You are on page 1of 25

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

OrganizingArmyForcesfor FutureJointWarfighting
APresentation forthe

GovernmentAccountabilityOffice 12December2012
DouglasMacgregor,PhD Colonel(ret)U.S.Army ExecutiveVPBurkeMacgregorGroupLLC +17039756954 Doug.Macgregor@BurkeMacgregor.com

OutlineforDiscussion:
Don'tfighttheproblem,decideit.
GeorgeC.Marshall,GeneraloftheArmy

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

Whatyoushouldtakeawayfromthis presentation! II. WhatshouldtheArmydo? III. InstitutionalSurgery:ReduceOverhead IV. BrigadeCombatTeams(BCT)versusCombat Groups V. RegionalAlignmentversusJointRotational Readiness VI. ModernizationParameters VII. TheLightReconnaissanceStrikeGroup(LRSG) VIII. Questionsworthasking IX. SummaryofKeyPoints

I.

Whatyoushouldtakeawayfromthispresentation!

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

Theprimarypurposeofanarmy tobereadytofighteffectivelyatall times seemedtohavebeenforgotten.


GeneralMatthewB.Ridgway,TheKoreanWar,1956

Goal:Withinfuturebudgets,cultivatenewArmywarfighting capabilitiesand createnewstrategicoptionsforthenationalcommandauthoritiesby extractingmorecapabilityfromtodaysassetsandpeople; Method:OrganizeArmyForcesforJointWarfighting operationswithintheISR StrikeManeuverSustainmentframeworkandstreamlinelongterm investmentsinArmymodernization; EndState:Achievesignificant$Savingswhilefieldingamorecapable, professionalArmywithrelevancetoJointOperationsincrisisorconflict, increasedoperationalreachandbroaderstrategicimpact.

TheISRStrikeManeuverSustainment Framework:

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

TheFrameworkisnotjustabout things.Itsaboutintegratingexisting andfuturecapabilitieswithinanagile operationalframeworkguidedby humanunderstanding. Itsanintellectualconstructwith technologicalinfrastructure. TheFrameworkis thenextlogicalstep intheevolutionofwarfarebeyondthe adhoccoordinationofFederal Agenciesorcombinedarms,air groundcooperation,airseabattle, amphibiousandspecialoperations.
Singleservicecommandstructuresareobsolete. U.S.capabilitiesmustbeintegratedattheoperationalleveltodetect,deter,disrupt,

neutralizeordestroyopposingforcesdecisively; ApplytheISRStrikeManeuverSustainmentFrameworkasamethodologyforinvestment planningandprogrammingasconstrainedbudgetscompelforceoptimization.

WhatmustArmyForcesdo?

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

ArmyForcesmustorganizeforoperationsthat integratefunctionalcapabilities Maneuver, Strike,ISR,Sustainment acrossservicelines withinanintegratedJointC2operational framework; Armymustprovidetrainedandreadyforces organizedandequippedtoexpandthe nationsrangeofstrategicoptionsandcapable ofconductingjointoperationsagainstamix ofopponents; ArmyForcesmustbuildpowerfulsynergies withthetechnologiesandconcepts developedbyU.S.AerospaceandMaritime Forces.

InstitutionalSurgery: ToomuchArmyoverhead!

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

Failureinwarismostoftentheabsenceofonedirectingmindand commandingwill. SirWinstonChurchill


FromMarch1942toApril1945whentherewere15millionmenintheArmy andArmyAirCorpstheU.S.hadonly4fourstargeneralstocommandthem: Marshall,MacArthur,EisenhowerandArnold. Today,theU.S.employs23FourStarstocommandacombinedArmyandAir Forceofroughly880,000soldiersandairmen.

Army Materiel Command

Trainingand Doctrine Command

Forces Command

Faster,FlatterC2forthePost IndustrialEra
OneStarForce PackagesExistNow!

