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Strength of Materials

(ceng 1002) Semester II 2008

Introduction

specimen in tensile test (ultimate strength), imwf Stuttgart

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Strength of Materials
Mechanics of Materials
Mechanics of Solids

from rigid to deformable bodies …

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
stress

Cutting plane – inner action


equilibrium at particle

stress

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Stress

example: suspended rod


F F
- cross section area
A [cm²]
- Force F [kN] A

σ
cutting plane
inner action
equilibrium at particle stress σ = F / A [kN/cm²]

F F F

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Strain 2F
F
example: suspended rod

-Length L
-Elongation ∆L

L L L
strain ε = ∆L / L

strain ε
proportional to ∆L1 ∆L2=
stress σ
F 2∆L1

F
2F

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Hooke’s Law

linear equation : σ = Eε

E = Young‘s Modulus

stress σ
[kN/m²]

gradient E [kN/m²]

strain ε

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Hooke’s Law

Example: Bungee Cable

- Stress Analysis

- Serviceability

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Material Properties

stress-strain diagram of mild steel


axial loading
tensile test
area of plasticity

determination of
tensile strength
and Young’s Modulus

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Material Properties
tensile test
ductile material brittle material
σ σ

ε ε

image of failure,
compression test

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
stress deflection
Material Properties
due to loading

strain
specimen in tensile test (ultimate strength), imwf Stuttgart

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Material Properties
Concrete specimen in compression test

free blocked

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Deflection due to condition of loading

tension compression bending torque shear

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Material Properties
Timber

perpendicular
tensile stress
due to shrinkage

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Material Properties
Timber

orthotropic material behaviour

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Material Properties

cycling curves for time


material creep
e.g. synthetics, textiles
Danzer, S.18

time

time

time

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Material Properties
Steel deflection due to temperature (fire exposure) Brandschutzatlas
time

time

time

time

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Material Properties
Steel deflection due to temperature (fire exposure) Brandschutzatlas

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Stability
Buckling of columns
Euler Formula

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Stability
Buckling of columns

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Stability
Buckling of columns

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Concept of Design

load assumption : safety factor

material strength : reduction factor

stress analysis : design stress < allowable stress (stability)

serviceability : design deflection < limit deflection

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Unexpected loads

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Design Project “Bottle Bubble” Example: from an unknown material to construction

University of Karlsruhe, 2005

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Material Behaviour - determining the Elastic Modulus

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of
Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Calculation

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of
Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Lectures: Monday 8:15 – 10:00 a.m. Room No4

Karsten Schlesier

Tutorials: Friday 8:15 – 11:40 a.m. Room No4

Mesgana Seyoum

Consultation: Thursday 4:00 – 6:00 p.m. Room 211

Karsten Schlesier

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Calender Semester II 2008
week day Date Chapter Content

1 fr 04.04.2008 Course Information


2 mo 07.04.2008 Introduction to SOM
3 mo 14.04.2008 1 Stress - Axial Load
4 mo 21.04.2008 2 Strain - Axial Load
5 mo 28.04.2008 3 Bending of Beams
6 mo 05.05.2008 3 Deflection of Beams
7 mo 12.05.2008 Lab Session 1
8 mo 19.05.2008 Mid-Semester Exam
9 mo 26.05.2008 4 Torsion
10 mo 02.06.2008 5 Compound Stresses
11 mo 09.06.2008 6 Stability of Compression Members
12 mo 16.06.2008 6 Buckling Analysis
13 mo 23.06.2008 Lab Session 2
14 mo 30.06.2008 Workshop
15 mo 07.07.2008
16 mo 14.07.2008 Final Exam

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Course Outline

1 Stress – Axial Loads


Normal Stress, Shearing Stress, Transformation of Stress, Concept of Design

2 Strain – Axial Loads


Strain, Stress-Strain Diagram, Hooke’s Law, Deflection under Axial Load,
Material Properties

3 Bending of Beams
Stress due to pure Bending, Shearing Stress in Beams, Moment of Inertia,
Stress Distribution, Deflection of Beams, Design of Beams

4 Torsion
Moment of Torsion, Shearing Stresses and Deformations of Circular Shafts

5 Analysis of plane Stress


Compound Stresses, Combined Stresses, Transformation of Stress, Mohr’s Circle

6 Stability of Compression Members


Euler Formula, Buckling Load, Buckling Analysis

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
Assessment / Requirements

Minimum of 75% attendance during lecture hours and tutorials, 100% attendance
during practical work sessions (except for unpredicted mishaps) – watch notice for
further details.

Quota of Total Course Credit: 40% mid-semester examination


40% final-semester examination
20% assignments, practical workshop

Literature

Popov, E.P., Mechanics of Materials


Beer and Johnson, Mechanics of Materials, 2001
Gere and Timoshenko, Mechanics of Materials, 1990

E-learning Platform

www.elboon.net (elearning board online) – under construction!


www.ocw.mit.edu MIT open courseware – Solid Mechanics

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering

G. Galileo

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Department of


Strength of Materials
Faculty of Technology Civil Engineering