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..-., .., .|-..

gama, laya, diaiva


(Revealed text, the Temple, the diaiva)

Prepared by
The Research Committee
Chennai
2006
Copyrights reserved.
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Preface
By the grace of Lord iva, who is the embodiment of love, His way of gama-s
and Agamic Pj is being upheld at temples across the world by diaiva
community, due to his grace and His command.
Yet, now, there arise questions as to why persons belonging to all communities
should not be allowed to be the priest and change this age-old tradition of the
Parrtha Pj offered by the diaiva-s and to negate the religious sentiment of
countless millions of people.
Thus, it is imperative for the common man upwards to the government, to
understand what is gama, what is laya (or temple) and who are the diaiva-s
- this report has been prepared to serve that purpose.
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Contents
S. No. Content Page
1
aiva religion was not created by man. It was created by
Lord iva Himself. This is the unshakeable belief and faith of
the aiva-s.
2
The Vda-s and ivgama-s were created by Lord iva
even before the creation of the Universe. This is the
unshakeable belief and faith of the aiva-s.
3
Lord iva blessed the world with the ivgama-s only for
the welfare of the world.
4 The two types of worship as expounded in the ivgama-s.
5 What is tmrtha pj (Personal worship)?
6 Who is qualified to perform tmrtha pj?
7 What is Parrtha pj (Temple worship)?
8 Who is qualified to perform Parrtha pj?
9 Temples are of two types as per ivgama-s.
10
Only diaiva -s are eligible to perform worship in temples
of the first type.
11
Names of people eligible to perform worship in temples of
the first type.
12
The purpose of performing temple worship. Reason why
diaiva-s alone are eligible to perform temple worship and
even other Brahmins are proscribed from performing temple
worship. The effects of transgression.
13
Whether an diaiva of one temple can perform prayers at
another temple, belonging to a different diaiva clan...
14
When a single crya at a temple cannot perform all the
duties...
15
Temple worship (of the first type) performed by anyone
other than an diaiva is fruitless.
16 Bibliography
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Origin of aiva religion
|-.. . ..|.. -. . -.. . ..|.. |-..-. |
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -, -
ivna sthpita aiva aivna sthpita ivam |
(rmat Prvakragama, Nityrcanavidhipaala:, page - 208, 20-a)
The aiva religion was established by Lord iva. The aiva religion so established in
turn propagates Lord iva as the Supreme in this world.
Origin of Vda-s and ivgama-s
...-.. -... .. +. . +. . . |-.. |
(-....-. ... .-. , . . -
vdgamau may prktau lkas: pur iv |
(aivgama-lkha-sarvasvam, page - 5)
Hey Parvati! Even before the Universe was created, I created the Vda-s
and ivgama-s.
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Emergence of ivgama-s
.|+. -.- -... . ... .|.:. |
|..-. |.-. -... .... .. :|-.|-..-. ||
(.|-.. -.. :..-. -.... :.- . . -:, . :
sikl mahna: pururtha prasiddhay |
vidhatt vimala jna pacartrt'bhilakitam ||
(rman Mgndrgama: ataratnasagraha: page - 24, verse - 4)
At the time of creation of the Universe, Lord iva, in order to create the Pururtha-s
(the four things prayed for by man - Dharma, Artha, Kma, Mka are the
Pururtha-s), created pure Knowledge (ivgama-s) as revealed from His five Faces.
... |-...+. -. ... |.|-..-. . |
-.. . |-..-.+...-. ..-.. |. +.. ||
(Introduction .|-.. . +.|-.+..-. (:..||.
gata ivavaktrbhya: gataca girijmukh |
mata ca ivabhaktnm gamacti kathyat ||
(Introduction rmat Prvakmikgama: (granthalipi))
The term gama is from the first letters of the three words - gata, gata and
mata. gata is that which has come or emanated. Gata is that which has
reached. Mata is a discipline or code of conduct. Hence, that which has come from
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Lord iva's countenance, which has reached Prvati's face and that which serves as a
discipline for devotees of iva (the twenty eight tantra-s) are called gama-s.
This verse proves three facts. The ivgama-s were given by Lord iva. They were
revealed directly to Prvati. The ivgama-s are the only canonical texts for aiva-s.
ivgama-s in the words of Tirumlar - a great Tamil saint
Tirumlar, a great Tamil saint said to have lived about 5000 years ago in Tamil Nadu is
the author of Tirumantiram, an ancient text containing 3000 verses. It is said that
Tirumlar composed one verse every year for three thousand years. One can infer that
he should definitely have been well-versed in the ivgama-s by comparing the
content and import of the ivgama-s and Tirumantiram.
The ivgama-s are twenty eight in number. Lord iva revealed the first ten gama-s
to three individuals each, totaling thirty individuals. The next eighteen gama-s were
revealed to a total of thirty six individuals, at the rate of two persons per gama. Thus,
the gama-s were taught to sixty six individuals in total by Lord iva.
Furthermore, Lord iva, in the form of Mahsadivamrti with twenty five faces,
revealed the ivgama-s from the five faces of na, His fifth Face. This information
is given in the Tantrvatrapaala and other Paala-s of the gama-s.
That Lord iva revealed the twenty eight gama-s, that He revealed this to sixty six
individuals and from the five faces of His fifth face, na, are claims that neither fit
any other work other than ivgama-s nor do they have reference in any other core
text.
In this context, let us refer the Tirumantiram verse below:
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AgN] U AY Ko TLjRu
AgN CTj u[ BLUm
AgN l ATj AYm
Ag Bm Ljp Am Ts LhPR
(UkWm, T1, BLUf\l, TdLm 162, 57)
acaa mi arivai r bgatta
acou irubattu mua gamam
acali kppi aubattu auvarum
acu m mugattil arum poru kad
(Tirumantiram, part-1, gamacciappu, page - 162, verse 57)
There are sixty six who heard the twenty eight gama-s from the uppermost face of
the blue-bodied One.
