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Warranty
The Model 37DL PLUS Ultrasonic Gage has been designed and manufactured as a precision instrument. Under normal working conditions it will provide long, troublefree service. Damage in transit: Inspect the unit thoroughly immediately upon receipt for evidence of external or internal damage that may have occurred during shipment. Notify the carrier making the delivery immediately of any damage, since the carrier is normally liable for damage in shipment. Preserve packing materials, waybills, and other shipping documentation in order to establish damage claims. After notifying the carrier, contact GE Panametrics so that we may assist in the damage claims, and provide replacement equipment, if necessary. GE Panametrics guarantees the Model 37DL PLUS to be free from defects in materials and workmanship for a period of two years (twenty-four months) from date of shipment. The warranty only covers equipment that has been used in a proper manner as described in this instruction manual and has not been subjected to excessive abuse, attempted unauthorized repair, or modification. DURING THIS WARRANTY PERIOD, GE PANAMETRICS LIABILITY IS STRICTLY LIMITED TO REPAIR OR REPLACEMETN OF A DEFECTIVE UNIT AT ITS OPTION. GE Panametrics does not warrant the Model 37DL PLUS to be suitable for intended use, and assumes no responsibility for unsuitability for intended use. GE Panametrics accepts no liability for consequential or incidental damages including damage to property and/or personal injury. This warranty does not include the transducer, transducer cable, charger, or battery. The customer will pay shipping expense to the GE Panametrics plant for warranty repair; GE Panametrics will pay for the return of the repaired equipment. (For instruments not under warranty, the customer will pay shipping expenses both ways.) GE Panametrics offers an optional third year warranty coverage (at an additional cost), under the same terms, at the time of purchase. GE Panametrics reserves the right to modify all products without incurring the responsibility for modifying previously manufactured products. GE Panametrics does not assume any liability for the results of particular installations, as these circumstances are not within our control. THE WARRANTIES SET FORTH HEREIN ARE EXCLUSIVE AND ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES WHETHER STATUTORY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED (INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND WARRANTIES ARISING FROM COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OR TRADE.)

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Table of Contents
Warranty Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures 1 Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Product Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 About this Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Audience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Typographic Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Related Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 If You have Documentation Comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Revision History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.8 Technical Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Basic Gage Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Summarizing Keypad Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Identifying Display Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Using the Battery Pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Monitoring the Battery Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Charging the Battery Pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Replacing the Battery Pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Using AA Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Up Calibration with D79X Series Dual Element Transducers . . . . . . . 3.1 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Making Thickness Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Calibrating with D79X Series Dual Element Transducers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Transducer Zero Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Material Velocity and Zero Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2.1Material Velocity Calibration of a Material of Unknown Sound Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2.2Enter a Known Material Sound Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 Zero Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Performing a Thru-Coat Calibration Using D7906 and D7908 Transducers. . . . 3.4.1 Thru-Coat (Material Only) Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Thru-Coat (Material and Coating) Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 17 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 23 23 29 30 31 31 31 32 33 33 35 35 36 36 37 38 38 39 40 40

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Setting Up and Calibrating with EMAT Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Calibration with the E110-SB EMAT Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Material Velocity and Zero Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Material Velocity of a Material of Unknown Sound Velocity. . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Entering a Known Material Sound Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Zero Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.5 Making Adjustments to the Transducer Parameters When Using the E110-SB EMAT Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Up and Calibration with Single Element Transducers. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Choosing a Default or User-Defined Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Making Thickness Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Calibrating with Single Element Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Velocity and Zero Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Velocity Calibration Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3 Zero Calibration Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Adjusting the Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Operating the Delay Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Operating the Zoom Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.1 Zoom for D79X Dual Element Transducers and Mode 1 Single Element Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.2 Zoom with Single Element Transducers in Mode 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.3 Zoom with Single Element Transducers in Mode 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43 43 44 44 45 46 46 47 49 49 50 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 59

Setting Up and Calibrating for the Measurement of Boiler Tubes and Internal Oxide Scale Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 6.1 Steam Boiler Tube Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 6.2 Activating the Internal Oxide Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 6.3 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 6.4 Calibration for the Boiler Tube and Internal Oxide Thickness Measurements . . 66 6.4.1 Material Velocity, Zero and Oxide Velocity Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . 66 6.4.2 Entering a Known Material and Internal Oxide Sound Velocity. . . . . . 68 Managing Special Gage Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Selecting a Differential Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Using the Fast Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Using the Minimum Thickness Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Using the Maximum Thickness Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Managing High/Low Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.1 Standard Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.2 Previous Thickness Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.3 B-Scan Alarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 71 71 73 75 75 77 79

7.6 7.7 7.8 8

Changing the Thickness Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Managing the Calibration Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Freezing Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Managing Setup Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 8.1 Managing the Measurement Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 8.1.1 Beeper Tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 8.1.2 Inactive Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 8.1.3 Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 8.1.4 Radix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 8.1.5 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 8.1.6 Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 8.1.7 Hold/Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 8.1.8 Rectification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 8.1.9 Waveform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 8.1.10 Backlight Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 8.1.11 Supervisor Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 8.1.12 Save Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 8.1.13 ID Overwrite Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 8.2 Operating the B-Scan/DB Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 8.3 Using Avg/Min Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 8.4 Operating Temperature Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 8.5 Managing the Communications Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 8.6 Managing Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 8.6.1 Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 8.6.2 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 8.6.3 Hardware Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 8.6.4 Error Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 8.7 Operating Gage Resets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 8.7.1 Measurement Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 8.7.2 Communications Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 8.7.3 DBase Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 8.7.4 Master Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 8.8 Using the Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 8.9 Licensed Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 8.10 Oxide Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 8.11 Adjusting Display Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Using Advanced Gaging Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 9.1 Setting the Manual Gain Adjust with a D79X Series and E110, EMAT Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 9.2 Using Automatic Gain Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 9.2.1 Return to Default Gain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 9.2.2 Restore the Previous Automatically Optimized Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

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9.3 9.4

9.5

9.6

9.7 9.8 9.9 10

Adjusting the Extended Blank with D79X Series Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Echo-to-Echo Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.1 Automatic Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.2 Manual Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.3 Blanking Adjustments in Manual Echo-to-Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.4 Return to Normal Measurement Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.5 Transducer Usage in Echo-to-Echo Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.6 Echo-to-Echo Mode Datalogger Flags. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating the B-Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5.1 Display Half B-Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5.2 Display Full B-Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5.3 Enable the B-Scan Alarm Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5.4 Save B-scans, A-Scans, or Thickness Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Grid View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Display Half Database Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.2 Display Full Database Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.3 Save Thickness Readings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.4 Grid Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating the Thru-Coat Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reading Avg/Min Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Managing Temperature Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

108 109 109 110 111 111 112 113 113 116 116 116 117 117 120 121 121 121 122 122 124

Managing the Datalogger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 10.1 Understanding the Datalogger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 10.2 Organizing the Datalogger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 10.2.1 File Name Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 10.2.2 Identifier (ID Number) Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 10.2.3 File Name Header Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 10.2.4 Comment Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 10.3 Creating Data Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 10.3.1 Standard Editing Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 10.3.2 Create Files from a Computer (using the optional WIN37DL PLUS). 133 10.3.3 Create Files from the Model 37DL PLUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 10.3.3.1Incremental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 10.3.3.2Sequential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 10.3.3.3Sequential with Custom Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 10.3.3.42-D Matrix Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 10.3.3.52-D Matrix Grid with Custom Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 10.3.3.63-D Matrix Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 10.3.3.7Boiler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 10.4 Opening a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 10.5 Copying a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 10.6 Deleting a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 10.7 Editing/Renaming a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

10.8 Creating or Editing Comment Tables from a Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9 Creating or Editing Comment Tables from the Model 37DL PLUS . . . . . . . . . 10.9.1 Delete Comments from a Comment Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9.2 Copy a Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9.3 Database Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.10 Saving Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.10.1 Save Thickness Readings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.10.2 Save Thickness and Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.10.3 Save Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.11Using the Review ID Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.12 Using the Edit ID Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.13 Erasing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.13.1 Erase Data in the Active/Open File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.13.2 Erase a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.13.3 Erase the Entire Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.14 Using the Optional Bar Code Wand to Enter an ID Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.15Generating Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Custom Setups for Single Element Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 11.1 Managing the Detect Mode Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 11.2 Defining a Setup Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 11.3 Defining Measurement Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 11.4 Defining a Probe Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 11.5 Varying Pulser Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 11.6 Adjusting Maximum Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 11.7 Adjusting Initial Gain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 11.8 Adjusting TDG Slope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 11.9 Adjusting the Main Bang Blank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 11.10Adjusting the Echo Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 11.10.1 Echo 1 Detect and Echo 2 Detect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 11.10.2 Interface Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 11.10.3 Mode 3 Echo Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 11.10.4 Setup Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 11.10.5 Save Setup Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Managing Communications/Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 Transmitting Data to a Computer or Printer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.1 Send Entire Files from Gage to Computer or Printer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.2 Sending a Specific Range of ID Numbers from a Specific File . . . . . 12.1.3 Perform a Single Send of the Current Displayed Measurement Data to a Computer or Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.4 Send a Snapshot from the Model 37DL PLUS to a Computer . . . . . . 12.1.5 Send a Snapshot from the Model 37DL PLUS to a Printer . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Receiving (Downloading) Files from a Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 199 200 201 202 202 202 203

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167 167 167 168 169 169 170 170 170 171 173 174 174 176 176 177 178

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12.3 Uploading/Downloading a Stored Transducer Setup to a Computer . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Setting Up Serial Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4.1 RS-232 Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4.2 Communication Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 Identifying Data Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 Performing a Communication Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7 Using the WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

204 204 204 205 207 208 210

Maintaining and Troubleshooting the Model 37DL PLUS . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 13.1 Providing Routine Gage Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 13.2 Maintaining Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 13.3 Understanding Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 13.4 Resolving Battery and Charger Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 13.5 Resolving Measurement Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 13.6 Performing Diagnostic Self Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 13.6.1 Keypad Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 13.6.2 Video Display Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 13.6.3 Hardware Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 13.6.4 Error Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Appendix A - Theory of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Appendix B - Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Appendix C - Sound Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Appendix D - Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Appendix E - Data Output Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Appendix F - Remote Control Via RS-232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Appendix G - Accessories and Replacement Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Documentation Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

List of Tables
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Table 18 Table 19 Table 20 Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Typographic Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Revision History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Keypad Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Oxide Measure Setup Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Calculating a Low/High Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Calculating a Percent Thickness Alarm Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Measurement Reset Default Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Recommended Transducers for Steel Using Echo-to-Echo Mode. . . . . . . . . . . 112 DtectMode and EchWindow Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Computer or Printer Serial Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Model 37DL PLUS Dual Element Transducer Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Model 37DL PLUS Single Element Transducer Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Information Displayed on the Model 37DL PLUS Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Setup Name and Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Setup Parameter Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Sound Velocities of Various Materials (Longitudinal Wave Velocity) . . . . . . . 239 Equipment Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Standard 37DL PLUS I/O Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Model 37DL PLUS Dual Element Transducer Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Model 37DL PLUS Single Element Transducer Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Flag Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Command Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Accessories and Replacement Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

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List of Figures
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Model 37DL PLUS Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identifying Display Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial Display Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing Measurement Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening the Thru-Coat Setup Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transducer and Filter Adapter Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Model 37DL PLUS Transducer Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial Display Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a Stored Transducer Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Naming Convention Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reading Thickness Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Displaying the Waveform Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparing Normal Display to Zoom in Mode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparing Normal Display to Zoom in Mode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparing Normal Display to Zoom in Mode 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steel/Oxide Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disbonded Oxide Layer Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SP Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Model 37DL PLUS Transducer Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SP Mode Selection Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oxide Measure Setup Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Differential Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent Ratio Differential Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Normal and % Ratio in the Differential Setup Screen. . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Thickness Display in Fast Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Displaying the Minimum Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identifying MIN Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Displaying the Maximum Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Referencing the Low Alarm Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Referencing the High Alarm Indicator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Alarm Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Displaying the Previous Thickness Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering Loss/Growth Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing Resolution Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Beeper Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Inactive Time Parameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Language Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Radix Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Units Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Resolution Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Hold/Blank Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Rectification Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 29 34 34 39 44 49 50 51 51 53 58 59 59 60 62 63 63 64 65 65 69 70 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 76 77 79 80 84 85 85 86 86 87 87 88

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Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 Figure 72 Figure 73 Figure 74 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 79 Figure 80 Figure 81 Figure 82 Figure 83 Figure 84 Figure 85 Figure 86

Displaying a Waveform Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Selecting Waveform Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Selecting Backlight Mode Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Selecting Supervisor Lock Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Selecting Save Key Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Selecting ID Overwrite Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Saving Measurements with Overwrite Protection Activated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Selecting the Communications Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Changing the Communication Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Selecting the DBASE Tracking Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Warning Prompt for Measurement Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Warning Prompt for Communication Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Warning Prompt for Dbase Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Warning Prompt for Master Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Selecting Clock Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Viewing Changes in the Default Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Viewing the Blank Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Selecting the Automatic Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Selecting the Manual Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Comparing Manual Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Selecting the Normal Measurement Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Changing B-Scan Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Analyzing a B-Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Defining the Freeze Review Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Changing DB Grid Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Displaying Reverse Grid Rows Off (Ascending). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Displaying Reverse Grid Rows On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Displaying Reverse Grid Columns Off (Ascending) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Displaying Reverse Grid Columns On (Descending) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Displaying Transpose Grid Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Displaying Transpose Grid On. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Displaying Grid IDS in Linear Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Viewing the Data Cell Flag Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Opening the Avg/Min Measure Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Viewing the Display Screen with Avg/Min Measurement Active. . . . . . . . . . . 123 Replacing a Avg/Min Measurement Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Opening Temp Compensation Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Displaying Temperature Compensation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Identifying Datalogger Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Creating a File Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Creating a Note. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Organization of Character Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Selecting the Create Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Selecting a File Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

Figure 87 Figure 88 Figure 89 Figure 90 Figure 91 Figure 92 Figure 93 Figure 94 Figure 95 Figure 96 Figure 97 Figure 98 Figure 99 Figure 100 Figure 101 Figure 102 Figure 103 Figure 104 Figure 105 Figure 106 Figure 107 Figure 108 Figure 109 Figure 110 Figure 111 Figure 112 Figure 113 Figure 114 Figure 115 Figure 116 Figure 117 Figure 118 Figure 119 Figure 120 Figure 121 Figure 122 Figure 123 Figure 124 Figure 125 Figure 126 Figure 127 Figure 128 Figure 129 Figure 130

Selecting an Incremental File Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enter Incremental File Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a Sequential File Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering Sequential File Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a Sequential with Custom Point File Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering Sequential with Custom Point File Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Grid Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One Grid for 75 Identical Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Different Named Grid for Each Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a 2D Grid File Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering 2D Grid File Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a 2-D Grid with Custom Points File Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering 2D Grid with Custom Points File Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a 3-D Grid with Custom Points File Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering 3D Grid File Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a Boiler File Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering Boiler File Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Open Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Copy Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copying a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Delete Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting an Active File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Edit-Rename Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering New File Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Displaying the Grid Edit Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering Information for the Comment Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Note-Copy Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a Note to Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a Comment from the Notes Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identifying the Review ID Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling the ID Edit Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example of Screen if Edited ID is Not in the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Resets Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the DBase Reset Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Warning Message when Resetting DBase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Reports Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the File Summary with Stats Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a File to View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing File if Min/Max Summary is Selected. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reviewing the Min/Max Summary Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing File if File Comparison is Selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reviewing the Comparison Summary Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

c==i

137 137 140 141 143 144 145 146 147 147 148 151 152 155 156 158 159 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 165 165 166 167 168 169 171 172 173 174 176 177 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 182

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Figure 131 Figure 132 Figure 133 Figure 134 Figure 135 Figure 136 Figure 137 Figure 138 Figure 139 Figure 140 Figure 141 Figure 142 Figure 143 Figure 144 Figure 145 Figure 146 Figure 147 Figure 148 Figure 149 Figure 150 Figure 151 Figure 152 Figure 153 Figure 154 Figure 155 Figure 156 Figure 157 Figure 158 Figure 159 Figure 160 Figure 161 Figure 162 Figure 163 Figure 164 Figure 165 Figure 166 Figure 167 Figure 168 Figure 169

Viewing File if Alarm Report is Selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reviewing Alarm Summary Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detect Mode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detect Mode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detect Mode 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulser Power Set to 30 Volts Shows a Smaller Initial Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulser Power Set to 110 Volts Shows a Larger Initial Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Gain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TDG Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main Bang Blank Position for Mode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main Bang Blank Position for Mode 2 and 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Echo Window Setting for Mode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Echo Window Setting for Mode 2 and 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Negative Detection Steel Back by Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positive Detection Plastic Bonded to Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mode 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gage Hanging up on Trailing Edge of Backwall 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M3Blank Set Properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjusting the Setup Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Displaying Recall Setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving Recall Setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Send Option from the File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a File to Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identifying a Range of ID Numbers to Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Communication Option from the Setup Mode Menu . . . . . . . . . . Viewing Communication Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Communication Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Resets Option from the Setup Mode Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Communications Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Warning Prompt for Communication Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Hardware Status Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual Transducer Sound Paths when Measuring Material Thickness. . . . . . . . . Received Transducer Waveform when Measuring a Material Thickness . . . . . Model 37DL PLUS Block Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positioning the Transducer on Test Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Usual Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

182 183 186 186 187 188 188 189 190 190 191 191 192 193 194 194 195 195 196 196 197 197 198 200 200 201 206 206 208 209 209 209 214 218 218 219 221 222 223

Preface
The preface provides the following introductory topics: Product Description About this Document Audience Typographic Conventions Related Documentation If You have Documentation Comments Revision History Technical Help

1.1

Product Description
The GE Panametrics Model 37DL PLUS is a hand-held ultrasonic thickness gage designed primarily for corroded metal applications. An integral A-Scan display allows waveform verification simultaneous with a thickness read-out. An advanced internal datalogger allows storage of 60,000 thickness measurements and 4,500 waveforms. Plus, a two way serial RS-232 communications connector allows the gage to interface with printers and computers. The Model 37DL PLUS is capable of using both single element and dual element transducers to measure the thickness of corroded, pitted, scaled, granular, and other difficult materials from one side only. You can also use single element or dual element transducers for echo-to-echo measurements. A full line of transducers are available to measure materials between 0.005" (0.50mm) and 25" (500mm) thickness with material temperatures between -20C to +500C (-4F to 932F) depending on material, transducer, and measurement mode. Moreover, the Model 37DL PLUS uses a microprocessor that continuously adjusts the receiver setup so that every measurement is optimized for reliability, range, sensitivity, and accuracy. The Model 37DL PLUS also offers many advanced measurement features, A-Scan and BScan display options, and internal datalogging functions. Advanced Measurement Features: Thru-coat measurement Boil tube scale algorithm Temperature compensated measurement Min/Average mode Emat transducer capability Measurement related status flags and alarms

TN

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LCD with selectable backlight for highly readable information under all lighting conditions Automatic probe recognition for the standard D79X and MTD705 series transducers Calibration for unknown material velocity and/or transducer zero Echo-to-echo measurements Fast Scan mode with 20 readings/sec. Manual Gain Adjust in 1db steps Hold or Blank thickness display during loss of signal (LOS) conditions Hold minimum or maximum reading modes with MinFinder Differential thickness display relative to setpoint in absolute or percent ratio Calibration lockout function Selectable resolution 0.001" (0.01mm) or 0.01" (0.1mm)

A-Scan and B-Scan Display Options: Real-time A-Scan waveform display for verification of critical measurements Manual Freeze mode with post processing Manual Zoom and Range control of waveform display Auto Hold on LOS and Auto Zoom (measured echo centering) Extended Blank Blank after first received echo in echo-to-echo mode Receiver Gain read-out Ability to capture and display waveform associated with minimum thickness during scanned measurements Display stored and downloaded waveforms

Internal Datalogger Functions: Capacity to store 60,000 fully documented thickness readings or 4,500 waveforms with thickness readings Database enhancements include 32 character file naming, 20 character ID naming EPRI formatting, and dynamic grid sizing ID numbers increment automatically, follow a preset sequence, or can be set from the keyboard Save reading/waveform at an ID number Simultaneously show filename, ID number, stored comments, and stored reference thickness while displaying active thickness and waveform Seven file formats available

UN

Erase selected data or all stored data Save or send a held or frozen reading on the thickness display Transmit selected data or all stored data Keyboard programmable communication parameters

1.2

About this Document


This document is the Instruction Manual for the Model 37DL PLUS. The Instruction Manual describes routine tasks for operating the Model 37DL PLUS. These tasks include operating the Model 37DL PLUS, configuring system parameters, managing system functions, calibrating the Model 37DL PLUS with single and dual element transducers, managing special gage functions and advanced gaging features, using the datalogger, transmitting files, and maintaining the gage.

1.3

Audience
This document is intended for any operator using the Model 37DL PLUS. GE Panametrics recommends that all operators have a thorough understanding of the principles and limitations of ultrasonic testing. We assume no responsibility for incorrect operational procedure or interpretation of test results. We recommend that any operator seek adequate training prior to using this equipment. GE Panametrics offers a full range of training courses including Level I and Level II Ultrasonic Testing, Advanced Detection and Sizing, and Ultrasonic Thickness Gaging. For further information regarding training courses, contact GE Panametrics.

1.4

Typographic Conventions
The following notes and table provide a list of the typographic conventions that appear in this document.

Warning:

This information indicates danger and the possibility of personal injury.

Caution: This information indicates that loss of data or equipment damage can occur.

Note:

This information provides explanatory information.

VN

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Tip:

This information provides helpful guidelines for easy operation.

Convention Courier Font Heavy courier Bold

Description Used for file names, lines of code, names of processes, and commands. Used for command line user input. Used for textual parts of graphical user interface, including menu items, buttons, toolbar names, modes, options, and tabs. Used for screen/window names, dialog boxes and document titles. Used for emphasis. Used for instrument keys on the keypad. With italics text, used for variable data. Used for showing the next sequential step.

Italics Bold Italics [Bold] (Square Brackets with Bold) <Italics> (Angle Brackets)

Table 1

Typographic Conventions

1.5

Related Documentation
The Model 37DL PLUS works with the WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program. For more information about this software program, refer to the following instruction manual: WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program, Part Number 910-249A

1.6

If You have Documentation Comments


GE Panametrics is always interested in improving its documentation. We value your comments about this manual and other GE Panametrics documentation. Simply fill out the survey at the back of this manual and send your documentation comments to GE Panametrics by using one of the following methods: Send comments to GE Panametrics, NDT Marketing Department, 221 Crescent Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 02453, Attention: Technical Publications Fax us at 781-899-1552, Attention: Marketing Department/Technical Publications

MO

In all your correspondence, please include the title of the document, its part number, release date, and the specific section upon which you are commenting.

1.7

Revision History
This document may require updating because of corrections or changes to the product. Publication dates, printed on the front cover, are updated when a change is made to this document. In addition, the document number is also changed to reflect the revision. The table below shows a list of all revisions for this document.

Date May 2003 June 2003 October 2003 Table 2

Issue 910-239A 910-239B 910-239C

Release version First release (preliminary). Second release. Revision

Revision History

1.8

Technical Help
Call GE Panametrics, NDT division at 800-225-8330 (within the USA) or 781-899-2719 (outside the USA) and ask for a sales engineer to assist you.

NO

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Defining Basic Gage Operation


This chapter describes how to get started using basic Model 37DL PLUS operations. Topics are as follows: Summarizing Keypad Functions Identifying Display Elements Enabling Auto Power Off Using the Battery Pack Monitoring the Battery Charge Charging the Battery Pack Replacing the Battery Pack Using AA Batteries

2.1

Summarizing Keypad Functions

Figure 1

Model 37DL PLUS Keypad

The figure above shows the full keyboard layout. The following table lists all the keystroke functions available from the Model 37DL PLUS keyboard and is divided into two groups. The first group consists of single keystroke functions and the second group consists of multiple keystroke functions, which are shown grouped together and must be pressed sequentially on the gage.

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Key

Key Color Green

Function Power On/Off - Turns the gage on and off.

Yellow

Zero - Compensates for transducer zero or enables step block zero calibration. Cal - Switches the gage into the semi-automatic step block Calibration mode. Velocity - 1) Displays and enables changing the sound velocity calibration for a particular material. 2) In ID Edit mode only, [VEL] deletes the character at the cursor. Note: When using Thru-Coat, press [VEL] twice to view and set the coating velocity.

Yellow

Yellow

Yellow Red

Numeric Keys - Enters numeric values from 0-9. Measurement/Reset Completes the current operation and switches the gage to Measurement mode. Range - Changes the waveform display range to the next available value. Zoom - 1) Changes the waveform display range so that the region immediately surrounding the measured echo is shown at maximum magnification. 2) In the ID Edit mode only, [ZOOM] inserts a blank space at the cursor.

Blue

Blue

Table 3

Keypad Definitions

QO

Key

Key Color Blue

Function Freeze - Causes the displayed waveform to immediately hold until reset. Backlight - Controls the waveform display backlight.

Orange

Gray

Enter - Used to select highlighted items and accept entered values. Up Arrow - 1) Adjusts the value of a selected parameter upward. 2) Selects the next higher entry in a chosen list. Down Arrow - 1) Adjusts the value of a selected parameter downward. 2) Selects the next lower entry in a chosen list. Left Arrow - 1) Lowers the value of a selected parameter. 2) Moves the character and highlights the cursor one space to the left during the ID Edit mode. Right Arrow - 1) Increases the value of a selected parameter. 2) Moves the character and highlights the cursor one space to the right during the ID Edit mode. File - Opens File Options dialog box where you can manage files using the following functions: open, create, copy, delete, send, edit/rename, note/copy, and reports. Save - Stores measurements/ waveforms in the datalogger at the current ID number.

Green

Green

Green

Green

Brown

Brown

Table 3

Keypad Definitions (Continued)

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Key

Key Color Tan

Function Send - Initiates transmission of stored data to a computer or printer. ID number (Identification Number) - Allows access to several functions related to changing ID numbers. 2nd F - When pressed with a key that has dual functions (the main function written on the key; the secondary function written above the key), the secondary function becomes active.

Tan

Gray

Multiple Keypress Functions Gray Setup Mode - Allows user to modify gage parameters and perform special test functions. Options in the Setup mode include: Measurement B-Scan/DB Grid Avg/Min Measure Temp Compensation Communication Diagnostics Resets Clock Extended Blank - Prevents erroneous measurements from occurring within an extended blank period, which you can set using the waveform display. Recall Setup - Recalls a single element transducer setup.

Yellow

Gray

Yellow Gray

Yellow

Table 3

Keypad Definitions (Continued)

SO

Key

Key Color Gray

Function Fast - Increases the measurement and thickness/ waveform display update rate from 4 per second up to 20 per second.

Yellow Gray Min/Max Measure - Selects Min Meas mode, Max Meas mode, or Default Meas mode.

Yellow

Gray

Yellow

Status - Shows an information screen with the following data: 1) Software version 2) Available memory

Gray

Blue Gray

Temperature - Allows you to enter the current material temperature allowing the gage to compensate for changes in sound velocity using the Temp Compensation feature. Alarm - Views, enables, and allows changing alarm setpoints.

Yellow

Gray

Differential - Views, enables and allows changing the differential reference value.

Yellow

Table 3

Keypad Definitions (Continued)

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Key

Key Color Yellow

Function Calibration Lock - Controls the calibration key lock when you press [6] and [3] simultaneously.

Yellow

Gray

Waveform - Stores a measurement and waveform in the datalogger at the current ID number.

Orange

Gray

Print - Prints an image of the display including the waveform with the current thickness.

Tan

Gray

Note - Allows you to create or select comments to store at an ID number location.

Tan

Gray

Tan

Clear Memory - Acts as an alternative method to erase an entire file. Also used to erase a range of data in a file or a single ID number location.

Gray

Delay - Adjusts the beginning of the waveform display to some other value to help center echoes that are further out in time.

Blue Table 3 Keypad Definitions (Continued)

UO

Key

Key Color Gray

Function Opt - Allows you to input a known thickness of material and the gage automatically optimizes the gain for a D79X dual element transducers.

Orange Table 3 Keypad Definitions (Continued)

2.2

Identifying Display Elements


The gage screen is a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and best viewed from straight above or slightly below the surface rather than from the side. The display may be slower at temperatures below 32oF (0oC). The figure below identifies the various sections of the Model 37DL PLUS display.

File Name ID Location Measurement Marker

Comments/ID number

Delay

Min/Max

Alarm

Measurement Mode/Update Rate

Thickness Date and Time Battery Life

Figure 2

Identifying Display Elements

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Stored Thickness Freeze Flag Zoom Flag Gain Rectification Units MIN Finder

VO

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General Information: The main function of the display is to show the echo waveform and to display the thickness reading received by the transducer as measurements are made. The received echoes are amplified before being shown on the display. The waveform trace is called the A-Scan display. This type of waveform allows a skilled operator to verify that the gage signal being used to make a thickness measurement is the correct backwall echo and not noise, material anomaly, or the second multiple echo. This verification waveform along with all pertinent calibration information can be stored with the thickness value in the internal datalogger. If you are an experienced operator, you can also use the echo waveform to learn more about the quality of the measurement than is given just by the thickness value, which includes observation of indications that may be too small to be measured by the gage. Press [FREEZE] to freeze the display. Adjust the thickness range (horizontal scale) or expand the measured echo by using the Zoom mode. When operating in the Minimum or Maximum Measurement mode, the waveform associated with a minimum or maximum reading is internally captured and recalled to the screen when the transducer is uncoupled. Furthermore, any waveform that is stored in the datalogger memory can be shown on the waveform display for review or comparison to the current measured waveform. Such recalled waveforms may have been recently saved or may have been downloaded from a computer data file. Thickness Display: The top portion of the display shows the current Filename, ID number, Comments, and any previous stored thickness values. The lower part of the display functions as a general purpose thickness measurement display where it acts as a control panel for calibrating and setting up the gage in addition to displaying status conditions, error messages, and warnings. The large characters are used to show numerical values such as thickness and velocity. This area also shows flags that describe the numeric data and/or the gage operating modes, and the battery status.

2.3

Using the Battery Pack


The Model 37DL PLUS gage is powered by an internal 6V battery pack using rechargeable NiCad batteries or 6 AA alkaline batteries. The NiCad battery pack is recharged through the Model 36CA PLUS Charger/AC Adapter unit that is supplied with the gage. The 36CAPLUS does not recharge the alkaline batteries; you must replace the alkaline batteries after discharging. The Model 37DL PLUS can also be operated directly from AC power using the Charger/Adapter. The batteries are fully charged when shipped, but for maximum operating time, recharge before using. Recharge batteries only with the Model 36CA PLUS Charger/Adapter supplied with the gage. Other chargers may reduce battery life and/or damage the battery and void the warranty on the gage. Even a discharged battery maintains the internal stored calibration values and thickness data for several weeks. However, do not leave discharged batteries for long periods of time in order to maintain optimum battery life.

MP

2.4

Monitoring the Battery Charge


The gage operates for at least 25 hours between charges under normal conditions (when FAST mode is off and the backlight is off). The battery charge indicator, or battery status meter, displays the percentage of battery remaining capacity in bottom right hand corner of the display. Remember that if the battery is charged for at least 2 hours, then 99% charge indication corresponds to over 25 hours of operation. However, if the battery is charged for less than 2 hours, then 99% charge indication corresponds to proportionally fewer hours of operation. When there is insufficient battery charge, the gage automatically powers off to prevent damage to the battery. Note: The battery charge indicator shows a rotating bar when the charger is plugged in, however it does not indicate when a full charge is reached. The gage displays a C indicating that the battery is charging. The gage displays a S indicating that charging is complete.

2.5

Charging the Battery Pack


The gage operates for at least 25 hours between charges under normal conditions (4Hz measure update rate in Mode 1 with the Backlight turned off.) The current battery status is always indicated in the lower right corner of the gage display. This indicator shows a percentage of the battery charge remaining. The maximum percentage that can be displayed is 99%. (See Monitoring the Battery Charge on page 31.) When the battery is insufficiently charged, the gage automatically powers off to prevent damage to the battery. Recharge the battery using the Model 36CA PLUS charger. To charge the NiCad battery pack, plug the 36CA PLUS AC Charger Adapter into an appropriate source of AC power, and plug the cable from the Charger/Adapter into the charger socket on the top of the gage. The battery recharges whether the gage is OFF or ON. Do not attempt to use the battery charge indicator to determine when batteries have reached full charge. For a fully discharged battery, allow approximately 2 hours to fully recharge. You can use the gage for normal measurements while the Charger/AC Adapter is connected with little effect on the recharge time.

2.6

Replacing the Battery Pack


After several hundred recharges, the NiCad batteries lose the ability to hold a full charge. To replace an old battery pack with a new battery pack, follow these steps: 1. Open the battery panel on the back of the gage case by loosening the four captive screws. 2. Remove the battery, once the case is open, by gently pulling the black strap at the right end of the battery. 3. Remove the plug that connects the wire from the battery pack to the circuit board of the gage.

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4. Connect the new battery pack, and install with the label side facing outward. 5. Replace the battery panel and tighten the screws. Note: The internal memory is maintained for over an hour when the battery is removed. If a new battery is installed in less than an hour, no calibration or thickness data is lost.

2.7

Using AA Batteries
Non-rechargeable alkaline batteries are available for use with the Model 37DL PLUS. To replace the NiCad Rechargeable batteries with alkaline batteries, follow these steps: 1. Remove the NiCad pack. 2. Insert 6 AA Alkaline batteries into the alkaline battery holder that is provided. 3. Connect the Alkaline battery holder to the gage using the same connector as the NiCad pack. 4. Place the Alkaline holder into the battery compartment. 5. Replace the battery panel and tighten the screws. Note: It is also possible to charge the Nicad battery outside of the Model 37DL PLUS using a special external battery charger adapter. Contact GE Panametrics for more information about external battery charging.

OP

Set Up Calibration with D79X Series Dual Element Transducers


This section demonstrates how to make basic thickness measurements using dual element transducers with the Model 37DL PLUS. The unit ships from the factory set up with default conditions for the transducer(s) you have purchased using an approximate sound velocity for the stainless steel test block provided with the gage. You can change Setups easily after becoming familiar with the more sophisticated features of the gage. The default conditions are selected to facilitate gage usage for your applications. This section contains a detailed explanation of these default conditions. Topics are as follows: Getting Started Making Thickness Measurements Calibrating with Dual Element Transducers Performing a Thru-Coat Calibration

3.1

Getting Started
To setup the Model 37DL PLUS for the first time, use the test block included with the gage and the default settings, and follow these steps: 1. Plug the transducer into the connector on top of the 37DL PLUS case. Note: The transducer cable connector must be positioned with center pin down. When unplugging a transducer, pull ONLY on the molded plug, do NOT pull the cable.

2. Press [ON/OFF] to power on the gage. Do NOT couple the transducer to the test piece yet. The message do appears on the thickness display. This message means that the gage requires the following transducer ZERO compensation steps to automatically compensate for the current transducer delay line length.

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Figure 3

Initial Display Screen

3. Wipe all couplant from the tip of the transducer. 4. Press [ZERO]. The current units are indicated on the right of the thickness display in either inches (IN) or millimeters (MM).

Figure 4

Changing Measurement Units

To change the measurement units, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd], [0] (Setup). 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to select measurement. Press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to select units. 4. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the English or Metric option. 5. Press [MEAS]. You are now ready to make measurements based on the default calibration and settings.

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Note:

The steps above are not a substitute for performing a proper calibration. The default calibration is an approximate calibration for the stainless steel test block included with the gage. Generally, it yields results that are better than 95% accurate. However, for greatest accuracy perform both a velocity and zero calibration for the test material. (See Material Velocity and Zero Calibration on page 36.)

3.2

Making Thickness Measurements


To begin making thickness measurements, follow these steps: 1. Apply couplant to the test block or material at the spot to be measured. In general, smooth material surface allows for using thinner couplants such as propylene glycol, glycerin, or water. Rough surfaces require more viscous couplant such as gel or grease. Special couplants are required for high temperature applications. 2. Press the tip of the transducer to the surface of the test material. Use moderate to firm pressure and keep the transducer as flat as possible on the material surface. 3. Read the material thickness on the thickness display. Note: For highest accuracy, you must perform both a velocity and zero calibration. (See Material Velocity and Zero Calibration on page 36.)

3.3

Calibrating with D79X Series Dual Element Transducers


Calibration is the process of adjusting the gage so that it measures accurately on a particular material, using a known transducer at a given temperature. The Model 37DL PLUS calibration procedure falls into the following three categories: Transducer Zero Compensation: Calibrate for the sound transit time in each of the dual transducer delay lines. This compensation varies in each unit and with temperature. You must perform the Transducer Zero Compensation procedure when the unit is powered on, when the transducer is changed, and when the transducer temperature changes significantly. Material Velocity Calibration (Cal Vel): Perform a Cal Vel using a thick test block of the measured material with known thickness or by entering the previously determined material velocity manually. You must perform this procedure for each new measured material. Zero Calibration (Cal Zero): Perform a Cal Zero using a thin test block of the measured material with known thickness. Unlike the Transducer Zero Compensation and the Cal Vel, this procedure is not required unless you need the best absolute accuracy (better than 0.004" or 0.10mm), and you only need to do it once for each

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new transducer and material combination. You do not have to repeat the Cal Zero when the transducer temperature changes; Transducer Zero Compensation is responsible for that task. (See Transducer Zero Compensation on page 36.)

3.3.1

Transducer Zero Compensation


Perform a Transducer Zero Compensation whenever the message do and the ZERO flag are shown on the thickness display (do ZERO). Additionally, you should also perform this procedure when the transducer temperature has changed significantly. To perform a Transducer Zero Compensation, follow these steps: 1. Wipe any couplant from the transducer face. 2. Press [ZERO]. The new zero calibration value appears briefly before returning to the Measurement mode. The zero calibration value is for reference only; it cannot be directly entered or altered. Note: When measurements are made on surfaces that are significantly above room temperature, the zero should be recalibrated on a regular basis. This is less important for transducers Part Number D790(SM), D791(RM), D797(SM), and D798 than for the remaining transducers that have various types of resin delay lines. Typically, there is very little change in sound transit time in the delays used in D790(SM), D791(RM), D797(SM), and D798 compared with the delays used in the other transducers provided for use with the Model 37DL PLUS.

The frequency that you perform a Zero Compensation procedure depends on the rate of change of the internal temperature of the transducer. This is related to the material surface temperature, frequency of transducer application, length of time the transducer is held in contact with the material, and the accuracy that you want to obtain. For high temperature measurements, GE Panametrics recommends that you develop a schedule for Zero Compensation that takes these factors into account. For example, use the D790(SM), D791(RM), or D797(SM) for high temperature applications, minimizing the frequency of the Zero Compensation. (You can also use the D790(SM) and D791(RM) for general purpose applications.) After Zero Compensation, periodically check the accuracy of the measured thickness by using a test block that is the same material and thickness as the material being tested, and make sure the temperature is also the same.

3.3.2

Material Velocity and Zero Calibration


You can use a thick calibration block and a thin calibration block of the same material when you are performing a Material Velocity and Zero Calibration procedure. Note: You can also achieve a Material Velocity and Zero Calibration procedure by performing the operation in reverse, for example perform a Cal Zero first and then a Cal Vel.

To perform a Material Velocity and Zero Calibration procedure, follow these steps:

SP

1. Wipe any couplant from the transducer face. 2. Press [ZERO]. 3. Couple the transducer to the thick calibration block and press [CAL]. 4. Press [VEL] when the thickness reading is stable. 5. Uncouple the transducer and enter the thickness of the thick block using the numeric keypad. 6. Couple the transducer to the thin block and press [CAL]. 7. Press [ZERO] when the reading is stable. 8. Uncouple the transducer and enter the thickness of the thin block using the numeric keypad. 9. Press [MEAS/RESET] to complete the calibration and go to the Measurement mode. Note: If there is a long-beep from the gage before returning to the Measurement mode and Calibration Error Message appears on the display, then an error occurred in the calibration procedure the velocity will NOT be changed. It is probable that the thickness value entered was incorrect.

3.3.2.1

Material Velocity Calibration of a Material of Unknown Sound Velocity


To perform the Material Velocity Calibration, you must use a calibration block made from the same test material to be measured. The test block should be as thick as the thickest section that you are going to measure. Also, make sure the test block is smooth and has parallel front and back surfaces. The thickness of the block must be known exactly. To perform a Material Velocity Calibration, follow these steps: 1. Wipe any couplant from the transducer face. 2. Press [ZERO]. 3. Couple the transducer to the block and press [CAL]. 4. Press [VEL] when the thickness reading is stable. The gage will not accept [VEL] if the LOS flag is enabled, which indicates an inadequate transducer signal level. 5. Uncouple the transducer and enter the thickness of the standard using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 6. Press [MEAS/RESET] to complete the calibration and return to Measurement mode. If you power off the gage before pressing [MEAS/RESET], the velocity will NOT be updated to the new value; instead the gage will retain the previous current value.

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Note:

If there is a long-beep from the gage before returning to the Measurement mode and Calibration Error Message appears on the display, then an error occurred in the calibration procedure the velocity will NOT be changed. It is probable that the thickness value entered was incorrect.

You can press [VEL] following a Velocity Calibration (or at any time from the Measurement mode) in order to read and record the material velocity for the material. When measuring to this material in the future, you can enter this velocity directly from the keyboard without using the test block. Note: Sound velocity in all materials changes with temperature. For maximum accuracy, the calibration block should be at approximately the same temperature as the samples to be measured unless you are using the temperature compensation feature.