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

DeputyDefenseSecretaryWilliamLynnsaidefficiencymeasures mightmean"flatterorganization,fewerheadquarters,smallerstaff, generallymoreefficiency"forthedepartmentYou'renotgoingto getsavingslikewe'reproposingherewithsimplytheeasier moves.


NathanHodge,PentagonLooksToSave$100BillionOverFive Years, WallStreetJournal.Com, 4June2010.

TheBCTversustheCombat ManeuverGroup(CMG)

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

ThefutureArmymustbe survivable,effectiveandact asaJointenableracrossa rangeofalternativefutures. TheCombatGroupisaself containedorganizationfor combat;aspecialized moduleofcombatpower organizedaroundISR,Strike, ManeuverandSustainment. Acombatgroupisdesigned toStandAloneinsidea LegolikeJointForceDesign.
(CSAplanstorestorethe thirdmaneuverbattalionto ArmoredandInfantryBCTs increasingtheirstrengthto roughly4,500men.)

VS

ThereareCGsformaneuver, strike,ISRandsustainment.

ASnapshotofCombat Groups(CG)versusBCTs
BCTs(Projected) InfantryBCT 13 ArmorBCTs12 StrykerBCTs7 TotalBCTs32 144,000Troops(Assumesroughly 4,500menperBCT) VS
TheBCTsarethereinforcedbrigades insidedivisionswithminormodifications atthebattalionlevelorroughly4,500 men. TheBCTsarerealignedwithdivisionand corpsheadquarterstorestoretheten divisionforcestructure,asmallerversion oftheColdWarArmythatemergedin 1992afterDesertStorm.

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

CGs(ManeuverEchelon) LRSGs CMGs ICGs AAGs TotalCGs 4 20,600Troops 12 66,000Troops 735,000Troops 315,000Troops 26 136,600Troops

CombatGroupTypesinManeuver Echelon: LRSG:LightReconnaissanceStrike Group(5,150) CMG:CombatManeuverGroup (Armored)(5,500) ICG:InfantryCombatGroup (Motorized)(5,000) AAG:AirborneAirAssaultGroup (5,000)

ArmysCurrentRegional AlignmentPlan

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

Theprogressivereadinessmodelishis(Odiernos)solution. Unitsandbrigadeswillbealignedtoa combatantcommanderwhocanusethemasheseesfit. Anactivebrigadewilldoaboutthreemonths ofreset,nineto10monthsoftrainingandbeavailable10or11months.


LanceBacon,StraightTalkFromTheTop,ArmyTimes,3December2012

JointRotationalReadiness: ThePathtoUnityofEffortand$Savings!

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

Jointrotationalreadinessachievesseveral importantgoals:
1. ForcesorganizedaroundStrike,ISR, Maneuver,Sustainmenthabituallytrainasa JointTeam; 2. Deploymentsbecomepredictableimproving thequalityoflifeforservicemembers; 3. TheNationalCommandAuthorities(NCA) knowwhatforcesarereadytofight; 4. FundingforO&Mismanagedmore efficiently; 5. Howmanyandwhattypesofforce packages/modulesisamatterfordecisionby theNCA.

HowcantheArmymodernize inaperiodoffiscalausterity?

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

DontbindArmyeffortsthroughmassiveprogramsintendedtostampout20,000ideal designsovertwodecadesofproductionruns(FCS); Acapable,cunning,fastmovingenemywillfindwaystoavoidourstrengthsandbringthe directfirefighttoanyattackinggroundforce. Newequipmentmustbetiedtoanewforcedesignwithalargerjointpurposeinmind. Rapidprototypingappliestooperational forcesandthetechnologiestheyemploy. Whentiedtoanewforcedesign,rapid prototypingexplores/developsnew capabilitiesquicklywithsmallerinventoriesof newequipmentinsoldiershandsbefore largerinvestmentsaremade; Usingaprovenplatformmitigatesriskand speedsupdelivery(German/IDFapproach).

