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UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI PROJECT REPORT ON

IMPACT OF CELL PHONES ON YOUTH

IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT FOR BACHELORS OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES 2012-13

PROJECT GUIDE PROF: Mrs. MMAHEK K CHHABRIA

SUBMITTED BY: Ms. ANAGHA VINAYAK BHOSALE ROLL NO: 3215

SPECIALISATION IN: MARKETING

MAHATMA EDUCATION SOCIETYS PILLAI COLLEGE OF ARTS, COMMERCE & SCIENCE NEW PANVEL

DECLARATION I, ANAGHA VINAYAK BHOSALE, student of TYBMS A, MAHATMA EDUCATION SOCIETYS PILLAI COLLEGE OF ARTS, COMMERCE & SCIENCE, hereby declare that I have completed the project report on IMPACT OF CELL PHONES ON YOUTH in the academic year 2012- 2013. The information submitted by me is true & original to the best of my knowledge.

Signature

CERTIFICATE To whomsoever it may concern

This is to certify that the work entered in this journal is the work of MS. ANAGHA VINAYAK BHOSALE , T.Y.BMS A, have successfully completed a project report on the topic IMPACT OF CELL PHONES ON YOUTH terms of the year 2012- 2013, in the college as laid down by the college authority.

Professor/Guide name: Mrs. Mmahek. K. Chhabria

Co-ordinator Sign: Mrs. Prerna Sharma

Signature: ____________

_______________

Date: ____________

External Examiner:

________________

INDEX

SR.NO

CONTENTS

PG.NO

List of tables List of graphs Executive summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Research methodology Conceptual background Data collection and Analysis Conclusion Suggestions and Recommendations Annexure Bibliography and Wibliography
1-19

20-23

24-25

26-50

51

52-53

54-57

58

LIST OF TABLES SR. NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. CONTENT No. of youth who owns mobile phone No. of handsets owned by youth Brand of the mobile phone owned by youth Reason for purchasing cell phone Age in which started using cell phone Cell is switched on or off Preference for answering calls General usage of cell phone Most common place where cell phones are used 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Frequency of using cell phone by youth The purpose for using cell phone The usage of password facility Internet connectivity in the cell phone The purpose of having internet connectivity on the cell phone 15. Usage of cell phone while driving 41 36 37 38 39 40 PG.NO 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Medical side effects of using cell phone Usage of cell phone while crossing the road Usage of cell phone while eating Memory card holders among youth The purpose of using memory card The best part of having cell phone Usage of cell phones for safety purposes The latest models awareness Addiction towards cell phone

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

LIST OF GRAPHS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. No. of youth who owns mobile phone No. of handsets owned by youth Brand of the mobile phone owned by youth Reason for purchasing cell phone Age in which started using cell phone Cell is switched on or off Preference for answering calls General usage of cell phone Most common place where cell phones are used 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Frequency of using cell phone by youth The purpose for using cell phone The usage of password facility Internet connectivity in the cell phone The purpose of having internet connectivity on the cell phone 15. Usage of cell phone while driving 41 36 37 38 39 40 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Medical side effects of using cell phone Usage of cell phone while crossing the road Usage of cell phone while eating Memory card holders among youth The purpose of using memory card The best part of having cell phone Usage of cell phones for safety purposes The latest models awareness Addiction towards cell phone

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am grateful to my teacher MRS. MMAHEK. K. CHHABRIA for giving me moral support and guiding me in different matters regarding the topic. She has been very kind and patient while suggesting me the outlines of the project and correcting my doubts. I thank her for her overall support. I thank my parents for their undivided support and interest who inspired me and encouraged me to go on my own way, without whom I would have been unable to complete my project. At last but not the least I would like to thank my friends who gave their precious time for my survey and motivated me. And finally to god who made all things possible.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:
Today, cell phones are a major part of society. Almost everyone has a cell phone, and we always see someone texting away or making a quick phone calls on the high-tech devices. Many find these to be extremely convenient resources for everyday life, but most people do not stop to consider the positive as well as the negative effects that cell phones could have on ones health and living. Everyone from school going children to the senior citizens cell phones are used in every walk of life. Whether we use cell phone technology at work, in public, or for personal reasons it all contributes to how connected we feel to other people and to our daily obligations. The number of cell phone subscribers worldwide reached 90 million at the end of 2012 and estimates show a growth rate of one billion cell phone subscribers per year.

Thus it clearly indicates that the cell phone phenomenon that is currently taking place on an international level. When faced with such phenomenal growth of mobile phones we must ask ourselves a few questions. How are cell phones affecting us culturally? and whats happening to our quality of life as a result of cell phone use? These are the topics that I will be exploring in this research paper.

People use cell phones for a variety of different reasons. They are used to keep in touch with family and friends, to develop social networks, search the internet, send emails and text messages, shop for deals, and navigate on the road. An impartial view of the effects of cell phone use would still reveal that an evolution in society has been caused by and is still occurring because of cell phones. New methods of communication inevitably will lead to a change in social behavior. This paper will explore the changes that have occurred since the introduction of cell phones and evaluate the significance of these changes towards youth.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO IMPACTS OF CELL PHONES ON YOUTH

CHAPTER 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION:
The basic requirement for a normal human in India is redefined food, clothing, shelter and cell phone. Cell phones have become a mainstream product in todays world and have a huge impact on todays world. With youth population constituting half of the population, India has become a fine breeding ground for highest cell connections.

When mobile phones hit the high street over 10-12 years ago, not only did it give us the ability to communicate with friends, family and colleagues anytime and anywhere, but along the way it has also changed our social behavior and has made a huge cultural impact.

It is the easiest way to stay connected with family and friends and also provides security, like updating our parents where we are if it gets late to go home. It helps to socialize, creates a sense of belonging to peer group and easy access to media and environment. Apart from its regular use, cell phones express individual identities. Right from the model we buy till the ring tone and wallpaper set, every minute detail is noted. Mobile phones have also become a secret diary for teenagers.

