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Edited by

Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr.

C.C.R.M., Inc. Havertown, Pennsylvania

Park Ridge, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Copyright @ 1986 by Noyes Publications No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the Publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 8525929 ISBN: O-8155-1053-5 Printed in the United States Published in the United States of America Noyes Publications Mill Road, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656 10987654321 by

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Main entry under title: Corrosion and chemical resistant masonry.


Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Corrosion and anti-corrosives--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Masonry--Materials--Corrosion-Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Sheppard, Walter Lee, 1911TA418.74.C5926 1986 620.1304223 85-25929 ISBN O-8155-1053-5



appropriate for this


dedicate who but

this who There each person

volume died


those vide their them: ity ever

friends sections sections lgnatius

and experts could Metil, and

had agreed

to probefore of W. will his

book, Walter

be written. Morrow, and

are four David who of


McDowell, remain



an author-

in his field, as well

a wonderful respect

in the



as those

of his family.

Those and too have our spots. cation tion, who have rendered in putting permission material, of their to mention for assistance individually. the and at use of who to the authors together are far Those who previously are

editor given use

this volume



and those drawings

have permitted illustrations the who appropriate by dedimenspecial

acknowledged However and and that

individually there is Sylvia to corrected selfless work

is one person has merited Levy, the material who editor

has been of inin rearranging

estimable and retyping


for publication.



William College Rutgers

H. Bauer of Ceramics of Engineering University New Jersey

William Dow Freeport,

M. Eckert Corporation, U.S.A. Texas




W.O. Eisenhut Adhesive Engineering California Company San Carlos, Harold

James P. Bennett United Bureau States Department of Interior of Mines Research of Alabama Alabama Center Tuscaloosa University University, John Sohio Niagara A.A. Atlas

L. Fike Institute D.C.

The Sulphur Washington, David

W. Fowler of Civil of Texas Texas Goltz Corporation Pennsylvania III Engineering

Department A. Bonar Division Materials Co. Kurt Pennwalt Boova Minerals and Chemicals, Inc. Eugene Garlock, Brian L. Cooley Continental-Heine Illinois Corp. Al Hendricks Wisconsin Thomas F. Degnan Delaware

University Austin,



Falls, New York

King of Prussia, Pennsylvania


C. Heilhecker Incorporated New York



Des Plaines,




Bay, Wisconsin





Hans J. Hoffmann Abresist Urbana, Edmond Con/Chem Furlong, Harlan Corporation Indiana W. Jarret Incorporated Pennsylvania

Kenneth Ashland Columbus, Milton

A. Poss Chemical Ohio Company

H. Potter Delaware

Wilmington, Dorothy

A. Richter New Hampshire

H. Kline Coatings

G EOSS Salem,

Ameron-Protective Division Brea, California Donald Pennwalt J. Kossler

Paul E. Schlett Exxon Research and Company Park, New Jersey Engineering Florham Mary


Orange, California Lou Schmidt Corporation Pennsylvania William Albany United Albany, C. McBee Research Center States Department Oregon Pennwalt


Bureau of Mines Wesley Severance The Ceilcote Berea, Ohio Walter Research Kingdom Lee Sheppard, Incorporated Pennsylvania Jr. Company of the Interior

Henry G. Midgley llminster Iiminster, Robert United Cement United

C.C.R.M., Havertown,

E. Moore Engineers and Incorporated Pennsylvania

Oliver W. Siebert Monsanto Corporation St. Louis, Missouri William R. Slama Company

Constructors, Philadelphia, Edward

G. Nawy of Civil and Engineering

The Ceilcote Berea, Ohio Richard New Jersey


Environmental Rutgers University New Brunswick, Keith R. Pierce

J. Smith Company Pennsylvania

Patterson-Kelley East Stroudsburg, Joseph J. Spisak

Harsco Corporation Department Sciences University Duluth, Sandor Drexel of Minnesota Minnesota Popovics of Civil Engineering Pennsylvania University of Mathematical Pennwalt Pittsburgh, Corporation Pennsylvania

Larry C. Stephans Rochester, New York

Department Philadelphia,




J. Stump0 Incorporated New Jersey


L. Trinklein
Bend, Arkansas

Burmah-Castro1 Hackensack, Thomas Boulder Bureau United Boulder

Horseshoe Joseph

M. Walters Company Pennsylvania Springs,

A. Sullivan City


J.M. Waiters Chester


Laboratory of Mines States City, Department Nevada C.V. Wittenwyler Shell Development Texas Company Center Westhollow Houston, Research

of the Interior


The public to concrete and eventual The a result borne that

is accustomed metals). from away results generally

to thinking The engineer the rusting

of corrosion usually considers of the reinforcing and alloys. (or corrosion) and

as the rusting it to include

of iron damage

(and of some other wasting

bars, and the pitting of iron and steel as that are airwalls identhat the sources on floors, engineers brick,

of various thinks action of

metals air,


of the rusting rain,

of weathering-the from But chemicals equipment. that

contaminants recognizes or splashed and chemical plastics,

such as salt spray

the ocean. in tanks, other

The engineer and spilled chemists or destruction

also include and other tify fore, etc.) fined subject The etc.) not

contained few


corrosion something corrosion nor of the

as chemical


of a material,

and theretimber, so depublic The be-

can happen thirty

to nonmetals


as well as to metals. over corrosion trained even that

The National years


of Corrosion Societys

Engineers membership.

ago but this fact of that kinds thinks Both has never

has still not attained been adequately of nonmetals. first of metal shaped (steel,


of a large number of nonmetals different usually


cause it is so vast-there university designing more first when

are so many engineer chemical they

alloy, think etc.,

equipment-something is needed. of floors, think dykes,

easily architects

and erected, pits,


space than

and engineers sumps,

of concrete because they looks there to the designs specified for may



are easily formed of equipment, that will

and poured. whether it be a storage forgets vessel, or process vessel, (or chemical what damdifferences or who and corrosion to check process The civil details if the order range of the all his structural and aggregate,

The designer a metal age) from

be suitable-without He often of the metal

his process

or chemicals.

be in the suitability is changed, of cleaners may mix types

of adding

the chemicals is increased, engineer correctly,

process the

the temperature out

if certain

are used on the equipment.


have worked

the correct

of sand, cement vii

but still not considered




what sion bulk

chemicals (chemical plant Metal that


be spilled may

on the floor

and how put effect

to protect

it from mix

corroby the the in-

damage), will prevail.

or that

the additives

in the concrete on the concrete

or contractor

have an adverse concrete from will structures


conditions ert

or steel reinforced attack rarely


are not in themselves in which surfacing. they often

to chemical under


the environment by a metallic

are dea coat-

signed ing.

to serve can very

be protected

The normal


such conditions

be supplied

by a nonmetal,

Each nonmetal

so used has its own


or thermal-which

must be considered. Therefore, in many cases, a combination of two or more nonmetals is required to provide the necessary ultimate protection to the steel or concrete. Among vitriol fore made for acid had little cemented the chemicals called effect known to the ancients was sulfuric found be made fireclay. acid-or that oil of as they manufactured together of water-glass it. Two on granite with either (sodium millenia the ago alchemists floor mixed could with cold sulfuric blocks mortar more to preused resistant

and on hard burned hot-poured silicate) clay sulfur

The acid was thereof granite

in areas where


or a slow setting being much

clean silica sand. Containers either sulfur or lead joints, was often

the acid could

be hard

burned be carried

pots or lead, the latter

expensive. vent to fied, parts: tial not

The acid could Natural or that A putty sections

in clay pipe with (lead was the over two oxide)

or in lead pipe. leakage. seal clay

asphalts made tops.

were used as coatings This inception millenia

and as membranes and glycerin of without chemically

of litharge


a discipline

has evolved masonry

ever being codiindependent to protect does

and rarely Chemically supporting

recognized resistant from structure, thermal

for its importance structures fluid membrane satisfactory functions 93% sulfuric there

to the engineer are composed stop, abuse. and resistant require instance, materials, These

or the architect. of three lining

inner three

the membrane to any mean that

and mechanical may

parts are essenThis materials. en(condestroy material memmany is

economically the three vessel for ambient,

chemically always by two for

structure. distinct


The three tirely out

functions of carbon

may be accomplished steel, providing and that mill by that scale), However, that

or even a single one. is kept high, the

A storage temperature tamination) steel that (to the storage brane. mately such inner mortar ing the acts rubber liquid


may be constructed pick-up then (barrier) (and for an acid level.

the acid concentration acid

is no objection to with 12 to sheet

to some iron 15% and will rubber

in the acid. clean tank, off

if the sulfuric is lined

is to be used to pickle or another

it is diluted

unless the tank of steel, temperature which

is unaffected 200F. membrane lined joint, with

acid concentration the temperature is too will layer face high

and can act as a true of the acid for natural and brick fail rubber with

In the pickling This

is raised to approxiunless the rubber resistant reducIt also the memwhile

materials) lining

age rapidly

an insulating on the brick lining

such as acid accept keep rubber the to pickled


can itself to

the higher

temperature steel from

temperature lining. The

of the

an acceptable

as a mechanical



may not serve by itself-without of brick always and mortar pass through joints this will

the rubber lining


structures Some

composed liquid

can not be made and get to

and gas tight.



the steel, causing An all plastic tuting attack sonry perature functions tions Brick gas and but bined types tall), ment design, (I) where with of spent lining the plastic

the steel to be corroded tank may be used for acid. rapidly the plastic down hydrochloric sufficiently inside However,

and eventually a chemical at higher

destroyed. the acid will unless a mabring the temthen, functhat comof these 800+ feet equipfor the

process such as the reconstitemperatures,

to make

its use uneconomical the interior-to and the three

is placed

to insulate

on the face of the plastic as supporting by two can and liquid their their mortar structure materials. materials

to an acceptable

level. The plastic, necessary the fact ability),

and membrane, should though only slowly, attack chimney

are supplied

be used alone through them (load



is not


considerable resistance

compressive to chemical



can be useful. liners (some

Examples of them for chemical

of structures foundations subject From what

are: self-supporting set in acid contaminated

soil, and supports

to splash or spill. has been said above, the following resistant rules can be outlined masonry: be composed a supporting the supporting masonry of comstructure, structure corto lining or other and use of chemically resistant provide reached and

construction All (2) from roding protect

chemically to an

construction functions: to

must (I) keep



impervious medium,



and attacked

by the chemicals resistant

(3) a chemically

the membrane. resistant or a laid joints) (I) providing masonry up lining liner (which of may be a monounits suband/or


The lithic and strate lating

chemically material mortar by: the of

composed layer thermal



protection strong

to membrane protection high

a hard, from (3) the

to prevent

mechaniby insuon the chemicals

cal abuse of the surface

or abrasion, membrane the liquid,

(2) providing


temperatures of


by altering

the environment movement

membrane-preventing a stagnant puzzle present, the reaction With through then, fluids some. the

over the surface-creating This direct interior fresh proach tiny The further Thus posed years third item were surface, surfaces of the capillaries reaction approach a membrane directly of may not with any fluids liquids products, of the lining to the a brick

condition. Think contained of it this fluid way. would moved If the be in of and apover the off only




As the fluids created would in brickwork in place

products the the brick

by the attack be washed the

the contained

on the membrane



is linear-through surface. down exinand of the slow

in the brick,

terminating remain to that

at the membrane

the surface become lined

membrane. when by the

material may rubber

is unacceptable acceptable company from

fluids lining.


