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Topic 2: Functions and equations

2.5 Axis of symmetry of the graph of a quadratic function Discriminant


f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c axis of symmetry x = b 2a

2.6

= b 2 4ac

Topic 3: Circular functions and trigonometry


3.1 Length of an arc Area of a sector
l = r , where is the angle measured in radians, r is the radius

1 A = r 2 , where is the angle measured in radians, r is the 2 radius tan =


sec =

3.2

Identities

sin cos
1 cos

cosec = Pythagorean identities

1 sin

cos 2 + sin 2 = 1 1 + tan 2 = sec 2 1 + cot 2 = csc 2

3.3

Compound angle identities sin( A = B ) sin A cos B cos A sin B


cos( A B ) = cos A cos B sin A sin B tan A tan B tan( A B ) = 1 tan A tan B

Double angle identities

sin 2 = 2sin cos

cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2 = 2cos 2 1 = 1 2sin 2

tan 2 =

2 tan 1 tan 2

Mathematics HL and further mathematics formula booklet

3.7

Cosine rule

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C ; cos C =

a 2 + b2 c2 2ab

Sine rule

a b c = = sin A sin B sin C 1 A = ab sin C 2

Area of a triangle

Topic 4: Vectors
4.1 Magnitude of a vector
v = v1 v + v2 + v3 , where v = v2 v 3
2 1 2 2

Distance between two points ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) and ( x2 , y2 , z2 )

d=

( x1 x2 ) 2 + ( y1 y2 ) 2 + ( z1 z2 ) 2

Coordinates of the x1 + x2 y1 + y2 z1 + z2 midpoint of a line segment 2 , 2 , 2 with endpoints ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) , ( x2 , y2 , z2 ) 4.2 Scalar product
vw = v w cos , where is the angle between v and w v1 w1 v w= v1w1 + v2 w2 + v3 w3 , where v = v2 , w = w2 v w 3 3

Angle between two vectors 4.3 Vector equation of a line Parametric form of the equation of a line Cartesian equations of a line

cos =

v1w1 + v2 w2 + v3 w3 v w

r = a + b

x =+ x0 l , y =+ y0 m, z =+ z0 n

x x0 y y0 z z0 = = l m n

Mathematics HL and further mathematics formula booklet