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CHAPTER 1

MARKETING IN A CHANGING WORLD: CREATING CUSTOMER VALUE AND SATISFACTION MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Todays successful companies at all levels have one thing in common. The common theme can best be described as one where the companies are: a. oriented around public service. b. strongly customer focused and heavily committed to marketing. c. moving toward globalization and socialization. d. more interested in governmental regulation and control than ever before. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (1) Page: 4 2. According to Bernie Marcus, cofounder of Home Depot, the Holy Grail of business is: a. the bottom line. b. promotion, promotion, and more promotion. c. an almost blind, passionate commitment to taking care of customers. d. meet every competitive threat with strength, commitment, and the courage to win. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 4 3. Creating __________________ is at the very heart of modern marketing thinking and practice. a. profit maximization b. increased stock value c. award winning products d. customer value and satisfaction Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 4 4. The twofold goal of marketing is to attract new customers by promising superior value and: a. win advertising and industry awards for excellence. b. to keep and grow current customers by delivering satisfaction. c. enhance shareholder value. d. pay as few taxes as possible. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (1) Page: 4

5. Wal-Mart has become the worlds largest retailer by delivering on its promise, Always low pricesalways. This would be an example of the marketing philosophy that says: a. Take care of your customers, and market share and profits will follow. b. Buy cheap, sell cheap. c. Always take discounts and pass some of them on to consumers. d. Distribution is the secret to all conquests in marketing. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 4 6. Today, marketing must be understood in a new sense that can be characterized as: a. telling and selling. b. management of youth demand. c. get there first with the most. d. satisfying customer needs. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 5 7. _________________ is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others. a. Management b. Marketing c. Econometrics d. Demand Answer: (b) Difficulty: (1) Page: 5 8. The most basic concept underlying marketing is that of: a. products and services. b. human needs. c. barter. d. transactions. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (3) Page: 5 9. ____________ are states of felt deprivation. a. Demands b. Wants c. Needs d. Core transactions Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 5

10. Basic needs, such as those for food, clothing, and safety, refer to: a. physical needs. b. social needs. c. individual needs. d. physical wants. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 5 11. __________ are shaped by ones society and are described in terms of objects. a. Needs b. Wants c. Demands d. Transactions Answer: (b) Difficulty: (1) Page: 5 12. When backed by buying power, wants become: a. needs. b. relationships. c. object relationships. d. demands. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 5 13. In outstanding companies, people at all levels, including top management,: a. work more than eight hours a day. b. are constantly inventing new products. c. are addicted to time management. d. stay close to customers. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 6 14. Anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need is called a: a. demand. b. basic staple. c. product. d. service. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 7

15. A _______________ is any activity or benefit offered for sale that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. a. demand b. basic staple c. product d. service Answer: (d) Difficulty: (1) Page: 7 16. If a company is guilty of marketing myopia, then it is: a. in danger of having dangerous cost overruns because it is trying to please too many diverse customer groups. b. so taken with its products that it focuses only on existing wants and loses sight of underlying consumer needs. c. guilty of prejudice toward certain customer groups. d. falling into the trap of copying rather than inventing products. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (3) Page: 8 17. The difference between the values the customer gains from owning and using a product and the costs of obtaining the product is called ______________. a. customer quality b. customer satisfaction c. customer value d. perceptual relationships Answer: (c) Difficulty: (3) Page: 8 18. Customers often do not judge product values and costs accurately or objectively. Instead, they act on ___________________. a. customer satisfaction b. customer quality c. needs d. perceived value Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 10 19. _________________ depend(s) on a products perceived performance in delivering value relative to a buyers expectations. a. Customer satisfaction b. Customer quality c. Customer value d. Customer needs Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 10

20. With respect to customer satisfaction, smart companies aim to: a. give the customer anything and everything they want. b. make customers addicted to their products and services. c. delight customers by promising only what they can deliver, then delivering more than they promise. d. always save the customers money, time, and other resources. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 10 21. An approach in which all the companys people are involved in constantly improving the quality of products, services, and business processes is called: a. Cigna 1000. b. total quality management. c. total relationship opportunity. d. exchange management. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 11 22. Marketing occurs when people decide to satisfy needs and wants through ________. a. selling b. exchange c. transaction d. relationships Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 12 23. A(n) ______________ consists of a trade of values between parties. a. sale b. exchange c. transaction d. market Answer: (c) Difficulty: (3) Page: 12 24. Trading your old calculator for tickets to a Garth Brooks concert would be what kind of transaction? a. monetary transaction b. barter transaction c. market transaction d. customer transaction Answer: (b) Difficulty: (1) Page: 12