A large chemical

has for damage

been able to protect

steel tanks



a solution

of hydrochloric brick linings

acid containing Without into

some mineral the brick, the rubber,


by installing With soon stops, (II I)

in the tanks.

the oils which it

swell the rubber the brick swells

and the acid penetrates in place, all the tiny being

to the steel in a few days. But then The swelling

the oils penetrate restrained

to fill

pores in the brickwork. by the brick. to the steel. concrete, units that

can swell

no further,

and the acid can not get through resistant is usually masonry, impossible. book is cast-a unlike

Chemically forced. forcement ward Where is most fore, are: and They (1)

is not usually and mortar, proves a sulfur



it is composed

of structural is the exception monolithic same rule holds.

(In the section silicate,

on paper mills tothis rule.) concrete it There-

the end of this the masonry often

or a polymer chemically

concrete-the reinforced resistant they (2) regular a liquid


it is gunned, concretes) in tension to

by anchoring masonry on are, but

it to the substrate. for polymer weak of mortar normally


Excellent (since unit). and in thick

in compression, rely They sections,

shear will,


strength blows,


struction vibration nor

in many

cases, somewhat but not all have some they can not

brittle. measurgases be ex-

absorb They liquid

(in most cases)

pounding. head.

(3) They words,

able degree restrain pected This with masonry propriate tails tempted vantages points the tance erations quently The block, vides covers the volume materials. materials, them select to and

of absorption.

can not contain tight.


In other

to be in themselves is directed buildings write and those and the It contains to those

engineers which and

and architects may require necessary proper


are charged resistant the deatits adviewgives be the most apWe have


equipment the specifications for

chemical and draw

information their there sections.

to select

instructions on each topic is disagreement


necessary authors


best informed

to discuss as many section that

limitations. is divided materials. the section section the

In areas where into Section fourteen and

as possible

have been given. The introductory architect materials structure membrane other of engineer an experienced the various the supporting on the various various for types brick on the impormay and the considsystems types. units: section Section application followed by and tile. with plastics, and brick, proVI most fre-

The volume views of these provide involved employed, fourth and etc., similar

of a practicing

II discusses and design. data the and

used to

physical provides


in its selection together with

The third

data on a great many advantages

covers for for

construction The fifth for and polymer together


of each.

information grouts

mortars large voids

and grouts


and machinery, linings joint


seventh-monolithics-includes section section Next is a short on design covering

gunned covers expansion waste

data, and the eighth sections

materials. of rigid (piping manholes),

the fabrication handling




prestressing-the expanding tension. The resistant uses and resistant penultimate masonry limitations materials away

system from

employed lining


prevent the

a supporting inner lining



an inner section


in unacceptable uses of chemical discussion section of the

covers sprayed

special sulfur

subjects: power industry. coatings,

chimneys, a short

materials of hot

in the nuclear and paper


and the use of chemically The final is devoted

in the pulp

to the related Havertown, January

subjects Pennsylvania

of inspection

and failure

analysis. Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr.


Contents CONTRIBUTORS ....................................... SECTION INTRODUCTION 1. AN ENGINEER Robert Introduction. Definition Chemically Masonry Carbon Foamed Specialty Mortars Silica Sulfur LOOKS AT CHEMICALLY RESISTANT MASONRY. xiii

.. .2

E. Moore

and Types of Chemically Resistant Units Masonry Resistant Masonry.




and Materials.

Membranes. AcidBrick

.................................... ..................................
................................. ...7

.7 .8 .9 and .9 0 10 Silica Brick,


Glass Block Brick, .................... and Insulating and Block for Brick

Borosilicate Brick

High Alumina

........................ and Tile. ..................

Tile........................................1 and Grouts Mortars. Mortars. Mortars Silicate





Resin Mortars. Hydraulic Chemically Power Specific Conclusion. Bibliography. Resistant Industry-Flue Power


Applications ................. Systems Gas Desulfurization FGD System

13 14 15




.......... .............

..................................... ....................................

.I8 .I8










.20 .20 .21 .22 .22


H. Potter

Preview. ....................................... Basic Data ...................................... Materials and Methods of Construction-Masonry

Substrate. Masonry

System .......



................................. ........................... Liner Plate and Tile. Quarry Tile ................................. Ceramic Tile. ................................
Resistant Cements. Joints. Details. Cements and Mortars

.23 .23
.24 .24

Corrosion Sulfur Expansion Required


Resin Mortars.

.............................. ............................... ............................... ...............................

.24 .24





Thomas F. Degnan

Introduction. .................................... Materials Selection. ................................

General Brittle Considerations. Fracture. Service


.28 .28


.......................... ......................... High Temperature Service. Corrosion Resistant Shells. ......................... ...................... Other Corrosion Considerations ....................... Economics of Steel Selection.
Low Temperature Design Considerations of Shell Cylindrical or Conical .............................. ............................... Vessels ......................... Bottoms Thickness Tolerances. Vertical Dished

.31 .34

.37 .39 .39


.43 .43 .43 .44 .44 ..4 6 .47 .47 .48 8 .48 .48

....................... Flat Bottoms ................................ Horizontal Cylindrical Vessels ....................... Rectangular or Square Vessels .......................
Flooring.. Construction Nozzles, Internals Surface ..................................

............................. ....................... Inlets and Outlets ...................................

Details Preparation

Welds......................................4 Pressure Testing

............................ ................................



Model Specification. Appendix: of Metallic Masonry References. Guideline

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Specification for the Design and Fabrication Service. . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Are to Receive Chemical-Resistant Immersion

Vessels Which

Linings for Chemical

. . . .. . . . . . . ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55

4.CONCRETE..........................................5 Edward G. Nawy Introduction.


.................................... Materials. ......................... Portland Cement. ............................... Manufacture. ................................ Strength ...................................
Influence of Voids and Type ................................. of Cement on the Durability of Concrete ................................

.57 .57 .57 .57 .58

.59 .59 9 .60 .60

Water and Air. Entrained


............................... Water/Cement Ratio ........................... Aggregates. ................................... Introduction. ................................ Coarse Aggregate. ............................. Fine Aggregate. .............................. Admixtures ................................... ......................... Criteria for Quality Concrete. Compactness ..................................
Air. Strength.. Water/Cement Texture. Quality ..................................


.61 .61

.62 .62
..6 2

............................. .....................................
Ratio Concrete

Mix Designs for Nuclear-Shielding Tests on Concrete. Workability Air Content Compressive Flexural Tensile or Consistency. Strength Tests


........................ Concrete. Beams.

.62 .62 .63 .63


of Hardened


.63 .63

Strength Splitting

of Plain Concrete

............................ ........................ Placing and Curing of Concrete

Placing.. Properties ................................... of Hardened Concrete Curing........................................6

.66 .67
..6 7 7

....................... ............................ Compressive Strength. Tensile Strength ................................

Stress-Strain Shrinkage. Curve. ..............................

.67 .68 .68


.................................... ................................... .....................................


Creep........................................7 Reinforcement References. Summary........................................7












of Wood Structure


..8 0

DesignNotes.. Bibliography. 6. SOME NOTES


Possible Sizes and Shapes

............................ ....................................

.83 .84
. . .85



Lee Sheppard,

SECTION MEMBRANES 7. SHEET Walter LININGS ..................................... Jr.


.88 8 .89 .91 .92 .92 3 .93 .94 .94 .95 ..9 6 .................. .96 .97 7 ......................

Lee Sheppard,

History.........................................8 Types of Sheet Loose Liners. Substrate ................................... .................................... ............................. Lining .........................


Testing the Completed Manufacturer Diffusion Chemical Damage Repairs.. Bibliography.

Curing..........................................g .................................... ............................ ............................. Resistance Resistance. and Absorption and Thermal or Degradation

..................................... ....................................

Sources of Data on Chemical Addendum.......................................9 8. FLUID-APPLIED Introduction. MEMBRANES. Jr.

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 98 .......
98 ....... 99 100 ...... ...... 107
. . . . . 109

Walter Lee Sheppard,


.. . . . Fillers. . . . . . . .. .. . . References. . . . .. . . .
of Application NONMETALLIC

. . .



Walter Lee Sheppard, 10. HOT ASPHALT Suitable

Jr. Substrates

.. . . . .. . . . . .. . .......

. . ........ ........ ........ ........ ........

. 111
113 113 115 116 117

Walter Lee Sheppard, Application


Gauging Thickness.

....... Inspection and Repair ..... Limitations ............



Reinforcing Other Cold Asphalt Additional Reinforcing 11. FIRED GLASS References. Bibliography. 12. LEAD

of Hot Asphalt .....................

117 118 119 ............... 121


.......................... Applications. Notes. ................................

Fabrics for Asphalt Membranes




. . . . . . . . . . . 123

Walter Lee Sheppard,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lee Sheppard, FURAN Jr.


. . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Oliver 13. GLASS

W. Siebert and Walter FABRIC REINFORCED Jr.



134 137 138


Lee Sheppard,

Installation. References. 14. EPOXY/PHENOLICS. Al Hendricks Properties Resistance

.................................... .................................... ......................

. . . . . . . . . . 139 ..........
.......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........

.......................... .......................... Water Resistance. ................... Solvents. ......................... ......................... Alkalies.

Acids ........................... Resistance Temperature

140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 141 141 141 141 141 141

............... Abrasion Resistance. ................. ....................... Weathering. ........................... Toxicity Surface Preparation .................... ......................... Application Usage ............................. ..................... Bake Systems. Air Dry Systems ....................


144 144 144 147 149 149 149


James P. Bennett Brick

and William

M. Eckert

(Red Shale and Fireclay


................................... Properties ................................. Applications.

Chemical Resistance. .......................... Temperature Limit ........................... Pressure Effect ..............................


Contents irreversible Dimensions Growth ........................... 150 150 150 150 152 152 153 Resistance

................................ Silica Brick. .................................... ................................... Properties ................................. Applications. Chemical Resistance. .......................... Temperature Limit ...........................
Thermal Strength Expansion and Thermal Shock


153 154 154 154 4 154

and Abrasion

Pressure Effects. Irreversible References. 16. CARBON Walter BRICK

Resistance. ................. ............................. Growth ...........................


.................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 155

Lee Sheppard,

Bibliography. 17. CLOSED Mary CELL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 BOROSILICATE GLASS BLOCK 0 162 163 163 164


LlNlNGSYSTEM....................................16 Lou Schmidt Methods Systems. Bonding Installation

.............................. ..............................
Adhesive/Membrane Mortar. Systems.

Urethane Inorganic



.............. ....................
Glass Block


Linings Incorporating


164 166 166 167 167 167 168 168 168

................... ............................. Waste Incineration. ............................ Smelting Operations. Baghouses ................................... Tall Stacks. .................................. Pickle Tanks. ................................. Vessel Covers ................................. ................................... Bibliography.
Flue Gas Desulfurization 18. REFRACTORY Paul E. Schlett Introduction. Temperature.. Atmospheric Optimized AND INSULATING FIREBRICK

. . .. .. ..

. . . . . 170

. . . . . .

. . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . .
Affect Refractory

. . . . . . . . . . 170
. . . 170

Design Parameters

Lining Selection.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Composition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

Gradient Design Through a Refractory

. . . . .


Lining.......................................177 Brick Shapes. References. 19. SPECIALTIES Part A: Walter

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

. . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Brick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180


Lee Sheppard,



Part B:

Basalt Bricks.


183 183 183 183 184 184 184 184 185 185 185 186 187 187 187 189 189 191 .............. Service. ........ 191 191 192 192 Masonry ........... 192 192 193 193 193 193 194 194 ................ ................ 195 196 196

Hans J. Hoffmann What is Raw Basalt?. Manufacture

.......................... ................. Chemical Analysis ............................ The Use of Fused Cast Basalt. .................... Properties of Fused Cast Basalt ................... Chemical Resistance of Fused Cast Basalt. ............ .................... Choice of Setting Material. .................... Type of Tile Construction.
of Fused Cast Basalt. Resistance of Fused Cast Basalt to Bases ............. Resistance of Fused Cast Basalt to Acids .............

