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Exercise 2

TERRESTRIAL SAMPLING TECHNIQUES


(Preliminary Report)

December 6, 2007

Submitted by:

Group # 2
Gerardo, Mary Antonette
Maguslog, Justine
Salumbre, Renz
Surquia, Joseph Michael
I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methodology


Materials:
• Worksheet (Appendix 3)
• Barbecue sticks
• Pencils and erasers
• Straws
• Scientific Calculator
• Personal Computer
Methodology:
In this exercise, the groups are tasked to do sampling methods of three ways, the
transect, the quadrat and the point-quarter methods wherein groups are tasked to identify
how they interpret the data that will be collected. Procedures used to establish the said
methods are improvised for adaptation due to the unfavorable weather.
In the transect method, the group used the line intercept method as instructed in
the manual. The group designated three parallelling lines of straws across five plant
boxes measuring 30cm x 15cm or 150cm x 15cm and counted the species present per
individual line across and recorded it. The recorded data were then subjected for
computation via Related Density and interpreted the results.This method is illustrated in
Figure 1.
In the Quadrat method, the group made square plots in every plant box measuring
15cm x 15cm bounded by straws in a total of five or 75cm x 15 cm. The said square plots
covered only half of the plant boxes covered in the previous method. The group counted
present species, recorded it and treated the results via Related Diversity also. This method
is shown in Figure 2.
The quadrats were then divided into four each totalling twenty quadrants with a
measurement of 7.5cm x 7.5 cm of quadrants in each of the five quadrat. The species are
counted and recorded separately bounded by straws in all of the twenty quadrants. This is
the point-quarter method as shown in figure 3 and the data are interpreted thru the
computation of Relative Diversity.
III. Results and Discussion

Sp. 1 Sp. 2 Sp. 3 Sp. 4


Bryophyllum pinnatum

Sp. 5 Sp. 6 Sp. 7


I. Quadrat Data
Quadrat 1 Relative Density of Plant Species in
Quadrat 1
Species Tally ni RDi
0%
Species 1 xxxxxxxxxx 10 62.5 0%

Species 2 xxxxx 5 31.25 6%


0%
0%
Species 3 x 1 6.25
Species 4 0 0 1
Species 5 0 0 31%
2
3
Species 6 0 0 4
5
Species 7 0 0 63%
6
7
Total 16
# of species 3

Quadrat 2 Relative Density of Plant Species in


Species Tally ni RDi Quadrat 2
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 2%
Species 1 xxxxxxxxxx 25 46.3 0%
Species 2 xxxxxxxxxxx 11 20.37 0%
0%
Species 3 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 17 31.48
Species 4 0 0
Species 5 0 0 31% 1
2
Species 6 0 0 47% 3
Species 7 x 1 1.85 4
5
Total 54 6
# of species 4 7

20%
Relative Density of Plant Species in
Quadrat 3
Quadrat 3 0%
0%
Species Tally ni RDi 0%
Species 1 0 0 0%

Species 2 xxx 3 9.375 6% 9%

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Species 3 xxxxxxxxxxxxx 27 84.375
1
Species 4 xx 2 6.25 2

Species 5 0 0 3
4
Species 6 0 0 5
6
Species 7 0 0 7

Total 32
# of species 3
85%

Quadrat 4
Species Tally ni RDi Relative Density of Plant Species in
Quadrat 4
Species 1 0 0
Species 2 0 0 0%

xxxxxxxxxxx 0%
0%
Species 3 xxxxxxxxx 20 62.5 6% 0%

Species 4 xxxxxxxxxx 10 31.25


Species 5 xx 2 6.25 1
2
Species 6 0 0 31%
3
4

Species 7 0 0 5
6
63%
Total 32 7

# of species 3

Relative Density of Plant Species in


Quadrat 5
Quadrat 5
0%
Species Tally ni RDi
0%
Species 1 0 0
0%
Species 2 0 0 22% 22%
Species 3 xx 2 22.22
Species 4 xxxxx 5 55.56 1
2
Species 5 0 0 0% 3
Species 6 xx 2 22.22 4
Species 7 0 0 5
6
Total 9 7
# of species 3

56%
II. Transect Data
Transect 1
Species Tally ni RDi
Species 1 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 15 39.47
Species 2 xxxx 4 10.53
Species 3 xxxxxxxxxxx 11 28.95
Species 4 xxxxxxxx 8 21.05
Species 5 0
Species 6 0
Species 7 0
Total 38
# of species 4

Frequency of plant Species (Transect 1)


Relative Density of Plant Species in
16
Transect 1

14

12
4
1 21%
10
frequency

2
3
1
8 4 1
5
39%
6
2
6
7 3
4 4

3
2
29%
2
0
11%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
species

Transect 2
Species Tally ni RDi
Species 1 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 18 40.91
Species 2 xxx 3 6.82
Species 3 xxxxxxxxx 9 20.45
Species 4 xxxxxxxx 8 18.18
Species 5 x 1 2.27
Species 6 x 1 2.27
Frequency ofSpecies 7 (Transect 2) xxxx
Plant Species Relative
4 Density
9.09 of Plant Species in
Total 44 Transect 2
20 # of species 7
18
6 7
16 2% 9%
1
14 5
2
2% 1
12 3 1
Frequency

2
10 4 4 42%
3
8 5 18%
4
6 6 5
7 6
4
7
2
0 3 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20% 7%
Species
Transect 3
Species Tally ni RDi
Species 1 xxxxxxx 7 25.93
Species 2 x 1 3.7
Species 3 xxxxxxxx 8 29.63
Species 4 xxxxxxxxx 9 33.33
Species 5 0 0
Species 6 xx 2 7.41
Species 7 0 0