ThePumaAFV

Whatworksnowshouldtriumph overunobtainium.

TheLightReconnaissance StrikeGroup(LRSG)

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

TheCentralIdea:Crossdomainsynergy.The complementaryvicemerelyadditiveemploymentof capabilitiesindifferentdomainssuchthateach enhancestheeffectivenessandcompensatesforthe vulnerabilitiesoftheothers


JOINTOPERATIONALACCESSCONCEPT(JOAC)VERSION1.017 January2012

ArmyForcethatpunchesaboveits weight,mobilizingfightingpower disproportionatetoitssize(High lethality,lowdensity); ProvidestheJointForceCDRwiththe capabilitytoclosewiththeenemy,take hits,sustainlosses,keepfightingand strikebackdecisively.(Mobile,Armored Firepower!)

Questionsworthasking:

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

WhatcapabilitieswilltheArmybringtotheJointForcethattheJoint Forceneeds? HowwilltheArmyorganizethesecapabilitiesforintegrationacross ServicelineswithintheJointForce? WhataretheArmysalternativestodeployingdivisionorcorpsHQas partoftheArmysunitofissuefordeployment? WheredoestheGCVfitintotheJointWarfighting picture? HowmanyColdWareratrucks,tanks,bradsandselfpropelled artillerycantheArmyshedtoextractsavings(Hillproblem)? WhyistheArmyinvestingscarcefundsinanewrotordrivenaircraft? Whynotreducehelicopterinventories? OH58Ds(Helos ingeneral)arefarmoresusceptibleand vulnerabletogroundfire,airdefense,havefarlessspeed, endurance,andrangethantheater/tacticalRPAssuchas Predator/SkyWarriororeventheMQ7Shadow. MedevacHelos alsoputalotmorepersonnelatriskthanusing trackedarmoredvehiclesasambulances.(Merkava model) WhatthreatdoestheJLTVcounterthattheHMMWVdoesnot?

SummaryofKeyPoints:

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

TheArmymustprovideanefficientandeffectiveorganizationoflandcombatpowerinJoint operationsfortheoptimumutilizationofincreasinglyconstrainedresources. LiketheNavy,AirForceandMarines,theU.S.Armyexiststoraise,train,andequip modular/missionfocusedcapabilitypackageswithC2elementsdesignedforcommitmentto theCOCOMswheretheycanplugintoJointForceHeadquarterswhichhavetheauthorityand theresponsibilitytofightandwinthenation'sconflicts. Withoutorganizationalchange,combatpowerwillbesacrificedtopreserveunneeded overheadandnewArmycapabilitiesessentialtoJointWarfighting willnotemerge.

BackupSlides

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

JointRotationalReadiness AppliedtoaReorganizedArmyForce

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

RotationalReadinessSystemprovides30,000to 50,000+ArmyTroopsreadytodeployatalltimes!

CombatGroupStaffStructure

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

RespondsdirectlytoJointForce Commander IntegratesArmy,AF/NavyStrikeAssets Collects,Analyzes,ExploitsJointISR Absorbsorshedsbattalionsasneeded CapableofIndependentOperations insideJointForce(StandAlone)

NewArmyCareerPath!

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

StrategicImplicationsforNationalDefense:

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

Thefiscalcrisisindefensespendingcreatestheopportunitytobotheconomizeand

expandtheNationsrangeofstrategicoptions.
Congresscanreducecostsbybuildinga21stcenturyscalable,legolikeforcedesign,

adesignstructuredandequippedfordispersed/distributed,mobilewarfareinsidean integratedISRStrikeManeuverSustainmentFramework.