Conclusion. Part C: Corrosion John A. Bonar Introduction

of Silicon Carbide Products


Bond Systems. Corrosion Acidic

............................... ..............................
......................... ............................. .............................. Control Corrosion Carbides for Corrosive



Basic Solutions Diffusion Design. Part D: Choosing Silicon References. Granite Dorothy


................................... ................................ as Chemically Resistant

A. Richter ............................... .......................... ....................... ....................... Liners in Steel Pickling of Granite Surface

Introduction. Definition Industrial Granite Granite Granite Lines. Properties Granite Part E: Larry 20. CERAMICTILE. William References. Portland

Uses of Granite Plates Press Rolls.


Skid Caps and Tank ................................. of Granite

.......................... and Limitations Brick


................................ Cement/Aggregate

C. Stephans .................................... ................................. 198 198 199 199

H. Bauer .................................... ....................................

Glazed Wall Tile Mosaic Tile. Quarry Tile Paver Tile.

.................................... Tile Standards. .................................. .......................... Ceramic Tile Definitions.








L. Trinklein




212 Sodium and Potassium Silicates ....................... .214 Silicate Cements ................................ 214 Chemical Resistant Mortars and Grouts .................. 215 Silicate Mortars and Grouts-Air Drying. ............... 215 Sodium Silicate Mortars and Grouts-Chemical Setting ...... Potassium Silicate-Chemical Resistant Mortars and Grouts ... 215 216 Modified Silicate Mortars and Grouts ................. 22. SILICA MORTARS.
Joseph J. Spisak

. . . . .

. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .218

Bibliography. . . , . . . . 23. SULFUR MORTARS.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 .222


Walter Lee Sheppard,

Characteristics and Use. ............................ Handling ..................................... Specifications and Standards for Sulfur Mortars ............ References. ................................... 24. PHENOLIC



RESINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . ,230


Bibliography. . . . . 25. FURAN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,238 .240
240 242 244 245 5 6

RESINS. ...................................

Joseph M. Walters

Introduction to Furan Resin Materials. .................. Furan Resin Formulations. .......................... Chemical and Heat Resistance ........................ Installation of Mortars and Grouts ..................... Mortars.....................................24 Grouts......................................24 Mixing Mortars and Grouts ....................... Cleaning Brick and Tile After Installation. .............. Furan Resin Membranes ............................ Furan Monolithic Surfacings ......................... Standards. .................................... Specifications. ............................... Test Methods ................................ Practices ................................... References. ................................... 26. EPOXY RESIN CHEMICALLY RESISTANT MORTARS. C. V. Witten wyler Epoxy Resins. . . . . . . . . . .. ,. .. . . . . ..

247 248 249

.250 .250 .251 .251 .251 . . . . . . .252

. . . . . . . . .252

Chemistry of Epoxies.

252 253 255 255 257 258 261 262 263 263 266 266


Physical Properties Cure of Epoxies

of Cured Epoxy


......................... Epoxy Mortars .......................... ..................... Self-Leveling Epoxies. Trowellable Epoxy Floorings. ................ Fillers for Epoxy Materials .................. Wear Resistance of Epoxy Floorings ............ Chemical Resistance of Epoxy Floorings ......... ..................... Substrate Preparation. ...... Handling of Epoxy Monolithics and Mortars. ............................ References.

....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .......


267 8 8

Kenneth A. Poss


ResinTypes.................................... Uses.........................................26

.................................... ....................... Chemical Resistance Properties ............................ Formula Components. Resins. .................................... Catalysts ................................... ...................... Promoters and Cure Systems. .................................. Inhibitors. .................................... Fillers. .................................. Additives. .................................. Formulations
Properties Grout......................................27 Cement.....................................27


.271 .271 .272


.273 .273 .273 .274

5 5

.................................... ............................. Substrate Preparation. Usefulness .................................... ................................... Limitations ............................ Raw Material Suppliers.
Mortar. Additives-Wetting, Catalysts (Initiators) Air Release and Adhesion Promoters


.276 .277


277 278

............................ .................................... Fillers. .................................. Inhibitors.


.278 .278
8 278 .279

Pigments....................................27 Promoters Resins. 28. ACRYLIC


.................................... MORTARS AND CONCRETES



.280 .280 .282 .283

W.O. Eisenhut
General Definitions.

...................................... ................................... Filler Design. ..................................

xx vi


Binder Composition. Physical Properties. Chemical Substrates Application Performance. References. 29. HYDRAULICS. Part A: Concrete Sandor Resistance.

.............................. ...............................
............................. Preparation. ...................

284 5 286 .289 289 .291 .291 .292 .293


and Substrate

................................... .................................. ................................... .................................... Resistance of Portland Cement Mortar and

Chemical Popovics

...................................... ................................. of Portland Cement Clinker. Cement. .............. ............. ........................... of Portland Cement. ........................... ..................

.293 293 294 294 295 296 296 298 300 302 303 305 and Water.

Introduction. Composition Oxide Minor Various Blended Latent General

Composition Constituents Cements.

Major Constituents

Types of Portland Hydraulic Materials


Cement Deterioration.

........ ............. Materials Which Attack Concrete .................... Sulfate Attack ............................. .................. Attack by Seawater on Concrete Attack by Seawater on Reinforced Concrete. .......... Attack by Salts Other Than Sulfates ................ Acid Attack. .............................. Other Attacks. ............................. Efflorescence ................................. ...................... Polymer Modified Concrete. Concluding Remarks ............................ References. .................................
Hydration: Reactions Between Aspects of Concrete Part B: The Use of High Alumina Engineering Henry G. Midgley Cement in Chemical and Civil

330 332 334

.334 .335


.338 .340
340 341 344

.................................... ................................. .......................... of High Alumina Cement ..................

of Cement in High Alumina Cement Cement Concrete in High Alumina

Introduction. Manufacture Hydration Strength Permeability


.......... ..........

345 347 7

Physical Properties The Structural

of High Alumina

Cement Cement

Concrete Concrete


...... Chemical Resistance of High Alumina Cement Concrete ..... ............................ Alkaline Hydrolysis. High Alumina Cement Concrete for Chemical Resistance ....
Use of High Alumina

348 350 354 356



Examination Mortars Practical Part C: David

of High Alumina



and 356

in the Field


Hints on the Use of High Alumina



References. W. Fowler

Mortars and Monolithics.

.362 .............


................................ ............................... Mix Design. ............................... Properties ................................ Applications. .............................. ............................ Styrene-Butadiene. Properties ................................
Introduction. Acrylic Latex. Applications. References. Part D: RHA .............................. Silica. .................... ................................. and Fumed Jr.

.363 .363 .364 .365 .367 .368 .368

.369 .369 .369

Walter Lee Sheppard, References.


.37 1




CASTABLES, L. Trinklein PORTLAND W. Fowler

. .374

CEMENT Concrete



.376 .377 .377 .378


Latex-Modified Properties Applications. Mixing


.......................... ......................... ....................................

Concrete. ..................................

.......................... .................................. Finishing. Curing. .................................... ................................... References.

and Placement 32. POLYMER-IMPREGNATED David W. Fowler Systems. Introduction. CONCRETE. ..................

.380 .380 .380 .381


.................................. .............................. ................................. Polymerization ........................... Impregnation Procedures ............................. Full Impregnation ....................... Partial-Depth Impregnation. .................................... Properties
Monomer Applications. References. .................................. ...................................

.383 .383 .384



.389 .390






............................. Sulfur Concretes. ............... F. Fike Thomas A. Sullivan ................................. ................................ .......................... ......................... .......................... .............................. and Harold

.392 392 392 .393 393 .395 395 .399 399



Introduction. Historical. Current Sulfur Mixture Binder Modifiers Aggregate

Technology. (Plasticizers) Gradation


Design ............................... Requirements.

........................ Properties of Sulfur Concrete. ..................... Mechanical Properties. ........................ .................. Load Deflection in Compression. ......................... Moisture Absorption Specific Gravity and Air Voids. ...................
Thermal Expansion of Modified-Sulfur Concrete.

.401 .401 .401




406 407 407 409 .409

Freeze-Thaw Manufacturing Equipment. Preparation, Quality


........................ ..............

Resistance to Acid and Salt Corrosion. Process ........................... ............................... Casting, and Finishing.



............................ Sampling and Analysis ......................

Control. and Disadvantages in Using Sulfur Concrete

.412 .412

Safety....................................41 Advantages Summary. References. Part B: Epoxy William Slama



.................................. .................................
Ester Grouts and Polymer Concretes

.415 .415 ....


and Vinyl

History. Function

of Grout. ............................

8 ,419 0

Scope......................................41 Uses.....................................42

................................ ........................... Resin Component Curing Agent .............................. Aggregate or Filler. ........................... Types of Grout. .............................. ..................... Aggregate-Filled-Flowable ..................... Aggregate-Filled-Dry-Pack .............. Low-Viscosity, Crack-Repair Grouts. Underwater Grouts .......................... Polyester/Vinyl Ester Grouts. .................... Properties and Tests. ........................... ........................ Compressive Strength. Tensile Strength ............................ Bond Strength .............................

.420 .420 .420


.422 .422 .422 .422 .423


.423 .423 .425 .425



................................ ...................... of Expansion Temperature Resistance ....................... ......................... Resistance to Creep. Density. ................................. Fill Ratio. ................................ Radiation Resistance ......................... .......................... Electrical Resistivity
Shrinkage. Coefficient Installation. Foundation Anchor-Bolt Equipment Mixing. ................................. ............................... Grouting ........................ Base or Plates Safety....................................42

.425 .426 .427 .428 .428 .428 .428

428 .429 9 .429 .429





.............. Temperature Conditions. ................................ Curing. .................................. ................................ Bibliography. Part C: Furan Polymer Concretes. ......................
Installation Placement Joseph M. Walters References. Part D: Purposes Anthony

.432 .432 .433 .433 .433 .434


Portland Cement Concrete for Special

Superplasticized J. Stump0


.436 .436 .437 .437 .438 ,438 .438

................................. .............................. ................................ Observations. Discussion .................................. Testing .................................... .................................. Reference
Background The Admixture. SECTION VII


LININGS..........................................44 Wesley A. Severance Introduction. Definition History Theory

.................................. .................................. ....................................

Monolithic Linings Linings Used in Monolithic

,440 .440 .440 ......... .............

441 442

of Thermosetting-Resin, Resins.

Resinous Materials Epoxy

............................... Polyester Resins .............................. Vinyl Ester Resins. ............................ Types of Linings. ...............................
Epoxy %-Inch (3.2 mm) Silica or Carbon-Filled Lining.

.442 .442 .443 .443 .....




Unreinforced Mat-Reinforced Linings


(6.4 mm)



%-Inch Epoxy,

(3.2 mm)


................ .............

443 444


or Vinyl or Vinyl

Lining-Polyester of Linings Ester.

,444 ........
444 444 445 445 447 447

Glass-Flake-Filled Service Limitations

........................ Temperature Limits in Immersion. ................... Selecting the Lining. .............................. Designing for Monolithic Linings ...................... Vessels-Steel or Alloys. .......................... Rigidity. ................................. Accessibility. ...............................
Joints....................................44 Structural Welds Concrete Surface Exterior Reinforcement Members (Stiffeners).

