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FIRE IS AN EXTERNAL INDICATION OF COMBUSTION, WHICH CAN BE DEFINED AS THE RAPID CHEMICAL UNION OF AN OXIDIZING AGENT WITH A GAS,

ACCOMPANIED BY THE RELEASE OF HEAT AND, DEPENDING UPON THE RATE OF REACTION, LIGHT . COMBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCES EXISTS IN THE FORM OF
SOLID LIQUID GASES

IT IS THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE COMBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCE GIVES OFF SUFFICIENT VAPOUR TO FORM A MIXTURE THAT CAN BE IGNITED MOMENTARILY ON APPLICATION OF FLAME.

THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE VAPOUR PRODUCED BY THE SUBSTANCE IGNITES.

THE THREE SIDES OF THE TRIANGLE REPRESENTS COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL HEAT OXYGEN THE REMOVAL OF ANY SIDE RESULTS IN COLLAPSE OF THE TRIANGLE AND EXTINGUISHING OF FIRE.

THE THREE SLOPING SURFACES IN THE TETRAHEDRON REPRESENT FUEL, HEAT AND OXYGEN AND THE BASE REPRESENTS THE CHAIN REACTION BETWEEN THE SHORT-LIVED CHEMICAL SPECIES FOLLOWING IGNITION. AS THE TEMPERATURE RISES, THE REACTION RATE INCREASES RESULTING IN A FURTHER RISE IN TEMPERATURE . IN CASE OF FLAMMABLE GAS MIXTURE SPEED OF REACTION IS SUFFICIENTLY HIGH WHICH MAY RESULT IN EXPLOSIONS. IF THE CHAIN CAN BE BROKEN THE FIRE CAN BE EXTINGUISHED. HALONS AND DRY CHEMICALS CAN BREAK THE CHAIN REACTION EFFECTIVELY.

ALL MATTER EXISTS IN ONE OF THREE STATES SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES MOLECULES OF SOLID ARE CLOSELY PACKED MOLECULES OF LIQUIDS ARE LOOSELY PACKED MOLECULES OF VAPOURS ARE NOT PACKED AT ALL FOR A SUBSTANCE TO OXIDISE MOLECULES MUST BE WELL SURROUNDED BY OXYGEN SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS DO NOT OXIDISE EASILY VAPOURS CAN OXIDISE EASILY. SO ONLY VAPOURS CAN BURN.

FOR SOLID OR LIQUID TO BURN IT SHOULD BE HEATED TO RAISE THE VAPOURS TO ITS IGNITION TEMPERATURE. WHEN BURNING TAKES PLACE HEAT RADIATES IN ALL DIRECTIONS A PART OF HEAT RADIATES BACK ON TO THE FUEL CAUSING MORE VAPOUR TO BE RELEASED AND THIS IN TURN WILL ALLOW THE FUEL TO BURN CONTINOUSLY.

CLASS A: FIRES INVOLVING SOLID MATERIALS, USUALLY OF ORGANIC NATURE, IN WHICH COMBUSTION NORMALLY TAKES PLACE WITH THE FORMATION OF GLOWING EMBERS. CLASS B: FIRES INVOLVING LIQUIDS OR LIQUEFIABLE SOLIDS. CLASS C: FIRES INVOLVING GASES. CLASS D: FIRES INVOLVING METALS.

CLASS A:

FIRES IN ORDINARY COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS SUCH AS WOOD, CLOTH, PAPER, RUBBER AND MANY PLASTICS. FIRES IN FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS, OILS, GREASES, TARS, OIL-BASED PAINTS, LACQUERS AND FLAMMABLE GASES. FIRES, WHICH INVOLVE ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WHERE THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THE EXTINGUISHING MEDIUM IS OF IMPORTANCE. N.B. WHEN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IS DEENERGIZED, EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A OR B FIRES MAY BE USED SAFELY. FIRES IN COMBUSTIBLE METALS SUCH AS MAGNESIUM, TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, SODIUM, LITHIUM AND POTASSIUM.

CLASS B:

CLASS C:

CLASS D:

A. PREVENT THE OCCURRENCE OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION. B. REDUCE THE RISK TO LIFE CAUSED BY FIRE. C. REDUCE THE RISK OF DAMAGE CAUSED BY FIRE TO THE SHIP, ITS CARGO AND THE ENVIRONMENT. D. CONTAIN, CONTROL AND SUPPRESS FIRE AND EXPLOSION IN THE COMPARTMENT OF ORIGIN. E. PROVIDE ADEQUATE AND READILY ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF ESCAPE FOR PASSENGERS AND CREW.

A. DIVISION OF THE SHIP IN TO MAIN VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL ZONES BY THERMAL AND STRUCTURAL BOUNDARIES. B. RESTRICTIONS ON THE USE OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. C. DETECTION OF ANY FIRE IN THE ZONE OF ORIGIN. D. CONTAINMENT AND EXTINCTION OF ANY FIRE IN THE SPACE OF ORIGIN. E. PROTECTION OF MEANS OF ESCAPES AND ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING. F. MAKE FIRE-EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCES READILY AVAILABLE.