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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: In this chapter the research plan and research methodology is implemented to answer the research queries

will be described and justified. Additionally, it gives the reader an understandable explanation of methods and idea utilized for the analysis. The researcher has chosen the research onion that is used for research methodology as suggested by the Saunders et al (2007) in the present research on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing: RESEARCH ONION: Research onion means answering about how a research must be carried out using a clear methodology that is needed for the research (Saunders et al, 2007). It shows a clear structure for the most appropriate strategies and methods to talk about the research. When answering the questions in the research i.e. performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing, it will help in expanding the new knowledge. Selection of other elements from the layers which also help in giving answers of research question can be explained only after deciding an appropriate research philosophy. Every element shown in the figure below in different layers is discussed one after other below:

(Source: Saunders et al, 2007)

Research Philosophy: It is the first layer of the research onion as shown in the figure above given by Saunders et al, 2007. An idea can get in it that what the researcher think about the research on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing. There are so many analyses about research process to direct the literature that consists of realism, interpretivism, positivism and also other research philosophies. The knowledge with the help of research philosophies can be described in different methods. There are some research philosophies, according to Saunders et al (2007) which play a significant role in management and business research and they are: Positivism research philosophy: Truth can be searched with the help of positivism (Saunders et al (2007)). The positivist researcher according to Saunders et al (2007), always thinks in a positive way, that the world is with objective and it is external. There is a saying that nothing is impossible because everything is possible but only if the researcher want to do it. A researcher works with value free manner with the help of this research philosophy and the research can be done as per the rules and regulations and it is making similar to the natural sciences. If it is on human behavior then it is not an appropriate philosophy. It is most of the time concerned with the science and usually it is concerned with quantitative research. The positivism philosophy can be helpful in the present research on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing. But positivism mainly deals with quantitative data and here the researcher not wholly dealing with quantitative data. Thus the researcher will partly use the positivism philosophy along with other research philosophies. Interpretivism research philosophy: According to Saunders et al (2007), interpretivism holds a thought on the contrary with subject of positivism that the world is usually associated with qualitative research and it is subjective. The researcher can get closed to participants and this is allowed by the interpretative approach to interpret their subjective understanding, the truth and request to the author in a method of getting deep understanding. Usually, according to Saunders et al (2007) this is related to get data on experiences and expectations of performance appraisal and it is a subjective matter. The researcher can get closed to participants and this is allowed by the interpretative approach to

interpret their subjective understanding the truth. The interpretivism philosophy can also be helpful in the present research on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing. But interpretivism mainly deals with qualitative data and here the researcher also intends to use some part of quantitative data. Thus the researcher will also partly use the interpretivism philosophy along with other research philosophies. Realism research philosophy: Mixing both philosophies of interpretivism and positivism according to Saunders et al (2007) is called as realism as using this research philosophy, the researcher tries to understand the effect of wider social forces by permitting to study for the social issues. Usually, there are 3 components in it and they are the actual, the empirical and the reality (Saunders et al (2007)). If the researcher get outcome after the structure is applied and this is come under the actual component. If the researcher talk about experience, it will come under the empirical component, and in reality component, it exists if the researcher experience and understand it. The difference between realism and positivism is that how real is different from actual. Some cases are there that show the difference between real and actual. The realism philosophy can be very helpful in the present research on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing as it is a combination of positivism as well as the interpretivism. By using this research philosophy the researcher can use both quantitative data as well as the quantitative data. Thus the researcher will go with the realism philosophy rather than going partly positivism philosophy and partly interpretivism philosophy. Objectivism research philosophy: according to Saunders et al (2007), Realisms alternative name is objectivism; it says that a reality exists in the independent mind. Through the growth of more complete information, it is an idea that objective can be exists and increased. It must be real objective in order to know the answer of the research question. This research philosophy is closer to the realism, and as the researcher has already chosen the realism, it may not be again useful. Subjectivism research philosophy: A certain method of conceptualizing subjectivity is called as subjectivism (Saunders et al (2007)). It means what build us subjects instead of objects. Processes are included in subjectivity that are indicated by the terms of mind, mental,