25. Transaction marketing is part of the larger idea of _________________. a. customer returns and allowances b. trade discounts c. relationship marketing d. promotional stimulation marketing Answer: (c) Difficulty: (3) Page: 12 26. A _______________ consists of the company and all its supporting stakeholders. a. demand channel b. marketing network c. communication triad d. product flow process Answer: (b) Difficulty: (3) Page: 12 27. As CEOs and other managers have reviewed business functions, they have found that, ultimately, ___________ is the art of attracting, keeping, and growing profitable customers. a. marketing b. finance c. electronic commerce d. demand management Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 14 28. In a contemporary sense, a market is thought to be: a. wherever a marketer sells products. b. the people who may buy the product. c. the set of actual and potential buyers of a product. d. the square in the middle of the city where trade occurs. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 14 29. The main actors in a modern marketing system would include all of the following EXCEPT: (Select the LEAST LIKELY.) a. suppliers. b. marketing intermediaries. c. the end user. d. advertising agencies. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 15, Figure 1-2

30. The analysis, planning, implementation, and control of programs designed to create, build, and maintain beneficial exchanges with target buyers for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives is called ___________________. a. relationship marketing b. demand management c. marketing d. marketing management Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 15 31. If the Golden Gate Bridge becomes consistently overcrowded with an unsafe level of traffic, the California Transit Authority in San Francisco might have to undertake a _______________ campaign to reduce traffic levels during high demand periods of the day or week. a. public relations b. regulation program c. demarketing d. sales Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 16 32. The aim of demarketing is to: a. destroy demand. b. increase demand. c. initiate demand. d. reduce or shift demand. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (1) Page: 16 33. In the past, marketers followed a _______________ approach to gaining customers. This meant that growing markets supplied endless new consumer candidates and the company did not have to worry about older customers who might become dissatisfied and leave the companys marketing offerings. a. first in, first out b. treadmill c. funnel d. leaky bucket Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 16

34. Taco Bell has found that the lifetime value of a Taco Bell customer is about $12,000. Study has shown that the key to customer retention is: a. offer the lowest prices. b. constantly advertise. c. offer superior customer value and satisfaction. d. offer a variety of products. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 17 35. Jim Koch, founder of Samuel Adams beer, was often seen talking to bartenders and bar customers to encourage consumption of his brewerys products. This would be an illustration of which of the following marketing practice stages? a. intrepreneurial marketing b. entrepreneurial marketing c. formulated marketing d. demand-based marketing Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 17 36. John Botros feels the heat of competition on his new Internet-based home delivery pizza business. Rather than just advertising, John is encouraging his managers to get out of their offices and meet the public on their own ground. In fact, Botros makes it a practice to give at least one public speech per week. This would be an illustration of which of the following marketing practice stages? a. intrepreneurial marketing b. entrepreneurial marketing c. formulated marketing d. demand-based marketing Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 17 37. Over time, marketing management has offered five distinct concepts under which organizations conduct their marketing activities. Which of the following DOES NOT belong on the correct list of these concepts? a. econometric concept b. production concept c. product concept d. marketing concept Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 19

38. The _______________ holds that consumers will favor products that are available and highly affordable (therefore, management should work on improving production and distribution efficiency). a. product concept b. production concept c. production cost expansion concept d. marketing concept Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 19 39. The _________________ holds that consumers will favor products that offer the most quality, performance, and innovative features. Thus, an organization should devote energy to making continuous product improvements. a. marketing concept b. production concept c. selling concept d. product concept Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 20 40. If a manufacturer was following the product concept, their operating philosophy would rely on which of the following phrases? a. Build a better mousetrap, and the world will beat a path to your door. b. Location, location, location. c. Watch your costs at all cost. d. The consumer is king. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 20 41. Which philosophy of business is typically practiced when marketing unsought goods? a. the marketing concept b. the product concept c. the production concept d. the selling concept Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 20 42. When faced with overcapacity, most firms practice _________________. a. the marketing concept b. the product concept. c. the production concept d. the selling concept Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 20