447 7




Inside Structures ........................... ............................


..44 .449 .449 .449 450 8

.................................. Vessels. Quality. .............................

Shell Penetrations

........................ Wall Penetrations. ........................... Concrete and Steel Vessels ........................

Waterproofing. Floors....................................45 Surface Practical Ventilation. Preparation.

450 0 452 453


During Installation ............... ................................. Temperature. ................................ Humidity. .................................. Inspection-Linings on Steel ....................... Inspection-Linings on Concrete. .................... Troubleshooting .............................. Maintenance. ................................ References. ................................... Considerations APPLIED H. Kline of Epoxy Surfacing Finish. Materials EPOXY SURFACING.

.453 .453 .453

454 454

.455 .455 .456 .458

458 .459 461 461



................... ...................



Application Controlling Application

Equipment Surface Temperature

........................... Range.

.......................... ...................... Trowel and Spray Applications ...................... Chemical Resistance. ............................. Performance of Epoxy Surfacers ..................... Epoxy Surfacers on Concrete. .......................
Situations Situations Typical Where Epoxy Where Epoxy Surfacers Surfacers Are Not Used.

.461 .461 .467 .468 .........

468 8

May Be Conditionally .469

Used......................................46 Uses of Epoxy Surfacers .....................



Reference 36. A NOTE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .472


URETHANES.......................................473 Walter Lee Sheppard, 37. GUNNED Part A: LININGS. Gunned J. Smith ................................. Flexural, and Tensile Strength. Equipment. of Guniting .479


................................. ....................

,478 .478


Advantages. Compressive, Manufacturers Wet Guns.

............ ...............



Dry Guns..................................48

................................ ........................... Terms of Reference. ................................ Components. Cementing Matrix ........................... ............................... Aggregates. ................................ Additives. Application Over a Steel Surface .................... Mixing Water ................................
Summary....................................48 References. Part B: Silicate Robert Part C: Walter Gunned ................................. Monolithics, Potassium Jr. .......................... ....................... Gunned Silicate. Sodium Silicates. .........

.481 .481 .481 .482 .482 .483


7 .489 489 491 491 492 .493 .493

L. Trinklein ...................... Lee Sheppard,

History Curing. Anchors,

and Limitations

Composition Application Rebound. Hardening Chemical

and Properties. .................................

.................................... Reinforcing and Membranes ................

.494 .494 495 .495 .496

.................................. or Curing Agent Resistance. ........................ ...........................


................................ SECTION VIII AND REINFORCEMENTS





. .

.. . . . . . . . . .

. . .

. . . 498 . . . 498
. . . . . . . . . 498 . 499 .499 . 500

J. Kossler and Deformable


. . . .. . . . . .. . .

.. . Urethanes . .. Polysulfide. . . Silicones . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mastics and Thermoplastics. . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . 500



........... ................ Sponges. ....................... Sliding Joints ....................

Other Types of Sealants Design and Uses 39. CERAMIC FIBERS.

.............. .............. ..............

501 501 501 503

. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . .

. . . . . .

. . . .505

Walter Lee Sheppard, 40. ORGANIC Walter 41. CARBON FIBERS.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508 Jr.

Lee Sheppard, FIBERS.

. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

. . . . . . . . . .511

Eugene C. Heilhecker 42.

USE OF FLUOROCARBONS Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr.

. . . . . . . . . .514





. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516

Lee Sheppard,



THERMOPLASTIC Boova Introduction. Discussion



. . . . .. . . ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........

. . . . 520 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..................... ....................... Chemical Resistance. .............. .................... Fabrication .................. Polyethylene ................. Polypropylene Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) ..........
Nonolefinics Polymers (Aliphatic Polymers)

. 520 . 521 . 523



.............. ................. Fluoroplastics. ..................... Conclusion. ..................... References.


. 528 . 533 . 538 . 538

539 540

. . . . . .

. . . . 539






Walter Lee Sheppard, Designing Stability Brickwork

The Basic Principles.

Without Reinforcing-Contouring



..................................... .......................... Expansion Joints-General Thrust Blocks. ................................. Trenches .....................................


.555 .558



Weirs and Overflows. Vessels

.............................. ...................................... Bottoms ..................................... Capping. ..................................... Covers. ...................................... Prestressing .................................... Expansion Joints in Vessels. ......................... More About Floors .............................. Monolithics .................................
Differences Brick Curbs Determining Walls Subject Between Floor Expansion Thicknesses or Splash. Joints in Bonded Brick and Over a Membrane. .........................


.565 ,566 .572 .572

574 575

.576 .576
579 580

..................... ....................

to Spray

582 2


.................................... Side Effects ...................................

Substrate. Galvanic imity Corrosion to Carbon of Lead and Stainless and Carbon-Filled Steel Due to Proxand Grouts. Mortars

.583 .584 ....

584 586

............................... Brick Growth. ............................... Bibliography. ............................... .......................... Swelling of Brick. ....................... Other Related Articles

587 587 588




. . . . . . 594 ......
...... 594
601 602 604 607 608 608 609 610 610

Piping .................................

....................... Manholes. .............................. Trenches ...............................

and Backfill Holding, Equalizing, and Ancillary or Neutralizing Equipment Tanks

....... ...

Scrubbers Inspection

and Clay Pipe.

and Repairs of Manholes

...... ...... ...... ...... ......

...... ......

............................ Internal Repair. ........................ Bibliography. ............................



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

...... ......

614 614

R. Pierce

. . .




Linings-A Stresses.



and the Problem

of 614 614 615 615 616 616 616 617 618 619 .619

................................ A Solution-Prestressing ............................ Description of the Prestressing Process. .................. Mathematical Analysis ............................. Methods of Analysis. ................................ Composite Properties of Brick/Mortar Layers .............. Thermal Gradient Calculation ........................ Stress and Strain Calculations ........................ Stresses During and After Cure. .......................
Tensile Stresses at Operating Sample Calculation Summary References. and Shutdown Conditions ............ ................................

and Conclusions

........................... .....................................

.622 .623



CHIMNEYS........................................62 Brian Coole y

.................................. ................................... Past Design Considerations .......................... Corbel Supported Brick ......................... Independent Brick. ............................
Introduction. Concept. Shell Supported Present Conditions. Overall System Steel Shells. Steel. ...........................

.626 .626

.627 ,628



Outer Shell. ................. ................................. Brick Shells ................................. Reinforced Concrete Shells. ....................... Dynamic Wind ............................. Seismic Loads. ............................. Overall System Design-The Liner. ..................... Acid Resistant Masonry .......................... Steel and FRP Liners. ........................... Refractory Liners (Gunite or Cast) ................... Unlined Independent Concrete Liners. ................ Specific Design Recommendations-Brick Liner ............ Banding System .............................. Breeching Ductwork ............................ Annulus Pressurization. .......................... Present and Future Aspects. ......................... Recent Problems Due to Wet Gas Conditions ............ Preconditioning of Brick. ......................... Moisture/Heat Shielding. ......................... Flow Diversion Arrangements ...................... Design-The

,631 .631

,634 .635
635 636 637 638 641 641

643 644 645 645 648 648 648


xxx v









.650 .650
653 654

W. Jarret Conditions. Requirements.

............................ ......................... ..................... Coating Varieties and Application. Inspection .................................... References. ...................................
Operating Qualification 50. SULFUR William Sulfur SPRAY COATINGS. ................... .......................... and Harold L. Fike . ..............

.656 .658
.659 .659

C. McBee,

Thomas A. Sullivan


............................ Mixture Design ............................... Sulfur Modifiers .............................. Fillers and Fibers. .............................
Spray Coatings. Uses.......................................66

.661 .661 .661 .662

2 662 662 662


........................ ................. Preparation and Spraying Equipment ..................... Manufacture and Applications. Quality Control. ..............................
and Application. of Sulfur

4 664 664

Safety......................................66 Properties Physical Chemical Durability Advantages References. 51. PULP AND PAPER

.................... .................. and Mechanical Properties. Resistance. ........................... .................................. and Disadvantages .......................
Spray Coatings.

.665 .666 .667



INDUSTRY USE OF CORROSION .......................... ........................... in the Pulp and Paper RESISTANT



CONSTRUCTION. C. Stephans of Construction

.669 669

Materials History Industry.

of Brick and Tile Construction

Acid Sulfite Peripheral

.................................... Digesters. .............................

Equipment in the Digester Area.

672 674 674

............... Kraft and Neutral Sulfite Digesters ..................... Kraft Liquor Systems. ............................ Pulp Storage Vessels. .............................. Chlorine Dioxide Vessels. ...........................
Chlorination, Towers Hypochlorite, Peroxide, and Caustic Extraction ....................................

675 675 ..67 6

Washers and Seal Pits

............................. Paper Mill .................................... Tall Oil Reactors. ................................ Tall Oil Spent Acid Tanks. ......................... Floors. ......................................

.676 .676

.677 .677

xxx vi


Summary. ........................ References. ....................... SECTION XIV AND FAILURE ANALYSIS ANALYSIS

. . . .. . . .

. . . . . 678 . . . . . 678





. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 680 . . .. . . . .
. . . . . . .

Lee Sheppard, Preliminaries.

Inspection ........................

.................... Concrete ....................... Brick. ......................... Mortars ........................

Membranes and Expansion Joint Materials

. . . . .

. 682 . 682 . 685 . 687 . 688

689 690 691 . 692

. .

. . 689


....................... Membrane ...................... ..................... Monolithics

Brickwork Final and Expansion Joint.


Inspection Analysis



.................. .................... ......................

. . . . . 694 . . . . . 694 . . . . 715


Section I Introduction

1 An Engineer Looks at Chemically Resistant Masonry

Robert United

E. Moore Incorporated

Engineers and Constructors, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

INTRODUCTION Chemically widely rently many crete, used diverse wood available resistant groups of to the masonry engineering inorganic (CRM) is at once Engineer. one of the oldest and which linings CRM construction for and most curincludes steel, conthe most properly (al-

materials, and organic These reliable, versatile

components materials composites applications service of corrosion


Materials/Corrosion structures

non-metallic and other construction

can be utilized

as independent, cost-effective designed tions that

self-supporting substrates.

or as protective

are often and, when under

for various have given to other major

industrial types

and installed, are damaging coatings). CRM


adverse condimaterials


loys, plastics, In general, corrosive treme good CRM and other bination

is characterized (beyond chemical the food the (but

by excellent acids most high of

resistance (dilute common thermal

to a broad materials), stability waste

range of exvery commakes pulp and and



including limits not

and concentrated), this unique that chemical, treatment solvents solution

temperatures strength of so useful paper, industries. superior

in compression throughout

in tension). and

It is mainly

resistance power,

steel and metalworking, and beverage, as strong such costly acids,

pharmaceutical, temperatures,

processing may

In severe environments, CRM Even very applications exotic,

or alkato these canSome vessels,

lies at elevated aggressive not always typical

be the only


conditions. withstand CRM

and scarce metals at an affordable sumps, trenches,

and alloys price. reaction

such exposures,

at least not are floors, 2


An Engineer

Looks at Chemically




(storage, Since







and other maevalachieve ma-

air pollution terial, uated this plant terials tion ments stations, power

control a prime

equipment. objective or system with is to select and use the optimum for other goal. each application, corrosion the the should While total CRM installed criterion duration. should materials cost for That of resistant (cost-effective) be carefully to best any

component and long-term construction composite with minimum




is important, such as CRM maintenance (e.g., CRM) cost. ranges life


a successful

be trouble-free


and protecrequire-

for a prolonged is the one that plants 30-40 years; outage often reliability proves For

is, the optimum fuel power purchased failure capito the re-

engineering at the the

structure design

best meets the daily

the design lost or

least overall

such as nuclear and

and fossil

cost of a forced

(unscheduled) materials material

due to a critical

component its initial

is astronomical. tal cost, plant tion cord owner. of

Accordingly, A similar

far overshadows when considering based upon

and the cheapest

to be the most expensive


is necessary involving

low bid installaa long track and prod-

contractors, successful

unless they

are previously


case histories

the same generic


ucts specified

for the application.