Comparing the meaning of this verse to the references in ivgama-s discussed in
the previous section, even a layman can infer with certainty that Tirumlar has
composed the Tirumantiram in close accordance with the ivgama-s. Thus, since
the Tirumantiram is an essence of the ivgama-s, one needs to interpret the
Tirumantiram in the context of the ivgama-s and not otherwise.
AiQp A[p Am YLUm
Gip CTj GiL \Wm
iQYo DNu lTm EWjR]o
Si u AlTs HjYu S]
(Xo UkWm, T1, BLUf\l, TdLm 164, 58)
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aal arul aruum civgamam
eil irubattu eki nyiram
viavar ca viuppam uraittaar
nai niu apporu ttuva n
(Tirumlar Tirumantiram, part-1, gamacciappu, pakkam - 164, verse 58)
The ivgama-s revealed by the Grace of Lord iva number twenty eight crores and a
hundred thousand. By the wish and command of Lord iva who abides in space, I
attempt to glorify the meaning therein.
AiQp A[p Am YLUm
Gi L Rjm Bm
AiQp AkR A AVp
Gi Lm oUp GjR
(Xo UkWm, T1, BLUf\l, TdLm 169)
aal arul aruum civgamam
eili ki toguttium yium
aal ainda aivu aiyviil
eili kiyum nrml eutt
(Tirumlar Tirumantiram, part-1, gamacciappu, page - 169)
Though the ivgama-s revealed by the Grace of Lord iva number countless crores
when compiled, if one doesn't realize the Knowledge known by Him, all the countless
crores are as useless as writing upon water.
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Lord iva blessed the world with the ivgama-s
only for the welfare of the world
..-.-.-..... +-. ..|.-. +. |
.+. . |-.... |-.... -... ... . ||
(... -. .. .. :.- . :
athtma-mala-mykhya karma-bandha-vimuktay |
vyaktay ca ivatvasya ivt jna pravartat ||
(Svyambhuvastrasagraha: page - 4)
To break (from the souls) and destroy the tripartite (3) bonds of ava, Kama,
Myai that affect all souls and to bring forth the Divinity of iva that abides in every
soul, Knowledge known as ivgama-s were created by iva.
Lord iva blessed the world with the ivgama-s only for the welfare of the world.
Types of worship as expounded in the ivgama-s
.-... . ... . . -.. ||..-. .. |
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... . |.|. ., . -., -
tmrthaca parrthaca pj dvividhamucyat |
(rmat Prvakragama, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page - 207, 2-a)
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Pj can be differentiated into two types - tmrtha (that which gives fruits only to
the one performing the pj) and Parrtha (that which can give fruits to all the world).
What is tmrtha pj (Personal worship)?
.. ..-. .-.-... -. :|.. . . - |
.-... |-.|. |....-. ................ ||
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... . |.|. ., . -, -
sarvm tmarakrtham ialigrcana gh |
tmrthamiti vikhytam................ ||
(rmat Prvakragama:, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page - 208, 12)
tmrtha Pj is that which is performed for the well-being of individual persons
(done for themselves), with personal Liga-s according to one's wish.
In the tmrtha Pj, only they have rights in whose house the worship is conducted.
tmrtha Pj can be conducted in any desired representations (ialigrcana).
Furthermore, since the fruits of the this Pj accrue only to those who perform it
(sarvm tmarakrtham), this is termed tmrtha Pj.
Can everyone perform tmrtha Pj and Parrtha Pj?
|.. -.|.. |. -. :. ||-.... .. -.+. |
.-... .-.. +... . + ... . ... +-. ||
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -, .
vipra katriya vi dr: dkitca pravak: |
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tmrtha yajana kuryt na kuryt ca parrthakam ||
(rmat Prvakragama:, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page - 208, 17)
Those Brhmana, Katriya, Vaiya and dra who have received Dk (Samaya,
Via and Nirva) can perform tmrtha Pj, but not Parrtha Pj.
This verse explains that people from all the four classifications can perform pj, only
after undergoing initiation. Yet, even after initiation and even after being qualified in all
ways, they can only perform tmrtha Pj, and not Parrtha Pj.
Necessity of Parrtha Pj (Temple worship)
.. .. -..... . :..-..|. |.-. .. |
..|.. |.|... | ... -. |.|-. . ||
..-. .|. .|.-... ..-.+-. |
.. ... .-..... .. .. .-.. +-. ||
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -,
sarv rakarthya grmdiu viata: |
sthpita vidhin liga surairv munibhi: narai: ||
svayamudbhataligaca pratimcvartmakam|
tat parrtha samkhyta sarvm tmana: phalam ||
(rmat Prvakragama:, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page-208, 10-11)
(The worshipping of) the Liga established properly by Dva-s, Sages or Men
according to ritual prescriptions, or self-formed "Svayambhu" Liga, or sculptures
with divineness, for the welfare of all the people (in all the world), in villages and so
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on, is termed Parrtha Pj. The fruits of Parrtha Pj is for the well-being of all
Creation.
In public places like villages, towns and cities, the special establishment of temples
and offering worship there is Parrtha Pj. Further, only the worship of Liga-s
established by Deva-s, Sages or Men according to the correct rituals prescribed, or a
self-formed "Svayambhu" Liga is termed Parrtha Pj, and not the worship of any
Liga established according to one's personal whims and fancies.