43. _______________________ holds that achieving organizational goals depends on determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors do. a. The marketing concept b. The product concept c. The selling concept d. The societal marketing concept Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 20 44. All of the following organizational philosophy phrases are associated with the marketing concept EXCEPT: (Pick the phrase that DOES NOT fit.) a. We make it happen for you. b. To fly, to serve. c. If it aint broke, dont fix it. d. Let us exceed your expectations. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 20 45. The ________________ questions whether the pure marketing concept is adequate in an age of environmental problems, resource shortages, rapid population growth, worldwide economic problems, and neglected social services. a. service concept b. societal marketing concept c. product concept d. not-for-profit concept Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 22 46. In an example discussed in your text, Johnson & Johnsons recall of their Tylenol product following the discovery that several bottles of Tylenol had been laced with cyanide is consistent with which business philosophy? a. the marketing concept b. the product concept c. the selling concept d. the societal marketing concept Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 23 47. The major marketing developments as we enter the new millennium can be summed up in a single theme: a. innovation. b. the Internet. c. virtuality. d. connectedness.

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Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 25 48. The major force behind the new connectedness in marketing is: a. technology. b. globalization. c. social consciousness. d. privatization. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 25 49. _______________ is the vast and burgeoning global web of computer networks which links computer users of all types around the world. a. Micronet b. The Internet c. The Defense Department security d. The telecommunication system Answer: (b) Difficulty: (1) Page: 26 50. The connecting technologies of the computer, information, communication, and transportation connect three primary areas. Which of the following WOULD NOT be among those areas? (Select the one that DOES NOT fit.) a. Connections with Customers b. Connections with Government c. Connections with Marketing Partners d. Connections with the World Around Us Answer: (b) Difficulty: (1) Page: 27, Figure 1-5 51. Under which of the following marketing connections would connecting through strategic alliances most likely fall? a. Connections with Customers b. Connections with Government c. Connections with Marketing Partners d. Connections with the World Around Us Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 27, Figure 1-5

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52. If the United Statesand the worldhas become a salad bowl of diverse ethnic, cultural, social, and locational groups, then one could say that: a. consumer groups have blended to the extent that a marketer can not tell one consumer from another. b. one-to-one marketing no longer works. c. profitable customers are rapidly becoming a thing of the past. d. because consumers are maintaining their diversity, they are forming themselves into consumer communities. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 27 53. With respect to connecting with customers, which of the following is most likely the current trend? a. A focus on finding new customers. b. A focus on removing customers. c. A focus on current customer retention. d. A focus on share of market. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (3) Page: 30 54. The best illustration of direct marketing listed below would be: a. shoppers at Lands End can build a virtual model with their own hair color and use the model to aid in reviewing products for potential purchase. b. Ford Motor Company now designs all models of their popular pickups in at least 12 colors. c. most banks now sell automobile insurance. d. Wal-Mart has a policy of EDLP (everyday low pricing) as a strategic weapon. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 30 55. A ___________ for personal computers consists of suppliers of computer chips and other components, the computer manufacturer, and the distributors, retailers, and others who sell the computers to businesses and final customers. a. mix network b. supply chain c. relationship channel d. strategic alliance Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 31

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56. Dell Computer recently ran advertisements telling how it partners with Microsoft and Intel to provide customized e-business solutions. This would be an example of which of the following? a. mix network b. supply management c. relationship channel d. strategic alliance Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 32 57. Which of the following phrases would best describe the current attitude about connections with the world around us? a. Let the buyer beware. b. America First. c. Think Locally, Act Globally. d. Outsource Everything. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 33 58. If a university or college posts antismoking and antidrinking materials at strategic locations, takes out ads in the university or college newspaper, and enlists the aid of campus groups to aid with these social problems, this would be an example of which of the following? a. a social marketing campaign b. an ethical marketing campaign c. a relationship marketing campaign d. a sales promotional marketing campaign Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 35 59. With respect to connections with customers, be sales and product centered, serve any customer, and make standardized products would be examples of which form of thinking? a. the new marketing thinking b. the old marketing thinking c. global marketing d. relationship marketing thinking Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 36, Table 1-1

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60. Marketing locally and globally, conducting e-commerce in marketspaces, and 60 assuming social and environmental responsibility would be examples of which form of thinking? a. the new marketing thinking b. the old marketing thinking c. global marketing d. relationship marketing thinking Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 36, Table 1-1 TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 61. Selling is the delivery of customer satisfaction at a profit. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 4 62. The twofold goal of marketing is to attract new customers by promising superior value and to keep and grow current customers by delivering satisfaction. Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 4 63. Marketing is really only selling and advertising. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 5 64. Selling is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and values with others. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 5 65. The first of the core marketing concepts that should be explored by the marketer wishing to do business is needs, wants, and demands. Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 5, 6, Figure 1-1 66. A want is a state of felt deprivation. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 5 67. Human wants that are backed by buying power are called demands. Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 5

