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Personal Reflective Journal

by

[Jason King] [EDUC 5613 Methods in Elementary Social Studies] [Dr. Sharon Murray]

TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS


TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................................ 1 METHODS AND STRUCTURES ........................................................................................................................... 4 CONTINUUM LINES ..................................................................................................................................... 4 ROUND TABLE/ROUND ROBIN .................................................................................................................... 6 NUMBERED CARDS ..................................................................................................................................... 8 NUMBERED HEADS ..................................................................................................................................... 9 STRAY OR STAY ........................................................................................................................................ 11 STRATEGIES/TECHNIQUES ............................................................................................................................. 12 HOT SEAT ACTIVITIES - OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................... 12 HOT SEAT ACTIVITIES TWENTY QUESTIONS...................................................................................... 13 ICEBREAKER ACTIVITIES .......................................................................................................................... 15 SCAVENGER HUNT ............................................................................................................................... 15 HUMAN SCAVENGER HUNT/PEOPLE FINDER SHEET ............................................................................. 15 TOP 10 COMMONALITIES ...................................................................................................................... 17 PAIRED QUESTIONS .............................................................................................................................. 18 BRAINSTORMING ....................................................................................................................................... 19 CONCEPT MAPS/CLUSTER WEBS/MIND MAPS ..................................................................................... 19 LISTS .................................................................................................................................................... 20 T-CHART .............................................................................................................................................. 21 SPONGE ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................. 22 DISCREPANT EVENT .................................................................................................................................. 24 ENTRANCE SLIP ........................................................................................................................................ 26 KWL/MEDIA KWL................................................................................................................................... 27 REENACTMENT.......................................................................................................................................... 28 SITUATIONAL LEARNING........................................................................................................................... 30 RAFT........................................................................................................................................................ 32 BIOGRAPHY WEB ...................................................................................................................................... 33

READING REFLECTIONS ................................................................................................................................. 35 READING REFLECTION #1 ......................................................................................................................... 36 READING REFLECTION #2 ......................................................................................................................... 38 READING REFLECTION #3 ......................................................................................................................... 40 READING REFLECTION #4 ......................................................................................................................... 42 READING REFLECTION # 5......................................................................................................................... 44 READING REFLECTION #6 ......................................................................................................................... 46 REFLECTIVE JOURNAL #7 .......................................................................................................................... 49 READING REFLECTION #8 ......................................................................................................................... 51 CLASSMATES STRATEGIES ........................................................................................................................... 53 BIOGROPHY WEB ................................................................................................................................. 54 PROCESS DRAMA ................................................................................................................................. 57 MEDIA TIMELINE ................................................................................................................................. 60 DISCOVERY BOX .................................................................................................................................. 62 STORYPATH .......................................................................................................................................... 64 STEP BOOKS .......................................................................................................................................... 67 NEWSPAPERS AS A RESOURCE ......................................................................................................... 69 WORD WALL WITH NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ............................................................................................ 69 PICTURE ACTIVITY ............................................................................................................................... 72 NEWSPAPER FRONT PAGE .................................................................................................................. 74 LOOKING AT CAREERS ............................................................................................................................ 76 WALL MAP WITH DAILY NEWSPAPER ....................................................................................................... 78 QUESTIONING THE AUTHOR ..................................................................................................................... 81 POINTS ON A CONTINUUM ......................................................................................................................... 83 VENN DIAGRAMS GET BIG ........................................................................................................................ 84 CHAPTER TOUR ......................................................................................................................................... 85 MANY MEDIA, SAME MESSAGE ................................................................................................................ 87 THE Y STRATEGY .................................................................................................................................. 88 WORD SPLASH .......................................................................................................................................... 89 HISTORY FRAME ....................................................................................................................................... 90

K.I.M. CHART ........................................................................................................................................ 91 GRAPHIC NOTES........................................................................................................................................ 92 QUOTE WITHOUT COMMENTARY .............................................................................................................. 93 CINQUAIN ................................................................................................................................................. 94 CORNELL SYSTEM ..................................................................................................................................... 95 READ-TALK-WRITE (READ-DRAW-TALK-REVISE) ................................................................................... 96 SUM IT UP ................................................................................................................................................ 97 WORD M APS IN 3D .................................................................................................................................. 98 APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................................................... 99

Methods/Structures
METHODS AND STRUCTURES Ways of presenting instructional materials, conducting instructional activities, or organizing students for learning.
CONTINUUM LINES

Basic Functions: Break students up into smaller groups. Can be used to divide students into groups of any size Gets students moving Gets students talking and thinking Gets students out of their chairs so they are ready to move to a new area to work with their group. When used as an opinion line, it can be used to help students recall information and form opinions, as well as helping the teacher see where students stand on certain topics or how much they know about an issue.

Overview of Continuum Lines: Start with a question or criterion. o Line up alphabetically by last name o Line up by height (Takes a lot longer and may cause disputes) o Line up by birthday Show students where you want the line to start and in which direction it will go. Have additional criteria or questions ready in case you run into problems o If two students have the same answer (e.g. same name or birthday) use another criterion to complete the line. Once the continuum line is formed, decide what size groups you are going to form. Form the groups. o For example for groups of five you could number one to five and then group with like numbered classmates. o For pairs, you could fold the line in half. o If you want groups of four you could simply put the first four in the line in one group, the next four in the next group and so-on.

Ways you could use this in Social Studies Class: To form groups in an equitable and fun way. A great example of how to do this in order to inform instruction, assess prior knowledge, and form groups. o Lesson on Provincial government: If you can name the Premier of the Province stand on this end of the line, if not stand on that end of the line. So, in this group who can tell me? Continue with additional questions. When Satisfied ask students if you think you know a lot about provincial government line up at this end. If you think you have a lot to learn line up at that end. Students fall into place based on their knowledge. Then teacher numbers off for groups.

For more information: Summarization in Any Subject - by Rick Wormeli Human Continuum
http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/104014/chapters/Human-Continuum.aspx

The Human Continuum Activity http://bookerenglish.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/human_continuum_essay_curriculum_june_6_20101.pdf

ROUND TABLE/ROUND ROBIN

Basic Functions: A highly effective method that can be used in any subject Used to stimulate thinking and content-related team building Used to make sure that group members all play an equal role Used for brainstorming

Overview of Round Table: Step 1 Have Students sit at tables in even groups (Usually around 4) Step 2 Introduce the Problem: o The teacher presents a problem that may have many possible answers. o For example Name as many different countries as you can think of. Step 3 Students Contribute o Students produce a list of responses on one sheet of paper o The first student writes an answer and passes it to the next student o The second student does the same, and so on o The paper list goes around and around the table for a set number of answers or a set amount of time. In class we used this activity to find things that all group members had in common, and then created a group poster based on those commonalities.

Overview of Round Robin: The counterpart to round table is round robin. In this method there is typically only one person who records the answer. The rest of the team responds orally. This method is preferable when participation and not the production of a group product is the emphasis.

Ways you could use this in Social Studies Class: Typically these methods are more about the process, and equal responsibility, than the results but it can be used for evaluation if necessary. The quality of the team effort can be recognized or teams can be assessed based on achieving or not achieving a predetermined goal set by the class or teacher. For example the teacher could say, Write down 20 countries and their capital cities. The teacher then has a number they can evaluate based on. Use this strategy as a less stressful and less formal way to pre-assess student knowledge of a topic. For example in grade four at the beginning of unit 3 we could ask students to

identify as many major physical features of the earth as possible (giving an example such as the Andes Mountains and the Indian Ocean). To further inform the whole class, this activity could be divided up amongst the groups. Group one could be asked to name as many mountain ranges as they could. Group two could look at bodies of salt water (Oceans and Seas). Group three could look at bodies of fresh water. Group four could look at major rivers, and so on.

For more information: Keys to Teaching Success http://keystoteachingsuccess.blogspot.ca/2009/02/roundtable-and-roundrobinboth.html

Round Table/Round Robin


http://www.scribd.com/doc/7220236/Teaching-Strategies

NUMBERED CARDS

Basic Functions: Divide students for group work Students divided in an equitable manner Nobodies feelings are hurt Students do not just group for proximity or friendship reasons

Overview of Numbered Cards: You are really only limited by your imagination here, there are literally dozens of ways to group students The easiest way is to hand out a predetermined number of cards with a predetermined number on each card, to be assigned to each student. If instead a deck of cards is used, the possibilities can be endless. o Teachers could assign a student a card for the whole year, a month, a unit, or a semester. o Teacher could then form different groups using different criteria. Suite Spades, Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds To divide the class in two teams, you could use red cards and black cards Numbers divisible by three/two/prime Straights 2s, 3s, and 4s on one team 5s, 6s, and 7s on another, etc. Odd numbers and even numbers

Ways you could use this in Social Studies Class: To form work groups when the make-up of the teams does not have to be leveled or mixed in a certain manner (Unless you assigned the cards with this in mind and you can level, mix groups by the sorting method you choose). You can also use it to sort the questions assigned. o Prime number group answers question 1, divisible by two group does question 2, and divisible by three group does question 3. o Unlike the other three methods already discussed, there is no product or produced or learning objective achieved by using this method.

For more information: Six Creative Ways to Form Groups at http://www.examiner.com/article/six-creative-ways-to-form-groups Ways to Group Students Quickly and Effectively at http://superteacherstuff.blogspot.ca/2007/03/ways-togroup-students-quickly-and.html

NUMBERED HEADS

Basic Functions: Divide students for group work Students divided in an equitable manner Nobodies feelings are hurt Students do not just group for proximity or friendship reasons Very quick Teacher determines the size of all of the groups

Overview of Numbered Heads: In its most basic form: o Teacher starts at a random table and assigns numbers or has students say their number as she goes around the classroom. o The teacher then assigns each number an area where they congregate for their group work. In its more complex form: Example 1: Students are given numbers but are not required to move. Students are able to work within the groups that they are seated with or asked to form groups with all numbers represented once. When a question is to be answered or information is to be presented the teacher calls a number. o If the teacher is dealing with a specific group, the person with that number presents the information. o If the teacher is addressing the whole class, all students with that number stand and the teacher can: Ask for a volunteer Call on a specific student Have all students with that number come up and write their answer on the board. Example 2: Students are given a number Students move to an area assigned to their number Group members number off When a question is to be answered or information is to be presented the teacher calls a number.

o If the teacher is dealing with a specific group, the person with that number presents the information. o If the teacher is addressing the whole class, all students with that number stand and the teacher can: Ask for a volunteer Call on a specific student Have all students with that number come up and write their answer on the board. Ways you could use this in Social Studies Class: Use to divide students into somewhat random groups Good for when teams do not have to be leveled or mixed in any particular way Good for when students need to produce a group product and you do not want students working with their friends. For example, If Kindergarten students are asked about the needs and wants that are common to all children (Standard K1.3), their friends in the class (at this age) are probably all from the same socio-economic group and would not be an effective grouping. Dividing the class up randomly would give each group a better representation and the answers given might be more inclusive.

For more information: Numbered Heads http://www.intentionaldesignacademy.com/uploads/8/1/1/7/8117177/numberheadstip.pdf Numbered Heads Together http://www.teachervision.fen.com/group-work/cooperativelearning/48538.html

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STRAY OR STAY

I believe that this can be both a method and a strategy. However, as it is a way to divide the students up I have decided to include it with my strategies. Basic Function Share and learn information about group work products Share the communal knowledge of the class Students learn how to effectively summarize information Students present important facts to their peers

Overview of Stay or Stray Students learn information or synthesize information to create a product One single member of the group is selected to stay while the others stray The members that stray go to the next group and share their information with the person from that group that stays. The member that stayed records the information that they learned from the group that visits them. Repeat this process until stray students have visited all groups and have returned to their table. The stay member then shares the information that they learned and recorded.

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: If students are learning about an outcome that has several topics the groups can each take a different topic and learn about it and summarize the key points to share. This way not all students have to read all of the material, but they are all exposed to the important facts. o For example if the students are learning about imprtant world landmarks, each group learns about one landmark and shares the salient fact with the rest of the class.

