplemented the data gather in terms of their sanitation practices. This research covered the period from September 13-14, 2011.

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CHAPTER 2 METHOD This chapter explains the research design, participants, instruments, data gathering procedure, and the data analysis utilized in this study. Research Design This study used descriptive survey in determine the sanitary design to practices of the food vendors. It is deemed appropriate because the data were based from the self-report of the vendors based as their actual experience. Furthermore, the data described the existing condition when the study was conducted. Participants The participants of this study were 30 randomly selected street food vendors in University of the Philippines. They were chosen using the purposive convenient sampling technique. It is appropriate to ambulant vendors, vending vendors those who are willing to cooperate with the participants. Instrument A researcher made questionnaire was used as the main tool for data gathering. The questionnaire asked for necessary information to answer the questionnaire posed in the study. To ensure validity and reliability the instrument was submitted to the research experts for validation. A pilot testing was also conducted to the vendors who are not participants of the study, to test the reliability of the instrument.

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Data Gathering Procedure A letter of request was sent to the Officer in Charge of the College of Health and Sciences, Dr. Lucy L. Teves, R.N., PhD asking permission to allow researchers to conduct study. Another letter of request was sent to the Brgy. Captain of Brgy. Washington, Surigao City for approval and the third letter was sent to all vendors in Brgy. Washington, Surigao City. Upon approval, the researchers conducted the survey formally to all the vendors for them to answer. After the survey, the researchers collected, tallied, interpreted, all the data and analyzed them accordingly. Data Analysis The data gathered was analyzed in this study, using the following statistical tools. Frequency count and percentage distribution. These were used to describe the profile of the percentage. Mean and standard deviation. These were used to determine the sanitary practitioner of the food vendors. Kruskal Wallis ANOVA. This was done in vendor to find out if significant difference exists in the sanitary practitioners of the vendors considering their profile.

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CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this chapter represent the table that include the variables and the results of our questionnaire which is the table 1. Profile of the participants, table 2. Sanitaion Practices of food vendors the the table 3. Kruskal Wallis result of Sanitaion Practices. Table1.Profile of the Participants Variables Age: 20 below 21 30 Yrs. Old 31 40 Yrs, Old 41 50 Yrs. Old 51 and Above Sex: Male Female Number of years as to street food vendor : 2 Yrs. Below 3 - 4 Yrs. 5 - 6 Yrs. 7 8 Yrs. Highest Educational Attainment: Elementary Graduate High School Level High School Graduate College Level College Graduate Availability of Sanitation Permit : 4 4 16 6 13 13 54 20 19 11 63 37 8 19 1 1 1 27 63 3 3 3 f (n=30) %

22 5 2 1

73 17 7 3

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With Without

15 15

50 50

The majority of the participants (63%) are 21-30 years old; others are 20 years old below with 8 or (27%). It appears that the vendors are young adults according to a psychosocial theory. As to the gender of the participants it was revealed that males dominated the vending business in University of the Philippines, it indicates that men can really endure the work of being a vendor. Regarding the years in business, the finding had shown that most of the participants had worked 2 years and below, this revelation could also be a basis why the result of the survey was not that excellent knowing that the vendors are that experienced to handle foods. In terms of the educational attainment of the vendors, high school graduates dominated the vending business, this could also be a contributory factor of the failure to comply of the vendors covered by our study, considering that there could be attain through a college degree. As to the sanitation permit, 50% claimed that they have a sanitation permit and the remaining 50% claimed that they dont, this means that there is consistency in the data gathering that we had known that the participants doesnt have a sanitation permit could serve as the bottom line of the survey, we can easily conclude that they cant really pass the survey, and this is big risk in the health of the consumers considering the health hazards brought by unsafe foods. Ambulant food vendors shall comply with the requirements as to the issuance of the health certificate which also includes monitoring the presence of intestinal parasites and bacterial infection (Public Health Nursing in the Philippines, 2007).