3.3.2.2

Enter a Known Material Sound Velocity


When preparing to measure a different material of known sound velocity, you can enter the velocity directly without doing a Cal Vel procedure. To enter material velocity when the velocity is known, follow these steps: 1. Press [VEL] from the Measurement mode. The current velocity appears. 2. Enter the new velocity using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 3. Press [MEAS/RESET] to complete the entry and return to the Measurement mode. If you power off the gage before pressing [MEAS/RESET], the velocity will NOT be updated to the new value; instead the gage will retain the previous current value.

3.3.3

Zero Calibration
You must use a calibration block of the material to be measured when preparing to do a Zero Calibration. The block should be as thin as the thinnest section of the test material to be measured. If the surface of the test material to be inspected is rough, then roughen the surface of the calibration block to simulate the actual surface to be measured. Rough surfaces generally reduce the accuracy of measurements, but simulating actual surface conditions on the calibration block can help to improve results. The exact thickness of the sample must be known. To perform a Zero Calibration, follow these steps: 1. Wipe any couplant from the transducer face. 2. Press [ZERO]. 3. Couple the transducer to the test block. 4. Press [CAL].

UP

5. Press [ZERO] when the thickness reading is stable. The gage will not accept [ZERO] if the LOS thickness display flag is enabled, which indicates an inadequate transducer signal. 6. Uncouple the transducer and enter the thickness of the standard using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 7. Press [MEAS/RESET] to complete the calibration and return to the Measurement mode. If you power off the gage before pressing [MEAS/RESET], the velocity will NOT be updated to the new value; instead the gage will retain the previous current value. Note: If there is a long-beep from the gage before returning to the Measurement mode and Calibration Error Message appears on the display, then an error occurred in the calibration procedure the velocity will NOT be changed. It is probable that the thickness value entered was incorrect.

3.4

Performing a Thru-Coat Calibration Using D7906 and D7908 Transducers


Thru-Coat is a special feature that measures the true metal thickness of coated or paint materials. This feature only requires a single back wall echo and is recommended for applications on heavy corrosion where the outside of the material is painted. The ThruCoat feature is available with D7906 and D7908 transducers only. When you power up the unit with a Thru-Coat transducer or change to one of the ThruCoat transducers, the gage prompts you with a message Zero DO. To setup Thru-Coat parameters, follow these steps: 1. Wipe the couplant from the transducer face. 2. Press [Zero]. The Thru-Coat Setup dialog box opens.

THRU COAT SETUP

OK

CANCEL

Figure 5

Opening the Thru-Coat Setup Dialog Box ] to select On or Off from the Thru-Coat Enable option. Press

3. Press [ ] or [ [ENTER].

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THRU COAT ENABLE COATING THK DISPLAY

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ON ON

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4. Press [ ] or [ [ENTER].

] to select On or Off from the Coating THK Display option. Press

On: Displays the material thickness and the Coating thickness at the same time. Off: Ignores the thickness of the coating, displaying the true metal thickness. 5. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the OK button. Press [ENTER]. The gage enters the Thru-Coat Measurement screen and is ready to take thickness measurements.

3.4.1

Thru-Coat (Material Only) Calibration


Use the steps below if you chose to not show the coating thickness or if you want to use a default velocity value for the coating. We recommend that you perform the Thru-Coat (Material and Coating) Calibration in order to achieve the best accuracy of the coating thickness. To perform a Thru-Coat (Material only) calibration, follow these steps: 1. Couple the transducer to a thick calibration block. Press [CAL] while you are in the Thru-Coat Measurement mode. 2. Press [VEL] when the reading is stable. 3. Uncouple the transducer from the material and enter the thickness of the block using the numeric keypad. 4. Couple the transducer to a thin calibration block. Press [CAL]. 5. Press [ZERO] when the reading is stable. 6. Uncouple the transducer from the material and enter the thickness of the block using the numeric keypad. 7. Press [MEAS] to complete the calibration.

3.4.2

Thru-Coat (Material and Coating) Calibration


Use the steps below if you chose to show the coating thickness and want to calibrate for the sound velocity of the coating. This calibration provides the best accuracy of the coating and material thickness. Note: This calibration requires two samples of known thickness of the material to be tested and a coated sample where the coating thickness is known.

To perform a Thru-Coat (Material and Coating) calibration, follow these steps: 1. Couple the transducer to a thick calibration block. Press [CAL] while in the ThruCoat Measurement mode. 2. Press [VEL] when the reading is stable. 3. Uncouple the transducer from the material and enter the thickness of the block using the numeric keypad.

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4. Couple to the transducer to a thin calibration block. Press [CAL]. 5. Press [ZERO] when the reading is stable. 6. Uncouple the transducer from the material and enter the thickness of the block using the numeric keypad. Press [CAL]. 7. Couple the transducer to a coated sample when the reading is steady and press [VEL]. 8. Uncouple the transducer and enter the thickness of the coating using the numeric keypad. 9. Press [MEAS] to complete the calibration.

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Setting Up and Calibrating with EMAT Transducers


This section provides background information regarding EMAT transducers and how to make basic thickness measurements using the 37DL PLUS and the E110-SB transducer. An EMAT (Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) uses the Magnetostrictive Principle to generate shear wave sound energy in ferrous metals that are externally coated with high temperature oxide scale. The E110-SB transducer will not work on nonferrous metal or in cases where the external surface is not coated with oxide scale. The EMAT transducer uses the external scale to generate shear wave sound energy and does not require the use of ultrasonic couplant. If the scale is not fully bonded to the surface of the steel, the shear wave sound energy will not be transmitted into the wall. The EMAT transducer is an effective way of determining the estimated thickness of steel boiler tubes without removing the external scale. Initial thickness measurements with an EMAT transducer can determine if the wall is already below its specified minimum thickness, thus saving the time that would have been spent removing the external oxide from a boiler tube that will ultimately be replaced. The EMAT transducer creates a non-focused signal and is designed to give a good estimate of the remaining (+/-0.010 or +/-0.25 mm) wall thickness. Because of the nonfocused nature of the transducer, it is relatively insensitive to small internal pits. The minimum thickness measurement capability of the 37DL PLUS and EMAT transducer is approximately 0.080 (2.0mm) depending on material properties. Removing the external oxide and using a standard single or dual element transducer will always provide a more accurate thickness measurement of remaining metal than measurements made with an EMAT transducer. Focused dual element transducers are also more sensitive to any internal pitting.

4.1

Getting Started
1. To use the E110-SB EMAT transducer with the 37DL PLUS, the user must employ a special 1/2XA/E110 filter adapter box. The 1/2XA/E110 filter adapter must be connected to the transducer connectors located at the top of the 37DL PLUS. The E110-SB can then be connected to the 1/2XA/E110 adapter box using a standard Lemo to BNC cable (part number LCB-74-4). 2. Connect the transducer and filter adapter as shown in Figure 6. 3. Press [On/Off] to power on the gage. 4. The E110-SB EMAT transducer is now ready to make thickness measurements on steel material with high temperature oxide scale using the default transducer setup. For best accuracy it is recommended that the 37DL PLUS be calibrated using samples with external scale and known wall thicknesses.

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Figure 6

Transducer and Filter Adapter Connection

4.2

Calibration with the E110-SB EMAT Transducer


Calibration is the adjustment of the gage so that it measures accurately on a particular material.

4.2.1

Material Velocity and Zero Calibration


The default velocity and zero offset for the E110-SB EMAT transducer are designed to provide a good estimate of the ferrous metal thickness underneath an external oxide scale coating. In order to achieve the best accuracy, calibration samples with external oxide scale should be made from the material to be tested. These samples should have a metal of known thickness (not including external oxide scale) and should represent the minimum and maximum of your measurement range. To perform a material velocity and zero calibration, follow these steps: 1. Couple the EMAT transducer to your thick sample with external oxide scale and a known metal wall thickness. Press [CAL]. 2. When the thickness reading is stable, press [VEL]. The gage will not accept [VEL] if the LOS flag is enabled, which indicates an inadequate transducer signal level.

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3. Uncouple the transducer and enter the known thickness of the standard using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 4. Couple the EMAT transducer to your thin sample with external oxide scale and a known metal wall thickness and press [CAL] 5. Press [ZERO] when the thickness reading is stable. The gage will not accept [ZERO] if the LOS flag is enabled, which indicates an inadequate transducer signal level. 6. Uncouple the transducer and enter the known thickness of the standard using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 7. Press [MEAS/RESET] to complete the calibration and return to Measurement Mode. If you power off the gage before pressing [MEAS/RESET], the velocity and zero will NOT be updated to the new values; instead, the gage will retain the previous current value. Note: If there is a long-beep from the gage before returning to the Measurement Mode and Calibration Error Message appears on the display, then an error occurred in the calibration procedure.

Note:

You can press [VEL] following a velocity calibration (or at any time from the Measurement mode) to read and record the material velocity for the material. When measuring this material in the future, you can enter the velocity directly from the keyboard without using the test block.

Note:

Sound velocity in all materials changes with temperature. For maximum accuracy, the calibration block should be at approximately the same temperature as the samples to be measured unless you are employing temperature compensation.

4.2.2

Material Velocity of a Material of Unknown Sound Velocity


Use the following procedure to measure the material velocity of a material of unknown sound velocity: 1. Couple the EMAT transducer to your thickness sample with external oxide scale and a known metal wall thickness. 2. Press [CAL]. 3. Press [VEL] when the thickness reading is stable. The gage will not accept [VEL] if the LOS flag is enabled, which indicates an inadequate transducer signal level.

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4. Uncouple the transducer and enter the known thickness of the standard using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to complete the calibration and return to Measurement Mode. If you power off the gage before pressing [MEAS/RESET], the velocity and zero will NOT be updated to the new values; instead, the gage will retain the previous current value. Note: If there is a long beep from the gage before returning to Measurement Mode and Calibration Error Message appears on the display, then an error occurred in the calibration procedure.

Note:

You can press [VEL] following a velocity calibration (or at any time from the Measurement mode) to read and record the material velocity for the material. When measuring this material in the future, you can enter this velocity directly from the keyboard without using the test block.

Note:

Sound velocity in all materials changes with temperature. For maximum accuracy, the calibration block should be at approximately the same temperature as the samples to be measured unless you are employing temperature compensation.

4.2.3

Entering a Known Material Sound Velocity


When preparing to measure a different material of known sound velocity, you can enter the velocity directly without employing the CAL VEL procedure: 1. Press [VEL] from Measurement mode. The current velocity appears. 2. Enter the new velocity using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 3. Press [MEAS/RESET] to complete the entry and return to Measurement mode. If you power off the gage before pressing [MEAS/RESET], the velocity will NOT be updated to the new value; instead, the gage will retain the previous current value.

4.2.4

Zero Calibration
You must use a calibration block of the material to be measured that is coated with external oxide scale when doing a Zero Calibration. The block should be as thin as the thinnest section of the test material to be measured. The exact thickness of the metal under the oxide coating must be known. Use the following procedure:

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1. Couple the EMAT transducer to your thin sample with external oxide scale and a known metal wall thickness. 2. Press [CAL]. 3. Press [ZERO] when the thickness reading is stable. The gage will not accept [ZERO] if the LOS flag is enabled, which indicates an inadequate transducer signal level. 4. Uncouple the transducer and enter the known thickness of the standard using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to complete the calibration and return to Measurement Mode. If you power off the gage before pressing [MEAS/RESET], the velocity and zero will NOT be updated to the new values; instead, the gage will retain the previous current value. Note: If there is a long beep from the gage before returning to Measurement Mode and Calibration Error Message appears on the display, then an error occurred in the calibration procedure.

4.2.5

Making Adjustments to the Transducer Parameters When Using the E110-SB EMAT Transducer
When used with the E110-SB and 1/2XA/E110 filter adapter, the 37DL PLUS will automatically recall the default setup DEF-EMAT/E110 from the default single element transducer list. This is a special single element transducer setup that allows the transducer parameters to be changed in two ways: 1. Full control of all the transducer parameters : To have full access to all transducer adjustments, the user can employ the Setup Adjust function. This function allows adjustment of all transducer parameters in the same manner as with any single element transducers (using [2nd F], [2](SETUP ADJ). Refer to Setup Adjust and Save Setup Parameters for more information on making changes and storing custom setups. Note: Adjustments to the single element transducer parameters should be made only by a qualified technician familiar with the basic theory of ultrasonic gaging and the interpretation of ultrasonic waveforms.

2. Control over the Gain and Extended blank: In most cases, it is not necessary to make changes to most of the transducer parameters. It is however likely that the Gain and Extended Blank may need to be adjusted to make proper EMAT transducer thickness measurements. From Measurement mode, the user can make adjustments to the Gain and Extended Blank in the same manner as with any of the D79X Dual element transducers.

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Set Up and Calibration with Single Element Transducers


This section demonstrates how to make basic thickness measurements using single element transducers with the Model 37DL PLUS. The unit ships from the factory with default settings for the transducer(s) you have purchased using an approximate sound velocity for the stainless steel test block provided with the gage. You can change setups easily after becoming familiar with the more sophisticated features of the gage. The default conditions are selected to facilitate gage usage for your applications. This section contains a detailed explanation of these default conditions. Topics are as follows: Getting Started Making Thickness Measurements Choosing a Default or User-Defined Setup Calibrating with Single Element Transducers Adjusting the Range Operating the Delay Function Operating the Zoom Mode

5.1

Getting Started
To setup the Model 37DL PLUS for the first time, use the test block included with the gage and the default settings, and follow these steps: 1. Plug the single element transducer cable into the transducer connector (labelled #1 in the figure below) on top of the Model 37DL PLUS case.

Charger

RS-232

Display Side

Figure 7

Viewing the Model 37DL PLUS Transducer Connectors

2. Connect the transducer to the other end of the cable if it is not already connected. 3. Press [ON/OFF] to power on the gage.

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#1 Used for Single Element Transducers #2 Used with Dual Element Transducers

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Figure 8

Initial Display Screen

The current units are indicated on the right of the thickness display in either inches (IN) or millimeters (MM). The gage is now ready to make measurements based on the default settings and the test block provided with the gage. Note: The procedure mentioned above is not a substitute for doing a proper calibration.

5.2

Choosing a Default or User-Defined Setup


The Model 37DL PLUS uses a wide variety of transducers through the Application Recall feature. Stored within the gage are 16 pre-defined and 10 user-defined application setups that provide maximum flexibility for a wide range of applications. The pre-defined setups always remain in the gage as defaults and cannot be removed. This section discusses how to choose an appropriate stored transducer setup and how to calibrate the Model 37DL PLUS for a specific application. To select a stored transducer setup, follow these steps: 1. Select a transducer for the desired application and connect it to the gage. Note: See Appendix B - Technical Specifications on page 225 to determine an appropriate transducer. See Table 14 on page 233; use it as a guideline only because exact thickness ranges vary depending on the application.

2. While the gage is in the Measurement mode, press [2nd F], [3] (RECALL SU).

MR

Figure 9

Selecting a Stored Transducer Setup

3. Press [ ] and [ ] to scroll through the available stored setups until the correct setup for the application is highlighted. Below is an example of a default setup naming convention and a complete list of available stored setup choices: D E F M 1 - 2 0 . 0 / M 1 1 6
Default Mode: Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3

Material: M-Metal P-Plastic

Figure 10

Naming Convention Sample

Available stored setup choices: ACTIVE DEF1-20.0/M116 DEF1-10.0/M112 DEF1-5.0/M110 DEF1-5.0/M109 DEF1-2.25/M106 DEF1-2.25/M1036 DEFM2-15.0/V260 DEFM3-15.0/V260 DEFM2-20.0/M208

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DEFM3-10.0/M208 DEFM2-10.0/M202 DEFM3-10.0/M202 DEFM2-5.0/M201 DEFM3-5.0/M201 DEFM2-5.0/M206 DEFM2-2.25/M207 USER -1 USER-2 USER-3 USER-10 Note: You can rename the setups listed as USER-1 through USER-10 for special applications. (See Custom Setups for Single Element Transducers on page 185.)

4. Press [MEAS/RESET] once the correct setup is highlighted. This action automatically recalls the setup parameters for the chosen setup and brings you back to the Measure screen. 5. Begin taking measurements.

5.3

Making Thickness Measurements


To begin making thickness measurements, follow these steps: 1. Apply couplant to the test block or material at the location to be measured. In general, smooth material surfaces allow the use of thinner couplants such as propylene glycol, glycerin, or water. Rough surfaces require more viscous couplant such as gel or grease. See Appendix E - Data Output Format on page 243 for a list of available couplants. 2. Press the transducer to the surface of the material to be measured. Use moderate to firm pressure and keep the transducer as flat as possible on the material surface. 3. Read the material thickness on the gage display.

OR

Figure 11

Reading Thickness Measurement

Note:

For highest accuracy, you must perform both a velocity and zero calibration. (See Velocity and Zero Calibration on page 54.)

5.4

Calibrating with Single Element Transducers


Calibration is the process of adjusting the gage prior to testing to a known reference value for a specific material and transducer. Calibrating the gage is always necessary before measuring specific material by one of the methods described below. Remember, the gages measurement accuracy is only as good as the calibration that is performed. The Model 37DL PLUS calibration procedure falls into one of the following three categories: Velocity and Zero Calibration Velocity Calibration Only Zero Calibration Only

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Note:

This note is applicable for the following three sections beginning on page 54, page 55, and page 56. If a mistake is made or any problem is experienced during the calibration, press [MEAS/RESET] and return to Step 1. After completing Step 2, if the prompt CAL LOCK appears on the bottom of the display instead of CAL, then unlock the calibration by following the steps below: - Press [MEAS/RESET]. - Press [6] and [3] simultaneously. - The gage will beep and display a message, CAL LOCK is off at the bottom of the gage. - Repeat steps 1 and 2.

Caution: Save all changes made to Active Setups. Unsaved data will be lost when a different application setup is recalled.

5.4.1

Velocity and Zero Calibration


Velocity and Zero Calibration find both sound velocity and zero offset when you do not know either of these elements. This calibration process requires two pieces of test material of known thickness values, which are within the measurement range of both the transducer and setup specifications. See Table 14 on page 233 for more information. One of the test materials must be thicker than the other. The thicker piece, used to measure velocity, should be equal to or greater than the upper range of thickness to be measured. The thinner piece, used for the zero offset, should be equal to or less than the lower range of minimum thickness to be measured. To calibrate for the thickness range represented by these test samples, follow these steps: 1. Power on the gage and wait for the Measure screen display. 2. Place a drop of couplant on the surface of the thicker material sample, and couple the transducer to the sample using moderate to firm pressure. A thickness reading appears on the display while the LOS prompt in the upper right corner of the display disappears. 3. Press [CAL] when a stable reading is on the display and the LOS prompt is not on the screen. Observe the CAL (calibration) prompt on the display. 4. Remain coupled to the standard test piece and ensure that there is still a stable reading on the display. Press [VEL]. A prompt appears on the display: Enter value for thick standard. 5. Remove the transducer from the sample. The thickness value remains on the display.

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6. Using the numeric keys on the gage, enter the actual known thickness of the test material. Continue with the following steps: 1. Put a drop of couplant onto the thin material sample and couple the transducer to it using moderate to firm pressure. 2. Press [CAL]. A thickness reading appears on the display. 3. Remain coupled to the test piece and ensure that there is a stable reading on the display. Press [ZERO]. A prompt appears on the display: Enter value for this sample. 4. Remove the transducer from the sample. The thickness value remains on the display. 5. Using the numeric keys, enter the actual known thickness of the test material. 6. Press [MEAS/RESET] to finalize the calibration. Note: You can Lock the calibrated readings to ensure that it is not accidentally changed. (See Managing the Calibration Lock on page 81.) From the Measurement mode, press [3] and [6] simultaneously. The gage displays a message: CAL LOCK is on....

5.4.2

Velocity Calibration Only


Use the Velocity Calibration Only procedure when the gage is calibrated for a particular transducer/material combination, and that same transducer is used with a different material and sound velocity. The procedure requires test material of known thickness, equal to or greater than the upper range of thickness to be measured. To calibrate for the thickness range represented by this test sample, follow these steps: 1. Power on the gage and wait for the Measure screen display. Make sure the correct single element transducer setup is recalled. 2. Place a drop of couplant on the surface of the test material, and couple the transducer to the sample using moderate to firm pressure. A thickness reading appears on the display while the LOS prompt in the right corner of the display disappears. 3. Press [CAL] when a stable reading is on the display and the LOS prompt is off. The gage displays a message: Couple to standard; press VEL or ZERO. 4. Remain coupled to the test piece and ensure that there is still a stable reading on the display. Press [VEL]. A prompt appears on the display: Enter value for thick standard. 5. Remove the transducer from the sample. The thickness value remains on the display. 6. Use the numeric keys to enter the actual known thickness of the sample being measured. 7. Press [MEAS/RESET] to finalize calibration.

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Note:

You can LOCK the calibrated readings to ensure that it is not accidentally changed. (See Managing the Calibration Lock on page 81.) From the Measurement mode, press [3] and [6] simultaneously. The gage displays a message: CAL LOCK is on....

If the sound velocity of the test material is known, then enter the velocity directly. To enter a known velocity, follow these steps: 1. Turn the gage on and wait for the Measure screen. 2. Press [VEL]. The Velocity prompt appears and the gage displays the current sound velocity. 3. Use the numeric keys to enter the new velocity. 4. Press [MEAS/RESET].

5.4.3

Zero Calibration Only


Use the Zero Calibration Only procedure when the gage is calibrated for a particular transducer/material combination, but the transducer is replaced and the test material remains the same. (See Choosing a Default or User-Defined Setup on page 50 if a transducer is changed to a different type of transducer after calibrating.) The Zero Calibration Only procedure requires test material of known thickness, preferably near the lower end of the desired measurement range, but not below the gages minimum measurement range for both the transducer and setup specifications. To calibrate for the thickness range represented by this test sample, follow these steps: 1. Power on the gage and wait for the Measure screen display. Make sure the correct single element transducer setup is recalled. 2. Place a drop of couplant on the surface of the material sample, and couple the transducer to the sample using moderate to firm pressure. A thickness reading appears on the display while the LOS prompt in the right corner of the display disappears. 3. When a stable reading is on the display and the LOS prompt is off, press [CAL]. The gage displays a message: Couple to standard; press VEL or ZERO. 4. Remain coupled to the test piece and ensure that there is still a stable reading on the display. Press [ZERO]. A prompt appears on the display: Enter value for thin standard. 5. Remove the transducer from the sample. The thickness value remains on the display. 6. Use the numeric keys to enter the actual known thickness of the sample being measured. 7. Press [MEAS/RESET] to finalize the calibration.

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Note:

You can LOCK the calibrated readings to ensure that it is not accidentally changed. (See Managing the Calibration Lock on page 81.) From the Measurement mode, press [3] and [6] simultaneously. The gage displays a message: CAL LOCK is on....

If you know the zero offset number for a particular transducer, enter it directly. See Velocity and Zero Calibration on page 54 to determine the zero number for a given transducer and calibrate the gage according to the procedure (See Zero Calibration Only on page 56 also.) Press [ZERO] to read the zero offset number. Record this number for each probe for future reference. Note: You must use the same transducer cable lengths in order to maintain accuracy of the zero offset number recorded for each probe. This rule is especially true when using cable lengths over 10 ft. (approximately 3 Meters).

To enter a known zero offset number, follow these steps: 1. Power on the gage and wait for the Measure screen display. 2. Press [ZERO]. The gage displays the prompt: Enter value for zero. The gage displays the zero offset number to which it is presently calibrated. 3. Use the numeric keys to enter the new zero offset. 4. Press [MEAS/RESET] to enter the new zero offset into the gage. 5. Insert oxide.

5.5

Adjusting the Range


The range of the waveform display is the distance spanned by the horizontal axis of the display in the non Zoom mode. (See Operating the Zoom Mode on page 58.) The left end of the horizontal-axis is always zero thickness, and the right end is the thickness representing the endpoint of the range unless the delay is adjusted. There are fixed ranges available for each transducer frequency. The available ranges are also material velocity dependent. These selectable ranges let you adjust the thickness span of the waveform display to encompass only the thickness range being measured and thus obtain maximum waveform resolution for each application. The range setting affects the waveform display only. You can still make measurements even when the display range does not encompass the thickness being measured. To change the range at any time the display is active, follow these steps: 1. Press [RANGE]. The waveform range changes to the next higher available range. 2. Continue to press [RANGE] until the desired range is obtained. The range value recycles to the minimum range value following the maximum range value.

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5.6

Operating the Delay Function


The Range Delay of the waveform display adjusts the beginning of the horizontal span in the non Zoom mode. The left end of the horizontal axis is normally set to zero thickness. The Delay function allows you to adjust the left end of the horizontal axis so the waveform can be centred over a portion of the waveform that occurs later in time. This function is very useful when using delay line or immersion transducers, or when measuring thick material so that the measured echoes can be seen in greater detail. To operate the Delay function, follow these steps: 1. Press [2ndF], [Range] (DELAY). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to adjust the waveform Delay.

Figure 12

Displaying the Waveform Delay

Note:

Press and hold the [RANGE] key to reset the delay to 0.00.

5.7

Operating the Zoom Mode


The Zoom mode allows the thickness region surrounding the measured echoes to expand to full screen width. The resulting zoomed waveform depends on the Measurement mode that the gage is using. The zoom adjusts the Range and Delay so the measured echoes are on screen are shown in the greatest detail. The Zoom mode also tracks the measured echoes adjusting the Range and Delay automatically, always keeping the measured echoes on the waveform screen.

5.7.1

Zoom for D79X Dual Element Transducers and Mode 1 Single Element Transducers
Zoom for D79X Dual Element transducers and Mode 1 Single Element transducers centers the first backwall echo on the screen.

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Figure 13

Comparing Normal Display to Zoom in Mode 1

5.7.2

Zoom with Single Element Transducers in Mode 2


Zoom with Single Element transducers in Mode 2 adjusts the Waveform Range and Delay so that the interface echo and first backwall echo are shown on the Waveform screen.

Figure 14

Comparing Normal Display to Zoom in Mode 2

Note:

In the Zoom mode, the gage automatically adjusts the Range and Delay to track the Interface and first backwall echo. If you adjust the Range, the gage remains at the selected Range and automatically adjusts the Delay to track the interface echo.

5.7.3

Zoom with Single Element Transducers in Mode 3


Zoom with Single Element transducers in Mode 3 adjusts the Waveform Range and Delay so that the interface echo and second measured backwall echoes are shown on the Waveform screen.

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Not Zoomed Figure 15 Comparing Normal Display to Zoom in Mode 3

Zoomed

Note:

In Zoom mode, the gage automatically adjusts the Range and Delay to track the Interface and second backwall echo. If you adjust the Range, the gage remains at the selected Range and automatically adjusts the Delay to track the interface echo.

MS

Setting Up and Calibrating the 37DL PLUS for the Measurement of Boiler Tubes and Internal Oxide Scale Measurement
This section provides background information regarding the measurement of boiler tubes and internal oxide scale. This optional feature allows the user to measure both the thickness of the boiler tube and the thickness of the internal oxide scale at the same time. Both thickness values can be stored in the internal datalogger and uploaded to the WIN37DLPLUS interface program.

6.1

Steam Boiler Tube Scale


The very high temperatures found inside steam boilers (in excess of 1000o Fahrenheit or 500o Celsius) can cause the formation of a specific type of hard, brittle iron oxide called magnetite on the inside and outside surfaces of steel boiler tubing. At very high temperatures, water vapor will react with the iron in the steel to form magnetite and hydrogen according to the formula: 3 Fe + 4 H20 = Fe3O4 + 4 H2. The speed of this reaction increases with temperature. Oxygen atoms will diffuse inward through the magnetite layer, and iron atoms will diffuse outward, so that scale continues to grow even after the tube surface is completely covered. Magnetite scale acts as thermal insulation on the pipe, since the thermal conductivity of scale is approximately 3% that of steel. When heat no longer radiates efficiently from the flame through the tube and into the steam within, the tube wall heats to temperatures beyond intended operating range. Long term exposure to overly high temperatures, combined with the very high pressure inside the tube, leads to intergranular microcracking in the metal and to creep deformation (slow swelling or bulging of the metal), which in turn eventually leads to tube failure. The growth of magnetite scale and associated metal damage are primary limiting factors for boiler tube service life. The process begins slowly and then accelerates, for as the scale grows thicker, the tube wall becomes hotter, which in turn increases the rate of both scale growth and metal damage. Studies in the power generation industry indicate that the effect of scale is relatively insignificant up to thicknesses of approximately 0.012" or 0.3 mm, but that beyond that thickness, the negative effects of scale increase rapidly. Measurement of scale thickness allows a plant operator to estimate remaining tube service life and to identify and replace tubes that are approaching the failure point. Ultrasonic testing with instruments such as the GE Panametrics Model 37DL PLUS provides a quick and nondestructive method for measuring scale. The 37DL Plus is designed to measure the thickness of metal boiler tubes and the thickness of oxide scale that has built up on the inside. The figure below shows the correct ultrasonic signals using the single element transducer default setup DEF-OXIDE/M2017.

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Note:

To achieve accurate boiler tube and internal oxide scale thickness readings, it is important that the external surface of the boiler tube be free of external oxide scale.

Figure 16

Steel/Oxide Echo

The gage will make a standard Mode 2 measurement from the delay line echo (surface of the boiler tube) to the echo from the inside of the oxide layer (total back wall echo). When in Oxide Layer mode, the gage will center the data window on the detected total back wall echo and then search for the steel/oxide interface echo in the data window. An oxide echo marker will indicate the detected steel/oxide interface echo. The gage will calculate the time of flight for the sound travel through the steel boiler tube and the time of flight through the internal oxide layer. The gage uses these time measurements to calculate the thickness of the steel and the thickness of the oxide. The unit can be calibrated to use two different sound velocities for each of these measurements. In the setup menu for the Oxide Layer option, the user can display the thickness of the material and oxide layer in thickness units (in./mm) or in time of fight (sec). The minimum internal oxide thickness that the 37DL PLUS can measure is approximately 0.010 (0.25mm) depending on the material sound velocity. The 37DL PLUS will display only the thickness of the steel boiler tube if the internal oxide scale thickness is below the minimum measurement capability or if it is exfoliated (disbonded) from the inside of the boiler tube. The figure below shows a waveform from a sample in which the internal oxide layer is disbonded from the boiler tube. Because the oxide is disbonded, sound energy will not travel into the internal oxide layer, and a single reflected echo from the inside of the boiler tube will be shown. The waveform when the internal oxide is thinner than 0.010 (0.25mm) will look almost identical. The steel/oxide interface will be so close in time to the echo from the inside of the oxide that it cannot be separated from the total back wall echo and will produce a single echo.

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Figure 17

6.2

Activating the Internal Oxide Software


If the Internal Oxide option is purchase with a new 37DL PLUS, then the optional software will already be loaded and activated on the unit. When this feature is activated, a selection for Oxide Measurement will appear in the SP Mode selection menu as shown below:

Figure 18

Contact your local GE Panametrics representative for information on how to purchase the optional internal oxide software. If the software was purchased after the unit was initially supplied, then the 37DL PLUS will need to be upgraded with the internal oxide software, and the feature will have to be activated using a unique license name and license name code system.

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Disbonded Oxide Layer Waveform

SP Mode

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Each 37DL PLUS will generate a unique license name. To activate the internal oxide feature, the user must enter a valid license code. Contact GE Panametrics or our local GE Panametrics representative to obtain a valid license code for the license name. This license code is not valid for any other 37DL PLUS unit. After the internal oxide software is upgraded to the instrument, you can activate the software through the following procedure: 1. Press [2ndF], [0] (SETUP). The SP mode selection menu will be displayed.

2. Use the [ ] or [ ] keys to highlight the Licensed Options selection and press [ENTER]. The Licensed Options screen will be displayed. 3. Enter the License Code provided by GE Panametrics in the license code entry box. Press [ENTER]. 4. Use the [ and ] keys to select DONE or CANCEL and press [ENTER]. Selecting DONE will activate the software feature and return you to the Measure mode. Selecting CANCEL will exit the software activation screen and return you to the Measure screen without activating the optional software. The gage will issue an error message stating that an incorrect license code has been entered. 5. Turn the gage off and then back on again to complete the software activation.

6.3

Getting Started
Once the Internal Oxide software is loaded and activated, you are ready to start making boiler tube and internal oxide thickness measurements, employing the following procedure: 1. Connect the M2017 or the transducer to a LCM-74-4 cable. Plug the cable into the single element transducer connector (#1 below) on top of the Model 37DL PLUS case.

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Figure 19

2. Press [ON/OFF] to power on the gage. 3. Choose the default setup DEF-OXIDE/M2017 or a stored transducer setup for the transducer you plan to use. While the gage is in Measurement mode, press [2nd F], [3] (RECALL SU). 4. Press [ ] and [ ] to scroll through the available stored setups until the correct setup for the application is highlighted and then press the [MEAS] key. You are now ready to make measurements with the recalled setup. For the best accuracy, it is recommend that a Velocity and Zero Calibration be performed on samples with known boiler tube thickness and known internal oxide scale thickness.

6.3.1

Oxide Measure Setup Menu


The Oxide Measure Setup menu for the 37DL PLUS allows the user to select the measurement units (Thickness or Time of Flight) and the format of the measurements on the Oxide Measurement screen. 1. From the Standard Measure screen, press [2nd F], [0],(Setup). The SP Mode selection menu will be displayed.

Figure 20

2. Use the [ ] and [ ] keys to highlight Oxide Measure and press [ENTER]. The Oxide Measure setup screen will be displayed.

Figure 21

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Viewing the Model 37DL PLUS Transducer Connectors

SP Mode Selection Menu

Oxide Measure Setup Screen

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3. Use the and [ ] keys to highlight the setting and the [ and parameters. The table below displays values for the figure above:
Oxide Meas Type Material Meas Type Large Font Meas THK: Oxide measurement in thickness units. THK: Boiler tube measurement in thickness units. OXIDE: Measurement for the oxide (in large font size) on the Measurement display.

] keys to change

TOF: Oxide measurement in time units (sec). TOF: Boiler tube measurement in time units (sec). MATERIAL: Measurement for the Material (Boiler Tube) (in large font size) on the Measurement display.

Table 4

Oxide Measure Setup Screen

4. Press [MEAS] to return to the Oxide Measure screen with selected settings.

6.4

Calibration for the Boiler Tube and Internal Oxide Thickness Measurements
Calibration is a process of adjusting the gage so that it measures accurately on a tested material.

6.4.1

Material Velocity, Zero and Oxide Velocity Calibration


The default velocity and zero offset for the DEF-OXIDE/M2017 setup are designed to provide a good estimate of the metal boiler tube and internal oxide scale thickness. To achieve the best accuracy, the 37DL PLUS needs to be calibrated on samples with known thickness values. This calibration is done in three steps: 1. Cal Velocity for the boiler tube thickness. 2. Cal Zero for the boiler tube thickness. 3. Cal Velocity for the internal oxide thickness. This allows the 37DL PLUS to calculate a velocity and zero offset for the boiler tube measurement and a velocity for the internal oxide. The calibration for the boiler tube thickness is done on steel samples where the thicknesses of the samples are known and represent the minimum and maximum of your measurement range. The velocity calibration for the internal oxide is done using a sample of boiler tube where the thickness

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of the internal oxide is known. When the calibration is completed, the gage will store two different velocity values, one for the steel boiler tube and one for the internal oxide scale. To perform a Material Velocity and Zero calibration: Note: This calibration procedure is the same even if you wish to display the boiler tube and internal oxide scale thickness in time of flight units.

1. Couple the transducer to your thick sample with a known metal wall thickness and press [CAL]. 2. When the thickness reading is steady, press [VEL]. The gage will not accept [VEL] if the LOS flag is enabled, which indicates an inadequate transducer signal level. 3. Uncouple the transducer and enter the known thickness of the standard, using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 4. Couple the transducer to your thin sample of known metal wall thickness and press [CAL]. 5. When the thickness reading is stable, press [ZERO]. The gage will not accept [ZERO] if the LOS flag is enabled, which indicates an inadequate transducer signal level. 6. Uncouple the transducer and enter the known thickness of the standard using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 7. Couple the transducer to the sample boiler tube with a known internal oxide scale thickness and press [CAL]. 8. When the thickness reading is stable, press [VEL]. The gage will not accept [VEL] if the LOS flag is enabled, which indicates an inadequate transducer signal level. 9. Uncouple the transducer and enter the known thickness of the internal oxide scale using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 10. Press [MEAS/RESET] to complete the calibration and return to the Measurement mode. Note: If you power off the gage before pressing [MEAS/RESET], the velocity and zero will NOT be updated to the new values; instead, the gage will retain the previous current value.

Note:

Note:

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If there is a long-beep from the gage before returning to the Measurement mode and Calibration Error Message appears on the display, then an error occurred in the calibration procedure.

You can press [VEL] following a velocity calibration (or at any time from the Measurement mode) to read and record the material velocity. When

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measuring this material in the future, you can enter this velocity directly from the keyboard without using the test block.

Note:

Sound velocity in all materials changes with temperature. For maximum accuracy, the calibration block should be at approximately the same temperature as the samples to be measured unless you are using temperature compensation.

6.4.2

Entering a Known Material and Internal Oxide Sound Velocity


If the velocity of the steel boiler tube and the velocity of the internal oxide is known, these values can be entered directly into the 37DL PLUS without performing the calibration procedure. Follow these steps: 1. Press [VEL] from Measurement mode. The current material velocity appears (steel boiler tube velocity). 2. Enter the new velocity using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 3. Press [VEL] again. The current internal oxide scale velocity appears. 4. Enter the new velocity using the numeric keys. You can correct an entry error by pressing [0] several times and then entering the correct value. 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to complete the entry and return to the Measurement mode. If you power off the gage before pressing [MEAS/RESET], the velocity will NOT be updated to the new value; instead, the gage will retain the previous current value.

US

Managing Special Gage Functions


This chapter describes how to operate the Model 37DL PLUS using special functions and modes. The Model 37DL PLUS has many thickness measurement features. Although the features outlined in this section are not required for basic thickness operation, they can make the gage a more versatile instrument. Topics are as follows: Selecting a Differential Mode Using the Fast Mode Using the Minimum Thickness Mode Using the Maximum Thickness Mode Managing High/Low Alarms Changing the Thickness Resolution Managing the Calibration Lock Freezing Waveforms

7.1

Selecting a Differential Mode


The Model 37DL PLUS has two Differential modes Normal Differential Percent Ratio

Normal Differential: Shows the actual thickness along with the difference between the actual thickness measurement and a user set reference value. [(Normal Differential) = (Actual Thickness) (Differential Reference Value)] The actual thickness appears on the thickness display and the differential thickness appears in the differential display area. See Normal Differential Mode on page 69.

Differential Value

Figure 22

Normal Differential Mode

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Active Thickness

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Percent Ratio: Shows the actual thickness along with the percent difference from a user set reference value. [(Percent Ratio)] = [(Actual Thickness) - (Differential Reference Value)] /(Differential Reference Value)]*(100) The actual thickness appears on the thickness display and the Percent Ratio thickness appears in the differential display area as shown below:

Actual Value Percent Differential

Figure 23

Percent Ratio Differential Mode

When you press [SAVE] while in Normal Differential mode or Percent Ratio Differential mode, the actual thickness is saved along with the D flag, which indicates that the Differential mode is active. The reference differential value is also stored in the setup table. The units and resolution of the Differential thickness are the same as those selected for the thickness measurement. Note: You can use the Differential mode in conjunction with Min/Max mode, but it cannot be used in conjunction with the Alarm mode.

To activate, view, set, change, or select differential type, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [9] (DIFF) while in the Measurement mode.

Figure 24

Viewing the Normal and % Ratio in the Differential Setup Screen

2. Press [ ], [ ], or [ENTER] to highlight a setting to be changed (Enable, Displayed, or Ref Value, Large Font, or Former Thickness.) 3. Press [ ], [ ], or [0]-[9] to change the highlighted setting.

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4. Repeat steps, beginning with step 1, to change another setting. 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode with the displayed Differential settings, or press [2nd F], [MEAS/RESET] at any time to return to the Measurement mode with the original Differential settings unchanged.

7.2

Using the Fast Mode


The Fast mode thickness display increases the measurement and thickness/waveform display update rate from 4 per second up to 20 per second. This function is useful when making high temperature thickness measurement(s) to help limit the transducer contact time. The Model 37DL PLUS automatically uses Fast mode when entering the Minimum or Maximum mode.

Figure 25

Viewing the Thickness Display in Fast Mode

Note:

The battery charge life, while in Fast mode, is only 65% of the normal rate life.

To enable or disable Fast mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [2ndF], [4] (FAST) while the Measure, Differential Measure, or Alarm Measure mode is active. This mode is indicated by the word Fast on the display screen. 2. To exit from Fast mode, press [2ndF], [4] (FAST) again.

7.3

Using the Minimum Thickness Mode


Minimum mode displays the smallest thickness measured from the time you select Minimum mode or from the time you reset it. Minimum mode is useful when it is important to determine the thinnest reading obtained while making a series of readings on a test piece. The fastest display update rate is automatically activated when entering the

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Minimum mode. When leaving the Minimum mode, the display update rate is restored to its previous state. The current thickness is displayed in the main thickness display and the minimum is displayed in the Min thickness area.

