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IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION SOCIAL AND CULTURAL VALUES IN INDIA

INTRODUCTION People around the globe are more connected to each other today than ever before in the history of mankind. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace. We live in an intensely interdependent world in which all the earths peoples with their immense differences of culture and historical experience are compressed together in instant communication. This phenomenon has been titled Globalization. The Era of Globalization is fast becoming the preferred term for describing the current times. Globalization describes the political, economic, and cultural atmosphere of today. The forces that allow businesses to operate as if national borders did not exist also allow social activists, labour organizers, journalists, academics, international terrorists and many others to work on a global stage.

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The discourse regarding the effects of globalization on cultural diversity is a challenging debate. The advancement of technology dissolves international boundaries and opens cultures to a whole new arena (Smith, 2000), enabling globalization to occur. Globalization can be an empowering entity. It can interconnect the world, support economic development, provide information availability and assist in developing a global village (Moahi, 2007). There is a paradoxical dichotomy, a tangible undercurrent, when it comes to globalization and cultural diversity. On one hand, globalization has the potential to mobilize and empower people, provide a means for self-representation, support a collective identity through socialization and provide employment opportunities. On the other hand, it has the ability to disempower people by misrepresentation, provide a process for further colonization, and propel the loss of individualism and self and group identity. Political theorist Fredric Jameson presents this as two competing future visions: one of a corporate-dominated monoculture where nations and cultural groups alike are deprived of autonomy and identity; and another of a vibrant celebration of pluralism, in which various cultural groups are in direct and harmonious contact with one another, free from limiting political forces such as national governments (1998). Influences Globalization provides both positive and negative influences on cultural diversity which can have far reaching impacts.

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Negative Influences
Due to the unprecedented access to cultures, a much wider audience than ever before has a gateway to see, hear and experiencephenomena that were never accessible previously (Smith, 2000). Misrepresentation, stereotyping and the risk of loss of cultural and intellectual property rights are the consequences of unmonitored access. There are a number of negative impacts globalization has had on cultural diversity, including the influence multinational corporations have on promoting a consumer culture, exploitation of workers and markets and influencing societal values. This increased availability of commercial media and products can "drown out" local cultural influences. Loss of individualism and group identity occur when globalization encourages a 'Western ideal of individualism'. This promotes a homogeneous set of values and beliefs. The adoption of Western Culture and ideologies is seen as many computer-mediated technologies are developed, marketed and processed via western markets. The dominant population and culture of the day determine the next greatest technology along with the next commercialized gadget that will be offered up to the masses and longed for by those who are at arms reach of financially obtaining these devices. Kanuka (2008) also cites that e-learning technologies perpetuates colonization by designing curriculum that mimics the cognitive styles of the dominant culture. Not having access to technologies that are present in the classroom, combined with an education system geared toward the dominant society can be a lethal combination for non-dominant cultures. The present education, legal and power structures reflect western ideas and philosophies. These western ideas are easily assimilated into other cultures and paradigms with far reaching effects. There is an assumption that the values and ideologies of the "Global North" will provide a suitable framework for the new knowledge economies of the developing "Global South" (Youngman, 2000). Globalization allows further colonization which impacts intellectual property and cultural rights. Global access to information has opened the gateway to acquiring cultural property and information. Many view that if it is out there it is free for the taking, which includes cultural signs, songs, dance, rituals and other cultural artifacts. These icons of a culture are viewed as a living heritage and are an integral part of identity (Smith, 2000). Using images, reselling them and mis-representing these rights are considered property theft and a heinous crime against communities. It is difficult to monitor or control
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what is out on the Internet and therefore difficult to prevent and prosecute appropriately.

Positive Influences
The technological global mecca can be empowering for various cultures as it allows self-representation and information sharing on a whole new level. Technology provides a medium where depiction of images and portrayals of self-identity can provide the means in which truism can be established. Global media centres allow cultures a distinctive voice to promote awareness and provide public knowledge and understanding of their stories and identities. It also allows for the communication of their relevant accounts and commentaries on issues that are important in preserving the culture and knowledge acquisition of cultural ways - allowing them to retain their diversity. Being in charge of their own media production companies allows control of their artifacts, signs and symbols that are regarded as cultural property. When cultures are in control of their own public images they are better equipped to manage and represent their images appropriately without misrepresentation. Instead of destroying some cultures, as others predicted, mass media assists in the revitalizing and restoring of cultural preservation of nations (Ginsburg, 2002). Technology can be used to preserve language, customs and culture. Technology allows for self-representation and preservation of personal and collective identity by providing autonomy and empowerment. Global technology has provided the opportunity to redefine collective identity along with identifying a place for distinctive cultures. Global social, political and economic networks, combined with common goals, will no doubt enable the emerging empowerment among cultural peoples (Smith, 2000). This is far more advantageous than individual communities or groups coming forward to raise global or local concerns. Global positioning of cultural groups allows social and political power that has previously not been seen. A major part of these revolutions can be attributed to social networking and information exchanges made possible by networking platforms like Facebook and Twitter. These avenues provide information sharing on a whole new level.