DEFINITION To quote metallic, gregate units type exposure. in order structures or tile; tight, forms must fully and bonded



OF CHEMICALLY may be defined units a mortar chemical may of several and most three them All

RESISTANT as a structure stone,

MASONRY composed block adhesion of nonagto the

the editor inert together

CRM with



such as brick, or mortars

or other

of adequate resistance units

and possessing or from


and thermal from different

for the anticipated of a single and mortars CRM such as brick a liquidin various components re-

Such a structure a combination optimum to bond system. to achieve (2) Mortars resistant to

be assembled

and mortars


of such units satisfactory units


results. to attain

as such comprise

components: together, of these

(1) Masonry

and (3) Membranes components materials. All

are available three

are produced meet general

from both



be chosen There are two

the environmental of CRM suitable corrosive


and the design


of each application. categories with construction: physical, service free mechanical standing acid liner unit both and chemical of liner chimney brick conditions. known brick One example structures to withstand structure brick States

(1) Load bearing resistance a load lining high station lime sulfur 1,000 properties CRM bearing in the reinforced operates flue dioxide

is an independent, and mortar. The tallest high fireclay 1-I).

made of acid resistant United concrete

chimney power a wet and than

is a 900-foot chimney (FGD) (Figure

in a l,OOO-foot coal-fired particulate

This two

on high sulfur (SO,) scrubbing. are designed

coal and emits system Moreover,

hot corrosive incorporating

flue gases from liners greater

gas desulfurization

acid brick


feet in height

and used successfully

in Europe and other parts

of the world.


and Chemical





(2) rosion, other tected. (1) ture The most

Linings to protect erosion, common linings to control insulation thermal thus cements, reaches limiting carbon about mild exposed abrasion materials

floors, and/or

vessels and other thermal attack linings

equipment from chemical


to corbut promodes: or wear; temperafluid to


substrates can provide physical effects

for CRM

are carbon

steel and concrete, protection

structural CRM Barrier

such as wood

and plastics damage

may also be effectively such as abrasion and membrane of corrosive linings,

any one or all of the following or mechanical by limiting its corrosion wash, the substrate rate. CRM which

(2) Thermal the substrate, and monolithic brane fluid tively

to prevent


and (3) Reduce


minimizing corrosion the

such as acid brick of the memthe is relaEven when

also prevent products membrane

is the removal medium. surface,

or substrate eventually small, thus

by the circulating or substrate

the amount products corrodes when rust



and any corrosion in stagnant seawater However, higher the hydrated

are trapped at an avits unto

beneath By disturbed f/owing velocity tacks cally lining inforced CRM rosion protecting CRM structural brane;

the masonry analogy, corrosion seawater, and attendant seawater (FRP)

shield. steel immersed 5 mils/year steel corrodes (mpy), discounting pitting, because

erage rate of only


are semi-protective. at a much away Hence, design erodes pipe

subjected layer

rate because cannot

the water and atpipe rethr6 of economi-

turbulence at normal pipe from

the freshly handle must

steel surface.

bare steel piping velocities. Either alloy service blocking resistant to perform while

a protective or fiberglass life. Likewise, function

be used or a more enables

erosion-corrosion membrane


employed chemical consist

for a reasonable corrosion of three wood, and

sheathing products.

the barrier

its primary

the substrate structures support


of cor-

as installed (e.g., steel, masonry

component plastic); mortar and their impurities (4) Physical (vacuum) shock) design shocks (2)

parts: shielding

(1) External memupon enagents; the mem-

concrete, unit

Fluid-tight depends


Non-metallic factors all major thermal abrasion materials


brane. The choice the following compassing ing transient pact, change variables CRM failure, strains, To element wear,

of the materials and conditions: constituents acidity positive CRM affect the useful must fuel cycles and for

used in each of the components

(1) Chemicals
and any trace or alkalinity; and or negative

concentrations, and cleaning effects

(2) Ranges of pH and total

(3) Temperature pressure.

ranges, includsuch as imThe rate of

and excursions;

of pressure

or temperature

(e.g., thermal structures. the selection,

must also be considered in any of these of the be the controlling a premature on it. up to 500conservhot boiler inand could performance To avoid imposed G3OOF air with

in evaluating



can significantly in determining the CRM illustrate, static or dynamic a sudden exchangers the hot


In some structure in a fossil increase that flue (e.g., 20-30

cases, operational life of a CRM be capable power service plant

structure. conditions

of resisting the (Air

any or all of the stresses, air preheater(s)

loads and other in flue minute)

loss of boiler from preheaters

can create ing heat flue heater

gas temperature period. to boiler be cooled

7OOF for a brief gas which fails,

are energy


incoming prior not


is thereby

cooled gas will



If an air preto the

by the heat transfer

An Engineer

Looks at Chemically



coming the sition herent With Viton@), FGD


combustion Should ducts shock) over this

air, and will and chimney


the scrubbing occur,


at the higher and linings in tranplant in-

temperature.) (thermal

rare accidental liner substantial other notably materials reasons, stable the

event must


system For this

be able to survive damage-i.e., structures

this rapid preserve


structural CRM materials

integrity. very

and many exceptions, some CRM

and linings (Teflon@, thermal up to failure


advantages few while

less thermally

such as coatings

and FRP. Kynar@, limits scenario. for and by are and and end are weak of 1000-


even the best protective well above the worst-case reviewing


and FRP have upper can endure these temperatures four air preheater

250-350F, 2000F, CRM user: thus Before

single or double materials,

the basic CRM must be recognized


limitations strength

construction (1) CRM have good

and addressed have excellent (2) Conversely, that they such loads; restrain barrier

by the specifier compressive CRM structures

structures, load bearing

like concrete, properties; requiring

in tension, suitable relatively container outer brick. the tailed For

shear and torsion, (e.g., steel) brittle tight rigid and

be reinforced than it must flex,

or supported structures bent; when head.


to withstand

(3) CRM a fluid

and tend

to break, cannot tight


(4) A structure


of such units and function and a liquid duct lining Suffice

For such a by an the be in behind would lining will

to be liquid example, design All must


be supported tank

shell to take optimum later

the thrust a circular for

or membrane masonry these

or cylindrical as it would of

(or spherical) keep the CRM now,

a CRM design chapter.

compression. guidelines construction.

of these be faithfully

characteristics to realize

structures benefits

be deof CRM

in a separate

it to say for



the manifold

CHEMICALLY The major lowed detail briefly (1) brick and tile. The (I) ables, would tars. and general by some elsewhere review Each generic





MATERIALS described, be discussed this section CRM structures resistant or are: joint folin will


and materials of CRM in the blocks

be generally materials field. will

industrial of CRM by leading the three

applications component specialists construction


and protective Hence,



and related CRM

basic building CRM applied

of the composite three substrate;

and linings. Primary or tile

As stated, membrane to protect

incorporates chemically,



to a structural or grout

(2) Chemical and jointing in this (for and

the membrane mortar of CRM units; concretes; lining Only


and mechanically; the brick

(3) Chemical

resistant categories (2)

for bedding detailed

components (3) (5) applied the Mortars over first

handbook tile);

Membranes; grouts also Each and (A


and grouts a membrane of these

(4) Castsubstrate

polymer monolithic

Monolithics; three

(6) Expansion coated CRM units even

compounds. classes will materials

constitute be discussed of these including

CRM.) components both

component and morsizes shapes,

below-namely, inorganic

membranes, in a variety organic and

masonry compounds,

is available

of forms,



and Chemical





(e.g., lead). resins with thermal monoliths except

Most of the organic materials excellent offer By contrast, outstanding (HF) with carbon the inorganic

are high molecular alkali silicates

weight within


or and

resistance to a wide range of chemicals high temperature and strong alkalies filled furan can be handled mortar resistance (NaOH). by suitably

their specific all media almost


used as mortars in virtually

acid fluorides

For these exposures carChemically designed and installed or limita-

bon brick joined any environmental CRM tions components. of CRM

is effective.


It is essential that the above four design guidelines and components CRM components in forming be closely followed and materials


for a successful


The principal

will now be reviewed

along with their functions Membranes A membrane somewhat selection Maximum and (5) membrane strate both meric carbon barrier chemical composition

the CRM structures

and linings.

is a key material CRM membrane


serves as fluid-tight upon these major environment, substrate that (2) can be installed, (often Hence, primed) effective

barrier facors;


the The (3)

permeable of a good and economic Unprotected applied attack

lining and the substrate depends of the that

or supporting Substrate (4)

structure. rigidity,

(1) Chemical pressure, A CRM sub-

temperature corrosion

brick thickness to a properly


rate of the cleaned failure. adhesion

in the chemical. substrate

steel or concrete membranes Therefore,

is the

last line of defense and premature resistance good

in protecting

from accelerated must have to the of a an elasto-

high chemical membrane steel tank

to corrosive an acid brick that


and low

permeability acid corrosion

same media,

along with

to the substrate. lining to control

used under

must not only resist attack

by the corrosive through remain units

but be a complete

to any of the corrodent but insufficient

has migrated

the brick and mortar. intact and unaffected; or at least limit or tile) protect membrane its the of

It is necessary diffusion membrane synergism combined

that the membrane from the masonry

it must also prevent

the corrosive rate. While

reaching the substrate (brick and physical abuse,the damage.

to a tolerable

against excessive temperature in which the properties

in turn

guards the substrate

against environmental

This is a classic example materials

of complementary

are effectively

into a very useful composite.

Membranes, which include both liquid applied and solid sheet linings, can be classified as: (I) True membranes that are completely impermeable barriers to specific amount epoxy, polyvinyl corrosives, or (2) Semi-membranes which allow a low but acceptable types include cloth memof the chemical phenolic, chloride to reach the substrate. materials. and furan sheet, polyester Further, these membrane

may be divided

into rigid and non-rigid polyester (PVC) epoxy,

The rigid membranes glass linings, glass filled

resin coatings,


and both flake and vinyl mastic

and fiberglass

or mat reinforced branes include substrates rubber,

ester resin linings. Non-rigid used membrane epoxies; elastomers and bitumastic

hot applied variety butyl, Natural

asphalt, the most widely

on concrete plasticized natural Viton@ memsheet

(but not on steel); asphalt chlorobutyl,

PVC; and a wide neoprene, and polyurethane. brane materials

of sheet (and some liquid) Hypalon@, rubbers Fluorocarbon and synthetic


ethylene-propylene, are the most common (e.g., Teflon@,

for steel substrates.