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Majority of the participants are paying a ticket everyday to the tax collector allowing them to operate their small scale business. Table 2.SanitationPracticesof Food Vendors Variables A. Cleaning Food Utensils 1. Thorough washing of food utensils before applying soap. 2. Using of detergents after washing. 3. Thorough rinsing of food utensils after soaping. 4. Dipping in boiling water after soaping. 5. Cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils are done in a way that protects them from contamination. Average: B. Food Display 1. Display cabinet for food is clean. 2. Containers filled with food are covered. 3. Serving utensils are clean. 4. Each food displayed is properly covered. 5. Slicing board to be used is free from dirt and other disease causing agents. Average: C. Cooking Method 1. Ingredients are properly prepared and placed in clean container. 2. Food heating is done before serving. 3. Ingredients used are free from contamination. 4. Oil used for cooking is fresh and clean. 5. Cook always wears proper paraphernalias like gloves and hairnet. Average: 2.60 .46 3.50 2.90 2.30 1.53 .57 .71 .99 .73 2.80 .61 2.90 .53 3.20 2.83 3.20 2.63 2.70 .74 .79 .50 .72 .70 3.41 .56 3.70 3.63 3.50 3.20 3.00 .60 .61 .68 .92 .64 M SD

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D. Storage container 1. Storeroom/cabinet/compartment for storage is provided. 2. Storage is free from dirt and other disease causing agents. 3. Covers of storage containers are kept clean. 4. Covers of storage containers are not only clean but dry upon using. 5. Foods are stored in areas free from dirts and contamination. Average: E. Disposal 1. There is adequate number of waste containers for disposal of food wastage. 2. Containers of wastes are covered properly. 3. Separate containers for left-over is provided. 4. Containers are provided with stands and are not directly placed on the floor. 5. Containers are clean and dry before reuse. Average: F. Food Service 1. Food serving area is clean. 2. Food vendors wear apron and hairnet. 3. Serving utensils are used in collecting food to be served. 4. Food tables are cleaned before serving the food to the customers. 5. All liquid waste are discharged to the sanitary sewage disposal system. Average: G. Food Preparation 2.50 .51 2.40 .72 2.83 .65 2.97 1.60 2.73 .70 .86 .64 2.83 2.60 .70 .61 2.30 2.30 2.93 .70 .99 .74 2.63 .76 2.63 .51 2.53 .51 2.80 2.50 .63 .73 2.63 .61 2.70 .70

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1. Food preparation area is clean. 2. All needed materials and utensils used in food preparation are clean. 3. Those involved in food preparation are always wearing apron and hairnet. 4. Potable water are readily available. 5. Soap and sanitizer are readily available. Average: Grand Mean:

3.00 3.03

.64 .72

1.60

.90

2.13 2.10 2.40 2.71

.99 .70 .58 .43

The level of sanitation practices of the selected food vendors is described as moderately manifested based on the grand mean of 2.71 and standard deviation .43 on a scale of four this result indicates that the food vendors have not fully complied the sanitation requirement as prescribed by the sanitation code. Among the variables it is only in the aspect cleaning the food utensils where the vendors have highly manifested based on the mean of 3.41 and standard deviation of .56. The food display with 2.90 received the second highest rating then disposal with 2.63. These aspects seemed to have a barely passing rating, this means that a lot of things must have been done to improve their food vending along this aspect. The aspect of food preparation and food services received the lowest rating with the mean of 2.40 and 2.50, respectively. Verbal interpretations of these variables describe the sanitation practices to be less manifested or categorically speaking low. They are lowest in results because they are not complying the standard of the food sanitation practices. According to the Presidential decree No. 856 code on sanitation, whereas, the health of the people, being of paramount importance, all efforts of public services should be

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directed towards the protection and promotion of health and the advancement in the field of sanitation in recent years, there arises the need for updating and codifying our scattered sanitary laws to ensure that they are in keeping with modern standards of sanitation and provide a handy reference and guide for their enforcement. With these aspects having lowest results, it is tantamount to hazards such as chronic or acute that may make food injurious to the health of the consumers. It is not negotiable. Quality includes all other attributes that influence a products value to the consumers. Food borne disease is one outbreak involving agents such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and chemical contaminants highlight problems with food safety and increase public anxiety that modern farming systems, food processing and marketing do not provide adequate safeguards for public health. This implies that the street vendors should be knowledgeable about proper sanitation. They should be corrected in their inconsistencies in their food preparation, food services, and handling of food products. This also implies training of food vendors. Some items in the questionnaire got a Very Low manifestation rate, its because of financial concerns of the vendors forcing them to give up the quality service that they are suppose to render to their customers, while on the other hand some items got a Very High manifestation rate because of the complyment factor from the City Health Office enabling them to provide a just and fair service to their customers. Test of Difference of Food Sanitation Practices Table 3.Kruskalwallis results of Sanitary Practices Variables Age Sex Highest Educational Kw 2.73 .77 5.51 P .6046 .3808 .1381 Decision Do not Reject Ho Do not Reject Ho Do not Reject Ho