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Utilizing global networking provides the opportunity to problem-solve and strategize with other cultures that are experiencing similar challenges in acclimatizing to technological change. It can become a platform to mobilize ideas, viewpoints, campaigns and strategies to protect and cultivate interests and garner political power. Global technology can become a stage for public support and public awareness leading to public acceptance. Relationships are a key component of communities and communication technology thereby provides the ability to foster and strengthen relationships over the miles, creating what is commonly known as a global village. These efforts allow cultures to remain intact. Global awareness provides many benefits, including a spotlight on government policies, access to education, living conditions, and injustices, which promotes economic pressure from foreign countries to promote national change. Cultural awareness leads to empathy, understanding and tolerance, while global markets can lead to employment, economic and educational opportunities. The positive side of this discussion recognizes that in the history of mankind, there have been many periods of time when greater communication between cultures has lead to a flowering of creativity. Periclean Athens and Renaissance Italy are cited as prime examples. Diversity has become valued internationally, and is promoted through international organizations. This discourse views the homogenization of societies as necessary to create a greater niche diversity (TWBG, 2004). Knowledge Community Globalization has privatized and commercialized knowledge forcing a knowledge community to develop (Moahi, 2007). A Knowledge Community is a driving force when it comes to national and international political, social and economic development. Therefore contributions to this global economy cannot be underestimated. Cultural groups have provided input into this knowledge community; however, the dominant cultures will generally prevail. Smith (2000) believes that globalization began in the West, and therefore it is their ideas, ideologies, values, and lifestyles that are promoted and evangelized throughout the rest of the world. Therefore the dominant culture tends to supersede all others. The global good is taken into account, as long as the global that is being referred to means the dominant culture. This creates what is known as a mono-culture one ideology, one culture and a homogeneous
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pool where society resides (Smith, 2000). Technology which is not deemed to be culturally neutral, promotes the ideals, ethics and standards trumpeted by the dominant society. This provides finger-tip access to a range of cultures, however, also dissolves cultures into single supermarket brands(Daes, 2004). Those cultures and countries that cannot compete on a global level are left in the dust of the churning harvester of technology created by first-world countries. Developing countries do not contribute to technology and information building and sharing as compared to developed countries. Therefore, the ones who have the knowledge have the political power, and therefore the dominant ideologies. Their thoughts and belief patterns are perpetuated throughout society, enabling those who think alike, while crushing those that do not. For technology to level the playing field equal access and equal opportunities must abound in a technological society that is both gender and culturally neutral.

Impact on Education
Globalization has impacted education which is now available to remote cultures that previously did not have access. This has opened the doors to not only educational opportunities, but global employment opportunities as well. The advent of the notion of global citizens and the well-educated workforce of the emerging globalized system has shifted educational priorities and created upheaval in traditional styles of education also known as direct instruction. Furthermore, as countries recognize the immediacy of globalization, some have begun to establish guidelines to enshrine their own cultural diversity within an educational framework that meets the requirements of emerging globalization trends. Globalization has also contributed to an increasing interest in English-language education worldwide. In response to the emergence of English as a worldlinking, global language, an increasing number of schools have stepped up Englishlanguage requirements, even at undergraduate levels. The argument is that a universal teaching language is necessary as a natural consequence of globalization. An example of the negative impact of globalization on education is Nigeria, where a plethora of local languages adds complexity to the task of educating citizens. This means that to maintain cultural diversity, allowances must be made for the multitude of local languages. The corresponding situation in Germany or China is much different there universities are purposing complete