An Engineer

Looks at Chemically



linings resistant and




are employed are almost for good with

as membranes chemically adhesion superior inert to





cesses. These require

fluoropolymers chemical etching

and are the expansion their and heat Fluorel@

most heat anti-stick (to 4OOF) should be in ad-

of the organic When flexible are needed, Liquid

membranes membranes coatings Metallic

but have high thermal


overcome and

properties. resistance considered. dition lead, alloys. lining) chapters. Masonry



such as Viton@ based upon sheet stainless Viton@ membranes materials applications


are now available are also utilized corrosion in

to sheet All and

membranes. and other selection

including resistant glass subsequent

chromium-nickel of these their

(austenitic) for

steels and other

membrane CRM

(e.g., porcelain are detailed


Units or construction ASTM for material, Masonry stack liners units, defines either units vessels. Most chemically There like membranes, resistant are vital components unit used in industrial and mechanical resuch as free or tile lindirectly laying to the are required, by units in as a

Masonry CRM modular processes sistance standing ings for masonry properly brick for other

construction. non-metallic primarily is required. acid brick floors units should with

a chemical vitreous where


or nonvitreous, thermal in CRM


chemical, linings (liquid with units

are used both If fluid masonry resistant


and in CRM

such as acid brick or gas) barriers applied

and process

be used in conjunction substrates.

membranes mortar


are installed or grout of masonry resistance

or tile various generic

a suitable conditions. abrasion, as well over used (4)


to resist available corno of and

the environmental industrial rosion, adverse salts and found types: silicate Special of these Among thermal erosion, conditions solvents units Acid

is a great variety superior elevated combination

applications wear as the

requiring and/or right materials

to chemical Practically, array units, mortars

temperatures. of CRM against

class of engineering These CRM composites the wide in High and CRM

can withstand

such a broad corrosive


are effective

acids, alkalies,

range of pH, concentrations construction fireclay); encompass brick; brick; silicon glazed virtually

and temperatures the following brick; basic boro(6) Each and granite,

in industry. Masonry (I) brick (red shale, brick units within that (2) Carbon basalt, ceramic, utility (3) Foamed (5) Silica carbide, porcelain). all chemical rank

glass block; composition masonry these exposures services

alumina (7) Tile

and insulating (porcelain, (quarry, area of

and block


hydraulic); diverse CRM

has its particular units, industry the design high

in CRM linings would

construction. and structures. in abrafire(covap-

can combat these CRM (best), acid types: silicon resistant (I) another


of CRM

In chemical

are also abrasive, alumina


sion resistance Acid brick Brick:

as follows: Acid C279),

carbide, or acid common

hard burned proof brick brick in CRM units

clay, and red shale. brick, also called major ered by ASTM in CRM and plications. structures are of two acid brick including Red shale, the predominant used masonry sumps, in CRM chimney

construction; linings,

and (2) Fireclay, floors,

These two

are the most widely trenches,

vessels and


and Chemical





liners. Both types of acid brick are made from selected clays or shale containing little for acid-soluble with constituents water which while normally fireclay and are fired face brick. absorption fireclay brick, in kilns at higher temperatures This produces brick. a much stronger, and superb resistance contains more and denlonger times than ordinary far lower (HF), hydrofluoric

ser brick except erally furic

to most acids The genthermal aband The

requires carbon brick which

Red shale brick is higher alumina. greater absorption and better sul-

in silica and iron content, denser shale brick acid resistance of Type than

shows lower water

has somewhat

shock resistance sorption minimum the lower iron

(less brittle) L (usually

than red shale brick. red shale brick), fireclay demanding limits

Because of the low (<I%) maximum of Type brick acid resistance L shale brick.

these bricks are more often used in to meet in certain 98% sulfuric brick and

process vessels and other absorption. content 1% absorption processes. silicate and of

applications 8% the


brick can also be manufactured fireclay is beneficial

acid solubility buff-colored iron content one sulfuric

industrial potassium

For example,

acid plant producing resistant,

acid guarantees

a maximum mortar

of 25 ppm, in which fireclay as a fully

are employed

non-contaminating coated mild steel

CRM construction. In sulfuric tion forms furic by material acid production, for the sulfuric and prevent acid brick lining of membrane the most durable Such linings will protective sulfuric acid plant. tanks and reaction temperature vessels is considered and versatile construcreduce the steel shell iron sulfate film that (reducing) lining sulmust be protected systems. a thin film of Tefbrick have up HF brick

erosion of the normally (oxidizing) to carbon membranes membranes

in stagnant, acid solutions

concentrated (e.g.,

acid. Dilute

are very corrosive elastomeric) employ between

steel, which comprising


and acid brick

Such acid brick lon@ or Kynar@ excellent to 250F, acid,

linings often sandwiched

layers of asphalt mastic. of phosphoric acid at temperatures rule-of-thumb, of carbon

In phosphoric provided brick 50

acid production the acid contains construction with a carbon on acid H,

plants, both red shale and fireclay no HF.

resistance to all concentrations must

If HF is present in the phosphoric tank linings


be used. As a rough acid require filled (I) substrate include:

levels above bonded membrane ASTM Masonry Brick, Lining suitable fully three


in phosphoric

and jointed

(or barytes) brick

furan mortar structure. C279,

over a suitable

to match the steel or concrete specifications Units, which Types covers Types

Chemical-Resistant Industrial Floor shale be Industrial Chimney present covers and

H and L brick; brick

(2) C410,

covering Brick,

L, M and T brick; solid kiln-fired construction The

and (3) C980, with C980



made from clay and/or the chemicals specification

for use in masonry in later

in contact newer ASTM

in the flue gases found described acid bricks:

in industrial chapters.


All of these brick low absorption

types will

(1) Type

I (old H), for use where (2) Type and (3) Type

and high acid lowest

resistance are not major factors; higher acid resistance are required; absorption and highest

I I, for use where ASTM

lower absorption C279

II I (old L), for use where

acid resistance

are required.

has been reis

vised to adopt these three acid brick types. Carbon Brick: Carbon brick, though costing required in some CRM applications


more than acid brick,

because of its high resistance to HF and con-

An Engineer

Looks at Chemically



centrated certain (HF) CRM without power handling centrations brick


such as caustic with strong concentrations. However, they

soda (NaOH). Currently recent

Red shale and fireclay allowable

bricks are above ppm limits in mortar con-

not compatible threshold


and are attacked economically long-term tolerance fluorides. little

by acidic fluorides service and 1,500 acid fluoride silicate

acid fluoride of various

levels are judged conditions. indicate significant plant materials

to be under might

50 ppm in immersion tolerate slightly

in wetdry

HF test programs higher


This greater

of HF has been observed and potassium Despite acidic fluoride

chimney well

liners made ,500

of acid brick

flue gases from

coals containing

above the 50/l

ppm range in some FGD well with to the two media,

systems, the acid NevertheHF and NaOH,


liners are performing brick offers excellent differs from

or no HF attack.

less, carbon detrimental Carbon tion, brick quently strate. Carbon (less dense),


to acid brick, silicate mortars brick acid brick expansion acid brick, lower thermal than

and monolithics, in other respects: coefficient, thicker

and silica filled resins. much higher absorpshock resistance linings freBecause carbon


superior (K factor).

and much higher thermal

conductivity thermal

is more conductive This greater


brick tank

must be used for equivalent lining thickness linings,


over the membrane/subprice of carbon brick will work. for floors or vesAnother (75OF differin the sulfuric well above closed cell out-


increases the higher only carbon resin mortar thermal acid, limit

versus acid brick sels exposed

but in some environments

brick is often CRM

used with carbon filled furan bricks is the much (e.g., lower nitric

to hot aggressive chemicals of carbon

such as HF and NaOH.

ence in the two conditions acid). 1000F, foamed standing 960F, shock standard substrate effective (8-12% flyash

presence of oxygen) By contrast, Foamed increasing

brick due to its susceptibility heat

to strong oxidizing

in combination



acid brick can readily whether Glass Block:

handle service temperatures or reducing thermally This insulating unique thermal

even to 2000F, Borosilicate glass block chemical very low

in oxidizing

acid environments.

lining, resistance

commercially industries (except (excellent


in recent years, has found properties: resistance up to good thermal comes in many

usage in many K factor

because of several to HF and NaOH), insulator), is IX) The foamed

impermeability, glass block


and very light weight. lining thickness

sizes (common

and is bonded to itself and the or an acid resistant mortar. insulator, it provides very only 12 pcf in reducing and stack of the Its light weight, design benefit of only 2-3 major plant ductwork

by an asphalt-urethane internal the density insulation

adhesive/membrane thermal is another weight to existing or duct.

Since this glass block lining is such an efficient to a steel tank linings), retrofits The installed of cementitious and permits

dead loads on lined structures. design loadings little and liners with borosilicate meability tion

psf is similar to

or no structural virtual immunity including

modifications. to cracking. electric utility

Two This


glass block versus gunned monolithic

silicate linings are its lower perblock lining has performed of air polluand paper Brick and pulp of a number systems,

well for several years in the outlet control facilities mills and municipal High Alumina Block: plications as outlined

ducts and chimneys FGD Brick,

and industrial incinerators. and Insulating Brick, Silica brick below:

and Specialty

These special composition

and block are employed

for specific ap-



and Chemical





High Alumina resist extreme tent ally light weight used for the Silica Brick: Specialty (2) Basalt, (3) than alumina


This 90-99%


brick is used as refractory Insulating firebrick than the higher alumina

brick to is genersilica consilica

temperatures highest

ranging 2000-3OOOF. porous with temperature

and somewhat

ranges to 3000F.

and the



used below 2000F. about 99% silica is favored phosphoric include: (I) acid. Porcelain, an 85% alumina, abrawith nil absorption; bunkers and to abrasion and over acid brick for especially These

Brick containing Units:

very high acid concentrations, Masonry an extremely Silicon carbide very hard and dense brick,

good to 15OOF, dense and costly brick, noted

very cleanable cast block,

having outstanding hoppers, resistance at joints mortar

sion resistance, used for bottom chutes; and elevated used natural alkaline Tile: porcelain. tinguished distinction (5-6%) from temperatures; stone units-its hydraulic solutions

ash slurry linings, coal/ash for its excellent block, makes bonding a hydraulic

(4) Granite high density bonded and bonded

one of the oldest but now seldom difficult;

(5) Press-molded bleach C398 requirements.

brick, a special brick designed for caustic and with meeting ASTM

The three types of chemical Tile from is chemically it as follows: metallic than similar (I)

resistant tile are quarry, to, but thinner thickness. than, units <IX and plate

ceramic and glazed and is diswhile thickness,


acid brick

Tiles are masonry


(2) Bricks are masonry between

units >11/4

(This is roughly

analogous to the thickness.) grout over a

sheet (or strip) at

Packing house or dairy tile (pavers), usually absorption red shale brick, filled membrane of concrete and ceramic strate with when and the open joints floors tile and walls restrictions

made from red shale clay with a higher

is set on a bed of CRM Quarry and ceramic tiles fired all types with glazed tile to the subthan 1 I, chemicals,

by grouting. industries

the same clays and shale as acid brick are widely in various (to HF & NaOH) 1 thick)

used to protect Quarry, directly

from corrosive

the same media

as acid brick.