For more information: Engaging Learning Strategies http://www.slideshare.net/MandieFunk/engaged-learningstrategies Teaching And Learning Strategies For The Thinking Classroom By Alan Crawford (Page 63)

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Strategies/Techniques
STRATEGIES/TECHNIQUES Strategies and techniques are the activities that students do to achieve the learning objectives of the lesson.

HOT SEAT ACTIVITIES - OVERVIEW

Hot seat activities are activities where the students are the ones answering the questions, instead of the teacher. There are many different types of hotseat activities. Basic Function: Excellent activity for getting the students going at the beginning of class. o Engagement activity o Prepares students to actively participate in lessons Allows teacher to assess student preparedness

Overview of Hot Seat Activities: Teacher selects student(s) to be in the hot seat Student(s) is/are then asked a question or a barrage of questions which they try their best to answer. o The teacher can pair students first and have one student from each pair (group) come to the front of the class. The first hot seat student to answer correctly earns a point for their team.

Ways you could use this in your Socail Studies Class: Use one of these activities to assess prior knowledge of a subject. o For example, If the topic of study was K1.5 (recognize that families [local, national, and global] have varied traditions, rituals and celebrations) you could have several students come to the front of the class. Note: Because of the nature of these activities (students being vulnerable and on the spot), these activities are better for warm up and informing the instruction and are not good evaluative tools.

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For more information: Instructional Strategies for Engaging Learners In the Hot Seat
http://its.guilford.k12.nc.us/act/strategies/hot_seat.htm

Learning Point Adolescent Literacy Reading Strategies


http://www.learningpt.org/literacy/adolescent/strategies/hotseat.php YouTube Hot Seat Teaching Strategy Mrs. Webster - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65U2Nt1kMQw

HOT SEAT ACTIVITIES TWENTY QUESTIONS

Basic Function: Excellent activity for getting the students going at the beginning of class. o Engagement activity o Prepares students to actively participate in lessons o Develops students questioning skills

Overview of Twenty Questions: Teacher chooses student to be in the hotseat o If the hotseat topic requires preparation this should be done in adavnce o If the student can pick something off the top of their heads easily, than preselecting students before the lesson is not necessary The hot seat student has a certain word, person, place, thing in their mind The other students in the class can ask yes/no questions of the hot seat student Within 20 questions the class has to try to guess the word (person, place, thing, or idea/concept) that the hot seat student has selected.

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: If the class is studying geography the teacher could have the students think of a place or geographical feature of the province or country. The students would then ask probing questions such as, Is it the name of a city, town, or village?, or, Is it North of the 60th parrallel?

For more information: Teaching Strategies: A Guide to Effective Instruction- By Donald C. Orlich, Robert J. Harder, Richard C. Callahan, Michael S. Trevisan, Abbie H. Brown Page 233 (Twenty Questions)

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Using Inductive Teaching Strategies to Get Students Attention By Jared Dees


http://www.thereligionteacher.com/inductive-teaching-strategies/

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ICEBREAKER ACTIVITIES

An Icebreaker activity is an activity that helps students relax, create a sense of community, and ease into the lesson. Icebreakers are an essential part of successful classrooms because they facilitate the emotional connection of class/teammates. For more information: Icebreakers by Laura Tillery - http://www.cedu.niu.edu/~shumow/itt/Icebreakers.pdf

SCAVENGER HUNT

Scavenger hunts are a group of activities where students are required to find or create things that match an item on a list of criterion given by the teacher. Basic Function: Scavenger hunts can be used for a variety of activities. In our Methods in Elementary Social Studies class we talked about Human Scavenger hunts so I will introduce this particular type of scavenger hunt below. It is important to note that scavenger hunts can be used in different ways. Students can work indepnedantly or in groups. Individuals or groups are given a list of items or things meeting certain criteria that they must then find or create. They can be used as icebreakers, to have students discover more about a topic on their own, or to evaluate their skills (for example an independant internet scavenger hunt where the student must use their knowledge web tools to answer the questions).

For more information: Education World Scavenger Hunts - http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr113.shtml


HUMAN SCAVENGER HUNT/PEOPLE FINDER SHEET

Basic Function: Gets the students to interact with many other classmates (usually a requirement that each name is used only once) Teacher can watch students interact with their peers Students and teacher learn more about the other members of the community Any questions can be used as questions are not the focus of the activity, the interaction is

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Overview of Human Scavenger Hunt: Teacher prepares a handout that has a list of questions on it Teacher hands out the papers face down, so that noone gets a headstart When everyone has received the paper the students can turn it over and begin The students then stand and circulate through the room, to try and find a different student for every question o It might be prudent to inform the students that they are not allowed to shout out questions, that they must interact with each student one-on-one The first student to finish the activity signals the end of the activity The winner may be given a prize The class can then review the answers to continue to learn more about eachother

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: Obviously this could be used at the beginning of the semester to get students to learn more about eachother Addtionally the teacher could further tailor it to meet the Social Studies Curriculum. For example if your grade 2 class is doing Standard 2.4.1 (Understand, develop, and maintain a healthy lifestyle) then the questions could reflect this. For example the teacher could ask for someone who had played a team sport in the last 24 hours, someone who played an individual sport in the last 3 days, someone who ate a balanced breakfast, etc.

For more information: Human Scavenger Hunt http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/word-help/getting-to-know-youactivities-for-young-students-HA001144331.aspx People Finder Sheet http://www.cedu.niu.edu/~shumow/itt/Icebreakers.pdf

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TOP 10 COMMONALITIES

Basic Function: Fast, easy, and fun way for students to learn about eachother Gets students to interact with new people Relaxes Students Builds a sense of community

Overview of Top 10 Commonalities: Teacher uses a method such as numbered heads to break the class up into groups, as students have a tendency to sit with people that they already know. Have the students find 10 things that they all have in common with every other member of the group that has nothing to do with school. o This task can be paired with round table so that students write something about themselves and then the other members can look at written. If they have it in common they leave it be, but if they do not share that thing in common they cross it off the list. No talking is allowed. The students must record their commonalities to be shared with the rest of the class. A volunteer from each group reads their commonalities. The activity will probably take 15 minutes, so can be quite time consuming, but beneficial.

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: Class is divided up using numbered heads or some other method for generating random groups. Students then use a roundtable approach to record commonalities. Students present their list to the class. o You could tailor this to Social Studies by asking them to find things that they want to learn about the world or things that they have enjoyed learning in Social Studies in the past.

For more information: My Favourite Team Building Icebreaker


http://humanresources.about.com/od/icebreakers/a/icebreaker_com.htm

Icebreakers and Energizers - http://www.cylc.org/jrnylc/curriculum/pdf/classroomActivities_Facilitation.pdf

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PAIRED QUESTIONS

Basic Functions: Fast, easy, and fun way for students to learn about eachother Gets students to interact with new people Builds a sense of community

Overview of Paired Questions: Students are paired using a method such as a continuum line Teacher asks a list of questions in rapid succession Students try to answer the questions as quickly as they can before the teacher moves on to the next question

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: The purpose of this activity is as an icebreaker, however it could be realted to social studies by asking questions such as What country would you most like to visit?, What is the biggest city you have ever visited?, or What is the biggest body of water you have ever swam in?

For more information: CF Ice Breaker Questions http://jimhough.com/cf/ibquestions.html Buzzle Icebreaker Questions for Kids http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ice-breaker-questions-forkids.html

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BRAINSTORMING

Excellent strategy for generating ideas about a certain topic. Brainstorming helps promote thinking skills. When students try to think of all things related to a topic they stretch the way they look things. There are several different forms that brainstorming can take and several of these follow.
CONCEPT MAPS/CLUSTER WEBS/MIND MAPS

All of these concepts are very similar. Typically mind maps focus on one central topic that students expand upon. Concept maps/cluster webs can have several topics that overlap. For example, social studies could be in the center of a page and science, literacy, math, and writing could be in the four corners and their interrelationships could be explored. Basic Function: Organize new information Further develop the understanding of a concept Access prior learning Expand communal knowledge Explore relationships that concepts have

Overview of Concept Mapping: Model the activity Select a theme Focus on related key words or phrases Use lines or arrows to connect items and show the relationship between them.

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies Class: If a kindergarten social studies class is studying standard K 3.1 (identify the five senses and describe methods to care for them) you could start by putting senses on the middle of the
board and have the students expand upon that idea with suggestions like hearing, taste, smell, etc.

For more information: Instructional Strategies Online http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/de/pd/instr/strats/conceptmap/index.html Concept Maps - http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/concept_maps/ SEE APPENDIX

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LISTS

The most basic form of brainstorming Basic Function: Organize new information Further develop the understanding of a concept Access/assess prior learning Expand communal knowledge Quickly record ideas being put forward by members of the learning community

Overview of Lists: Teacher introduces a concept or question Students volunteer information Teacher or student records information Class reviews list

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies Class: In order to assess what students know about geography the teacher could ask students to think of all of the geographical landmarks they can think of. The students would then volunteer answers such as the Grand Canyon and the answers are recorded.

For more information: Brainstorming and Listing Exercise Student Instructions


http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/gentopic/pop4d.cfm

Daily Writing Tips Brainstorming http://www.dailywritingtips.com/5-brainstorming-strategies-forwriters/

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T-CHART

Basic Function: Used to show opposing characteristics o Fact/oppinion o Positives/negatives o Objective/subjective Done individually or as a team

Overview of T-Charts: Teacher or student writes down the concept to be analyzed They then draw a giant uppercase T below the concept Students volunteer opposing characteristics. Characteristics are recorded and typically paired Students then evaluate and rate the answers to try to come to some conclusion about idea being presented

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies Class: For example in the grade 4 social studies curriculum students talk about exploration and the specific question Which type of exploration is most difficult (ocean, jungle, space, etc)? Pick two of these areas such as ocean and jungle and ask students which is more difficult to explore. The students then compare and contrast the two types of exploration.

For more information: Teaching Spaces - http://teaching-strategies.wikispaces.com/T-Charts ReadWriteThink - http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/printouts/chart30225.html

SEE APPENDIX

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SPONGE ACTIVITIES

Basic Function: An extra activity usually used for those students who finish the main task early An enrichment activity that is not essential but definitely enjoyable Sometimes they can be used as time fillers Should not be work or students will be motivated not to achieve for fear of being punished with additional work. Can be used to assess what information students absorbed (probably the source of the name) during the class

Overview of Sponge activities: There are many different types of sponge activities, so the first task is for the teacher to choose one before class, so they can adequately prepare how the activity is going to work. To assess what was learned: o Often sponge activities are used to assess what students have learned in class so an exit slip is a popular form of this activity For an exit slip, the teacher can have a sheet already prepared with predefined questions, however a blank sheet of paper can just as easily be used Teacher has students ask or answer questions about what was learned in class. This will show that the students were engaged. o Exit slips can seem a lot like a quiz and not very fun. To spruce things up students can be grouped in pairs and asked to list as many facts as they can remember from the class. Friendly competition can make this activity very enjoyable. To enrich the learning: o Sponge activities can also be used to enrich learning for those that have already completed their work and learned the concept. In this scenario, it is very important that the activity does not seem like work and that the students do not feel they are being punished for finishing early. Students could make a poster, chant, or cheer about the work they/their group worked on Students could search the internet for an inspirational quote about the topic being studied The third way sponge activities are used is as time fillers: o Sponge can be used to fill time when lessons are finished and the class has free time. There are many types of sponge activities that fall into this category.

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Card name game Give each student a card with another students name on it Call a student and have them say something kind about the student whose name you have. This builds a sense of community.

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: For a Stay or Stray lesson on important landmarks of the world students could be asked to mark the location of the landmarks they remember on a map at the end of class. Students that finish a lesson on Top Ten Commonalities before the rest of the class can use their commonalities to make a team handshake, a chant, a cheer, or a song.