On the contrary, cell phones have also made people introvert and there is a slight decline in conversations, thanks to SMS. .. In addition to the standard voice function, current mobile phones may support many additional services, and accessories, such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, gaming, Bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video, MP3 player, radio and GPS. The International Telecommunication Union estimated that mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide would reach approximately 4.6 billion by the end of 2009. Mobile phones have gained increased importance in the sector of information and communication technologies for development in the 2000s and have effectively started to reach the bottom of the economic pyramid.

The Indian telecommunication industry, with about 506.04 million mobile phone connections (Nov 2009), is the third largest telecommunication network in the world and the second largest in terms of number of wireless connections (after China). India has become one of the fastest-growing mobile markets in the world. The mobile services were commercially launched in August 1995 in India. In the initial 56 years the average monthly subscribers additions were around 0.05 to 0.1 million only and the total mobile subscribers base in December 2002 stood at 10.5 millions.

1.2 NEED FOR STUDY:


There exists a need to study and analyze the influence of cell phones on youth, because cell phones are responsible for modulating the thought process of any person especially that of the youngsters. It is mainly playing a major role in communicating sector; it may have both positive and negative effects on youngsters. It is also educating the youths to some extent whereas also spoiling them at the same time. Thus, there exists a need to study and analyze and understand the actual influence of cell phones on youngsters.

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: IMPACT OF CELL PHONES ON YOUTH


INTRODUCTION Cellular phones have had a major impact on our lives and the way that we perform everyday tasks. Many of these changes are apparent, while others we may not even be aware of. Cell phones have brought a whole new meaning to the term multitasking. Twenty years ago, it was not possible to talk to the office while you were at the grocery store picking up some necessary items. You could never have had a three-way business conference while you were fixing dinner or been able to deal with a business client from home while caring for a sick child. Cell phones have enabled us to do various tasks all at the same time.

Cell phones have also enabled families to keep in closer touch with each other. Children can contact you if they have missed their ride form soccer practice and your spouse can call while he is stuck in traffic to let you know that he is going to be late for supper. Teenagers are able to call to ask permission to go somewhere, and with GPS features that are now available on some cell phones, you are able to check to make sure that they are where they are supposed to be.

Many of these advantages we do not even notice. Have you ever arrived at the grocery store and realized that you have forgotten your grocery list? The first thing you would probably do is to call home and have one of your children read the list off to you. In the same situation in past years, you may have forgotten things or have had to drive all the way back home to get it. If your car breaks down, you automatically call for help instead of having to walk to find a pay phone. Cell phones have certainly made our lives much more convenient.

Cell phones have also changed the way that people interact with each other. When we call someone, we are actually calling the person and not a place. This enables us to be more spontaneous when making plans as you rarely get a busy signal and unlike a land line telephone, someone is always home. Cell phones also enable us to call if we are going to be late for an appointment, although this has led to cell phone users running late more often than those who do not have cell phones.

These users seem to have adopted the attitude that appointment times are not concrete and use their cell phones to renegotiate their arrival time.

One of the greatest disadvantages of the cellular phone is the fact that we do not talk to strangers when traveling anymore. In the past, several people waiting for a bus would engage in a conversation while they were waiting. People who traveled the same routes every day might develop friendships along the way. This situation does not happen anymore. Today when people are waiting for a bus, they just pull out their cell phones and speak with old friends, missing out on the opportunity to make new ones. In large cities, many people do not know their neighbors, even though they may have lived in the same neighborhood for years. As a society, we are beginning to lose the face-to-face contact that was such an important part of our lives in the past.

Cell phones are a great asset in aiding in our everyday lives. You should remember, however, to hang up every once in a while and pay attention to the world around you. Cell phones have changed our lives in good ways and bad ways. Yes they are good to have if your child has missed a soccer practice but most people have become addicted to cell phones. Freaking out if they forgot it at home, got it taken away, or simply missed a call. All in all, its not that cell phones are a bad thing; I am simply saying that some people have become addicted to them. Not like a drug addiction or an alcohol addiction, but an addiction that makes you feel naked without your phone. This world has come from writing letters to and fro or calling them on the house phone, to having constant contact anytime, anywhere.

1.4 ROLE OF CELL PHONES ON LIFE OF YOUTH


I cant live without my cell phone. My cell phone is my life. my handset is everything to me , I cant do anything without my cell phone, I love my mobile than anyone.. this type of conversation is mostly heard amongst youngsters who are so dependent on cell phones for every reason. Cell phones have been widely adopted by pre-teens and teenagers for everyday use. Cell phones are used to micro-coordinate day-to-day activities between friends and acquaintances or with parents. The cell phone also offers a sense of security if the child needs to contact a parent in an emergency. A cell phone provides what the sociologist Rich Ling in The Mobile Connection (2004) has called an "anytime-anywhere-for-whatever-reason type of access" to a youth's social network. A cell phone allows for flexible planning when arranging social events. It is the immediacy of cellular communications that typifies mobile youth culture. Youth with mobiles are usually, or learn quickly to become, technically competent in their use of their cell phone features such as SMS messaging, picture messaging, or using mobile chat services. In addition, their model of cell phone, ringtone or wallpaper all offer youth a way of showing off their social status or fashion consciousness in the digital age. The cell phone plays a role in youth identity formation - fostering a sense of self-esteem, showing social connectedness, and providing a teen with an independent means of communication. The mobile phone therefore plays a key role in a childs development as an adolescent. In many instances, this mobile youth culture adds to the generation gap between parents and youth. In todays world our youths are exposed to technology. In a time where instant gratification is the norm and the cell phone is an item that no youth can possibly do without, more and more they are suffering from what is becoming known as cell phone addiction. And it doesnt really have an end.