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courses in English that incorporate and encourage market mechanisms (Braslavsky, 2003). Impact on Indigenous Cultures As a result of globalization, many indigenous groups are being more widely exploited through the tourism industry. The increasing ease of access to these cultures by Western tourists allows for a greater interaction between the two which is not necessarily equal. Western tourists often view indigenous groups as quaint relics of the past that they can observe and report back on to their friends at home. Inevitably there is the acquisition of souvenirs which Western tourists put on display as examples of the primitive encounter they have returned from. Even though there is interest in the culture of these indigenous groups, there is rarely a sense of equality. The tourist often sees themselves as superior and worthy of being served. The countries in which this type of tourism occurs (ie. many African nations) often alter their policies to encourage the influx of tourist dollars to their countries. Many indigenous groups are moved from their traditional territories in order to allow the Western tourist the greatest possible Safari experience. The efforts of Western conservation organizations have convinced many African nations to alter their conservation policies to the point where there is a direct impact on the abilities of indigenous groups to continue providing for their people in their traditional ways. A positive spin off is the greater opportunity for employment in the service industry for locals. Again, though, this tends to perpetuate the inequity in status between the tourist and the local employee. As well, the main economic beneficiaries of the tourism industry in these nations are not necessarily the local indigenous workers but the wealthy elite. Even the displays of cultural practices (ie. dances) may not be accurate reflections of traditions as they may be altered for the entertainment of the tourists. Also, this use of tradition for entertainment simply commercializes the local culture to the point where its significance may be compromised. One of the main segments of indigenous society that are specifically targeted by multinational corporations are the young. Adolescents are far more susceptible to targeted consumerism and, as a result, may find that western consumer ideals may be more appealing to them than their own cultural traditions. They are easier to convert because their personal identity is not as set as that of an adult in their community. With this comes an erosion of cultural hierarchy as the
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sense of identity becomes more of a personal, individual choice, rather than a societal one. Many indigenous see globalization as a threat to the traditional family structure, creating a disconnect from cultural traditions. Multinational corporations view indigenous land as a valuable commodity to be bought, sold, and exploited. This has had a great impact on local environments as traditional land use is being pushed aside in favour of specific uses designed to maximize the profits for larger entities. This conflicts with the view held by many indigenous groups that the land is the anchor that connects them to their culture. This exploitation has pushed many indigenous groups even further to the margins of society. The fear for many indigenous groups is that this global pressure on their culture is only going to lead to the erosion of their traditional values to the point that the diversity of culture in the world will be slowly whittled away to the point that there will be only one large homogeneous culture world wide. The consumeristic nature of globalization is often contrary to traditional indigenous values. Globalization does not take into consideration cultural and socioeconomic circumstances. Instead, it looks to further the interests of the larger, more influential countries and corporations which are the impetus behind its spread.

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Globalization: A Preliminary Definition An unprecedented compression of time and space reflected in the tremendous intensification of social, political, economic, and cultural interconnections and interdependencies on a global scale. Stegler, p. ix

Globalisation is a complex series of economic, social, technological, cultural, and political changes seen as increasing, integration, and interaction between people and companies in disparate locations.

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CULTURE

Culture is defined as patterns of human activity and the symbols that give these activities significance. Culture is what people eat, how they dress, beliefs they hold, and activities they practice. Globalization has joined different cultures and made it into something different. When cultures receive outside influences, they ignore some and adopt others, and then almost immediately start to transform them.

Definition Culture of civilization is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, cult, morals, law, custom, and other capabilities and habits acquired by a man as a member of society. - E.B.Taylor

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INDIAN CULTURE Indian culture which in effect means Hindu culture, Hindu religion, Hindu society, Hindu civilization, and Hindu way of life are under the lethal threat of the ruthless forces of Globalization today. What went by the name of Colonialism in classical history textbooks produced in the days of British Raj has been replaced today by the synonym of Globalization. The unbridled expansion of western culture has continued at an accelerated rate along with the denigration and decline of Hindu culture, civilization, religion, art, literature and customs. This new Colonialism has taken on several new faces or rather put on new masks. It cleverly masquerade itself through labels and slogans like democracy, humanitarian rights, gender equality, internationalism, free trade and humanitarianism. In the name of modernization and Globalization it pretends to be uplifting peoples whom it is really exploiting. This is not very different in either kind or intent from old Western Colonialism British Imperialism in the Indian context which vaunted itself as the benign bringer of Civilization and culture to the uncivilized world. It was given the glorious title of 'White Man's Burden'. The Culture of India has been shaped by its long history, unique geography, diverse demographics and the absorption of customs, traditions and ideas from some of its neighbours as w its ancient heritages, which were formed during the Indus Valley Civilization and evolved further during the Vedic age, rise and decline of Buddhism, Golden age, Muslim conquests and European colonization. India's great diversity of religious practices, languages, customs, and traditions are examples of this unique co-mingling over the past five millennia. The various religions and traditions of India that were created by these amalgamations have influenced other parts of the world too.
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IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF INDIAN CULTURE