Similarly, since the well-being of all Creation is ensured only by Parrtha Pj, there
is no place for one's personal prayers in Parrtha Pj. Further, prayers done by
individuals with specific personal desires are termed tmrtha Pj. Some elders also
infer that Parrtha Pj is done by diaiva purely for the love of the Lord with no
specific personal prayers.
Who is eligible to perform Parrtha pj?
.-... . ... . ..| -. .. . |-..-. |
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... . |.|. ., . -,
tmrthaca parrthaca svdi aivna pjitam |
(rmat Prvakragama:, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page - 208, 18-a)
Both tmrtha Pj and Parrtha Pj should be performed by a good diaiva.
Since the previous verses prohibit all other classifications of people from performing
Parrtha Pj (including Vipra, Katriya, Vaiya and dra), and this verse allows
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diaiva the rights to perform both tmrtha Pj and Parrtha Pj, it can be
inferred that only an diaiva can perform Parrtha Pj.
(Since the earlier section prohibits people from all the four castes from performing
Parrtha Pj, and this section specifically endows that right on diaiva-s or
ivcry-s, it could further be inferred that diaiva-s are apart from the four caste
classifications.)
|.. . |-.|-.+ +.-. .-. .|. ... + |
+...| .|.s..-. .|-.. . +.. . |
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -, -: & --
nitya naimittika kmya varjanya parrthak |
karadi pratihntam diaivna krayt |
(rmat Prvakragama:, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page - 209, 24-a & 25-a)
(In places of Parrtha Pj like temples) Nitya Pj (daily prayers), Naimittika Pj
(special, occasional prayers) and Kmya Pj (prayers with desired fruits as
objective) should be avoided (by non-diaiva-s). From the time of ploughing the
field for construction of the temple onwards, till the installation of the deities,
everything should be done through diaiva-s.
In all the activities and Pj-s at a temple , including construction, installation, Nityam,
Naimittikam and Kmyam should not be performed by anyone other than an diaiva.
Types of Temples as per ivgama-s
The temples of Vinyaka, iva, Dvi, Skanda, Srya and others belong to the first
type of temples. Temples of Ayyanr, Kli, Mri and other Grmadvat-s, and in
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temples of smaller deities like Ma, Iumba, Pcci, Kaamba and so on fall
under the second type. Only an diaiva has the right to perform pj-s at both types
of temples. Pjri-s or priests who have come down the lineage of various i-s, can
perform only Nitya Pj, and only at the second type of temples.
The reference from gama-s supporting the view above:
-.. . ||.. -. . +.+ |.-. . ||
+ . |-...-. ... +-. ~|. .-. +-. |
.|.s..... |... -.. .. -.. ... ||
-...||. ... |. +.-. +-.. |. ..|. . |
..|. ... |. +... |. + . . |.-. .. ||
-..... . -. :|.-.. -...... -..-. |
. |.. . :..-. ...... ... ||
+. .+. . -. ..... ..|.. |
|.. . |-.|-.+ +.-. .-. .|. ... + ||
+...| .|.s..-. .|-.. . +.. . |
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -, . -
aiva tu dvividha jya kalkala vibhdata: ||
kala vai ivagarbha: syt akalam i garbhakam |
pratihsthpana nityapjana prkaa tath ||
utsavdni sarvi kmya karmi yni ca |
tni sarvi kryi kalna tu viata: ||
strrcana kudrabimbapjanacnyapjanam |
sva ligrcana grmadvatrdhana tath ||
akalna prakartavya aivatantrnusri |
nitya naimittka kmya varjanya parrthak ||
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karandi pratihntam diaivna krayt |
(rmat Prvakragama, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page - 209, 30-b - 35-a)
Saivam can be divided into Kalam and Akalam.. Those born from iva Garbha
(those who are the progeny of iva) are known as Kalam. Similarly, those born from
i Garbha (those i-s not directly in iva Si) are known as Akalam. In temples
of Ayyanr, and those of other smaller deities and Grmadvat-s, Pjri-s or Akala-
s can perform Nitya Pj in accordance with gama rules. Nevertheless, even in such
temples, the Pj-s from construction to installation, Kumbhbhikam,
Samprkam, Nitya Pj, Naimittika Pj and Kmya Pj ought to be performed
by diaiva-s.
This establishes that even in temples of deities like Ayyanr and so on, diaiva-s
have the eligibility to perform Nitya Pj-s. It is also clear from the verse above the in
temples of the first type, non-diaiva-s do not have any eligibility to perform the
Pj-s.
Parrtha Pj done by diaiva -s result in good to all
..-.. + .+. . .|.s. |. -..-. ||
.| -. .. . -.. . .. |.|:+| -. .. |
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -, -.-:
gamkta prakra pratih ligapjanam ||
di aivasya pj ca sarvasiddhikar smt |
(rmat Prvakragama:, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page-209, 23--24-a)
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It is known that the proper installation and worship of the ivaliga and the prayers,
as prescribed in the gama-s, done by diaiva-s, results in all kinds of good
benefits.
.-... ... -..-... .... .-.. ... ||
|-..|.. . +. .-. . .. ... -.. |- |
(.|-.. .. +.|-.+..-., ...... . . ., --. -
tasmt parrthamtmrtha sthpana yajana tath ||
ivavipra kartavyam any svrthamva hi I
(rmat Prvakmikgama:, Tantrvatra paala: page - 7,125-b - 126-a)
Hence, tmrtha Kumbhbhikam, tmrtha Pj, Parrtha Kumbhbhikam
and Parrtha Pj should all be done only by diaiva-s, also known as ivavipra-s,
and others (apart from diaiva-s), can only perform tmrtha Pj-s.