A childs entire social life seems to be wrapped up in the simple hand held device. At an age where previously writing proper letters on actual paper the youth of today are typing and texting each other with instantaneous results. They text their friends on a regular basis or upload pictures to social networks. Everything takes place at the last moment. Arrangements can be made and rearranged at the click of a button. Receive good and bad news unexpectedly when out and about. They are always available and are contacted as the mood strikes. The youth are more social and yet more anti-social than ever before. It is easier for them to chat online via text, than it is to simply call or talk to someone face to face. Feelings and emotions are expressed using emoticons rather than listening to someone. The reason for this is that with the introduction of instant chats and SMS bundles (or even free text messages) communication is becoming simpler and faster. The dictionary as we know it is being redefined. The youth do not use predictive text simply because it takes longer to SMS using this feature and a full word eats up way to many characters.

1.5 OBJECTIVES:
1) To study the impact of cell phones on youth 2) To study the attitude of teenagers and youth, age group 18-22 years, towards cellular phones. 3) To enumerate the usage patterns and arrive at peculiarities, gender wise or age wise, if any. 4) To investigate their awareness with regards to the recent launches of mobile handsets in the market. 5) To understand their perceptions for issue like medical side effects and privacy implications. 6) To analyze, study and suggest negative impact of cell phones on youth.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE:
The concept that cell phones have what kind of influence is so far not very clear, therefore, 1. This research will help individuals to know whether cell phones influence the youth in a positive or negative way. 2. If the influence is negative, then how the youth is affected by it. 3. Also it will provide remedial solutions on the negative impact of cell phones on the type of youth. 4. If the influence is positive then which way.

1.7 HISTORY OF CELL PHONES


A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station. Nowadays, almost all people communicate through cell phones. It is hard to believe that about twenty years ago cell phones were a rarity and confined to what were better known as brick phones owing to their size and shape. Research and development of cellular technology can be dated to as far back as 1843 when a chemist by the name of Michael Faraday began exhaustive research into whether space could conduct electricity. Faraday's discoveries have had an incalculable effect toward cellular phone development. This idea then allowed Dr. Mahlon Loomis of Virginia, a dentist, to be the first person to communicate through wireless via the atmosphere in 1865. Radio technology was further promoted in the late 1960s with Richard H. Frenkiel and Joel S. Engel of Dell Labs, aiming to create portable handheld police radios for the Chicago Police Department, America. While the idea of a 'mobile' phone existed since then, they could only make calls within a central base, therefore were predominantly employed in vehicles. In the 1960s, mobile phone technology became available, but was still restricted to base stations and cell areas, hence unable to support stability of phone calls from an area to another, without disconnecting. Only in the 1980s, were the first generation of cellphones - brick phones - introduced. Also, through these twenty years of incessant improvements from the early 1980s till today, we are now witnessing the prime of cellphones with innovation of the smart phones with PDA capabilities which are outstandingly small with the most advanced technologies which allow the cellphone to operate like a computer.

EVOLUTION OF CELL PHONES


Dr. Martin Cooper, known as the father of the cell phone, set up a base station in New York with the first working prototype of a cellular telephone in 1973. Mr. Cooper and Motorola took the phone technology of the Motorola Dyna-Tac to New York to show the public. CHRONOLOGY 1977-79: Public cellphone testing began, first in Chicago and then in other cities of USA. Japan joined the testing service afterwards. 1983: Motorola introduced the Dyna-Tac phone into commercial service with each phone costing the consumer $3,500. It took seven additional years before there were a million subscribers in the United States. 1989: Motorola MicroTAC 9800x was the first pocket-sized cellphone which employed a slim, flip-phone design, still being emulated today. 1991: Advent of the second generation of cellphones with GSM networks and a divergence from the larger phones models. 1993: Text-messaging became the trend and most helpful tool of communication, in particular among youths. 1996: Motorola's Startac introduced vibrations to notify users of incoming messages and calls. Toshiba also releases the world's first internal antenna cellphone, giving rise to more popularity attributed to their improved design. 1999: The Nokia 7110 is the pioneering smartphone of that time, which allowed for WAP, Internet access and infrared. However, as you probably have already realized, these functions have now become the norm. 2000: Now in their third generation, the first in-built camera phone is produced by a j-phone, originating from Japan. In the same year, Nokia 3210 introduces T9 predictive text (dictionary) ability to facilitate texting.

2002: While arguably not the first, Sony Ericsson announces the first commercialised colored screen cell phone. 2002-05: Danger Hiptop, Treo and Blackberry are just a few of the many smartphones which revolutionized how PDAs worked with extraordinary technology, features and organisers. 2008: iPhone 3G became an instant hit as the first phone which can be fully controlled via a touch screen and comes with additional functions, which differ from the traditional camera and music player, such as third party applications, maps and Safari browser.

1.8 The Social Impact of Mobile Telephony:


Mobile telephony is without doubt one of the most explosive developments ever to have taken place in the telecommunications industry. By the end of 1990 there were just 11 million cellular subscribers world-wide; eight years later that figure had jumped to 320 million and is now forecast by the ITU to exceed 550million by the end of next year. Penetration rates in the Nordic countries were close to 60% by September 1999, led by Finland (63%), Norway (58%), Iceland (56%) and Sweden (53%). Mobile growth around the world has also been nothing short of astonishing. China posted an 87% combined annual subscriber growth rate from 1995 to 1998, with other major economies like Brazil (82%) and South Africa (67%) not far behind. For the worlds poorest countries, cellular telephony and wireless local loop systems represent the best chance yet of bringing the power of telecommunications to economically disadvantaged or isolated communities. Cambodia, for example, is one of only half a dozen countries in the world where cellular subscribers already outnumber fixed-line subscribers. Without doubt, mobile telephony offers enormous advantages added convenience, greater personal security, and the ability to take advantage of dead time to do business on the move. But the picture isnt all rosy. Like most young technologies, mobile telephony is experiencing its share of teething troubles, including concerns about environmental impact, health and safety, and, of course, the social changes being wrought by a technology which, by making us permanently contactable, is having a profound effect on our interpersonal interaction.

