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Focus on: Carbohydrates

Nutrients: Energ y Yielding or Not?


Nutrient Yes! Macronutrients! Carbohydrates! Fats! Protein! Micronutrients! Vitamins! Minerals! Miscellaneous! Water! Alcohol! 7 kcal/gram! ! ! ! 4 kcal/gram! 9 kcal/gram! 4 kcal/gram! Yields Energy? No!

Concept Check
o 1 gram carbohydrate 4 calories per gram o 1 gram protein 4 calories per gram o 1 gram fat 9 calories per gram o 1 gram alcohol 7 calories per gram o Vitamins & minerals dont yield calories or energy

Over view
Carbohydrates: Should constitute the majority of kcals in a balanced diet Provide 4 kcals/gram Groups of compounds made up of 1 sugar molecule Can be abbreviated CHO Made up of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen From grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, legumes

Simple Carbohydrates
Simple Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides & Disaccharides: Monosaccharides CHO made up of a single sugar unit Includes glucose, galactose & fructose Disaccharides CHO made up of two sugar units Includes: maltose, sucrose & lactose

Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide it circulates in the blood

Galactose is a monosaccharide it is the molecule that makes up of milk sugar

Fructose is a monosaccharide also referred to as fruit sugar

Image: Jose Paolo S. Borromeo

Disaccharides
Maltose Glucose + Glucose Sucrose Glucose + Fructose Also known as: Lactose Glucose + Galactose Also known as: What does each disaccharide have in common?

Maltose is a disaccharide its formed when starch is digested and is broken down by salivary amylase

Sucrose is a disaccharide also referred to as table sugar; in US, its the only sweetener that can be called sugar on labels Lactose is a disaccharide also referred to as milk sugar; people with lactose intolerance lack or dont make enough of the enzyme lactase to break down lactose

Image: Jose Paolo S. Borromeo

Complex Carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides Glycogen Storage form of glucose in humans & animals Where is glycogen stored? Starch Storage form of glucose in plants Fiber Indigestible, nonabsorbable plant remnant How many kcal/gram does fiber yield?

Glycogen is a polysaccharide made of highly branched chains of glucose branching allows for quick breakdown to glucose

Starches consist of either straight or branched chains of glucose starchy foods include breads, legumes and starchy vegetables

Fiber is made up of either straight or branched chains of monosaccharides human enzymes cant break sugar links Image: Jose Paolo S. Borromeo

Dietar y Sources of Carbohydrate


Dairy Fruit Vegetables Bread Beans Meat Oil & fat Sugars Milk & Yogurt (12 g/cup) no CHO in cheese Medium-sized piece or cup cut = 15 g CHO Medium-sized or cup cooked = 5 g CHO 1 oz, 1 slice, cup cooked starch = 15 g CHO (Legumes, dried beans), 15-20 g CHO/ cup No carb No carb 1 tsp = 4 g CHO (1 Tbs = 12 g CHO)

Deter mining Carbohydrate Needs


Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range 45-65% total calories

Recommended Dietary Allowance (Carbohydrate) 0-0.5 y.o. 0.5-1.0 y,o. 1-50+ y.o. Pregnant Lactating 60 g/day 95 g/day 130 g/day 175 g/day 210 g/day

What do you notice about a 1 yr old vs. 45 yr. olds CHO needs?

Application: Carbohydrate Needs


o 23 year old male, elite athlete, endurance runner o His daily esMmated kcal needs are 3,500 kcal/day o As he approaches compeMMon goal is 70% kcal from carbohydrate
How many grams of carbohydrate per day does he need?

Application: Solution
o QuesMon is asking you grams of carb per day o 70% of 3,500 calories come from carb o 3,500 X 0.7 (70%) = 2,450 calories from carb o QuesMon doesnt ask you cal from carb we want grams of carb o 2,450 calories from carb divided by 4 cal/g carb = 612.5 grams round to 613 grams of carb per day

For More Infor mation


o MedlinePlus, Carbohydrates: h^p://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/carbohydrates.html o CDC, NutriMon for Everyone, Carbohydrates: h^p://www.cdc.gov/nutriMon/everyone/basics/carbs.html o FAO, Carbohydrates in human nutriMon: h^p://www.fao.org/docrep/w8079e/w8079e00.htm o UCSF PaMent EducaMon, Carbohydrates: h^p://www.ucseealth.org/educaMon/carbohydrates/ index.html