... .-.. +.. |-.. |.. . |..-. |
(.|-.. .. +.|-.+..-., . .|.|. ., . --,
parrtha yajana krya iva vipraistu nityaa: |
(rmat Prvakmikgama:, Arcanavidhi paala:, page - 25, 6a)
Parrtha Pj (temple worship) should be performed every day only by diaiva-s,
known as ivavipra-s.
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Effect of Pj-s by different crya-s in a temple
+.... . +. .-. + ...|..-. +
.... .+.. .-.. |..-.|. ++
(.|-.. .. +.|-.+..-.
It is stipulated that worship at a temple has to be performed by a
single individual only. A mixture of crya-s results in destruction of
the King and the country.
(rmat Prvakmikgama:)
|-.+... ... .. .. .. .. .. ..... +
.||-.....-. .-..|... . .. ++
.|-..+ -.... ..-.. -.|... |.-. +
-.:..... . -... .... .. +.. ++
:+... -.....-....+. .| +
. .. |s. +-. |-.+.. |s. -.. . ++
... .-.|.. +. ..-....-. . |. +
.+. .-.+.. ... .. ....|. .--..-. ++
... .|. +. . .-.. . . -.. +
-..|... +. .. .. .|.|.. -.. ++
(.|-.. .. +.|-.+..-.
How is it possible for a single individual to perform all the activities in a
temple? The Lord answers this by saying, either the son, grandson or
relatives of the crya, one who has obtained diksha from the crya, one
who has been ordered and appointed by the crya and one associated
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with him, diaiva clan, Brhmaa, Katriya, Vaiya and dra, Anuloma
(the offspring of one who has married into a lower community), Gandharva
(singers), dancers, Rudrakany and Devads (women dedicated to
offering service at the temple), those who follow orders given to them, the
activities done by all of these are also said to have been performed by the
crya.
How is this possible? Even if ordinary men are appointed by the King as
representatives to carry out his orders, the activity is deemed to have been
carried out by the King himself. Similarly, all the people involved in a
temple's puja-s are responsible to the crya and their activities are said
to be the activities of the crya. Both the positive and negative effects of
their actions reflect upon the crya.
If there be a mixture of crya-s, there will be destruction for the king as
an example. The nti (pryacitta) or special process should be
performed to counter this error.
This shows that the gama-s are not individualistic, not exclusive. They are
inclusive - with specific jobs for different people. A mixture in this results in
worse effects. A single temple worshipped at by a single crya and the
people initiated by him - meant there was a single point control, a single
method and process of worship that went on for generations. This is the
responsibility of the crya.
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..... ... +.. . |.. . . .+||... +
.... . . +. .. . -.. . |-.|-.+|+.. ++
. +... . +.. |... -.. |.-. .. +
crya and Arcaka are the two types of those called ivadvija. Only
crya-s are eligible to perform Naimittika Pj. Only Arcaka-s can
perform Arcana and Nitya Pj.
.... . . +. . ... . |-.|-.+.. .-. +
|......... .. . + . .-.... . ++
The Arcaka should complete the end of the three-kla sandhy pj.
Naimittikam can be performed only after Nitya pj, and in close
association with it. So an crya and Arcaka have to work together.
The Arcaka performs the duties allotted to him and the crya, his.
|.. . |-.|-.+ +.-. |.|.. .|. +||..-. +
Pj is of three types. Nitya pj is daily pj. It is of two types.
Nityam and gantukanityam or repetitive, regular Nitya pj.
Naimittikam is also of two types - Naimittikam and gantuka
Naimittikam. An crya can also perform the gantukanityam.
+...| .|.s.. . |-.|-.+-. .-.-. +
..|. .. +-..|. . |-.|-.+... + -. .-. ++
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+.-. .||.. .. + ..--..-.. ... +
..- .|.|: +-. ..-... . +-. . ++
+.-. . |-.|-.+ . . -.... .. +.. . +
From Karaa to installation can only be performed by crya and
not an Arcaka. Kmyam is also of two types - Bhyam or that which
is public, and Abhyantaram or that which is personal. Kmyam and
Naimittikam are to be performed only by crya.
The daily pj is a systematic pattern laid down by the gama-s.
The special pj-s are performed in harmony with the daily pj-s by
the crya. Like a doctor and a surgeon, the Arcaka and crya
have to work together in unison.
ttt-tttt tt |-t-t+-tt r-tt - tt -t|-t
.... ... +.. ...+. : + .... +
...+. + . .. ....... .+||... ++
.... ...-... +.v-. .|-.|-.+ |+..-. +
.-..... +. ... . + ... . + ++
+. .. +. ...+. :....+ +
...+. . . +.. ...... +-. |. ++
. +.| .. .. . |..+-.. - .. -.. . +
. +-...-.. |... |-.|-.+|+..-. ++
The qualifications -
The five types of crya - crya, Arcaka, Alakta:, Sdhaka: and
Vcaka. The duties for each are described as follows. crya-s are
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supposed to analyse the gama-s in depth and perform Naimittika pj
according to the prescriptions in the gama-s. Arcaka-s are supposed to
perform Arcan or regular worship. Alakta-s have to perform the
Alakra or decoration. Sdhaka-s have to supply the pj material.
Vcaka-s are supposed to chant the gama mantra-s. Thus were the
crya-s divided into five types.
The four types of Arcaka to Vcaka are only eligible to perform Nitya kriy.
Since in iva temples, the crya performs a main role, and the
intermingling of crya and Arcaka would result in great destruction, it is
advised that the Arcaka-s and others in a iva temple be of the same
crya clan.