Min Display

Active Reading

Min Display

Recalled Min During LOS

Figure 26

Displaying the Minimum Thickness

Note:

A false minimum reading can occur when you lift the transducer from the test piece due to excess couplant, particularly on smooth surfaces, which causes the gage to read the thickness of a couplant drop as the transducer is lifted. To avoid this problem, freeze the waveform prior to uncoupling the transducer by using the Freeze function in conjunction with the Minimum Thickness mode. Once the transducer is uncoupled, press [FREEZE] again to unfreeze the display and recall the minimum thickness and waveform.

To select a Min Measure mode from the Measure, Differential Measure, or Alarm Measure mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [2ndF], [5] (MIN/MAX). The Min thickness displays only when the gage is in a Min Measure mode. 2. Press [MEAS/RESET] to reset the held minimum value so that the minimum for a new series of measurements can be found. The thickness display will blank indicating that the old minimum value is reset. Saving or sending a minimum reading also resets the minimum value. 3. Press [2ndF], [5] (MIN/MAX) twice to exit from a Min Measure mode and return to the Measure, Differential Measure, or Alarm Measure mode.

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Note:

The [2nd F], [5] (MIN/MAX) cycles from Measure, to Min Measure, to Max Measure, and back to Measure, etc.

7.3.1

Min Finder
The Min Finder indicator provides a graphic indication that helps relocate the position where a minimum thickness occurred. When the current thickness is equal to the held minimum reading, the Min Finder displays a full bar.

MIN Display

Active Reading

Figure 27

Identifying MIN Readings

The Min Finder feature is automatically enabled whenever the Minimum Thickness mode is enabled.

7.4

Using the Maximum Thickness Mode


The Maximum mode displays the greatest thickness measured since the Maximum mode was selected or since it was reset. The Maximum mode is useful when it is important to determine the maximum thickness reading obtained while making a series of readings on a test piece. The fastest display update rate is automatically selected when entering the Maximum mode. When leaving the Maximum mode the display update rate is restored to its previous state. The current thickness is displayed in the main thickness display and the maximum thickness is displayed in the Max thickness area. The maximum thickness replaces the main thickness display when the transducer is uncoupled or a Loss of Signal (LOS) occurs.

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Recalled MIN during LOS

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Active Thickness Max Display Max Display

Recalled Max

Figure 28

Displaying the Maximum Thickness

Note:

A false minimum reading can occur when you lift the transducer from the test piece due to excess couplant, particularly on smooth surfaces, which causes the gage to read the thickness of a couplant drop as the transducer is lifted. To avoid this problem, freeze the waveform prior to uncoupling the transducer by using the Freeze function in conjunction with the Minimum Thickness mode. Once the transducer is uncoupled, press [FREEZE] again to unfreeze the display and recall the minimum thickness and waveform.

To select a Maximum Measure mode from the Measure, Differential Measure, or Alarm Measure mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [2ndF], [5] (MIN/MAX) twice. The max thickness display shows when the gage is in a Max Measure mode and the thickness display shows the actual measured thickness. 2. Press [MEAS/RESET] to reset the held maximum value so that the maximum for a new series of measurements can be found. The thickness display will blank indicating that the old maximum value is reset. Saving or sending a maximum reading also resets the maximum value. 3. Press [2ndF], [5] (MIN/MAX) to exit from a Max Measure mode and return to the Measure, Differential Measure, or Alarm Measure mode. Note: The [2nd F], [5] (MIN/MAX) cycles from Measure, to Min Measure, to Max Measure, and back to Measure, etc.

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7.5

Managing High/Low Alarms


The Model 37DL PLUS has three different alarm modes: Standard Alarm, Previous Thickness Alarm, and B-Scan. These alarms are audible beeps that warn you when measurements are below or above the alarm set points.

7.5.1

Standard Alarm
The Standard Alarm feature lets you view and change the Low Alarm Reference Value, High Alarm Reference Value, and to turn the visual and audible alarm functions ON/OFF. The Alarm Reference Values are thickness set points that have the current gage units and resolution. When an Alarm Measure mode is selected, the alarm condition occurs when any displayed reading (either actual, minimum, or maximum) is either less than the Low Alarm Reference Value or greater than the High Alarm Reference Value. The alarm condition is indicated by a flashing alarm flag located in the thickness display area and a repeated audible beep. See Figure 29 on page 75.

Low Alarm Indicator

Figure 29

Referencing the Low Alarm Indicator

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High Alarm Indicator

Figure 30

Referencing the High Alarm Indicator

The alarm condition is recorded in the datalogger second status box for all stored measurements. An A indicates the Alarm mode, an L indicates a low alarm condition, and an H indicates a high alarm condition. [MEAS/RESET] resets the alarm condition. To activate, view, set, or change the High/Low Alarms, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [8] (ALARM) while in the Measurement mode.

Figure 31

Selecting Alarm Settings

2. Press [ ], [ ] or [ENTER] to highlight a setting to be changed (Enable, Mode, LoAlarm, or Hi-Alarm). 3. Press [ ], [ ] or [0]-[9] to change the highlighted setting. 4. Repeat steps, beginning with step 1, to change another setting. 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode with the displayed Alarm settings, or press [2nd F], [MEAS/RESET] at any time to return to the Measurement mode with the original Alarm settings unchanged.

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Note:

Use the Alarm in conjunction with the Minimum/Maximum mode. Alarm reference values that were entered in one unit system are displayed as the equivalent value when the alternate units are selected.

7.5.2

Previous Thickness Alarm


The Previous Thickness Alarm provides both an audio and visual alarm if the current thickness value is outside the alarm set points when compared to the previous thickness value. In order to use this function, the previously stored file for an inspection must be sent to or already exist in the Model 37DL PLUS. The alarm uses the previous thickness value as its reference when determining if the current thickness is a high or low alarm condition. The alarm condition is indicated by a flashing alarm flag located in the thickness display area and repeated audio beeps. The alarm condition is recorded in the datalogger second status box for all stored measurements. An a indicates the Alarm mode, an l indicates a low alarm, and an h indicates a high alarm condition. [MEAS/RESET] resets the alarm condition.

Figure 32

Displaying the Previous Thickness Alarm

The Absolute Differential Alarm lets you set a Thickness Loss Alarm Value and a Thickness Growth Alarm Value. These values are used to compare the current live thickness value to the previously stored thickness value at each ID number location within a file. An alarm is indicated if the current thickness value is outside the set limits when compared to the previous value. If the thickness differential is greater than or equal to the Thickness Loss Value, a Low Alarm is indicated. If the thickness differential is greater than the Thickness Growth Value, a High Alarm is indicated. Example: Thickness Loss Value: 0.050" Thickness Growth Value: 0.005"

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Previous Values 0.300" 0.300" 0.300" 0.300" Table 5

Current Thickness 0.239" 0.316" 0.285" 0.302"

Low Alarm Yes No No No

High Alarm No Yes No No

Calculations 0.300-0.239 > 0.050" 0.316-0.300 > 0.005" 0.300-0.285 < 0.050" 0.302-0.300 < 0.005"

Calculating a Low/High Alarm

The Percent Differential Alarm lets you set a Percent Thickness Loss Alarm Value and a Percent Thickness Growth Alarm Value. These values are used to compare the current thickness value to the previous thickness value at each ID number location in a file. If the current thickness value is outside the set percent limits, when compared to the previous thickness value, an alarm is indicated. If the percent thickness differential is greater than or equal to the Percent Loss Value a Low Alarm is indicated. If the percent thickness differential is greater than the Percent Growth Value a High Alarm is indicated. Example: Percent Loss Value: 20% Percent Growth Value: 5%

Previous Values 0.300" 0.300" 0.300" 0.300" Table 6

Current Thickness 0.239" 0.316" 0.285" 0.302"

Low Alarm Yes No No No

High Alarm No Yes No No

Calculations
0.300 0.239 -------------------------------- 100 > 20% 0.300 0.300 0.239 -------------------------------- 100 > 5% 0.300 0.300 0.285 -------------------------------- 100 < 20% 0.300 0.302 0.300 -------------------------------- 100 < 5% 0.300

Calculating a Percent Thickness Alarm Value

To activate, view, or change the percent thickness value, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [8] (Alarm) while in the Measurement mode.

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Figure 33

Entering Loss/Growth Values

2. Press [ ], [ ], or [ENTER] to highlight the Enable option. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to turn the alarm on or off. If turning alarm off, then press [MEAS/ RESET]; if not press [ENTER]. The Mode option becomes highlighted. 4. Press [ ] or [ ] to select either Standard (Standard Alarm) or Previous Thk (Previous Thickness Alarm). Press [ENTER]. The Displayed option becomes highlighted. 5. Press [ ] or [ ] to select ABS DIFF (Absolute Differential) or % DIFF (Percent Differential). Press [ENTER]. The THK-LOSS option becomes highlighted. 6. Enter Value for THK-LOSS (Thickness Loss Value) or % LOSS (Percent Loss Value) using the numeric keys. Press [ENTER]. The THK-GROWTH option becomes highlighted. 7. Enter THK-GROWTH (Thickness Growth Value) or % GROWTH (Percent Growth Value). Press [MEAS/RESET]. Now the gage is in the Previous Thickness Alarm mode. When a reading triggers the alarm the gage responds with a visual alarm condition and an audible beep. Alarm conditions are stored in the datalogger with the stored data point.

7.5.3

B-Scan Alarm
You can specify low and high alarm reference values to use in B-Scan mode. This feature allows you to turn the visual and audible alarm functions On and Off. B-Scan Alarm mode is the same as the Standard Alarm mode except that in B-Scan Alarm mode lines are shown in the B-Scan grid if the reference values fall within the B-Scan thickness range. In addition, when B-Scan Alarm mode is enabled, the alarms are operational as you review B-Scan thicknesses in B-Scan Freeze Review mode.

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To enable or disable the B-Scan Alarm mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [8] (ALARM) while in the Measurement mode. 2. Press [ 3. Press [ ] or [ ] or [ ] to turn the alarm On or Off. Press [ENTER]. ] to select the B-Scan. Press [ENTER].

4. Use the numeric keys to enter the low alarm value. Press [ENTER]. 5. Use the numeric keys to enter the high alarm value. Press [ENTER]. 6. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode with the displayed alarm settings, or press [2nd F], [MEAS/RESET] at any time to return to the Measurement mode with the original alarm settings unchanged.

7.6

Changing the Thickness Resolution


The resolution, meaning the number of thickness value digits shown to the right of the decimal point, can be changed from the keyboard. This option is useful in some applications where the extra precision of the last digit is not required, or where extremely rough outside or inside surfaces make the last thickness display digit unreliable. The resolutions are selectable: Standard: (default) 0.001" or 0.01mm Low: 0.01" or 0.1mm

The resolution selection affects all displays and data output of values with thickness units. This includes measured thickness, differential reference value, and alarm set points. Note: The velocity is always reported with full four digit resolution.

To change the resolution while in the Measurement mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement Setup option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Resolution option.

Figure 34 4. Press [

Changing Resolution Parameters ] or [ ] to select either the Standard or the Low option.

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Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode

7.7

Managing the Calibration Lock


The Calibration Lock feature lets you set the gage so that no calibration values can be altered, meaning that no parameters can affect the value of the measurement; these include Velocity and test block Zero. However, when Calibration Lock is active, you can still view these values, use the Measurement mode, and use the datalogger functions. To activate the Calibration Lock, do the following: Press [6] and [3] together while in a Measurement mode. A lock message appears briefly to indicate that the Calibration Lock is active. If you press a locked key while the Calibration Lock is active, the message Cal Lock is On appears on the screen. To deactivate the Calibration Lock, do the following: While in the Measurement mode press [6] and [3] together again. A beep indicates that the Calibration Lock is disabled and the gage briefly displays the message Cal Lock is Off.

7.8

Freezing Waveforms
Pressing [FREEZE] stops updating the displayed waveform image and keeps the waveform and thickness on the display even if you move or remove the transducer. Frozen waveforms are indicated by a large F in the upper waveform status box. You cannot change the measurement parameters of a waveform once it is frozen. To freeze the waveform and thickness display, follow these steps: 1. Press [FREEZE] while making a measurement. A large F in the upper waveform status box indicates a frozen waveform. 2. Press [FREEZE] again to unfreeze the waveform and thickness display. Tip: Pressing [MEAS/RESET], [SAVE], or [SEND] also unfreezes the display.

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Managing Setup Modes


This chapter describes how to use the Setup mode on the Model 37DL PLUS. The Setup mode contains several adjustable parameters that dictate how the gage performs. To access the Setup mode, press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). Use the arrow keys to select any of the available options. Topics are as follows: Managing the Measurement mode Operating the B-Scan/DB Grid Using Avg/Min Measure Operating Temp Compensation Managing the Communications Mode Managing Diagnostics Operating Gage Resets Using the Clock Licensed Option Oxide Measure Adjusting Display Contrast

8.1

Managing the Measurement mode


The Measurement mode is the most commonly used Setup mode. The Measurement mode lets you access a setup menu that controls global settings concerning the gage measurement features. You can change any available parameter in the Measurement mode: Beeper Inactive Time Language Radix Units Resolution Hold/Blank Rectification Waveform Backlight Mode Supervisor Lock

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Save Key ID Overwrite Protection

8.1.1

Beeper Tone
The Beeper Tone is used to signify when a key is pressed and also to provide an audio signal during an alarm condition. To enable or disable the Beeper function, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight Beeper.

Figure 35 4. Press [

Selecting Beeper Parameter ] or [ ] to select between Off (inactive) and On (active).

5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode.

8.1.2

Inactive Time
Normally the gage powers off automatically after about six minutes if no key is pressed and no measurement is made within that time. This is to prevent the battery from running down if the gage is left unattended for a long period of time without being powered off. To enable or disable the Inactive Time function, follow these, steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Inactive Time option.

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Figure 36 4. Press [

Selecting Inactive Time Parameter ] or [ ] to select between the On and Off option.

On: The unit powers off automatically after 6 minutes of inactivity. Off: The unit does not power off automatically. You must manually power off the gage by pressing [ON/OFF]. 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode.

8.1.3

Language
The Model 37DL PLUS can currently be operated in English, Spanish, German, and French. To change the language on the gage, follow these, steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Language option.

Figure 37 4. Press [

Selecting Language Parameter ] or [ ] to select the language setting you need.

5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode.

8.1.4

Radix
The gage can display and store the thickness data using either a period or a comma as the Radix.

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To set the Radix , follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0]. 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight Radix.

Figure 38 4. Press [

Selecting Radix Parameter ] and [ ] to change the setting to Period or Comma.

5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode.

8.1.5

Units
You can change between inches and millimeters unit settings. To change the units, follow these, steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Units option.

Figure 39 4. Press [ option.

Selecting Units Parameter ] or [ ] to select between the English (inches) or Metric (millimeters)

5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode.

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8.1.6

Resolution
The resolution lets you select the thickness read-out resolution. To set the resolution, follow these, steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Resolution option.

Figure 40 4. Press [

Selecting Resolution Parameter ] or [ ] to select between the Standard or Low option.

Standard: Thickness resolution of 0.001" (0.01mm). Low: Thickness resolution of 0.01" (0.1mm). 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode.

8.1.7

Hold/Blank
Using the Hold/Blank mode, you can set the gage to either continue to show the last measured thickness and waveform or to not hold the last measured thickness and waveform while LOS (Loss of Signal) occurs. To set the Hold/Blank mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Hold/Blank option.

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Figure 41 4. Press [

Selecting Hold/Blank Parameter ] or [ ] to select between the Hold or Blank option.

Hold: Continues to show the last measured thickness and waveform while an LOS occurs. Blank: Does not hold the last measured thickness and waveform while an LOS occurs. 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode.

8.1.8

Rectification
The Rectification mode is the way in which the ultrasonic echoes are represented on the waveform display. The Rectification mode does not affect the thickness measurement in any way. The default Rectification mode is called Full Wave Waveform. Both positive and negative lobes are displayed on the positive side of the waveform, which gives the best overall representation of position and magnitude for most gaging applications. The display indicates the rectification type by an indicator Full located at the bottom right of the waveform. Other Rectification modes that are available are as follows: Half Wave Negative: Shows negative echo lobes as positive and does not show the positive lobes at all. An indicator, NEG, located at the bottom right of the waveform, indicates half wave negative. Half Wave Positive: Shows positive lobes but not negative lobes. An indicator, POS, located at the bottom right of the waveform, indicates half wave positive. Full Wave: Shows the negative portion of the echo folded around the baseline so that both positive and negative lobes are displayed. RF: Shows negative and positive lobes or either side of the waveform.

To Change Rectification Modes, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Rectification option.

Figure 42

Selecting Rectification Parameter

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4. Press [

] or [

] to select the RF, Full, Neg, or Pos option.

5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode.

8.1.9

Waveform
The Model 37DL PLUS can display the waveform trace as Filled or Unfilled. Note: A filled waveform trace is only possible when the waveform rectification is set to full, halfwave negative or halfwave positive.

Unfilled Waveform Figure 43 Displaying a Waveform Trace

Filled Waveform

To set the waveform trace parameter, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight Waveform.

Figure 44 4. Press [

Selecting Waveform Parameter ] and [ ] to change the setting to Fill or Unfill.

Fill: Waveform trace is viewed as a dark shaded area.

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Unfill: Waveform trace is viewed as an outline. 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to Measurement mode.

8.1.10

Backlight Mode
The display Backlight feature internally illuminates the liquid crystal display. The gage has excellent visibility in normal to high ambient light conditions, and by using the Backlight mode you can view the display in low to zero ambient light conditions as well. To set the Backlight mode parameter, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Backlight option.

Figure 45 4. Press [

Selecting Backlight Mode Parameter ] or [ ] to select between the Normal or Auto option.

Normal: The Backlight remains on until it is manually turned off. Auto: The Backlight turns on when the Model 37DL PLUS is actively making measurements, and turn off 5 seconds after an (LOS) Loss of Signal occurs. 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode. To operate the backlight while using the gage, simply press the key with the lightbulb. Press the lightbulb key again to turn off the backlight. Note: Use the Backlight only when necessary because it drains the battery about three times faster when activated. Both the battery operating time and the long term brightness of the Backlight are substantially decreased when the Backlight is used continuously.

8.1.11

Supervisor Lock
The Supervisor Lock feature allows the gage to be locked at a higher level than the Calibration Lock. (See Managing the Calibration Lock on page 81). When the Supervisor lock is active, no calibration values can be altered, meaning no parameters can affect the value of the measurement. The locked values are as follows:

MV

Velocity Test Block Zero Differential Reference Value Alarm Set Transducer Adjustment Parameters

To enable the Supervisor Lock, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Supv Lock option.

Figure 46 4. Press [

Selecting Supervisor Lock Parameter ] and [ ] to select On (active) or Off (inactive).

5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to Measurement mode.

8.1.12

Save Key
Either the displayed thickness value or both the thickness and waveform can be stored in the datalogger pressing [SAVE]. All of the appropriate calibration and setup parameters are also stored simultaneously. See Saving Data on page 169 for more information. To program the [SAVE] key to store either thickness data or thickness plus waveform data, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Save Key option.

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Figure 47 4. Press [

Selecting Save Key Parameter ] or [ ] to select between the THK or THK + WF option.

THK: Saves the displayed thickness value in the datalogger. THK + WF: Saves the displayed thickness value and waveform in the datalogger. 5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode.

8.1.13

ID Overwrite Protection
ID Overwrite Protection is a function that prompts you with a warning message every time you attempt to overwrite an existing measurement in the datalogger. You can activate this function at any time. Once activated, a message prompt displays when an attempt is made to save data over an existing thickness reading/waveform. To activate ID Overwrite Protection, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Measurement option and press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the ID Overwrite option.

Figure 48 4. Press [

Selecting ID Overwrite Parameter ] and [ ] to select between the On (active) or Off (inactive) option.

When ID Overwrite Protection is On, the following screen opens when you attempt to save data over an existing measurement.

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Figure 49 5. Press [

Saving Measurements with Overwrite Protection Activated ] and [ ] to select Save or Cancel. Press [ENTER].

Save: Replaces the previous reading in the datalogger with the new reading. Cancel: Stores the previous reading in the datalogger. Note: The thickness reading and waveform is held on the display while you make this selection.

8.2

Operating the B-Scan/DB Grid


See Operating the B-Scan on page 113 for detailed information.

8.3

Using Avg/Min Measure


See Reading Avg/Min Measurements on page 122 for detailed information.

8.4

Operating Temperature Compensation


See Managing Temperature Compensation on page 124 for detailed information.

8.5

Managing the Communications Mode


The Communication menu allows the gage and a computer to transfer data. In order for this communication process to be successful, the parameters in the gage must match those in the computer. To change the communication parameters, follow these steps:

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1. Verify the computers parameters for the baud rate, stop bits, and parity. 2. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). The following menu opens:

Figure 50

Selecting the Communications Mode

3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Communication option. Press [ENTER]. The following menu opens:

Figure 51

Changing the Communication Parameters

The current communication parameters appear. The settings available for each parameter is as follows: Baud Rate: (19200, 9600, 4800, 2400, or 1200) Number of Stop Bits: (1 or 2) Parity Bit: (None, Odd, or Even) Comm Protocol: (Multiple or Single) Output Format: (F1 to F10) Dbase Tracking: (Off or On) B-Scan Output: (Off or On) 36DLP Output: (Off or On) Fisher Enable: (Off or On) (See Communication Parameters on page 205 for output parameter definitions.)

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4. Press [ ] or [ ] to select any of the parameters until the desired parameter is highlighted. 5. Press [ ] or [ ] to change the parameter setting. 6. Exit this mode by highlighting the Previous Screen option and pressing [ENTER]. Tip: You can also exit this mode by pressing [MEAS/RESET].

8.5.1

Database Tracking
The Database Tracking gage parameters (calibration settings, transducer type, etc.) automatically track the values stored at each ID number in the database. Database Tracking intends to solve a problem that arises when historical data is downloaded into the gage to guide a current measurement survey. You can use the displayed ID numbers to guide you through the same series of measurements that were collected in the original reference survey. You can also compare the current measurements, as they are made, with the previous thickness values displayed under the ID number. The problem occurs when the original measurements were taken at different gage settings such as gain, min mode, transducer type, velocity, etc. To make meaningful comparisons of new data with old data, the setups need to be identical. Database Tracking forces the gage to automatically adjust its setup to match the setup previously stored at each ID number. Another use of this feature is to pre-load a sequence of setups along with a sequence of ID numbers before the field measurements are taken. The data collection path and setups can be created in a computer and then downloaded into the Model 37DL PLUS. When Database Tracking is selected, the following measurement related parameters are automatically adjusted to match those stored at the current ID number. Alarm Mode (On/Off) Alarm Set points Differential Mode (On/Off) Differential Reference Value Min/Max Mode (Min/Max/Off) Extended Blank Value Resolution Units Gain Velocity Transducer Type (user prompt only)

When Database Tracking is selected and a waveform is stored at the current ID number, the following additional waveform related parameters are automatically adjusted to match those stored with that waveform.

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Range Zoom (On/Off) Extended Blank Position Rectification Mode (Full Wave, Half Wave Negative, Half Wave Positive, RF)

If the database does not have any data stored at the current ID number, then the setups remain unchanged. Tip: Even if Database Tracking is activated, you can override the settings for the current ID number by manually changing any setup parameter.

To select Database Tracking, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Communication option and press [ENTER].

Figure 52 3. Press [ 4. Press [

Selecting the DBASE Tracking Parameters ] or [ ]or [ ] to highlight the DBASE Tracking option. ] to select the On or Off option.

On: Activates the Database Tracking option Off: Deactivates the Database Tracking option. 5. Press [MEAS] when finished to return to measure mode.

8.6

Managing Diagnostics
The gage contains several Diagnostic Self Tests to help aid in localizing a suspected hardware problem or to verify correct hardware operation. These tests can be performed from the keypad. To go to the Diagnostics menu, press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). Press [ ] to highlight Diagnostics, and press [ENTER]. A menu opens with the following options. Keypad

SV

Video Hardware Status Error Status

8.6.1

Keypad
To operate the Keypad Test, follow these steps: 1. Press [ ] or [ ] to select Keypad. 2. Press [ENTER]. The display represents a replica of the keypad. 3. Test any key by pressing it on the keypad. If that specific key is working correctly, the gage beeps and that key is highlighted on the display. Tip: [ON/OFF] powers off the gage, and [ENTER] exits the Keypad Test mode.

8.6.2

Video
To operate the Video Display Test, follow these steps: 1. Press [ ] or [ ] to select Video. 2. Press [ENTER]. This test displays a darkened rectangle, which decreases in size. If at any time a break appears in the pattern, then there is a problem with the waveform display. Otherwise, it is operating correctly.

8.6.3

Hardware Status
Note: The Hardware Status screen is typically used by GE Panametrics repair technicians.

To assess the Hardware status, follow these steps: 1. Press [ ] or [ ] to select Hardware Status. 2. Press [ENTER]. The gage displays many hardware calibration parameters and status. If the gage is functioning correctly, all parameters should be marked with a check mark.

8.6.4

Error Status
The Error Status is a log of any error condition that may have occurred during gage operation. Pressing [MEAS/RESET] clears the error log and returns to the Measurement mode.

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8.7

Operating Gage Resets


The Model 37DL PLUS has four different resets designed to quickly restore the gage to the default setup parameters. Measurement Reset Communication Reset DBase Reset Master Reset

Resets are useful whether you are new or experienced at operating the gage. These resets provide an efficient short-cut to a known configuration.

8.7.1

Measurement Reset
The Measurement Reset changes the measurement parameters to the factory default values. The default measurement parameters are listed below.

Measurement Measurement mode with Differential Material Velocity Differential Reference Value Low Alarm Reference Value High Alarm Reference Value Cal keys Display Update Rate Zoom Range

Default Parameter Fast, Min, Max, and Alarms turned off 0.22460 in/sec or 05.7048mm/sec the approximate velocity of the included test blocks 0.0 in or mm 0.0 in or mm 25.0 in or 635.0mm Unlocked 4 per second Off Minimum range

Blank thickness display when LOS Standard resolution, i.e. 0.001 in or 0.01mm Table 7 Measurement Reset Default Settings

To perform the Measurement Reset, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Resets option. Press [ENTER].

UV

3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight Measurement Reset. Press [ENTER]. The gage prompts you with a warning message.

Figure 53

Warning Prompt for Measurement Reset

4. Press [ ]or [ ] to highlight Reset and press [ENTER] to complete the measurement reset. If you want to cancel the operation without resetting the measurement data, press [ ]or [ ] to highlight Cancel and press [ENTER].

8.7.2

Communications Reset
Caution: The Communications Reset permanently deletes all communication parameters and restores all values to the default settings. The Communication Reset resets the Communication parameters to the factory default values. The default communication parameters are listed below. Baud rate: Stop Bits: Parity: 19200 1 None

Comm Protocol: Multiple Output Format: F1 Dbase Tracking: Off B-Scan Output: Off 36DLP Output: Off Fisher Enable: Off To perform the Communication Reset, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Resets option. Press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight Communication Reset. Press [ENTER]. The gage prompts you with a warning message.

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Figure 54

Warning Prompt for Communication Reset

4. Press [ ]or [ ] to highlight Reset and press [ENTER] to complete the communication reset. If you want to cancel the operation without resetting the communication data, press [ ]or [ ] to highlight Cancel and press [ENTER].

8.7.3

DBase Reset
The Dbase Reset deletes all stored data in the datalogger. Caution: The Dbase Reset permanently deletes all stored thickness reading/waveforms that are stored in the Model 37DL PLUS. However, this reset does not delete any stored transducer setups. To perform a DBase Reset, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). The Setup mode menu opens. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Resets option. Press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the DBASE Reset option. Press [ENTER]. The gage prompts you with a warning message.

Figure 55 4. Press [ reset.

Warning Prompt for Dbase Reset ]or [ ] to highlight Reset and press [ENTER] to complete the database

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If you want to cancel the operation without resetting the database, press [ highlight Cancel and press [ENTER].

8.7.4

Master Reset
The Master Reset performs all of the gages resets. The measurement parameters and communication parameters are reset to their default values and the Dbase is also be reset. Caution: The Master Reset permanently deletes all stored thickness reading/waveforms that are stored in the Model 37DL PLUS. To perform the Master Reset, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Resets option. Press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight Master Reset. Press [ENTER]. The gage prompts you with a warning message.

Figure 56 4. Press [

Warning Prompt for Master Reset ]or [ ] to highlight Reset and press [ENTER] to complete the master reset. ]or

If you want to cancel the operation without resetting the master data, press [ [ ] to highlight Cancel and press [ENTER].

8.8

Using the Clock


The Model 37DL PLUS has a built in clock for time and date. You can set the clock to specific time zones in either a 12 or 24 hour mode. You can also set the date in Standard U.S. format (Month/Day) or International format (Day/Month). The following list includes the parameters that are available: Mode (12 hour/24 hour) Hour Minutes AM/PM

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]or [

] to

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Time Display Mode (US/International) Month Day Year Date Display

To set the clock, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0]. 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Clock option, and press [ENTER].

Figure 57

Selecting Clock Parameters ], [ ], or [ENTER] to set the parameters to the desired settings.

3. Press [ ], [ ], [

4. Highlight OK and press [ENTER] to exit or highlight Cancel and press [ENTER] to terminate the new settings. Note: If you select the On option for either the Time Display or the Date Display, the time and date, respectively, are displayed on the Measurement screen.

8.9

Licensed Option
See Chapter Six, Setting Up and Calibrating the 37DL PLUS for the Measurement of Boiler Tubes and Internal Oxide Scale Measurement: An Optional Feature.

8.10

Oxide Measure
See Chapter Six, Setting Up and Calibrating the 37DL PLUS for the Measurement of Boiler Tubes and Internal Oxide Scale Measurement: An Optional Feature.

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8.11

Adjusting Display Contrast


The best contrast is achieved when viewing the display screen in bright light. However, it is also readable in subdued light or even complete darkness by using the built-in backlight. You can control the contrast of the display by adjusting the setting. To adjust the waveform display contrast, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [LIGHTBULB]. 2. Press [ ] to darken the display, or [ ] to lighten the display. To stop adjusting the contrast, press [ENTER] or [MEAS/RESET]. This action disables the [ ] and [ ] keys from adjusting the contrast.

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Using Advanced Gaging Features


The Model 37DL PLUS has many advanced thickness measurement features that assist in making the gage a stronger, more versatile instrument. This chapter describes how to use these advanced features. Topics are as follows: Setting the Manual Gain Adjust Using Automatic Gain Optimization Adjusting the Extended Blank Using the Echo-to-Echo Mode Operating the B-Scan Using the Grid View Operating the Thru-Coat Function Reading Avg/Min Measurements Managing Temperature Compensation Using Single Element Oxide Measurements Using an Emat Transducer

9.1

Setting the Manual Gain Adjust with a D79X Series and E110, EMAT Transducers
Note: GE Panametrics recommends that only experienced operators, who can analyse and understand the waveform display, use the Manual Gain feature.

In most corrosion measurement applications the Model 37DL PLUS gage automatically sets the optimum gain by default for the most accurate measurements. Therefore, the gain does not require adjustment except in special circumstances. Increasing the gain is generally recommended for high temperature measurements. The Manual Gain Adjust feature allows the default measurement gain to be manually increased or decreased in steps of 1 dB. This feature also modifies the way in which echoes are shown on the waveform display. Normally, the displayed echo height is automatically adjusted so that the peak of the measured echo is on the screen. This is so the position of the measured echo is readily observable on the screen independent of its strength and the receiver gain. However, when manually adjusting the receiver gain, the displayed echo height is changed to be proportional to the actual echo amplitude at the receiver output allowing gain changes to be readily observable. Measured echoes must be at least 20% of screen height in amplitude (first gradicule line above baseline) in order to be processed for thickness calculation. This allows you to judge whether the current gain is too high (noise above the baseline is causing the reading

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to be too low), or the gain is too low (the correct backwall echo is below the threshold causing the reading to double or read too high). When the gain is set to anything other than default gain, the value in dB (decibels) is displayed near the lower right side of the waveform.

Figure 58

Viewing Changes in the Default Gain

To view, restore, or change the receiver gain from the Measurement mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [GAIN]. The waveform display changes to the Amplitude Proportional to Gain mode, which is indicated by a gain value on the waveform display. The gain remains equal to the default value. 2. Press [GAIN] again to restore the last previously set gain or press [ ] or [ ] to adjust the gain. The effect of your action becomes immediately visible in the height of the echoes and the gain value on the waveform display. After changing the gain, resume making measurements with the displayed echoes proportional to gain. 3. Press [GAIN] again to return to the automatically adjusted Echo Height mode (default gain). Default gain is indicated by a blank Gain field ( dB).

9.2

Using Automatic Gain Optimization


The Automatic Gain Optimization feature allows the default measurement gain to be increased or decreased automatically by an amount related to the measured peak noise from the transducer being used and the material being measured. Normally, the Model 37DL PLUS adjusts its receiver gain depending on both the transducer type and the received echo characteristics in order to make the most accurate thickness measurements, which works well in most material gaging applications. However, in special cases it is advantageous to have the gage refine its operating gain.

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The Automatic Gain Optimization feature adjusts the gain by using actual material noise level measurements rather than fixed gain boosts or fixed attenuators. While the transducer is coupled to a thick sample of the material of interest, the gage measures the peak noise level up to the specified back wall thickness. Then the gage adjusts the gain value up or down to produce the maximum back wall echo sensitivity without hanging up on noise. Performing the gain optimization procedure on different materials may yield different results. In the case of grainy materials such as cast iron or high surface noise materials such as aluminium, this procedure may result in a decrease in gain. In the case of hot materials with rough surfaces or other highly attenuating but low noise materials, this procedure may produce an increase in the gain. To perform Automatic Gain Optimization, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [GAIN] (OPT) while in the Measurement mode. The gage responds by displaying 0.000, 0.00 or 0.0, depending on units and resolution. 2. Enter the estimated thickness of the material sample. It is better to guess low, if you are uncertain. The sample should match the material to be measured as closely as possible in surface condition and temperature. 3. Couple the selected transducer to the test material and press [MEAS/RESET]. Gain optimization is performed and the gage returns to the Measurement mode. The optimized gain value, XX dB, is shown near the lower right corner of the waveform.

9.2.1

Return to Default Gain


When operating with optimized gain values indicated by a display of XX dB, you can restore the default gain by pressing [GAIN]. Default gain is always indicated by a blank field before the dB ( dB). After restoring the default gain, the optimized value is stored internally for later recall. Tip: You can also restore the default gain by turning the gage off and on and pressing [ZERO].

9.2.2

Restore the Previous Automatically Optimized Gain


When operating with the default gain value indicated by a display of dB, you can recall the previous optimized gain setting directly, without returning to the default gain. The only requirement is that the transducer cannot have been changed since the original Automatic Gain Optimization. If an attempt is made to restore an optimized gain that does not exist, then default gain is used.

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9.3

Adjusting the Extended Blank with D79X Series Transducers


Caution: GE Panametrics recommends that only experienced operators who thoroughly understand the acoustic properties of the material being measured use this feature. Incorrect use of the extended blank can cause the gage to misread areas of thin material. Normally, the gage searches for echoes down to nearly zero thickness. However, some special circumstances such as a high degree of near surface corrosion, aluminium material, and enclosed flaws or laminations can generate echoes that the gage may falsely read as low thickness. If these echoes are larger than the sought after backwall echo, the gain adjustment features described above cannot prevent detection. However, the Model 37DL PLUS Extended Blank feature allows you to prevent any such erroneous measurements from occurring within an extended blank period, which you can set using the waveform display. To activate the Extended Blank, do the following: Press [2nd F], [1] (EXTD BLK). The extended blank becomes active, but initially its value is zero. The gage remains in the Measurement mode. The blank length is indicated by a horizontal bar just below the bottom graticule line and extending from the left edge of the waveform display to the upper end of the extended blank period.

Figure 59

Viewing the Blank Length

To deactivate the Extended Blank, press [2nd F], [1] (EXTD BLK) again. Tip: You can adjust the Extended Blank from a live Measurement mode.

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9.3.1

Adjust the Depth of the Extended Blank


When the Extended Blank is enabled, press [ ] or [ ] to change the length of the extended blank period. If the measurement point changes when the extended blank is moved, then the echoes may change in height; this is because in the normal waveform display mode, the gage attempts to adjust the height. The gage also attempts to make the most accurate measurement by identifying the beginning of an echo. If the blank is positioned within an echo rather than to the left of it, then the gage will not be able to make an accurate detection.

9.4

Using the Echo-to-Echo Mode


The Echo-to-Echo measurement feature allows the Model 37DL PLUS to measure remaining wall thickness of painted metal while ignoring the coating thickness. Echo-toEcho mode refers to measuring from one backwall echo to the next backwall echo. The time interval between these echoes does not include the time through any paint, resin, or organic coating that is present. The waveform display indicates the exact pair of echoes used to determine the thickness. The internal datalogger saves and recognizes all necessary Echo-to-Echo information to upload and download thickness, waveform, and setup data. To change Measurement mode between the normal total wall thickness mode and the Echo-to-Echo mode, do the following: Press [2nd F] [ZOOM]. You can use all measurement, display, and datalogger functions with the Echo-to-Echo mode. Echo-to-Echo measurements use either the same dual transducers that are used for normal measurements, or a single element delay line transducer (GE Panametrics P/N: M201 with cable and adapter). When dual transducers are used in the Echo-to-Echo mode, you do not need to set any gates or thresholds, however you can set special blanking gates if the application requires it. Additionally, when using a single element transducer, you can set the Extended Blank to skip the paint/metal interface echo. Tip: Uncoated wall thickness measurements can also be made in the Echo-toEcho mode, so you do not have to switch between modes when measuring both coated and uncoated areas.

9.4.1

Automatic Mode
There are two modes available in the Echo-to-Echo mode: Automatic mode and Manual mode. The Automatic mode is easier to use and is recommended for most applications. (See Manual Mode on page 110.)

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To select the Automatic mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F] [ZOOM].

Figure 60

Selecting the Automatic Mode

2. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Auto E to E option. Press [MEAS/RESET]. Automatic mode is indicated on the waveform display by a distinctive measurement marker. The standard triangular marker is replaced by a thin horizontal bar within two short vertical lines. The ends of this bar are aligned with the peaks of the two backwall echoes that are being measured. In the Automatic mode, the echo height is automatically adjusted to a preset level. The Automatic mode is also indicated by replacing the DESTD indicator with DE-AEtoE:.

9.4.2

Manual Mode
There are two modes available in the Echo-to-Echo mode: Automatic mode and Manual mode. The Manual mode lets you adjust the gain and blanking functions, which provides greater flexibility in difficult measurement situations where the Automatic mode may be less effective. (See Automatic Mode on page 109.) To select the Manual mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F] [ZOOM].

Figure 61

Selecting the Manual Mode

2. Press [ ] and [ ] to select the Manual E to E option. Press [MEAS/RESET]. The Manual mode is indicated on the waveform display by a distinctive measurement marker. The triangular marker is replaced by a thin horizontal bar between two short vertical lines. The two vertical lines are aligned with the peaks of the two backwall echoes which are being measured. A thick horizontal bar above the thin bar indicates the width of the adjustable echo blank. The Manual mode is also indicated by replacing the DESTD indicator with DE-MEtoE. In the Manual mode, the gage selects the first echo following the Extended Blank as the first backwall echo. The gage then selects the next echo that is at least 20% of screen height as the second echo. In situations where material conditions produce noisy signals, you may need to adjust the echo blanks to detect the second backwall. (See Blanking

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Adjustments in Manual Echo-to-Echo on page 111.) You can press [ ] and [ ] to adjust the gain in order to detect low amplitude signals or ignore unwanted signals. Note: You do not have to press [GAIN] to activate the [ ] and [ ] keys because Gain Adjust is automatically enabled when you select Manual EtoE mode.

9.4.3

Blanking Adjustments in Manual Echo-to-Echo


The Model 37DL PLUS offers two blanking functions to help detect valid echoes in situations where material conditions generate unwanted signals. The Extended Blank creates a blanked zone beginning at the left edge of the display in which no signals are detected. In situations where the second or third pair of backwall echoes are stronger or cleaner than the first pair, you can use the Extended Blank to control which pair of echoes to use for measurement. The echo blanking runs for a selected interval following the first detected echo, and it is used to blank any unwanted peaks that may occur between the first and second backwall echoes such as the trailing edge of a large first echo or shear wave reflections on thick test pieces. Both blanks are active in the Manual mode. Only the extended blank is active in the Standard mode. Adjust these blanks by pressing [2nd F], [1] (EXT BLK). Pressing [2nd F], [1] (EXT BLK) again toggles between accessing extended blanking and echo blanking adjustments. Pressing [2nd F], [1] (EXT BLK) a third time disables the blanks. A solid bar beneath the waveform indicates the current length of each blank; press [ ] or [ ] to adjust the length.

Poor Manual Measurement Figure 62 Comparing Manual Measurements

Good Manual Measurement

9.4.4

Return to Normal Measurement Mode


To exit either the Automatic or Manual mode and return to the Normal Measurement mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F] [ZOOM].

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Figure 63

Selecting the Normal Measurement Mode

2. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Standard Meas option. 3. Press [MEAS/RESET].