FieldArmyAnalysis

basedonforceinTransformationunderFire(Praeger,2003) TroopsintheFieldArmy Assuming450,000TroopsintheActiveForce ManeuverEchelon 12X 7X 3X 4X


CMG CombatManeuverGroup Armored (CMG)

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

StrikeEchelon 3X 4X
STR StrikeGroup(STRG) TMD TheaterMissileDefenseGroup(TMDG)

ICG

InfantryCombatGroup Motorized (ICG)

AAG AirborneAirAssaultGroup(AAG)
LightReconStrikeGroup MediumTrackedarmor(GCV equippedLRSG)

SustainmentEchelon 10X 4X
CSG
CombatSustainmentGroup(CSG)

Intelligence,Surveillanceand ReconnaissanceEchelon 4X 1X
C4IG C4IGroup(C4IG)

ENG

EngineerConstructionGroup (ENGG)

CW

ChemicalWarfareGroup(CWG)

Whatistobedone?Reduce Overhead!

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

Simplifiedorganizationalstructuresthatemphasizeresponsibilityand accountabilityarethekeystosuccessin21st Centurycrisisorconflict. Therewontbetimeforapickupgameinafuturecrisisorconflict.By thetimetheU.S.getsitsoperationalconstructandC2actinorder, China(orotherfuturegreatpowers)willdefeatU.S.forcesandachieve itsownstrategicaims. TodaysC2structureisalegacyofWWIIandIndustrialAgeservice centricwarfare.JointTaskForceHeadquartersaresingleservice headquarterswithaugmentation. 21st CenturyWarfaredemandsforcepackagesorganizedaround maneuver(ground),strike,ISR(intelligence,surveillance, reconnaissance)andsustainmentcapabilitiesforemploymentunder JointForceHeadquarters.

PostIndustrialWarfighting Paradigm

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

IntegratedAllArmsWarfare: Warfighting Operationsthat integratefunctionalcapabilities Maneuver,Strike,IISR, Sustainment acrossservice linesinsideanintegratedJointC2 operationalframework. Highlethality,lowdensity: ArmyForcesthatpunchabove theirweight,capableof operationalreachinan environmentofmobile,dispersed warfare.

HowdoestheArmygetitsLRSGs?
TheArmyneedsto:

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

ImplementDEPSECDEFsbetterbuying power.Prioritizenondevelopmentalmilitary capabilitiesthatcanbequicklyfielded. Shedequipmentsetsitsforcesnolonger need:Sheddingoldequipmentdrops maintenancecosts; Eliminatemodernizationprogramsitnolonger needs:UpgradingColdWarequipmentsetsto extendtheirservicelifeisexpensiveand unnecessary; Reduceandeliminatecommandoverheadit nolongerneeds:Reductionsinoverall numbersofsoldiersmustinvolve commensuratereductionsinredundant overheadintheformofunneededGeneral Officerheadquarters.

WhatshouldtheArmyssenior leadersdo?

BurkeMacgregorGroupLLC

InDecember1905,threeyearsaftertheBoerWarended,RichardHaldane becameSecretaryofStateforWar.Obstructedbyanationobsessedwith theRoyal Navy,andapoliticalcultureopposedtoconscription,Haldane beganpreparingtheBritishArmyforafutureconflictverydifferentfrom colonialwarfare. Haldanesetouttodeterminetheformfuturewarwaslikelytotake,then, adoptedtheorganizationandweaponstofightit.Inotherwords,software (thinkingcarefullyaboutthings,contemplatinglikelyissuesandproblems) mustcomebeforehardware.

RichardBurdonHaldane, SecretaryofStateforWar, 19051912

Whathappened?
Haldaneconcentratedonreorganization,modernization andtraining tomaximizecapabilityatcost; Inpractice,Haldanebuiltagroundforcesuitedtoaglobal MaritimePower,notaregionalContinentalPower; Theresultwasaneliteforceof6infantrydivisionsand1 cavalrydivision,designedforrapiddeploymentasaBritish ExpeditionForce(BEF),backedbyareserveof14 Territorialdivisionsofvolunteers; In1914,theBEFarrivedintimetoslow,then,cooperate withtheFrenchtohalttheGermanadvance.