experience, conscious, will, agency, thinking, intentionally, remembering, feeling, understanding, interpreting, psyche and learning etc. The activities of subjects are comprised in these subjective processes. The researcher might be physical objects lacking of activity without subjectivity. This research philosophy can be useful but here in this research on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing, the researcher is not simply analyzing the subjects so this can be left. Pragmatism research philosophy: The philosophy of pragmatic has instinctive appeal, embracing appropriate methods, finding are used in a positive manner in harmony with the researcher who hold the value system and give permission to study areas which are in interest (Saunders et al (2007)). It can be argued because of this reason that the philosophy of pragmatic can be adopted for the purpose of management and social research activities as this is matching with the mixed qualitative and quantitative approach within the practitioner base research tendency. The pragmatism philosophy can also be very useful in the present research on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing as it is also a combination of both quantitative data study as well as the quantitative data analysis. Thus the researcher will also include this with the realism philosophy. Finally, the researcher has chosen the realism and pragmatism philosophy for completing this research report on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing. Research Approaches: Research approaches are in the second layer of above presented research onion. Two approaches are available for the researcher i.e. the inductive research approach and the deductive research approach, that is being presented in the below diagram:

Research Approach Types

Inductive Approach Deductive Approach

Source: Saunders et al (2007), research approach types Deductive approach: Works of the research using deductive approach is from more general to specific and it is also commonly called as top down approach (Saunders et al (2007)). Through this research approach, the researcher is constantly testing and developing a theory and finally comes to a confirmation and conclusion. Arguments in this type of research approach are based on rules, laws, and principles which are accepted and used for deductive reasoning. This research approach is best suitable for the researcher in which the researcher is working on i.e. on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing as using this research approach the researcher will go from general theory to a final specific solution and the results of this approach is also certain. Inductive v/s Deductive:

Deductive
Theory

Inductive
Observation

Hypothesis

Pattern

Observation

Tentative hypothesis

Confirmation

Theory

Source: Saunders et al (2007), deductive approach Vs inductive approach Inductive Approach: It works in a different way for example deductive move from broader to barrow and from specific to general. And it is referred as bottom up method informally (Saunders et al (2007)). A degree of uncertainty is involved in it and in its end is based on premises. This research approach is also helpful but the researcher intents to go from general to specific rather specific to general, thus this will not be used in the research. Research Strategies: It is the third layer in the given above research onion as given by Saunders et al (2007). Different research methods are utilized in this strategy to study the research aims and queries. There are some different research strategies that can be utilized for the present research on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing and they are Experiment, Survey, case study, action research, grounded theory, ethnography, archival research. The following is the explanation as given by Saunders et al (2007): Experiment: It is a classical research form that is made for natural sciences. Typically, it will include selection of sample, definition of theoretical hypothesis, control on other

variable and allocation of sample. This research strategy is not applicable to this study as the researcher is not experimenting on any new thing. Survey: A research method including the utilization of statistical surveys or questionnaires to collect data about persons and about their behaviors and thoughts. This method is partly used in this research as the researcher is intended to collect primary data from the focus group which involve survey study. Case Study: One of many methods of doing research is case study whether it is socially related or it is related to social science. It is nothing but a deep study of a single group, individual, community or incident. This research strategy is also helpful for this research as the researcher is also using the case study approach i.e. taking the case of Amazon. Action Research: In this research, the action will take to solve the problems or take some better ways to minimize or finished the problem and the action can take by a team or a community. If a team wants to do the research that will be iterative and flexible and their aim must be to improve process by performance and provide better services. Here the researcher is not going to make any action research or experiments but will explore theory and try to collect information from sample through a survey. Other important research strategies but which are not used in the research are as follows: Grounded Theory: A systematic qualitative research methodology highlighting the theory generation from data in the conducting research process in the social science is called as grounded theory. If the researcher observe a group then the researcher can find a practice of developing other theories. The theories are in the observable experiences of a group, there are some views of researchers that why those experiences be present. Ethnography: The cultural and cultural processes study uses the various methods to observes, document and research events, artifacts or people. Finally for the research on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing, the researcher has selected the case study and survey strategy to present the primary data of the research. RESEARCH CHOICES:

It is the fourth layer of research onion as explained by Saunders et al (2007) in their research onion. There are 3 methods like multi method; mixed method and mono method are included in it.

