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UNIVERSIDAD DE CARABOBO

FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS DE EDUCACIÓN


ESCUELA DE EDUCACIÓN
DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS MODERNOS
CÁTEDRA: GRAMATICA Y LINGÜÍSTICA INGLESA
ASIGNATURA: LINGÜÍSTICA APLICADA

The term phonetics refers to the description of speech


sound (how they are made, transmitted and
received). While the term phonology refers to the way
those sounds are organized into the individual
languages.

Articulatory (It studies how sounds are produced)


Phonetics Acoustic (It studies how sounds are perceived)

Segmentals (Consonants & vowels)


Sounds Suprasegmentals (Stress, rhythm, intonation…)

Phoneme: it is the smallest unit Allophone: It is the variation of


of speech which has meaning. a sound (phoneme).
(Consonants and vowels)

Consonant phonemes:

BILABIAL LABIO- DENTAL ALVEOLAR RETROFLEX ALVEO- PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL


DENTAL PALATAL
/p/- /t/- /k/-
STOP /b/+ /d/+ /g/+
/f/- /θ/- /S/- /∫/- /h/-
FRICATIVE /v/+ / /+ /Z/+ /3/+
/t∫/-
AFFRICATE /d3/+
LATERAL /l/+

NASAL
/m/+ /n/+ /η/+
APPROXI-
MANTS /w/*+ /r/+ /j/+
*NOTE: labio-velar *Voicing: voiced (+) and voiceless (-)

Phonetic criteria:
1. Point of articulation: bilabial, dental, labiodental, alveolar,
alveo-palatal, palatal, velar, glottal, and uvular.
2. Manner of articulation: plosive, fricative, affricate, nasal,
approximant, laterals and retroflex.
3. Voicing: voiced and voiceless.

Vowel phonemes:

Phonetic criteria:
1. Height of tongue: high, mid, and low.
2. Part of the tongue involved: front, central, and back.
3. Position of the lips: rounded and unrounded.

EXERCISES:

1) Identify the sound that does not fit into the string. Explain.

Speech sounds
m p b θ
t n s f
t∫ ∫ d d3
u: ә i: e 2) Mark the two words that contain a silent consonant.
brother listen writer cinema music house know
says book

3) Read the following groups of words, and transcribe them. Then, select which word
has a different sound.
 look good blood foot ____________________________
 dead mean bread head ____________________________
 fruit suit juice built ____________________________
 sons girls dreams books _____________________________
 pen red ten bee _____________________________

4) Transcribe the following sentences, and circle all bilabial and fricative sounds.
 A couple of brushes _________________________________
 I wish I could see a real witch _________________________________
 She is at the store _________________________________
 Peter likes drinking Pepsi _________________________________

5) Put a check √ next to the word that have front vowels, and circle the vowel
phoneme.
 ____talk  ____keep  ____already
 ____dollar  ____dream  ____before
 ____wonder  ____October
6) Describe the following phonemes.
/e/_______________________________ /d/________________________________
/η/_______________________________ /t/________________________________
/∫/________________________________ /p/_______________________________
/ә/________________________________ /w/_______________________________
/i:/________________________________ /g/_______________________________
/u:/________________________________

7) Choose the corresponding phoneme for the following criteria.


Bilabial, stop, voiceless______ low, central, unrounded______
High, back, rounded______ Fricative, alveolar, voiceless_______
Lateral, alveolar______ Approximants, palatal_______
Nasal, velar, voiced______ back, mid, rounded_______

8) Circle and correct the errors in the following transcribed sentences.


 It is a lost cause __________________________________
 It is all right __________________________________
 I’ve been in The USA for two years __________________________________
 I cooked onions for lunch __________________________________
 The prince of Persia __________________________________

9) Decode the following message.

Phonemic symbols represent the sounds of the English language.


__________________________________________________________________________
Using them can be a valuable tool
__________________________________________________
to improving your students' pronunciation.
_________________________________________________________

10) Describe the following phonemes (consonants & vowels).

p m b v
k g r u
f s z t∫
e i: w l
∫ n m θ