Due to economic liberalization and globalization, the world has become a global village. There is increasing interaction between people of different countries. As a result food habits, dress habits, lifestyle and views are being internationalized. The influence of globalization on such aspects are analysed under the following heads RELIGION India is the birth place of Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Dharmic religions, also known as Indian religions, are a major form of world religions next to the Abrahamic ones. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of most of its people. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life, atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self-ascribed tolerance to other faiths. Impact Along with Christian religion came the rest of British or Western culture, thought and customs and the gradual end of traditional ways of life. Thus our traditional religions and cultures were gradually subverted or eliminated. The new Indian converts to Christianity were encouraged not only to give up their religion but their culture, which often had religious or spiritual implications as well. A good Indian Christian convert would dress like an Englishman and emulate English manners in all things. Thus in India the Hindus who converted to Christianity were encouraged to think, behave and live like Englishmen.

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SOCIETY The traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social

hierarchy. From an early age, children are reminded of their roles and places in society. Several differences such as religion divide culture. However, far more powerful division is the traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations. Strict social taboos have governed these groups for thousands of years. Among developing countries, India has low levels of occupational and geographic mobility. People choose same occupations as their parents and rarely move geographically in the society. Family: India for ages has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. Arranged marriages have the tradition in Indian society for centuries. Overwhelming majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family-members, with the consent of the bride and groom. Although women and men are equal before the law and the trend toward gender equality has been noticeable, women and men still occupy distinct functions in Indian society. Woman's role in the society is often to perform household works and pro bono community work. Greeting: Namaste, Namaskar or Namaskaram is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. When spoken to another person, it is commonly accompanied by a slight bow made with hands pressed together, palms touching and fingers pointed upwards, in front of the chest.

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Festivals: India, being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society, celebrates

holidays and festivals of various religions. The 3 National holidays in India, are the Independence Day, the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti, Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals of Diwali, Durga puja, Holi, Rakshabandhan, Dussehra, Ramzaan etc.

Impact 1. Nuclear families are emerging. 2. Divorce rates are rising day by day. 3. Men and women are gaining equal right to education, to earn, and to speak. 4. Hi, Hello is used to greet people in spite of Namaskar and Namaste. 5. American festivals like Valentines day, Friendship day etc. are spreading across India.

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CUISINE

The multiple families of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many spices and herbs. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian, many traditional Indian dishes also include chicken, goat, lamb, fish, and other meats. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history, such as the Persians, Mughals, and European colonists. Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia, Indian tandoori dishes, such as chicken tikka made with Indian ingredients, enjoy widespread popularity. Impact Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Pizzas, burgers, Chinese foods and other Western foods have become quite popular.

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CLOTHING Traditional Indian clothing for women are the saris and also Ghaghra

Cholis For men, traditional clothes are the Dhoti, Kurta. In southern India men wear long, white sheets of cloth called dhoti with shirts. Women wear a sari draped over a simple or fancy blouse. This is worn by young ladies and woman. Little girls wear a pavada. Traditionally, the red bindi (or sindhur) was worn only by the married Hindu women, but now it has become a part of women's fashion. Impact Indo-western clothing, the fusion of Western and Sub continental fashion is in trend. Wearing jeans, t-shirts, mini skirts have become common among Indian girls.

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PERFORMING ARTS

Music The music of India includes multiples varieties of religious, folk, popular,

pop, and classical music. India's classical music includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. It remains instrumental to the religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. Dance Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Bharatanatyam, kathak, kathakali mohiniattam, kuchipudi, odissi are popular dance forms in India. Kalarippayattu or Kalari for short is considered one of the world's oldest martial art. There have been many great practitioners of Indian martial Arts including Bodhidharma who supposedly brought Indian martial arts to China. Impact 1. 2. 3. Indian Classical music has gained worldwide recognition. Western music is becoming very popular in our country. Fusing Indian music along with western music is encouraged among musicians. 4. 5. 6. More Indian dance shows are held globally. The number of foreigners who are eager to learn Bharatanatyam is rising. Western dance forms such as Jazz, Hip hop, Salsa, Balley have become among Indian youngsters.

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OTHER CHANGES IN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL LIFE

Access to television grew from 10% of the urban population (1991) to 75% of the urban population (1999).

Cable television and foreign movies became widely available for the first time and have acted as a catalyst in bulldozing the cultural boundaries.

All these technologies have changed perceptions and dreams of ordinary people.

Unmarried boys and girls are sharing same apartment and staying away from their parents.

Indian youths leaving education in mid-way and joining MNC's There has been a increase in the violence, particularly against women. Scientific and technological innovations have made life quite comfortable, fast and enjoyable.