For more information: Time Filler Ideas: Timesaving "Sponges" for Substitute Teachers and Homeschoolers at http://voices.yahoo.com/time-filler-ideas-timesaving-sponges-substitute-291726.html?cat=25 Sponge and Transition Activities http://tips.atozteacherstuff.com/407/sponge-and-transition-activities/

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DISCREPANT EVENT

Basic Function: A discrepant event presents students with a puzzle, event, or story at the beginning of a class. Students ask questions\, pose hypothesis, analyze and synthesize information and draw conclusions. Engage students Introduce a new area of study Help them develop hypothesis based on information Develop problem solving skills Learn how to ask good questions Develop higher-order thinking.

Overview of Discrepant Events: Teacher generates a story or puzzle. Certain parts are omitted that creates mystery. Once created the teacher presents the story to the class. Usually the teacher asks a guiding question Students Question the Teacher: Students make note of the facts and then they collect data by asking the teacher questions. The questions must be structured so they can be answered by a yes or no. Make clear that the questions should be structured so as to infer information and not as a guessing game. Getting to the right answer is not the specific goal. Organize and Review Information: Pause and let students organize information they already know or have discovered. Process the ideas in a pair or small group. Formulate a Response: At some point students will arrive at their best answer. Have students state their response along with the rationale for how they arrived at this decision.

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: In 1837, a young boy named John lived on a farm in a beautiful mountainous, wooded area in eastern Tennessee. His family planted corn and raised animals for meat, milk and eggs. His father participated in the legislative branch of government. His mother taught English in a local school. He had four brothers and three sisters. The family appeared happy and prosperous. In 1839, the family moved to a treeless, dry, flat prairie, where it was barely able to raise enough food to survive, Two of Johns brothers and one of his sisters died. Unable to make a living farming, his father became a member of the legislature. His mother helped publish the local newspaper; John and his family missed their beautiful home in the mountains.

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Question: Why did John and his family leave their beautiful home in Tennessee and take such a hard journey to settle in a hot barren land? In 1000 CE, the Netherlands, located in the northern Europe, had 8 389 square miles of land. The people of the Netherlands farmed 5 866 square miles. Today the Netherlands has 13 967 square miles of land, and they now farm 9 7776 square miles. The national boundaries of the Netherlands are the same as in 1000. Question: How is it possible that the people of the Netherlands expanded land base without changing their borders?

For more information: Yell, Michael M., Shceurman, Geoffrey, & Reynolds, Keith. (2004). A link to the past: Engaging students in the study of history. National Council for the Social Studies, Maryland. Teaching and Learning Strategies (PDF) (Wisconsin Curriculum)
http://www.sdb.k12.wi.us/curriculum/standards/state/SocialStudies/SS%20Chapters/SocStudies_14.pdf

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ENTRANCE SLIP

Basic Function: Allows students to demonstrate prior knowledge Reflect on what was learned in the prior class Allows teacher to inform instruction

Overview of Entrance Slip: Student can use a slip of paper produced by the teacher, a sheet of loose-leaf, a journal entry, index card, etc. Teacher then poses a question or task for the student o Three levels of government introduced last class o What is the name of New Brunswicks Premier? o What are you looking forward to learning about in todays lesson o Tell me three things you already know about . . . Students then pass in there answers for the teacher to review

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: If a Social Studies teacher recognizes that students are struggling after reviewing a formative assessment, then they could give the students an entrance slip that asks students to name three strategies that help them learn in class. The teacher could then try to use some of those methods to review the material. If the prvious social studies lesson was on the provinces the teacher could ask students to name the ten provinces and three territories.

For more information: Entrance/Exit Slips http://fowleram.wordpress.com/2011/03/28/42/ Entrance and exit slips - http://knowledge.sagepub.com/view/promoting-literacy-development/n48.xml National Behaviour Support Service Exit/Entry Slips http://www.nbss.ie/sites/default/files/publications/exit-entry_slip_-_comprehension_strategy_handout__copy_2.pdf

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KWL/MEDIA KWL

Basic Function: K Students take inventory of what they know W Students identify what they wish to know L Students share what they have learned Simultaneously assesses prior knowledge, informs instruction (based on prior learning and what students want to know), and identifies what they have learned.

Overview of KWL/Media KWL: Students are given a sheet or create one with tree columns Teacher introduces the topic Label the first column K, the second W, and the third L In the first column the students list what they know about a topic o This helps the teacher inform the instruction In the second column the students write about what they want to know o This helps the teacher inform the instruction and gives the students a written record of the questions they may want to ask After the lesson the students record what they have learned. If done as a media KWL the teacher will show the class a photograph (video) o students describe what they see (no assumptions) o State some assumptions and ask questions o Teacher answers some questions and informs the class what is happening o (Pictures should be chosen pertaining to the social studies objectives they are working towards)

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: Students in grade 4 working on unit 2 on exploration could be given a KWL chart and asked what they know about explorers and exploration. They would then also record questions they might have about exploration and explorers. Students in Kindergarten working on Unit 3 about our senses could have a KWL chart at the front of the class that the teacher fills out for them. The students could be asked about senses and the teacher will write down what they know. If the students are too young to read what the teacher writes then maybe pictures would be more effective.

For more information: Instructional Strategies Online - What is K-W-L http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/kwl/ TeacherVision Using KWL in the Classroom - http://www.teachervision.fen.com/graphicorganizers/skill-builder/48615.html

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REENACTMENT

Reenactment is a strategy in which the students take on the roles of and live out a part of the lives of people who may have been involved in the event that is being reenacted. Basic Functions: Gets students invested in learning about the topic as they aspire to be historically correct Makes students eager to learn about historic events Builds a sense of community Students learn about the customs and costumes of the period as well as the history Alows students to showcase what they have learned for teachers and parents

Overview of Paired Questions: Teacher decides what units of study could be conducive to a reinactment and what exactly will be the focus of the lessons. Students need to learn the essential learnings while still developing the knowledge necessary to pull off this event. Class starts the unit on which the reenactment will be based several weeks (2-4 weeks) before the reenactment is to take place Once the unit is begun and the idea of the reenactment is broached, the teacher in conjunction with the class needs to define a plan of action to prepare for the event. Students and teacher must do in depth research of the historical event before they have enough information to recreate the event. The more all parties involved know, the better The next thing to learn is the customs, etiquette, and behaviours that were common in that era and in the specified area. This will help the students act in a genuine manner when the enactment takes place. The students then develop costumes for the reenactment. The more realistic the better, but only within reason. The teacher should present the student with a rubric of what they are looking for in the reenactment before it begins.

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: Students in New Brunswick doing the grade 5 Social Studies curriculum look at First Nations people and the fur trade. Some students could play explorers like Champlain exploring the nation, and other could play different First Nations people. How would they greet the foriegners? What kind of food did they eat? What kind of trading did they do? Why do their dwellings appear as they do?

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For more information: Jones, Rebecca N. (2001) Victory in Europe: A Reenactment of VE Day 1945, Social Studies & the Young Learner Volume 14 Number 1 September/October 2001

Duplass, James (2011) Teaching Elementary Social Studies: Strategies, Standards, and Internet Resources (Third Edition). Belmont, CA. Wadsworth Cengage Learning

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SITUATIONAL LEARNING

These strategies are often used to talk about difficult issues and moral dilemmas, but can be used for any issue which is likely to generate more than one point of view. Basic Functions: Asks students to explore academic knowledge, skills, and atttitudes make informed decisions. Engage in debates, discussions, and writing assignments Allows students to construct social encounters The students chose their own situation and structure personalized outcomes that may or may not be predictable

Overview of Situational Learning Strategies: There are three situational learning strategies that can be used to explore moral dilemmas applicable throughout the social studies. The Y Strategy (as young as grade 1): o The student starts with two large Ys o The Y beocmes the thinking prompt and the writing structure. o The student first identifies the percieved problem o The first Y is used to list potential causes or choices of action o The second Y looks at potential outcomes or consequences o The students use each stem of the Y to write their three causes on the first Y and three consequences on the secod Y. o Students then discuss in pairs, small groups, or with the entire class. o Helps students clarify what constitutes a problem and expands their view of the world around them. Points on a continuum(grade 3-5): o Theacher chooses a scenario in which students differ vastly in their positions o During the reading of the scenario or story the students record different positions or points on individual stickies. o The students post their answers along a continuum with opposite positions at opposite ends of the continuum. o Students then discuss and debate the different positions and possibly advocate one course of action. o Good for classroom dilemmas. For example if several of the teachers books have gone missing from the class library, the teacher can have the students think of possible consequences for what has happened. Students can then put the ideas on

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the continuum and discuss/debate the best course of action/future preventative actions. Students then can have a say in setting the classroom rules. Quote without Commentary (upper elementary): o Promotes clear communication and provokes critical thinking. o Students sit in a circle This shows that all participants have a vote, a voice, and value o Students listen to a brief discription of the conflict and take some notes. o The students are exposed to the full scenario/story o Each student given 5-10 minutes to write a reflection o One student reads their statement and noone is allowed to interrupt, comment, or respond to the quote o One by one around the circle all students share their quote. o Everyone must participate up to this point o The students then have the option to respond, comment, or add to their own reflections. Not all students have to participate o Continue until noone has anything new to add o The students may opt to create a list of comments for th group to consider o For assessment the students can be asked to write about what they have learned about themselves and others from participating in this process.

Ways you could use this in your Social Studies class: In the grade 3 Social Studies curriculum students are asked to look at citizenship. This is the perfect time to introduce these strategies. A book such as Hey, Little Ant or Amazing Grace could be read and students could be asked to consider what the dilemma is and to generate possible causes and consequences. This can be used to teach students about the importance of rules, laws, and moral behaviour.

For more information: Gallavan, Nancy P. & Fabbi, Jennifer L. (2004), Stimulating Moral Reasoning in Children Through Situational Learning and Childrens Literature, Social Studies and The Young Learner, 2004 16(3) pp. 17-23 Ogle, D, Klemp, R., & McBride B. (2007). Building Literacy in Social Studies: Strategies for Improving Comprehension and Critical Thinking. Alexandra, VA. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

SEE APPENDIX

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RAFT Description: RAFT is a writing strategy that helps students think about writing from different viewpoints. It can cross into various different lessons and subjects within the classroom. The students respond to the following prompts

Role of the Writer Audience Format Topic and strong verb


Purpose: RAFT helps students focus on the audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they'll be writing about. By using this strategy, teachers encourage students to write creatively, to consider a topic from multiple perspectives, and to gain the ability to write for different audiences Procedure: 1) The teacher decides on a topic for the students to write a raft on 2) The students the follow the format of RAFT and respond to the prompts Role of the Writer: Who or what are you as the writer? Audience: To whom are you writing? Format: In what format are you writing? Topic and strong verb: What are you writing about? Why? What's the subject or the point? 3) The teacher can also use this as a writing prompt for the students. 4) This can be done individually, as groups, or as a whole class Application: This strategy could be applied to a social studies lesson by giving students a Historian or an Explorer to write from, this would fall under the curriculum outcomes in upper elementary grades. For example: Rick Hansen. Then the students would fill out the RAFT as a writing prompt and continue to write from his perspective Reference: http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/raft/

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BIOGRAPHY WEB Basic Function: Creating biography webs allow students to recognize the influences that individuals can have on historical contexts. Students work in pairs to research a historical figure and complete five activities including book covers, timelines, narrative accounts, photographs, and maps. Materials: Foam/Bristol Board Photographs Research Resources (internet, books, autobiographies) Glue Paper Scissors Markers Time Required: 4-6 hours Steps Involved 1. A pair of students select a historical figure to research 2. The first activity in this five-step process, students design unique book covers, which evaluates the individuals significance in history. On the inside of the book cover they write an I Am poem, which provides the audience with a look into the life of the historical figure. On the other side of the book cover, students include a description of the significance of their book cover design. 3. The second activity involves students creating timelines, which identify the events in the individuals biography. The pair make separate timelines, which they will later compare. Following this, a third timeline is created which involves a look into the life of another historical individual that either lived at the same time, or had an influence on the life of the individual that the biography web is about. 4. Within the third activity the students compare their timelines to find five commonalities to compose a narrative account of the individuals biography. This is done through story telling with artifacts. Five artifacts are chosen that represents the individuals life events. The artifacts are listed and described in a table. 5. The fourth activity involves the students finding photographs and images to represent the individuals life and interactions. Students can also provide small captions describing the photographs. 6. For the last activity, students create maps that trace the individuals movements to create a sense of historical place. Ways you could use this in social studies/Example This strategy could be used in a social studies class by having the students pair up to research biographies of influential historical figures. In pairs the students would create a biography web together. Moreover, upon completion they could present them to their peers in the class. The below photographs are two examples of biography webs: Louis Riel, and Rick Hansen. These are two Canadian figures that are studied in the upper elementary years within the Social

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Studies curriculum. Biography webs allow students to learn and reflect on events, beliefs, and attitudes that influenced their life in history. End Result/Goal The end goal for this lesson is to allow students to work collaboratively to learn about historical figures. Moreover, students develop problem solving and decision making skills. This is an interactive approach to learning historical contexts while allowing the students use their individual creativity. Article Reference: Fertig, G. & Silverman, R. (2009). Creating Biography Webs to Investigate Individuals Historical Contexts. Social Education, 73:5, p. 244-246.