(all units under

must be bonded

an adhesive that

also serves as the membrane. such as asphalt,

Units thinner

laid over a soft membrane

tend to break up under traffic,

even foot traffic. Mortars and Grouts for Brick and Tile resistant CRM mortars for acid or carbon and complete and linings masonry brick and grouts for tile are part CRM impervious composite. membranes or grouts. directly masonry and enby a anti-

Chemical the third The most

important durable

component sheathed with

the three utilize


against a substrate Depending onto the onto the primary

units bonded with mortars layer of mortar

upon the service conditions, membrane surface. construction membrane The CRM include

the brick or tile may be applied mortars phenolic, and grouts used with furan, epoxy, resistant

or over a bedding

or grout troweled Resinous morpolyester bonding agents

units fall into three generic classes: siliceous, tars used in CRM with the appropriate in industry. experienced vinyl ester resins. The proper countered skilled, corrosion When selection the

resinous, and sulfur.

of these chemical CRM

brick or tile will contractor, the

resist any hot corrosive materials most net result is the

environment are installed



system currently


An Engineer

Looks at Chemically




Silicate acidic



major setting

inorganic agents).

silicate Perhaps other

(water the




based upon sodium or potassium catalysts (hardeners, are those these alkali are fully certain containing no fluorides, below

silicates cured with various organic or inorganic best of these products of hardeners. All of and 175OF employing types

silicate mortars

are very heat resistant, pH 7 except Some silicate

some up to about

acid resistant threshold organic

to HF and acid fluoride mortars

salts above resistant when confrom


are considered reactions mortars

to mild, dilute base. Sodium tacting utility type furic hot

bases to pH 8, possibly pH 9, depending to sulfation-hydration least suitable are not

upon the specific for acid brick

silicates are susceptible sulfuric

acid and thus are the wet sulfur oxide-laden silicate commonly mortars are more

stack liners handling boilers. reaction, they

flue gases and acid condensates used in hot, strong sulfurous in power plant

Since potassium


subject to this growth and sulchimney or and Sili-

acids and are the standard potassium alums,

for acid brick

liners. However, salts, particularly magnesium. considered. fluorides. cate mortars Silica handling

silicates are subject to the formation a silica, rather than silicate

of other growth aluminum calcium mortar may be

in the presence of sulfuric silicate mortars

acid and iron,

In such combinations, The best potassium

are free of sodium,

Both single and two component are the most absorbent Only hydraulic Silica mortar mortars

systems are available

to industry. than silicates.

and thus the most permeable have higher absorptions

of all acid rematerial, stable borosiliThis silica

sistant mortars.


is a strictly

acid and heat resistant contains only

all acids except A relatively

HF and acidic fluorides recent self-curing reaction

at pH O-7 and thermally no metallic Like constituents. mortars,

up to 2000F.

silica mortar of the sodium

cate glass powder, formation mortars Sulfur very problems Mortars:

silica sol and crushed silica with of the Hot potassium silicates. sulfur

avoids both the sulfation-hydration also resist organic chemicals.

silicates and the alum

the silicate


mortars alkalies

are ancient, below 200F

doubtless They (I) are One to over a pH

one of the oldest resistant range of O-12. containing lay carbon steels) product join (2) A mortar

of all chemical types filler



still used today. employed:

to non-oxidizing Three with

acids and weak of sulfur filler mortars minimum

are typically

an all-silica with brick for


used to bond acid brick; used primarily (to clean all-silica tanks stainless filled used to effluent

an all-carbon

and minimum


nitric-hydrofluoric floors; cotta) the amount

acid pickling

and the with

underlying (terra The

and (3) A much of plasticizer

more flexible

double clay

of the other two mortars, waste acids and other industry. mortars for the power if non-silica

vitrified Resin

pipe conveying


and to assemble pole line hardware Mortars: following all being usable in HF exposures Mortars: The original O-IO. Phenolics are the oldest


are used in CRM

construction, Phenolic brickwork. dizing

fillers such as carbon used with acid pH nonoxipH O-12 are use-

or barytes are employed: resinous mortars materials phenolics phenol-formaldehyde alkalies. Modified have an effective further

range of about

They are very resistant to dilute raise the maximum mortars

and concentrated

acids, solvents and dilute

increase this

pH range. Such mortars

pH well above the normal resistant to aniline. Phenolics

range, and are the only resin-based

ful up to an upper service temperature

of 36OF.



and Chemical





Furan and alkali can accept

Mortars: (pH O-14)





range of resistance Modified furans furans

to both Furan

acid that resis-

and temperatures up to the other temperatures mortar as well mortars with

of all the resin mortars. of up to 425F materials, by

mortars temperachemisuch as choice

temperatures continuous Unlike alkalies furan


are available

can withstand tures tance cals. aniline. depending Epoxy strength acids, dilute and and their hypochlorite its esters. to 475OF. to strong However, Furans upon

and intermittent organic solvents

have excellent

as non-oxidizing are attacked silica, carbon conditions.

acids and many some organic fillers, or barytes

are available Epoxies and limit

the filler

the environmental CRM materials, alkaline

Mortars: to other

are the strongest and media. resist Their 230F. handle Epoxies

resin mortars, many solvents, pH useful

have the best bond mild range to moderate is about alkali 2-14, and acid

non-oxidizing thermal acid resistance, at low Epoxy

is approximately epoxy mortars mortars

Besides their organic


many should


and sodium to acetic properties there are the re-


not be exposed

have the

best physical These two related dioxide However, organic

and mechanical mortars, which weak mortars, of which

of all the resin mortars. Polyester and Vinyl many epoxy sistance nitric cellent solvents with utility ments types, resins, are suitable of resist dilute temperature

Ester Mortars: for The two

a pH range of about acids

O-l 1 and a continuous resins, and complement alkalies.

service Their

225-23OF. bleaches

and concentrated such as chlorine to that esters. of other

to acid in acetic

and to oxidizing polyester chemical

acids such as are exester morincluding acidic ce(e.g., has

and chromic

is superior


and they

acid and related resin mortars Such mortars tile

and vinyl exposures

tars are the poorest in general. FGD systems. Hydraulic structural Lumnite). >30% pH 4.5, modified prove crete or to acids, acid brick

in other are widely lower

used in paper temperature types

mills and are suitable zones of mildly (water

or ceramic Mortars: (five

in the

The two types

common cement, ASTM

of hydraulic limederived and calcium alumina,


or mortars concrete Portland

are portland cement


basic C150), <5% mortar Lumnite for

cement aluminate while

used in


normally portland

contains cement whereas too


alumina. below

Chemically, which

or concrete resists dilute practical either

is not resistant acids to about latex to imthe condeicing rein-

being limited or augmented by coating have been decks. nitrite version corrosion

to pH 26.0, it is attacked portland reactive on the of

rapidly resistance,

use. Various


concretes For and

have been developed by densifying latex better spalling coated and cathodic is the acids to resist example,

its neutral

and alkaline the used

corrosion northern steel

components. bridge rebars

impregnated of the

concretes salt/chloride forced rebar,

decks epoxy


concrete calcium

(Elastomeric corrosion in concrete

membranes, bridge

and galvanized protection replacement markedly and similar been cement

inhibitive cement with mortar admixture)

admixture mortar

have also been effective Another of some improves chemicals. widely the of the portland resistance Flyash

deck protection.) or concrete to food ash. This ash additive ASTM resistance C618

of portland cement of the

rice hull

or concrete meeting and sulfate


has also

used to improve

the properties

of portland

An Engineer

Looks at Chemically




concrete. while I portland stantially by sulfuric proximately organic

It should cement. better

be noted that ASTM Although Type

Cl 50 Types

I I and V portland cements,

Type and mortars are subsilito apor

much more sulfate resistant, in neutral silicate

are no more acid resistant than ordinary II and V based concretes sulfate solutions, based upon sulfuric they would Lumnite,

or alkaline extend dilute would

be destroyed aluminum down

acid and its acid salts. Mortars economic mineral pH 45 (fairly selection described

cate and calcium pH 4, the mortar materials and temperature.

acid resistance


For stronger

acids below about inorganic

involve one of the acid resistant

above, depending mortars (I) and

upon the acid type, concentration be fully (3) discussed (2) joint

All of these materials-brick, in later chapters along with Monolithics compounds, (troweled, sprayed

and membranes-will grouts, linings); and

Castables, gunned

and polymer

concretes; Expansion

plus rigid plastic fabrications of industrial

such as polyethylene, host of materials requiring

polypropylene are effectively and

and PVC. These components used in a wide variety thermal should sulating efficiently the thermal is employed, ture, phatic outer energy simply resistance.

made from a whole applications

superior chemical

In closing this section, the energy conservation be cited as a principal benefit. to varying degrees, CRM (CRM lined equipment

aspects of CRM will operate insulation

construction in-

Because all CRM of external

linings are internally

cooler and more are saved. With glass block lining vinyl or aliThe

while the costs and maintenance insulation lining) insulation. thermal plant thin film

inside the duct or vessel, it is subject to less is needed for the lined steel strucby the moderate CRM lining.

damage than external a suitable

When closed cell borosilicate insulation exterior resulting personnel from coating

no external

such as an epoxy, the insulative


In addition, temperature

are safeguarded

steel surface and materials

savings realized

from this internal

CRM design merit serious



RESISTANT applications handbook


APPLICATIONS linings and structures with countless of excellent are both numerous CRM case histories available to any engiIn general, less durable

The industrial and the varied. This from around interested industry should neering tive CRM chief power lowing many


be filled

the world. reader

There are a number (see Bibliography long-term of CRM


at end of this chapter). chemical and thermal Cheaper, construction.

requiring materials



does or

use one or more types systems. with will

and components is the only CRM industry,

have been used but are seldom at elevated solution. control or practical and linings in air pollution CRM

as cost-effectemperatures,

as CRM

In some severe environments viable structures especially industries these

construction experience generation discussion CRM

Since the authors systems, the folthe else-

has been in the fossil fuel areas. Certainly, and are detailed



uses in other

are no less important

where in this handbook

as well as in the open literature.



and Chemical





Power Industry-Flue Electric problems of which utility

Gas Desulfurization

Systems operating from and maintenance not the least flyash(SO*), pH plus

FGD systems pose many difficult and his architect/engineer erosion and abrasion and flyash effects

to the owner are corrosion,

and constructor, fluorides,

high velocity sulfurous Though

laden flue gas, scrubber and sulfuric slurry 5.5-6.5

slurries, chlorides, spray tower)

(SOS) acids over a wide (absorber, temperatures still contain ducting ranging mixed

range of temperatures.

the process

in the SO* scrubber at moderate

is controlled

at a normal

of 120-1350F,

the wet scrubbed gases leaving pH. When this gas mix25F) bypass flue zone re-

the mist eliminators some SOs, halides gas to temperatures gion, a very corrosive develops that ture enters the outlet

up to 10% of the inlet flue gas SOZ content at an uncontrolled or higher height. with hot (300? condition system-i.e., FRP, mist the organic eliminators

(Cl, F) and flyash

and is reheated 150-200F gas/condensate of the FGD (alloys, of the performed

in the duct mixing

below the acid dew point It has been well established outlet linings) ducts and chimhave been used dampers, hostile liners, opera-

in the outlet

ducts and full chimney portion

the postscrubber variety

ney liner-are areas. A wide with CRM where tion. mixed

the most severe environmental of materials success downstream has generally system. linings with

zones and the highest maintenance and outlet

construction acid brick

best in this extremely plant chimney more have proved

region of the FGD coated steel or FRP In addition, prescrubbers, clude and/or acid gunned) brick,

This is especially pressurized

true of power


reliable than

liners in FGD

systems employing materials pumps. mortars linings

hot bypass reheat

non-metallic nozzles chemical resistance. brick

inorganic and slurry resistant Hard,

have been used in FGD system The favored chemically their CRM materials inbonded (cast or thermal pump


and for

cements, abrasion

used as monolithic

high chemical,

dense pre-fired slurry Venturi with potassium

shapes of alumina silicate throats bricks, mortar which

and silicon

carbide are employed components. construction Acid

for abrasive/erosive bonded liners or flues. resistant calcium

spray nozzles and slurry

is the preferred resist hot sulfuric cement linings sysin FGD

for chimney

of SO* scrubbers have

been lined with are sometimes tems. that are rapidly

high alumina abrasion contain used to protect attacked mildly

or silicon carbide

acid and are more

than acid brick. aluminate and other area.


steel prescrubbers


zones) pH 4.5.

