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CLASSNOTES Floods Chapter13p.342370 (Someofthematerialaboutthegeologyofstreamsinnotinthetextsopayattentionto thesepartsoftheclassnotes) StreamsarepartoftheHydrologicCyclethecirculationofEarth'swatersupply Streamsaredefinedasrunningwaterconfinedtoachannelthatmovesduetogravity streamsdrainthelandtheareatheydrainisthedrainagebasin Streamsareerosionalanddepositionalagents Variablesthatcontrolastream'sabilitytoerodeandtransportmaterialdependsonVELOCITY (includingdischargeandgradient)availablesedimentandchannelsinuosity. 1.Threethingsaffectvelocity A.Gradienttheslopeofastreamchannelmeasuredalongthechannel B.ChannelCharacteristicsreducefriction a.

iction a.shapesemicircleideal;leastamountofwaterincontactwithchannel b.roughnesssmoothlessfriction c.sizereduceratioofperimetertoxsection C.Dischargevolumeofwaterthatflowspastapointinagivenunitoftime a.measuredinCFS(cubicfeetpersecond) b.AV=Q Aiscrosssectionarea(widthxdepth) Visvelocity Qisdischarge 2.Streamsfloodwhenwaterlevelrisesabovebankfulllevelthiscanbemeasured **waterlevelcanriseasaresultof:precipitatonandrunoff 3.Streamsseekequilibriumastateofbalancebetweendepositionanderosion.p.343346) Streamequilibriumdependson1)discharge2)availablesediment thatcanbemoved3)gradient4)sinuosityofthestreamchannel(p.345)

Increasedischargecausesandincreaseinvelocityandthusenergy thestreamhas.ThisincreasesEROSIONofthestreambottomor increasesSINUOSITYofthechannel(creatingmeanders)byerodingthestreambanks. Increaseloadcausessedimentdepositiononstreambottomcreatingabraided stream. 4.Streamserode(removalofmaterial)by: A.Hydraulicactiongenerallyunconsolidatedmaterial B.Abrasionbedrockchanneleroded 5.Streamstransportmaterial A.Suspensionsuspendedload B.BedLoadmovealongbottom,toolargetobesuspendedrolledandbounced C.FloodscanmovelargersizematerialbutalsocanmoveLOTSofsandandfinegrained mud D.Whendischargefallssodoesvelocityandmaterialisdepositedinfloodplain,innatural leveesandinchannel 6.Controlonerosionandstreamvalleydevelopment A.BASELEVEL(p.344) a.Ultimatebaselevelocean b.Temporarybaselevellake,mainstreamtotributary B.Anythingthatchangesbaselevelwillaffecttheerosionalabilityofthestream a.upliftland b.dropsealevel c.removetemporarybaselevel C.Anychangeingradientwillchangeerosionalabilityofstream a.channelizationincreasedvelocityofstream 7.Streamvalleysandcharacteristicfeatures A.Widestreamvalleys/MeanderingStreams

a.widevalleysfloodplainsandmeanderserosiononoutsides(cutbank) depositiononinside(pointbar) b.dynamicmeanderscutoff=oxbowlakes c.closetobaselevel,erodelaterally d.slowrisefloodscommon B.Narrowstreamvalleys/BedrockStreams a.tendtohaveVshaped,steepvalleywalls b.waterfallsandrapidscommon c.relativelystraightchannel d.farfrombaselevel,erodedownwards e.flashfloodscommon HOWOFTENDOFLOODSOCCUR?(p.347350) 1.Calculatefloodfrequency=howlargeandhowoftentheaveragetimebetweenfloodsof givensizetakenfromdatafromstreams(p.347349) Isthisfoolproof?noneeddataoverlongertimeintervals,noguaranteethefloods causedbysamefactors,changesupstreamwillcreateddifferentconditions 2.FEMAusesthe100yearfloodforbuildingregulationsthereisa1%changeeachyearthat thislevelfloodcouldoccur(p.328) Problemmuchofthepublicthinksthismeansa100yearfloodwillonlyhappenevery 100yearsnottrue! Mapsareavailablewith100yearfloodoutlines 3.ManypeopleliveonfloodplainsNFIP(NationalFloodInsuranceProgram)wasestablishedI n1968toofferprotectionforpeoplelivingonfloodplains Floodwaystreamchannelandbankswherewaterisdeepandfastnobuilding allowed