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Reading Reflections
READING REFLECTIONS

This section deals with reflections on articles read that related to the topics of Social Studies, teaching methods, and teaching strategies.

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READING REFLECTION #1

Jason King January 10, 2013 Building a Sense of Family in the Classroom

The reason that I have chosen the article Building a Sense of Family in the Classroom (2003, Greer, Greer, and Hawkins) is that community is a classroom management technique that I fervently believe in. Essentially, the authors are proposing that the members of the class are treated as, and act as, a family. This is essentially another call for communities to be built in the classroom, but as the result of a different underlying cause. The authors contest that one of the greatest struggles that teachers face on a daily basis is the fallout from unstable family environments. Therefore, they offer a list of methods and strategies that teachers can use to improve all students learning experience, but are that particularly beneficial for students from unstable home environments. Although I did not agree with all of the structures and activities, I did see how most if not all of them could be useful tools in building a family like community in the classroom. I love the idea of forging relationships with students and I have never thought of making the classroom into a family. I want to create a loving, democratic community, however I am not sure that is the image family conjures up for me. I know it is just semantics and that the reason for creating a sense of family is to provide for students that which they are not receiving at home, so I can overlook the wording.

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In general I felt that I preferred the suggestions for individual students and whole class/large group. The ideas for diads were not as appealing to me. Firstly, there are lots of pitfalls to peer tutoring that teachers need to be aware of. Additionally, peer mediation can be an effective intervention method, but why not have the whole class work in this capacity instead of just pairing people up. In that way all class members can learn and benefit from the experience and it is a more community wide experience. The only individual strategy that I have not implemented in a class before is the feelings journal. As long as the studen ts permission is received, I know that this could do a lot to improving the classroom environment and understanding the students moods from day to day. It can also help the teacher identify any serious issues. The whole class strategy that I like is the get well videos. I love this idea! I feel as though it may even aid the students recovery, knowing that everyone misses them and cannot wait for them to come back. It is more work for the teacher/students then a get well card, but the work would be well worth it. Building community, a sense of belonging and responsibility, is the most effective classroom structure we can institute to foster actual classroom management and learning. I hope all teachers can use methods like these to foster a fair, caring, democratic community within their classrooms, I know I will.

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READING REFLECTION #2

Jason King January 10, 2013 Critical Thinking in a World of Accelerating Change and Complexity

The reason that I have chosen the article Critical Thinking in a World of Accelerating Change and Complexity (2008,Elder & Paul) is that I am very frustrated with the learned helplessness that students in so many classes demonstrate and I strive to always make my students think for themselves. The authors contest that by acquiring critical thinking skills students learn to foster fair-mindedness and develop ethical reasoning. The authors then suggest two groups of questions to help us foster analysis and reasoning in our students. The two ideas that I took from this article are the two main ideas that were presented within it: teaching the analysis of thought and the quality of reasoning. Although it may seem obvious why students need to develop critical thinking skills, it is very helpful to have the questions divided into categories to help students focus on developing the skills they need work with. I have never really thought of it in this in depth of a manner. We need to help the students deconstruct their thought processes and this targeted questioning approach can help them with that. The first critical thinking conceptual set is targeting the analysis of thought. The idea is that students need to understand why they think as they do, they need to understand the elements of reasoning. Students should strive to understand what the purpose, point of view,

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and underlying assumptions are. They also need to understand the implications and the consequences of their line of thinking. Additionally, they need to know that we use concepts, ideas, and theories to interpret information. I think that this deconstruction of thinking into its basic parts can be a very helpful exercise. Students will learn to really challenge the way they think about things. Learning these skills will help students see other peoples point of view and really tackle important social issues. These are skills that I would argue that even the majority of adults do not really have. The second critical thinking conceptual set is targeting the quality of reasoning. The authors contention here is that students not only need to be able to understand and apply the elements of reasoning, but also need to be able to apply universal intellectual standards. That is they have to be able to reasonably judge their thinking and the thinking of others. Students have to analyse thought for clarity, precision, accuracy, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, fairness, and other qualities. I feel that it is very important to create students who are skilled thinkers. I would guess that the majority of the people we meet on a daily basis have not developed the skills to recognize when they, or others for that matter, fail to properly reason out their thoughts. People who are unable to use these skills can easily be sold a bill of goods. They are unable to truly understand the issues of our time. They are easily swayed by people with silver tongues. They become sheep, which is exactly why students in working class schools tend not to learn these skills (keep them content with the status quo). I will try to implement these questioning strategies into my classrooms in the future. I believe that students can truly benefit from this life experience.

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READING REFLECTION #3

Jason King January 16, 2013

Lesson Study: Teachers Collaborating in Lesson Development

The article that I chose to review was the Lesson Study: Teachers Collaborating in Lesson Development (Hubbard, 2007) article. I chose this article for several reasons. Firstly, is my interest in professional learning communities (PLcs). The first three pillars of PLCs are: a focus on learning (as opposed to teaching), collaborative culture with a focus on learning for all, and collective inquiry into best practice and current reality. Lesson study fits into the PLC construct very well. The second reason was that I was sitting in on Dr. Grant Williams high school science class on Tuesday and we were talking about a similar concept. We then watched a video from the TIMSS website on an American grade 8 science classroom and evaluated the lesson and teaching style of the teacher. For homework we were supposed to watch the Japanese classroom videos and compare them. This article is very similar to that activity, since this process is derived from a Japanese practice. This process would be informative one or two times a year, but it seems excessively expensive to me. Hiring four substitutes so that teachers can pursue this activity may be asking schools to commit more money from their budget then they have to give. Also, I fear that the presence of so many adults may have affected the classroom dynamics. I am not sure that this is the best way to do this activity. I am a fervent believer in peer review and reflection, but it

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seems like a whole lot of effort and resources to inform one lesson. Teachers should get together at the beginning of the year to decide on the essential learnings for the year. Then they should decide on how much time will be spent on each topic. This way teachers are teaching the same material and all students get the same education. The teachers can also get together to prepare the individual lesson plans. Then there can be collective inquiry. The other teachers can review the classes of their peers during their free periods. Some shifting of schedules would facilitate this. Finally, the team can meet to review the lessons, offering suggestions and reflecting on the strategies used. If this was done then more than one or two lessons a year could be done. It would not cost the school anything. There would be fewer adults, so the disruption to the class dynamics would be reduced. Overall, I believe that this concept is very sound. I would definitely be interested in using the collaborative lesson planning, the really in depth lesson plans, and the peer review portions of this idea. If I were doing it I would rearrange things a little bit. I might follow this blueprint once at the beginning of the year to get teachers thinking about best practices, but then I would do it in a more informal manner, without taking away from classroom teaching time.

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READING REFLECTION #4

Jason King January 20, 2013

Shipwreck: Using Literature and Student Imagination to Teach Geography

I liked the idea of Geography: The Essential Skill for the 21st Century and Shipwreck: Using Literature and Student Imagination to Teach Geography, but both articles fell apart for me upon reading them. The first article started off well and I loved how it showed that by examining real life scenarios we can deal with all of the GFL Standards. Then the article became a little bit too much of a capitalist manifesto, which really turned me off. The second article, the one I have chosen, was about a fantastic strategy that I hope to use again myself. This idea is superb and it was presented well. I have read Robinson Crusoe several times, so I can visualize how this could work. Where this article fell apart for me, was that half of the article was dedicated to excerpts from the book. I guess the point was that the teacher could point out these passages without actually having to read the book and locate the information themselves. I hope that I have drawn the wrong conclusion. Regardless, I love this idea and will use it. There seems to be such a strong focus on Literacy, writing, and mathematics today and unless other subjects are effectively integrated into these subjects the time they are allotted is inadequate. Therefore, this strategy is excellent and could be turned into a whole unit of study that would check off several Social Studies standards/objectives while also focusing on literacy and keeping the powers that be happy. I was very happy to encounter this article because in classrooms I have been in I have not seen Social Studies so well integrated into the curriculum

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and now I realize that it can be done well and effectively. Another result of this approach will be that the students are more engaged in the reading and more focused on comprehension and retention because the information on all of the pages throughout the book will be used to formulate the products: Charting the location of the island, making the survival list, and preparing a map of the island. As an extra added benefit the creation of a map of the island will also have cross-curricular ties with Art. In the interest of full disclosure, I will implement all of these strategies when I get the chance. The strategies that I like the most are the charting of Robinson Crusoes voyages and the creation of the map of the island. The charting of the voyage is important because it gets children accustomed to the use of maps. Even if children use GPS and GIS, a basic knowledge of maps is still essential. Students will also get used to the importance of landmarks in navigating. The creation of a map based on details from the book is an idea that I have used before and one that I think is great. I did this activity with a grade four class in Korea using the Scott ODell book Island of the Blue Dolphins (1960). It was a very effective teaching tool.

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READING REFLECTION # 5

Jason King January 22, 2013

Designing Classroom Spaces to Maximize Social Studies Learning

The article that I chose to review for our group final project is Designing Classroom Spaces to Maximize Social Studies Learning. I chose this article because I taught a grade 2 class during my field placement that had no scheduled Social Studies time. I believe that a curriculum that focuses strictly on Language Arts and Mathematics is a big mistake, and as a responsible educator it is my responsibility to expose the students to Social Studies, Science, and Art as much as possible. There are, of course, opportunities for cross-curricular teaching opportunities, but centres and classroom spaces are a great way to expose children to these subjects as well. The authors of the article introduce several ways to improve the learning space and provide students with visual and tactile stimuli that have meaning for the students. They contest, and I agree, that the physical environment has a lot to do with academic learning and behaviour. There were several ideas that were suggested that I liked. The first was real maps and charts. Our dependence on technology is a little disconcerting for me. Typing in a location on Google maps takes you directly to the spot. It does not give you any spatial awareness and does not really teach the students any skill. Furthermore, the article suggested several ways that teachers could find maps and charts. Furthermore, they encouraged using maps of imaginary places such as the maps from Thomas the Tank Engine and Pokmon. These maps would be

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quite interesting to students and would encourage them to learn more about maps. The other idea that I had never thought of was the idea of posting pictures of monuments and landmarks next to the Lego and encouraging the students to try and build them during their free time. I think this is a great idea, because it engages the students during play time, a time when they would normally not be focused on learning. I was a little bit concerned that the first three pages talked only about what teachers could do to decorate the room, but the authors redeemed themselves by writing a little about studentconstructed displays on page 4. My classroom management style involves me doing very little decorating on my own. Although I do see the value in timelines and maps, I see a far greater value in letting the students help design the learning space. I do not believe that these two ideas are mutually exclusive; we can create Social Studies spaces that are student-constructed. I know that in Canada we have strict rules that we have to adhere to regarding the percentage of wall space that is allowed to be covered, as it can become a fire hazard. My final observation is that the authors seem to be forgetting that this space must be used for other things such as norms and spaces for the other subjects as well as Social Studies. This is not a problem unique to Social Studies. I feel that all specialties/subjects want teachers to believe that they are the most important and that there subject demands more space. It is a difficult task to find balance. I have used some of these spaces before and I will continue to experiment with these ideas in my classroom. I will however, lean towards using student-constructed spaces.