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68. In outstanding companies, people at all levelsincluding top managementstay close to customers. Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 6 69. A demand is anything that can be offered to a market to satisfy a need or want. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 7 70. The concept of a product is limited to physical objects. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (1) Page: 7 71. Marketing myopia occurs when sellers are so taken with their products that they focus only on existing wants and lose sight of underlying customer needs. Answer: (True) Difficulty: (3) Page: 8 72. The difference between the values the customer gains from owning and using a product and the costs of obtaining the product is called customer satisfaction. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (3) Page: 8 73. One party gives X to another party and gets Y in return. This would be an example of a transaction. Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 12 74. The concepts of exchange and relationships lead to the concept of demarketing. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (3) Page: 14, 16 75. Marketing to reduce demand temporarily or permanently is called demarketing. Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 16 76. If a company used $10 million on television advertising, a sales force of 200 people, and had a marketing department to coordinate and further marketing efforts, the company would be employing the marketing practice of interpreneurial marketing. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (3) Page: 17 77. The primary concept used in selling unsought goods such as encyclopedias or insurance is the product concept. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 20

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78. The selling concept takes an inside-out perspective toward the exchange process. Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 21 79. The production concept questions whether the pure marketing concept is adequate in an age of environmental problems, resource shortages, rapid population growth, worldwide economic problems, and neglected social services. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 22 80. Connecting more selectively, connecting for life, and connecting directly are all characteristics connections with customers. Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 27, Figure 1-5 81. Keeping old customers would be a part of the old marketing thinking as applied to connections with customers. Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 36, Table 1-1 82. Marketing locally and globally would be part of the new marketing thinking as applied to connections with the world around us. Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 36, Table 1-1 ESSAY QUESTIONS 83. Define marketing and discuss its role in the economy. Answer: Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and values with others. Economic roles include: meeting needs, wants, and demands (of a variety of types); creating products; creating value and satisfaction; aiding in the facilitation of exchanges, transactions, and mutually beneficial relationships; developing markets; meeting social needs of consumers; increasing consumer choice, and providing fair profits for business organizations. Difficulty: (2) Page: 4, 5, Figure 1-1 and associated text 84. List and briefly discuss the core marketing concepts. All of these concepts are important to understanding the definition of marketing.

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Answer: The core marketing concepts can be seen in Figure 1-1. They are listed as: a) needs, wants, and demands; b) products, services, and experiences; c) value, satisfaction, and quality; d) exchange, transactions, and relationships; and e) markets. These key concepts are linked and form the basis by which marketing is understood and practiced. Difficulty: (2) Page: 5-14, Figure 1-1 and associated text 85. List and briefly discuss three ways Nike has demonstrated that they care about their customers. Answer: Nike seems to care as much about its customers lives as their bodies. Ways that the company demonstrates that it cares are: (a) It doesnt just promote sales, it promotes sports for the benefit of all. (b) Nike invests in a wide range of lesser-known sports, even though they provide less lucrative marketing opportunities. (c) Nike is focusing on innovations (especially those demanded by the consumers). (d) Nike is developing new product lines (especially those demanded by the consumers). (e) The company is creating sub-brands that often focus outside traditional Nike boundaries (such as hiking shoes and gear). (f) Nike is de-emphasizing the swoosh (the emphasis is on quality and consumer fit rather than bigness and advertising muscle). (g) Nike is entering new markets aggressively (especially overseas). All of these moves were prompted by suggestions and recommendations from consumers. Difficulty: (2) Page: 9, 10, Marketing at Work 1-1 86. Define and describe the marketing management concept. Answer: Marketing management is the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of programs designed to create, build, and maintain beneficial exchanges with target buyers for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives. As shown in the discussion provided in the chapter, marketing management seeks to manage demand efficiently and effectively so as to help consumers obtain value in their transactions with the company. By doing this correctly, the company earns a profit for its labors. Marketing management recognizes that customers have a lifetime value and seek to maintain the customer relationship as an important organizational objective. Difficulty: (2) Page: 15