FloodFringeunderwaterbutshallowerwaterandslowsmoreslowlyconstruction allowedaslongaslowestusablefloorisabove100yearfloodlevel ****************** WHYDOFLOODSOCCUR? 1.Streamsdevelopchannelsduringtimesofnormalrainfall 2.Floodsoccurwhen: a)precipitationisabovenormalindrainagebasin b)suddensnow/icemelt c)landslides d)modificationsfire&urbanization=morerunoff e)damfailure f)geographyofstreambasin/area 3.FloodsCOSTMONEYPopulationgrowthdevelopmentin floodplains

TYPESOFFLOODS

1.FLASHFLOODSveryrapid,usuallysmalldrainagebasin(p.351353) occurinsemiaridareasmostoftencanyonsmostdangerous CASESTUDIES 1)AntelopeCanyon,AZ1997p.351popularcanyonhike a)slotcanyonupto100deepandfewfeetwide b)raininarea11milesaway c)11highwallofwatermoveddowncanyon d)11deadonesurvivor(guide) 2)BigThompsonCanyon,CO1976p.352popularrecreationareaoutsideofDenver a)139dead b)$3650millionindamage c)7.5rainin4hours d)20highwallofwater e)NewRoadSignsclimbtosafetyincaseofflashflood!

2.REGIONALORSLOWRISEFLOODS Highwatermaycoveranareaforweekscauseextensivedamage Occurinlargerivervalleys. CASESTUDY 1)MississippiRiver1993(p.355359) a)Mostexpensiveanddeadlyever$1520Billion48dead b)Whydidithappen? 1.weatherJanJuly>ave.rainfallindrainagebasin 2.DikesandLeveeshelpmakefloodBIG 1717NewOrleansbuildlevees 1879majoremphasisonleveebuilding 1927moreleveesanddams Despitealltheseeffortstheriverstillfloods.Whenyoucontainthewaterindikes/leveesyou arecreatingpotentialforaHUGEflood. Leveesystemsgiveafalsesenseofsecurityandleadtoincreaseddevelopmentinfloodprone areas.LeveescanFAILby: 1)waves2)overtoppingwater3)slumping4)piping(Figure13.26) Somesayremoveleveesothersarguetheyhelp. URBANIZATIONANDFLOODING(p.363367) 1.Floodsrisefaster&highergroundpaved 2.Channelizationclearofdebris,wider,deeperandstraighter Netresult=watervelocityincreasedsocanerodemore(p.364) 3.Damsdonotprovidefloodcontrolbecausetheyareusuallytoofull.Theycanfail. CASESTUDY 1)TijuanaandSanDiego(p.364&seeFig.13.38) a)TijuanachannelsandSanDiegodoesntwaterspreadsoutonceinSanDiego whichcausesflooding

2)Tuscon notconsistentwithbuildingprotectivewallsno wallsandstreamwidens&erodes.(p.365366&Fig.13.41and13.42) 3.DAMFAILURES(seeTable13.5) CASESTUDY 1)TetonDam,Idaho1976usethefollowingsitesforinformationonthisdamfailure http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teton_Dam http://www.slcgov.com/utilities/NewsEvents/news2009/news6292009.htm YoumayalsofinditinterestingtowatchthedamcollapseonYouTube(thereare severalcantvouchforanyofthemhowever) 4.MITIGATIONS: 1)DAMSbuttheycanfailorshouldnotbefullsocanholdfloodwaters 2)LEVEEStheycanfail(p.361) 3)SANDBAGGING(p.362) 4)FORECASTING(p.362) 5)ZONINGANDLANDUSE(p.362) 6)INSURANCEPROGRAMNFISSINCE1950s(p.362) 7)DECLAIRADISASTERFORGOVERNMENTHELP(p.363)