-ttt-t + - |tttt --tt|t|tt - ,
.... |-... .+ ... -..-. |.. +
... +...+ .. .|... -.|.+ ++
.|-.. ....-.. .:.-.|+.-.|.. +
An crya is surounded by disciples, is decorated in various ornaments
just as iva, has all marks of a aiva like a properly tied turban (headgear),
a top cloth worn on the shoulder (Uttaryam) and so on. Such an diaiva
who is brimming with happiness and complete involvement, is pleasant and
calm and who has total faith and devotion (raddh and bhakti) should
perform pj. Pj is not a duty but performance of an artform.
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gama, laya, diaiva - Revealed Text, the Temple and the diaiva: A Report Page 22 of 42
-t tt-t + - t-t - tt ttttt-t t
.|-.... -..... +. .. .. :-..|+.. +
-..... -.-.. |-... |+-. +.-. ++
.-..|. +.. .:.-.. +.-. +
-t tt-t + - c - |tttt-t -t|t|tt
-... -....|+ +.. . -... +..:|-..+ +
diaiva has to perform Pj after performing ablutions including daily
washing and cleaning.
|tttt-ttt -t t -ttt+tr -t - -t tt-t + |tttt+
t-ttt ttt -
.|-..+.. .... . . |.. +
..-..... ..-. |-..-...|.-.. ++
|-..|.:....-. |-...|. . . -.+ +
. . ...+... . ... . |.-.. ++
. -...||-.. . .....||. +.. . +
+.. |.| -. .. +. . ......+-. ++
... . +. .-. ..|-.... ... +
The diaiva clan has come of the five i-s. He understands the tattva of the
meaning of all the stra-s. He has analysed and understood in depth, the knowledge
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gama, laya, diaiva - Revealed Text, the Temple and the diaiva: A Report Page 23 of 42
of Siva. He knows the iva Siddhnta. He performs pj everyday to iva, Agni and
Guru. He alone is the Sthpaka, always and no one else, in matters pertaining to iva.
Even Anuaiva-s who are Kings, and others, cannot perform installation and other
ritual action (including Naimittikam, Utsavam, Jrddhrana). From the time the
ground is ploughed for the construction of the temple, till the installation of the deity,
only an diaiva has the rights to perform these rituals. If other clans perform these
rituals, there is destruction for the king, and is equivalent to performing negative
bhicra Pj for the dvat-s.
-t tt -t + - +t t|t|tt -- - t-tt
.... ..|-. .. .+|+.|.:.- +
Who is an crya? An crya is one who is born in the diaiva community. He
alone has the rights to perform all kinds of worship.
-t tt-t + - -ttt tt+t - tt tt -t|-t|t|tt
(NY BNoV XlTU)
.... . .-... + .. +-. .-... . +
-... .. -...-... . .. -. ++. -. . ++
... . -..... . . .. .. .... . +
.... .. -.. |-.. |.|... + .+.... ++
. |-.. |.|-... . . |-.. . .-..-... +
. -. . .- .+. . -.. . + ..-. . +-... ++
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+.-...||. ..-..|. ~|.-. . +||... +
.. |-...-..||. .|-. . -||. ++
|-.. . ||-.... . . |-....-.. -. .. +
... -.-.. ...... |... -.-..|--... -.-.. ++
|-.. -.-.. -.-... . |-..-. .|--...-.+. +
.. ... ...-..|. . -.... +|.. .. ++
+ |-.+| .. -. .-.. ..-...-.+. +
.-.-.. :|.... s . .. s. |-..... ++
|-..|..|.+.|... |.. . +.. :. +
+.. : . +. .. . -....|... :|.+. ++
...|... |.+.. . s. . . -.+.|-... +
One who has the qualifications and characteristics of an crya has been created
by the Lord of aiva, from the face of Sadiva, and appointed in order to remove
the mala of people, to help them attain mka or liberation, to perform temple
worship, teach Siddhnta philosophy to the common people, to install the deity
for the first time, prkaam, to perform initiation (dk) and so on.
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Therefore, in the beginning, such a one, who possessed iva-ness next to iva,
was termed diaiva. Such an diaiva has come down in lineage from the lines
of sages like Kyapa, Kauika, Bharadvja, Gautama, Agastya (or Atri) created
from iva. The diaiva has also been initiated by iva and hence is known as
ivabrhmaa. He is the most superior amongst all creation. He is known as
Parcrya - one without superior. He is known as Viprttama - the most superior
amongst Brhmaa-s. He is also known as ivttama - even superior to iva. He
is also known as Dvijttama - the superior among the twice-born. He is also
known as ivabhda and ivtmaka. These are the glories of crya-s in short.
What are their characteristics?
Men are better when compared to animals. Among men, Brhmaa-s are better.
Similarly, even among Brhmaa-s, Vipra-s are better. Vipra-s not only know and
learn the veda-s but practice and live according to the veda-s. Even among them
who are inclined to perform yga-s on their own according to the veda-s,
sannysi-s are better. Better than sannysi-s still, are those who worship akara
- ivcrya-s, who perform ivapj.
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lTm U iYod AVu
(cUjkRWoj YLs, jRiPo RL,
T.Gi 314, 7m \)
muppdum tirumi tuvrkku aiy
(rmat Cundaramrtti cuvmiga, Tiruttoar Togai,
verse 314, 7
th
Tirumuai)
I am a slave to those who come into physical contact with the Divine deity in all three
time periods.
RkQu lTm NpLXm Lr LXm
YeLXU]Ytu Y YV jRiu
mVYofN]Ls YYVodL EV] Al
TkRLVo XlTU Vm Lm TtVR
(cUj NdZo YLs, lTm U
iYo WQm, T.Gi 4165, TV WQm)
terinduari muppdum celklam niga klam
varuglamavai vai vaiy tiruttoi
virumbiyavarccaaiga civavdiyarkk uriyaa ap
peruntagaiyr kulapperumai ym pugaum peiyad
(rmat ckkir cuvmiga, muppdum
tirumi tuvr puram, pa.e 4165, periya puram)
One should understand and realize that the hereditary right to offer service to the
Divine and perform arcan as desired, coming into contact with the Divine deity,
goes only to the ivabrhmana or diaiva-s, in all three times - past, present and
future. The glory of that great clan is beyond my praise.