More availability of cheap and filthy material (CD's or DVD's of Hollywood movies, porn movies, sex toys, foreign channels like MTV) in the name of liberalization.

In India, land-line or basic phone was a prestige symbol few years back but now you find people riding bicycle with a mobile in hand, talking or listening music or even clicking cameras of their phones targeting pretty girls or ladies.

Society has become more open compared to its earlier conservative look due to exposure to other cultures through DTH or cable network.

This has contributed to dating, celebration of friendship days/valentine day, and resulted to rising number of call girls and makes them more prone to sexually transmitted diseases.

People are less worried for government jobs as MNC's and private or public sector are offering more lucrative jobs.

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People are more wary of the world events and have a direct opportunity to participate in world politics and economy. As a result of this, a new middle class has emerged. This class is a fusion of Indian and western value system. It is unique and characteristic of globalization.

Extension of internet facilities even to rural areas. In place of old cinema halls, multiplex theatre is coming up. Old restaurants are now replaced by Mc. Donalds. Fast food and Chinese dishes have replaced juice corners and Parathas.

More inflow of money has aggravated deep rooted problem of corruption? More scandals and scams compared to pre-globalization era. Girls being blackmailed by their ex-boy friends using MMS Ban on TV channels for showing sex and violence violating all norms Girls being raped in moving vehicles There is deterioration in social values as evident from less respect for ladies and older people. Cultural - growth of cross-cultural contacts; advent of new categories of

consciousness and identities which embodies cultural diffusion, the desire to increase one's standard of living and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices, and participate in a "world culture". Some bemoan the resulting consumerism and loss of languages. Also see Transformation of culture.
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Spreading of multiculturalism, and better individual access to cultural diversity (e.g. through the export of Hollywood and Bollywood movies). Some consider such "imported" culture a danger, since it may supplant the local culture, causing reduction in diversity or even assimilation. Others consider multiculturalism to promote peace and understanding between peoples.

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Greater international travel and tourism. WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time.

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Greater immigration, including illegal immigration. Spread of local consumer products (e.g., food) to other countries (often adapted to their culture).

Worldwide fads and pop culture such as Pokmon, Sudoku, Numa Numa, Origami, Idol series, YouTube, Orkut, Facebook, and MySpace. Accessible to those who have Internet or Television, leaving out a substantial segment of the Earth's population.

Americans did not meditate or practice yoga. After globalization, this is more common. Some people are even traveling to India to get the full experience themselves.

Another common practice brought about by globalization is Chinese symbol tattoos. These tattoos are popular with todays younger generation despite the fact that, in China, tattoos are not thought of as cool. Also, the Westerners who get these tattoos often don't know what they mean, making this an example of cultural appropriation.

The Internet is associated with the process of cultural globalization because it allows interaction and communication between people with very different lifestyles and from very different cultures. Photo sharing websites allow interaction even where language would otherwise be a barrier.

Worldwide sporting events such as FIFA World Cup and the Olympic Games.

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THE HUMAN EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION


Pratt & Whitney's International Aerospace Tubes (IAT) plant in Indianapolis is getting prepared for a big shift to Singapore. Some other companies like Whirlpool and Evansville are also moving to Mexico by mid2010. The advantages of a "global" economy for the companies seem to be a disadvantage for "local" citizens and workers. Over 100 Pratt and Whitney IAT employees will lose their jobs and domestic companies relying on IAT will have to look for new suppliers.

The impact of globalization on local culture and the changing role of the nation-state can be examined by observing the particularities of the social and cultural patterns and their local, national and transnational manifestations in India. These social and cultural realities have a plural character in terms of language, geography, ethnicity, religion and culture. With partial exception of the tribal population, the caste system and its related kinship structures have shaped the profile of the culture, economy and power-structures within the local communities and regions. A recent all-India survey of the communities, conducted by the Anthropological Survey of India, gives us an insight into the plurality of the caste-community structures and their cultural and sociaeconomic diversities. The basic category in this survey is 'community' which is conceptually used as "in ethnography, which is marked by endogamy, occupation and perception" (Singh, 1992). The term 'community' as used in the survey resembles the concept of caste-tribe, though it is not exhaustive of all their features. It's findings illustrate how the local cultures and their particularities do not infringe upon establishing linkages between the local culture and the national culture and consciousness in India.

