You are on page 1of 5

Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Perilaku Ibu Hamil Terhadap Pencegahan Anemia dan Faktor-Faktor

yang Berhubungan di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kelurahan Jelambar Baru, Jakarta Barat,
Periode 25 Februari 2013 8 Maret 2013

Abstrak
Anemia pada ibu hamil masih merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan ibu dan anak yang kasusnya
cukup banyak terjadi di masyarakat. Diperkirakan bahwa 41,8% wanita hamil di seluruh dunia
menderita anemia. Prevalensi anemia pada ibu hamil di Indonesia menurut Survei Kesehatan Rumah
Tangga (SKRT) tahun 2004 dilaporkan sebesar 50,5%. Setidaknya setengah dari anemia ini
disebabkan oleh kekurangan zat besi. Bertolak dari kenyataan tersebut, maka dilakukan penelitian
mengenai pengetahuan, sikap, dan perilaku (PSP) ibu hamil terhadap pencegahan anemia dan faktorfaktor yang behubungan di wilayah kerja puskesmas kelurahan Jelambar Baru, Jakarta Barat, pada
periode 25 Februari 2013 8 Maret 2013. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian analitik cross
sectional dengan uji statistik analitik non-parametrik chi square dan Kolmogorov Smirnov. Populasi
pada penelitian ini adalah seluruh ibu hamil di wilayah kerja puskesmas kelurahan Jelambar Baru.
Sampel yang diambil adalah sebanyak 70 ibu hamil dipilih menggunakan simple random sampling.
Didapatkan ibu-ibu hamil di wilayah kerja puskesmas Jelambar Baru berusia diantara 20 tahun - 35
tahun yaitu 82,3 %, diatas 35 tahun 9,7 % dan kurang dari 20 tahun 8,1 %. Ibu hamil dengan tingkat
pendidikan tinggi 12,9 %, pendidikan sedang 33,9 %, pendidikan rendah 53,2%. Ibu hamil dengan
tingkat pendapatan cukup 43,5%, tingkat pendapatan rendah 56,5 %. Ibu hamil yang bekerja
sebanyak 53,2% dan yang tidak bekerja sebanyak 46,8%. Ibu hamil dengan pengetahuan tinggi 16,1%,
sedang 50%, kurang 33,9%. Ibu hamil dengan sikap baik 46,8%, sikap cukup 38,7%, dan sikap buruk
14,5 %. Berdasarkan penelitian didapatkan hubungan yang bermakna antara tingkat pendidikan,
tingkat penghasilan, pengetahuan, dan sikap ibu hamil terhadap perilaku pencegahan anemia.
Kata kunci: anemia, pencegahan anemia, cross-sectional, ibu hamil.

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Pregnant Woman Regarding the Prevention of Anemia in
the Working Area of Puskesmas Kelurahan Jelambar Baru, West Jakarta,
February 25 2013 March 8 2013.

Abstract

Up until now, anemia in pregnancy is still one of the biggest problem in maternal and child health
with a high prevalence. Approximately 41,8 % of pregnant woman around the world suffer from
anemia. According to Survei Kesehatan Rumah Tangga (SKRT), the prevalence of anemia in
pregnancy in Indonesia is 50,5%. At least half of these cases were caused by iron deficiency. Based on
these facts, we conducted a research about knowledge, attitude, and practice of pregnant woman
regarding the prevention of anemia in the working area of puskesmas kelurahan Jelambar Baru, West
Jakarta, between February 25 2013 March 8 2013. The design which is used on this research was
analytic cross-sectional with statistic test using non-parametric test such as chi-square and
Kolmogorov Smirnov. Target population is all pregnant woman in the working area of puskesmas
kelurahan Jelambar Baru. The number of sample is 70 pregnant woman which was chosen using
simple random sampling method. From this research, the researcher found age distribution, obtained
from pregnant woman in the working area of puskesmas kelurahan Jelambar Baru aged between 20
years - 35 years was 82.3%, above 35 years of 9.7% and less than 20 years of 8.1%. Distribution of
educational level obtained from the pregnant women with a high education level of 12.9%, mid
education level 33.9%, and 53.2% have low level of education. Distribution of income levels received
from the pregnant women are 43.5% of welfare income, and 56.5% pre-prosperous. Distribution of
the pregnant women who work are 53.2% and 46.8% who do not work. Distribution of knowledge
regarding the prevention of anemia in pregnancy are 16.1% for high knowledge, 50% mid knowledge
and 33.9% for low knowledge. Distribution of attitudes are 46.8% for good attitude, 38.7% for mid
attitude, and 14.5% for bad attitude. Based on the research, there is a significant relationship between
educational level, levels of income, knowledge, and attitudes, towards the practice of prevention of
anemia in pregnancy.
Key words: anemia, prevention of anemia, cross-sectional, pregnant woman.

Daftar Isi
Lembar Persetujuan
Abstrak........................................................................................................................................i
Abstract......................................................................................................................................ii
Daftar Isi....................................................................................................................................iii
BAB I

PENDAHULUAN......1
1.1

Latar Belakang...............1

1.2

Rumusan Masalah..........2

1.3

Tujuan Penelitian...........3

1.4

Manfaat Penelitian.............4

BAB II

TINJAUAN PUSTAKA....5
3

2.1

Definisi Anemia ............................5

2.2

Epidemiologi Anemia............................................................................................5

2.3

Etiologi Anemia ........................................................................6

2.4

Gejala Anemia...................................................................................6

2.5

Patofisiologi..................................................7

2.6

Faktor Risiko.............................................................................................7

2.7

Pencegahan Anemia.....................................................................................8

2.8

Pengetahuan, Sikap, Perilaku..................15

2.9

Kerangka
teori......................................................................................................20

2.10 Kerangka
konsep..................................................................................................21

BAB III

METODOLOGI PENELITIAN.... 21

3.1

Desain Penelitian.............21

3.2

Tempat dan Waktu Penelitian..........21

3.3

Populasi ..............21

3.4

Kriteria inklusi dan ekslusi..............21

3.5

Sampel................................ 23
3.5.1

Besar Sampel.............................23

3.5.2

Teknik Pengambilan Sampel....23

3.6

Identifikasi Variabel...........23

3.7

Cara Kerja............24
3.7.1

Pengumpulan Data....24

3.7.2

Pengolahan data ...........24

3.7.3

Penyajian Data..........24

3.7.4

Analisa Data......24

3.7.5

Interpretasi Data....24

3.7.6

Pelaporan Data......25
4

3.9

Definisi Operasional................25

3.10 Etika Penelitian............41


3.11 Sarana Penelitian.41
BAB IV

HASIL PENELITIAN........42

BAB V

PEMBAHASAN....49

5.1

Keterbatasan Penelitian.......................................................................................49

5.2

Sebaran Umur, Tingkat Pendidikan, Tingkat Pendapatan, Status Pekerjaan, serta


Pengetahuan,

Sikap,

dan

Perilaku

Terhadap

Pencegahan

Anemia............................................................49
5.3

Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Pengetahuan Ibu Hamil di Wilayah Kerja


Puskesmas

Jelambar

Baru

Terhadap

Pencegahan

Anemia............................................................................51
5.4

Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Sikap Ibu Hamil di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas
Jelambar Baru Terhadap Pencegahan Anemia..52

5.4

Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Perilaku Ibu Hamil di Wilayah Kerja


Puskesmas Jelambar Baru Terhadap Pencegahan Anemia..54

BAB VI

KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN..........57

DAFTAR PUSTAKA..... .....46


LAMPIRAN :

Kuesioner
Tabel perhitungan SPSS
Inisial Responden