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READING REFLECTION #6

Jason King January 29, 2013

Historical Thinking in the Elementary Years: A Review of Current Research

History is not the story of the past. This article examines the changing face and the changing place of History in our elementary classrooms. In the past History has been looked at as a study of important public issues, and social, economic, and political trends or as a way to mine the past for absolute truths that give us clear and obvious lessons. The abstract manner in which we view these concepts has led educators and policy makers alike to the belief that History was not worth teaching to children younger than 14-16 years of age. The author of this article contests that history is not what it has been viewed as traditionally, and that it has a place in schools from K-12 and beyond. She argues that even very young children ask and answer questions about sequence and causes of events, and that they are ready to be engaged by History. The author then informs us that there are six elements in the structure of the discipline of History. The first element is significance. This element requires that students learn to be able to distinguish between what is trivial and what is important. In order to be able to do this students must look at a persons, events, or ideas long-term impact. Additionally, they need to recognize that what we find historically significant is also impacted by societies current interests and values. Even young children studying You and Your World can look at the names of schools, parks, and other places in the community and explore where their names come from.

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Furthermore, by grade 2 many students already recognize the difference between history and the past. The second element is Epistemology and Evidence. Essentially this means that children need to recognize that there is not one true story of what went on in the past and conversely that historians do not just make stories up. Historians are like detectives trying to piece together the pieces of the puzzle as best they can. Younger children are more likely to take stories at face value and the older they get the greater their capacity to critically review data. However, with scaffolding children should be able to learn to apply these skills. Continuity and Change is the third element. Older people have more life experience and have a better grasp of the fact that things change. The younger the child is the weaker their grasp on time concepts (in general). However they are aware of past and present and have a frame of reference for things that happened within their own lifespan, so these experiences can be explored. Children do not comprehend the concept of decades or centuries until later in elementary. Sequencing is another skill we can reinforce that will help students understand change over time. Progress and decline in another element. I had never thought of this before, perhaps because I studied archaeology and anthropology and I have a better knowledge of the past. However, history texts tend to tell a story of constant progress. As time slips by we are becoming better off, happier, freer, more at peace. Students should be asked to look at how life has changed and whether they think that is better or not. Empathy and moral judgement is the fifth element. We need to encourage students to foster empathy and build a vision of a better communal world. We also need to encourage

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students to look at the way people behaved as well as their attitudes and values across time and in other places. The children will learn about empathy and will weave a stronger moral fibre by being exposed to this type of reflection. The last element is historical agency. This element asks students to recognize that the actions of the people who have come before us have had consequences, good and bad, and that there actions will also help to shape the future. Students are required to see themselves as being part of the time continuum, inheriting legacies from the past and helping to make the future. I like how this article broke down history into parts and then explained when and how we could implement the learning of each element. The result is that, although students will not be able to comprehend some elements until they get older, that this does not exclude history from the curriculum entirely. There are still elements that we can introduce to children as young as kindergarten. I love history, so I am excited by this prospect of teaching it to my elementary students.

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REFLECTIVE JOURNAL #7

Jason King January 31, 2013 History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians

I chose the article History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians because the strategy contained in it is a very engaging one for young learners, or learners of any age for that matter. The strategy that the authors explain involves the students taking on the roles of historians, archaeologists, and detectives as they search through primary sources (including artifacts) and secondary sources to solve clues. First a problem is introduced to the class. This problem is the hook, the thing that draws them all in. Then the students examine and interpret the clues. Next they establish a hypothesis. They then explain their hypothesis. Finally, they evaluate their hypothesis and their effort overall. I think that this is a wonderful strategy, which I without a doubt will implement with my classes in the future. This lesson is very focused on student inquiry and learning. I am behind any authentic engaging strategy that encourages student learning. Furthermore, even though a significant amount of preparation is inevitable, the teacher is free to circulate around the room and observe and give guidance while the student directed learning is transpiring. The article also provides many instructional tips and ideas for classroom management. Although I recognize the need for much younger students, I do not like the idea of modified primary sources. Is there really such a thing? Are the Coles Notes For Macbeth just a modified Shakespearian masterpiece? A modified primary source is no longer a primary source

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in my opinion. It may be a necessary evil, but it detracts from the learning experience and it my opinion is a retelling of a primary account, not a primary resource. If the students are unable to decode the primary resources with additional decoding then perhaps the teacher could consider using artifacts, paintings, and other forms of primary resources. I am excited to try this strategy out. I actually cannot wait to begin my second field placement. I have heard that I am doing a grade 4/5 split. I should be able to do this activity with them. Perhaps the mystery could be from outcome 5.1.1 and I could have the students try to identify the culture that the clues represent.

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READING REFLECTION #8

Jason King February 6, 2013 Planning and Teaching With Multiple Perspectives

After reading about the six elements of history and finding out about perspectives it was interesting to read this article. I am very interested in historical perspective. The author encourages us to find teachable moments in the lives of our students to start teaching about perspective. A disagreement on the playground is a perfect example. All parties involved probably have a slightly different perspective of what went on. Historians often encounter situations in which they must take the available information and form a perspective of history, but many things can affect their telling of what went on. The authors use the example of Japanese-American prison camps during the Second World War. The students look at different kinds of sources and try to identify the perspectives that the sources provide. I think perspective is very interesting, and having travelled a lot I have been exposed to many different ones. I like the authors ideas of including multicultural picture books. I think this would be a particularly powerful strategy if the books were actually books from those foreign countries that have been translated. The reason that I feel this way is because a JapaneseAmerican does not have the same experiences and point of view as a Japanese person who has always lived in Japan. The culture of their new home affects their perspective. A good example might be that Japanese-Americans, Chinese-Americans, and Korean-Americans seem to have a different kind of harmony than Japanese, Chinese, and Korean people do. Although things are

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getting better, many Chinese and Korean people have a hard time forgetting about the occupation of their nations and the horrible war crimes that took place in their countries. Another interesting point that the authors brought up was evaluating the strength of the source as a historical resource. Is the point of view one that is accepted by historians and documented with historical evidence? For example a books about the pyramids being built by aliens may not have the same historical capital as one about the pyramids being built by slaves and loyal subjects of the pharaoh when the waters of the Nile overflowed their banks. The question that arises when I read this piece is which historians are they talking about? Do they have to be American or Western scholars? The American historian almost certainly has a very different perspective than the Japanese scholar. I assume that both perspectives would be considered valuable perspectives, though some combination of their point of view is probably closer to what really took place. I look forward to investigating this topic further. Historical perspective is something we never considered when we went to school, and when you leave the comfort of home it is interesting the different points of view that you run into. I think this is a great teaching tool, my only concern is that the American-centric historical point of view is likely to win out more often than not. The people of the USA still celebrate Columbus day as a national holiday, even though there is a mountain of evidence that Europeans were here hundreds of years before him and that he perpetrated horrific atrocities.

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Classmates Strategies
Classmates Strategies

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B IOGROPHY W EB
Shawn Boyle, Julia Sharun, Mike Doran, Jason King

Basic Function: Creating biography webs allow students to recognize the influences that individuals can have on historical contexts. Students work in pairs to research a historical figure and complete five activities including book covers, timelines, narrative accounts, photographs, and maps.

Materials: Foam/Bristol Board Photographs Research Resources (internet, books, autobiographies) Glue Paper Scissors Markers

Time Required: 3-4 hours

Steps Involved 1) A pair of students select a historical figure to research 2) The first activity in this five-step process, students design unique book covers, which evaluates the individuals significance in history. On the inside of the book cover they write an I Am poem, which provides the audience with a look into the life of t he historical figure. On the other side of the book cover, students include a description of the significance of their book cover design. 3) The second activity involves students creating timelines, which identify the events in the individuals biography. Th e pair make separate timelines, which they will later compare. Following this, a third timeline is created which involves a look into the life

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of another historical individual that either lived at the same time, or had an influence on the life of the individual that the biography web is about. 4) Within the third activity the students compare their timelines to find five commonalities to compose a narrative account of the individuals biography. This is done through story telling with artifacts. Five artifacts are chosen that represents the individuals life events. The artifacts are listed and described in a table. 5) The fourth activity involves the students finding photographs and images to represent the individuals life and interactions. Students can also pro vide small captions describing the photographs. 6) For the last activity, students create maps that trace the individuals movements to create a sense of historical place.

Ways you could use this in social studies/Example This strategy could be used in a social studies class by having the students pair up to research biographies of influential historical figures. In pairs the students would create a biography web together. Moreover, upon completion they could present them to their peers in the class. The below photographs are two examples of biography webs: Louis Riel, and Rick Hansen. These are two Canadian figures that are studied in the upper elementary years within the Social Studies curriculum. Biography webs allow students to learn and reflect on events, beliefs, and attitudes that influenced their life in history.

End Result/Goal The end goal for this lesson is to allow students to work collaboratively to learn about historical figures. Moreover, students develop problem solving and decision making skills. This is an interactive approach to learning historical contexts while allowing the students use their individual creativity.

Article Reference: Fertig, G. & Silverman, R. (2009). Creating Biography Webs to Investigate Individuals Historical Contexts. Social Education, 73:5, p. 244-246.

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P ROCESS D RAMA

Candace & Sarah G

Basic Functions: Process Drama enables students to explore curriculum and experience the content through using scripted and unscripted drama. Process Drama forces students to think critically, build problemsolving skills, and participate in higher order thinking. It presents an outlet for students to understand novel and complex themes/concepts. The pedagogy of Process Drama utilizes imagination and creates an extensive variety of learning possibilities. In upper grades, students can be asked to improvise to a certain extent, which promotes mental agility, spontaneity, and cooperation with others. Furthermore, it can span across subject areas, and it employs the use of multiple intelligences.

Steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduce topic area to students Explain the concept of Process Drama Assign roles (or decide as a class) Allow students to explore roles, and learn through the process of investigation

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5. Prompt students to make connection between roles, which will hopefully lead to the understanding of larger themes/concepts within the curriculum. 6. Discuss the outcomes of the activity as a class. 7. Students can re-act their scene after the discussion, changing aspects of their role if necessary. The steps can vary, depending on the goals and objectives of a particular class.

Implement Process Drama in Social Studies:

This strategy can be used in social studies in many different ways. Students could re-enact a moment of history or create a skit based on historical facts about ancient times. These historical skits do not have to be specific things that actually happened in history; instead they could just consist of historical components with a story line that was created by your students.

Implement Process Drama across curriculum:

This strategy can be used across the curriculum for many other subject areas such as language arts and science. For language arts, students could act out a scene from a text they are reading, and the teacher could use this to check for understanding (formative assessment). If students display the incorrect passage of the text, then the teacher can see that the student does not understand the text. Process drama can be used in science as well. Students in grade 3 could make skits about how photosynthesis works or about the growth of a plant. Process drama could even be used in math to talk about math strategies. These skits may be shorter, but they are still beneficial for students to create because it reinforces that math strategy in their head.