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In the Colonial Era (1700-1875), British colonial expansion worked through military, economic, and religious methods. Military force was the primary and initial method. This was little more than organized banditry, stealing the gold, jewels and other treasures of India. Economic exploitation went hand in hand with the military conquest. Later it stooped so low in its methods as to get involved even with the drug and narcotic trades. Later economic exploitation developed into a fine art resulting in the exercise of total control over the natural resources and controlling the economy of India for long term gains. Religion provided the needed rationale for this cruel plunder. All native Hindus were dismissed as heathens or pagans; despicable creatures who don't have to be treated like human beings till they take their fateful decision to embrace Christianity. According to the missionaries who came to India to play second fiddle to the British Imperial rulers, Christianity was the only true religion. Jesus Christ was the only true God. All other religions like Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and many other traditional faiths and religions in India had to be eliminated to save the souls of India and Indians. All facets and all aspects of Indian religion and society were dismissed as idolatry and superstition, in order to advance the noble Christian pursuit of salvation for the barbarous heathens of India.

Along with Christian religion came the rest of British or Western culture, thought and customs and the gradual end of traditional ways of life. Thus our traditional religions and cultures were gradually subverted or eliminated. The new Indian converts to Christianity were encouraged not only to give up their religion but their culture, which often had religious or spiritual implications as well. A good Indian Christian convert would dress like an Englishman and emulate English manners in all things. Thus in India the Hindus converted by the British to Christianity were encouraged to think, behave and live like
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Englishmen. This is what I call Macaulay-ism. This term derives from Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859) who was a Member of the Governor General's Council in Calcutta in the 1830s. He introduced the English system of education to produce Brown Sahibs who were to be English in taste and temperament.

After the outward display and establishment of the forces of Colonialism, came an intellectual form that was less overt but more dangerous and explosively insidious. The British rulers attempted to colonize our minds by eliminating all our traditional schools and education systems through a progressive system of Western education. This they did in a country like India where Christianity failed to gain many converts. This gave British Colonialism in India the aura of a civilizing influence. Educated Indians having higher education in the colleges opened by the alien rulers in the latter half of the 19th century were made to believe that it was not colonial exploitation that the Englishmen were bringing to India but progressive Western values; training our people in science, art and technology and teaching them better and more equitable forms of government. Native Indian people were helped to learn the skills of veneer of English civilization by becoming modern and rational.

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Though all forms of Colonial Empire in the geographical sense came to an end after the II World War, yet the same forms of colonial exploitation continue even today in all parts of Asia, Africa and Latin America under the banner of that all-embracing umbrella called Globalization. Western Civilization in spite of its tall claims to support diversity is only promoting a worldwide monoculture; the same basic values, institutions and points of view for everyone; which it calls 'Globalization.' The brutal and stark truth is that western culture, with its declared pursuit of markets and commodities eliminates all true culture, which is based on quality and not quantity. It creates a culture of filthy lucre and lust for money all the way that submerges any true culture of refinement or spirituality; a dismal culture in which everything can be bought and sold, possessed or capitalized on. All our capitalists and businessmen in India today are gloating and bloating about the ever rising tide of consumerism and consumer culture brought about by the ruthless march of Globalization. This in my view constitutes the greatest assault on Indian culture and Indian society by the draconian dragon of gargantuan Globalization.

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Macaulay-ism of British India has become in letter and spirit the Globalization of today. Pound Sterling has been replaced by the US Dollar. To the people of India in general and educated Indians in particular, Globalization seems to be rather mild and well meaning, more like an imperceptible breeze, which blows in silently, fills up the psychological atmosphere, creates a mental mood, inspires an intellectual attitude and finally settles down as a cultural climate; pervasive, protein and ubiquitous. It is not out to use a specified section of Indian society as a vehicle of its virulence. It is not like any ism which wants to destroy the body of a culture in one fell sweep. It is not subtle like Christianity which subverts a society surreptitiously. Yet at the same time, it is a creeping toxaemia which corrodes the soul of Indian culture and corrupts our time-honoured social systems in slow stages. And its target is every section of Indian society.

What has been its impact on culture in India? Every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing in Hindu India, past or present, is to be approved unless recognized and recommended by an appropriate authority in the West. There is an all-pervading presence of a positive, if not worshipful, attitude towards everything in western society and culture, past as well as present in the name of progress, reason and science. Nothing from the West is to be rejected unless it has first been weighed and found wanting by a Western evaluation. Swami Vivekananda foresaw the dangers of Globalization as early as in 1893 when he spoke at the Parliament of World Religions in Chicago. To quote his soul-stirring words: 'Shall India die? Then, from the world all spirituality will be extinct, all sweet-souled sympathy for religion will be extinct, all ideality will be extinct; and in its place will reign the duality of lust and luxury as the male and female deities, with money as its priest, fraud, force, and competition its
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ceremonies, and human soul its sacrifice. Such a thing can never be'. Precisely such a terrible thing is taking place in India today on account of the inexorable and immutable process of Globalization. Now-a-days globalization is being talked everywhere by everyone. Lot of discussion is going on and intellectuals, NGO's, Government officials and different national and International organizations are studying the impact of globalization on various aspects of life in India including its impact on Indian culture, value system and employment but the most important aspect being neglected is "Has it any impact on rural life", where more than 60 percent of Indian population resides. International and national organizations are trying to study its impact on various aspects of life in general.

