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45

dA q n v

Streamlines at time t

We shall now apply equation (5-3) to a general control volume located in a fluid-flow field as shown in Figure 5.2 and evaluate the various terms. The total force acting on the control volume consists both of surface forces due to interactions between the control-volume uid, and its surroundings through direct contact, and of body forces resulting from the location of the control volume in a force eld. The gravitational eld and its resultant force are the most common examples of this latter type. We will designate the total force acting on the control volume as F. If the small area dA on the control surface is considered, we may write rate of momentum efflux v(rv)(dA cos u) Observe that the product (rv)(dA cos u) is the rate of mass efux from the control volume through dA, as discussed in Chapter 4. Recall further that dA cos u is the area, dA projected in a direction normal to the velocity vector, v, where u is the angle between v and the outwardly directed normal vector, n. We may then multiply the rate of mass efux by v to give the rate of momentum efux through dA. From vector algebra this product may be written as The term in square brackets is the scalar or dot product, v: n and the momentum efux term becomes rv(v: n) dA v(rv)(dA cos u) v(r dA)jvj jnj cos u

Integrating this quantity over the entire control surface, we have ZZ vr(v: n) dA

c:s:

which is the net momentum efux from the control volume. In its integral form the momentum ux term stated above includes the rate of momentum entering the control volume as well as that leaving. If mass is entering the control volume, the sign of the product v: n is negative, and the associated momentum ux is an input. Conversely, a positive sign of the product v: n is associated with a momentum efux from the control volume. Thus, the rst two terms on the right-hand side of equation (5-3) may be written 8 9 8 9 < rate of momentum = < rate of momentum = Z Z vr(v: n) dA out of control into control : ; : ; c:s: volume volume

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