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87. Marketing practice often passes through three stages. List and briefly describe each of these stages. Answer: The stages may be listed as: 1). Entrepreneurial marketingmost companies are started by individuals who live by their wits. They visualize an opportunity and knock on every door to gain attention. 2). Formulated marketingas small companies achieve success, they inevitably move toward more formulated marketing. They use television advertising, sales forces, and marketing departments to achieve their goals and objectives. 3). Intrepreneurial marketingmany large and mature companies get stuck in formulated marketing, pouring over the latest reports and doing research to fine-tune their efforts. These companies sometimes lose their marketing creativity and passion. They now need to re-establish within their companies the entrepreneurial spirit and actions that made them successful in the first place. Difficulty: (2) Page: 17 88. Carefully list and then compare the five marketing management philosophies. Be sure to indicate the key components of each philosophy. Answer: a). Production Concept: Consumers favor products that are available and highly affordable. Management should focus on improving production and distribution efficiency. The production concept is still useful in two types of situations: (1) when the demand for a product exceeds the supply (management should look for ways to increase production) and (2) when the products cost is too high (improved productivity is needed to bring it down). b). Product Concept: Consumers favor products that offer the most value, performance, and innovative features. Therefore, the organization should devote its energy to making continuous product improvements. This concept can lead to marketing myopia if not watched. c). Selling Concept: Consumers will not normally buy enough products on their own, therefore, the organization must undertake a large-scale selling and promotion effort. Most firms practice this concept when they have overcapacity. d). Marketing Concept: Delivering the needs and wants more efficiently than the competition. This is an outside-in perspective as opposed to the selling concepts inside-out perspective. e). Societal Marketing Concept: The company determines customer needs and wants and societys best interest. Conflicts in this concept are usually between short-run wants versus long-term gains in welfare. Difficulty: (3) Page: 19-23

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89. The new connected millennium has brought about changes for the marketing function. Using connecting technologies (computer, information, communication, and transportation), marketers are seeking to connect in three ways. List and describe these three connections. Answer: The three connections are listed as: 1). Connections with Customersconsiderations are connecting more selectively, connecting for life, and connecting directly. 2). Connections with Marketing Partnersconsiderations are connecting with other company departments, connecting with suppliers and distributors, and connecting through strategic alliances. 3). Connections with the World Around Usconsiderations are global connections, connections with values and responsibilities, and broadened connections. Difficulty: (3) Page: 26-35, Figure 1-5 90. Marketing connections are in transition. Compare and contrast the old marketing thinking versus the new marketing thinking using the connection forms suggested in the chapter. Answer: Students should apply connections with customers, connections with marketing partners, and connections with the world around us to the old marketing thinking and the new marketing thinking. The comparisons and contrasts are shown in Table 1-1. Students should not be required to list all of these comparisons and contrasts. However, they should be required to demonstrate the differences between the two forms of thinking and what the ramifications of these two paths might be for marketing in the future. Difficulty: (3) Page: 36, Table 1-1 APPLICATION QUESTION 91. You have just been hired by Blue Flash Water Corporation to administer a relationship marketing program for the company. The company manufactures and distributes a purity-guaranteed, non-carbonated, bottled drinking water product to grocery and convenience stores in the southwestern United States. The companys desire is to build strong economic and social ties to customers by promising and consistently delivering high-quality products, good service, and fair prices. In order to do this, Blue Flash wants you to build a marketing network for them. Write down your ideas on what a marketing network is, how it might relate to the concept of relationship marketing, and designate the components of a what you perceive to be a marketing network for Blue Flash Water Corporation.

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Answer: Students should be allowed to be creative with this question. This question should not be attempted unless the students have been exposed to the concepts of relationship marketing and a marketing network. If they have, the questions answers should be somewhat similar to the information indicated below. According to the text, beyond creating short-term transactions, marketers need to build long-term relationships with valued customers, distributors, dealers, and suppliers. Today, companies want to build a unique company asset called a marketing network. A marketing network consists of the company and all its supporting stakeholders. These would be the customers, employees, suppliers, distributors, retailers, ad agencies, and others with whom it has built mutually profitable business relationships. Tools that the marketer might use to develop stronger bonds with consumers might be to add or increase financial benefits, social benefits, structural ties, and make sure that all customers are profitable customers. The idea behind relationship marketing through a marketing network is that if a company builds a good network of relationships with key stakeholders, profits will follow for all. Students should describe customers (for the bottled water market), consider how dedicated employees might aid in the formation of relationships, consider where the company gets its purified water (suppliers), how it distributes the water, the retailers (outlets) that carry the product, and the ad agencies that have designed themes for the water (how could the Blue Flash name be used). Structure can be given to this arrangement at the discretion of the instructor. The objective is to get the student familiar with the components of a relationship marketing effort and the stakeholders of a marketing network. Difficulty: (2) Page: 12 and associated text

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