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Does Globalization be present in Rural India? Impact is clearly visible on urban life but rural life in India has not changed much. If we start from the basic facilities, impact is not so marked as in urban areas. People are still living in houses made of mud barring houses of few rich and progressive farmers. Government made houses for people in the name of "Indira Awaas Yojna" are so poorly designed and constructed that a family of three to four people cannot live comfortably in these houses. Occupation has been taken by the people but most of them are still staying in their earlier made "Kuchcha" houses. Conditions of farming communities are yet untouched from globalization. Laborers conditions have somewhat improved due to implementation of "Minimum Wages by the Government. Prime Minister Rojgar Yojna and CM Rojgar Yojna have made partial employment available to this segment. Government has initiated several developmental programs for uplift of living standards of people but full benefits have not reached to the targeted population due to corruption prevalent in administrative and political systems. Pradhan Mantri Gramin Sadak Yojna has resulted in road connectivity in rural India but roads are of poor quality and without drainage support. Toilet and lavatory systems are not of standard quality and not even constructed in all houses of the village.

Even today more than 90 percent people in villages attend the call of nature in open fields. Electricity: Life in rural India is miserable due to nonavailability of electricity. Several states in India claim that 40, 50 or even 100 percent villages have been electrified. But supply of electricity to villages that have been electrified is not more than 3-4 hours per day. It is big hindrance in development. Globalization is not going to make much difference to rural life until and unless electricity is supplied uninterruptedly 10-12 hours per days too these villages.

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Education and Employment School buildings are available in few villages but number of teachers is inadequate in primary schools. Benches, boards and other facilities are of substandard quality. There is, however, one positive development that girls are attending the schools in the villages. Also the number of students attending graduate and post graduate courses is increasing but awareness among students from rural areas lacks towards technical education and that is the single reason that most of the students from rural areas are unable to secure employment.

Technology, Culture and Social Values Technology has failed to percolate to villages in absence of electricity and other communication infrastructure. Few people know about the internet. However, well-to-do families have availed DTH and dish TV facilities. Mobile connections are increasing in rural areas but at slower pace. There are no small scale industries in villages to provide employment to educated youth. Indias real culture is still preserved in rural life. New advancement of technology has not much influence in rural areas. People still prefer to wear dresses of old fashion and celebrate festivals in old styles. Folk dances and folk songs are still popular among villagers. Culture is still untouched and unaffected by western influence. Globalization has no impact on rural life as standards of living are suboptimal but migration of people is taking place and poor people are moving to urban areas in search of employment.

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Agriculture Globalization does not have any positive impact on agriculture. On the contrary, it has few detrimental effects as government is always willing to import food grains, sugar etc whenever there is a price increase of these commodities. Government never thinks to pay more to farmers so that they produce more food grains but resorts to imports. On the other hand, subsidies are declining so cost of production is increasing. Even farms producing fertilizers have to suffer due to imports. There are also threats like introduction of GM crops, herbicide resistant crops etc.

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CASE STUDY
Orissan Handicrafts in the Age of Globalization: Challenges and Opportunities Folk arts and crafts are the integral parts of life in Orissa. Famous for the beauty and craftsmanship of Konark, Jagannath and Lingaraj and incalculable other temples, Orissa offer a prominent collection of arts and crafts both decorative and utilitarian. Be it the brilliant appliqu works of Pipili, sparkling Patta Chitra of Puri, Silver Filigree jewellery and golden grass mats of Cuttack or dazzling Horn work of Parlakhemundi and Clay Toys of Mayurbhanj, each handicrafts emanate a charm and originality of its own. In the days of Mc Donalds, Pepsi Cola and Levi's jeans, where free flow of goods and services and also of people and culture have been rampant, the volatility of the choice of the variety-seeking consumers, the king in the age of globalization not only always demands the new and modern but also sometimes revamps the old and the traditional. It is here the case for traditional arts and crafts comes to the fore. Quite surprisingly many foreign fashion shows are run these days with Hollywood models wearing the appliqued motifs sarees designed by Indian fashion designers. This instance adds to growing demand for Indian folk creations like, applique umbrellas in western sea beaches. This shows how tradition meets with modernity these days. Globalization has put both east and west into one compartment and makes a single village a global village. In the age of jet travel and mobile communication, boundaries between cultures are liable to erode and deterritorialised.