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Persons eligible to perform Pj in temples of the first type,
as per agamic rules
Names like ivabrhmana, diaiva, ivadvija, Gurukkal, Dkitar, Dikar, cryar,
ivcryar and so on denote those who perform Pj at the first type of temples.
ivabrhmana - Those who were initiated by the i-s who were born from the face
of iva, known as Sadiva (created by Lord iva). Proof thereof -
..|-..... |-... .+.
. ||-... +. |-.+ +.-...v. |
. .. -. .|.. |.|..+-. .
-....|-....-. ..-.. .. ||
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... . |.|. ., . -,
sadivkhyasya ivasya vaktr
y dkit: kauika kyapdy: |
t munn vidhivatkrama
jtsivabrhmaa nmadhy: ||
(rmat Prvakragama:, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page - 210, 36)
Those who hereditarily rose from the lineage of the i-s who were initiated by iva
who is called Sadiva (who received Samskra and Upada - both physical
cleansing and spiritual teaching) are called ivabrhmana.
Not only are the ivabrhmana-s eligible to perform Pj at the first type of temples,
they are also different from other Brhmana-s in that they are from the lineage of i-
s like Kauika, Kyapa and so on who were directly created by Lord iva, unlike the
other Brhmana-s who are from lineages of i-s created by Brahma.
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Further proof that ivabrhmana-s are from the lineage of i-s like Kauika, Kyapa
and so on -
ivcrya - Origin
+.|-.+ +.-... . -...-.. :. .. .-. ||
... . .. . ...+. . ||-... |
. .. . -. . ..... |-....-. ..-.+. ||
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -, -. -.
kauika: kyapacaiva bhradvj'tha gautama: II
agastyacaiva pacait pacavaktru dkit: |
t vau sajt: ivabrhmaa nmak: ||
(rmat Prvakragama, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page - 209, 26-b - 27)
The five i-s - Kauika, Kyapa, Bhradvja, Gautama, Agastya - have each been
initiated from one of the five Faces (of Sadiva). Their progeny and lineage are
known as ivabrhmana-s.
diaiva - The afore-said ivabrhmana are termed diaiva. Proof thereof -
.|-.. :|. .. + . |-....-.. . ||
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -, .
diaiva iti prkta: sa ivabrhma guru: ||
(rmat Prvakragama, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page - 208, 28-b)
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The guru-s called ivabrhmana are termed diaiva.
The term 'diaiva' literally means 'first of the aiva'. That is, after the Universe was
created, the first aiva-s created were diaiva. Since Sadiva exists as a aiva
even before the creation of the Universe, He is known as Andiaiva.
..|-. . . |-.. ..|-. . |-..|-. |
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -, .
andiaiva: sa iva: tvdiaiva: ivadvija: |
(rmat Prvakragama:, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page - 210, 37-a)
Lord iva (Sadiva) is called Andiaiva and the ivadvija or ivabrhmana-s are
termed diaiva-s.
GlTm CVWu Cu][p ALj
UnlTR SYkR \U YYU
AlTRd LlTm BoYm Au]Wn
lTm AoflTo RtNYWm Yo
(cUj NdZo YLs, TV WQm,
lTm U iYo WQm, T.Gi 4165)
eppdum iiyapir iarul adigarittu
meyppda neivanda vidimuaimai vauvm
appdaik kappdum rvamigum abiary
muppdum arccippr mudacaivarm muivar
(rmat Ckkir Cuvmiga, Periya Puram,
Muppdum Tirumi Tuvr Puram, Page 4165)
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Ever flourishing due to the Grace of Lord iva, the diaiva-s follow from time
immemorial without slipping, the true teaching of the gama philosophy and
worship in all three times (past, present and future).
That only diaiva-s are termed ivadvija-s is clear from the verse below, where both
terms are used to denote the same person -
..|-.. |-..|-. |
(.|-.. .. +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -, .
tvdiaiva: ivadvija: |
(rmat Prvakragama:, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page-210, 37-a)
ivadvija are termed as diaiva.
Gurukkal - That diaiva-s are termed Guru-s can be understood from the verse
below that uses both terms to denote the same -
.|-.. :|. .. + . |-....-.. . |
(.|-.. . . +....-., |.... .|.|. ., . -, .
diaiva iti prkta: sa ivabrhma guru: |
(rmat Prvakragama, Nityrcanavidhi paala:, page-208, 18-b)
The Guru-s called ivabrhmana are termed as diaiva.
The term Guru is popular as 'Gurukkal' in a respectful form.
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Dkitar - Since they were created by Lord iva and initiated at the beginning of
Creation for the express purpose of offering Him worship, diaiva-s are also known
as Dkita-s.
|-..|-. + . .. . . . -..- .. -... ||
|-.. . ||-... . . . +.. .. . . |
-..... . ... |-.. -. :+. |-... ||
(.|-.. --.+.|-.+..-., ..... |-.. + ., . ., -.-.
ivadvija: kultth: y t ca mhvar jan: ||
ivna dkit: prva sydau sarva va t |
madarcanrtha tca dk uddhyarthamiyat ||
(rmat Uttarakmikgama, crybhika paala:, page-73, 56-b-57)
Those born in the clan of ivadvija called as diaiva are Mhvara (those
associated with Mahvara). They were created and initiated by Lord iva to offer
worship to Him and are hence known as Dkita-s.