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Attainment Years in Business Sanitation Permit

3.55 5.79

.3138 .0161

Do not Reject Ho Reject Ho

When the vendors level of sanitation compliance is analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, The p-value indicated in Table 3 results to following : age (.0646), Sex(.3808), highest educational attainment(.1381), years in business (.3138), and business permit result(.2454). There results indicate that there is no significant difference in the level of sanitation practices compliance of the vendors when they are grouped according to age, sex, highest educational attainment, years in business. This goes to say that whether the vendor is young or old, male or female, educated or not, have been in business so long or not, and have a business permit or without business permit, there level of sanitary practices is the same. These aspects need to have more attention like seminars that will be conducted by the city government should be having posters, brochure, barker, in every main streets, to increase the chances of vendors attending seminars on food handling and preparation. By this seminar it can help to the food vendors to improve their sanitation practices. The Health department should also conduct a food monitoring on street vendor to know if the street food vendors are following the protocols and applying the discussion from the seminars. However, when the vendors have not complied with the sanitary permits, the p-value (0.161) is lower than (.05) levels. This means that there is a significant difference into level of sanitary practices between vendors having sanitation permit and those dont have.

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In this study, those vendors who have sanitary permit have higher compliance sanitary practices than those without permit. It is therefore strongly recommended to require all food vendors of a sanitary permit to ensure public safety. CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary, conclusions, and recommendation of the study. Summary This study aimed to determine the sanitation practices of food vendors in the University of the Philippines. In the profile of our study it answered the following; in terms of: age, sex, years in business, highest educational attainment, sanitation permit, and business permit. In sanitation practices of food vendor that have been observed in terms of: cleaning food utensils, food display, cooking method, storage containers, disposal, food services, and food preparation the significant difference in the sanitation practices of food vendors. Descriptive the survey method we used to gathered data by using interview to the respondents and observation as the main tool of this study. The main tool in gathering data was the researcher made. The statistical tools used to treat the data are included the following: Frequency count, percentage computation, standard deviation, weighed mean and Kruskal Wallis Anova. The study was conducted during academic year 2011 2012

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Findings The findings of this study are summarized as follows; 1. Nineteen (19) vendors or 63% belong to the bracket of 21.30 yrs. old followed by the ages

20 and below with 18 or 27% and each of the bracket 31 40 yrs. old. 41 50 yrs. old and 51 above has1 which accounts to 9% of the total numbers of vendors in terms of age. With regards to the variable sex, males dominated with 19 of 63% followed by the female with 11 or 37% of the total numbers of participants in terms of sex. As to the numbers or years in business 22 or 73% had worked for 2 years and below followed by the bracket 3 4 years with 5 or 17%, 5 6 years with 2 or 7%, and 7 8 years with I which accounts to 3% of the total numbers of years in business. In terms of educational attainment, high school graduate dominated the result with 16 or 54% followed by the vendors who had attended college level with 6 or 20%, then followed by the elementary graduate and high school level with 4 vendors each vendors which counts to 26% of the total of participants in terms of educational attainment. As to the sanitation permit 15 or 50% have complied while the remaining 15 or 50% doesnt have a sanitation permit and with regards to business permit 25 vendors or 83% have not complied while 5 or 17% have complied the requirement. 2. The sanitation practices of food vendors in the University of the Philippines have a the grand

mean of 2.71 with verbal interpretation of moderately manifested with 2.40 as the lowest factors with verbal interpretation of less manifested and 3.41 as the highest factor with verbal interpretation of highly manifested. The rating scale is 1-4, with as the lowest and 4 as the highest.

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3. This results indicate that there is no significant difference in this level of sanitation practices compliance of the vendors when they are group according to age, sex, highest educational attainment, years in business, and business permit. In the result the vendors have a sanitary permit have higher sanitary practices than without sanitary permit.

Conclusions 1. The majority of the food vendors in University of the Philippines, do not have a sanitation permit which require for food vendors. Most of food vendors are located at the Sunken Garded. 2. Majority of the vendors are high school graduates. It implies that they have a level of education that is not sufficient for them to understand completely and incorporate the protocols with the sanitation. 3. Some items in the questionnaire got a Very Low manifestation rate, its because of financial concerns of the vendors forcing them to give up the quality service that they are suppose to render to their customers, while on the other hand some items got a Very High manifestation rate because of the complyment factor from the City Health Office enabling them to provide a just and fair service to their customers.