1.9 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACT OF CELL PHONE ON YOUTH


POSITIVE IMPACTS: Cell phones of today are more than just phones. They tasks has evolved into being tiny computers that has almost the same proficiency. For the youth, cell phones are portable communication gadgets which they could use in different ways. There are so many concerns that come out with its use but there are so much more advantages as well. An obvious benefit of a cell phone is that it has the adeptness to help out teens communicate with other people. If a teen got into an inappropriate and uncomfortable situation, he or she could call for assistance at once through a cell phone anytime, anywhere. There are actually so many cases wherein the cell phone is more indispensable, like they get stranded somewhere they do not know or maybe got lost. With a cell phone, the teens could call people who could help them which add to the peacefulness of the parents.Some phones even allow their users free long distance calls making it lot more easily for them to communicate with friend and family who are distant. Also for somebody who has a cell phone that is available during emergency situations, it could actually make a big difference from life and death. If they have witnessed accidents, they could easily call emergency hotline numbers, like 100. Or for those who cannot speak to make a verbal report to authorities, like being held hostage in a robbery, they could just dial their pre programmed phone and instantly be connected to authorities, even if it is just in their pockets. With the cell phones video and camera features, teenagers now have more capability to record and report any criminal event they have witnessed. These make them into valuable witnesses that would greatly help authorities solve crime faster. Many professors and school campuses are starting to realize the advantages of a cell phone. With a cell phone, the students could actually make organizers and even do their projects and research works with the cell phones ability to connect to the Internet.

Some of them even take advantage of the different educational games found in cell phones. With all these reasons, the youth actually gets more encouragement to initiate his learning! Cell phones are a tool of convenience. Having a cell phone now makes people reachable in almost any location as long as there is good reception. This makes individuals easier to contact. Ease of access is not the only benefit of cell phones today though, as cell phones offer features that have many other benefits

To reduce the cost of a cell phone purchase customers can agree to long-term contracts requiring credit checks. For those not wanting long-term contracts or for those who have questionable credit, phones can be purchased with prepaid minutes. No longer do you need to worry about the bulky car phones of the 1980s. The average cell phone today is smaller than the size of a checkbook, making it easy to transport. Cell phones make it easy to make business arrangements when you are traveling away from your office and can't call everyone by emailing or texting business associates. Having Internet access on cell phones allows individuals to check items such as airline schedules, sports scores, weather and traffic conditions. Many cell phones now come with cameras built into the cell phone. This can be very helpful for an individual involved in a car accident that does not have a camera. She can take photographs of the damage using her cell phone and submit it to her insurance company if needed.

SOME MORE POSITIVE IMPACTS OF CELL PHONES

Cell phones As Blessings What makes a cell phone so useful and tempting? It is definitely not just a fashion statement or valuable purely for its technology features. There is more to why cell phones have become an essential part of our lives, mainly due to their portability and flexibility in text messaging. More than that, you probably never knew that cell phones can even be rather nifty in emergency situations! On Portability and Convenience... Firstly, cell phones can be used almost everywhere without cables or electricity. By using a mobile phone, you can communicate with anyone whenever you want and wherever you are. Furthermore, cell phones have revolutionized long distance communication. Long distance calls can be made at extremely low charges. In this way you will have little difficulty in keeping in touch with your friends, family and especially those who are geographically distant. For students, like you, especially, in doing projects or times of uncertainties, you can easily phone your group mates or teachers to consult them and solve any questions you may have. For example, when you are picking out something at shop for a drama production and need to know which prop to get or when you find yourself in doubt whilst studying at the library. Without cell phones, it would not be possible to get a second opinion or help. Internet connection in most phones also mean we can access the web outdoors through sources other than our laptop, yet smaller and more convenient. However, it is of course not as powerful.

On Text-Messaging... These days, the world's most common means of communication is text messaging (SMS). Through SMS, one can communicate easily at a time when he/she does not want to be heard. It is often less time-consuming and undoubtedly less expensive to send a text message than to make a phone call. In addition, messages can be sent to a large number of people simultaneously. The latter service may be used by your classmates or school to send notices and reminders for important school happenings or even by online services to distribute news and valuable information to subscribers. Example includes the latest football results, career advice, mobile banking and traffic conditions. Even the simplest of cell phones have this system installed, allowing communication to become cost-effective. In Emergencies... Possibly the utmost benefit of cell phones is the sense of security they provide you with the knowledge that you are able to contact help anytime and anywhere. There have been several instances where cell phones have proven themselves as life-savers whereby victims of unfortunate disasters (such as car malfunctions, breakdowns, landslides or earthquakes) have relied on them to get themselves to safety. What is more ingenious of cell phones is their incorporation with the global tracking system using which allows the police to trace their owners/robbers in case of crimes such as kidnaps or theft.

NEGATIVE IMPACTS: The research into the connection between cell phone use and health risks remains controversial and contradictory. However, a 2008 article appearing in the "International Journal of Oncology" reports that a meta-analysis of existing research reveals an association between cell phone usage and two types of tumor: gliomas and neuromas. The counterargument is that the radiation emitted by cell phones is non-ionizing and cancer is normally only associated with ionizing radiation (radiation that damages DNA). The research on the effects of talking or texting on a cell phone remain unclear, but point to cell use as a cognitive distraction. The National Highway Traffic Safety estimates that 25 percent of crashes trace back to driver distraction, to which cell usage contributes. Despite the uncertainty of the research, state governments take the threat seriously. As of early 2011, 39 states and the District of Columbia maintain laws or regulations that impose some limits on cell phone usage while driving, according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. As the technology of cell phones is increasing rapidly, the negative effects on people is growing fast as well .There are different kinds of distractions for using a cell phone while driving but the common one is visual distraction, which is watching a cell phone screen instead of the road and trying to reach to the ring ton. Being a driver requires to have attention on the road but trying to use cell phone makes somebody lose control of his or her car and crash. The second effect is trying to dial the number while operating the vehicle this is also deadly somebody can cause an accident to the person who is driving in front of the car or to pedestrian r. The final effect is talking on the cell phone and driving as the same time. This driver is driving by concentrating on the conversation. A telephone conversation causes considerably slower reactions to the traffic environment. Driver, who is on cell phone conversation, drives very slow causing a long traffic. In addition, since the person attention is on the cell phone not on the road, there is a possibility of causing accident to the car in the front or hitting a pedestrian. Drivers appear to have less control over the vehicle while being on the phone. Keeping in lane turns out being more difficult and turning left or merging. It has increased the crash rate.