Total 27
# of species 5

Relative Frequency in Plant Species Relative Density of Plant


(Transect 3)
Species (Transect 3)

10
6
9
7% 7
8 0%
5 1
7 1 0% 26%
2 1
frequency

6
3 2
5 4 ç 3
4
5
4 33% 4
6 2
3 4% 5
7
6
2
7
1
3
0
30%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
species

III. Point Quarter Data


Quadrat 4 Quadrant
I II III IV
Quadrat 1 Quadrant Species 1 0 0 0 0
I II III IV Species 2 0 0 0 0
Species 1 6 3 1 0 Species 3 4 5 7 4
Species 2 2 1 1 1 Species 4 0 2 4 4
Species 5 0 0 1 1
Species 6 0 0 0 0
Species 7 0 0 0 0
Total 4 7 12 9
No. of
Species 5
Species 3 0 0 1 0
Species 4 0 0 0 0
Species 5 0 0 0 0
Species 6 0 0 0 0
Species 7 0 0 0 0
Total 8 4 3 1
# of species 3

Quadrat 2 Quadrant
I II III IV
Species 1 10 8 6 1
Species 2 2 6 1 2
Species 3 2 7 5 3
Species 4 0 0 0 0
Species 5 0 0 0 0
Species 6 0 0 0 0
Species 7 0 0 0 1
Total 14 21 12 7
# of species 3
Quadrat 5 Quadrant
I II III IV
Species 1 0 0 0 0
Species 2 0 0 0 0
Species 3 1 1 0 0
Species 4 0 0 3 2
Species 5 0 0 0 0
Species 6 0 0 2 0
Species 7 0 0 0 0
Total 1 1 5 2
No. of
Species 5

Quadrat 3 Quadrant
I II III IV
Species 1 0 0 0 0
Species 2 0 2 1 0
Species 3 3 11 9 4
Species 4 0 1 1 0
Species 5 0 0 0 0
Species 6 0 0 0 0
Species 7 0 0 0 0
Total 3 14 11 4
No. of
Species 4

Relative Density was computed using this formula:


RDen= Total individuals species x 100
Total individuals all species

Results and Discussions


Line transect sampling is a popular method used to estimate population density.
The probability density of perpendicular sighting distances from randomly placed
transect lines are modeled to derive an estimate of population density.
For all three transects performed, species 1 is the most dominant plant
constituting 36.70% of the total population of species followed by species 3, 25. 69%,
species 4 22.94% and the rest. 14. 67%.
A quadrat is a frame of any shape that can be placed over vegetation so that cover
can be estimated, plant counted or species listed. Quadrats are used to define sample
areas within the study area and are usually made from strips of wood, metal or rigid
plastic which are tied, glued, welded or bolted together to form the quarat.
The quadrat method allows the user to define a fixed area, called a plot, within
which plant characters can be measured. Usually, a rectangular quadrat frame is used to
define the sampling area, although a quadrat can also be a permanently established area
within a site. Although the exact experimental design will determine where and how
many samples are taken, the procedure always involves measuring plant characters of
only those plants inside the quadrat. Quadrat sampling usually attempts to define plant
community characteristics for an area much larger than the actual area sampled. For this
reason, care must be taken to obtain samples that represent the entire habitat and that
eliminate the human factor. Usually this means employing an experimental design that
ensures random placement of the frame or permanent quadrat.
The purpose of using a quadrat is to enable comparable samples to be obtained
from areas of consistent size and shape.
For this exercise, five quadrats were surveyed and the following results were
obtained:
Species 1 is dominant in quadrats 1 and 2. On the other hand, species 3 is
dominant in quadrats 3 and 4. Quadrats 4 and 5 constituted 5 different species, quadrats 2
and 3 with 4 kinds of species and the least, quadrat 1 with 3 kinds of species.
Conclusion
The transect method simply refers to the establishment of a baseline along which
sampling is conducted. This method is typically used when there are apparent vegetation
differences from one point of interest to another within a sampling site. For example,
when sampling an area containing a river, wetlands, and uplands, establishing a transect
line that traverses these distinct habitats is a reliable means of collecting representative
data.
There are factors to be considered in relation to the use of quadrats. First,
distribution of plants, second, shape and size of the quadrat and third, the number of
observations needed to obtain an adequate estimate of density.
Regarding the shape, one should take into consideration the Edge effect. It is
minimal in a circular quadrat and maximal in a rectangular one. The ratio of length of
edge to the area inside a quadrat changes as circular>square>rectangular.
Edge effect is important because it leads to possible counting error. A decision
must be made every time an animal or plant is at the edge. For plants or animals that are
partly in and partly out of the quadrat, you have to adopt some reasonable convention.
For example, plants that are more half in are included and ones less than half in are
excluded. Include all the edge plants on the north and east side and exclude all those on
the south and west side.
Long thin quadrats are better than circular or square ones of the same area. The
reason for this is habitat heterogeneity: long quadrat cross more patches.
Different vegetation types requires different quadrat sizes. Vegetation with smaller
plants, greater plant density or greater species diversity need smaller quadrats.
The results of quadrat sampling are often related to the size and shape of the plots
used. The method is also very time consuming. Methods that do not use plots are often
useful and much faster for plant and sessile animal sampling.
The point-quarter method relies upon a random distribution of the organisms in
the area to be sampled. Uniform or clumped distributions will yield erroneous results.
However, this method is one of the most favored for sampling in several habitats
including intertidal and coastal scrub.
References:
http://www.psychology.ex.ac.uk/lundy/quadrat.htm
http://www.olemiss.edu/depts/mathematics/Departmental%20Seminars/Statistics/gerard.pdf
September 26, 2003
http://www.tamug.edu/seacamp/virtual/methods.htm
http://www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/howto.htm