Dikar - The meaning of the word is apparent from the verse below -
-. .|-.. . . |-.+. .-. |
(.|..-. , |-....-.-. . . -
da diyat yna dikastadudhta: |
(Vratantram, ivgamakhara: 1-page-21)
Those due to whom da (the residence or land of Lord iva) is pointed out to the
people are known as Dika-s (diaiva).
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Even in everyday practice, since an diaiva reveals the Lord in the sanctum
sanctorum to the devotees by performing Dpradhana, he is literally a Dika.
cryar - The meaning of the word is understandable from the verse below.
..-.... .. ... .....|. |
.|... |. . -...... . .... .. .. .. ||
(|-... .-..-...-. , .
svayamcarat yastu cr sthpayatyapi |
cinti ca strrthn cryastna ccyat ||
(ivdvaita-aiva-bhyam, page-6)
Those who know and collect information from the stra-s, who then follow the said
scriptures in practice and who then instruct others in following the same are known as
crya-s (diaiva-s).
Here, those who perform all three functions of cinti, carat and cr sthpayati,
are termed as crya. To collect information from the stra-s is cinti, to follow it
in practice is carate and to establish the scriptural prescriptions in the public is
cr sthpayati. Those who have all three qualities are termed crya-s.
ivcrya - An diaiva, after receiving a special initiation (Viadka) is known by
the term 'iva.' Then, after undergoing the initiation called Nirvadka, he is known
by the term crya. So an diaiva who has undergone both these initiations and is
both iva and crya, is termed as ivcrya. One might question that since others
(non- diaiva-s) eligible for these initiations could also be termed ivcrya, yet the
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reference below from the Ligapurna shows that this is a special term given
specifically to the diaiva-s.
.. .. . .-... |-...... . ..... |
(|-... .-..-...-. , .
gauravdva sajai ivcryasya nnyath |
(ivdvaita-aiva-bhyam, page-6)
Due to the special honor of serving Lord iva and for no other reason are the
diaiva-s termed ivcrya-s.
The purpose of performing temple Pja-s. Reason why diaiva-
s alone are eligible to perform temple Pja-s and even Brahmins
are prohibited from performing temple Pja-s.
The effects of transgression.
. .. .. .. .-.. . .|.:. |
:..-..|.. |.. :+. ... -.. .. -...-. ||
... .-.. +.. |-..|.. . |..-. |
..-.|+ + . |..-. .|-. .. |-.. -.-. ||
. . ... +.. + . . +...-..-. |
|-... | |... . . -.... .-.. -. ... ||
. ..-.... . . .. . ... -..|.+.|.. |
.| -.. -. + .|. .-.. . . ..-..-. ||
-. .. . |-.. |... ..-...... .|. . . |
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.-....... ..|. .-..-... .|.-. . . ||
(.|-.. .. +.|-.+..-., . .|.|. ., . --, -
npatryurrgyajaya sapadvivddhay |
grmdn vivddhyartha parrthjy prayujyatm ||
parrthayajana krya ivavipraistu nityaa: |
dhrmka: kurut nityam diaiv dvijttama: ||
any tu svrthakdanya kuryuctkartnanam |
ivasi vin y tu jyant brahmao mukht ||
t smny na t tu parrthjydhikrit |
yadi mhna kurvran rj rrasya nanam ||
bhtyartha y iva vipr: smnystvarcayanti ct |
amstpatana ynti tasmttn parivarjayt ||
(rmat Prvakmikgama:, Arcanavidhi paala:, page-25, 5-9)
For the welfare of the king and the growth and prosperity of the village (town, city,
the kingdom), and for the continued development of longevity, freedom from
diseases, victory, prosperity and so on, Parrtha Pja (temple worship) ought to
performed.
Such Parrtha Pja ought to be performed daily only by the ivavipra, also known as
diaiva. diaiva-s, who are superior to Brhmana-s, should perform daily worship
at the temples, while living without slipping from the dharmic rules prescribed. If
those other than diaiva-s perform any Pj other than tmrtha Pj, the
Dharmakarth (trustees) of that temple would be destroyed. (5-7a)
That only diaiva-s ought to perform temple worship is further clarified due to verses
7b-9. According to the references in ivgama-s and the faith of the aiva-s, creation
is of two types - ivasi and Brahmasi. Since diaiva-s were created directly by
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Lord iva, they belong to ivasi. Those from the other four vara-s belong to
Brahmasi.
Those apart from ivasi, created through Brahma, are termed Smnya. They are
not eligible to perform Parrtha Pja or temple worship. If by desire, they choose to
do so, there would be destruction for the king and the kingdom.
If Brhmana-s, who are among Smnya-s, choose to perform worship to Lord iva
at the temple for the sole purpose of taking care of their livelihood (by mnya,
drawing a salary in cash or kind, financial help, reward and so on), there would be
destruction (of several kinds) within six months. So, this (worship by Smnya-s at
temples) should be avoided.
Refer the verse below from Tirumantiram in this context.
To LiP TolTu Wu Ru] AofjRp
ToLiP YkRodl TpX VVm
To LiP Shtl TgNm Bm Gu\
o LiP Sk RkWjR]
(UkWm T1, dL, TdLm591)
pr koa prpp pir taai arccittl
prkoa vndarkkup poll viydiym
pr koa nikup pacamum m e
cr koa nandi terinduraitt
(Tirumandira - part -1, Tirukkyiliivu, page - 591)
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Since this verse reflects the import of the ivgama verses above, and since it
appears under the section titled 'destruction of the temple,' this is the meaning of the
verse.
If those who are Brhmana only by name (Smnyabrhmana) perform arcana to
Lord iva at the temple, it would bring great disease to the warring king, there would
be famine across the country.