SOME MORE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF CELL PHONES


On Health...
The frequent use of cell phones is an unimaginable threat to human health. As known to many, it has been proven that talking on a cell phone for as little as 500 to 1000 minutes per month can increase the probability of brain cancer by 300%. Not only that, it also causes disturbance in sleep, difficulty in concentration, fatigue, headache, infertility, and hyperactivity in new born children. Chances of Alzheimers disease, leukemia, ear defects, and blurring of vision are too noticed to be higher in cell phone users. In addition, cell phones damage key brain cells as well as the DNA. Children under the age of 10, in particular, are a lot more vulnerable to microwave radiation because their immune system is weak, their skulls are thin and their nervous system is still developing. The dire health effects mentioned earlier are even more severe on children because of increased absorption.

On Your Behavior...
Due to reasonable prices, teenagers can easily afford cell phones. They tend to overuse their cell phones every time at every place. The teenagers chat, send and receive text messages, download wallpapers and ring tones, play games and do lots more. In this way they get distracted from the more important activities and duties of their lives such as studies. Due to such popularity, companies are constantly coming up with new softwares, features and models to attract more buyers and higher profits. Hence, the public would want to install new features and keep their handsets up to date, spending more money and time this way. They could also be tempted into getting hold of the latests phones even if their old ones are functioning, incurring unnecessary expenses without consideration.

In addition, mobile phone use while driving undoubtedly increases the risk of accidents (collisions). Conversation on cell phones, both hand held and hands free, can influence driving performance because the driver cannot concentrate fully on driving. Using a cell phone severely impairs a driver's memory and reaction times by disrupting signals to and within the brain. It is also considered that people talking on cell phones are even more impaired than intoxicated drivers.

On Our Environment...
Not only are drivers involved in accidents, so do the birds. Yes, birds. Every year, new towers reaching heights of 250 feet are built for mobile phones all over the world, even on top of mountains, which thousands of flying birds crash into. Common conjecture is that birds have a special sensitivity to microwave radiation, hence when flying in the night they rely on their senses instead of sight. As a consequence of cell phones being widespread, millions of birds are led to death. Additionally, farmers have noticed abnormalities in their animals which disappeared once the animals were repositioned away from the towers. A more urgent issue is the improper disposal of cell phones. An estimated 65,000 tons of electrical garbage is contributed by cell phones every year, and the figure is growing. This is a growing concern as cell phones contain toxic chemicals and metals which when leaked and accumulated within our environment, will lead to vast pollution, such as lead and land pollution. When consumed, lead can cause dangerous implications to our internal organs, brain, nervous systems, reproductive system and even result in seizures or osteoporosis, especially in young children. What is more, lead can be fatal when consumed. Most frightening is the vicious cycle lead and land pollution may result when leaked into the waters or sand and consumed by animals. We may be lucky to see abnormaly in the animal produce and avoid consuming their products. However, it may not always be visible and we may be consuming and accumulating vast amounts of toxins in our body.

CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


2.1 INTRODUCTION: The research is all about analyzing and interpreting the influence of cell phones on youth. To carry out the studies, primary and secondary data needs to be collected.

Research methodology. Primary data collection. Secondary data collection.

Before carrying out these studies we need to understand that this research falls under the descriptive, analytical, qualitative and quantitative categories of research.

2.2 TYPE OF RESEARCH PROJECT:


This research is based on surveys and fact finding enquiries; hence it falls under the descriptive type of research. It involves analyzing and interpreting the influence of cell phones on youth using survey method hence it also falls under analytical type of research. This research mainly focuses on studying whether cell phones are influencing the youth in a positive or negative way hence it also falls under quantitative type of research.

2.3 TYPE OF DATA COLLECTED:


The research requires primary and secondary data before heading to further steps. The primary data was collected by analyzing youths views about cell phones and extent of its influence on them using certain parameters. The secondary data was collected by reviewing the literature from the related or similar researches that were carried out previously.

2.4 SAMPLING 2.4.1 POPULATION OF THE STUDY:


Youth population is the target of the research. Hence individuals falling under the age group of 18 to 22 years were selected as the research sample. A sample size of 100 individuals was considered for sampling. These 100 individuals included both male and female individuals.

2.4.2 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:


A suitable sampling technique was selected: Questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of different questions that helped us explore peoples views and beliefs about cell phone usage. To know the positive or negative impacts on their life, to understand the future technology of cell phones.

2.4.3 NATURE AND SIZE OF THE SAMPLE:


We have mainly targeted the youngsters i.e. of the age ranging from 18 to 22 years and the size of the sample is 100.

2.5 TYPES OF ANALYSIS:


In this research we have carried out both qualitative and quantitative data analysis. It is qualitative data analysis because we are analyzing in the descriptive method and as we are getting results in numerical form for analysis thus it is quantitative data analysis too.

2.6 LIMITATIONS: 1. The research work is carried out in short period of time. 2. Sample Size consider for this project is 100 respondents. 3. Sample Area considered for this project is NAVI MUMBAI. 4. Respondents are the students of Pillai College. 5. Research is limited to Pillai College. 6. Only Youth have been targeted here. 7. This research is done in the year 2012. The information given by the respondents might be biased as some of them might not be interested to give correct information.