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Recommendation From the findings and conclusions, the following are recommended: 1. The food vendors should be knowledgeable regarding Food Nutrition and Sanitation based on the Philippine National Standards for Food Products to ensure the safety of the consumers health. 2. Street vendors should maintain a clean environment and prevent foods from being contaminated by placing covers on the foods being vended and protected from biological, chemical and physical hazards. 3. Food vendors should be recommended to have a business permit and sanitation permit. 4. Street vendors should comply on the requirements of proper grooming and behavior, by increasing their knowledge regarding the proper grooming and behavior of Sanitation Practice of Food Vendors in University of the Philippines.

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Part I. Profile of the Participants. Please provide the following information. 1. Age: ______________ 2. Sex:______________ Highest Educational Attainment: ________________ Do you have: Sanitation Permit? Business Permit? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes ( ) No ( ) No

How many years are in this business? ____________

Part II. Sanitation Practices of Food Vendors. Kindly indicate as to what extent you have complied the following sanitary practices use the guide below. 4 Highly Manifested 2 Less Manifested 3 Moderately Manifested 1 Not Manifested

H. Cleaning Food Utensils 6. Thorough washing of food utensils before applying soap. 7. Using of detergents after washing. 8. Thorough rinsing of food utensils after soaping. 9. Dipping in boiling water after soaping. 10. Cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils are done in a way that protects them from contamination.

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I. Food Display 6. Display cabinet for food is clean. 7. Containers filled with food are covered. 8. Serving utensils are clean. 9. Each food displayed is properly covered. 10. Slicing board to be used is free from dirt and other diseasecausing agents. J. Cooking Method 6. Ingredients are properly prepared and placed in clean container. 7. Food heating is done before serving. 8. Ingredients used are free from contamination. 9. Oil used for cooking is fresh and clean. 10. Cook always wears proper paraphernalias like gloves and hairnet. K. Storage Containers 6. Storeroom/cabinet/compartment for storage is provided. 7. Storage is free from dirt and other disease causing agents. 8. Covers of storage containers are kept clean. 9. Covers of storage containers are not only clean but dry upon using. 10. Foodsare stored in areas free from dirts and contamination. L. Disposal 6. There is adequate number of waste containers for disposal of food wastage. 7. Containers of wastes are covered properly. 8. Separate containers for left-over is provided. 9. Containers are provided with stands and are not directly placed on the floor. 10. Containers are clean and dry before reuse.

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M. Food Service 6. Food serving area is clean. 7. Food vendors wear apron and hairnet. 8. Serving utensils are used in collecting food to be served. 9. Food tables are cleaned before serving the food to the customers. 10. All liquid waste are discharged to the sanitary sewage disposal system. N. Food Preparation 6. Food preparation area is clean. 7. All needed materials and utensils used in food preparation are clean. 8. Those involved in food preparation are always wearing apron and hairnet. 9. Potable water are readily available. 10. Soap and sanitizer are readily available.

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References Books Sabida, Roy C. (Ed). (2004). Food service and catering management-a practice guide.Philippines: Orogen International Publishing co, Inc. Kozier, Barbara. Mn, RN (2004). Fundamentals of Nursing. Philippines: Pearson Education Inc. Cuevas, Frances Prescilla. RN, MAN (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines: Published by the Publications Committee, National league of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc. J. Hawker, Communicable Disease Control Handbook, Second Edition, Copyright 2011. Philippines by C & E Publishing Inc. Jonas D. Policarpio, Economics in Health for the Allied Health Sciences, C & E Publishing Inc. Copyright @ 2006 by C & E Publishing, Inc.

Electronic Sources:

Sanitation and Handling www.cde.state.co.us/cdenutrition/download/pdf/SEC21, Manila Bulletin, Copyright 2008 Proper Food Handling, Food Safety, andSanitationPractices www.dining.mtu.edu/docs/food handling http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-food-safety.html,Malcolm Tatum, Copyright Protected: 2003-2011 http://www.agnet.org/news/aspac/2007/2007032101.html, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). n.d. http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/225651/food-safety-awareness-week,Copyright 2011. Manila Bulletin http://wiki.answers.com/Q/The_importance_of_food_safety_and_sanitation_as_the_basis_for_pr eventing_foodborrne_illness_in_retail_food_establishment.