Since the verse mentions that this is the claim of great iva Himself, it is apparent that
Tirumlar is merely rephrasing the ivgama here.
Whether an diaiva of one temple can perform prayers at another
temple, belonging to a different diaiva clan...
.... . +. . .-... ..-.... |
+.... . +. .-. + ... |..-. ||
+-.. . . + . .. . .. ... .... . + |
(.|-.. --.+.|-.+..-., ...|.-.|.|. ., . , -
crya sakar rr rjn nayatyatha |
kcrya kartavyam kadvlaya sthitam ||
karmnyna kta tacct tat syt cryasakara: |
(rmat Uttarakmikgama:, Pryacittavidhi paala:, page - 136, 891-892a)
All activities relating to a temple (Pj and so on) must be performed by a single
crya (that this denotes the respective diaiva clan associated with the temple
hereditarily, is clarified in the verse that follows). If these activities are performed by
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any another crya (not associated with the temple's diaiva clan) is called
cryasakaram.
cryasakaram = inter-mixture of crya-s, will lead to the destruction of the king
and the kingdom.
When a single crya at a temple cannot perform all the duties...
All activities relating to a temple must be performed by a single crya related to the
temple. Yet, practically, a single crya cannot do everything. The verse that refers to
this is as below -
|.. . |-.|-.+ +.-. .. +-. +.. |..-. ||
+.... . +. .-. :|. ... |. -... |
|-.+... ... .. .. .. .. .. ..... ||
.||-.....-. .-..|... . .. |
.|-.. + -................... ||
(.|-.. --.+.|-.+..-., ...|.-.|.|. ., . , .
nity naimittik kmy yat karmaiklay sthitam
kcrya kartavyam iti sdhdita may
dikasysya putr v pautr v tasya bndhav:
taddkitstadda samvica y nar:
diaiva kul jt:...............
(rmat Uttarakmikgama:, Pryacittavidhi paala:, page - 136, 896-b - 898)
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(In the Pryacittavidhi paala: of r Uttarakmikgama, there is an interesting
conversation between the i-s and Lord iva. Lord iva proclaims therein that, "the
activities of a particular temple should be performed by a single crya.
If those activities are performed by any other crya, it is termed cryasakaram, or
inter-mixture of crya-s and will lead to the destruction of the king and the
kingdom." The i-s then question Lord iva, "These activities require the effort of
several people, how can a single person do it all by himself?")
(The Lord's response - "Hey Sdhu-s, let me give you the answer (way)"). "All
activities pertaining to a temple including Nityam, Naimittikam and Kmyam should
be performed by a single crya as prescribed by me. (Yet, it is to implement this in
practice) those born in the diaiva clan, the son, grandson and other relatives, were
they to obey the command of the crya and were they to have been initiated by the
crya (called Dika), all the activities performed by them would be considered to
have been performed by the Dika.
It is apparent from here that even if born in the diaiva clan, one needs to be
initiated by the crya associated with a particular temple (taddkit) to be able to
offer services at that temple, and that too, only at his behest (tadda samvi).
The son, grandson or relatives of an crya, of a clan associated with the temple
cannot automatically be eligible to perform Pj at the temple. They also need to be
initiated by the crya (taddkit) and become his disciples in order to offer their
services at the temple.
If one examines the two terms Taddkit, those initiated by the crya, Tadda
samvi, those who work at his behest, the meaning above becomes clearer. This
is also in practice across all large and established temples today.
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For the propagation of the clan of those who are childless...
It is also apparent from the discussion above, that if an crya associated with a
temple is childless, in order to propagate the worship after his lifetime, he can initiate
and command one born in the diaiva community. Such a one has the right to
continue worship at the temple.
Temple worship (of the first type) performed by anyone other than an
diaiva is fruitless
.|-... +. . .|.s.v. ...+-. |
... +.. . .-. |.+ .. ... ... ||
(.|-.. ...-...-., |-..-..|.|. ., What is Sivagama, page 12
diaivna kartavya pratihdyarcanntakam |
anyath krayt yattu niphala tat avpnuyt ||
(rmat Ygajgama:, Dklakaavidhi paala:, 18)
All activities (in a temple) including installation to consecration and so on, ought to
be performed by diaiva-s. If performed any other way, it becomes fruitless.
.-... ... -..-... .... .-.. ... ||
|-..|.. . +. .-. . .. ... -.. |- |
... -.|. +.. . . . . .. . .. ... ||
.:. . . ..-.... |. . . . -.. |
(.|-.. .. +.|-.+..-., ......., . ., -:.-.
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tasmt parrthamtmrtha sthpana yajana tath ||
ivavipra kartavyam any svrthamva hi |
parrthamapi kuryt ct lpna npatstath || tadrrasya ca
nasyt acira na saaya: |
(rmat Prvakmikgama:, Tantrvatrapaala:, page - 7, 124b-127a)
Thus (since diaiva-s have the eligibility), tmrtha Kumbhbhikam, tmrtha
Pj, Parrtha Kumbhbhikam and Parrtha Pj, ought to be performed only by
ivavipra-s also known as diaiva-s. Because, (apart from diaiva-s) others have
only been prescribed only tmrtha Pj. If due to lack of regulation (apart from
diaiva-s) they perform temple Pj or Parrtha Pj, it is definite that the king and
kingdom will face destruction.
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Conclusion
The research committee solemnly states that the above quotations from various texts
are only illustrative and not exhaustive in nature. Almost all gama-s mandate that
Parrtha ivlaya Pj-s are to be performed only by the diaiva ivcrya-s and
not by any one else including highly erudite scholars and learned persons.
Research Committee
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