CHAPTER 3 CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND

YOUTH:

Youth is generally the time of life between childhood and adulthood (maturity). Definitions of the specific age range that constitutes youth vary. An individual's actual maturity may not correspond to their chronological age, as immature individuals can exist at all ages. Youth is also defined as "the appearance, freshness, vigor, spirit, etc., characteristic of one who is young". Youth is a term used for people of both genders, male and female, of young age. The term "youth" is referred to individuals between the ages of 18-22 years.

CELL PHONE:

A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station.

SIM CARD:

A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM) is an integrated circuit that securely stores the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) and the related key used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers).

MEMORY CARD:

A memory card or flash card is an electronic flash memory data storage device used for storing digital information. They are commonly used in many electronic devices, including digital cameras, mobile phones, laptop computers, MP3 players and video game consoles. They are small, re-recordable, and able to retain data without power.

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND DATA INTERPRETATION

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS:


The primary data is collected through the method of questionnaire. The data was collected from 100 youths.

TABLE 4.1: - Do you own a mobile (i.e. cell-phone)? Options Yes No 100 respondents 97 3

GRAPH 4.1: -Do you own a mobile (i.e. cell-phone)?


No 3% Options 0%

Yes 97%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:When asked to youth, it was observed that 97% of the youth owns a mobile while only 3% of the youth do not own the cell phone.

TABLE 4.2: - How many handsets do you have? Option 1 2 More than 2 100 respondents 72 20 8

GRAPH 4.2: - How many handsets do you have?


More than 2 8% 2 20% Option 0%

1 72%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:When youths were asked about the number of handsets owned by them,72% had only one handset and two handsets holder are 20% while 8% of the youth owns more than 2 handsets.

TABLE 4.3 : - Currently you own aOptions Nokia Samsung i-phone Blackberry LG Sony experia Others GRAPH 4.3: - Currently you own aLG sony others 1% experia 7% 3% blackberr Nokia y 33% 10% i-phone 6% samsung 40%

100 respondents 33 40 6 10 1 3 7

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS: The above figure shows that Samsung company prevails in the market with 40% of the youth owners, 40% owns nokia, 10% of the youths owns blackberry handsets, 6% of youth owns i-phone, Sony experia handsets are owned by 3% of the youth, 1% of the youth own a LG handset while others handsets like micromax, HTC, Lava etc handsets are owned by 7% of the youth.

TABLE 4.4 : - What is the important reason for purchasing the cell phone? Options convenience easily accessible no landline others 100 respondents 67 27 2 4

GRAPH 4.4: - What is the important reason for purchasing the cell phone?
no landline others 2% 4% Options 0%

easily accessible 27% convinience 67%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:-The main purpose for purchasing the cell phone when asked, 67% of the youth thinks cell phones are convenient to call from anywhere,27% thinks mobiles are easily accessible,2% did not have landline so preferred mobile while other reasons were to stay connected with their dear ones etc are 4%.

TABLE 4.5 : - At what age you started using cell phone? Options before 15 yrs 16-18 yrs above 18 yrs 100 respondents 19 60 21

GRAPH 4.5: - At what age you started using cell phone?


Options 0% before above 18 15 yrs yrs 19% 21%

16-18 yrs 60%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The above figure states the age during which youths started using cell phones, 60% of the youth started using cell phone during 16-18 years, 21% of the youth started using cell phones above 18 years of age while 19% of the youth started using mobile before 15 years of age.

TABLE 4.6 : - Is your mobile phone always on? Options Yes No 100 respondents 87 13

GRAPH 4.6: - Is your mobile phone always on?


Options 0% No 13%

Yes 87%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:To understand whether youth always keep their cell phone on or off ,87% of the youth never keeps their mobile off while 13% of the youth prefers to keep their cell phone off in the places like library, worship places, colleges during lectures,while sleeping and in banks or offices where cell phones are not allowed

TABLE 4.7: - When your cell phone rings do you answer? Options Every call selected calls 100 respondents 54 46

GRAPH 4.7- When your cell phone rings do you answer?


Options 0%

selected calls 46%

Every call 54%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:When asked when the cell phone rings do they pick up every or selective calls, 54% were okay accepting every calls while only 46% of youth attend selective calls of their known numbers. Usually they avoid service calls from service providers which occurs disturbance to them.

TABLE 4.8 : - Generally you use the mobile phone forOptions call frnds call home commercial purpose all the above 100 respondents 48 26 12 14

GRAPH 4.8- Generally you use the mobile phone forall the above 14% commercial purpose 12% call home 26% Options 0%

call frnds 48%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The above figure shows that youth generally use their cell phones for-48% of youth use it for calling friends, 26% for calling home whenever they are out, 12% used for commercial purposes while 14% used cell phones for all the above purposes.

TABLE 4.9 : - The most common place you use your cell phone areOptions at home on bus stand/railway station in stores college/work all the above 100 respondents 28 9 7 43 13

GRAPH 4.9- The most common place you use your cell phone areOptions 0% all the above 13%

at home 28% on bus stand/railway station 9% in stores 7%

college/work 43%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The above figure shows the most common places where cell phones are used,43% of the youth used cell phones in college or at work place,28% in home only,9% on bus stand/railway station,7% uses cell phones in stores while shopping and 13% of the youth uses cell phones for all the above purposes.

TABLE 4.10 : - How frequently do you use your cell phone? Options less than 1hr 1-3 hrs 3-5 hrs more than 5 hrs 100 respondents 22 22 19 37

GRAPH 4.10- How frequently do you use your cell phone?


Options 0% more than 5 hrs 37% 3-5 hrs 19% 1-3 hrs 22% less than 1hr 22%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:To study the usage time of using cell phones above diagram helps. 37% of the youth uses cell phone for more than 5 hrs, 19% uses for 3-5hrs,22% uses for 1-3 hrs and 22% uses for less than 1 hr.