9.4.5

Transducer Usage in Echo-to-Echo Mode


Although the Echo-to-Echo mode works with all of the Model 37DL PLUS transducers, GE Panametrics recommends using particular transducers for steel in the approximate thickness ranges. Refer to Table 8 on page 112.

Transducer Type D798 D790/791 D797 M201

Thickness Range* 0.060 to 0.300" (1.5 to 7.50mm) 0.100 to 2.00" (2.0 to 50mm) 0.500 to 5.00" (12.5 to 125mm) 0.050 to 0.500" (1.25 to 12.5mm)

* Thickness ranges are dependent on material, surface condition, and temperature

Table 8

Recommended Transducers for Steel Using Echo-to-Echo Mode

In some cases, an error can occur if you are using a D790 transducer above 0.7" (18mm). Typically, this error is due to a mode-converted shear-wave echo that may appear before the second backwall echo. If this unwanted echo is larger than the second backwall echo, the gage measures to it, which produces a thinner reading. You can usually distinguish the unwanted shear-wave echo from the correct backwall echo by examining the waveform display. The second backwall echo appears at the same distance beyond the first backwall echo as the first backwall echo appears beyond the zero thickness point. If there is an echo between the first two multiples of the backwall echo it is probably a mode-converted shear-wave echo. Use the Echo-to-Echo Manual mode techniques and Manual blank to eliminate this error. (See Manual Mode on page 110.) Also, using the D797 transducer beyond 0.7" (18mm) helps eliminate the possibility of this error. In some cases the second or third backwall echo is smaller in amplitude than subsequent echoes causing the gage to give a double or triple reading. If you are using a D790, this effect may occur around 0.2" (5mm) on flat smooth steel samples. If this occurs, it is clearly visible on the waveform display and you can work around it by using the Echo-toEcho Manual mode or moving the Extended Blank beyond the previously detected first peak echo.

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When you use a M201 single element transducer and the paint/metal interface is large enough to be detected, then you must set the Extended Blank to extend beyond that echo. The gage should measure between the first two pairs of backwall echoes. When the Model 37DL PLUS cannot make an Echo-to-Echo reading, the LOS flag on the thickness display is enabled. In this case, the waveform display shows that either no echoes are large enough to be detected (no detection marker) or that only one echo is detectable (detection marker begins at detected echo but extends indefinitely to the right). Press [GAIN], [ ] and [ ] to increase the gain in order to make a good Echo-to-Echo reading. However, if this does not help make a good Echo-to-Echo reading, you can still obtain an approximate measurement by returning to the Normal Measurement mode. (If you are using M201, switch to a dual element transducer.)

9.4.6

Echo-to-Echo Mode Datalogger Flags


The following flags are used in the Echo-to-Echo mode in the first flag field of the uploaded Thickness Table and the top left flag box on the waveform display: E: Automatic Echo-to-Echo measurement e: Manual Echo-to-Echo measurement M: Normal measurement l: Automatic LOS in Echo-to-Echo mode n: LOS in Manual Echo-to-Echo mode L: LOS in Normal Measurement mode

9.5

Operating the B-Scan


B-Scan converts thickness readings to cross-sectional image profiles. You can save these images on the gage in order to review or download to a computer or printer at a later time. The follow are definitions of the available B-Scan options and parameters. Use this information to help you get the best results to meet your needs. (The steps to select any of these parameters begin on page 115.)

Figure 64

Changing B-Scan Parameters

B-Scan Size Mode: Determines the size of the B-Scan. You can select the Half option for a half-screen B-Scan, or the Full option for a full-screen B-Scan. The Half option

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displays a half-height A-Scan waveform that allows space for the half-height B-Scan (See Display Half B-Scan on page 116). The Full option does not display an A-Scan, which allows enough space to display the B-Scan on the entire screen (See Display Full B-Scan on page 116). B-Scan Direction: Determines the direction that the data is updated or drawn on the Model 37DL PLUS screen. Choose the B-Scan direction based on the direction of transducer movement. Left to right: Causes the data to start at the right of the screen and scroll to the left, but produces a B-Scan that is properly orientated based on transducer movement. Right to left: Causes the data to start at the left of the screen and scroll to the right.

B-Scan LOS Mode: Determines how the B-Scan operates when a Loss of Signal (LOS) occurs. Stop: Causes the B-Scan to stop scrolling when a LOS occurs. If the B-scan is set to stop on LOS, and the gage regains measurements, a blank vertical line is inserted into the B-Scan. This is a marker showing that a LOS has occurred at the marked position. Continue: Allows the B-Scan to continue scrolling when a LOS occurs.

B-Scan Freeze Mode: Determines which waveform and thickness reading are displayed when you press [FREEZE] during a scan. Show Minimum: Displays the waveform and thickness reading for the minimum reading collected during the scan. Show Maximum: Displays the waveform and thickness reading for the maximum reading collected during the scan. Show Current: Displays the last thickness reading made before pressing [FREEZE].

Loss of Signal (LOS) Live M in or M ax M arker shown while Scan Direction

Figure 65

Analyzing a B-Scan

B-Scan Freeze Review: Review scanned thickness values by pressing [FREEZE]. When this feature is enabled and you press [FREEZE], a vertical line (Review Marker) appears to indicate the location of the displayed thickness. This is either the minimum, maximum, or current thickness depending which Freeze option selected. The unit displays both the thickness and the waveform of the held minimum or maximum. Press [ ] and [ ] to move the Review Marker to the left or the right of the scan. During review, the gage always displays the thickness at the Review Marker location.

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Tip:

If the minimum or maximum value moved off the B-Scan screen, press [FREEZE] to center the B-Scan and the review marker on the minimum or maximum thickness.

Figure 66

Defining the Freeze Review Display

B-Scan Max THK Mode: Determines the vertical scale of the B-Scan. A-Scan Range: The top and bottom of the vertical scale corresponds to the start and end of the range of the A-Scan display. Specified THK: Prompts you to input a value for the B-Scan maximum thickness by pressing [0]-[9]. The top of the vertical scale represents the zero value and the bottom of the scale is the value that was input as the maximum thickness. GE Panametrics does not recommend using the A-Scan Zoom feature when the B-Scan Max Thickness is set to A-Scan Range. Zoom constantly adjusts the start and the end-points of the A-Scan Range resulting in a BScan image where the Scale changes as the thickness changes. Use the AScan Zoom feature if the B-Scan Max thickness is set to a specified value.

Note:

B-Scan Max Thickness: If you select Specified THK as the B-Scan Max THK mode (see above), then this option lets you enter the maximum B-Scan thickness. The allowable range is 0.000" to 25.000" (0.00mm to 635.00mm).

To select the B-Scan option, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0](SETUP). 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the B-SCAN/DB GRID option. Press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Option option. Press [ B-Scan, or DB Grid. B-Scan: Enables B-Scan function. ] and [ ] to select None,

None: Disables both B-Scan and DB-Grid leaving the gage is in Standard mode.

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Min Waveform Review Marker Minimum Thickness Location

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DB Grid: Enables DB-Grid function. 4. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight individual B-Scan parameters. Press [ ] and [ ] to change the highlighted setting. (See parameter definitions beginning on page 113.) 5. Complete desired selections and press [MEAS/RESET] to return to Measurement mode with the B-Scan active. The B-Scan begins drawing the cross-section of the material as soon as the first nonLOS reading is collected. 6. Press [FREEZE] to stop the collection of B-Scan data. If you selected Stop as the B-Scan LOS option, uncouple the transducer from the test material and the B-Scan will stop automatically. 7. Press [MEAS/RESET] at any time to reset the B-Scan and begin a new B-Scan.

9.5.1

Display Half B-Scan


The half size B-Scan is displayed in Measurement mode along with a half size waveform. Oldest to newest scanned thicknesses are arranged from left to right when you select the Left to Right B-Scan direction. When you select the Right to Left B-Scan direction the orientation is reversed. When you select the Show Minimum or Show Maximum Freeze mode the marker at the bottom points to the first scanned min or max thickness. In these modes, the Min or Max mode is automatically enabled. When you select the Show Current Freeze mode, the marker point to the most recently scanned thickness.

9.5.2

Display Full B-Scan


The full size B-Scan is displayed in Measurement mode instead of the waveform grid. As with the half size B-Scan grid, oldest to newest scanned thicknesses are arranged from left to right when you select the Left to Right B-Scan direction. When you select the Right to Left B-Scan direction the orientation is reversed. When you select the Show Minimum or Show Maximum Freeze mode the marker at the bottom identifies the first scanned min or max thickness. In these modes, the Min or Max mode is automatically enabled. When you select the Show Current Freeze mode, the marker identifies the most recently scanned thickness.

9.5.3

Enable the B-Scan Alarm Mode


You can specify low and high alarm reference values to use in B-Scan Alarm mode and turn the visual and audible alarm functions On and Off. B-Scan Alarm mode is the same as the Standard Alarm mode except that in B-Scan Alarm mode lines are shown in the B-Scan grid if the reference values fall within the B-Scan range thickness. In addition, when B-Scan Alarm mode is enabled, the alarms are operational as you review B-Scan thicknesses in B-Scan Freeze Review mode. (See B-Scan Alarm on page 79 for information about setting up the alarm feature.)

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9.5.4

Save B-scans, A-Scans, or Thickness Readings


The Model 37DL PLUS can do the following tasks while using the B-scan feature: Save a live thickness reading while the B-Scan is running Save any reviewed thickness reading on a held B-Scan Save the minimum or maximum thickness reading for a held B-Scan Save the minimum or maximum thickness reading and waveform along with the held B-Scan

(Review the steps below to perform any of the tasks listed above.) To save a live thickness reading while the B-Scan is running, do the following: Press [SAVE] at any time while the B-scan is running to save the current thickness reading. To save any reviewed thickness reading on a held B-Scan do the following: If Freeze Review is enabled, press [ ] and [ ] to review any thickness on the held B-Scan. Press [SAVE] at the position of the review marker to save the thickness for that position into the datalogger. To save the minimum or maximum thickness reading for a held B-Scan, do the following: When B-Scan Freeze Opt is set to Show Min or Show Max, the gage displays the minimum or maximum thickness reading with associated waveform when you press [FREEZE]. You can save this value by pressing [SAVE] while the minimum or maximum thickness reading is displayed. To save the minimum or maximum A-Scan along with the held B-Scan, do the following: When B-Scan Freeze Opt is set to Show Min or Show Max, the gage displays the minimum or maximum thickness reading when you press [FREEZE]. You can save the thickness value along with waveform and B-Scan by pressing [2nd F], [SAVE] while the minimum or maximum thickness reading is displayed. Note: When a B-Scan screen is saved to the datalogger, the gage saves the thickness value at all 200 data points on the display. All thickness values on a saved B-Scan can be reviewed during ID Review. Recall the saved B-Scan and use the [ ] and [ ] keys to review each thickness reading.

9.6

Using the Grid View


Using Grid View you can navigate through grids by simultaneously displaying the grid positions along with the A-Scan and thickness reading. This gives you the ability to move freely in any direction on a grid rather than follow a pre-set list of IDs. Instead of automatically incrementing to the next ID location, you can use the arrow keys to move to a location that is more convenient.

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The following are definitions of the available Grid View options. Use this information to help you get the best results to meet your needs. (The steps to select any of these parameters begin on page 120.)

Figure 67

Changing DB Grid Parameters

Grid Size Mode: Determines the size of the database grid. You can select the Half option for a half-screen grid, or the Full option for a full-screen grid. The Half option displays a half-screen A-Scan waveform and a half-screen database grid (See Display Half Database Grid on page 120). The Full option does not display an A-Scan displays the database grid on the entire screen (See Display Full Database Grid on page 121). Reverse Grid Rows: Reverses the rows in the grid from ascending to descending. Note that the ID number increments in the order assigned when the file was originally set up (by row, by column, zig-zag, etc.) unless changed using Edit-Rename from the File option.

Figure 68

Displaying Reverse Grid Rows Off (Ascending)

Figure 69

Displaying Reverse Grid Rows On

Reverse Grid Cols: Reverses the columns in the grid from ascending to descending. Note that the ID number increments in the order assigned when the file was originally

UNN

set up (by row, by column, zig-zag, ect.) unless changed using Edit-Rename from the File option.

Figure 70

Displaying Reverse Grid Columns Off (Ascending)

Figure 71

Displaying Reverse Grid Columns On (Descending)

Transpose Grid: Allows the gage to interchange the rows and columns in a grid. The rows are displayed on the x-axis and the columns are displayed on the y-axis. Note that the ID number increments in the order assigned when the file was originally set up (by row, by column, zig-zag, etc.) unless changed using Edit-Rename from the File option.

Figure 72

Displaying Transpose Grid Off

Figure 73

Displaying Transpose Grid On

Linearize Rows and Columns: Allows the gage to display the grid IDs in linear form.

Figure 74

Displaying Grid IDS in Linear Form

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Data Cell Flag: Displays a single data flag with each data cell in the database grid. If you select this option, the data flag is displayed in a small box to the right of the thickness value in the data cell. You can omit the data flag by selecting None, or you can select one of the following data flags: Min/Max, Alarm, or A-Scan. Min/Max flag: m indicates a minimum thickness. M indicates a maximum thickness. - (dash character) indicates the thickness is not a minimum or a maximum. Alarm flag: L indicates any kind of low alarm condition including a standard low alarm condition or a previous thickness alarm. H indicates any high alarm condition. - (dash character) indicates no alarm condition. A-Scan flag: W indicates that a waveform is stored with the thickness. - (dash character) indicates a waveform is not stored with the thickness.

Figure 75

Viewing the Data Cell Flag Screen

To select the Grid View, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the B-SCAN/DB GRID option. Press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Option option. Press [ mode to DB GRID. B-Scan: Enables B-Scan function. DB Grid: Enables DB-Grid function. 4. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the other options (Reverse Grid Rows, Reverse Grid Columns, Transpose Grid, Linearize Rows and Columns). Press [ ] and [ ] to change the parameters. (See parameter definitions beginning on page 117.) 5. Complete parameter selections and press [MEAS/RESET] to return to Measurement mode with Grid View enabled. ] and [ ] to change the

None: Disables both B-Scan and DB-Grid while the gage is in Standard mode.

9.6.1

Display Half Database Grid


The half size DB grid is displayed in Measurement mode along with a half size waveform grid. Up to 5 grid rows are shown and the number of grid columns shown varies, depending on the length of column label strings and whether or not a database flag is displayed with each data cell. The current DB grid cell changes when the current ID changes, for example when you press [SAVE]. You can press the ID# key to enter the ID Review and use the arrow key to navigate to a different grid position.

MON

9.6.2

Display Full Database Grid


The full size DB grid is displayed in Measurement mode instead of the waveform grid. Up to 11 grid rows are shown. The number of grid columns shown varies depending on the length of column label strings and whether or not a database flag is displayed with each data cell. The current DB grid cell changes when the current ID changes, for example when you press [SAVE]. You can press [ID#] to enter the ID Review and use the arrow key to navigate to a different grid position. Note: You can select one of the following data flag conditions to appear in the attribute field of a grid cell: alarms (H or L), min/max (m or M), or saved AScan ("W"). This setting is used globally in Measurement mode and ID Review mode.

9.6.3

Save Thickness Readings


To save thickness readings, do the following: While the thickness value is displayed, press [SAVE] to save the thickness, or press [2nd F], [SAVE] (WAVEFORM) to save the thickness and waveform. There is an audible beep that indicates the reading is saved. The displayed thickness value and setup information is stored at the current ID location signified by the highlighted cell in the grid. If the thickness display is blank when you press [SAVE], then --.--- is saved in place of a value. The ID number is automatically updated to the next ID number in the sequence. The new ID number is indicated on the ID line of the display as well as a highlighted cell in the grid. If the ID number cannot be updated, a long beep sounds and the gage displays a message pertaining to the reason the ID was unable to update. In this case the ID number on the display remains unchanged. Note: The ID number increments in the order assigned when the file was originally set up (by row, by column, zig-zag, etc.) regardless of how the grid is displayed on the screen (reversed rows, or reversed columns or transposed grid) unless changed using Edit-Rename from the File option.

9.6.4

Grid Navigation
To navigate a grid, follow these steps: 1. Press [ID#] while in Measurement mode. The following data is displayed on the screen: Current ID Location Current Filename Stored Thickness value Stored Waveform (if any) with status flags Stored Comments or Notes

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2. Press [ ], [ ], [

], or [

] to highlight the grid location to view.

3. Press [2nd F], [ ] to jump to the last ID location in the file. Press [2nd F], [ ] to jump to the first ID location in the file. 4. Press [ID#] at any time to edit the displayed ID location. Note: In order to maintain the format of the grid, inserted or appended IDs are represented by a shaded cell. To view the edited ID, highlight the shaded cell and press [ZOOM]. The grid is changed to a linear view and the inserted or appended ID number is displayed. Press [ZOOM] again to return to the grid view.

5. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to Measurement mode with the current ID number changed to the ID location selected in the ID review mode. You can also press [2nd F], [MEAS/RESET] to return to Measurement mode with the current ID number unchanged. The current ID location is the last active ID location in Measurement mode.

9.7

Operating the Thru-Coat Function


See Performing a Thru-Coat Calibration Using D7906 and D7908 Transducers on page 39.

9.8

Reading Avg/Min Measurements


Use the Avg/Min Measurement feature to store the average or minimum measurements of several successive thickness readings to the datalogger. To set the Avg/Min Measurement parameters, follow these steps: 1. Press [2ndF], [0] (setup). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Avg/Min Measure option. Press [ENTER].

Figure 76

Opening the Avg/Min Measure Dialog Box ] or [ ] to select Off or

3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Enable option. Press [ On. Off: Disables Avg/Min Measurement. On: Enables Avg/Min Measurement. 4. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Mode option. Press [ ] or [

] to select Avg or Min.

OON

Avg: Calculates the average of the sequential thickness readings. Min: Calculates the Minimum of the sequential thickness readings. 5. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the # of Readings option. Press [ or 4. 6. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to Measurement mode. ] or [ ] to select 2, 3,

Each number refers to the number of thickness values in the sequence.

9.8.1

Making Avg/Min Measurements


When you are in the Measurement mode with Avg/Min Measurement active, the Measurement screen is displayed as shown below.

The "A" in the right most box indicates the Average is selected

The "M" in the right most box indicates the Min is selected

Figure 77

Viewing the Display Screen with Avg/Min Measurement Active

To make thickness readings using the Avg/Min Measurement mode, follow these steps: 1. Couple your transducer to the material and the thickness appears on the display. 2. Press [SAVE] to display the thickness in the left most thickness box. Each time you press [SAVE] the current thickness reading appears in the next shaded box moving to the right while the minimum or average of the thickness readings is automatically calculated and placed in the right most box. 3. Press [SAVE] when the Min or Average box are highlighted to store that value in the datalogger at the current ID# location and clear all the boxes. Note: Press [ ] or [ ] to switch from one highlighted box to another in the display screen. If you want to replace a reading, highlight the box of the measurement you want to replace and save a new reading. Press [MEAS] to clear all the boxes without saving to the datalogger.

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0.299

Figure 78

Replacing a Avg/Min Measurement Reading

9.9

Managing Temperature Compensation


The Temperature Compensation feature allows the gage to compensate for changes in sound velocity from of a test block at room temperature to the actual material that can be at an elevated temperature. The sound velocity of most steel changes about 1% for every 100F (55C) change in temperature. Using this feature, you can input the temperature of the calibration standard in either F or C units. You can manually enter a fixed elevated temperature, manually enter a temperature for the current measurement location, or automatically read the temperature from an optional temperature probe. The following equation is used to compensate for this change in sound velocity due to temperature. Temperature Corrected Thickness = MTI*Vo*(1+(k*(T1-To))) Where: MTI = Time measured interval Vo = Calibrated test block velocity T1 = Current material temperature To = Temperature at calibration k = Temperature coefficient (normally -0.0001F or -0.00005C ) Note: A temperature coefficient of 0.00001 assumes a 1% Change in velocity per 100F (55C) change in temperature. To set the temperature compensation parameters, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Temp Compensation option. Press [ENTER].

QON

Figure 79

Opening Temp Compensation Dialog Box ] or [ ] to select On or

3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Enable option. Press [ Off. On: Enables temperature compensation. Off: Disables temperature compensation. 4. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Mode option. Press [ Auto.

Manual: Specifies an initial current temperature value. Display or update the current temperature directly from Measurement mode by entering [2nd], [7] (Temp). Auto: Automatically acquires the current temperature through an optional probe connected to the gages serial port. 5. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Degree Units option. Press [ Fahrenheit or Celsius. ] or [ ] to select

6. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Calibration Temp option. Enter a number in the active field. The allowable range is 14F to 932F or -10C to 500C. You can specify a negative sign by entering [2nd], [ ] or [ ]. 7. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Temp Coef (k) option. Enter a number in the active field (-0.0001F, -0.00005C). 8. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Current Temp option. Enter a number in the active field. When you select Manual from the Mode option (see steps above) enter an initial current temperature value in the Current Temp field. The allowable range is 14F to 932F or -10C to 500C. 9. Press [MEAS] to return to the Temperature Compensation mode. The thickness displayed in the thickness field on the display screen is the temperature compensated thickness based on the Calibration Temp, the Current Temp, and the Temperature Coefficient.

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] or [

] to select Manual or

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500 F

Figure 80

Displaying Temperature Compensation Data

10. When Temperature Compensation mode is set to Manual, you can change the current temperature by pressing [2ndF], [7] (TEMP) and entering the new temperature using the numeric keys. If you do not enter a different temperature for each measurement location, then the gage uses the current temperature until the value is changed. 11. When Temperature Compensation mode is set to Auto, you can send the current temperature directly to the gage using the optional temperature probe. Note: Both the thickness and current temperature values are saved to the internal datalogger.

SON

10

Managing the Datalogger


Two very useful features of the Model 37DL PLUS are the internal datalogger and the two-way serial communication (RS-232) interface. The operation of the datalogger and data transmission are discussed in this section. (See Appendix D - Serial Interface on page 241 for more information.) Topics are as follows: Understanding the Datalogger Organizing the Datalogger Creating Data Files Opening a File Copying a File Deleting a File Editing/Renaming a File Creating or Editing Comment Tables from a Computer Creating or Editing Comment Tables from the Model 37DL PLUS Saving Data Using the Review ID Mode Using the Edit ID Mode Erasing Data Using the Optional Bar Code Wand to Enter an ID Number Generating Reports An optional Bar Code Wand is available. (See Appendix E - Data Output Format on page 243.) This bar code wand directs measurement location ID numbers into the gage by simply scanning bar code labels. The Bar Code Wand plugs directly into the gage I/O connector.

Note:

10.1

Understanding the Datalogger


The Model 37DL PLUS datalogger has a built-in file and data management system. Each thickness reading and/or waveform is stored and tagged with an alphanumeric identification number and file name with descriptive fields. A complete description of the measurement type, gage calibration and setup parameters is stored along with each reading. The following are just a few datalogger functions: Store the waveform display with any thickness measurement Recall stored data to the gage displays, printed out, or send to a computer Receive previously transmitted thickness and waveform data back from a computer

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View current datalogger settings while simultaneously taking measurements as, shown below:
Comment Notes File Name ID number Previous Thickness

Date/Time

Figure 81

Identifying Datalogger Settings

You can store either thickness measurements only or thickness measurements with an associated waveform. When each measurement is stored, the gage also stores a complete description of the measurement conditions with the measurement. The additional data stored with each thickness value includes: File Name File Header Data Identifier Units (in or mm) LOS (Loss of Signal) Differential Mode Differential Reference Value Alarm Mode Alarm Status Alarm Set Points Minimum or Maximum Mode Minimum or Maximum Reading Velocity Resolution Transducer Setup Number and Information Coating Thickness (when Thru-Coat is active) Temperature (when Temperature Compensation is active)

UON

Oxide Thickness (when Oxide Measurement is active)

When a waveform is stored, the following additional information is stored with it: Zoom Status Horizontal Axis Limits Detection Marker Position Delay Range Rectification Mode

You can store a maximum of 60,000 thickness values without waveforms at any one time in the Model 37DL PLUS. You can also store up to 4,500 thickness values with waveforms.

10.2

Organizing the Datalogger


The Model 37DL PLUS datalogger is a flexible file based system. Every measurement stored into the datalogger is tagged with an file name and identification number (ID number). The file name and ID number may be thought of as the name of the place in the gage memory where the measurement data is stored. This description usually corresponds to the physical location numbers of each measurement point in the actual application. ID numbers may also be associated with up to four Comments. The database can store a user defined number of files with descriptive headers and each file has a user defined number of identifiers. When stored data is printed or loaded into a computer and later recalled back to the gage, each measurement is always uniquely identified by the file name and ID number where it was initially stored.

10.2.1

File Name Structure


File names consist of up to 32 alphanumeric characters. Allowable characters are as follows: 0123456789 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ -.# The total number of files is only limited by the number of identifiers. The file name is limited to 32 DOS legal file name characters.

10.2.2

Identifier (ID Number) Structure


ID numbers consist of up to 20 alphanumeric characters. Allowable characters are as follows:

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0123456789 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ space - . / , : # * The allowable number of ID numbers within a file is dependent on the total number of identifiers in the datalogger. There are no restrictions on the use of any allowed character at any position in an ID number except that you cannot use a space as either the first or last character of the ID number.

10.2.3

File Name Header Structure


The file name header is a series of fields designed for additional descriptive information pertaining to a file. These fields include the following: File Description Inspector ID Location-Note Each field in the header consists of from 0 to 32 alphanumeric characters. Allowable characters are as follows: 0123456789 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ space - . / , : # * There are no restrictions on the use of any allowed character at any position in a header field except that you cannot use a space as either the first or last character of the ID number. The following screen shows the fields that are available in the header for user customization:

Figure 82

Creating a File Name

MPN

10.2.4

Comment Structure
Use Comments to annotate individual measurement sites in the database for unusual measurement conditions. Save these notes with or without the thickness measurement data as a permanent record of conditions encountered at the time of the survey. Typical Comments are: THIN AREA THICK AREA OUT OF TOLERANCE MIN THICKNESS MAX THICKNESS NO READING SEE WAVEFORM

A comment is a 16 character text note that can attach to a thickness reading in the database. The gage is capable of storing a maximum of 26 different comments per file, each of which is identified by a comment code letter A, B, ...Z. Comments are user definable for each file and can be alphanumeric. You can store 1 to 4 comments per thickness reading. Allowable characters are as follows: 0123456789 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ space - . / , : # * There are no restrictions on the use of any allowed character at any position in a comment except that you cannot use a space as either the first or last character of the ID number. All comments stored with a reading appear as their associated letter code in the flags section of the transmitted output. The full definition of each comment is written out in its entirety in a comment table once transferred to a computer or printer.You can also view Comment code definitions on the gage display as shown below.

Figure 83

Creating a Note

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(See Creating or Editing Comment Tables from the Model 37DL PLUS on page 167 for further instructions on using comments in the datalogger.)

10.3

Creating Data Files


Create Data Files for the Model 37DL PLUS datalogger from a computer or from within the gage. Throughout this section there are references to use the Model 37DL PLUS Standard Editing Commands. These commands are described in the section below.

10.3.1

Standard Editing Commands


To enter a number at any character location, do the following: Press any numeric key to change the character at the cursor to the digit selected and the cursor automatically advances one position to the right. To enter a letter or a symbol at any character location, follow these steps: 1. Press [ ] or [ ] to select a letter or punctuation mark. 2. Press and quickly release a slewing key to change the character by one value. Hold down an arrow key to continuously cycle through the letters and punctuation marks until the desired character is displayed. Tip: The [ ] key moves forward from A to Z then * # : , / . - blank A etc. The [ ] key moves backward from - . / , # : * Z to A blank - etc. After selecting an alpha character, press [ ] or [ ] to move the cursor position to another character.

OPN

Figure 84

Organization of Character Cycle

To insert a character at the cursor position, do the following: Press [ZERO]. The character at the cursor and all those to the right moves one position to the right, making a space for a new character. To delete the character at the cursor position, do the following: Press [VEL]. The character at the cursor is deleted and any characters to the right moves left one position to fill-in the empty space.

10.3.2

Create Files from a Computer (using the optional WIN37DL PLUS)


See the WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program Instruction Manual (part number 910-249) designed for use with the Model 37DL PLUS.

10.3.3

Create Files from the Model 37DL PLUS


To create files from the Model 37DL PLUS, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens:

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Figure 85

Selecting the Create Option

2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Create option. 3. Press [ENTER]. The following menu opens:

Figure 86

Selecting a File Type

4. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight a file type. There are seven file types to choose from in the Model 37DL PLUS. (See page 135 to page 157 for more information): Note: Incremental Sequential Sequential with Custom Points 2-D Grid Matrix 2-D Grid Matrix with Custom Points 3-D Grid Matrix Boiler As the list of file types is scrolled through, the right hand side of the display dynamically responds showing the required entry parameters to create the specific file types.

5. Highlight a file type and press [ENTER].

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10.3.3.1

Incremental
After entering a starting ID number (up to 20 alphanumeric characters long) the gage automatically increments to the subsequent ID numbers using the following incrementing rules: Only that portion of an ID number consisting of digits and letters (no punctuation marks) beginning with the right-most character and extending leftward to the first punctuation mark or to the left-most character (whichever comes first) can increment. Digits are cycled 0, 1, 2, ..., 9, 0, etc. The 9 to 0 transition is done only after incrementing the character to the left. Letters are cycled A, B, C, ..., Z, A, etc. The Z to A transition is done only after incrementing the character to the left. In either case, if there is no character to the left, or if the character to the left is a punctuation mark then the ID number cannot increment. If an ID number cannot increment, then after a reading is saved, an long error beep sounds and the momentary message CANNOT INCREMENT is shown on the waveform display. Subsequent saves overwrite readings if you do not manually change the ID number first. To make the gage increment through a range of numbers several digits wide while beginning with a single digit ID number, the maximum number of digit positions must be entered initially using leading zeroes. See Example 1.

Note:

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Example 1: Some Automatically Generated Incremented ID Number Series

1. Initial

Limit

1 2 3 . . . 9

4. Initial

0001 0002 0003 . . . 0009 0010 . . . 9999 1A 1B 1C . . . 1Z 2A 2B . . . 9Z

2. Initial

Limit 3. Initial

ABC ABD ABE . . . ABZ ACA ACB . . . ZZZ ABC*12*34 ABC*12*35 ABC*12*36 . . . ABC*12*99

Limit 5. Initial

Limit

Limit

SPN

To create an Incremental File, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Create option.The following screen opens:

Figure 87

Selecting an Incremental File Type

3. Select the Incremental option. 4. Enter the desired starting ID number for the data file. (See Standard Editing Commands on page 132 for more detail about entering data.) Press [ENTER]. 5. Press [ENTER]. The Continue option is highlighted. 6. Press [ENTER] to continue or press [ you want to cancel the operation. Note: ] or [ ] to highlight the Cancel option if

At any time, you can press [2nd F], [ ] or [2nd F], [ ] to scroll between entry fields on the display. This is helpful if an error is made and you want to scroll back to a previous field.

If you select the Continue option, the following screen opens:

Figure 88

Enter Incremental File Information

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7. Enter a file name using the gages editing commands. A file name may consist of one to 32 DOS legal characters. Press [ENTER]. Enter File Description, Inspector ID, and Location-Note fields using the same process. After each entry, press [ENTER] to tab to the next field. 8. Select Normal, Temp Comp, or Thru Coat for the File Data Mode option by pressing [ ] or [ ]. Press [ENTER]. Normal: Designates a file used to store standard thickness readings. Temp Comp: Saves both material temperature and temperature compensation thickness. Thru Coat: Saves both material and coating thickness when using the Thru Coat function. Oxide Layer: Both the Material (boiler tube) and Internal Oxide thickness when using the optional Oxide software. Note: This selection will not be available if the optional Oxide software is not loaded on the 37DL PLUS. ] or [ ]. Press

9. Select On or Off for the Delete Protection option by pressing [ [ENTER]. On: Provides a warning whenever you try to delete the file. Off: Allows the file to be deleted from the datalogger. Note:

In order to successfully create the file, a file name must be assigned. All other fields in this screen are optional. ] and [ ]. Press [ENTER].

10. Select the Done or Cancel option by pressing [

Cancel: The gage terminates the file create process and returns to the Measurement mode with the file and ID number unchanged. The datalogger contents remain unchanged. The file is not created. Done: The gage returns to the Measurement mode with this new file as the active file and the first ID number in the file as the active ID number.

10.3.3.2

Sequential
A Sequential File is defined by a starting and an ending ID number. The resulting file is inclusive of the starting and ending points and all points in between. Example 2: Start ID# = ABC123 End ID# = ABC135 Resulting file would contain the following list of ID numbers: ABC123 ABC124 ABC125

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. . . ABC135

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Example 3: Start ID# = XY-GY End ID# = XY-IB Resulting file would contain the following list of ID numbers: XY-GY XY-GZ XY-HA . . . XY-IB To create an Sequential file, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Create option.The following screen opens:

Figure 89

Selecting a Sequential File Type

3. Select the Sequential option. 4. Enter the desired starting ID number for the data file. (See Standard Editing Commands on page 132 for more detail about entering data.) Press [ENTER]. 5. Enter an ending ID number. Press [ENTER]. The Continue option is highlighted. 6. Press [ENTER] to continue or press [ you wish to cancel the operation. Note: ] or [ ] to highlight the Cancel option if

At any time, you can press [2nd F], [ ] or [2nd F], [ ] to scroll between entry fields on the display. This is helpful if an error is made and you want to scroll back to a previous field.

If you select the Continue option, the following screen opens:

MQN

Figure 90

Entering Sequential File Information

7. Enter a file name using the gages editing commands. A file name may consist of one to 32 DOS legal characters. Press [ENTER]. Enter File Description, Inspector ID, and Location-Note fields using the same process. After each entry, press [ENTER] to tab to the next field. 8. Select Normal, Temp Comp, or Thru Coat for the File Data Mode option by pressing [ ] or [ ]. Press [ENTER]. Normal: Designates a file used to store standard thickness readings. Temp Comp: Saves both material temperature and temperature compensation thickness. Thru Coat: Saves both material and coating thickness when using the Thru Coat function. Oxide Layer: Both the Material (boiler tube) and Internal Oxide thickness when using the optional Oxide software. Note: This selection will not be available if the optional Oxide software is not loaded on the 37DL PLUS. ] or [ ]. Press

9. Select On or Off for the Delete Protection option by pressing [ [ENTER]. On: Provides a warning whenever you try to delete the file. Off: Allows the file to be deleted from the datalogger. Note:

In order to successfully create the file, a file name must be assigned. All other fields in this screen are optional. ] and [ ]. Press [ENTER].

10. Select the Done or Cancel option by pressing [

Cancel: The gage terminates the file create process and returns to the Measurement mode with the file and ID number unchanged. The datalogger contents remain unchanged. The file is not created.

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Done: The gage returns to the Measurement mode with this new file as the active file and the first ID number in the file as the active ID number.

10.3.3.3

Sequential with Custom Point


A Sequential File with Custom Point is defined by a starting and an ending ID number plus a series of custom points. The resulting file is inclusive of the starting and ending points and all points in between. In addition, multiple thickness readings per ID number location are assigned using the assigned custom points. Example 4: This example describes measurements along a pipe or tube where at each ID number location you can take measurements at Top, Bottom, Left and Right of the pipe. Starting ID# = XYZ1267 Ending ID# = XYZ1393 Custom Points = TOP BOTTOM LEFT RIGHT Resulting file would contain the following list of ID numbers: XYZ1267TOP XYZ1267BOTTOM XYZ1267LEFT XYZ1267RIGHT XYZ1268TOP XYZ1268BOTTOM XYZ1268LEFT . . . XYZ1393RIGHT You can enter up to 20 custom points. The allowable length for each custom point depends on the ID number length defined in the starting and ending ID number fields. The total length of the ID number plus the custom points cannot exceed 20 characters. For example: if the starting and ending ID numbers are seven characters long, as in the above example, the maximum allowable length for each custom point is nine (20-7=13). To create a Sequential with Custom Point file, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Create option.The following screen opens:

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Figure 91

Selecting a Sequential with Custom Point File Type

3. Select the Sequential with Custom Point option. 4. Enter the desired starting ID number for the data file. (See Standard Editing Commands on page 132 for more detail about entering data.) Press [ENTER]. 5. Enter an ending ID number. Press [ENTER]. The Custom Point selection box is highlighted. 6. Enter the first custom point using the editing controls. Press [ENTER]. The gage proceeds to the next field for custom point entry. 7. Enter the second custom point and press [ENTER]. Continue this process until all desired custom points are entered. When finished entering custom points, press [ENTER] on a blank entry. The Continue option is highlighted. 8. Press [ENTER] to continue or press [ you want to cancel the operation. Note: ] or [ ] to highlight the Cancel option if

At any time, you can press [2nd F], [ ] or [2nd F], [ ] to scroll between entry fields on the display. This is helpful if an error is made and you want to scroll back to a previous field.

If you select the Continue option, the following screen opens:

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Figure 92

Entering Sequential with Custom Point File Information

Continue with the following steps: 1. Enter a file name using the gages editing commands. A file name may consist of one to 32 DOS legal characters. Press [ENTER]. Enter File Description, Inspector ID, and Location-Note fields using the same process. After each entry, press [ENTER] to tab to the next field. 2. Select Normal, Temp Comp, or Thru Coat for the File Data Mode option by pressing [ ] or [ ]. Press [ENTER]. Normal: Designates a file used to store standard thickness readings. Temp Comp: Saves both material temperature and temperature compensation thickness. Thru Coat: Saves both material and coating thickness when using the Thru Coat function. Oxide Layer: Both the Material (boiler tube) and Internal Oxide thickness when using the optional Oxide software. Note: This selection will not be available if the optional Oxide software is not loaded on the 37DL PLUS. ] or [ ]. Press

3. Select On or Off for the Delete Protection option by pressing [ [ENTER]. On: Provides a warning whenever you try to delete the file. Off: Allows the file to be deleted from the datalogger. Note:

In order to successfully create the file, a file name must be assigned. All other fields in this screen are optional. ] and [ ]. Press [ENTER].

4. Select the Done or Cancel option by pressing [

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Cancel: The gage terminates the file create process and returns to the Measurement mode with the file and ID number unchanged. The datalogger contents remain unchanged. The file is not created. Done: The gage returns to the Measurement mode with this new file as the active file and the first ID number in the file as the active ID number.

10.3.3.4

2-D Matrix Grid


A grid is a sequence of ID numbers arranged to describe a path through a two-dimensional or three-dimensional matrix. Each part of the ID number corresponds to a particular matrix dimension. A 2-D (two-dimensional) sequence begins with the ID number that refers to the first column and the first row. Then the column (or row) increments one value at a time until the sequence reaches the last column (or row) value while the other dimension value stays constant. At this point the other dimension increments from its first to its last value. This continues until the ID number that refers to the last column and last row is reached. Note, either the columns or the rows can be selected to increment first. Refer to the following figure.

Figure 93

General Grid Database

How is a grid used? A grid structure may associate one dimension of the grid (e.g., the columns) with the physical parts whose wall thickness is to be measured. The particular measurement points on each part are then associated with the other dimension of the grid (e.g., the rows). Figure 94 on page 146.

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Figure 94

One Grid for 75 Identical Parts

Alternatively, the rows and columns of a grid may refer to a two dimensional map of measurement points on the surface of one part. In this case a different grid is made for each part. Figure 95 on page 147.

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Name: Elbow Rows: 01 thru 10 Columns: A thru E IDs: Elbow/A0 thru Elbow/E10

Name: Tee Rows: 1 thru 4 Columns: 1 thru 3 IDs: Tee/11 thru Tee/34

Figure 95

Different Named Grid for Each Part

To create a 2-D Grid file, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Create option.The following screen opens:

Figure 96

Selecting a 2D Grid File Type

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3. Select the 2D Grid option. 4. Enter the desired starting ID number for the data file. (See Standard Editing Commands on page 132 for more detail about entering data.) Press [ENTER]. 5. Enter the desired ending column. Press [ENTER]. 6. Enter the desired starting row for the grid. Press [ENTER]. 7. Enter the ending row for the grid. Press [ENTER]. 8. Press [ ] or [ ], when ID Format is highlighted, to select the STD or EPRI option. Press [ENTER]. STD (standard): Refer to the standard incrementing columns that start at A and extend past Z. Example: Start Column: A; End Column: AD; Column Result: A, B, C...X, Y, Z, AA, AB, AC, AD. EPRI: Refer to custom incrementing columns that start at A and extend past Z. Expample: Start Column: A; End Column: CC; Column Result: A, B, C...Z, AA, BB, CC. 9. Press [ ] or [ [ENTER]. ] to select a column or a row for the increment method. Press

The Continue option is highlighted. 10. Press [ENTER] to continue or press [ you wish to cancel the operation. Note: ] or [ ] to highlight the Cancel option if

At any time [2nd F], [ ] or [2nd F], [ ] may be pressed to scroll between entry fields on the display. This is helpful if an error is made and you want to scroll back to a previous field.