Resources: www.teachingheart.net/readerstheater.htm http://digitaldjs.info/joomla/index.php/process-drama http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators/how-to/from-theory-to-practice/process-drama.aspx

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59

M EDIA T IMELINE

Rebecca Steeves, Brittany MacPherson, Lieneke den Otter Basic function/purpose For students to actively engage in creating a timeline of events using objects alongside of the text. By using actual objects or pictures students are able to creatively come up with ideas of different things to represent the different stages of the timeline. Steps 1. Decide on a topic and the time period if they choose to create a timeline of historical events 2. As a class (or individually) come up with different objects, pictures, or creative statements to represent the different topics on the timeline. (If students come up with ideas that do not characterize that topic well do not put down their idea but rather elaborate or direct the idea in a different direction.) 3. Create the objects as a class (or individually) 4. Place the objects on the timeline 5. If it was an individual project give the students the opportunity to present their timeline to the class. Materials/time required Paper Markers Artifacts Household supplies Wall Space Tape Glue

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Example of class activities The class (or individual) can create a media timeline of the events in a book they are studying or reading in class. Students can create a media timeline of the Class Schedule. This would be a fun activity for the first week of school. Students can create a number media timeline for math by creating the numbers using different materials. Ways you can use this in Social Studies: You can use the media timeline to help students explore a variety of topics pulled from the social studies curriculum and to help students understand that timelines can be fun. The following topics are some examples that students can explore using the times line. Create a timeline of the life and explorations of Samuel de Champlain. Create a media timeline of the invention and evolution of the telephone. Create a media timeline of the Prime Ministers of Canada. Create a media timeline of when each of the Provinces and Territories of Canada joined Confederation. Have each student create a mini media timeline of these different events. Reference to Articles and websites: http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/strategy... http://teachinghistory.org/teaching-materials... http://www.ehow.com/way_5233301_creative-ways... Results/Goal For students to produce either individually or as a class a visual timeline with objects and creative texts to help them remember the different events, but is also visually appealing and interactive.

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D ISCOVERY B OX
Alison Ladd, Shawnna Guitard, Erica Morrison

Basic Function: This is a resource that can be used as an engagement activity to introduce a new unit. It allows the students to explore new and exciting material independently as the discovery box contains engaging objects pertinent to the unit. The many clues contained in the box allow students to use prior knowledge and utilize critical thinking skills to evaluate how the objects fit into the unit. Steps: Choose Unit and read through the outcomes. Based on outcomes in the unit pick 20-25 objects to place in the discovery box For each object, write a clue or question that will help students connect the object to the unit ( write these on receipt card and be creative). Find a box big enough to hold all the objects and decorate it appropriately. The box should be engaging and appealing to students curiosity. Place all items in the box and place it in the class. Explain to the students how they are to use the box and let them explore. Materials: Box Objects

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Notes for clues/ questions

Example of class activity: As a class, have the students read through the clues and use it as a station, therefore all students will have a chance to investigate the box in small groups. You can use this discovery box as either a learning center, or as a whole class activity. It is very versatile and can be accommodated to fit any class and be used in any grade. Ways you can use this in Social Studies: The discovery box can be used at the beginning of a unit, or as an engagement activity to increase and encourage students curiosity of the upcoming unit. Furthermore, the discovery box can be a resource that students can refer to throughout the entire unit. This will allow students to make long-term connections over the course of the unit and enables them to have a deeper understanding of how the unit can be personally relevant to their everyday lives. End Results/ Goals: The overall goal of this resource is to get students excited about the unit to come and allows them to use their background knowledge of the topic. It permits students to have a discoverybased approach which enables students to be independent in their learning. Furthermore, it introduces new concepts and sparks students natural curiosity for an upcoming unit. References: http://www.worlddiscoverybox.com/edu http://www.theimaginationtree.com/p/discovery...

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S TORY P ATH
Kayla Jordan, Megan McBrine, Melanie Poirier, Michelle Dutcher, Amanda Schriver

Description: StoryPath uses the components of a story: the scene, characters and plot (critical incidents) To organize curriculum into meaningful and memorable learning experiences. This Strategy uses and inquiry strategy where the teacher asks key questions to guide students along the pathway of learning. Materials: Chart Paper (multiple pieces taped together) Story that is about Social Studies or that can be tied to the Social Studies Curriculum or Historical Document Paint Markers Paper Scissors Glue Pencils Purpose: Storypath offers both a structure for organizing the curriculum and an instructional strategy for teaching. Application in a Social Studies Classroom: StoryPath applies to the Social Studies classroom as it gives students an organizational way to

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pull our critical incidents in stories (Social Studies Themes) or historical events. Procedures: 1. Pick a story or historical document to present to the class. 2. As a class, pick out the critical event that takes place. 3. Students create a mural (the backdrop) of the setting of critical event. 4. Characters that are present during the critical event are created. Ensure that characters coincide with the mural presented. 5. Present critical incident using the characters and the mural. 6. Teacher poses a question to the students about the critical event. This question ensures that students critically evaluate the situation that was highlighted. This is a great way to get students thinking on their own about themes in Social Studies. Example: Social Studies Outcomes: K.1.1: Demonstrate and Understanding of themselves as unique and special. K.1.3: Identify needs and wants that are common to all children. K.1.7: Communicate effectively, solve problems and demonstrate conflict resolution skills. Title: Amazing Grace Critical Event / Script for StoryPath: Amazing Grace by Narrator: Grace was a girl who loved stories. She didnt mind if they were read to her or told to her or made up in her own head. She didnt care if they were from books or on TV or in films or on the video or out of Nanas long memory. Grace just loved stories. And after she had heard them, or sometimes while they were still going on, Grace would act them out. And she always gave herself the most exciting parts. But most of all Grace loved to act pantomimes. She liked to be Dick Whittington turning to hear the bells of London Town or Aladdin rubbing the magic lamp. The best characters in pantomimes were boys, but Grace played them anyway. One day at school her teacher said they were going to do the play of Peter Pan. Grace put up her hand to bePeter Pan Raj: You cant be called Peter! Thats a boys name!

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Narrator: But Grace kept her hand up. Natalie: whispers You cant be Peter Pan. He wasnt black Narrator: But Grace kept her hand up. Teacher: All right, lots of you want to be Peter Pan, so well have to have auditions. Well choose the parts next Monday. Mural: Tape four pieces of chart paper together lengthwise; create the backdrop for the StoryPath. In this case it is a classroom setting. Create characters from the critical event: Grace, two students who were whispering and a group of the surrounding students in the classroom. Present critical event to the class through the StoryPath. Teacher will ask the thought-provoking question at the end.

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S TEP B OOKS
Kayla Brinston, Chelsea Gaudet & Kelsey Redmond

Basic Function: To familiarize students with a certain subject or topic in an engaging way. Students will know the 5Ws (Who, What, When, Why, Where) of their topic. Steps Involved: 1. Students take 7 pieces of construction paper and staple them together at the top 2. Cut each piece of paper, starting small, and gradually get larger. The last page, the back should not be cut at all. 3. Label each section: Who, What, Where, When, Why and the last page will be for references 4. Cut 5 pieces of card stock into squares that will fit on the construction paper (this will be used to write your information on 5. Research information and record on to the cardstock 6. Decorate your title page and include your references on the back page Materials/Time Required: 7 pieces of construction paper Card stock Any supplementary materials you would like to decorate with

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Scissors Glue Markers Stapler Time Required: Two 60 minute classes (time to prepare Stepbook and time to present)

Example of Class Activities: For example, the Stepbook could be created to show information about land, ocean and space explorers. It could also be used to enhance knowledge of any specific subject. Ways you could use in Social Studies: The Stepbook highlights the most important information you need to know about a certain topic in Social Studies. For example, when learning about explorers it narrows the information down to the most important minimum requirements. Reference to Articles and Websites: http://www.vickiblackwell.com/makingbooks/ind... http://www.atozteacherstuff.com/pages/428.sht... End result/goal: The end result should be a creative and well organized Stepbook that demonstrates the students knowledge of a particular subject or topic. The goal would be to create a resource that other students could use to learn about the topic.

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N EWSPAPERS AS A R ESOURCE W ORD W ALL WITH NEWSPAPER ARTICLE


Basic Function: The basic function of a word wall is to give students a visual reference for new, difficult, important, or unit specific words. The most helpful word walls grow and change throughout the year or unit, and are used as a learning reference. Word walls help students see patterns and relationships in words. They can also provide reference support for children during reading and writing activities. Steps: 1. The class reads a chosen newspaper article (can be done individually in pairs or as a whole class on the Smartboard). 2. Students suggest interesting words that they dont regularly use or dont understand to add to the word wall. 3. Re-read the sentences of the article with the challenging words again and try to develop a definition of the word before looking up in the dictionary or using (www.dictionary.com). 4. Put words on chart paper/poster board in word wall form. Words can be ordered alphabetically or perhaps by putting the article in the center and the words scattered around linked to where they appear in the article. 5. Discuss the article/language and words used as it pertains to the topic you are discussion in the class. Materials/Resources: Smartboard Newspaper article(s) White paper Construction paper Poster Board/Bulletin Board Markers/coloured pencils Dictionaries/ Dictionary.com

Time required: 30 minutes Examples of activities: We chose to use a word wall with a newspaper article as an introduction to a grade three unit about promoting positive interactions among people. We chose an article about Maurice Richard

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and the hockey violence from 1955 to introduce a historical aspect to an issue that is still current. Picking out the new vocabulary from the article will introduce students to new words and also create discussion about the kinds of words and actions we should use when we interact with people.

End Result/ Goal: The end result/ goal of our word wall activity is for students to develop their vocabulary around a particular subject and understand that violence in any form is not acceptable and these actions affect other people. Other ways to use this in social studies: 1) There are many different ways that you could use a word wall alongside a newspaper article in Social Studies. You could use it simply as a vocabulary enrichment to introduce words about a particular topic you want to cover. Find a newspaper about historical topic or even a current event or unit that you will be covering and use the article to pull out the vocabulary students will come across in the unit. Students will be able to pull out new or interesting words from the article to make a word wall while also being introduced to the unit of study. Comparing a historical issue with a modern issue

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2) You could also use a word wall with newspaper articles to introduce a discussion about multiple perspectives. You could choose a historic event, find a local news story about the event and a foreign new story about the event (make sure they show differing perspectives about the event). Have students make thematic word walls to compare the words and language used to describe what happened in order to compare words. Are the descriptive words they use different? Are there words that contradict each other? **You could also do this activity using an issue that has persisted throughout time and find a historical article and a current article and compare the language in that way. 3) You could also use this in an opposite way by using the newspaper article in whatever lesson you had planned for the day and then incorporate language arts at the end by asking students to locate and cut out words in the article from an already established word wall in the classroom. References: http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/word_walls/ http://www.k12reader.com/10-great-word-wall-strategies-for-classrooms/

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P ICTURE A CTIVITY
Joannie Hudon & Sara Facey

Basic Function: To help students better understand the pictures they see in the newspaper and to get them involved with the news. This gets students to read the paper imagine a different way to represent an article by adding a picture, or by taking a picture and adding a new title. Materials: Newspapers Scissors Chart Paper Glue Markers/crayons

Time required: For a pair of students this would probably take two classes of 60 minutes, this would give them time to do all of the drawings and create titles. Steps: Take a newspaper, find 3 articles without a picture and find three pictures. With the 3 articles, students must draw new pictures to add to the article (in doing this, students must read the article to understand what it is about.) Students must then take a piece of chart paper and then glue the pictures with the articles. Once students have completed that they are to take the 3 pictures and create new titles for them (Students must analyze the pictures so that they can come up with new titles for the pictures) Students must the glue the pictures and new titles to a piece of chart paper.

Example: The example is attached as pictures. Ways to use this in social studies: You can use this to keep students up to date on current events. It gets students read articles, understand what they are reading, it gets them to be creative and think critically about what they are reading. End Goal: The end goal is for students to get started on creating their own paper. Students will have created 3 new titles for pictures and create 3 new pictures for articles.