TABLE 4.11 : - For what purpose you use your cell phone? Options Calls Send Messages Send Pictures Playing Games Browsing All The Above 100 Respondents 42 19 3 4 4 28

GRAPH 4.11:- For what purpose you use your cell phone?
Options 0% all the above 28% browsing 4% playing games send pictures 4% 3% send messages 19% calls 42%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The above diagram represents the main purpose for the usage of cell phones by youth.42% uses cell phone for making calls,19% for sending messages,4% for playing games,4% for sending pictures and 3% for browsing while 28% of the youth uses mobile for all the purposes.

TABLE 4.12 : - Do you have password to your cell phone? Options Yes No 100 Respondents 64 36

GRAPH 4.12 :- Do you have password to your cell phone?


options 0% No 36%

yes 64%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The above pie diagram shows that how private do youth thinks the information stored in the cell phone so that password service is utilized by them.64% uses the password facility on their cell phone while 36% of the youth do not consider any private content in the cell phone for which they do not use password facility on their cell phone.

TABLE 4.13 : - Do you have internet connections on your cell phone?

Options

100 Respondents

Yes

67

No

33

GRAPH 4.13 :- Do you have internet connections on your cell phone?


Options 0% No 33%

Yes 67%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The latest technology in the market of cell phones makes the internet connections accessible through cell phones hence the above diagram shows the youths having internet accessibility are 67% while 33% do not use this facility.

TABLE 4.14 : - the purpose for using internet on cell phones

Options downloading news updates education adultery sites all the above

100 respondents 35 13 12 4 12

GRAPH 4.14 :- the purpose for using internet on cell phones


Options 0% adultery sites 5% all the above 16% downloading education 46% 16% news updates 17%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The internet can be used for many purposes but to know whether the youths use the cell phones for any specific purpose, above pie diagram is used 46% of the youth use it for downloading like pictures, songs, videos etc, 17% used for news updates 16% uses for educational purpose and 5% for adultery sites only while 5% of the youth uses it for all the above purposes.

TABLE 4.15 : - Do you use your mobile phone while driving? Options never rarely sometimes always 100 respondents 65 22 13 0

GRAPH 4.15 :- Do you use your mobile phone while driving?


sometimes 13% always 0% Options 0%

rarely 22% never 65%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The above pie diagram shows the cell phones are also used while driving by some youth.65% of the youth never uses cell phones while driving ,22% uses rarely and 13% of the youth uses it sometimes while no one use cell phone always while driving. The new Bluetooth option for making calls while driving from cell phone is used by some youth as a very good option.

TABLE 4.16 : - Do you think there are any medical side effects of using a mobile?

Options

100 respondents

Yes

62

No

38

GRAPH 4.16 :- Do you think there are any medical side effects of using a mobile?
Options 0% No 38% Yes 62%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The question has been asked ,are there any medical side effects of cell phones on youth.62% of the youth thinks that cell phones have medical side effects on human cells while 38% do not think that cell phones have any side affects on health.

TABLE 4.17 : - Do you use cell phone while crossing the road? Options Yes No 100 respondents 31 69

GRAPH 4.17 :- Do you use cell phone while crossing the road?
Options 0% Yes 31%

No 69%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:Its really dangerous using cell phones while crossing the road, 69% of the youth do not use their cell phones while crossing the road, while 31% which forms a larger group who uses their cell phones while crossing the road.

TABLE 4.18 : - Do you use your cell phones while eating? Options Yes No GRAPH 4.18 :- Do you use your cell phones while eating?
Options 0% No 35%

100 respondents 65 35

Yes 65%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The above pie diagram shows whether the cell phones are used while eating by youth, 65% of the youth uses cell phones while eating while only 35% do not use their cell phones while eating.

TABLE 4.19 : - Do you use memory card for your cell phone? Options Yes No GRAPH 4.19 :- Do you use memory card for your cell phone?
Options 0% No 11%

100 Respondents 89 11

Yes 89%

s Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:Cell phones are a good memory storing device which can be carried anywhere for clicking snaps,videos etc and creating wonderful memories out of it. To stores this information memory card is used,the above diagram shows the use of card,89% of the youth uses memory card in their cell phones and 11% do not use memory card

TABLE 4.20 : -the main purpose of having memory card Options Pictures Songs Videos Games All The Above 100 Respondents 20 21 9 9 41

GRAPH 4.20 :- the main purpose of having memory card


Options 0% pictures 20% all the above 41% songs 21%

games 9%

videos 9%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The memory card can be used for various purposes, this diagram shows the main purpose for use of memory card.20% of the youth uses memory card for saving pictures,21% of the youth for saving songs,9% for videos and games respectively while 41% uses it for all above purposes.

TABLE 4.21 : - According to you, the best part of having a cell phone isOptions its stylish makes life easier safety all the above 100 respondents 10 60 15 15

GRAPH 4.21 :- According to you, the best part of having a cell phone isall the above 15% safety 15% Options its stylish 0% 10%

makes life easier 60%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:This question was asked to know the best part of having a cell phone according to youth 60% considered it makes our day to day life easier.10% considers its stylish to have a cell phone as an accessory and not a necessity.15% considered carrying cell phone for safety reasons, while 15% were considering all the above reasons.

TABLE 4.22 : - Do you think cell phones can be used for safety purposes? Options Yes No 100 Respondents 92 8

GRAPH 4.22 :- Do you think cell phones can be used for safety purposes?
Options 0% No 8%

Yes 92%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:Cell phones are used for safety measures,the above diagram shows that 92% of the youth uses cell phones for safety purposes while only 8% do not think of using cell phone for safety purpose.

TABLE 4.23 : - Are you aware of the latest models (or handsets) available in the mobile market? Options Yes No 100 Respondents 60 40

GRAPH 4.23 :- Are you aware of the latest models (or handsets) available in the mobile market?
Options 0%

No 40%

Yes 60%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:The market analysis for the future market of the cell phones above question was asked. 60% of the youth were totally aware about the latest handsets.40% of the youth were not aware about the latest models. The latest models which youth are looking forward to buy apple iphone5, Samsung galaxy note II, Samsung SIII, new models of Sony experia.