If you select the Continue option, the following screen opens:

Figure 97

Entering 2D Grid File Information

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Continue with the following steps: 1. Enter a file name using the gages editing commands. A file name may consist of one to eight DOS legal characters. Press [ENTER]. Enter File Description, Inspector ID, and Location-Note fields using the same process. After each entry, press [ENTER] to tab to the next field. 2. Select Normal, Temp Comp, or Thru Coat for the File Data Mode option by pressing [ ] or [ ]. Press [ENTER]. Normal: Designates a file used to store standard thickness readings. Temp Comp: Saves both material temperature and temperature compensation thickness. Thru Coat: Saves both material and coating thickness when using the Thru Coat function. Oxide Layer: Both the Material (boiler tube) and Internal Oxide thickness when using the optional Oxide software. Note: This selection will not be available if the optional Oxide software is not loaded on the 37DL PLUS. ] or [ ]. Press

3. Select On or Off for the Delete Protection option by pressing [ [ENTER]. On: Provides a warning whenever you try to delete the file. Off: Allows the file to be deleted from the datalogger. Note:

In order to successfully create the file, a file name must be assigned. All other fields in this screen are optional. ] and [ ]. Press [ENTER].

4. Select the Done or Cancel option by pressing [

Cancel: The gage terminates the file create process and returns to the Measurement mode with the file and ID number unchanged. The datalogger contents remain unchanged. The file is not created. Done: The gage returns to the Measurement mode with this new file as the active file and the first ID number in the file as the active ID number. Note: The Model 37DL PLUS has the ability to add a row, add a column, and change the incrementing direction after a grid file is created. See Editing/ Renaming a File on page 164.

10.3.3.5

2-D Matrix Grid with Custom Point


A grid is a sequence of ID numbers arranged to describe a path through a two-dimensional or three-dimensional matrix. Each part of the ID number corresponds to a particular matrix dimension. See 2-D Matrix Grid on page 145 for more information.

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Custom points allow multiple readings per Grid ID number to be assigned.

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Example 5: Start Column A End Column J (Start Grid Coordinate = A01) Start Row 01 Start Row 17 (End Grid Coordinate = J17 Custom Points = LEFT CENTER RIGHT Resulting file would contain the following list of ID numbers: A01LEFT A01CENTER A01RIGHT A02LEFT . . . J17RIGHT To create a 2-D Grid with Custom Points file, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Create option.The following screen opens:

Figure 98

Selecting a 2-D Grid with Custom Points File Type

3. Select the 2-D Grid with Custom Points option. 4. Enter the desired starting column for the grid. (See Standard Editing Commands on page 132 for more detail about entering data.) Press [ENTER]. Note: The columns of the Model 37DL PLUS can increment past Z. Example: Start Column: A; End Column: AC; Column Result: A, B, C...Z, AA, AB, AC.

5. Enter the ending column. Press [ENTER].

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6. Enter the starting row for the grid. Press [ENTER]. 7. Enter the ending row for the grid. Press [ENTER]. The Custom Point selection box is highlighted. Continue with the following steps: 1. Enter the first custom point using the editing controls. Press [ENTER]. The gage proceeds to the next line for custom point entry. 2. Enter the second custom point. Press [ENTER]. Continue this process until all desired custom points are entered. (You can enter a maximum of 20 custom points.) When finished entering custom points, press [ENTER] on a blank entry. The Increment First By selection is highlighted. 3. Press [ ] or [ [ENTER]. ] to select column, row or point as the first increment method. Press

The Increment Second By selection is highlighted. 4. Press [ ] or [ ] to select column, row or point as the second increment method. Press [ENTER]. The Continue option is highlighted. 5. Press [ENTER] to continue or press [ you wish to cancel the operation. Note: ] or [ ] to highlight the Cancel option if

At any time [2nd F], [ ] or [2nd F], [ ] may be pressed to scroll between entry fields on the display. This is helpful if an error is made and you want to scroll back to a previous field.

If you select the Continue option, the following screen opens:

Figure 99

Entering 2D Grid with Custom Points File Information

6. Enter a file name using the gages editing commands. A file name may consist of one to 32 DOS legal characters. Press [ENTER].

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Enter File Description, Inspector ID, and Location-Note fields using the same process. After each entry press [ENTER] to tab to the next field. 7. Select Normal, Temp Comp, or Thru Coat for the File Data Mode option by pressing [ ] or [ ]. Press [ENTER]. Normal: Designates a file used to store standard thickness readings. Temp Comp: Saves both material temperature and temperature compensation thickness. Thru Coat: Saves both material and coating thickness when using the Thru Coat function. Oxide Layer: Both the Material (boiler tube) and Internal Oxide thickness when using the optional Oxide software. Note: This selection will not be available if the optional Oxide software is not loaded on the 37DL PLUS. ] or [ ]. Press

8. Select On or Off for the Delete Protection option by pressing [ [ENTER]. On: Provides a warning whenever you try to delete the file. Off: Allows the file to be deleted from the datalogger. Note:

In order to successfully create the file, a file name must be assigned. All other fields in this screen are optional. ] and [ ] . Press [ENTER].

9. Select the Done or Cancel option by pressing [

Cancel: The gage terminates the file create process and returns to the Measurement mode with the file and ID number unchanged. The datalogger contents remain unchanged. The file is not created. Done: The gage returns to the Measurement mode with this new file as the active file and the first ID number in the file as the active ID number. Note: The Model 37DL PLUS has the ability to add a row, add a column, and change the incrementing direction after a grid file is created. See Editing/ Renaming a File on page 164.

10.3.3.6

3-D Matrix Grid


A 3-D Matrix Grid is a sequence of multi-part ID numbers arranged to describe a path through a three-dimensional matrix. Each part of the ID number corresponds to a particular matrix dimension. A 3-D (three-dimensional) sequence begins with the ID number that refers to the first column, the first row and the first point. Then the point (or column, or row) increments one value at a time until the sequence reaches the last point (or column, or row) value while the other two dimension values stay constant. At this point another dimension increments

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from its first to its last value. This continues until the ID number that refers to the last column, last row and last point is reached. You can select either the columns, rows or points to increment first. How is a 3-D Grid Used? A three-dimensional grid structure may associate twodimensions of the grid (e.g., the columns and rows) with the physical coordinates on the part whose wall thickness is to be measured. The particular measurement points on each part are then associated with the third dimension of the grid (e.g., the points). This scenario allows multiple readings to be stored at each grid coordinate. Example 6: Start Column = A End Column = F Start Row = 1 End Row = 4 Start Point = X End Point = Z Resulting file would contain the following list of ID numbers A1X A1Y A1Z A2X . . . A4Z B1X B1Y . . . F4Z Note: You can select which dimension increments first, second and third. The example above assumes that you chose to increment the point first, the row second and the column third.

To create a 3-D Grid with Custom Points file, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Create option.The following screen opens:

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Figure 100 Selecting a 3-D Grid with Custom Points File Type 3. Select the 3-D Grid option. 4. Enter the desired starting column for the grid. (See Standard Editing Commands on page 132 for more detail about entering data.) Press [ENTER]. 5. Enter the desired ending column. Press [ENTER]. Note: The columns of the Model 37DL PLUS can increment past Z. Example: Start Column: A; End Column: AC; Column Result: A, B, C...Z, AA, AB, AC.

6. Enter the desired starting row for the grid. Press [ENTER]. 7. Enter the ending row for the grid. Press [ENTER]. 8. Enter the starting point for the grid. Press [ENTER]. 9. Enter the ending point for the grid. Press [ENTER]. The Increment First By selection is highlighted Continue with the following steps: 1. Press [ ] or [ [ENTER]. 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to select column, row or point as the increment method. Press

The Increment Second By selection is highlighted ] to select column, row or point. Press [ENTER]. ] or [ ] to highlight Cancel if The Continue option is highlighted 3. Press [ENTER] to continue. Alternately, press [ you wish to cancel the operation. Note:

At any time [2nd F], [ ] or [2nd F], [ ] may be pressed to scroll between entry fields on the display. This is helpful if an error is made and you want to scroll back to a previous field.

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If you select the Continue option, the following screen opens:

Figure 101 Entering 3D Grid File Information 4. Enter a file name using the gages editing commands. A file name may consist of one to 32 DOS legal characters. Press [ENTER]. Enter File Description, Inspector ID, and Location-Note field using the same process. After each entry press [ENTER] to tab to the next field. 5. Select Normal, Temp Comp, or Thru Coat for the File Data Mode option by pressing [ ] or [ ]. Press [ENTER]. Normal: Designates a file used to store standard thickness readings. Temp Comp: Saves both material temperature and temperature compensation thickness. Thru Coat: Saves both material and coating thickness when using the Thru Coat function. Oxide Layer: Both the Material (boiler tube) and Internal Oxide thickness when using the optional Oxide software. Note: This selection will not be available if the optional Oxide software is not loaded on the 37DL PLUS. ] or [ ]. Press

6. Select On or Off for the Delete Protection option by pressing [ [ENTER]. On: Provides a warning whenever you try to delete the file. Off: Allows the file to be deleted from the datalogger. Note:

In order to successfully create the file, a file name must be assigned. All other fields in this screen are optional. ] and [ ]. Press [ENTER].

7. Select the Done or Cancel option by pressing [

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Cancel: The gage terminates the file create process and returns to the Measurement mode with the file and ID number unchanged. The datalogger contents remain unchanged. The file is not created. Done: The gage returns to the Measurement mode with this new file as the active file and the first ID number in the file as the active ID number.

10.3.3.7

Boiler
A Boiler file is a special file type designed specifically for boiler applications A common method for identifying a thickness measurement location is by a three dimensional approach. The first dimension is Elevation, which refers to the physical distance from the bottom to the top of the boiler. The second dimension is Tube Number, which refers to the number of boiler tubes that need inspection. The third dimension is the Custom Point, which refers to the actual thickness reading location at the specified elevation on the specified tube. When these three dimensions are combined a single ID number is formed to precisely identify the exact location of each thickness reading. For example: Example 7: Elevations = 10ft-, 20ft-, 45ft-, 100ftStart tube = 01 End tube = 73 Custom points = L, C, R (left, center, right)

The resulting file would contain the following list of ID numbers: 10ft-01L 10ft-01C 10ft-01R 10ft-02L . . . 10ft-73R 20ft-01L . . . 100ft-73R (This example assumes that you chose to increment the custom piont first, tube number second, and elevation third. You can choose alternate incrementing methods.)

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To create a Boiler file, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Create option.The following screen opens:

Figure 102 Selecting a Boiler File Type 3. Select the Boiler option. 4. Enter the desired starting tube number for the grid. (See Standard Editing Commands on page 132 for more detail about entering data.) Press [ENTER]. 5. Enter the desired ending tube number. Press [ENTER]. The Custom Point selection box is highlighted. 6. Enter the first custom point using the editing controls. Press [ENTER]. The gage proceeds to the next line for custom point entry. 7. Edit the second custom point and press [ENTER]. Continue this process until all desired custom points have been entered. When finished entering custom points press [ENTER] on a blank entry. The Elevation selection box is highlighted. 8. Enter the first desired elevation using the editing controls. Press [ENTER]. The gage proceeds to the next line for elevation entry. 9. Edit the second elevation and press [ENTER]. Continue this process until all desired elevation have been entered. When finished entering elevation press [ENTER] on a blank entry. A maximum of 200 elevations can be entered. The Increment First By selection is highlighted. Continue with the following steps:

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1. Press [ ] or [ [ENTER]. 2. Press [ ] or [

] to select ELE, TUB, or point as the increment method. Press

The Increment Second By selection is highlighted. ] to select ELE, TUB, or point. Press [ENTER]. ] or [ ] to highlight the Cancel option if The Continue option is highlighted. 3. Press [ENTER] to continue or press [ you wish to cancel the operation. Note:

At any time [2nd F], [ ] or [2nd F], [ ] may be pressed to scroll between entry fields on the display. This is helpful if an error is made and you want to scroll back to a previous field.

If you select the Continue option, the following screen opens:

Figure 103 Entering Boiler File Information 4. Enter a file name using the gages editing commands. A file name may consist of one to 32 DOS legal characters. Press [ENTER]. Enter File Description, Inspector ID, and Location-Note field using the same process. After each entry press [ENTER] to tab to the next field. 5. Select Normal, Temp Comp, or Thru Coat for the File Data Mode option by pressing [ ] or [ ]. Press [ENTER]. Normal: Designates a file used to store standard thickness readings. Temp Comp: Saves both material temperature and temperature compensation thickness. Thru Coat: Saves both material and coating thickness when using the Thru Coat function. Oxide Layer: Both the Material (boiler tube) and Internal Oxide thickness when using the optional Oxide software.

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Note:

This selection will not be available if the optional Oxide software is not loaded on the 37DL PLUS. ] or [ ]. Press

6. Select On or Off for the Delete Protection option by pressing [ [ENTER]. On: Provides a warning whenever you try to delete the file. Off: Allows the file to be deleted from the datalogger. Note:

In order to successfully create the file, a file name must be assigned. All other fields in this screen are optional. ] and [ ]. Press [ENTER].

7. Select the Done or Cancel option by pressing [

Cancel: The gage terminates the file create process and returns to the Measurement mode with the file and ID number unchanged. The datalogger contents remain unchanged. The file is not created. Done: The gage returns to the Measurement mode with this new file as the active file and the first ID number in the file as the active ID number.

10.4

Opening a File
Use the File Open function to retrieve a file stored in the datalogger and mark it as the active file in the Measurement mode. To open a File, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens.:

Figure 104 Selecting Open Option 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Open option. Press [ENTER]. The following screen opens:

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Figure 105 Opening a File 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the name of a file to open. Press [ forward or backward to the next group of alphanumerical files. 4. Press [ENTER]. The Open option is highlighted. Note: When scrolling through the file names, a descriptive header for the highlighted file name appears on the lower section of the display. This information can assist in selecting the proper file if you are uncertain of the exact file name. ] or [ ] to move

5. Press [ENTER] to confirm opening the file. If you want to terminate the action press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Cancel option. Press [ENTER]. If you select the Open option, the gage returns to the Measurement mode with the selected file as the active file and the ID number is set to the first ID number in the file.

10.5

Copying a File
You can duplicate a file that already exists in the datalogger by using the File Copy function. This function provides two options: Copy the entire file including stored thickness data Copy the file ID number structure only

The File Copy function is useful when a new file needs to be created with the exact same structure as a previous file. To copy a file, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens.

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Figure 106 Selecting the Copy Option 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Copy option. Press [ENTER]. The following menu opens:

Figure 107 Copying a File 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the name of the file that the new file is being copied from. Press [ENTER]. 4. Use the Model 37DL PLUS editing controls to input the name of the new file being created. Press [ENTER]. The Include Thickness Data option is highlighted. 5. Press [ ] and [ ] to choose Yes or No. Press [ENTER]. This selection determines if previously stored thickness readings from the original file are copied into the new file. If you select No, the ID Numbers are copied, but the thickness field is left blank. The Copy option is highlighted. 6. Press [ENTER] to confirm the File Copy. If you wish to terminate the File Copy, press [ option and press [ENTER]. ] or [ ] to highlight the Cancel

7. Use the File Open commands to activate the newly copied file. (See Opening a File on page 160.)

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10.6

Deleting a File
The File Delete function is used to Erase files from the datalogger memory. Note: Once a file is deleted there is no way to recover any information that was once contained in that file unless it has previously been copied to another file or transferred to a computer. Files that are Delete Protected cannot be deleted until Delete Protection is disabled using the File Edit Rename feature. (See Editing/Renaming a File on page 164.)

There are two methods for deleting a file. To delete a file stored in the Model 37DL PLUS, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens.

Figure 108 Selecting the Delete Option 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Delete option. Press [ENTER]. The following menu opens:

Figure 109 Deleting a File 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the name of a file to delete.

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4. Press [ENTER] to select and place the check mark next to the file you want to delete. To deselect a file, highlight the file name and press [ENTER] to remove the check mark. Note: When scrolling through the file names, a descriptive header for the highlighted file name appears on the lower section of the display. This information can assist in selecting the proper file if you are uncertain of the exact file name.

5. When you are done selecting the files to delete, press [2nd F], [ ] and the Delete option is highlighted. 6. Press [ ] or [ [ENTER]. ] to select between Delete Stored Data or Entire File options. Press

7. Press [ENTER] on the Delete option to confirm erasing data. If you wish to terminate this process press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Cancel option and press [ENTER]. To delete an active file or a range of data in a file, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [FILE] (CLR MEM). The ID - Range CLR screen opens:

Figure 110 Deleting an Active File 2. Use the editing function to define the beginning ID location. Press [ENTER]. 3. Use the editing function to define the ending ID location. Press [ENTER]. 4. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Delete option and press [ENTER].

10.7

Editing/Renaming a File
Using the Editing-Rename function gives you the ability to edit file header information, disable File Delete Protection, add rows or columns to a grid file, and change the incrementing order of data. You can also change one or all of the following fields in a file: File Name File Description Inspector ID Location-Note

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Delete Protection (On/Off) End row, column, or point of a grid file Incrementing order of a file

This function does not let you edit the File type and is not used for editing individual Measurement Identifiers or actual Thickness Readings. 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens.

Figure 111 Selecting the Edit-Rename Option 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Edit-Rename option. Press [ENTER]. The File Edit-Rename screen opens:

Figure 112 Entering New File Information 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the name of the file to edit or rename. Press [ENTER]. You can now edit the fields in the lower section of the display with the exception of the File Type. The first field highlighted is the file name field. Edit this field using the Model 37DL PLUS Standard Editing Controls. (See Standard Editing Commands on page 132.) Note: While scrolling through the file names in the database, the lower section of the display will dynamically display the descriptive file header information

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for each file. This will assist in choosing the proper file if the file name is unknown. 4. Press [ENTER] after completing the edits. The File Description field for editing is highlighted. Continue this procedure until all desired fields are edited. At any time press [2nd F], [ ] and [2nd F], [ ] to move from one field to another. 5. When you finish editing file header information on a non-grid file, the gage will highlight the Done or Cancel option. Press the [ ] or [ ] to select Done and press [ENTER] to save the changes, or select Cancel to cancel the changes leaving the file header unchanged. 6. When you finish editing file header information on a grid file, the gage will highlight the Continue or Cancel option. Press the [ ] or [ ] to select Continue and the gage will display the Grid Edit screen.

Figure 113 Displaying the Grid Edit Screen This screen allows you to change the ending column, row, point, and also change the incrementing order of the file. Note: You can increase the size of a grid file, but you cannot decrease it.

7. When you are done editing the ending row, column, or point, the Done or Cancel option will be highlighted. Press the [ ] or [ ] to select Done to finish editing and return to the Measure screen, or select Cancel to cancel all the changes and return to the Measure screen.

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10.8

Creating or Editing Comment Tables from a Computer


Using a computer to create comment tables is faster and easier than manually creating them on the Model 37DL PLUS. For details see the WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program Instruction Manual (part number 910-249) designed for use with the Model 37DL PLUS.

10.9

Creating or Editing Comment Tables from the Model 37DL PLUS


To create or edit comment tables, follow these steps: 1. Open the file that contains the Comment Table that you want to edit by using the File Open option. (See Opening a File on page 160.) 2. Press [2nd F], [ID#] (NOTE). If there are no previous comments, the Notes screen opens.

Figure 114 Entering Information for the Comment Table

Note:

If there are any previous comments, the screen may show those comments.

3. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the letter code for the comment you wish to program. A comment is assigned a letter code A-Z. 4. Press [ ] and [ ] to activate the Edit mode. (See Standard Editing Commands on page 132 for more detail about entering data.)

10.9.1

Delete Comments from a Comment Table


To delete a particular comment text, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [ID#] (Note).

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2. Press [ ] or [ ] until the desired comment to delete is highlighted. 3. Press [ 4. Press [ ] or [ ] or [ ] to enter Edit mode. ] to move the cursor.

5. Press [VEL] to delete the characters in the comment. The comment text will be erased. Deleting comment text does not delete comment codes from the measurement database. Note: The text of comment codes that are already stored with measurements in the current database should not be deleted since that destroys the meaning of the stored codes. You can delete the text for unused comment codes at any time.

10.9.2

Copy a Note
The Note Copy function can be used to copy a note table from one file to another file in the Model 37DL PLUS. This is very useful when you are creating files from the Model 37DL PLUS and want to use a common note table. To Copy a Note Table, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Options menu opens. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Note-Copy option. Press [ENTER].

Figure 115 Selecting the Note-Copy Option 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the file (source file) that contains the Note Table you want to copy. Press [ENTER].

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Figure 116 Selecting a Note to Copy 4. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the file (destination file) that you want to copy. Press [ENTER]. 5. Press [ Note: ] and [ ] to select the Copy option or Cancel option. Press [ENTER].

Copying a comment table to a file that has existing stored comments may redefine the meaning of existing stored comments. For example, if A = Hot Surfaces in the original comment table and you copy a comment table where A = Painted Surfaces, it changes the definition of A, and thus changes the meaning of any previous stored A comments.

10.9.3

Database Tracking
See Database Tracking on page 95.

10.10

Saving Data
Store displayed thickness value or both the thickness and waveform in the datalogger pressing [SAVE]. All of the appropriate calibration and setup parameters are also stored simultaneously. (See Understanding the Datalogger on page 127 for a complete description of what is stored in the datalogger.) If a measurement is already stored at the current ID number, pressing [SAVE] overwrites the old thickness reading with the current thickness reading unless the overwrite protection feature is enabled. (See ID Overwrite Protection on page 92.) If you do not want to save a measurement at a specific ID, press [SAVE] while no measurement is taken. The gage will store an LOS condition and -.- at the specific ID number.

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10.10.1

Save Thickness Readings


To save a thickness reading, do the following: While the thickness value is being displayed, press [SAVE]. An audible beep indicates that the reading is saved. The displayed thickness value and setup information is stored at the current ID number in the current file. If the thickness display is blank when [SAVE] is pressed, then - is saved in place of a value. The ID number is automatically updated to the next ID number in the sequence. The new ID number is indicated on the display. If the ID number cannot be updated a long beep sounds and the gage displays a message explaining why the ID was unable to update. In this case, the ID number on the display remains unchanged. Some of the special features of the Model 37DL PLUS allow the gage to store more than one thickness value or thickness and temperature at an ID location. For this reason, the gage has four different file types for saving data: Thickness: Standard one thickness saved. Thru-Coat: Saving thickness of coating and thickness of steel. Temperature Compensation: Saving thickness of steel and temperature. Oxide Thickness: Saving thickness of steel and thickness of inside oxide space.

Only one type of data can be stored in a file. The Model 37DL PLUS automatically designates the file type based on the first thickness reading saved in the file. The gage does not let you store different file type data in a single file.

10.10.2

Save Thickness and Waveform


To save a thickness and waveform, do the following: While the thickness value is displayed, press [2nd F], [SAVE]. An audible beep indicates that the reading is saved. The displayed thickness value, waveform and setup information are stored at the current ID number in the current file. If the thickness display is blank when you press [SAVE], then - is saved in place of a value. The ID number is automatically updated to the next ID number in the sequence. The new ID number is indicated on the display. If the ID number cannot be updated a long beep sounds and the gage displays a message explaining why the ID was unable to update. In this case, the ID number on the display remains unchanged.

10.10.3

Save Comments
Up to four comments may be stored at each identifier within a file. To save a comment, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [ID#] (Note). The Notes table opens, similar to the display shown below.

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Figure 117 Selecting a Comment from the Notes Table 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the desired comment to be stored. Press [ENTER]. The selected comment is marked with a square in the box to the left of the comment letter code. Repeat this step up to four comments. 3. Press [MEAS/RESET]. The next time [SAVE] is pressed these comment codes will be saved with the thickness at the current ID number. (See Creating or Editing Comment Tables from the Model 37DL PLUS on page 167 for more information.) Note: The comment codes are automatically untagged every time you press [SAVE]. Therefore, you must select the desired comment code before using it.

10.11

Using the Review ID Mode


The review ID mode has three purposes: Review datalogger contents by scanning through stored ID locations in the active file. Move within the database and change the current ID location to any location that already exists in the database. Change the current ID location to any location that already exists in the database for the purposes of editing that ID location.

To review stored thickness values and waveforms or move to an existing id location, follow these steps: 1. From the Measurement mode, press [ID#]. The following data is displayed on the screen: Current ID Location

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Current File Name Stored Thickness Value Stored Waveform (if any) with Status Flags (described in figure below) Stored Comments or Notes

Datalogger Flags: The area composed of four small boxes in the upper right corner of the waveform area is reserved for status flags describing the displayed stored thickness values. The flags are the same single letter abbreviations for status words that are transmitted by the gage using the Sending commands. (See Managing Communications/Data Transfer on page 199.) The flags that are defined for each box are described in the figure below. The Review mode is indicated by ID Review section in the center of the display. An example is shown in the figure below:

M: Standard Measurement L: Standard LOS E: AE to E Measurement l: AE to E LOS e: ME to E Measurement n: ME to E LOS 1: Mode 1 Meas 2: Mode 2 Meas 3: Mode 3 Meas a: Mode 1 LOS b: Mode 2 LOS c: Mode 3 LOS

Differential Mode D: Diff Absolute d: Diff Percentage Standard Alarm A: Alarm Standard H: High Alarm Standard L: Low Alarm Standard -: No Alarm/Diff

Percent Previous Mode p: Prev Thk % Alarm r: Prev Thk % Low Alarm g: Prev Thk % High Alarm Absolute Previous Alarm Mode a: Prev Thk Absolute Alarm l: Prev Thk Absolute Low Alarm h: Prev Thk Absolute High Alarm

G: Gain Modified m: MIN M: MAX

Figure 118 Identifying the Review ID Mode Measurements are disabled in this mode. 2. Press [ ] to display the next ID Location in the datalogger and its stored contents. 3. Press [ ] to display the previous ID Location and its stored contents.You can either press [ ] and [ ] repeatedly or hold down either key to review the datalogger. 4. Press [2nd F], [ ] to jump to the last ID Location in the file. Press [2nd F], [ ] to jump the first ID Location in the file. 5. Press [ID#] at any time to edit the displayed ID Location. (See Using the Edit ID Mode on page 173.) 6. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode with the current ID Location changed to the ID Location selected in the ID Review mode.

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10.12

Using the Edit ID Mode


The ID Edit mode is generally used for one of two purposes: To change the current ID Location to a different ID Location already in the database. This mode is useful when you are using a large database and it would take too long to locate the desired ID by pressing [ ] and [ ]. To change the current ID Location to a new ID, which does not yet exist in the database. This mode is useful when you want to include additional measurement points to the active file. Additional ID Locations can be added anywhere in the database (beginning, middle, end.) No stored data is shown while in ID Edit mode and no measurements can be made.

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To use the ID Edit mode, follow these steps: 1. Press [ID#] from the Measurement mode. The current ID Location, including the stored thickness contents (if any), stored waveform (if any), and stored comments/notes (if any), are displayed on the ID Review screen. (See Using the Review ID Mode on page 171.) 2. Use the ID Review mode techniques to select the ID Location to begin editing. 3. To enable the ID Edit mode, press [ID#] again and the following editing screen opens:

Figure 119 Enabling the ID Edit Mode An editing cursor (reverse video) appears on the first character of the displayed ID Location, as shown on the above screen. (See Standard Editing Commands on page 132 for more detail about entering data.) Choose one of the following three steps to exit editing at any time:

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1. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode with the Current ID Location modified as displayed. If the edited ID is NOT in the database, the following screen opens:

Figure 120 Example of Screen if Edited ID is Not in the Database 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Insert, Append, or Cancel option.

The Append option has the edited ID number appended to the end of the file. The Insert option has the edited ID inserted before the current ID Location. 3. Press [SAVE] with or without an active measurement in order for the edited ID to become a permanent part of the database. After pressing [SAVE], the sequence resumes at the previous current ID. 4. Press [ID#] to Return to the ID Review mode with the Displayed ID modified as edited. The ID Review mode is entered with the ID selected in the Edit mode. If this number is not in the database, it will be lost when any review key is pressed.

10.13

Erasing Data
Note: Data erased by the techniques below CANNOT be recovered.

10.13.1

Erase Data in the Active/Open File


To erase a single measurement, follow these steps: 1. Press [ID#] while in the Measurement mode, to enter the ID Review mode. The current ID number is shown with its stored data. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] or the edit keys to change to the ID number to be erased. (See Using the Edit ID Mode on page 173.)

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3. Press [2nd F], [FILE] (Clr Mem) to erase the data at the displayed ID number, the thickness value, the setup information, and the waveform. The displayed ID number changes to the next ID number in the sequence following the one erased.

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Note:

To replace a thickness reading it is easier to save a new measurement at the desired ID from the Measurement mode. If you do not want to save a measurement at a specific ID, press [SAVE] from the Measurement mode when you are not taking a measurement. This stores an LOS condition and -.- at the specific ID number.

4. Press [MEAS/RESET] to return to the Measurement mode. Note: When deleting an ID number in a Sequential or Incremental file, the ID number location is also deleted. In all file types, only the thickness/ waveform is deleted.

To erase a range of measurements, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [FILE] (CLR MEM) from the Measurement mode. 2. Enter the starting range ID and ending range ID. 3. Press [ENTER]. 4. Select the Delete or Cancel option and press [Enter].

10.13.2

Erase a File
See Deleting a File on page 163.

10.13.3

Erase the Entire Database


Caution: Erasing the entire Database erases all files and data contained in those files. The datalogger will be completely empty after this procedure. 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). The Setup mode menu opens:

Figure 121 Selecting the Resets Option 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Resets option. Press [ENTER]. The following screen opens:

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Figure 122 Selecting the DBase Reset Option 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the DBase Reset option. Press [ENTER]. The following screen opens:

Figure 123 Warning Message when Resetting DBase 4. Press [ENTER] to confirm, or press [MEAS/RESET] to abort DBASE Reset.

10.14

Using the Optional Bar Code Wand to Enter an ID Number


GE Panametrics offers a non-contact Bar Code Wand for the Model 37DL PLUS (Part #36DLP/BCW). The purpose of using a Bar Code Wand is to provide a method for the gage to automatically edit the current ID number to match that of a bar code label. To use the Bar Code Wand to enter an ID number, follow these steps: 1. Verify the communication parameters are set to the following values:

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Baud Rate: Parity: Stop Bits:

19200 None 1

Word Length: 8

2. Plug the GE Panametrics Bar Code Wand into the RS-232 Connector on the Model 37DL PLUS. 3. Scan the Bar Code Wand on the special ID Code Label. When using the non-contact wand, position the scanner over the bar code label (0.0 2.00" or 0 - 50mm away from the label) and press the trigger button. The ID number changes to the value coded on the label and the gage returns to the Measurement mode, ready to take a measurement. 4. Press [SAVE] to save a measurement.The current ID number is displayed in the ID section of the screen (top left). Note: Print labels on medium density 3 of 9 code. Consult GE Panametrics for further information on label requirements.

10.15

Generating Reports
The Model 37DL PLUS is capable of generating inspection data reports from within the gage without having to connect to a computer or printer. The following reports are available: File Summary with Statistics Report Min/Max Summary File Comparison Report Alarm Report

To generate a report, follow these steps: 1. Press [FILE]. The File Option menu opens:

Figure 124 Selecting the Reports Option

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2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Reports option. Press [ENTER]. The following menu opens:

Figure 125 Selecting the File Summary with Stats Option 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the desired report. Press [ENTER]. Choose from the following reports: Summary with Statistics Report Min/Max Summary File Compression Alarm Report

If you select the Summary with Statistics Report option, the File Summary w/ Stats screen opens.

Figure 126 Selecting a File to View 1. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the desired file name.

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2. Press [ENTER] to view the statistics. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Report or Cancel option. Press [ENTER] and the File Summary with Statistics Report opens. If you select the Min/Max Summary option, the following screen opens.

Figure 127 Viewing File if Min/Max Summary is Selected 1. Press [ ] and [ ] to select the file and press [ENTER]. 2. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Report or Cancel option. Press [ENTER]. If you select Report, the Min/Max Report opens with the first min ID # highlighted.

Figure 128 Reviewing the Min/Max Summary Report 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to scroll through the minimum thickness locations.

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4. Press [ENTER] to highlight the maximum thickness locations. 5. Press [ ] and [ ] to slew through the maximum thickness locations. 6. Press [2nd F], [ ] or [2nd F], [ ] to move between min thickness and maximum thickness. 7. Press [ENTER], when Cancel is highlighted, to close the Min/Max Report. If File Comparison Report is chosen the following screen opens.

Figure 129 Viewing File if File Comparison is Selected 1. Press [ ] and [ ] to select the Reference file (original file) and press [ENTER]. 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to select the Comparison file (latest file). 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Report or Cancel option. Press [ENTER]. If you select the Report option, the File Comparison Report opens and the first maximum wall loss location is highlighted.

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Figure 130 Reviewing the Comparison Summary Report 4. Press [ ] and [ ] to review all Maximum Wall Loss locations. 5. Press [ENTER] to move to the Wall Growth ID # list. 6. Press [ ] and [ ] to scroll through the Wall Growth ID # list. 7. Press [2nd F], [ ] or [2nd F], [ ] to switch between the Maximum Wall Loss and Wall Growth list. 8. Press [ENTER] to close the File Compression Report. If Alarm Report is chosen the following screen opens.

Figure 131 Viewing File if Alarm Report is Selected 1. Press [ ] and [ ] to select the file and press [ENTER].

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2. Press [

] or [

] to select the Report or Cancel option. Press [ENTER].

If you select the Report option, the File Comparison Report opens and the first maximum wall loss location is highlighted.

Figure 132 Reviewing Alarm Summary Report 3. Press [2nd F], [ ] or [2nd F], [ ] to switch between the Lo Alarm IDs and the Hi Alarm IDs. 4. Press [ENTER] to close the Alarm Report.

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11

Custom Setups for Single Element Transducers


In addition to providing programmed standard transducer setups, the Model 37DL PLUS permits you to create custom setups by changing a series of pulser/receiver and gating parameters. Use custom setups when the measurement requirements of a particular application are not optimally met by one of the standard setups. In some cases, a Model 37DL PLUS ships from the factory pre-programmed with one or more custom setups to meet special customer requirements. However, you may want to create your own custom setups. Once adjustments are made, you can name and store these setup parameters in one of the 10 user defined setup locations. This feature gives the Model 37DL PLUS the flexibility to change quickly between transducer and application setups by selecting the setup name from a stored list. Note: The adjustments described in this section should be made only by a qualified technician who is familiar with the basic theory of ultrasonic gaging and the interpretation of ultrasonic waveforms.

Many of these adjustments are interactive, and all of them have an effect on the measurement range and/or measurement accuracy of the Model 37DL PLUS. In most cases, do not attempt adjustments without monitoring waveforms. Additionally, when establishing a custom setup for a specific application, it is essential to verify performance on reference standards representing the material(s) and thickness range to measure. Topics are as follows: Managing the Detect Mode Function Defining a Setup Name Defining Measurement Type Defining a Probe Type Varying Pulser Power Adjusting Maximum Gain Adjusting Initial Gain Adjusting TDG Slope Adjusting the Main Bang Blank Adjusting the Echo Window

11.1

Managing the Detect Mode Function


The Detect Mode function selects Mode 1, Mode 2, or Mode 3 measurements. See DtectMode and EchWindow Parameters on page 192 for further explanation. Mode 1: Measures the time of flight between the Main Bang and the first backwall echo using a direct contact transducer.

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Main Bang

First Backwall

Figure 133 Detect Mode 1 Mode 2: Measures the time of flight between the interface (or delay line) echo and the first backwall echo using a delay line or immersion transducer.

Main Bang First Backwall Interface

Figure 134 Detect Mode 2 Mode 3: Measures the time of flight between one backwall echo to the next backwall echo using a delay line or immersion transducer.

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Interface Second Backwall First Backwall

Figure 135 Detect Mode 3

11.2

Defining a Setup Name


A user defined name has up to 16 alphanumeric characters used to name and describe the stored setup.

11.3

Defining Measurement Type


The Model 37DL PLUS offers three measurement types: Standard, Oxide Layer, and EMAT. The Standard measurement type refers to a normal Mode 1, 2, and 3 measurements. Oxide Layer measurement type uses a special advanced algorithm to measure the thickness of steel boiler type measurements and the thickness of internal oxide simultaneously. EMAT mode is employed when using the E110-SB EMAT transducer.

11.4

Defining a Probe Type


The probe type indicates the transducer type selected in the Active Setup. Each probe type selected should match the frequency of the transducer being used for proper Pulser/ Receiver performance.

11.5

Varying Pulser Power


You can adjust the excitation pulse (Main Bang) voltage in three steps of 30, 60, and 110 Volts. Higher voltages may provide greater penetration at the expense of near surface resolution, especially in Mode 1, while lower voltages may provide better near surface resolution at the expense of penetration. For most applications the 110 Volt setting

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provides the best signal-to-noise ratio for returning echoes. The Pulser Power does the following: Indicates the voltage used to drive the transducer that is selected Affects the amount of energy going into the transducer and the size of the Initial Pulse

Initial Pulse

Figure 136 Pulser Power Set to 30 Volts Shows a Smaller Initial Pulse

Initial Pulse

Figure 137 Pulser Power Set to 110 Volts Shows a Larger Initial Pulse

11.6

Adjusting Maximum Gain


You can adjust the maximum available receiver gain from 0.0dB to 79.98dB. The Model 37DL PLUS uses Automatic Gain Control (AGC) and Time Dependent Gain (TDG) functions to automatically adjust receiver gain to an optimum level when an echo is detected. When no echo is detected (LOS prompt), the gain rises to the maximum level set by the Initial Gain, Slope, and Maximum Gain. If the maximum gain is set too high, the gage may hang up on transducer noise or other spurious signals; if it is set too low, returning echoes may not be high enough for detection.

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In general, for a given application the Max Gain should be set high enough that all echoes of interest are detected, but a steady LOS prompt is displayed when the transducer is not coupled to a test piece. The Max Gain indicates the Maximum (time dependent) receiver gain possible and is used to amplify echoes that are further out in time. Note: The Max Gain can never be lower then Initial Gain and has a maximum value of 79.98dB.

TDG SLOPE Initial

Figure 138 Maximum Gain

11.7

Adjusting Initial Gain


Initial Gain and TDG Slope are part of a Time Dependent Gain system that may be used to optimize near-surface resolution while providing a higher maximum gain for thicker samples. You can adjust the Initial Gain from 0dB to the maximum defined by the Max Gain setting. This parameter sets an upper limit on receiver gain in the vicinity of the excitation pulse (Mode 1) or interface echo (Modes 2 and 3). By effectively making the excitation pulse or interface echo smaller, the TDG system permits detection of echoes occurring close to pulse or echo in time. The TDG system is also used in measurements of highly scattering materials, such as cast metals and fiberglass, to minimize detection of scatter echoes occurring ahead of the backwall. From the initial gain level, receiver gain slopes up to the maximum gain level at the rate determined by the TDG Slope setting. The Initial Gain setting is most critical in applications where minimum thickness measurements must be optimized, and should always be set with the aid of a reference standard representing that minimum. In cases where the minimum thickness capability is less important than penetration, and scatter echoes are not a problem, Initial Gain can be set equal to Max Gain. The Initial Gain does the following: Indicates the initial (time dependent) receiver gain currently selected Amplifies echoes that are close to the Main Bang or interface echoes Starts at Time Zero and extends to: the Main Bang Blank in Mode 1 the end of the Interface Blank in Mode 2 and 3

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Max Gain

Time

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TDG SLOPE Initial

Max Gain

Time

Figure 139 Initial Gain

11.8

Adjusting TDG Slope


The Time Dependent Gain (TDG) Slope function controls the rate at which the receiver gain slopes up from the Initial Gain level to the Max Gain level. You can set the Slope from 0.0 to 26.5dB per microsecond. Generally, TDG Slope should be set as high as possible to reach maximum gain as quickly as possible without having the gage hang up on spurious signals. Rate of increase of the receiver (Time dependent) Gain from Initial Gain to Max Gain Slope helps suppress reflections from grain structure or fibers Slope adjusts from 0.0dB to 26.52 dB/Sec Point in time that the Gain starts to slope is: the Main Bang Blank in Mode 1 the End of the Interface Blank in Mode 2 and 3
TDG SLOPE Initial Max Gain

Time

Figure 140 TDG Slope

11.9

Adjusting the Main Bang Blank


The Main Bang Blank is effectively a blank zone that protects the receiver from false readings generated by the Main Bang. This blank or dead zone (up to 18 microseconds from the excitation pulse) prevents you from detecting echoes of the trailing edge of the excitation pulse as if it were a backwall or interface echo. The Main Bang Blank indicates the point in time where the gage begins to search for echoes. In Modes 2 and 3, the setting of the Main Bang Blank is not critical; set at some point between the end of excitation pulse ringdown and the interface echo. In Mode 1, however, the length of the Main Bang Blank determines the minimum thickness that can be measured, and it must be positioned with care after selecting the

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Initial Gain level. In Mode 1, set just past the Initial Pulse. If the Main Bang Blank is too short, then the gage hangs up on the excitation pulse and readings are not be possible. If the Main Bang Blank is too long, then the minimum measurable thickness is unnecessarily restricted. Make sure that the Main Bang Blank is always set before the interface echo from the shortest water path when using immersion transducers. In general, set the Main Bang Blank just beyond the point where the gage hangs up, and test with the transducer both coupled to and uncoupled from the test material to ensure accurate measurements.