Source: Saunders et al (2007), research choices Mono Method: this choice of research i.e. mono method can chose for the research, when a researcher is willing to utilize a corresponding analysis and a single data collection technique. Therefore this method cannot be applicable to the present study on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing but rather the researcher will use mixed method as the researcher know the reason that mixed method utilizes both quantitative and qualitative techniques which explained below. Mixed Method: The mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods, which is used to find out the answer of research questions in a given single study, can be termed as mixed methods research. Because of using both qualitative and quantitative approaches in one or more following studies, this is considered as mixed methods which involve different kinds of research questions, different combination and procedures of data collection, involve different approaches of analytical presentations. The ability to unite confirmation and access exploratory research is one of the main advantages of mixed methods, as the researcher can also say that it permits testing and creating a theory in a similar study.

Therefore mix research method will be applicable to the present study on performance evaluation of virtualization with cloud computing as the researcher know the reason that mixed method utilizes both quantitative and qualitative techniques which has been already explained above. Data collection techniques and analysis procedures To meet the research aims, a hybrid-models data collection technique was implemented where together Qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques and analysis procedures are utilized.(Saunders 2007, p.147) validates the implementation of a hybrid-model to a thorough review of cloud computing. An additional benefit of such approach is that it allows triangulation to occur. For example focus groups may be an important method of triangulation data gathered by another way such as questionnaires. Baker and Goodyear (1998, cited by verdurme and viaene 2003) recognize that interactive qualitative method allows us to discover and to observe specific topics (in our instance fast food) through customers views and to recognize the foundation of virtualization of cloud computing. Qualitative outcomes in a few instances are approximate and typically not suitable for huge population. Nancarrow et al., (2000, cited by verdrume and viaene 2003) Author thus plans to perform a qualitative analysis to try to measure whether the inspection of the respondents in the focus group were representative of a huge population. By reviewing the above methods author determined, firstly to perform qualitative focus group followed by its result to prepare questions for the questionnaire. Data collection: In this study, both primary and secondary data sources were used. Firstly, for a better understanding of the background and problems related to the context of the virtualization of cloud computing, the literature review was written based on secondary data collection. Then the primary data was collected using qualitative focus group, which were then

quantitatively justified by means of questionnaires. Secondary data sources utilized in this dissertation consist of books, library databases, periodicals, web sites and other Internet sources. For gathering primary data sources, author utilized firstly focus group and secondly questionnaire.

Group interviews-focus groups: The qualitative data collection technique was implemented to acquire good knowledge in cloud computing. Participants in the focus group are expected to express their views in such a way that might not lead into various situations, or if interviewed personally. With focus group individual cluster members communications and answers are together held and very hardly succ eeded to continue the focus. (Kruger and Casey, 2000, cited by Saunders, 2007, p.340) In addition the aim is to provide circumstances that encourage comfort and freedom of thinking, so as to encourage conversation and self-disclosure. (gwbweb.wustl.edu, 2006, unattributed)For questions conversed throughout focus group and other comprehensive data, please refer to Appendix A. When planning questions for focus group author concentrated primarily on 2 topics; discovering customers approach for fast food, and recognizing the influences of external atmosphere which might affect the customer decision-making method about fast food. Having believed that costumers understanding and insight regarding virtualization will be scrutinized and the type of experience and viewpoint participants have with will be distinguished. Research Time Horizons: While doing a research, there is a significant question raised that whether a research is like a diary or snapshot. Diary means it is to be longitudinal and the snapshot means cross sectional (Saunders et al (2007)). Longitudinal Studies: Usually, same thing can be studied in different time. The development and change can be done at different time frame. This will not be applicable for this research as the current research is time limited and once completed will not be again expanded or reresearched by the researcher. Cross Section Studies: A research has no sufficient time or it is done in a limited time frame. If something has happened in different organizations at the same time and this will come under the cross sectional studies. This type i.e. cross sectional study will be applicable for this research as the current research is time limited and once completed will not be again expanded or reresearched by the researcher.