TABLE 4.24 : - Are you addicted to your cell phone? Options Yes No 100 Respondents 54 47

GRAPH 4.2 4:- Are you addicted to your cell phone?


Options 0% No 47%

Yes 53%

Source: Primary Data (Collected using Questionnaire method)

INTERPRETATIONS:Cell phone addiction is prevailing among youngsters a lot .53% of the youth are addicted to their cell phones while 47% of them are not.

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION
In conclusion, a wide variety of information about the characteristics and trends of the youth market for mobile phones has been compiled. Both through extensive secondary research and through the execution of an independent survey on a small sample of 18-22 years old individuals in their respective phases of high school, undergraduate and/or graduate education. By and large, the differences between the genders and their perceptions appear to reflect something of a waning trend amidst this new generation of technology adopters. The youths perception towards usage of cell phones has been researched in this paper. The different age groups have different perspectives about the cell phone usage. The addiction of cell phone among youth is growing a lot. The different mobile accessories are used by most of the youth. Cell phones usage while driving or crossing the road is prevailing among youngsters. The prevalence of playing games on mobile phones in this sample is surprising. It is important that the key characteristics of mobile technology be well understood so that the risks associated with its potentially damaging or disruptive aspects can be mitigated.

Moving beyond market size and forecasts into the realm of exploring patterns of usage and the multi-faceted impact of mobile technology on teenage social behavior comprises an integral part of this objective. The mobile phone has impacted on young peoples peer groups enabling a truly networked society. It has also impacted on the evolving relationships within the family; especially by the increased negotiating power the mobile phone gives to young people in regard to curfews and safety issues.

CHAPTER 6: SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:


Everyone enjoys talking on cell phones, but prolonged use can be very hazardous to our health and well-being. Therefore, we should be looking at this pressing issue, since an increasing number of people are now being affected. In fact, in some developed countries, the mobile phone penetration rate even exceeds 100%. This can lead to serious problems if no attempt is made to rationalize cell phone usage.

1. Minimize Cell Phone Usage.


When in range of telephones, cell phones should be turned off. If there is a risk of overusing switching to prepaid card is a great option.

2. Minimize Radiation Exposure.


Cell phones should be used to make essential calls and keep them short. Younger children should not be allowed to use cell phones that much because they are most at risk. Avoid using cell phones in enclosed metal spaces such as elevators. Avoid wired headsets. Keep your cell phone away from your head when your call is connection. Avoid using your cell phone if the signal strength is down to a bar or less. When purchasing a cell phone, choose one with a low SAR (Specific Absorption Rate). Cell phone should be kept out when are on and switched on.

3. Be Careful on the Road


Try to use a hands-free accessory. Still the conversation itself will distract you, so only make calls when the vehicle is stationary. Hold your phone at eye level to give yourself a clear view of the road. Never read or write text messages while driving. Making sure that phone is within easy reach while driving. Avoid even looking at phone while driving. Be cautious while pulling over to make or receive calls.

4. Watch how you are spending.


Wait for at least 2 years before you change your cell phone, or as and when your plan expires. Youths, like you, probably do not require cell phones with the latest technologies. Watch out for hidden costs when downloading applications such as games, wallpapers and ringtones. Delete those games or ringtones which are no longer in use. You can easily get your own ringtone off your playlist. Unsubscribe to services that are not required such as roaming or road assistance. Scrutinize and affirm that the phone bill is accurate and that no extra have been charged.

5. Go Green!
Recycle the phone. Collective Good or the Charitable Recycling program is a good place to start. Charge the phone only when the battery has been depleted and not every night. Reduce your phone's backlight to minimize battery usage. Consider using a solar power charger.

ANNEXURES
Name: - ______________________, Age: - ____yrs. Gender: - ________

1. Do you own a mobile (i.e. cell-phone)? Yes No 2. How many handsets do you have? One Two More than two 3. Currently you own a Nokia Samsung I-phone Blackberry LG Sony Ericson Any other (please specify) _______________

4. What is the important reason for purchasing the cell phone? Convenient to call from anywhere Easily accessible (to other people) No landline so preferred mobile Any other please specify ____________

5. At what age you started using cell phone? Before 15 years 16-18 years Above 18 years

6. Is your mobile phone always on? Yes No 7. When your cell phone rings do you answer? Every call Only selective calls 8. Generally you use the mobile phone for Calling your friends Calling home whenever you are out Commercial purpose 9. The most common place you use your cell phone are At home only On bus stand/railway station In stores while shopping In college/at work.

10. How frequently do you use your cell phone? Less than 1 hr 1-3 hrs 3-5 hrs More than 5 hrs

11. For what purpose you use your cell phone? Making calls Sending text messages Sending picture messages Playing games Browsing

12. Do you have password to your cell phone? Yes No 13. Do you have internet connections on your cell phone? Yes No If yes,for what purpose, o Downloading o News updates o Educational purpose o Adultery site 14. Do you use your mobile phone while driving? Never Rarely Sometimes Always

15. Do you think there are any medical side effects of using a mobile? Yes No 16. Do you use cell phone while crossing the road? Yes No 17. Do you use your cell phones while eating? Yes No

18. Do you use memory card for your cell phone? Yes No If yes, for what purposes, o Pictures o Songs o Videos o Games 19. According to you, the best part of having a cell phone is It is stylish It makes your life easier You feel safer 20. Do you cell phones can be used for safety purposes? Yes No 21. Are you aware of the latest models (or handsets) available in the mobile market? Yes No If yes (please specify atleast three of them) i) ii) iii) 22. Are you addicted to your cell phone? Yes No

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
The following books helped me to complete my project: New media technology: New direction for youth development The mobile connection: The cell phones impact on society Advancing responsible adolescent development: Digital youth, the role of development in youth

WIBLIOGRAPHY:
The following sites helped me to complete my project: www.google.com www.itu.gov.in www.wikepedia.com