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Globalization and Indian Crafts Industry: India opened up its economy and adapted to globalisation in the early nineties. Major changes initiated as a part of the liberalisation and globalisation strategy included scrapping of the industrial licensing regime, reduction in the number of areas reserved for the public sector, amendment of the monopolies and the restrictive trade practices act, start of the privatization programme, reduction in tariff rates etc. Since the advent of globalization in 1991, India has experienced a lot and accordingly the society has undergone many changes in different spheres. Though the forces of globalization have ample positive effects in the long-run in many sectors of our economy and society, some of its repulsive implications against the poor in many cases have worried our development strategists. If we suspend the later for a moment, one of the growing sector benefited out of it, is the Handicraft industry with 'Indian handicrafts export crossing Rs.1,220/- crores in 1990-91 from merely 10 crores in the mid fifties.' Again the Ministry of Textiles data show, it increased to Rs. 4517.52 crores in 1994-95 and Rs. 7206.79 crores in 2000-01. It had reached at the peak Rs. 8059.63 Crores in 1999-2000 (www.texmin.nic.in). Indian handicrafts are now available in global markets, so also foreign crafts in our shops. Handicrafts constitute a significant segment of the decentralized sector of our economy and its importance is being felt when it is assessed that it provides employment to lakhs of artisans scattered especially in the weaker sections of our society such as SCs, STs and the women, producing goods worth thousands of Crores of Rupees per year. The skilled hand of the Indian craftsmen is our most important and yet most invisible resource. It is to be perceived with concern and with a precise understanding of its value. Because once lost nothing can replace it. India has been the exporter of crafts for ages. The workmanship of the Indian craftsmen is so exquisite that throughout the 18th and 19th centuries India was known to
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other countries on the trade route more by her crafts than by her art, religion and philosophy. As the data shown above clarifies, remarkable progress has been made in exports of handicrafts since India's Independence. The Handicrafts and Handlooms Exports corporations of India ltd (HHEC) a govt. of India undertaking established in 1962 has been instrumental in promoting Indian handloom fabrics in the west. There is a vast scope for the Indian's handicrafts exports to grow further. In the age of globalization, where efficiency meets success, Indian handicrafts further prospects lies in diversification of products and markets. We have to be ahead of our competitors in keeping ourselves informed of market trend and changes in fashion and design. Orissan Crafts and Crafts Persons Orissa, one of the backward states in the Indian union has also taken the advantages of new opportunities of globalization and designed policies in such a way to attract foreign investment and forge ahead with its policy of economic reforms. Now it has attracted FDI flows in different sectors of its economy. Globalisation has many impacts on its handicrafts sector. Orissa, which has distinguished crafts heritage, 'there are 69,395 handicraft artisans, which includes- 41,612 males and 27,744 females. Many of its crafts have long historical past and have been produced since antiquity. For instance the Appliqu crafts of Pipili in Puri district which is now an internationally well known craft, is thought to have been used to decorate the temples since 1054 A.D. Sources say, in ancient Orissa several crafts and industries also developed during the Nanda and Maurya rule as has been found from the excavated sites at Sisupalgarh (near Bhubaneswar), Jaugarh (in Ganjam) and Asurgarh.

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CONCLUSION The impact of foreign culture is increasing as more people travel abroad and interact with foreigners. Internet, multinational companies, growing foreign trade is other means which are contributing to impact of foreign culture.

Every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing in Hindu India, past or present, is to be approved unless recognized and recommended by an appropriate authority in the West. There is an all-pervading presence of a positive, if not worshipful, attitude towards everything in western society and culture, past as well as present in the name of progress, reason and science. Nothing from the West is to be rejected unless it has first been weighed and found wanting by a Western evaluation.

Swamy Vivekananda foresaw the dangers of Globalization as early as in 1893 when he spoke at the Parliament of World Religions in Chicago. To quote his soul-stirring words: 'Shall India die? Then, from the world all spirituality will be extinct, all sweet-souled sympathy for religion will be extinct, all ideality will be extinct ; and in its place will reign the duality of lust and luxury as the male and female deities, with money as its priest, fraud, force, and competition its ceremonies, and human soul its sacrifice. Such a thing can never be'. Precisely such a terrible thing is taking place in India today on account of the inexorable and immutable process of Globalization.

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