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References: For changing the title of a picture: Luke, D., & Ann, W. (2007). The saffron scourge: Society, politics and disease. Social Educaiton, 71(1), 40-43. Retrieved from publications.socialstudies.org/se/7101/71010740.pdf For adding new pictures to an article: Abbott, J. (2001). Newspaper in education: A guide for weekly and community newspapers. Newspaper in Education Service Providers, Retrieved from http://www.americanpressinstitute.org/docs/Fo...

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NEWSPAPER

F RONT P AGE

Miss Hallie Maz and Mrs. Jordan Gallant Basic Function: Students organize and synthesize main events in time into an appropriate newspaper format. The completed product will be a newspaper front page based on knowledge of a past, present, or possible future events. This will actively help students to grasp the purpose of the newspaper format as well as summarizing, pulling out key events, and doing historical research. Students are given the opportunity to examine the context of the event they choose, such as other issues at that time, the weather, etc. If students are predicting future events they learn to base predictions on current knowledge and synthesize their ideas using higher-order thinking. Steps: 1. Students are given, or choose a key event of the past, present, or possible future to headline in their newspaper. This can be done in groups or as individuals. 2. Students are given newspaper examples, possibly historical, but also may be current, to use for formatting ideas. 3. Have them look for key elements of the front page of the newspaper. These may include a headline, images, date, newspaper title, articles, weather, etc. 4. Students create their own newspaper front page, by hand or digitally, that highlights relevant information and style for the time/event they have chosen. Materials: Newspapers for each student or group, research materials/technology access, Exemplar of a front page (see attached), crafting materials for handmade products. Example of class activities for Social Studies: Present students with a question (ie: Who was the first Canadian in Space? or Who was the first Prime Minister of Canada and what day were they elected?) Students find the answer to the question and present this as the first page article (project). Have students explore possible futures by taking a current issue and creating a future newspaper presenting a possible outcome. Students may explore a current issue such as Riots in Egypt and write a possible future where rioters take power or the current government calms talks. Issues of poverty, media, environment, etc. could also be addressed.

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Goals: Students create a front page of the newspaper that shows their understanding of the newspaper as a media form and the issue or event they are exploring. Students will understand the value of building previous subject knowledge and contextualizing various events and biases of those involved. References: http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/lesson-plan/front-page-news http://teacher.scholastic.com/LessonPlans/Titanic_SampleNews.pdf For Exemplar http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/astronauts/past.asp http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/m/marc_garneau.html http://www1.sympatico.ca/cgi-bin/on_this_day?mth=Oct&day=05 http://padresteve.com/2013/01/28/challenger-27-years-later/

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Looking at Careers

Sarah Palmer & Kendra MacDougall

Basic Function (Purpose / Rationale): Have students become familiar with looking through and reading the newspaper to find information. Have students think about different job options and the training they require. Steps Involved: 1. Look through newspapers for images showing 5 different careers. 2. Read the caption and article related to the image. 3. Cut the image out and glue it onto a large poster board. 4. Write a short summary about what each job entails under the pictures. 5. Predict the training required for each job, include this in the summary under the pictures. 6. Title the poster and present to classmates. Materials / Time Required: Newspapers Poster board Scissors Glue Markers Example of Class Activities: Have students find 5 careers that interest them the most and write about the job and the training it would take to get such jobs. Students could also write about why they are interested in these jobs. Ways you could use this in social studies: In social studies, this project could be narrowed down, by having students look for jobs related to specific fields such as politics. By looking through old newspapers, or online newspaper archives, students could learn about jobs from the past and compare them to similar to jobs in the present. This project could even be changed to finding different events and writing about these events and having students think about why these particular events are important. Reference to articles and web sites: Newspaper Activities Support Childrens Learning in Many Ways http://kidbibs.com/learningtips/lt40.htm

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Newspaper in Education: A Guide for Weekly/Community Newspapers http://www.americanpressinstitute.org/docs/Fo... End Result / Goal: Poster board with images of 5 different jobs, and descriptions of these jobs and the training required for them.

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W ALL M AP WITH D AILY N EWSPAPER

Jordan Smith & Joe Ross:

Basic Function: The basic function of the wall map created using a newspaper is to provide students with a reference for new locations around the world, while simultaneously establishing the location of familiar places. A highly functioning wall map changes and grows throughout the year, providing students with the opportunity to add new locations as they read about them in the newspaper. Wall maps are a hands-on and practical way to provide students with a visual reference of where they are learning about. Wall maps are also provide students with the occasion to summarize articles that they are reading, making cross-curricular connections to Language Arts.

Steps: The whole class receives the same newspaper to read and explore Students begin to cut out articles that mention specific locations Students summarize the articles (brief, 3-4 sentences)

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Students use yarn to locate the places mentioned in the article on the map Students have yarn coming from location connect to the newspaper article as well as their summary Students can add to the wall map as the year progresses

Materials/Resources: Class set of newspapers Big wall map Yarn Tape Paper & pen (if choosing to write summaries by hand) Computer & printer (if choosing to type summaries) Atlas (for students who cannot find their locations) Internet access (for students who cannot find their locations)

Example Activity: We chose to use every location we found in the Tuesday, February 19th, Daily Gleaner. We located the various places on our map and provided the article and article summaries. We believe that this activity could easily be done throughout the year and that it is engaging and fun for students. We also thought that it would be a good idea to have the students come up with questions that they have about their articles, we believe that this would ensure that they are truly reading the information in front of them and not quickly putting together a summary. Another idea that would work in a Social Studies classroom is having the students consistently search newspapers for articles for a specific location that is being studied. This would provide students with various accounts of news from their specific location. Does the news from this location maintain a certain theme? Are there particular events that they can observe unfolding? Another example of a way to incorporate this strategy into Social Studies is to have students explore old newspapers and pinpoint the locations of the articles on a wall map. Are the locations just as spread out or did is the news more scattered around home?

End Result/Goal: The end result/goal of our wall map is to have students develop an understanding of the various locations that their news, in Fredericton, is about. The wall map is a strategy that works

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well in Social Studies, geography in particular, while making cross-curricular connections to Language Arts.

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QUESTIONING THE AUTHOR

Basic Function: To inquire about why the author wrote what they did to gain insight into what the author may have been thinking when they wrote the text. This helps students to better understand what they have read because they give some thought to why it was written. Steps: 1. Students begin by reading the text. 2. They then answer the following questions a. What is the author trying to tell you? b. Why is the author telling you that? c. Does the author say it clearly? d. How could the author have said things more clearly? e. What would you say instead? Example: What is the author trying to tell you? The author is trying to tell us how people lived in Ancient Egypt. Where they lived, how they worked, how they farmed, how the country was run, how they built their homes, and how they lived. Why is the author telling you that? The author is telling us this because they want us to learn about Ancient Egypt. It sounds like this was a project that someone wrote. I think that they really wanted to inform people about how the Ancient Egyptians lived and that is was they wrote this paper. Does the author say it clearly? I think that the author says everything very clearly. Everything is written clearly and to the point, not much room for any interpretation. How could the author have said things more clearly? I think that they author could have been a little more descriptive in their writing. The author just states the facts and the moves on. Had they gone a bit more in depth it may have been a more interesting read. What would you say instead? Well, I think that I would have described things more. For instance it talks about crops, I would like to know what kinds of crops they planted. Also when it talks about how the Egyptians wrote, the author never named them. If I had written this I would have been more specific, maybe

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talking about hieroglyphics. Ways you could use this in social studies: Students could use this when reading a piece of text to better understand it. If you wanted students to read a piece of text about the Nile river, students could then ask all of the questions listed above and understand the author better.

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POINTS ON A CONTINUUM

Basic Function: Allows students to examine and understand real world issues; stimulates rich and powerful discussion; students learn to develop a point of view and defend it; stresses the importance of research

Steps:

1. The teacher gives a reading or a scenario to the students which offers different positions or viewpoints. 2. As they read their scenario or story, the students use post it notes to record the different positions present. 3. Students draw a continuum line and as a class they discuss where to place their post it notes (there will be two extremes, one at each end of the line, and then the resulting in-between positions). 4. Once the line has been created, the students debate which position is correct in their own opinion. They must provide evidence to support their point of view.

How It Could Be Used:

This strategy could be used in an elementary social studies classroom when students are looking at how to be a responsible citizen. A scenario is developed by the teacher surrounding the importance of voting. Students read the scenario and identify the extreme points as possibly voting is not important, responsible citizens do not vote and voting is the most important thing for a responsible citizen to do. At this stage they would develop their points in-between, and then a debate could occur. Students could further improve their research abilities by using outside sources to support their point (books in the classroom, internet if available).

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VENN DIAGRAMS GET BIG

Main function: To have students compare and contrast two themes or subjects by using a graphic organizer Steps: 1. The Venn diagram has three sections, one section for each topic and an over lapping section to place the similarities of the two topics 2. The Venn diagram looks like two circles slightly overlapping 3. Write, or place the appropriate information on cards and get students to place it under the correct section 4. Have students justify why they placed certain facts in certain sections *The most important thing is to have students do the categorization of the facts for each section Example: Hula Hoop Venn Diagram: Teachers could set up over lapping hula hoops on the floor, label each circle at its center and get students to place word cards in the correct section. Human Venn diagram: Using rope create two overlapping circles in a large space, label the circles at their center, provide students a card with information on it and get them to stand in the appropriate sections. How This Could Be Use in Social Studies: Students could use the Venn diagram model to compare two explorers such as: John Cabot and Jacques Cartier, this will highlight the difference and similarities between these two explorers. References: Graphic Organizer: Venn Diagram: http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/lesson-pla...

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CHAPTER TOUR

Basic Function: Guide students through the reading of a chapter in a textbook. Provide students with step-by-step directions on how to successfully read each chapter of a textbook, drawing their attention to the important features of the text. Steps: 1. Preview a chapter of a textbook, making note of important points and features that students may overlook and what you feel is important for the students to take away from the reading. 2. Create a chapter tour for students that highlights the important features of the chapter for the students to use as they complete the reading. 3. Have students read the chapter, following the directions on the study guide. This can be done individually or with a partner; by working with a partner, students will be able to express their findings orally and on paper. 4. Adapt your chapter tour for following chapters depending on what is essential for student learning in each chapter. 5. Eventually, students will be able to successfully read chapters in textbooks and create their own chapter tours without the step-by-step directions. Example of Classroom Activity: Chapter Tour: Japanese Traditions Reading a textbook can be overwhelming for many readers, especially if you have no background information. Sometimes we can miss the main points of a text and get hung up on small details. Use this step-by-step guide when reading the chapter. 1. Write down the chapter title in your notebooks. Reflect on what you think the chapter will be about based on the title. 2. Write down one sentence describing the main topic of the reading (the title usually indicates the main topic). 3. Write down all headings found in bold, leaving space under each heading. 4. Write down at least 3 important points under each heading. This should be in point-form and in your own words. 5. Pay special attention to any words in the text that are italicized or in bold. Write these words down and provide a definition of explanation of each word. To find the proper definition for the words in bold refer to the glossary at the back of the book. 6. Look closely at the pictures and read the captions (bold and italicized) to find out more information about the picture. 7. Determine the heading each photo belongs under. Under the proper heading, write a short description of each photo (based on what you see and what you read in the caption).

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Ways you could use this in Social Studies: This could be used to study another society that students read about in a textbook. This could be used for students reading any history textbooks.

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MANY MEDIA, SAME MESSAGE

Basic Function: Students are given a topic and asked to represent what theyve learned using five different forms of communication: a written factual description, map or diagram. pictogram or comic a written puzzle, mystery or quiz and a pantomime or dance. Ways to be used in Social Studies: This strategy could be utilized in many different ways in the Social Studies classroom. Educators could use it to teach geography, culture, explorers, etc. Its possibilities are endless. Ways to be used in other subjects: Many Media, Same Message could be used in any subject. Science for example, they could look at a book about rocks and minerals. Students could represent the information using the five forms of communication. Steps: 1. Students are given topic 2. They write a factual description about the topic. 3. They create a map or diagram concerning the information they learned. 4. Next, students produce a pictogram or comic about the same topic. 5. Students get creative and write a puzzle, mystery or quiz. 6. Now its time perform a dance or pantomime.