Main Bang Blank

Initial Pulse

Figure 141 Main Bang Blank Position for Mode 1

Main Bang Blank

Initial Pulse

Figure 142 Main Bang Blank Position for Mode 2 and 3

11.10

Adjusting the Echo Window


The Echo Window is the time interval in each Main Bang period during which the gage is enabled to detect Echoes. The Echo Window interval begins at the end of the Main Bang Blank. The end of the Echo Window depends on the DtectMode and EchWindow parameters as shown in the following table:

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DtectMode = 1 Echo Window Starts: Echo Window Ends: At end of Main Bang Blank EchWindow xsec following Main Bang

DtectMode = 2 or 3 At end of Main Blank EchWindow xsec following the interface blank

Note: xsec where you set the x parameter. Table 9 DtectMode and EchWindow Parameters

In Mode 1, the Echo Window can usually be set to any value greater than the round-trip pulse transit time in the thickest or slowest piece of material to be measured. The exact setting is not critical as long as it is long enough to include the farthest echo of interest. In Modes 2 and 3, the Echo Window is limited to the time interval between successive interface echoes. The end of the Echo Window must be set ahead of the second interface echo to prevent an incorrect detection, which in turn determines a maximum measurable thickness for Mode 2 and Mode 3 setups. In applications involving Mode 2 and Mode 3 immersion measurements, the echo placement must apply throughout the range of water paths to be used.

Echo Window Main Bang Blank Initial Pulse Backwall

Figure 143 Echo Window Setting for Mode 1

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Interface Echo Interface Blank

Figure 144 Echo Window Setting for Mode 2 and 3

11.10.1

Echo 1 Detect and Echo 2 Detect


Echo 1 Detect and Echo 2 Detect select positive or negative polarity echo detection as determined by application requirements. Selection is dependant on mode of measurement and type of test material. Note: Positive and negative polarity refer to processed echoes displayed on the waveform display. Mode 1: Using contact transducers, Echo 1 is the backwall echo and Echo 2 is not applicable. Echo 1 is normally negative, except when measuring material of low acoustic impedance bonded to a material of high impedance (such as plastic or rubber over metal), where the echo is phase-reversed and positive detection for Echo 1 is appropriate. Mode 2: Using delay line or immersion transducers, Echo 1 is the interface echo and Echo 2 is the backwall echo. Echo 1 is normally positive for high impedance materials such as metals and ceramics, and negative for low impedance materials such as most plastics. Echo 2 is normally negative unless the backwall echo represents the sort of low-to-high impedance boundary described above. Mode 3: Using delay line or immersion transducers, Echo 1 is the interface echo and Echo 2 represents the backwall echoes. Since Mode 3 generally involves measurement of high impedance materials, the general rule is to set Echo 1 positive and Echo 2 negative. In some special cases involving difficult geometries, phase distortion may cause the positive side of the backwall echoes to be better defined than the negative side; in such cases set Echo 2 positive.

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Echo Window

2nd Interface Echo

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Figure 145 Negative Detection Steel Back by Air

Echo 1 Detect Positive Echo 2 Detect Negative

Figure 146 Positive Detection Plastic Bonded to Steel

11.10.2

Interface Blank
Use Interface Blank in Modes 2 and 3 only. Interface Blank represents a blank or dead zone up to 20 microseconds in length that follows the leading edge of the interface echo. In Mode 2, the Interface Blank prevents detection of trailing lobes or cycles of the interface echo, which might otherwise be detected as backwall echoes, resulting in a hangup condition. The Interface Blank should be set as short as possible to avoid unnecessarily restricting minimum measurable thickness. The Initial Gain function often helps reduce interface echo amplitude and permit use of a shorter interface blank. Check Interface Blank settings with the transducer both coupled to and uncoupled from the test material. In Mode 3, the Interface Blank selects which pair of backwall echoes are measured. In most conditions, the Interface Blank would be set just short of the first backwall echo. However, as a practical matter, the first backwall echo from thin materials is often distorted or lost in the interface ringdown, and with some challenging geometries (such as

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tight radii) later pairs of backwall echoes may be cleaner than early ones. In these cases, set the Interface Blank to a length that insures detection of a clean and well-defined pair of backwall echoes, even if echoes are not the first two.

Gage Reading Trailing Edge of the Interface Echo

Interface Blank Set Correctly

Figure 147 Mode 2

Gage Reading between Backwall 1 and 2

Interface Blank Adjusted so Gage will Measure between Backwall 2 and 3

Figure 148 Mode 3

11.10.3

Mode 3 Echo Blank


The function of Mode 3 Echo Blank in Mode 3 is analogous to that of Interface Blank in Mode 2 or Main Bang Blank in Mode 1. This function creates a blank or dead zone up to 20 microseconds long following the leading edge of the first detected backwall echo, to prevent detection of trailing lobes or cycles of that echo and the resulting gage hang-up. Because Mode 3 Echo Blank limits minimum measurable thickness, set the controls as short as possible; typically no longer than a few hundred nanoseconds. Special cases may be an exception where mode conversion effects on curved samples cause significant

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spurious signals between legitimate echo peaks; in such cases set the Mode 3 Echo Blank as long as necessary to prevent detection of the spurious signals.

Figure 149 Gage Hanging up on Trailing Edge of Backwall 1

Figure 150 M3Blank Set Properly

11.10.4

Setup Adjustment
To make setup adjustments, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [2] (SETUP ADJ) and the gage displays the first setup adjustment parameter just below the waveform area of the display.

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Figure 151 Adjusting the Setup Parameter 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to select which parameter to adjust. 3. Press [ ] or [ ] to change the value of the parameter.

11.10.5

Save Setup Parameters


Once the proper adjustments are made, you can store the settings for a quick and easy recall. The Model 37DL PLUS can store up to 10 custom setups in its internal memory. To save setup parameters, follow these steps: 1. Make the appropriate changes to the setup parameters. 2. Press [2nd F], [3] (RECALL SU). The Recall Setup Select screen opens.

Figure 152 Displaying Recall Setups The changes that were made are located in the active setup.

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3. Press [SAVE] and the Recall Setup Save screen opens.

Figure 153 Saving Recall Setups 4. Press [ ], [ ], [ Press [ENTER]. ], [ ], and numeric keys to enter a name for the Custom Setup.

5. Press [ ] and [ ] to select a location to store the Custom Setup. Setups named User-1 through User-10 are empty locations. Use caution when selecting a location that already contains a custom setup because the new setup will replace the old information. 6. Press [SAVE] to save the Custom Setup at the selected location. Pressing [MEAS/RESET] the save function and returns to the Measurement mode.

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12

Managing Communications/Data Transfer


This section describes how the Model 37DL PLUS can communicate with a computer or printer in order to send or receive files. Topics are as follows: Transmitting Data to a Computer or Printer Receiving (Downloading) Files from a Computer Uploading/Downloading a Stored Transducer Setup to a Computer Setting Up Serial Communications Identifying Data Output Formats Performing Datalogger and Communication Resets Using the WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program

12.1

Transmitting Data to a Computer or Printer


This procedure is normally done after you take measurements from all desired locations. Once data is transmitted from the Model 37DL PLUS it remains in memory for later use, or until you clear the data. Therefore, if any errors occur while transmitting data it can be sent again. Before proceeding with any of the operations described in the sections below: Confirm that the receiving device is connected and configured properly. See the following sections of this manual starting on page 205, page 241, and page 243. Also, refer to the operators manuals for the receiving device and for the receiving software. We recommend using the GE Panametrics WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program with the gage to take advantage of all the datalogging features. Confirm that the communications parameters on the Model 37DL PLUS are set identical to those on the computer or printer. The Model 37DL PLUS can send data to any device capable of receiving ASCII formatted data using the RS-232C/D protocol. This includes personal computers, minicomputers, dataloggers, and printers. The data cable must be compatible with the Model 37DL PLUS output connector and the serial input connector of the receiving device. GE Panametrics supplies cables for IBM compatible PCs and serial printers and provide assistance with connecting any other equipment. See Appendix D - Serial Interface on page 241.

Note:

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Note:

When communicating directly to a printer the Model 37DL PLUS will only work with serial printers.

12.1.1

Send Entire Files from Gage to Computer or Printer


You can send single or multiple files from the Model 37DL PLUS datalogger. Data that is transmitted includes File Name, File Header, ID Numbers, Thickness Data, Flags, Calibration Setups, and Comments. To send entire files from the Model 37DL PLUS to a computer or printer, follow these steps: 1. press [FILE] while in the Measurement mode. The File Options menu opens:

Figure 154 Selecting the Send Option from the File Menu 2. Press [ ] and [ ] until the Send option is highlighted. Press [ENTER]. The File Send screen opens:

Figure 155 Selecting a File to Send 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to select the All or Selected option. Press [ENTER].

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Choosing All sends all of the files in the Model 37DL PLUS to the connected device. If you choose All: a. Send is highlighted. b. Press [ENTER]. c. After confirming the send function, the Model 37DL PLUS begins transmitting all files in the database.

Choosing Selected lets you choose which specific files in the datalogger you want to send to the connected device. If you choose Selected: a. The first file in the list is highlighted. b. Press [ENTER] to transmit the file. A check mark appears, tagging the file. Press [ENTER] again to un-tag the file if you do not want to select it. c. Press [ ] and [ ] until the next desired file name is highlighted. d. Press [ENTER]. Continue this procedure until all desired files are tagged. e. Press [2nd F], [ ] when finished to highlight Send. f. Press [ENTER] to complete sending the tagged files.

12.1.2

Sending a Specific Range of ID Numbers from a Specific File


This feature is useful when you need to transmit only a portion of a given file to a computer or printer. To send a specific range of ID numbers from a specific file, follow these steps: 1. Open the file that contains the data to be transmitted, if the desired file is not already the active file. See Opening a File on page 160. 2. Press and hold [SEND], from the Measurement mode, until the ID -Range Send screen opens.

Figure 156 Identifying a Range of ID Numbers to Send 3. Use the gages editing functions to set the starting ID of the desired range of ID numbers. Press [ENTER]. 4. Use the gages editing functions to set the ending ID of the desired range of ID numbers. Press [ENTER]. Send is highlighted. 5. Press [ENTER]. The gage transmits the specified range.

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12.1.3

Perform a Single Send of the Current Displayed Measurement Data to a Computer or Printer
This procedure is used for transmitting the current displayed measurement data only with its appropriate setup flags. The current ID number is not transmitted. This feature is useful when the Model 37DL PLUS is continuously connected to an external device (printer, data collector, computer) and you need to collect only data on command. To perform a single send, follow these steps: 1. Setup the desired Measurement mode on the Model 37DL PLUS. 2. Make a thickness reading. 3. Press [SEND] quickly (release in less than one second). Only the displayed measurement data with its appropriate setup flags is transmitted and the gage will return to the original Measurement mode. The specific data transmitted depends on the datalogger output format. Pressing [SEND] while the thickness display is blank sends .- and the displayed flags. Note: Sending a displayed reading will blank a held reading, reset the minimum or maximum function, and release a frozen waveform.

12.1.4

Send a Snapshot from the Model 37DL PLUS to a Computer


With this function, you can send the entire Model 37DL PLUS display to the WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program on a windows-based PC. This is useful when you need an exact replica of the display for reporting or documentation purposes. To send a snapshot of the Model 37DL PLUS display to a computer, follow these steps: 1. Setup the desired Measurement mode and waveform screen format on the Model 37DL PLUS. 2. Select Snap Shot from the WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program. See the WIN37DL PLUS Instruction Manual (part number 910-249) for details. 3. Make a thickness reading or recall a reading from memory. 4. Press [2nd F], [SEND] (PRINT). The displayed screen is transmitted to the computer.

12.1.5

Send a Snapshot from the Model 37DL PLUS to a Printer


With this function, you can send the entire Model 37DL PLUS display to a compatible graphics printer. This feature is useful when an exact replica of the display is needed for reporting or documentation purposes. This procedure describes how to save a snapshot of the screen to a printer.

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Note:

Any waveform sent to a printer pressing [SEND] only, described from page 200 to page 202, does not print as a graphic. Instead, the waveform data prints in an encoded non-readable format.

To print waveforms on a printer, follow these steps: 1. Set up the desired Measurement mode and waveform screen format on the Model 37DL PLUS. 2. Verify that the Model 37DL PLUS is properly connected to the printer. 3. Make a thickness reading or recall a reading from memory. 4. Press [2nd F], [SEND] (PRINT). The displayed screen is transmitted to the printer. Note: A compatible portable printer is available from GE Panametrics (part number 36PR.)

12.2

Receiving (Downloading) Files from a Computer


The same type of datalogger information, which you can send to a computer, can also be received or downloaded from a computer into the gage. This has two benefits: Retrieve thickness survey data, previously saved with ID numbers and stored in a computer file, to the gage months or years later at the next survey date. Use this retrieved data for three purposes: Guides you through the measurement sequence using the ID numbers. Compare current values, at the measurement site, with previous thickness values. Use the previous survey setup data to manually or automatically verify that the current measurement setup identical.

Create ID number sequences in a computer and then download to the gage. This externally created sequence can guide you through the prescribed measurement location path. The ID sequence created in the computer must have setup information. The setup can be the gage default setups or any other desired sequence of setups. The data downloaded to the Model 37DL PLUS gage must be in the same precise format in which data is transmitted. GE Panametrics recommends using the WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program to handle all functions of interfacing, storing, and creating Model 37DL PLUS data. Other database and editor software may work, but depends on the software design functionality. Please contact GE Panametrics for information on additional software data management programs.

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To Download a Data file to the Gage 1. Confirm that the transmitting device is connected and configured properly. (See Communication Parameters on page 205 and See Appendix D - Serial Interface on page 241.) Also refer to the operators manuals for the transmitting device and for transmitting software. 2. Confirm that the communications parameters on the Model 37DL PLUS are identical to those on the computer. 3. Power on the Model 37DL PLUS and make sure it is in the standard startup or Measure screen. 4. Begin sending formatted data from the computer. The Model 37DL PLUS displays a Receiving Data screen while the data is sent. This screen disappears after the Model 37DL PLUS is finished receiving data. 5. When all the transmitted data is received, the gage returns to the Measure screen. Review the new gage database for accuracy.

12.3

Uploading/Downloading a Stored Transducer Setup to a Computer


The Model 37DL PLUS can store up to 10 custom user defined Transducers Setups. Send these Transducer Setups to the optional WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program, allowing you to save a copy of all Transducer setups on the computer. You can also send these Transducer Setups back to the Model 37DL PLUS. This feature is very useful to setup multiple Model 37DL PLUS gages with the same Custom transducer setup.

12.4

Setting Up Serial Communications


The Model 37DL PLUS can transmit stored data and displayed readings over its I/O (Input/Output) RS-232 cable to any device with an RS-232 serial interface connector. The Model 37DL PLUS can also receive and execute commands sent from any device with a serial interface. Such devices include personal computers and printers. In order to enable the Model 37DL PLUS to communicate with another device, you must use the correct cable and the same communication parameters must be set into the gage and the other device. These topics are discussed in the next two sections.

12.4.1

RS-232 Cables
The Model 37DL PLUS must be connected to the computer with the proper cable. Since all computers do not have the same serial port connector, the correct cable must be ordered from GE Panametrics. One RS-232 cable is included with every Model 37DL PLUS, which you can specify at the time of order. GE Panametrics offers the following cables that are compatible with most computer and printer serial connectors:

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I/O Cable Part # 36DLC/9F-6 36DLC/25F-6

Computer Serial Port Connector Description D Type, 9 male (pin) contacts D Type, 25 male (pin) contacts D Type, 25 female

Cable Length 6 ft. (2M) 6 ft. (2M)

36DLC/25M-6

6 ft. (2M)

36DLC/9M/PR-6 Table 10 Note:

D Type, 25 female

6 ft. (2M)

Computer or Printer Serial Port Even matching cables and connectors do not guarantee compatibility. To verify that a particular device serial port connector is compatible with a Model 37DL PLUS cable, compare the wiring information in Appendix C with the serial port wiring information given in the operators manual for the remote device. If there is a wiring compatibility problem, sometimes software or hardware switches may be set to change the connections. Otherwise, GE Panametrics may be able to supply a special cable for the application.

12.4.2

Communication Parameters
The Model 37DL PLUS communication parameters must match the configuration of the computer. These communication parameters off several communication output options such as DBase Tracking, B-Scan Output, 36DLP Output, and Fisher Enable. The following provides a brief description of these options: DBase Tracking: Allows the gage to automatically adjust certain setup parameters such as matching each current ID setup in the current datalogger file. B-Scan Output: Allows the gage to accept B-Scan data by the gage when it responds to a Filewrite remote command. Data is sent by the gage when it responds to a Fileread remote command. Also, data is sent during a File Send operation following waveform data for output formats that support waveform data. 36DLP Output: Allows the gage to produce a 36DLP FTP style output. If this option is activated, files that do not have compatible data are filtered prior to transmission. Fisher Enable: Allows the gage to support the Fisher gage. When this option is activated the following settings are locked to a set parameter: Baud Rate (9600), Number of Stop Bits (1), Parity (None), and Communications Protocol (Multiple). The Model 37DL PLUS is then set to receive and publish thickness readings received from the Fisher gage. You can modify locked parameters after this feature is deactivated.

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Typical Device IBM or compatible AT or PS2-30 computer PC, PC-X, and PS-2 type computers, some serial printers Other computers (socket) contacts and serial printers Portable Printer

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To set up the communication parameters, follow these steps: 1. Determine the settings used in the receiving device for the following: Baud Rate: Stop Bits: Parity: Comm Protocol: Output Format: DBase Tracking: B-Scan Output: 36DLP Output: Fisher Enable: (19200, 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200) (1 or 2) (None, Odd, or Even) (Multiple or Single) (F1, F2, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, F10) (Off or On) (Off or On) (Off or On) (Off or On)

2. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). The Setup mode menu opens.

Figure 157 Selecting the Communication Option from the Setup Mode Menu 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Communication option. Press [ENTER]. The following menu opens:

Figure 158 Viewing Communication Parameters The current communication parameters are displayed. 4. Press [ ] and [ ] to select any of the parameters until the desired parameter is highlighted. Press [ ] or [ ] to change the setting of that parameter. 5. Highlight the Previous Screen option. Press [ENTER] to exit this mode, or press [MEAS/RESET] to go directly back to the Measurement mode with the new parameters set.

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12.5

Identifying Data Output Formats


There are 9 available output formats for transmitted data. Output formats vary depending whether you are using a dual element transducer or a single element transducer. A general description of each is given in Table 11 and Table 12.

Format F-1 F-2 F-4 F-5 F-6 F-7 F-8 F-9 F-10

File Header X X

ID Header X X

Thickness Table X X

Waveforms X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Table 11

Model 37DL PLUS Dual Element Transducer Output Formats

Format F-1 F-2 F-4 F-5 F-6 F-7 F-8 F-9 F-10

File Header X X

ID Header X X

Thickness Table X X

Waveforms X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Table 12

Model 37DL PLUS Single Element Transducer Output Formats

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Setup Table X X

Note Table X X

Setup Table X X

Appsetup Table X

Note Table X X

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To view the current format and/or change it, proceed as follows: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Communication option. Press [ENTER]. The following menu opens:

Figure 159 Viewing the Communication Parameters The current communication parameters are displayed. The settings for the current output format is shown. 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to select the output format. Press [ ] or [ ] to change the setting. 4. Highlight the Previous Screen option. Press [ENTER] to exit this mode, or press [MEAS/RESET] to go directly back to the Measurement mode with the new parameters set.

12.6

Performing a Communication Reset


The Communication Reset function quickly resets the Model 37DL PLUS to factory default settings. The default settings are as follows: Baud Rate: Stop Bits: Parity: Comm Protocol: Output Format: DBase Tracking: B-Scan Output: 36DLP Output: Fisher Enable: 19200 1 None Multiple F1 OFF OFF OFF OFF

To perform a Communication Reset, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). The Setup mode menu opens.

208

Model 37DL PLUS

Figure 160 Selecting the Resets Option from the Setup Mode Menu 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Resets option. Press [ENTER]. The following menu opens:

Figure 161 Selecting Communications Reset 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Communication Reset option. Press [ENTER]. The gage prompts you with a warning message.

Figure 162 Warning Prompt for Communication Reset 4. Press [ ]or [ ] to highlight Reset and press [ENTER] to complete the communication reset.

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If you want to cancel the operation without resetting the communication data, press [ ]or [ ] to highlight Cancel and press [ENTER].

12.7

Using the WIN37DL PLUS Interface Program


WIN37DL PLUS is the Interface Program for the Model 37DL PLUS. WIN37DL PLUS is a windows-based interface program, compatible with Windows 98, ME, 2000, NT, and XP. This program provides the capability to create inspection database files, upload and download data files, and generate reports. WIN37DL PLUS is compatible with Model 37DL PLUS and 36DL PLUS data files. The program offers advanced ODBC compatibility and enhanced OLE features. For more details refer to the WIN37DL PLUS Instruction Manual (part number 910-222), or contact GE Panametrics.

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13

Maintaining and Troubleshooting the Model 37DL PLUS


This section describes how to maintain your Model 37DL PLUS by applying routing care and maintenance. Also, this section describes many troubleshooting ideas for common problems you may encounter. Topics are as follows: Providing Routine Gage Maintenance Maintaining Transducers Understanding Error Messages Resolving Battery and Charger Problems Resolving Measurement Problems Performing Diagnostic Self Tests Getting Help

13.1

Providing Routine Gage Maintenance


The Model 37DL PLUS case is sealed to prevent intrusion of environmental liquids and dust. However, it is not completely waterproof. Therefore, the unit should never be immersed in any fluid. Use the rubber plug that comes with the unit to protect the I/O connector and charger connector from contamination, particularly in areas where airborne dust and aerosols are present. Use the protective pouch to provide shock and scratch protection. The Model 37DL PLUS case is designed to withstand normal field use. However, it is an electronic instrument, and damage is possible if not handled with some care. Observe the following instructions in particular: Never press a key with a hard or sharp object. When connecting cables to the gage, first align the connector with the mating receptacle on the gage (the transducer connector pin is down, the RS-232 I/O cable key tab facing up and the charger half-moon facing down), then carefully insert the connector straight into the receptacle. When removing cables from the gage, first grasp the connector (not the cable), then gently pull out from the gage. Do not throw or intentionally drop the gage. Do not use strong solvents or abrasives (clean the protective pouch, case keypad, and display windows with a damp cloth and mild detergent, if necessary).

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13.2

Maintaining Transducers
The ultrasonic transducers or probes used with the Model 37DL PLUS are rugged devices that need little care. They are not indestructible, however, and some attention to the following items result in the longest life span. Make high temperature measurements only with designated high temperature transducers. Surfaces hotter than approximately 125F/50C can damage or destroy standard tranducers if contact is made. Cutting, pinching, or pulling the cables causes damage to the cables. Be careful to prevent mechanical abuse to the cables. Never leave a transducer where a heavy object can be placed on the cable. Never remove a transducer from the gage by pulling on the cable; pull on the molded connector only. Never tie a knot in the transducer cable. Do not twist or pull the cable at the point where it connects to the transducer. Excessive wear at the tip of the Transducer degrades its performance. To minimize wear, do not scrape or drag the transducer across rough surfaces. Operating the transducer may become erratic or impossible when a transducer tip becomes rough or cracked. Although some wear is normal, severe wear limits transducer life. Take particular care with delay line transducers, which have plastic delay lines; replace delay lines when worn.

13.3

Understanding Error Messages


When operating the gage, certain error messages may appear. Usually these messages indicate a problem with the operating procedure, but some may indicate a physical problem with the gage itself. If you do not understand an error message, call GE Panametrics for assistance.

13.4

Resolving Battery and Charger Problems


The battery life percent indicator in the lower right corner of the display shows the percentage of operating time remaining. When the battery charge reaches about 2%, the gage automatically powers off. If the gage powers off immediately after powering on, or if it does not power on at all, then the battery is probably completely discharged. If after recharging the battery (See Replacing the Battery Pack on page 31), the gage runs only when the charger is connected, then you may need to replace the battery. Note, the battery should last through several hundred discharge-recharge cycles before failing. Remember that the battery charge indicator shows remaining operating time only when the charger is not connected. Do not use the charge indicator to determine when a charging battery has reached full charge. A battery must be charged 2 hours to completely restore full capacity. If the unit does not switch on even after the charger is connected for several minutes, then either the gage itself or the charger requires service. See page 30 to page 32 for more information.

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13.5

Resolving Measurement Problems


Symptom: No or low echoes, no measurement (LOS) Possible Explanation: Insufficient couplant, especially on rough or curved surfaces Gain set too low Material is too attenuating or surfaces are not parallel or are too rough Gage requires service; first try Master Reset, do pulser/receiver test

Symptom: Good echoes, no measurements Possible Explanation: Gage problem; perform hardware status in the Diagnostic Setup mode

Symptom: Good echoes, incorrect measurements Possible Explanation: Not in calibration; perform calibration Differential mode - check Diff flag, press [2nd F] [9] (DIFF) Min or Max mode - see page 71 or page 73 Material is too grainy, has flaws, inclusions or laminations, or very high surface noise; try gain optimization, manual gain adjust or extended blank

13.6

Performing Diagnostic Self Tests


To aid in localizing a suspected hardware problem or simply to verify correct hardware operation, several tests can be performed from the keypad. Keypad Video Hardware Status Error Status

To select any of the above diagnostics, follow these steps: 1. Press [2nd F] [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] to highlight the Diagnostics option. Press [ENTER].

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To view the hardware status, do the following: Press [ ] or [ ] to select Hardware Status and the following screen opens:

Figure 163 Viewing the Hardware Status Screen

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3. Press [ ] or [ ] to highlight the Diagnostic you want to perform. Press [ENTER].

13.6.1

Keypad Test
To perform a Keypad Test, follow these steps: 1. Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Keypad option. Press [ENTER]. A replica of the keypad appears on the display. 2. Test any key by pressing it. If that specific key is working correctly, then the gage beeps and that key is highlighted on the display. Note: [ON/OFF] powers off the gage and [ENTER] exits the Keypad Test mode.

13.6.2

Video Display Test


To perform a Video Display Test, do the following: Press [ ] or [ ] to select the Video option. Press [ENTER]. This test displays a darkened rectangle, which decreases in size. If at any time a break appears in the pattern, then there is a problem with the waveform display. Otherwise, the video display is operating normally.

13.6.3

Hardware Status
The Model 37DL PLUS has several internal tests to report proper gage function. From the Hardware Status screen, a represents a passed test; an X represents a failed test. If you receive an X next to a test, please contact GE Panametrics for further diagnosis.

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Listed below are the test names with a brief description: DC GAIN: Amplifier Test BLANK CAL: Detector Calibration SAMPLER CAL: Acquisition system calibration Receiver 1: THRESHOLD CAL: Detection level calibration OFFSET1: Amplifier1 calibration OFFSET2: Amplefier2 calibration FLASH ADC OFFSET : Acquisition baseline calibration Receiver 2: THRESHOLD CAL: Detection level calibration OFFSET1: Amplifier1 calibration OFFSET2: Amplefier2 calibration FLASH ADC OFFSET: Acquisition baseline calibration +V1: Main Board voltage test -V1: Main Board voltage test BATTERY: Current battery level in volts RAM BANK1: Memory test RAM BANK2: Memory test RAM BANK3: Memory test TRANSDUCER: Current transducer in use PROBE TX DELAY: Xdelay for transmit side PROBE RX DELAY: Xdelay for receiver side.

13.6.4

Error Status
To view the Error Status, do the following: Press [2nd F] [0] (SETUP) to select the Error Status option. This displays an error log.

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Appendix A - Theory of Operation


The GE Panametrics Model 37DL PLUS Ultrasonic Thickness Gage operates on the dual transducer pulse-echo principal, timing the reflection of high frequency sound waves from the far wall of the test piece. This technique, derived from sonar, has been widely applied to nondestructive testing. The gage uses a dual transducer with separate transmitting and receiving piezoelectric elements or a single transducer with one transmitting and receiving piezoelectric element. The frequency of these sound waves is far beyond the range of human hearing typically from two million to ten million cycles per second vs. a limit of about twenty thousand cycles per second for the human ear. Sound at these frequencies does not travel well through air, so a coupling liquid such as propylene glycol or glycerin or gel is used between the transducer and test piece. When using a dual transducer the transmit side generates an ultrasonic pulse when it is excited by a short electrical pulse. The sound wave generated by the transmit side of the transducer is coupled into the test piece, travels through it, and is reflected back from the opposite side. See Dual Transducer Sound Paths when Measuring Material Thickness on page 218. The reflected sound wave or echoes are coupled into the receive side of the transducer where they are converted back into electrical signals. See Received Transducer Waveform when Measuring a Material Thickness on page 218. The gage precisely measures the time interval t between the excitation pulse and the first echo signal. It then subtracts the time t x which is the time for the sound wave to travel from the transmit element to the end of the transducer plus the time for the echo to travel from the end of transducer to the receive element. Next V-Path correction time tv is computed and subtracted. This tv compensates for the longer V-shaped path which the sound must travel when measuring thin wall materials. The result is multiplied by the velocity of sound in the test material, V, and divided by two to compensate for the two-way sound path. The final result, X, is the thickness of the test material. X = [(t-tx-tv )(V)]/ 2 When using a single transducer in the echo-to-echo mode, the crystal generates an ultrasonic pulse when it is excited by a short electrical pulse. The sound wave generated by the transducer is coupled into the test piece, travels through it, and is reflected back from the opposite side (Figure 164 on page 218). Part of the reflected sound wave or echo is coupled into the transducer where it is converted into an electrical signal while the remaining part of the reflected sound wave reflects from the end of the transducer back into the material where it is reflected a second time from the opposite side and returns into the transducer. The gage precisely measures the time interval t between these two reflected echoes. A microprocessor controls all functional blocks of the gage as directed by the program stored in the ROM (Read Only Memory). See Model 37DL PLUS Block Diagram on page 219. The microprocessor performs the arithmetic described above to produce the thickness value. This value along with various gage status indicators is sent to the display. The microprocessor also directs the Receiver/Detector to measure the transducer type using the ID pin of the transducer. Calibration values, gage setups, as well as thickness data is saved in non-volatile RAM (Random Access Memory). An Analog to Digital Convertor (A/D) converts the amplified RF signal to a digitized form that the microprocessor can process, store, and show on the graphics display. The keyboard informs the microprocessor of user entered changes of mode, values, etc.

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Finally, the Serial RS-232 circuit receives and transmits data and commands between the gage (microprocessor) and an external computer or printer.

Figure 164 Dual Transducer Sound Paths when Measuring Material Thickness

Figure 165 Received Transducer Waveform when Measuring a Material Thickness

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Figure 166 Model 37DL PLUS Block Diagram The Model 37DL PLUS can employ any of three measure modes to calculate pulse transit time. Mode 1: Use with contact transducers. In this mode, measurement is made from the initial excitation pulse to the first returning echo from the backwall of the test piece. The MTI marker indicates the Measured Time Interval. Mode 2: Use with delay line and immersion transducers. In this mode, measurement is made between an interface echo marking the time the sound wave enters the test piece and the first backwall echo. The MTI marker indicates the Measured Time Interval. Mode 3: Use with delay line and immersion transducers. In this mode, measurement is made between two successive backwall echoes that follow an interface echo. The MTI Marker indicates the Measured Time Interval. If echoes are not detected during a given measurement period, the gage will shut down to save power until a new measurement cycle is required. If echoes are detected, the timing circuit will precisely measure an interval appropriate for the selected Measurement mode, and then repeat this process a number of times to obtain a stable, averaged reading. The microprocessor then uses this time interval measurement, along with sound velocity and zero offset information stored in the Random Access Memory (RAM), to calculate thickness. Finally, the thickness is shown on the LCD and updated at a selected rate. Dual Element Transducer Measurements The irregular surfaces that are frequently encountered in corrosion situations give duals an advantage over single element transducers. All ultrasonic gaging involves timing the round trip of a sound pulse in a test material. Because solid metal has an acoustic impedance that differs significantly from that of gasses, liquids, or corrosion products

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such as scale or rust, the sound pulse will reflect from the far surface of the remaining metal. The test instrument is programmed with the velocity of sound in the test material, and computes the wall thickness from the simple formula: Distance = Velocity x Time Dual element transducers incorporate separate transmitting and receiving elements. These elements are mounted on delay lines that are usually cut at an angle to the horizontal plane (the roof angle), so that the transmitting and receiving beam paths cross beneath the surface of the test piece. This crossed-beam design of duals provides a pseudo-focusing effect that optimizes measurement of minimum wall thickness in corrosion applications. Duals will be more sensitive than single element transducers to echoes from the base of pits that represent minimum remaining wall thickness. Also, duals may often be used more effectively on rough outside surfaces. Couplant trapped in pockets on rough sound entry surfaces can produce long, ringing surface echoes that interfere with the near surface resolution of single element transducers. With a dual, the receiver element is unlikely to pick up this false echo. Finally, duals may be designed for high temperature measurements that would damage single element contact transducers. Factors Affecting Performance and Accuracy Surface Condition - Loose or flaking scale, rust, corrosion or dirt on the outside surface of a test piece will interfere with the coupling of sound energy from the transducer into the test material. Thus, any loose debris of this sort should be cleaned from the specimen with a wire brush or file before measurements are attempted. Generally it is possible to make corrosion measurements through thin layers of rust, as long as the rust is smooth and well bonded to the metal below. Some very rough cast or corroded surfaces may have to be filed or sanded smooth in order to insure proper sound coupling. It may also be necessary to remove paint if it is flaking off the metal. While it is often possible to make conventional corrosion measurements through thin coats of paint (on the order of a few thousandths of an inch or 0.1 - 0.2mm), thicker paint may attenuate signals or possibly create false echoes, causing inaccurate measurements. Use of the echo-to-echo mode is recommended in such situations. (See Using the Echo-to-Echo Mode on page 109). Severe pitting on the outside surface of a pipe or tank can be a problem. On some rough surfaces, the use of a gel or grease rather than a liquid couplant will help transmit sound energy into the test piece. In extreme cases it will be necessary to file or grind the surface sufficiently flat to permit contact with the face of the transducer. In applications where deep pitting occurs on the outside of a pipe or tank it is usually necessary to measure remaining metal thickness from the base of the pits to the inside wall. There are sophisticated ultrasonic techniques utilizing focused immersion transducers that can measure directly from the base of the pit to the inside wall, but this is generally not practical for field work. The conventional technique is to measure unpitted metal thickness ultrasonically, measure pit depth mechanically, and subtract the pit depth from the measured wall thickness. Alternately, one can file or grind the surface down to the base of the pits and measure normally. As with any difficult application, experimentation with actual material samples is the best way to determine the limits of a particular gage/transducer combination on a given surface.

MOO

Transducer Positioning/Alignment - For proper sound coupling the transducer must be pressed firmly against the test surface. On small diameter cylindrical surfaces such as pipes, hold the transducer so that the sound barrier material visible on the probe face is aligned perpendicular to the center axis of the pipe. Figure 167 on page 221.

PROBE

Figure 167 Positioning the Transducer on Test Material While firm hand pressure on the transducer is necessary for good readings, the probe should never be scraped along or twisted against a rough metal surface. This will scratch the face of the transducer and eventually degrade performance. The recommended technique for moving a transducer along a rough surface is to pick it up and reposition it for each measurement, not to slide it along. Remember that an ultrasonic test measures thickness at only one point within the beam of the transducer, and that in corrosion situations wall thicknesses often vary considerably. Test procedures usually call for making a number of measurements within a defined area and establishing a minimum and/or average thickness. Ideally, data should be taken at increments no greater than half the diameter of the transducer, to insure that no pits or other local variations in wall thickness are missed. It is up to the user to define a pattern of data collection appropriate to the needs of a given application. It is possible that on some severely corroded or pitted materials there will be spots where readings cannot be obtained. This can happen when the inside surface of the material is so irregular that the sound energy is scattered rather than being reflected back to the transducer. The lack of a reading may also indicate a thickness outside the range of the transducer and instrument being used. Generally, an inability to obtain a valid thickness reading at a particular point on a test specimen could be a sign of a seriously degraded wall which may warrant investigation by other means. Calibration - The accuracy of measurements are only as good as the accuracy and care with which the gage has been calibrated. There are no internal calibration adjustments in the 37DL PLUS. However, it is essential that the velocity and zero calibrations are performed whenever the test material or transducer is changed. See Material Velocity and Zero Calibration on page 36. Periodic checks with samples of known thicknesses are recommended to verify that the gage is operating properly. Taper or Eccentricity - If the contact surface and the back surface are tapered or eccentric with respect to each other, the return echo again becomes distorted and the accuracy of measurement is diminished. In cases of severe taper or eccentricity, it may be impossible to obtain a usable echo.

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Acoustic Properties of the Material - There are several conditions found in engineering materials that can severely limit the accuracy and thickness range that can be measured. Sound Scattering - In some materials, notably certain types of cast stainless steel, cast irons, and composites, the sound energy is scattered from individual crystallites in the casting or from dissimilar materials within the composite. This effect reduces the ability to discriminate a valid return echo from the back side of the material and limits the ability to gauge the material ultrasonically. It can sometimes be overcome by using the Manual Gain Adjust (See Setting the Manual Gain Adjust with a D79X Series and E110, EMAT Transducers on page 105), Automatic Gain Optimization (See Using Automatic Gain Optimization on page 106) or Extended Blank (See Adjusting the Extended Blank with D79X Series Transducers on page 108) features of the gage. Velocity Variations - A number of materials exhibit significant variations in sound velocity from point-to-point within the material. Certain types of cast stainless steels and brass exhibit this effect due to a relatively large grain size and the anisotropy of sound velocity with respect to grain orientation. Other materials show a rapid change in sound velocity with temperature. This is characteristic of plastic materials where temperature must be controlled in order to obtain maximum precision in the measurement. Sound Attenuation or Absorption - In many organic materials, such as low density plastics and rubber, sound is attenuated very rapidly at the frequencies used in normal ultrasonic thickness gauging. Therefore, the maximum thickness that can be measured in these materials is often limited by sound attenuation.

Phase Reversal or Phase Distortion: The phase or polarity of a returning echo is determined by the relative acoustic impedances (density x velocity) of the boundary materials. The gage assumes the customary situation where the test piece is backed by air or a liquid, both of which have lower acoustic impedances than metals, ceramics, or plastics. However, in some specialized cases (such as measurement of glass or plastic liners over metal, or copper cladding over steel) this impedance relationship is reversed, and the echo appears phase reversed. In these cases, it is necessary to change the appropriate Echo Detection polarity in order to maintain accuracy. See Set Up and Calibration with Single Element Transducers on page 49.

Material backed by air or water. Use Default Echo Detect, NEG.

Figure 168 Usual Case

OOO

Plastic or glass backed by metal. Change Echo Detect to POS.

Figure 169 Special Case A more complex situation can occur in anisotropic or inhomogeneous materials such as coarse-grain metal castings or certain composites, where material conditions result in the existence of multiple sound paths within the beam area. In these cases, phase distortion can create an echo that is neither cleanly positive nor negative. Careful experimentation with reference standards is necessary, in these cases, to determine effects on measurement accuracy.

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Appendix B - Technical Specifications


Packaging Case Material Size Weight Connectors High impact Lexan. 9.2 H x 5.0 W x 1.5 T inch. 234 H x 1278 W x 38 T mm. 2.1 lbs. Transducer: Two size 0 on 0.54 inch (13.7mm) centers plus socket for 0.080" (2.03mm) pin. All environmentally sealed RS-232: Sealed 6-pin Lemo style. Charger: Sealed 4-pin Lemo style. Soft leather with adjustable velcro closure. Operating: -5 F TO 112 F (-10 C to +50 C). Splash proof.

Hand Strap Temperature Case Power Battery

Internal rechargeable NiCad battery pack. Rated at 6V @ 1800 mAHr or Disposable Alkaline 6 AA cell. 25 hours minimum in normal Measurement mode with backlight off. 8 hours minimum with backlight on. External wall plug-in charger for Universal Supply (100VAC, 115VAC, and 230VAC) input. Charge time 2 Hours. Sealed and embossed membrane surface. Tactile and audible feedback. Color coded graphics. 30 keys of 5 rows and 6 columns.

Operating Time Per Charge Charger

Keyboard

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Display Physical Graphics super twisted nematic liquid crystal display. Module Size: 114mm (W) x 100mm (H) x 14mm (T). Viewing area: 102mm (W) x 86mm (H). Dots: Dot Size: Color: Backlight Information Displayed 240 (W) x 200 (H). 0.36mm x 0.36mm. Dark blue image on natural background.

Electroluminescent backlight for viewing in low ambient light condition. User selectable on or off. A-Scan echo waveform with graticule of amplitude vs. thickness axis. Waveform area: 200 (W) x 94 (H) dots. Waveform Status Flags: F: Frozen H: Held Z: Zoomed M: from datalogger memory File name, ID number, stored value, and setup stored at ID numbers. Stored data flags.