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APPENDIX A LETTER ASKING PERMISSION TO CONDUCT THE STUDY Saint Paul University Surigao Surigao City

September 13-14, 2011

Dear Partcipants, Good day! The undersigned are student of Saint Paul University Surigao, who are conducting a Study of entitled Sanitation Practices of Food Vendors in Barangay Washington Surigao City. This Study is one of the requirement we have to fulfill for the degree Bachelor In Science of Nursing. In connection with this, may we request your goodness to spare us your valuable time to answer some questions we need in our study. Whatever answer you give to our question, we assure that it will be held with outmost confidentially. Anticipating your favorable consideration on this request. Thank you very much.

Prepared by:

Edillor, Bill Brian Non T. Custodio, JedenJr. G.

Leyros ,Charles Joseph A. Researchers

Noted by: Dr. Lucy L. Teves, RN, PhD Researcher Instructor

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APPENDIX B LETTER ASKING PERMISSION TO CONDUCT THE STUDY BARANGAY WASHINGTON Surigao City September 12, 2011 Hon. Jose D. Edradan Jr., Good day! The undersigned are student of Saint Paul University Surigao, who are conducting a Study of entitled Sanitation Practices of Food Vendors in Barangay Washington Surigao City. This Study is one of the requirement we have to fulfill for the degree Bachelor In Science of Nursing. In connection with this, we are asking for your full support on our study considering that your constituents will be the beneficiary of this research. Anticipating your favorable consideration on this request. Thank you very much.

Prepared by:

Edillor, Bill Brian Non T. Custodio, JedenJr. G.

Leyros ,Charles Joseph A. Researchers Noted by: Dr. Lucy L. Teves, RN, PhD Researcher Instructors Approved by: Hon. Jose D. Edradan Jr. Brgy. Captain Brgy. Washington, Surigao City

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APPENDICES C A LETTER OF REQUEST TO VALIDATE THE QUESTIONNAIRE

September 12, 2011 MR. JERRY MADERA CAS Faculty- Statistician St. Paul University Surigao

Dear Sir, The researchers are conducting a study on SANITATION PRACTICES OF FOOD VENDORS IN BARANGAY WASHINGTON, SURIGAO CITYfor their undergraduate thesis as a partial fulfillment for the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing. In connection with this, we are asking for your help to validate this questionnaire because of your reliable expertise on this field. We will also accept your suggestions if there are any. Thank you and more power! Respectfully yours,

JEDEN G. CUSTODIO, JR

BILL BRIAN NON T. EDILLOR

CHARLES JOSEPH A. LEYROS Researchers

Noted by:

MRS. LUCY L. TEVES, RN, PHD Adviser

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CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL DATA Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Home Address Course Civil Status Nationality Religion E-mail Address Contact Number : Jeden G. Custodio, Jr. : October 7, 1991 : Brgy. White Beach, Dinagat, Dinagat Island : PurokMatinabangon, Espina Ext., Brgy. Taft, Surigao City : Bachelor of Science in Nursing : Single : Filipino : Roman Catholic : cjedenjr.galido@yahoo.com : 09497539470

Elementary High School College

: Dinagat Central Elementary School : Dinagat School Of Fisheries : St. Paul University Surigao

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CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL DATA Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Home Address Course Civil Status Nationality Religion E-mail Address Contact Number : Bill Brian Non T. Edillor : August 5, 1992 : Caraga Regional Hospital, Surigao City : PurokKalipayan, Ipil, Surigao City : Bachelor of Science in Nursing : Single : Filipino : Roman Catholic : Brianedillor@ymail.com : 09204144172

Elementary High School College

: Ipil Elementary School : San Nicolas High School, Anao-aon, SDN : St. Paul University Surigao

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CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL DATA Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Home Address Course Civil Status Nationality Religion E-mail Address Contact Number : Charles Joseph A. Leyros : May 20, 1991 : Surigao City : Purok 6, Brgy. Bagakay, Claver, Suarigaodel Norte : Bachelor of Science in Nursing : Single : Filipino : Roman Catholic : Charlesleyros@yahoo.com : 09995654224

Elementary High School College

: Claver Central Elementary School : Claver National High School : St. Paul University Surigao