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THE Y STRATEGY

Basic Function The student starts with two large Ys The Y becomes the thinking prompt and the writing structure The student first identifies the perceived problem The first Y is used to list potential causes or choices of action The second Y looks at outcomes or consequences The students use each stem of the Y to write their three causes (on the first Y) and three consequences (on the second Y) 7. More than three causes and consequences probably exist in the text, so student answers will vary. This will stimulate conversation. 8. Students then discuss in pairs, small groups, or with the entire class. 9. Helps students clarify what constitutes a problem and expands their view of the world around them. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Best Use: Best used in a grade 1 or grade 2 class, but can be used at any level. Helps students identify dilemmas and moral problems. Helps students learn about and distinguish between cause and consequence (effect).

Ways to Use in Social Studies: Use this strategy to integrate social studies (moral judgement benchmark and citizenship unit) It is important to integrate Social Studies into literacy as there is so little time given to the You and Your World Curriculum. Some example stories you could use include:

Munson, Derek (illus. Tara Calahan King). Enemy Pie. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle, 2000. Steig, William. Brave Irene. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1986.

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WORD SPLASH

Basic Function: The function of a Word Splash is to connect a group of facts and words into a larger framework for student understanding. It also helps the teacher assess students leaning at the end of a unit. It is a good visual representation of what students have learned in the unit and helps them to make connections. Steps: Teacher looks at the curriculum documents and identifies key words, information or concepts. Selecting 20-25 words that represent important people, places or ideas that can be connected to one another. The teacher then creates the words splash by organizing the words into two columns in such a way that a word in one column can be connected to a word or concept in the other. At the end of the unit students can then draw connecting lines between the words to show that they are related. They can also write a statement to explain how and why they are connected. This can be used for group discussion by pairing students up to discuss the connections they have made. The teacher can also create an overhead of the Word Splash and students can come up and complete with the class.

How Would You Use this in Social Studies? In a grade three Social studies class this activity can be used to when talking about Provincial Identity. The teacher can choose words in the different units that they can connect at the end so that students can see the long term connections over course of the year and throughout the units. Example: Urban Prejudice Atlantic Region Democracy Stereotype Rural Government Provinces

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HISTORY FRAME

Basic Function: The basic function of a history frame is to help students extract key concepts in a block of text and then organize that information. Steps: 1. Students are given a text to work with. They will read the text and then are asked to fill in the different parts of the history frame 2. They will fill in the title of the event (this is not necessarily the title of the book). 3. They will then identify the participants and key players within the text. They will want to identify who played major or minor roles within the story. 4. Students will identify where and when the event took place and what clues or hints the text provides to indicate setting. 5. The problem or goal of the main character (or the motivating incident within the story). What set the main events in motion? 6. Key episode or events, student will discuss some of the most important incidents or actions that influenced the story. 7. Resolution or outcome, how was the problem resolved or the goal achieved (or was it?) 8. Finally students will identify the main theme or lesson from the story. What have students learned from this story and what does it mean to them.

Ways to use this in social studies: History frames are a great way to organize importation and simplify complicated event for students. We could use this in social studies if we were studying important events in history (wars etc.) to help students understand important aspects and the reasons why these events might have happened. Another way you could use this would be in a unit about explorers and the reasons why people came to settle in Canada. We could give them information packages and students could identify key players, motivating incidents etc. References: http://www.readingquest.org/strat/storymaps.h...

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K.I.M. CHART

Basic Function: For students to synthesize and interpret new information and make it their own by writing a definition and drawing an image for key ideas in a topic. Steps: 1) Students read, independently or in groups, the article being used to glean key ideas. 2) Students create a three column chart with the headings Key Idea, Information and Memory Clue (hence the title K.I.M. Chart). 3) Under the K column, students write a list of key ideas from the article or topic. 4) Under the I column students write a definition for each respective key idea. 5) Under the M column students draw a picture to serve as a memory prompt for the key idea. 6) Students can share their ideas and/or use this activity as a review for the topic. Example: Grade 5 students studying the topic of ancient Egyptian civilization may read an article and glean the following key points from it: Key Ideas Information Memory Clue K- Pyramids I- Large stone buildings built as a tomb for pharaohs when they die. They were often buried with the resources that could make their next life more comfortable. M- Pyramid drawing

References: K.I.M. Handout- In Class (Thursday February 14th 2013)

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GRAPHIC NOTES Basic Function: 1. Graphic notes incorporate the various multiple intelligences we will encounter in our classrooms. 2. Graphic notes utilize a visual approach and incorporate text boxes and arrows from these text boxes in order to simplify the note taking process. 3. Graphic notes can help engage struggling students. It helps minimize weaknesses in language development as well as weaknesses in organization; using a visual format to simplify and shorten the text does this. 4. Graphic Notes can be used as a reference for review later in the unit. Steps: 1. Students are provided with a text and a rich visual that compliments the text. 2. Using the visual as a prompt, students will pull the important points from the text. 3. Students will create a text boxes that group the important points in the text into similar categories. 4. The text can be written in point form and contain questions that arise from the reading. 5. The student will draw an arrow from the visual to their shortened and simplified text, connecting their main ideas to the visual. Example: 1. If students are learning about Ancient Egypt the Graphic Note strategy could be employed. 2. Provide students with a text about Ancient Egypt as well as a visual representation of this text. 3. Have students read the text and categorize the main points they take away from it. 4. Once students have decided upon their main points, have them connect these points to the visual representation using arrows. 5. Students can share their creations with the rest of the class in order to discover what classmates determined as important. 6. Students can keep their Graphic Notes in their binders to return to when studying later in the units.

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QUOTE WITHOUT COMMENTARY

Basic Function: Using literature to stiminulate critical thinking and reasoning skills in a non-threatening environment. Strategy that focuses on the identification of issues and students provide reasons to support, or not to support particular actions/issues in a book. Helps to promote clear communication and provoke critical thinking. This strategy removes peer pressure and is a respectful approach to situational learning. It is best used in large groups in upper elementary classes. Steps: 1. Students sit in an open circle, facing each other. This allows students to have equal participation to be seen and heard. 2. Before reading the story, students listen to a brief description of a conflict and record their initial thoughts and feelings 3. After reading the story, each student has 5-10 minutes to write down a statement about the conflict. The students can focus on the characters, plot or the dilemma. 4. Beginning at any point in the circle, one at a time the students share their statement, other students are not allowed to comment or respond. This is repeated until everyone in the circle has shared his or her statement. No one is allowed to pass. 5. The teacher starts a group discussion, and a second round is started following the same format as the first round. Students are allowed to pass in this round. In this round around the circle, students are allowed to react to a previous students statement, or respond. This round continues until the students have nothing left to comment on. 6. After completing this, students make a list of commentaries for group members, or they can write a self-assessment statement. Article Reference: Fabbi, J. And Gallavan, N. (2004) Stimulating Moral Reasoning in Children Through Situational Learning and Childrens Literature. Social Studies and the Young Learner 16(3), pp 17-23.

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CINQUAIN Basic Function: Students become familiar with the cinquain form, and are able to draw out important facts about a given subject.

Procedure: 1. Students are given a topic and resources regarding the topic. 2. They create a concept map of their information 3. From the concept map they gather words/ideas they could use in their cinquain. 4. Create cinquain

Cinquain Form: Line 1: Noun Line 2: two adjectives describing the noun Line 3: three verbs showing the action of the noun Line 4: Four-word statement telling about the noun Line 5: repeat the noun or use a synonym for the noun Application: The use of a cinquain can be applied in the Social Studies classroom with any topic as a way for students to pull out important facts in a simplified poem. Specifically this can be used for a Grade 4 Social Studies classroom when studying explorers. It helps the students develop the ability to condense information, and determine what is relevant and whats not. Example: The following is an example of a cinquain on Explorers. It follows the format of a cinquain as stated above. Explorer Brave Determined Travels Helps Loves Explored the Canadian Arctic Discoverer -- this cinquain was based on the explorer John Rae. References: Read- Think-Write: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resou...

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CORNELL SYSTEM

Also known as two or three column notes Basic Function: A note taking guide for students to use while organizing information Guide is split into two or three columns First column is for the key points/major ideas Second column gives the details from column one in a two column system and explanations in a three column system Third column (if used) provides details (as the second column does in a two column system) Procedure: Students divide paper into two or three columns depending on choice of system Students label each column appropriately Students read text and make notes Students write down key points and details in the appropriate columns How would we use this in a social studies class? As a review sheet As a way for students to organize thoughts As part of a research project A way to summarize texts As notes for a presentation To introduce students to note-taking For individual and/or small group work Example: Provide students with articles on famous explorers and give the class a set amount of time to read and create Cornell system notes on it. Teacher has the option to ask students to present their findings to the class or in groups.

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READ-TALK-WRITE (READ-DRAW-TALK-REVISE)

Basic Function: Students are able to read a text, formulate questions based on this text and discuss with a partner. It also gives the students an opportunity to draw what they read in the text and to write about it. Procedure: 1. The students read the text given to them by the teacher 2. Pair up students, have them each discuss what they have read without repeating what their partner has said (also practicing not interrupting their partner) 3. Each student writes down what they remember from their discussion and what they have read. 4. The students reread the passage they wrote to see if there is anything that can be added (after speaking with their partner) * This should should timed so that students get to work right away and don't waste their time reading too much and missing out on the discussion portion. *Variation: Students can draw what they have read and formulate questions to discuss with their partner based on this drawing. Examples: Reading a passage about the people of ancient Egypt Read a passage of a primary source story instead of a factual passage (the deportation of the Acadians) Benefits: - Allows students to explore diverse perspectives of a passage - Builds on comprehension - Collaboration with their partner - Good tool for building memory - Learn how to revise a text and build on a text - Easy to differentiate - Help students to put information into their own words - Increase listening and speaking skills - Engage students more deeply in the text - Learn how to paraphrase

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Sum It Up

Description: Sum it up is used to organize key ideas within a text. It has two main parts, space for students to list main ideas, words and phrases as well as a space for students to write their actual summary. The summary must be limited to 20 words. Purpose: The purpose of this strategy is to give students a snapshot of the larger text. Its also to help students find the main idea of the text. Application: Once students are ready to write Part 2, the summary, the teacher tells the students that words are very valuable. If they were to put their text in a newspaper it would cost 10 cents per word. The teacher would then say that each student has $2 to spend on their summary (20 words). Procedure: 1. Teacher gives students a text such as an article, short story or a non-fiction information book, etc. 2. Students read the text and write key ideas, important words and phrases 3. Students pick the most relevant information and create a short summary of the text using 20 words to underline the main facts Example: Book given to the students was Down the Nile and they were to focus on the Sahara section. For part one student wrote key ideas such as: largest desert in the world, many droughts, farmers became Nomads. For part two, students wrote: The Sahara, worlds largest desert, has many droughts. Once farmland, farmers became Nomads travelling with their animals searching for food, as their summary.

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Word Maps In 3D

Basic Function: A visual organizer that can help students think about new concepts in several ways. Students construct a 3D map that holds information on a certain concept. Students can use the 3D organizers to quiz themselves much like they would with flash cards. It can be used over a wide variety of subjects allowing become independent in their learning, Students are able to work on a 3D organizer alone or in small groups. Can be used for studying or an in class activity. Steps: Fold a piece of paper horizontally into three sections. Unfold, and vertically fold the paper in half. Cut the top and bottom tabs in half t create four small tabs. On the front of the paper students will write the key concept being taught. They will then use the four tabs to provide themselves with information on the concept. Example Activity: Social Studies: Students can read a small article on Ancient Egypt. From the article, students select unknown or difficult words and find the definition, synonyms, and antonyms of that word. On the last tab students will use the word in a sentence.

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Appendix
APPENDIX

The appendix contains examples of some of the strategies.

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