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Predisposing Factor AGE (6months old)

Precipitating Factor ENVIRONMENT LIFESTYLE

Passes to the pharynx, larynx & trachea

Microorganisms enters the affects both the lung parenchyma

Infection lodges and stimulates in the parenchyma

Lung invasion

Lung Invasionincreased Leukocytes Narrowing of air passage Mucus and phlegm DIFFICULTY BREATHING COUGHING INEFFECTIVELY

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA NON MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS: - Age - Weather MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS: -Environment (Having Relatives with cough and colds)

Aspiration of Secretions Containing Microbes Failure of Defense Mechanisms Invasion of the Lower Respiratory Tract Activation of B Cells Release of Antibodies Antigen-Antibody Reaction

Antigen Antibody Complexes Adhere to the Mucosal Lining of the Lower Respiratory Tract Mucosal Irritation Increased Mucus Production Accumulation of Mucus

Initiation of Complement System (Non-Specific and Specific Immune System) Vasodilation Increased Blood Flow Vasocongestion Increased Plasma Hydrostatic Pressure Increased Capillary Permeability

Productive Cough

Escape of Plasma Proteins

Escape of RBC, Serum and Fibrin

Transportation of Phagocyting Cells

Edema Narrowing of Airway

Exudate Formation Filling of the Bronchi, Bronchioles, and Alveoli Consolidation of Lung

Engulfing of the Antigen Replication of the Antigen within the Cells Cells become Infected Detection of the Infected Cells by the T Cells Effector T Cells Destroy the Antigen Regulator T Cells Strengthen the Activity of thje Effector Cells Effector and Regulator Cells Synthesize and Release Cytokines Release of Pyrogens Altered Temperature Regulating Mechanism in the Hypothalamus

Inspiratory rales

Increased Respiration

Asymmetrical Chest Expansion

Use of Accessory Muscles

Decreased Lung Inflation

Effective Breathing Pattern Ineffective Airway Clearance

Fever