SOO

Box # Box 1:

Flag M L E l e n 1 2 3 a b c

Measurement Standard Measurement Standard LOS AE to E Measurement AE to E LOS ME to E Measurement ME to E LOS Mode 1 Measurement Mode 2 Measurement Mode 3 Measurement Mode 1 LOS Mode 2 LOS Mode 3 LOS Differential Absolute (Diff Mode) Differential Percentage (Diff Mode) Alarm Standard (Standard Alarm) High Alarm Standard (Standard Alarm) Low Alarm Standard (Standard Alarm) No Alarm/Diff (Standard Alarm) Previous Thickness Percent Alarms (Percent Previous Mode) Previous Thickness Percent Low Alarm (Percent Previous Mode) Previous Thickness Percent High Alarm (Percent Previous Mode) Previous Thickness Absolute Alarm (Absolute Previous Alarm Mode) Previous Thickness Absolute Low Alarm (Absolute Previous Alarm Mode) Previous Thickness Absolute High Alarm (Absolute Previous Alarm Mode)

Box 2:

D d A H L p r g a l h

Table 13

Information Displayed on the Model 37DL PLUS Screen

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LOS L

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Box # Box 3:

Flag m M

Measurement Min Max Gain Modified

LOS

Box 4: Table 13

Information Displayed on the Model 37DL PLUS Screen (Continued)

Measurement Performance Mode Pitch and catch using dual element transducers. DE-STD: Time interval measurement from the main excitation pulse to the first detected echo. DE-A E to E/DE-M E to E: Time between a pair of backwall echoes using dual element transducers. SE-M1 (Mode 1): Time interval measurement from the main excitation pulse to the first detected echo. SE-M2 (Mode 2): Time interval measurement from the interface echo to the first backwall echo. SE-M3 (Mode 3): Time interval between multiple backwall echoes with single element transducers. V-Path Correction Thickness Range Measurement Resolution Measurement Display Update Rate Material Velocity Range Automatic, dependent on GE Panametrics transducer type. 0.020" - 20.00" 0.5mm - 508.0mm Selectable from the keypad LOW: 0.01". 0.1mm STD: 0.001" 0.01mm Selectable from the keypad: Norm: 4 measurements per second Fast: Approximately 20 measurements per second 0.0300"/sec to 0.5511"/sec. 0.762mm/sec to 13.999mm/sec.

UOO

Material Velocity Resolution Zero Cal Range Differential Ref. Range Differential Ref. Resolution Alarm Setpoints Range Alarm Setpoints Resolution Datalogger Information Stored

.0001"/sec or .001mm/sec.

2500 to 6000 (auto detected). 0.0" to 25.00" (0.00mm - 635.00mm). Same as current gage resolution. 0.0" to 25.00" (0.00mm - 635.00mm). Same as current gage resolution.

ID number Thickness value Unit LOS/Measurement condition Differential mode, Differential Reference value Alarm mode, Low and Hi alarm reference values Minimum/Maximum reading Gain mode, Gain value Velocity value Transducer type Waveform image (A-Scan, if selected) Comments Source: Downloaded or stored

Storage Capacity ID# Number Database Structure

Storage capacity of the gage is 60,000 thickness readings or 4,500 waveforms with thickness readings. Size: 1 to 20 characters Character Set: 0 thru 9, A thru Z, * # : , / . space DOS compatible file structure: File Name: 32 characters, DOS compatible. Number Of Files: Limited by available memory. Size Of File: Limited by available memory.

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File Creator (Matrix Maker)

Incremental Sequential (Defined by Starting and Ending ID number) Sequential with custom points 2-D Grid 2-D Grid with custom points 3-D Grid Boiler Open Create Copy Delete Send Edit-Rename Note-Copy Reports: File summary with Statistics Min/Max Summary File comparisons Alarm report F-1, F-2, F-4, F-5, F-6, F-7, F-8, F-9, and F-10 include File Header, ID Header, Thickness Table, Waveforms, Setup Table, and Note Table. F-1, F-2, F-4, F-5, F-6, F-7, F-8, F-9, and F-10 include File Header, ID Header, Thickness Table, Waveforms, Setup Table, Appsetup Table, and Note Table. Erase any portion of the file or the entire file. Print reading and waveform (EPSON graphics). Send reading in different format. Insert and/or append ID numbers. Save reading at ID number. Review stored contents of datalogger. Erase any portion of the file or the entire file. Print reading and waveform (EPSON graphics). Send reading in different format.

File Utilities

File Output Formats for Dual Element Transducers File Output Formats for Single Element Transducers Features

Insert and/or append ID numbers.

MPO

Communication

Baud:

19200, 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200 Stop Bits: 1 or 2 Parity: None, Even, or Odd, Comm Protocol: Multiple or Single. Output Format: F1, F2, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, F10 DBase Tracking: Off/On B-Scan Output: Off/On 36DLP Output: Off/On Fisher Enable: Off/On CE.

Agency Approval Functions Units Resolution

The measurement units are keypad selectable as either inches or millimeters. The measurement resolution is selectable among standard and low resolution from the keypad: Standard: 0.001" (0.01mm) Low: 0.01" (0.1mm) Standard Dual Element: Time between excitation pulse and first backwall echo using dual element transducer. Dual Echo-to-Echo: Time between successive backwall echoes using dual element transducers. Thru-Coat: Time between excitation pulse and first backwall while ignoring or displaying a coating thickness. Mode 1: Time between excitation pulse and first echo following blank period using contact transducers. Mode 2: Time between the interface echo and the first backwall echo. Normally used with delay line or immersion transducers. Mode 3: Time between a pair of backwall echoes following the interface echo. Normally used with delay line or immersion transducers.

Echo Detection Methods

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Min Mode

Current thickness is displayed during transducer contact and the minimum thickness measured is displayed during LOS. Current thickness is displayed during transducer contact and the maximum thickness measured is displayed during LOS. The thickness display during LOS may be set to either HOLD the last reading during LOS or BLANK the display during LOS. The thickness display may be set to display either actual measured thickness or the difference between the measured thickness and a user-set Differential Thickness Reference Value. The default is a Diff. Ref. Value of 0.000 and Diff Measure mode OFF. The gage may be set to indicate visually and audibly whenever the measured thickness is less than a user-set Low Alarm value or greater than a user-set High Alarm value.The default is Low Alarm value = 0.000, High Alarm value = full scale, and Alarm Measure mode OFF.

Max Mode

Hold/blank

Differential

Alarm

Calibration View and/or set the material velocity by pressing [VEL] from the Measurement mode, or by selecting MatlVel from the Setup Parameter List. View and/or set the Zero Calibration by pressing [ZERO] from the Measurement mode, or by selecting Zero from the Setup Parameter List. Preform the Velocity and/or Zero Calibration by entering the known thickness(es) of test block(s) while measuring the block(s). Application Setups Application Setups are a set of stored single transducer configurations of the gage parameters for various measurement applications. Setups are optimized for such application features as material, thickness range, and required accuracy or resolution. When the gage is turned on, the last Setup used is automatically selected and the gage is ready to make similar measurements. If the application has changed, choose an Application Setup name based on the new application (refer to Table 14 on page 233).

OPO

Note:

A transducer of the type specified for the selected setup should be plugged into the gage.

Setup Name DEFM1-20.0/M116 DEFM1-10.0/M112 DEFM1-5.0/M110 DEFM1-5.0/M109 DEFM1-2.25/M106 DEFM1-2.25/M1036 DEFM2-15.0/V260 DEFM3-15.0/V260 DEFM2-20.0/M208 DEFM3-20.0/M208 DEFM2-10.0/M202 DEFM3-10.0/M202 DEFM2 - 5.0/M201 DEFM3 - 5.0/M201 DEFM2-5.0/M206 DEFM2-2.25/M207 DEFM3-2.25 /M207

Probe Type M116 M112 M110 M109 M106 M1036 V260 V260 M208 M208 M202 M202 M201 M201 M206 M207 M207

Typical Application Steel: 0.020 - 1.5" (0.250 - 38mm) Steel: 0.030 - 10.000" (0.76 - 250mm) Steel: 0.040 - 15" (1.00 - 380mm) Steel: 0.050 - 25" (1.00 - 635mm) Steel: 0.080 - 20" (2.00 - 500mm) Steel: 0.080 - 25.00" (2.0 - 635mm) Steel: 0.020 - 0.500" (0.5 - 12.5mm) Steel: 0.010 - 0.25" (0.25 - 6mm) Steel: 0.020 - 0.2" (0.5 - 10mm) Steel: 0.008 - 0.200" (0.25 - 5mm) Steel: 0.030 - 0.5" (0.75 - 12mm) Steel: 0.010 - 0.50" (0.25 - 12mm) Steel: 0.050 - 1.0" (1.5 - 25.4mm) Steel: 0.030 - 0.50" (0.75 - 12.5mm) Steel 0.050 - 0.75" (1.25 - 19mm) Steel 0.080 - 0.75" (2 - 19mm) Steel 0.060 - 0.5" (1.5 - 6mm)

Note: The maximum thickness measuring capability on plastics depends on the attenuation characteristics of the material.

Table 14

Setup Name and Application

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Setup Quantity Custom Application Setups

16 factory default setups. Space for 10 custom defined setups. Applications that are not covered by any of the default setups can be measured by creating a custom setup for the special application. This setup may be done by adjusting the parameters of the closest default setup. A description of the setup parameters, which can be adjusted to make a custom setup are listed in Table 15 on page 234.

Name Mode

Description Echo Detect Mode

Units/Resolutions/Range Standard Dual, Dual E to E, ThruCoat, Mode 1, Mode 2, and Mode 3.

Setup Name Meastype ProbeType Special measurement modes Transducer types Standard or Oxide Dual Element, Direct Contact, Delay Line, Immersion, and EMAT. 30, 60, or 110 Volts. 0 - 79.6dB, 1dB steps. 0 - MaxGain, 1dB steps. 0 - 26.5dB/s, 0.1dB/s steps. 57ns to 225s, 0.14s steps. 22ns or Echo Window time interval, whichever is less. 55ns to 224.71s. 55ns or MB Blank time interval, whichever is less.

PulserPwr MaxGain InitGain TDGSlope MBBlank

Pulser power Maximum receiver gain Initial TVD gain Time Gain slope (default Main Bang Blank

EchWindow

Echo window. Echo detect gate which begins at end of MB Blank in Mode 1 or interface echo in Modes 2 & 3. The value reported for the end of echo window is relative to the Main Bang. Detection polarity of first echo

Echo1Detect Table 15

+ or -

Setup Parameter Description

QPO

Name Echo2Detect IFBLANK M3Blnk MatlVel Zero Table 15

Description Detection polarity of second echo Blank after interface echo Blank after first measured backwall echo in Mode 3 Ultrasonic sound velocity of material to be measured Zero calibration factor

Units/Resolutions/Range + or 0 - 20000 ns. 0 - 20000 ns. 0.02000 - 0.66929"/s (0.5080 17.0000mm/s). 0 - 999.99.

Setup Parameter Description (Continued)

General

Display

Dot matrix, graphics, Super Twisted Nematic, monochrome, transflective, liquid crystal display. Viewable area is 2.22" x 1.51" (56.28mm x 38.36mm). Electroluminescent backlight. Contrast is adjustable from the keypad.

Keypad Dual Element Transducers

Sealed and embossed membrane surface. Tactile and audible feedback color-coded graphics 30 keys. Automatically identifies the GE Panametrics transducer type and optimizes the gage for that transducer. Non-GE Panametrics transducers may work, but performance is not guaranteed. Following transducers will be supported: D790, D790-SM, D791, D791-RM, D792, D793, D794, D795, D797, D798, D7906-SM, D7908, D799, M201, MTD705

Single Element Transducers Physical

Can be used with 2.25MHz contact, delay line, and immersion transducers from 2MHz to 30MHz. Size: 9.375" x 5.45" x 1.5 (238mm x 138mm x 38mm) Weight: 2.1 lb. (0.951 kg) Case: Material is Lexan Construction: Dust and splash proof Operating Temperature: 0oC to 50C

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Battery and Charger

Battery Description Battery Run Time Battery Charge Time Charger Optional

6V Rechargeable NiCad pack or field-replaceable alkaline AA batteries. 25 hours typical in Mode 1with 4Hz update rate and backlight turned off. 2 hours (using 36CAPLUS). 36CAPLUS charger/AC adapter unit (will not recharge alkaline batteries). Operation with six disposable alkaline AA cell is available as a factory installed option. 70 hours typical run time.

Special Gage Functions

General

Access many gage functions, which do not require frequent changing, by using the Special or Setup keypad mode. Access all these features by pressing [2nd F], [0] (SETUP). Press [ ], [ ], and [ENTER] to select a category of SP functions (Measurement, B-Scan/DB Grid, Avg/Min Measure, Temp Compensation, Communication, Diagnostics, Resets, Clock). Finally select a particular function to modify by pressing [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], and [ENTER].

List Of Special Functions

Measurement: Beeper (on* or off) Inactive time (on* or off) Language (English*, Spanish, German, French) Radix (period* or comma) Units (English* or metric) Resolution (Standard* or low) Hold/Blank (Blank* or hold) Rectification (RF, Full*, Neg, Pos) Waveform (unfill* or fill) Backlight mode (normal* or auto) Supv lock (off* or on) Save key (thk* or thk & wf) ID overwrite (off* or on) * indicates the parameter default

SPO

B-Scan/DB Grid: B-Scan: B-Scan Size Mode (half or full) B-Scan Direction (left to right, right to left) B-Scan LOS OPT (stop or continue) B-Scan Freeze OPT (show min, show max, show current) B-Scan freeze review (on or off) B-Scan MAX THK OPT (A-Scan range or specified THK) DB Grid : grid size (half or full) reverse grid rows (on or off) reverse grid columns (on or off) transpose grid (on or off) linearize rows and columns (on or off) data cell flag (none, min/max, alarm, A-Scan) Avg/Min Measure: Enable (on or off) Mode (avg or min) # of Readings (2, 3, 4) Temp Compensation: Enable (on or off) Mode (manual or auto) Degree units (fahrenheit or celsius) Calibration temp (variable) Temp coef (variable) Current temp (variable) Communication: Baud: (1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200*) Stop Bits: (1* or 2) Parity: (Even, Odd, or None*) Comm Protocol: (multiple* or single) Output Format for Single Element Transducer: (F1*, F2, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, F10) Output Format for Dual Element Transducer: (F1*, F2, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, F10) DBase Tracking: (On/Off*) B-Scan Output: (On/Off*) 36DLP Output: (On/Off*) Fisher Enable: (On/Off*) * indicates the parameter default Diagnostic: Keypad Video Hardware status Error status

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RESETS Measure Reset: (default values) Std. resolution 4Hz Measure rate Diff. value 0.000 Diff mode OFF Display blank Inactive time on Alarm off Low alarm 0.000 High alarm 25.00 Min off Max off Backlight off Communication Reset: (default values) Baud: 19200 Stop bit: 1 Parity: none Comm protocol: multiple Output format: F1 DBase Tracking: Off B-Scan Output: Off 36DLP Output: Off Fisher Enable: Off Dbase Reset: This reset function clears the entire database. Use CAUTION: this function will erase all stored data, which cannot be recalled. Master Reset: Performs all Measurement, Communications and Dbase resets simultaneously.

UPO

Appendix C - Sound Velocities


The following table consists of the ultrasonic velocity in a variety of common materials. Use this table only as a guide. The actual velocity in these materials may vary significantly due to a variety of causes, such as, composition, preferred crystallographic orientation, porosity, and temperature. Therefore, for maximum accuracy, establish the sound velocity in a given material by first testing a sample of the material.

Material Alumina, Al203 99.5% Aluminum, rolled Aluminum,6061T6 Beryllium Brass, yellow 70 Cu, 30 Zn Brass, yellow 70 Cu, 30 Zn Copper, rolled Duraluminum, 17S Fused Silica Fused Silica Glass, crown Glass, flint Glass, pyrex Iron, Armco Lead, rolled Lucite Magnesium, drawn annealed Molybdenum Monel Nickel Nylon Polyethylene Table 16

V (in./usec) 0.4013 0.253 0.251 0.5073 0.1850 0.1726 0.1972 0.2487 0.2349 0.2335 0.2008 0.1567 0.2220 0.2345 0.0771 0.1055 0.2270 0.247 0.2105 0.2377 0.1031 0.0705

V (mm/usec) 10.19 6.420 6.383 12.89 4.700 4.385 5.010 6.320 5.968 5.932 5.100 3.980 5.640 5.960 1.960 2.680 5.770 6.25 5.350 6.040 2.735 1.950

Sound Velocities of Various Materials (Longitudinal Wave Velocity)

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Material Polystyrene Silicone Rubber RTV Steel, low alloy Steel, mild Steel, 1% C Steel, 1% C, hardened Stainless Steel #347 Titanium Tungsten, drawn Uranium Water Zinc, rolled Zinc, extruded Table 16

V (in./usec) 0.0925 0.0373 0.2259 0.2346 0.2339 0.2305 0.2278 0.237 0.2129 0.133 0.0590 0.1657 0.1756

V (mm/usec) 2.350 0.948 5.734 5.960 5.940 5.854 5.790 5.99 5.410 3.37 1.498 4.210 4.460

Ref 1 4 2 5 5 5 1 3 1 3 5 1 2

Sound Velocities of Various Materials (Longitudinal Wave Velocity) (Continued)

References Folds, D. L. Experimental Determination of Ultrasonic Wave Velocities in Plastics, Elastomers, and Syntactic Foam as a Function of Temperature, Naval Research and Development Laboratory, Panama City, Florida, 1971. Fredericks, J. R. Ultrasonic Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1963. Mason, W. P. Physical Acoustics and the Properties of Solids, D.Van Nostrand Co., New York, 1958. Papadakis, E. P. Panametrics - unpublished notes, 1972.

MQO

Appendix D - Serial Interface


Mechanical Description The Input-Output (I/O) connector, a 6 position circular LEMO style receptacle, is located in the center of the top of the Model 37DL PLUS. The mating connector inserts into the I/O connector with the red dot upward and pushed straight in until it snaps into place. To withdraw, pull the collet to release the latch and pull straight out. GE Panametrics provides cables to connect the Model 37DL PLUS to devices with standard DB-25 male and female connectors and also the IBM PC-AT 9 male pin serial I/ O connector. Use the information in Table 17 on page 241 as a reference to verify particular equipment compatibility with the Model 37DL PLUS, and as an aid in constructing a custom cable if necessary.

Model 37DL PLUS I/O Connector 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table 17

Wire Name Foil/tinned copper Red Orange Yellow Green Blue

Signal Name Ground Data from Gage Data to Gage Do not connect DTR from Gage DSR to Gage

IBM PC-AT Connector 5 2 3 6 4

Equipment Compatibility

GE Panametrics Stock No. 704-689-01 704-690-01 704-691-01 704-689-02 704-690-02 704-691-02 Table 18 Part No. 36DLC/9F-6 36DLC/25M-6 36DLC/25F-6 36DLC/9F-12 36DLC/25M12 36DLC/25F12

Length (Feet) 6 6 6 12 12 12

Length (Meters) 2 2 2 4 4 4

Cable Connector IBM PC-AT (9 Pin Female) 25 Pin Male D 25 Pin Female D (PC/XT) IBM PC-AT (9 Pin Female) 25 Pin Male D 25 Pin Female D (PC/XT)

Standard 37DL PLUS I/O Cables

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STD DB25 Pin # 7 3 2 6 20

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GE Panametrics Stock No. 704-718-06 Table 18 Note: Part No. 36DLC/9M/ PR-6

Length (Feet) 6

Length (Meters) 2

Cable Connector 9 Pin Male D (Portable Printer)

Standard 37DL PLUS I/O Cables (Continued) Custom cables with a user specified terminal connector may be ordered from GE Panametrics.

Electrical Definition and Data Format Data is transmitted on one line (data out of gage) and received on another line (data into gage). Transfer is asynchronous serial. Baud rate, word length, stop bits and parity are selectable from the keyboard. Data consists of ASCII coded character strings. Signal levels are RS-232 C/D compatible. Mark is less than -2.5 volts. Space is greater than +2.5V. The maximum output signal range is 5.50 volts. The maximum input signal range is 20 volts. The following two hardware handshake lines are included: DTR: DSR: The gage sets DTR low (<-2.5V) when it is not able to receive data. DTR is high (>+2.5V) at all times. A high (>+2.5V) supplied by the external device (or by being connected to the DTR line) enables the gage to transmit data. A low (<-2.5V) supplied by the external device, or by being connected to the RTS line, prevents the gage from transmitting data. If the external device does not provide the proper DSR signal, then you must connect DTR to DSR (jump pin 6 to pin 20 in the 25 position cable connector), or in the 25 pin connector on the attached equipment.

Note:

OQO

Appendix E - Data Output Format


There are 9 available output formats for transmitted data (note, F-3 is not used as an available output format). Output formats vary depending whether you are using a dual element transducer or a single element transducer. A general description of each is given in Table 19 and Table 20. The Model 37DL PLUS also has File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to transfer files between the gage and your PC. See Appendix F - Remote Control Via RS-232 on page 277 for more information about FTP.

Format F-1 F-2 F-4 F-5 F-6 F-7 F-8 F-9 F-10

File Header X X

ID Header X X

Thickness Table X X

Waveforms X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Table 19

Model 37DL PLUS Dual Element Transducer Output Formats

Format F-1 F-2 F-4 F-5 F-6 F-7 F-8 F-9 F-10

File Header X X

ID Header X X

Thickness Table X X

Waveforms X

Setup Table X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Table 20

Model 37DL PLUS Single Element Transducer Output Formats

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Setup Table X X

Note Table X X

Appsetup Table X

Note Table X X

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Formats for Dual-Element Transducers

Format F1 This format includes file header, 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 FILE NAME: DEMO FILE TYPE: INCREMENTAL FILE DESCRIPTION: DEMO FILE OUTPUT FORMAT INSPECTOR ID: GE PANAMETRICS TESTER 999999 LOCATION NOTE: WALTHAM MA USA FILE DELETE PROTECTION: ON OK IDENTIFIER THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS NOTES SU # 001 0.098 IN M---WF 2 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 01 02 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 03 06 06 01 05 06 13 1F 1F 2D 32 31 31 03 20 1D 1D 3F 5B 6A 6A 4A 65 22 22 0D 3D 63 63 7B 7D 41 67 11 11 20 4C 68 68 61 6F 43 43 14 19 40 40 5D 69 62 62 24 49 08 08 31 4F 59 5C 46 46 03 28 20 20 3C 4C 4E 4E 2D 43 0E 0E 10 2E 41 41 4A 4C 3B 3B 0F 1A 3D 65 7F 7F 71 7F 3B 3B 10 5C 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 06 63 53 53 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 1E 3B 6D 6D 7F 7F 7F 7F 3F 7F 10 10 5A 7F 7F 7F 77 7F 36 36 12 53 7F 7F 7F 7F 3A 6D 01 01 39 66 7F 7F 75 7F 53 53 12 23 45 45 6B 7F 7F 7F 52 78 19 2E 74 74 7F 7F 7F 7F 52 7F 1C 1C 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 07 77 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 49 49 28 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 06 59 5B 5B 7F 7F 7F 7F 40 7F 0B 4E 7A 7A 7F 7F 5C 5C 0F 28 41 41 65 77 72 72 33 5B 04 04 2B 52 6A 6A 6B 74 29 52 10 10 4C 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 77 77 25 3D 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 66 7F 12 12 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 3C 7F 32 32 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 5E 5E 03 56 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 0B 54 35 64 79 79 5E 76 36 36 08 21 40 40 51 52 47 47 10 30 10 10 2D 40 48 49 3B 3B 00 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 39 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51

QQO

Format F1 This format includes file header, 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 RECTIFICATION = FW 002 0.196 IN M---WF 2 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 03 03 05 08 08 08 03 06 12 1F 2D 2D 2F 33 1C 1C 01 24 45 45 5D 67 5D 5D 13 3E 1B 1B 45 66 74 77 5C 5C 07 34 25 25 4A 62 67 67 3F 5A 1C 1C 07 29 43 43 4F 50 41 41 0F 2B 0C 25 33 33 34 38 29 29 03 17 0F 0F 1C 25 27 27 17 21 0C 0C 00 08 0E 0E 10 11 0B 0F 07 07 00 03 00 00 01 04 03 03 03 03 05 05 04 05 05 05 03 04 02 02 00 01 03 04 04 04 05 06 01 01 00 02 05 05 07 09 08 08 04 07 03 03 00 02 05 07 07 07 04 05 02 02 00 02 03 03 04 04 03 03 00 01 01 01 01 02 01 01 02 03 05 07 05 05 02 0E 1C 1C 29 31 30 30 02 21 23 23 46 5F 6A 6A 45 63 15 15 21 51 74 7F 7F 7F 39 68 00 00 33 5C 76 76 6B 7B 4A 4A 0E 1E 36 36 54 62 62 62 30 4F 0E 14 32 32 45 4B 43 43 1A 32 01 01 16 29 34 34 30 34 24 24 03 14 0B 16 1E 1E 23 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 78 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW 003 0.293 IN M---WF 2 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 01 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

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Format F1 This format includes file header, 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 02 00 01 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 04 04 06 09 02 05 0D 0D 1B 29 31 31 25 32 08 08 1A 3E 59 59 64 68 4B 4B 12 20 41 41 66 7D 6B 7F 41 41 0F 22 4C 4C 68 73 67 67 26 4C 03 03 2A 49 58 58 4C 5A 14 33 0C 0C 28 3B 42 42 2E 3C 1B 1B 04 10 24 24 2D 2F 29 29 0F 1D 02 02 11 1C 1F 21 19 19 02 0F 08 08 11 16 16 16 0F 15 07 07 00 08 0E 0E 0F 0F 0C 0C 01 07 04 0A 0E 0E 0F 10 0C 0C 01 07 05 05 0B 0F 10 10 0C 10 05 05 00 07 0D 0D 10 11 0B 0F 05 05 00 07 0A 0A 0C 0D 0B 0B 01 06 03 03 08 0C 0C 0C 08 0B 02 06 02 02 06 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 117 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW OK SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 2 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 9 IN D790/791 51 OK CODE COMMENT OK

SQO

Format F2 This format includes file header, 37 DLP thickness table, setup table, and note table. This format excludes waveform. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 FILE NAME: DEMO FILE TYPE: INCREMENTAL FILE DESCRIPTION: DEMO FILE OUTPUT FORMAT INSPECTOR ID: GE PANAMETRICS TESTER 999999 LOCATION NOTE: WALTHAM MA USA FILE DELETE PROTECTION: ON OK IDENTIFIER 001 0.098 002 0.196 003 0.293 OK THICKNESS IN M---WF IN M---WF IN M---WF UNITS FLAGS NOTES SU # 2 2 2

SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 2 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 9 IN D790/791 51 OK CODE COMMENT OK

Format F4 This format includes only thickness infomation with waveforms (whenever present). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 +0.098 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 01 02 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 03 06 06 01 05 06 13 1F 1F 2D 32 31 31 03 20 1D 1D 3F 5B 6A 6A 4A 65 22 22 0D 3D 63 63 7B 7D 41 67 11 11 20 4C 68 68 61 6F 43 43 14 19 40 40 5D 69 62 62 24 49 08 08 31 4F 59 5C 46 46 03 28 20 20 3C 4C 4E 4E 2D 43 0E 0E 10 2E 41 41 4A 4C 3B 3B 0F 1A 3D 65 7F 7F 71 7F 3B 3B 10 5C 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 06 63 53 53 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 1E 3B 6D 6D 7F 7F 7F 7F 3F 7F 10 10 5A 7F 7F 7F 77 7F 36 36 12 53 7F 7F 7F 7F 3A 6D 01 01 39 66 7F 7F 75 7F 53 53 12 23 45 45 6B 7F 7F 7F 52 78 19 2E 74 74 7F 7F 7F 7F 52 7F 1C 1C 7F

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Format F4 This format includes only thickness infomation with waveforms (whenever present). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 07 77 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 49 49 28 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 06 59 5B 5B 7F 7F 7F 7F 40 7F 0B 4E 7A 7A 7F 7F 5C 5C 0F 28 41 41 65 77 72 72 33 5B 04 04 2B 52 6A 6A 6B 74 29 52 10 10 4C 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 77 77 25 3D 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 66 7F 12 12 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 3C 7F 32 32 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 5E 5E 03 56 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 0B 54 35 64 79 79 5E 76 36 36 08 21 40 40 51 52 47 47 10 30 10 10 2D 40 48 49 3B 3B 00 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 39 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW +0.196 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 03 03 05 08 08 08 03 06 12 1F 2D 2D 2F 33 1C 1C 01 24 45 45 5D 67 5D 5D 13 3E 1B 1B 45 66 74 77 5C 5C 07 34 25 25 4A 62 67 67 3F 5A 1C 1C 07 29 43 43 4F 50 41 41 0F 2B 0C 25 33 33 34 38 29 29 03 17 0F 0F 1C 25 27 27 17 21 0C 0C 00 08 0E 0E 10 11 0B 0F 07 07 00 03 00 00 01 04 03 03 03 03 05 05 04 05 05 05 03 04 02 02 00 01 03 04 04 04 05 06 01 01 00 02 05 05 07 09 08 08 04 07 03 03 00 02 05 07 07 07 04 05 02 02 00 02 03 03 04 04 03 03 00 01 01 01 01 02 01 01 02 03 05 07 05 05 02 0E 1C 1C 29 31 30 30 02 21 23 23 46 5F 6A 6A 45 63 15 15 21 51 74 7F 7F 7F 39 68 00 00 33 5C 76 76 6B 7B 4A 4A 0E 1E 36 36 54 62 62 62 30 4F 0E 14 32 32 45 4B 43 43 1A 32 01 01 16 29 34 34 30 34 24 24 03 14 0B 16 1E 1E 23 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 78 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE

UQO

Format F4 This format includes only thickness infomation with waveforms (whenever present). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW +0.293 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 01 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 02 00 01 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 04 04 06 09 02 05 0D 0D 1B 29 31 31 25 32 08 08 1A 3E 59 59 64 68 4B 4B 12 20 41 41 66 7D 6B 7F 41 41 0F 22 4C 4C 68 73 67 67 26 4C 03 03 2A 49 58 58 4C 5A 14 33 0C 0C 28 3B 42 42 2E 3C 1B 1B 04 10 24 24 2D 2F 29 29 0F 1D 02 02 11 1C 1F 21 19 19 02 0F 08 08 11 16 16 16 0F 15 07 07 00 08 0E 0E 0F 0F 0C 0C 01 07 04 0A 0E 0E 0F 10 0C 0C 01 07 05 05 0B 0F 10 10 0C 10 05 05 00 07 0D 0D 10 11 0B 0F 05 05 00 07 0A 0A 0C 0D 0B 0B 01 06 03 03 08 0C 0C 0C 08 0B 02 06 02 02 06 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 117 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW

Format F5 This format includes 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. This format excludes fileheader. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 IDENTIFIER THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS SU #

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Format F5 This format includes 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. This format excludes fileheader. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 001 0.098 IN M---W- 2 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 03 15 25 16 53 50 49 62 38 55 33 52 49 39 46 20 39 33 32 38 50 63 46 63 63 63 63 54 63 63 63 63 63 63 51 63 41 63 63 58 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 61 63 32 59 45 53 58 63 63 59 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 50 60 27 41 35 32 36 20 62 59 63 63 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 19 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW 002 0.196 IN M---W- 2 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 04 15 25 18 51 46 51 59 26 51 45 33 40 21 28 20 18 19 06 08 07 01 02 02 02 02 02 03 01 04 04 01 03 02 01 02 00 01 03 07 24 24 47 53 40 63 52 59 61 27 49 39 37 33 20 26 18 15 17 12 13 17 12 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 39 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW

MRO

Format F5 This format includes 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. This format excludes fileheader. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

003 0.293 IN M---W- 2 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 06 24 25 44 52 32 63 32 57 51 36 45 25 33 30 18 23 14 16 12 11 11 04 07 06 07 08 03 08 08 06 08 03 06 05 06 06 03 04 03 02 03 01 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 58 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW OK SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 2 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 9 IN D790/791 51 OK CODE COMMENT OK

Format F6 This format includes 37 DLP thickness table (no waveform), setup table, and note table. This format excludes fileheader. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789

IDENTIFIER THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS SU # 001 0.098 IN M---W- 2 002 0.196 IN M---W- 2

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Format F6 This format includes 37 DLP thickness table (no waveform), setup table, and note table. This format excludes fileheader. 0 1 003 OK 2 3 4 5 6 0.293 IN M---W- 2

SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 2 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 9 IN D790/791 51 OK CODE COMMENT OK

Format F7 This is in conformance with the 26DL PLUS 16-character ID format. This format includes 26DL PLUS thickness table in 16-character ID format with waveforms (whenever present) and setup table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 IDENTIFIER THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS SU # 001 0.098 IN M---W- 2 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 03 15 25 16 53 50 49 62 38 55 33 52 49 39 46 20 39 33 32 38 50 63 46 63 63 63 63 54 63 63 63 63 63 63 51 63 41 63 63 58 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 61 63 32 59 45 53 58 63 63 59 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 50 60 27 41 35 32 36 20 62 59 63 63 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 19 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW 002 0.196 IN M---W- 2 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

ORO

Format F7 This is in conformance with the 26DL PLUS 16-character ID format. This format includes 26DL PLUS thickness table in 16-character ID format with waveforms (whenever present) and setup table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 04 15 25 18 51 46 51 59 26 51 45 33 40 21 28 20 18 19 06 08 07 01 02 02 02 02 02 03 01 04 04 01 03 02 01 02 00 01 03 07 24 24 47 53 40 63 52 59 61 27 49 39 37 33 20 26 18 15 17 12 13 17 12 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 39 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW 003 0.293 IN M---W- 2 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 06 24 25 44 52 32 63 32 57 51 36 45 25 33 30 18 23 14 16 12 11 11 04 07 06 07 08 03 08 08 06 08 03 06 05 06 06 03 04 03 02 03 01 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 58 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW OK

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Format F7 This is in conformance with the 26DL PLUS 16-character ID format. This format includes 26DL PLUS thickness table in 16-character ID format with waveforms (whenever present) and setup table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 2 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 9 IN D790/791 51 OK

FORMAT F8 This is in conformance with the 26DL PLUS 16-character ID format. This format includes 26DL PLUS thickness table in 16-character ID format without waveforms, and setup table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 IDENTIFIER 001 0.098 002 0.196 003 0.293 OK THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS SU # IN M---W- 2 IN M---W- 2 IN M---W- 2

SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 2 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 9 IN D790/791 51 OK

Format F9 This format includes the secondary measurements information (i.e. ThruCoat/TempComp). This format includes the 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, application setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 IDENTIFIER THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS NOTES SU # CURR TEMP 001 0.100 IN M---WF 2 70 F PIXEL AMPLITUDES 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 02 02 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 02 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 02 03 04 04 04 05 00 08 14 14 20 2E 33 33 22 30 09 09 16 36 53 53 63 63 51 51 08 31 25 25 4C 66 66 6F 4D 4D 05 26 2D 2D 4C 5A 58 58 28 47 01 01 26 44 56 56 4C 59 31 31 0C 17 34 48 4E 4E 34 47 18 18 04 20 34 34 3C 3E 31 31 04 1D 14 14 2D 3D 44 44 26 3D 02 28 53 53 75 7F 78 78 0A 4C 41 41 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 33 33 25 7B 7F 7F 7F 7F 6D 7F 14 14 43 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 64 64 18 37 78 78 7F 7F 7F 7F 10

QRO

Format F9 This format includes the secondary measurements information (i.e. ThruCoat/TempComp). This format includes the 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, application setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 57 37 70 7F 7F 7F 7F 59 59 1E 20 55 55 7C 7F 7F 7F 3F 6D 05 05 33 63 7F 7F 7F 7F 2E 68 1C 1C 69 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 71 71 00 72 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 3E 7F 54 54 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 03 7C 6B 6B 7F 7F 7F 7F 77 7F 1A 1A 41 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 03 4F 41 41 74 7F 7F 7F 35 67 04 04 3B 66 7F 7F 6C 7F 45 45 12 24 52 52 74 7F 68 7F 3A 3A 02 4A 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 3B 7F 33 33 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 0C 75 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 62 62 18 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 17 78 45 45 7F 7F 7F 7F 61 7F 18 28 5A 5A 72 73 5C 5C 07 35 23 23 43 54 55 55 2B 46 07 07 1C 3A 4F 55 51 51 1E ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 39 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW 002 0.196 IN M---WF 2 70 F PIXEL AMPLITUDES 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 01 00 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 02 02 04 07 08 08 02 04 0E 1C 2B 2B 32 33 24 24 09 18 3A 3A 55 65 63 63 26 4D 06 06 33 58 71 78 69 69 1E 49 10 10 3A 58 66 66 4D 62 2E 2E 0A 17 38 38 4C 51 49 49 1C 37 00 1A 2F 2F 38 38 2F 2F 0C 21 07 07 18 23 28 28 1C 26 12 12 03 06 0C 0C 10 11 0E 11 0A 0A 03 06 00 00 02 03 04 04 04 04 05 05 05 05 04 04 03 04 03 03 00 01 03 04 05 05 04 05 02 02 00 02 04 04 07 08 08 08 05 07 03 03 00 02 04 06 07 07 04 05 02 02 00 02 03 03 03 03 02 02 00 01 00 00 01 02 02 02 02 03 05 06 06 06 00 0A 18 18 27 2F 30 30 0B 25 17 17 3B 57 67 67 4E 65 24 24 0F 41 69 7F 7F 7F 49 72 12 12 24 50 6E 6E 71 7C 53 53 02 2B 2C 2C 4D 60 63 63 3A 55 0D 16 2D 2D 42 4B 47 47 21 37 07 07 11 25 33 33 31 36 27 27 07 17 08 14 1C 1C 22 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ RRO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Format F9 This format includes the secondary measurements information (i.e. ThruCoat/TempComp). This format includes the 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, application setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 78 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW 003 0.293 IN M---WF 2 70 F PIXEL AMPLITUDES 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 02 00 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 04 04 06 08 00 06 0C 0C 1A 29 31 31 26 33 0A 0A 18 3B 57 57 67 69 4F 4F 0D 25 3E 3E 65 7E 6F 7F 48 48 15 1D 49 49 69 75 6D 6D 2B 51 01 01 27 47 5B 5B 51 5D 19 38 09 09 27 3B 43 43 32 40 1E 1E 07 10 23 23 2E 30 2C 2C 10 20 01 01 10 1C 20 21 1B 1B 04 12 07 07 11 17 18 18 11 17 09 09 00 07 0E 0E 10 10 0D 0D 03 08 04 09 0F 0F 10 10 0D 0D 03 08 04 04 0B 0F 11 11 0D 10 07 07 00 08 0D 0D 11 11 0D 11 07 07 00 06 0C 0C 0D 0E 0C 0C 02 08 02 02 08 0C 0D 0D 09 0C 02 06 02 02 05 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER = 117 EXTENDED BLANK MARKER = 0 SENSITIVITY MODE = FALSE AGC WAVEFORM = TRUE SENSITIVITY = 51 RECTIFICATION = FW OK SU # VEL(/uS) LO-ALM HI-ALM BLANK UNITS XDCR GAIN CAL TEMP TEMP COEF

SRO

Format F9 This format includes the secondary measurements information (i.e. ThruCoat/TempComp). This format includes the 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, application setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 0.2260 0.000 25.000 9 IN D790/791 51 70 F -0.00010 OK CODE COMMENT OK

Format F10 This format includes the secondary measurements information (i.e. ThruCoat/TempComp). This format includes 37 DLP thickness table without waveforms, setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 IDENTIFIER 001 0.100 002 0.196 003 0.293 OK THICKNESS IN M--WF IN M--WF IN M--WF UNITS FLAGS NOTES SU # CURR TEMP 2 70F 2 70F 2 70F

SU # VEL(/uS) LO-ALM HI-ALM BLANK UNITS XDCR GAIN CAL TEMP TEMP COEF 2 0.2260 0.000 25.000 9 IN D790/791 51 70 F -0.00010 OK CODE COMMENT OK

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ TRO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Formats for Single-Element Transducers

Format F1 This format includes file header, 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 FILE NAME: DEMO FILE TYPE: INCREMENTAL FILE DESCRIPTION: DEMO FILE OUTPUT FORMAT INSPECTOR ID: GE PANAMETRICS TESTER 999999 LOCATION NOTE: WALTHAM MA USA FILE DELETE PROTECTION: ON OK IDENTIFIER THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS NOTES SU # 001 0.097 IN 1---WF 3 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 91 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 2B 25 2B 18 32 32 60 60 7A 6F 7A 67 6F 6C 7E 7E 80 7A 80 7A 7B 7B 80 80 80 7D 80 7D 7D 7D 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 82 82 9E 9E AF 75 AF 44 75 34 48 48 6B 6B 89 84 89 84 8A 8A 92 8C 92 83 8C 82 83 80 82 7F 80 7D 7F 7D 7E 7C 7E 7C 7D 7C 7D 7C 7C 7C 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 7E 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 80 80 82 82 91 91 96 6F 96 59 6F 58 6C 6C 81 81 8E 84 8E 84 84 84 85 81 84 7E 81 7D 7E 7D 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7D 7E 7D 7D 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 80 81 80 81 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 80 80 82 81 82 81 82 80 82 80 81 81 88 88 89 70 89 66 70 66 7A 7A 89 89 8E 7F 8B 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7C 7E 7C 7D 7D 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 80 7E 80 7D 7E 7D 7F 7E 80 7F 80 80 80 80 81 80 81 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7D 7E 7D 7E 7E 80 80 81 80 81 80 80 80 81 80 81 80 84 82 84 73 82 70 73 70 82 82 8C 87 8C 7C 87 7B 7C 7B 7E 7E 7E 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 80 80 81 81 81 80 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 46 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 14 ECHO WINDOW END = 199 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0

URO

Format F1 This format includes file header, 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF 002 0.194 IN 1---WF 3 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 92 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 01 01 48 48 7E 6B 7E 58 6B 5C 7C 7C 80 76 80 76 78 78 80 80 80 7E 80 7D 7E 7D 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 81 81 98 98 A9 8A A9 5A 8A 36 5A 36 52 52 88 88 8C 8B 8D 8D 94 93 94 87 93 84 87 82 84 80 82 7D 80 7C 7D 7C 7D 7D 7E 7D 7E 7C 7D 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7D 7E 7D 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 81 80 80 80 81 80 81 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 81 80 81 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 80 81 81 8C 8C 92 7E 92 67 7E 55 67 57 84 84 92 8F 93 89 8F 86 89 85 86 7E 85 7C 7E 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7E 7E 7E 7E 80 80 80 80 80 7E 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 86 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 14 ECHO WINDOW END = 199 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ VRO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Format F1 This format includes file header, 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF 003 0.292 IN 1---WF 3 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 92 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 10 0E 10 00 0E 0A 4F 4F 7D 6A 7D 57 6A 5B 7C 7C 7F 74 7F 74 76 76 7F 7F 81 7D 81 7D 7D 7D 7E 7E 7E 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 80 7E 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7E 80 7E 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7E 80 7E 80 7F 80 80 82 82 92 92 A2 94 A7 6B 94 34 6B 34 41 41 7C 7C 8F 8F 91 91 97 97 97 8F 97 8A 8F 82 8A 7E 82 78 7E 77 78 77 7A 7A 7C 7C 7D 7D 7E 7E 7F 7E 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 81 82 80 82 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 125 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 14 ECHO WINDOW END = 199 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF OK

MSO

Format F1 This format includes file header, 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 3 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 22 IN M112 47 OK SETUP NUMBER : 0003 SETUP NAME : DEFM1-10.0/M112 MEASUREMENT TYPE : 1 PROBE TYPE : 4 MATERIAL VELOCITY : 0.2260IN/us ZERO : 212.80 PULSER VOLTAGE : 3 MAXIMUM GAIN : 2400 INITIAL GAIN : 930 TDG SLOPE : 2398 MAIN BANG BLANK : 22 ECHO WINDOW : 13967 DETECTION MODE : 1 ECHO1 DETECTION : 1 ECHO2 DETECTION : N/A INTERFACE BLANK : N/A MODE3 ECHO BLANK : N/A DATA WINDOW 1 : N/A DATA WINDOW 2 : N/A OK CODE COMMENT OK

Format F2 This format includes file header, 37 DLP thickness table, setup table, and note table. This format excludes waveform. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 FILE NAME: DEMO FILE TYPE: INCREMENTAL FILE DESCRIPTION: DEMO FILE OUTPUT FORMAT INSPECTOR ID: GE PANAMETRICS TESTER 999999 LOCATION NOTE: WALTHAM MA USA FILE DELETE PROTECTION: ON OK IDENTIFIER THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS NOTES SU #

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ NSO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Format F2 This format includes file header, 37 DLP thickness table, setup table, and note table. This format excludes waveform. 0 1 001 002 003 OK 2 3 4 5 6 0.097 IN 1---WF 0.194 IN 1---WF 0.292 IN 1---WF 3 3 3

SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 3 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 22 IN M112 47 OK CODE COMMENT OK

Format F4 This format includes only thickness infomation with waveforms (whenever present). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 +0.097 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 91 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 2B 25 2B 18 32 32 60 60 7A 6F 7A 67 6F 6C 7E 7E 80 7A 80 7A 7B 7B 80 80 80 7D 80 7D 7D 7D 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 82 82 9E 9E AF 75 AF 44 75 34 48 48 6B 6B 89 84 89 84 8A 8A 92 8C 92 83 8C 82 83 80 82 7F 80 7D 7F 7D 7E 7C 7E 7C 7D 7C 7D 7C 7C 7C 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 7E 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 80 80 82 82 91 91 96 6F 96 59 6F 58 6C 6C 81 81 8E 84 8E 84 84 84 85 81 84 7E 81 7D 7E 7D 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7D 7E 7D 7D 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 80 81 80 81 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 80 80 82 81 82 81 82 80 82 80 81 81 88 88 89 70 89 66 70 66 7A 7A 89 89 8E 7F 8B 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7C 7E 7C 7D 7D 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 80 7E 80 7D 7E 7D 7F 7E 80 7F 80 80 80 80 81 80 81 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7D 7E 7D 7E 7E 80 80 81 80 81 80 80 80 81 80 81 80 84 82 84 73 82 70 73 70 82 82 8C 87 8C 7C 87 7B 7C 7B 7E 7E 7E 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 80 80 81 81 81 80 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 46

OSO

Format F4 This format includes only thickness infomation with waveforms (whenever present). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 14 ECHO WINDOW END = 199 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF +0.194 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 92 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 01 01 48 48 7E 6B 7E 58 6B 5C 7C 7C 80 76 80 76 78 78 80 80 80 7E 80 7D 7E 7D 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 81 81 98 98 A9 8A A9 5A 8A 36 5A 36 52 52 88 88 8C 8B 8D 8D 94 93 94 87 93 84 87 82 84 80 82 7D 80 7C 7D 7C 7D 7D 7E 7D 7E 7C 7D 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7D 7E 7D 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 81 80 80 80 81 80 81 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 81 80 81 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 80 81 81 8C 8C 92 7E 92 67 7E 55 67 57 84 84 92 8F 93 89 8F 86 89 85 86 7E 85 7C 7E 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7E 7E 7E 7E 80 80 80 80 80 7E 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 86 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 14 ECHO WINDOW END = 199 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ PSO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Format F4 This format includes only thickness infomation with waveforms (whenever present). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF +0.292 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 92 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 10 0E 10 00 0E 0A 4F 4F 7D 6A 7D 57 6A 5B 7C 7C 7F 74 7F 74 76 76 7F 7F 81 7D 81 7D 7D 7D 7E 7E 7E 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 80 7E 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7E 80 7E 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7E 80 7E 80 7F 80 80 82 82 92 92 A2 94 A7 6B 94 34 6B 34 41 41 7C 7C 8F 8F 91 91 97 97 97 8F 97 8A 8F 82 8A 7E 82 78 7E 77 78 77 7A 7A 7C 7C 7D 7D 7E 7E 7F 7E 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 81 82 80 82 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 125 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 14 ECHO WINDOW END = 199 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF

QSO

Format F5 This format includes 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. This format excludes fileheader. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 IDENTIFIER THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS SU # 001 0.097 IN 1---W- 3 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 29 00 00 03 05 23 23 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 36 36 19 27 29 29 25 25 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 29 30 20 28 28 26 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 27 27 27 28 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 25 25 25 26 26 25 28 26 24 24 25 25 24 24 25 25 24 25 25 25 25 25 24 25 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 23 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 7 ECHO WINDOW END = 99 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF 002 0.194 IN 1---W- 3 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 29 00 00 00 00 24 24 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 24 24 25 24 24 24 25 25 24 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 24 31 35 27 27 28 30 29 26 25 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ RSO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Format F5 This format includes 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. This format excludes fileheader. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 28 29 24 29 29 27 26 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 43 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 7 ECHO WINDOW END = 99 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF 003 0.292 IN 1---W- 3 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 29 00 00 00 00 24 24 24 24 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 24 25 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 25 24 25 25 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 33 34 19 28 30 30 28 25 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 62 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 7 ECHO WINDOW END = 99 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0

SSO

Format F5 This format includes 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, and note table. This format excludes fileheader. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF OK SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 3 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 22 IN M112 47 OK CODE COMMENT OK

Format F6 This format includes 37 DLP thickness table (no waveform), setup table, and note table. This format excludes fileheader. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 IDENTIFIER 001 0.097 002 0.194 003 0.292 OK THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS SU # IN 1---W- 3 IN 1---W- 3 IN 1---W- 3

SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 3 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 22 IN M112 47 OK CODE COMMENT OK

Format F7 This is in conformance with the 26DL PLUS 16-character ID format. This format includes 26DL PLUS thickness table in 16-character ID format with waveforms (whenever present) and setup table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ TSO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Format F7 This is in conformance with the 26DL PLUS 16-character ID format. This format includes 26DL PLUS thickness table in 16-character ID format with waveforms (whenever present) and setup table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 IDENTIFIER THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS SU # 001 0.097 IN 1---W- 3 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 29 00 00 03 05 23 23 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 36 36 19 27 29 29 25 25 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 29 30 20 28 28 26 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 27 27 27 28 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 25 25 25 26 26 25 28 26 24 24 25 25 24 24 25 25 24 25 25 25 25 25 24 25 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 23 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 7 ECHO WINDOW END = 99 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF 002 0.194 IN 1---W- 3 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 29 00 00 00 00 24 24 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 24 24 25 24 24 24 25 25 24 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 24 31 35 27 27 28 30 29 26 25 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 28 29 24 29 29 27 26 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 ZOOM = FALSE

USO

Format F7 This is in conformance with the 26DL PLUS 16-character ID format. This format includes 26DL PLUS thickness table in 16-character ID format with waveforms (whenever present) and setup table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 43 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 7 ECHO WINDOW END = 99 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF 003 0.292 IN 1---W- 3 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 29 00 00 00 00 24 24 24 24 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 24 25 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 25 24 25 25 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 33 34 19 28 30 30 28 25 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 62 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 7 ECHO WINDOW END = 99 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 0 DATAWIN 1 END = 0 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ VSO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Format F7 This is in conformance with the 26DL PLUS 16-character ID format. This format includes 26DL PLUS thickness table in 16-character ID format with waveforms (whenever present) and setup table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 RECTIFICATION = RF OK SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 3 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 22 IN M112 47 OK

Format F8 This is in conformance with the 26DL PLUS 16-character ID format. This format includes 26DL PLUS thickness table in 16-character ID format without waveforms, and setup table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 IDENTIFIER 001 0.097 002 0.194 003 0.292 OK THICKNESS UNITS FLAGS SU # IN 1---W- 3 IN 1---W- 3 IN 1---W- 3

SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 3 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 22 IN M112 47 OK

MTO

Format F9 This format includes the secondary measurements information (i.e. ThruCoat/TempComp/Oxide Layer). This format includes 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, application setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 IDENTIFIER OXIDE MEAS MATL MEAS PRIMARY FLAGS NOTES SU# 001 0.007 IN 0.052 IN OXIDE 1---W 2 PIXEL AMPLITUDES 5B 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 07 07 40 40 4C 4C 5C 5C 66 66 6A 6A 71 71 73 73 76 76 76 76 79 79 7A 7A 85 85 9A 9A C2 B0 C2 55 B0 33 55 33 3B 3B 5A 5A 6B 6B 85 85 8C 8C 8F 8C 8E 85 8C 82 85 7F 82 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7F 80 80 8C 8C 9C 9C AB 89 A6 4E 89 4D 4E 4D 6D 6D 7A 7A 87 87 8C 8A 8C 81 8A 7C 81 79 7C 79 79 79 7B 7B 7B 7B 7D 7D 7D 7D 81 81 87 87 9D 90 A2 76 90 5E 76 5E 6C 6C 86 86 89 85 89 83 85 7C 83 79 7C 75 79 75 75 75 7A 7A 7D 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 84 84 8A 8A 97 90 97 6B 90 66 6B 66 7F 7F 8B 88 8B 7E 88 7B 7E 76 7B 75 76 75 78 78 7A 7A 7E 7E 7F 7F 82 82 83 83 86 86 8A 8A 8D 8D 90 83 8F 6C 83 6C 6F 6F 85 85 87 7D 87 79 7D 77 79 77 78 78 79 79 7E 7E 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 84 84 84 84 84 89 89 8A 7A 8A 70 7A 70 7B 7B 87 82 87 79 82 78 79 78 7A 7A 7B 7B 7D 7D 7F 7F 83 82 83 82 83 83 83 83 84 83 84 83 83 83 83 82 83 73 82 71 73 71 80 80 84 7F 84 7B 7F 7B 7C 7C 7F 7F 80 7F 80 80 80 80 82 82 82 81 82 81 81 81 82 80 82 80 81 80 82 7F 82 74 7F 74 76 76 84 84 84 7C 84 7B 7C 7B 7E 7E 7F 7F 81 81 82 82 83 83 83 82 83 81 82 80 81 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7C 7E 78 7C 77 7C 7C 82 82 85 7C 82 7C 7D 7D ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 28 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 14 ECHO WINDOW END = 199 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 17 DATAWIN 1 END = 40 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ NTO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Format F9 This format includes the secondary measurements information (i.e. ThruCoat/TempComp/Oxide Layer). This format includes 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, application setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 002 0.008 IN 0.152 IN OXIDE 1---W PIXEL AMPLITUDES 5B 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 26 26 4E 4E 53 53 5E 5E 68 68 6C 6C 72 72 74 74 78 78 78 78 7B 7B 7B 7B 7D 7D 7D 7D 7D 7C 7D 7C 7D 7D 7E 7D 7D 7D 7E 7D 7E 7D 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7D 7E 7D 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 80 80 80 80 97 97 BA AB BA 57 AB 3A 57 32 3C 3C 4F 4F 74 74 83 83 94 94 96 95 98 90 95 88 90 83 88 82 83 7F 82 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7C 7E 7C 7C 7B 7C 7B 7B 7B 7D 7D 7D 7D 7F 7F 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 80 81 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 80 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 82 82 88 88 9C 96 9C 61 96 4F 61 4F 62 62 85 85 8C 8C 8E 8C 8E 87 8C 84 87 80 84 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7B 7E 7B 7B 7B 7C 7C 7E 7E 80 80 82 82 82 81 82 81 81 80 81 80 80 80 80 80 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 82 82 84 84 84 82 84 81 82 80 81 7F 80 7F 87 87 8D 7F 8D 6C 7F 5D 6C 61 82 82 8C 8A ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 68 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 14 ECHO WINDOW END = 199 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 57 DATAWIN 1 END = 80 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF 003 0.008 IN PIXEL AMPLITUDES 0.300 IN OXIDE 1---W 6 2

OTO

Format F9 This format includes the secondary measurements information (i.e. ThruCoat/TempComp/Oxide Layer). This format includes 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, application setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 5B 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0B 0B 40 40 4C 4C 5D 5D 68 68 6B 6B 72 72 75 75 76 76 78 78 79 79 7A 7A 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7E 7E 7E 7D 7E 7D 7E 7E 7E 7D 7E 7D 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7F 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 80 7F 80 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 80 7E 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 7F 7E 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7E 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 84 84 90 90 B4 AD B4 58 AD 30 58 30 3E 3E 6C 6C 7C 7C 92 92 98 97 99 94 97 8D 94 89 8D 83 89 7F 83 7E 7F 7C 7E 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7C 7D 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 80 7F 80 7F 80 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7E 7F 7F 7F 7D 7F 7D 7D 7D 7E 7E 7E 7E 7F 7F 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 80 81 80 81 81 81 80 ZOOM = FALSE DELAY = 0.00 RANGE = 0.50 DETECTION MARKER1 = 128 DETECTION MARKER2 = 0 MAIN BANG BLANK END = 14 ECHO WINDOW END = 199 INTERFACE BLANK START = 0 INTERFACE BLANK END = 0 MODE3 BLANK START = 0 MODE3 BLANK END = 0 DATAWIN 1 START = 116 DATAWIN 1 END = 139 DATAWIN 2 START = 0 DATAWIN 2 END = 0 RECTIFICATION = RF OK SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 2 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 22 IN M112 47 OK 6

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ PTO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Format F9 This format includes the secondary measurements information (i.e. ThruCoat/TempComp/Oxide Layer). This format includes 37 DLP thickness table with waveforms (whenever present), setup table, application setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 SETUP NUMBER : 0002 SETUP NAME : DEFM1-10.0/M112 MEASUREMENT TYPE : 2 PROBE TYPE : 4 MATERIAL VELOCITY : 0.2260IN/us ZERO : 212.80 PULSER VOLTAGE : 3 MAXIMUM GAIN : 2400 INITIAL GAIN : 930 TDG SLOPE : 2398 MAIN BANG BLANK : 22 ECHO WINDOW : 13967 DETECTION MODE : 1 ECHO1 DETECTION : 1 ECHO2 DETECTION : N/A INTERFACE BLANK : N/A MODE3 ECHO BLANK : N/A DATA WINDOW 1 : 32 DATA WINDOW 2 : N/A OK CODE COMMENT OK 4 5 6

Format F10 This format includes the secondary measurements information (i.e. ThruCoat/TempComp/Oxide Layer). This format includes the 37 DLP thickness table without waveforms, setup table, and note table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 IDENTIFIER 001 002 003 OK OXIDE MEAS MATL MEAS PRIMARY FLAGS NOTES SU# 0.007 IN 0.052 IN OXIDE 1---W 2 0.008 IN 0.152 IN OXIDE 1---W 2 0.008 IN 0.300 IN OXIDE 1---W 2

SU # VEL(/uS) DIFF LO-ALM HI-ALM EXT-BLANK UNITS TRANSDUCER GAIN dB 2 0.2260 0.000 0.000 25.000 22 IN M112 47 OK CODE COMMENT OK

QTO

Thickness Table: A thickness table consists of a header line, thickness data and waveform data. The thickness table has some differences in the different formats. There are six flags associated with each thickness reading in the Thickness Table. In formats F-1 and F-2, the sixth flag is DN Flag; while in format F-5, the sixth flag represents a comment code. These are positional and their possible values are shown below:

Flag FLAG #1

Flag Condition M: Standard Measurement L: Standard LOS E: AE to E Measurement l: AE to E LOS e: ME to E Measurement n: ME to E LOS 1: Mode 1 Meas 2: Mode 2 Meas 3: Mode 3 Meas a: Mode 1 LOS b: Mode 2 LOS c: Mode 3 LOS Differential Mode D: Diff Absolute d: Diff Percentage Standard Alarm A: Alarm Standard H: High Alarm Standard L: Low Alarm Standard -: No Alarm/Diff Percent Previous Mode p: Prev Thk % Alarm r: Prev Thk % Low Alarm g: Prev Thk % High Alarm Absolute Previous Alarm Mode a: Prev Thk Absolute Alarm l: Prev Thk Absolute Low Alarm h: Prev Thk Absolute High Alarm

Remarks Measured Echo Loss Of Signal

FLAG #2

FLAG #3 FLAG #4 Table 21

m: Minimum M: Maximum G: Gain Modified Flag Conditions

Minimum reading Maximum reading Gain Changed manually

~c=l=~~a=J=b=^ RTO `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Flag FLAG #5

Flag Condition M: Waveform Z: Zoom RF: Unrectified Wave Full: Fullwave Neg: Halfwave Negative Pos: Halfwave Positive T: DN True F: DN False -: No Comment A thru Z: Comment Code Flag Conditions

Remarks Waveform stored

FLAG #6 (F1, F2) FLAG #6 (F5 to F8) Table 21

Downloaded; Created ID data stored No comment stored; Comment code

A single line consisting of the text OK immediately follows the end of the Thickness Table. Setup Table: This table consists of a header line followed by 1 to 32 data lines. There is one data line for each unique setup listed in the thickness table. In general, many thicknesses/waveforms may share a common setup. The number of setups is limited to 64. When the setup table is full, any new setups are allocated the #00 and this entry in the setup table indicates such status. Setup table has some differences in the different formats. A blank line precedes the Setup Table.

STO

Appendix F - Remote Control Via RS-232


You can control the Model 37DL PLUS from an external computer or programmable controller using the serial RS-232 cable. In addition, you can also perform most gage keypad functions by transmitting the proper commands to the gage over the serial cable. These functions include setup, calibration, and data storage and retrieval. Each Model 37DL PLUS key has a corresponding remote command. For example, you can load a complete setup and calibration parameters to the gage from a computer at the beginning of each workshift without performing a manual setup and calibration. Another computer control feature is the on-line or robotic thickness measurement and reporting. A computer or machine controller directs the positioning of an ultrasonic transducer on a robot arm while at the same time electronically entering the keys on the Model 37DL PLUS. For example, an unattended computer could set up and change to Differential Measure mode, change resolution, calibrate and/or set different velocity values, or read the various thickness values. The controlling program can repeat the same sequence of steps for each product to be measured. The command set is divided in two formats: Multi-Character commands: Consists of two or more characters and may be followed by a terminator. Single-Character commands: Consists of a single character with no terminator, used to imitate keystrokes on the gage remotely. To change the command formats, follow these steps. 1. Press [2ndF], [0] (SETUP). 2. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Communication option. Press [ENTER]. 3. Press [ ] and [ ] to highlight the Comm Protocol option. 4. Press [ ] and [ ] to toggle between the SINGLE or MULTI character command. Press [ENTER].

Multi-Character Commands
This section describes all Multi-Character commands and illustrates the syntax used with each command. Note: Commands are case sensitive and, if appropriate, terminated with a carriagereturn line-feed pair (i.e. /r/n). The term host used in the command description always refers to the sender of the command.

Many responses to the Multi-Character commands documented in the section are described in more detail in the GE Panametrics 37DLP Series FTP companion document. Please contact GE Panametrics if you need a copy of the document.

TTO

OPOJpo=~s=`=o=J=c=^ `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

FTP Block Information This command instructs the gage to send to the host information about the FTP blocks supported by the gage. See GE Panametrics document 37DLP Series FTP for details about the FTP INFO block send back by the gage. Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A byte hexadecimal value). Gage Information This command instructs the gage to send to the host general information about the gage. See GE Panametrics document 37DLP Series FTP for details about the GAGE INFO block send back by the gage. Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A byte hexadecimal value). File Directory This command instructs the gage to send to the host the file directory that exists on the gage. See GE Panametrics document 37DLP Series FTP for details about the DIR INFO block sent back by the gage. Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). FILEDIR?\r\n GAGEINFO?\r\n FTPINFO?\r\n

UTO

File Read This command instructs the gage to send to the host a file that exists on the gage. See GE Panametrics document 37DLP Series FTP for details on the FREAD INFO block and the file transmission blocks sent back by the gage. Command Format: FILEREAD?\2\r\n FREAD INFO block \3 Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). \2 is the STX character (0x02 hexadecimal byte value). \3 is the ETX character (0x03 hexadecimal byte value). File Write This command instructs the gage to receive a file that is sent by the host. See GE Panametrics document 37DLP Series FTP for details about the file info transmission blocks sent to the gage. Command Format: FILEWRITE=\2\r\n TRANSMISSION INFO block FILE HEADER INFO block ID INFO block SU TABLE INFO block NOTE TABLE INFO block \3 Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). \2 is the STX character (0x02 hexadecimal byte value). \3 is the ETX character (0x03 hexadecimal byte value).

VTO

OPOJpo=~s=`=o=J=c=^ `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

File Delete This command instructs the gage to delete a file that is on the gage. See GE Panametrics document 37DLP Series FTP for details about the FILEDELETE INFO block. Command Format: FILEDELETE\2\r\n FILEDELETE INFO block \3 Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). \2 is the STX character (0x02 hexadecimal byte value). \3 is the ETX character (0x03 hexadecimal byte value). Application Setup Directory This command instructs the gage to send to the host the active setup and all of the user setups that exists on the gage. See GE Panametrics document 37DLP Series FTP for details about the APP SU TABLE INFO block sent back by the gage. Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). Application Setup Read This command instructs the gage to send to the host the application setup that is requested. See GE Panametrics document 37DLP Series FTP for details about the APP SU INDEX block and the APP SU INFO block sent back by the gage. Command Format: APPSUREAD?\2\r\n APP SU INDEX block \3 Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). \2 is the STX character (0x02 hexadecimal byte value). \3 is the ETX character (0x03 hexadecimal byte value). APPSUDIR?\r\n

MUO

Application Setup Write This command instructs the gage to receive an application setup that is sent from the host. See GE Panametrics document 37DLP Series FTP for details on the APP SU INDEX and APP SU INFO blocks. Command Format: APPSUWRITE=\2\r\n APP SU INDEX block APP SU INFO block \3 Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). \2 is the STX character (0x02 hexadecimal byte value). \3 is the ETX character (0x03 hexadecimal byte value). Make Application Setup Active This command instructs the gage to make the given application setup the active setup. See GE Panametrics document 37DLP Series FTP for details about the APP SU INDEX block. Command Format: APPSUACTIVE=\2\r\n APP SU INDEX block \3 Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). \2 is the STX character (0x02 hexadecimal byte value). \3 is the ETX character (0x03 hexadecimal byte value). Transducer List This command instructs the gage to send to the host the list of transducers supported by the gage. See GE Panametrics document 25HP Plus Series FTP for details about the XDCR LIST INFO block sent back by the gage. Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). XDCRLIST?\r\n

NUO

OPOJpo=~s=`=o=J=c=^ `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Units Get This command instructs the gage to send the current units specification (IN or MM) to the host. Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). Velocity Get This command instructs the gage to send the active setup velocity to the host. The velocity is encoded into an ASCII string and may be decoded by the standard C scanf function (egs. scanf (%f, &fVel)) Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). Mode Get This command instructs the gage to send the active setup measurement mode (1, 2 or 3) to the host. The mode number is encoded into an ASCII string and may be decoded by the standard C scanf function (egs. scanf (%d, &iMode)). Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). Version Get This command instructs the gage to send the versions of the gage and monitor software to the host (egs. VERSION: 1.01/1.20C). Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). VER?\r\n MODE?\r\n VELOCITY?\r\n UNITS?\r\n

OUO

Range Send This command instructs the gage to do a range send of all of the IDs in the current file to the host. Command Format: Waveform Grab This command instructs the gage to send screen data in FX80 format to the host. Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). Database Memory Status This command instructs the gage to send information about the amount of free memory remaining in the database. Three numbers are encoded into an ASCII string: Number of IDs without waveforms that can be created in a new file Number of IDs with waveforms that can be created in a new file Memory usage ratio for computations involving files that are a mix of IDs with and without waveforms (egs. 16 means that an ID with a waveform uses the same memory as 16 IDs without a waveform). WFGRAB?\r\n ntt

The numbers may be decoded by the standard C scanf function (egs. scanf (%d %d %d, &iIds, &iIdsWfs, &IdsToIdsWfs)). Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). Go to Monitor Mode This command instructs the gage to go to the monitor mode. Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). MONITOR=GO\r\n MEMORY?\r\n

PUO

OPOJpo=~s=`=o=J=c=^ `VPOJMNV=@=~m

prim=iaTP=j

Communication Protocol Change This command instructs the gage to change the communication protocol from multiple to single. Command Format: Notes: \r is the carriage-return character (0x0D hexadecimal byte value). \n is the line-feed character (0x0A hexadecimal byte value). PROTO=SINGLE\r\n

Single-Character Commands
This section describes all Single-Character commands and illustrates the syntax used with each command.

Command Name

COMMAND Syntax ASCII Character Dec


33 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

Hex
21 23 24 25 26 28 29 2A 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

Corresponding Gage Key Stroke(s)


[2nd], [1] [2nd], [3] [2nd], [4] [2nd], [5] [2nd], [7] [2nd], [9] [2nd], [0] [2nd], [8] [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Setup Adjust Units Meas Rate Min/Max Hold/Blank Diff Sp Mode Alarm Number 0 Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6 Number 7 Number 8

! # $ % & ( ) * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 22

Command Syntax

QUO

Command Name

COMMAND Syntax ASCII Character Dec


57 64 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 76 77 82 84 85 90 92 94 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 105 108 109 110

Hex
39 40 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4C 4D 52 54 55 5A 5C 5E 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 69 6C 6D 6E

Number 9 Resolution LCD Adjust Cal Lock Slew Down Clear Memory Rectification Gain Optimization Echo to Echo Note Slew Left Escape Slew Right Print Slew up Zoom File Status Alarm Light Cal Diff Clear Memory Freeze Recall Setup ID Delay Meas Send

9 @ B C D E F G H I L M R T U Z \ ^ a b c d e f g i l m n

Table 22

Command Syntax (Continued)

RUO

OPOJpo=~s=`=o=J=c=^

Corresponding Gage Key Stroke(s)


[9] [2nd], [2] [2nd], [Light] [6], [3] Simultaneously [ ] [2nd], [File] [2nd], [Freeze] [2nd], [Gain] [2nd], [Zoom] [2nd], [ID#]

[2nd], [Meas]

[2nd], [Send] [ ] [Zoom] [File] [2nd], [6] [2nd], [8] [Light] [Cal] [2nd], [9] [2nd], [FILE] [Freeze] [RECALL SETUP] [ID#] [2nd], [Range] [Meas] [Send]

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Command Name

COMMAND Syntax ASCII Character Dec


112 114 115 116 117 118 120 122 43

Hex
70 72 73 74 75 76 78 7A 2B

Corresponding Gage Key Stroke(s)


[Enter] [Range] [Save] [Send] [2nd], [3] [Vel] [2nd], [1] [Zero] None Note: Changes comm protocol from single to multicharacter.

Enter Range Save Single Send Units Velocity Setup Adjust Zero Communication Protocol change

p r s t u v x z +

Table 22

Command Syntax (Continued)

SUO

Appendix G - Accessories and Replacement Parts

Description Carrying Case Heavy Duty Carrying Case Assembly Small Protective Pouch Kit, including chest harness and waist strap Manual Pocket Instruction Card Interface Program CD-ROM (Standard) 3 1/2" DD Diskette (Upon Request) Printer-Portable, Battery or 115 VAC, Thermal,80 Column Printer-Portable, Battery or 230 VAC, Thermal, 80 Column Paper for Printer, 1 box (5 rolls) Dummy Plug Set Battery-NiCad Rechargeable Alkaline Battery Clip Software Upgrade Remote Save Handswitch Remote Send Handswitch Remote Save Footswitch Remote Send Footswitch Extended Warranty 1 Year Bar Code Wand RS-232 I/O CABLES 9-Pin Female D (6 feet) 9-Pin Female D (12 feet) 25-Pin Male D (6 feet) 25-Pin Male D (12 feet) Table 23 Accessories and Replacement Parts

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Part # 36DLPLUS/CC 26DLPLUS/HDC 36DLP/SPC/KIT 910-210 25DLP/PIC WIN25DLPLUS

36PR 36PRE 80PP 36DLP/PS 36DLP/BP 36DLP/AA 25DLP/SU 36DLP/RSA/H 36DLP/RSE/H 36DLP/RSA 36DLP/RSE 36DLP/EW 36DLP/BCW

36DLC/9F-6 36DLC/9F-12 36DLC/25M-6 36DLC/25M-12

TUO

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Description 25-Pin Female D (6 feet) 25-Pin Female D (12 feet) Cable for Portable Printers UNIVERSAL CHARGER/AC ADAPTERS North America, South America, Japan, Korea EuropeanAustria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Israel, and Greece Australia United Kingdom Italy Denmark India, Pakistan, South Africa, Hong-Kong COUPLANT Propylene Glycol Glycerin Gel Type Ultratherm-High Temp up to 1000F Medium Temp up to 500F TEST BLOCKS 5-Step, 1018 Steel English Units; .100", .200", .300", .400", .500" 5-Step, 1018 Steel Metric Units; 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5mm 5-Step, Aluminum English Units; .100", .200", .300", .400", .500" 4-Step, 1018 Steel English Units; .250", .500", .750", 1.500" 2-Step, 303 Stainless Steel English Units; .050", .1500" Metric Units; 1, 15mm Table 23

Part # 36DLC/25F-6 36DLC/25F-12 36DLC/9M/PR-6 36CAPLUS 2111 1514

1515 1516 1517 1518 1519

Couplant A-2, 2 oz. (.06 liter) Couplant B-2, 2 oz (.06 liter) Couplant D-12, 12 oz. (.35 liter) Couplant E-2, 2 oz. (.06 liter) Couplant F-2, 2 oz. (.06 liter)

2214E 2214M 2213E 2212E 2218E 2218M

Accessories and Replacement Parts (Continued)

UUO

Description 2-Step, 303 Stainless Steel, English Units; .200", 1.500" Metric Units; 5, 30mm Table 23

Accessories and Replacement Parts (Continued)

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Part # 2219E 2219M

VUO

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MVO

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Index
Numerics 2-D matrix grid datalogger file 145 149 2-Dmatrix grid with custom point datalogger file 149153 3-D matrix grid datalogger file 153 157 A Accessories and replacement parts 287289 Adjusting the extended blank with D79X series transducers 108 Alarms B-Scan 7980 standard 7577 thickness 7779 Audience 19 Automatic gain optimization 106107 restore the previous automatically optimized gain 107 return to default gain 107 Automatic mode 109110 Avg/Min measurements 122124 B Backlight 90 Bar code wand 177178 Battery AA alkaline 32 battery charge 31 battery pack 30 charging 31 other chargers 30 replacing 3132 Battery problems 212 Beeper tone 84 Blanking adjustments 111 Boiler datalogger file 157160 B-Scan 113117 B-Scan alarm mode 116 B-Scan direction 114 B-Scan freeze mode 114 B-Scan freeze review 114 B-Scan LOS mode 114 B-Scan max thickness 115 B-Scan max THK mode 115 B-Scan size mode 113 display full B-Scan 116 display half B-Scan 116 enable B-Scan option 115116 save A-Scan 117 save live thickness reading 117 save reviewed thickness reading 117 save thickness reading 117 C Calibrating with dual element transducers first time setup 3335 material velocity and zero calibration 3637 material velocity calibration of an unknown material sound velocity 3738 material velocity of a known material sound velocity 38 thickness measurements 35 thru-coat calibration 39 transducer zero compensation 36 zero calibration 3839 Calibrating with single element transducers adjusting the range 57 default or user-defined setup 50 52 delay function 58 first time setup 4950 thickness measurements 5253 velocity and zero calibration 54 55 velocity calibration only 5556 zero calibration only 5657

NVO

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zoom mode 5860 Calibration lock 81 Charger problems 212 Clock 101102 Comment tables 167168 Communication reset 99100, 208 210 Communications mode 9395 database tracking 9596 Custom setups echo 1 detect and echo 2 detect 193194 echo window 191193 initial gain 189190 interface blank 194195 main bang blank 190191 maximum gain 188189 mode 3 echo blank 195196 probe type 187 pulser power effects 187188 save setup parameters 197198 setup adjustment 196 setup name 187 single element transducers 185 TDG slope 190 D Data output formats 207208, 243 276 Database tracking 9596, 169 Datalogger 2-D matrix grid file type 145149 2-Dmatrix grid with custom point file type 149153 3-D matrix grid file type 153157 bar code wand 177178 Boiler file type 157160 comment structure 131132 copy a note 168169 copying a file 161162 create files from a computer 133 create files from the Model 37DL PLUS 133134 creating data files 132

creating or editing comment tables from a computer 167 creating or editing comment tables from the Model 37DL PLUS 167 database tracking 169 deleting a file 163164 deleting comments from a comment table 167168 edit ID mode 173174 editing/renaming a file 164166 erase a file 176 erase entire database 176177 erasing data 174177 erasing data in the active/open file 174176 file name header structure 130 file name structure 129 flags 172 generating reports 178183 identifier (ID number) structure 129130 incremental file type 135138 opening a file 160161 organizing 129 overview 127129 review ID mode 171172 save comments 170 save thickness and waveform 170 save thickness readings 170 saving data 169171 sequential file type 138142 sequential with custom point file type 142145 standard editing commands 132 133 Datalogger flags in Echo-to-Echo mode 113 DBase reset 100101 Detect mode function mode 1 185187 mode 2 185187 mode 3 185187 Diagnostics 9697, 213215

OVO

error status 97, 215 hardware status 97, 214215 keypad test 97, 214 video display test 97, 214 Differential mode normal differential 69 percent ratio 7071 Documentation related documentation 20 revision history 21 sending comments 20 typographic conventions 19 E Echo blank 195196 Echo window 191193 echo 1 detect and echo 2 detect 193194 echo blank 195196 interface blank 194195 save setup parameters 197198 setup adjustment 196 Echo-to-Echo mode 109 automatic mode 109110 blanking adjustments 111 datalogger flags 113 manual mode 110111 return to normal measurement mode 111 transducer usage 112113 Error messages 212 Error status 97 Extended blank adjust the depth 109 enabling 108 F Fast mode 71 Fisher gage communications 208 Freezing waveforms 81 Full B-Scan 116 Full database grid 121

G Gage operation basic 23 Gage resets 98101 Gage screen display elements 2930 general information 30 thickness display 30 Grid view 117122 data cell flag 120 display full database grid 121 display half database grid 120 enable grid view option 120 grid navigation 121122 grid size mode 118 linearize rows and columns 119 reverse grid cols 118 reverse grid rows 118 save thickness readings 121 transpose grid 119 H Half B-Scan 116 Half database grid 120 Hardware status 97 Hold/blank 8788 I ID overwrite protection 9293 Inactive time 8485 Incremental datalogger file 135138 Initial gain 189190 Interface blank 194195 K Keypad 2329 2nd F 26 alarm 27 backlight 25 cal 24 calibration lock 28 clear memory 28 delay 28

PVO

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differential 27 down arrow 25 enter 25 extended blank 26 fast mode 27 file 25 freeze 25 ID number 26 keyboard layout 23 left arrow 25 measurement/reset 24 min/max measure 27 notes 28 numeric keys 24 opt 29 power on/off 24 print 28 range 24 recall setup 26 right arrow 25 save 25 send 26 setup mode 26 status 27 temp 27 up arrow 25 velocity 24 waveform 28 zero 24 zoom 24 Keypad test 97 L Language 85 M Main bang blank 190191 Maintenance gage 211 transducers 212 Manual gain adjust amplitude proportional to gain mode 106 Manual gain adjust with D79X series

transducer 105106 Manual mode 110111 Master reset 101 Maximum gain 188189 Maximum thickness mode 7374 Measurement mode backlight 90 beeper tone 84 hold/blank 8788 ID overwrite protection 9293 inactive time 8485 language 85 radix 8586 rectification 8889 resolution 87 save key 91 supervisor lock 9091 units 86 waveform 8990 Measurement problems 213 Measurement reset 9899 Min finder 73 Minimum thickness mode 7173 min finder 73 Multi-Character Commands application setup directory 280 application setup read 280 application setup write 281 communication protocol change 284 database memory status 283 file delete 280 file directory 278 file read 279 file write 279 FTP block iInformation 278 gage information 278 go to monitor mode 283 make application setup active 281 mode get 282 range send 283 transducer list 281 units get 282 velocity get 282

QVO

version get 282 waveform grab 283 O Output formats dual-element transducers 244257 single-element transducers 258 274 P Product description 17 R Radix 8586 Receiving (downloading) files from a computer 203204 Rectification 8889 full wave 88 half wave negative 88 half wave positive 88 RF 88 Remote control via RS-232 277286 Reports 178183 alarm report 182183 file comparison report 181182 min/max summary 180181 summary with statistics report 179180 Resets communication reset 99100, 208210 DBase reset 100101 master reset 101 measurement reset 9899 Resolution 87 Return to normal measurement mode 111 S Save key 91 Send files to computer or printer 200 201 Send range of ID numbers from a file 201

Send snapshot to computer 202 Send snapshot to printer 202 Sequential datalogger file 138142 Sequential with custom point datalogger file 142145 Serial communications 204 communication parameters 205 206 RS-232 cables 204205 Serial interface 241242 Setup modes Avg/Min measure 93 B-Scan/DB grid 93 clock 101102 communications mode 9395 diagnostics 9697 measurement mode 8393 resets 98101 temperature compensation 93 Single send data 202 Single-Character Commands 284 286 Sound velocities 239240 Supervisor lock 9091 T TDG slope 190 Technical specifications 225238 Temperature compensation 124126 Theory of operation dual element transducer measurements 219220 factors affecting performance and accuracy 220223 Thickness resolution 8081 Thru-coat function 122 Transducer usage in Echo-to-Echo mode 112113 Transmitting data 199203 Troubleshooting battery and charger problems 212 diagnostic self tests 213215 measurement problems 213 Typographic conventions 19

RVO

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U Units 86 Uploading/downloading a stored transducer setup to a computer 204 V Video display test 97 W Warranty 3 Waveform 8990 WIN37DL PLUS interface program 210

Z Zoom mode D79X Dual Element transducers and Mode 1 Single Element transducers 5859 Single Element transducers in Mode 2 59 Single Element transducers in Mode 3 59

SVO

Documentation Comments
GE Panametrics is always interested in improving its documentation. Please complete this questionnaire and return your responses to: GE Panametrics 221 Crescent Street Waltham, MA 02453 Attention: NDT Marketing Dept., Technical Publications You can also fax your comments to 781-899-1552, Attention: NDT Division, Marketing Dept., Technical Publications. Thank you for helping us improve our documentation! Note: The following questionnaire is adapted from the Judging Form from the Boston Chapter, Society for Technical Communication, Technical Publications Competition, and Revision Checklist from John Lannons Technical Writing, Seventh Edition (Addison Wesley Longman, 1997).

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