These typically

or aluminum acids below gunited chemically

silicate cements Because of cements cement Some with hydraulic bonded

by sulfuric prescrubber

the controlled, are often

acidic pH in the SOZ scrubbers, However, or potassium SOs scrubbers tile. For to work membranes (or concrete) properly,

used in the

linings based upon sodium sistant and thus would completely chemical the tile blast non-metallic resistant lined ceramic concrete steel

silicate are much more acid and heat reare now built of concrete cementious prepared, lined

better handle system upsets in pH and temperature. any of these gunned the gunned

linings or preferably silicatestresses,

or tile lining must be apbest potassium and vibrational

plied over impervious cleaned, based lining thus exposing

well bonded to a suitably substrate. Even the thermal

is permeable

and may crack from to rapid attack

the steel substrate

by acid condensates

unless pro-

An Engineer Looks at Chemically Resistant Masonry


tected with an impermeable, acid-resistant membrane. Such cracking can be minimized by using properly spaced corrosion resistant alloy stud anchors, which distribute the stresses. Specific Power Plant FGD System Experience The extensive in-plant testing, evaluation and use of CAM linings and structures at a high sulfur coal-fired power station amply demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of many types of CAM components, which are successfully used in most utility FGD systems and other air pollution control facilities!'4,14,22 This large steam electric generating station features twin units located in a river valley, requiring two 1,000 foot high chimneys to adequately disperse the scrubbed flue gasses (Figure 1-1) .The power boiler flue gases are cleaned by a highly efficient FGD system comprising: (1) Electrostatic precipitators to remove essentially all of the particulates (flyash), followed by (2) Lime slurry-based S02 scrubbers to remove over 90% of the S02 from the flue gas. The wet scrubbed flue gases containing various levels of S02, S03, CI, F and fiyash then pass through

Fi~re 1-1: Large coal-fired power station with FGD system and two 1 ,000 foot high chimneys, one containing the tallest acid brick liner in the United States.



and Chemical





FRP mist eliminators, duct, through turning (100 foot ASTM A36 elevation), carbon

enter lined steel ducts which join a scrubber vanes (mixing zone region), and up the 900 foot high chimney ductwork and the internal with bracing

bypass reheat breeching of welded was [The liner.

into the chimney

liner to the atmosphere.

All lined rectangular constructed preferred

were fabricated
protective with external

steel plate or pipe, while concrete CRM linings is cylindrical

each 1,000 ducting

foot high chimney

of reinforced

an independent

design for

(no inter-

nal) stiffeners.]




Figure 1-2:

Stack and duct linings. All eight modules are SO* scrubber modules.

Figure system. ural


shows the plan view of Units lining materials modules was later (four/unit) upgraded

1 and 2 ducts and chimneys were initially to a slightly are the 1,000 foot lining.


the various generic CRM The SO2 scrubber sheet, which rubber

used in different

sections of the FGD lined with soft natthicker, more imused was neoprene

permeable and triply elastomeric protected with

and heat resistant (soft/hard/soft) linings with

chlorobutyl sheet rubber

rubber linings The

(Chlorobutyl, Unit

most commonly 2 chimney

in wet SO* absorbers.) Type

a self-supporting

900 foot acid brick lining. This tallest H (or Type mortar brick II) fireclay silicate the acid containing lining


acid brick liner was built of modified a chemically The cured potassium CRM between flue annulus outlet gate. This is the preferred structures. greater practice ity tant column. shell was pressurized than the to prevent

brick bonded

a silica sand aggreconcrete space industrial concrete



used in such free standing and the outer is standard resistant

by fans to maintain acid vapors from

a positive pressure in the annular Pressurization through

gas pressure.


cracks and permeabil-

in the brick/mortar mastic or other

liner and condensing the concrete coating protective

on the non-acid retard

In some chimneys,

shell interior to further

is lined with an acid resisacid attack of the sus-

An Engineer

Looks at Chemically







that the independent where a barrier structure halides liner

acid brick stack liner is one of the membrane is not necessary, since both wet saturated for over five acid concenducting and in this instance.) resisted

few types of CRM there is no substrate This acid

construction chimney sulfur point

or supporting oxides,


has completely

flue gas laden with low the acid dew trations chimney ture could this ney well liner years. At the higher

and some flyash and hot gases also berange of 125O-325F the condensing failure, with sulfuric in parts of the outlet

over a temperature

flue gas temperatures,

are estimated lining. rise rapidly designed is carbon This coated

to range up to 60-80% to either erected

Should there be a rare air preheater and acid brick liner thermal a sprayed

the flue gas temperaNevertheless, reester min1 chim-

4OOF or 7OOF for a brief period. condition. inert

good thermal/shock The Unit pigmented vinyl

sistance can safely withstand coating. requires imal vated except downs. ability

any transient with

steel protected steel liner

has also performed

well for over six years but excursions-i.e., resistance to elerestrictions

that the FGD system be operated Conversely, Unit 2 acid the heating the brick

to avoid thermal

hot bypass gas flow. temperatures, for possibly About limiting

because of its excellent or cooling

liner has no operational

rates during startups or shut-

the only design limitation outlet

of acid brick stack liners is their unsuita variety actual of monolithic the most cementiThis as hydurable

in a high seismic zone. ducts were lined with their behavior under was designed operating conditions.

The scrubber large scale in-plant gunned sistant draulic roded gunited steel better in the chimney sodium cement and single

tious systems to evaluate lining to combat liners. and

test program

to determine

the same wet and hot corrosive It was conclusively silicate cements clearly

flue gas conditions outperformed which flue the

shown that the much and calcium cement cement silicates, lining lining

more acid rewere corgases. The its surface of the much aggreester a (exgas very well,


linings such as aluminum component little The attack denser sodium sodium


by the acid condensates silicate silicate

and high velocity allowing containing lining vinyl

retained worked

hardness with substrate. than

but sustained cracking, sodium silicate cement cement

acid corrosion light weight vinyl

the 100%

modified potassium The well

gates. The the gunned membrane CRM shield

silicate-based all applied applied lower

performed inert filled ester coating outlet

the best of without ducts mixed

monolithic coating. worked

linings, spray

over a sprayed

high-build temperature

in the


cept for physical floor conditions. gunited For The resistant corrosion


but failed when exposed to the hotter pigmented stainless under the better acid condensate effectively block potassium ducts. only monolithic measures


this inert

vinyl ester system performed (not carbon)

well as an acid resistant membrane cement was reinforced ducts where glass block This SS) welded such outlet borosilicate the lining

linings where the steel stud anchors. pH l-3, corrosion from had


(e.g., T316

stud anchors should be used to retain the lining. protected lining silicate the steel ducting lining which proved cement so successful that silicate

and abrasion. replaced


it has largely been applied lining cell foamed

the gunned quite

to most of the outlet

Although minor

the 100% potassium

had performed

well with

cracks and repairs,

the closed

glass block lining was considered

to be virtually




and Chemical





The most acid resistant cost-effective protection


linings and acid brick structures problem

are providing

to the major

areas of this and many other coal

fueled power plant FGD systems.

CONCLUSION In concluding to the following (I) The this overview of CRM, it is recommended In addition, that the technical

sources listed in the Bibliography organizations: Society

be reviewed.

the reader is referred


for with


and Materials emphasis

(ASTM), on these





committees: (a) (b) ASTM ASTM C-3, Chemical C-15, ASTM Resistant Non-Metallic Units and issued the stanmaterials and comMaterials

Manufactured committees


These two dard

have prepared on CRM industry.


and test methods

ponents that are used throughout (2) The Unit T-6K and National Association emphasis T-6K

of Corrosion on NACE



Houssuch as With

ton, Texas with Committee were: Brick (I) Masonry

Technical Resistant Construction Floor

Committees Construction With

on Corrosion Vessel (2)

and Allied Linings, and Brick.

Materials. and

The first two reports issued by NACE Membrane With Acidproof Construction



1. 2.

Sheppard, W.L.,

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Jr., A Handbook of Chemically Resistant Masonry, C.C.R.M., Inc., 923 Old Manoa Rd., Havertown, PA, 2nd edition (1982). Haffner, R.F. and Ebner, A.M., Materials Behavior in the Ducts and Chimneys of the Pleasants Power Station, pres. at 3rd NACE/APCA/IGCI Seminar, Solving Corrosion Problems in Air Pollution Control Equipment, Denver, CO (Aug. II-13,198l). Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Applications of Chemical Resistant Masonry in Liquid Waste Handling, pres. at NACE CORROSION/80, Chicago, IL (Mar. 3-7,198O). Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Using Chemical-Resistant Masonry in Air Pollution Control Equipment, Chem. Engr.,203-210 (Nov. 20,1978). Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Membranes Behind Brick-Parts I & ll,Chem. Engr. (5/15/72 and 6112172). Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Materials of Construction of Pickling Tanks, Blast Furnace and Steel Plant (Nov., 19681. Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Obtaining Sound Chemically Resistant Masonry Construction, The Construction Specifier, 20-26 (Dec., 1981). Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Spotting and Avoiding Problems with Acid-Resistant Brick, Chem. Eng. (May 3,1982). Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Inspecting Chemically Resistant Masonry-Parts I & II, Plant Eng. (3119181 & 4/16/81).

An Engineer

Looks at Chemical/y




10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Trouble Shooting Chemically Resistant Masonry, Civil Eng.-ASCE, 68-71 (may, 1982). McDowell, D., Specifications for Acidproof Brick, C/rem. Eng., loo-104 (June 10, 1974). McDowell, D.W., Jr., Handling Sulfuric Acid, Chem. Eng. (Nov. 11, 1974). McDowell, D.W., Jr., Handling Phosphoric Acid and Phosphate Fertilizers, Chem. Eng. (Aug. 4,1975). Sheppard, W.L., Jr. and McDowell, D.W., Jr., Controlling Corrosion in Flue Gas Scrubbers-parts I & I I, Plant Eng. (2122179 & 318179). McDowell, D.W., Jr. and Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Use of Non-Metallics in Mineral Acid Plant Construction, Paper #57, NACE CORROSION/75, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (April 14-18,1975). McDowell, D.W., Jr. and Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Using Acid-Proof Brick and Mortar in Masonry Construction and Picking Nonmetallic Construction Materials to Resist Mineral Acid Attack, Plant Eng. (2/19/76 & 3118176). Hall, G.R. and Connell, P.E., Inorganic Corrosion-Resistant Cements for New Constructionand MaintenanceinChemical Industries,Paper#94,NACECORROSION/83, Anaheim,CA (April 18-22.1983). Carpenter, G. and Pierce, R.R., Linings for Sulfuric and Phosphoric Acid Plant Process Vessels, Paper #95, NACE CORROSION/83, Anaheim, CA (4/18-22/83). Boova, A.A., Chemical Resistant Joints for Vitrifield Clay Pipe Conveying Chemical Wastes, Paper #229, NACE CORROSION/80, Chicago, IL (March 3-7,198O). Boova, A.A., Masonry and Lining Technology and Techniques, Paper #253, NACE CORROSION/82, Houston, TX (March 22-26,1982). Boova, A.A., Furans as Chemical Construction Materials, Paper #159, NACE CORROSION/77, San Francisco,CA (March 14-18.1977). Boova, A.A., Chemical Resistant Masonry, Flake and Fabric Reinforced Linings for Pollution Control Equipment, pres. at 2nd NACE/APCA/IGCI Seminar on Corrosion Problems in Air Pollution Control Equipment,Atlanta, GA (Jan. 17-19). Boova, A.A., Acid Proof Floors: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, pres. at 20th Annual Convention of the Southern Tile, Terrazzo and Marble Contractors Association, Charlotte, NC (3/8/68). Killam, E.H., Poor Pressurization Can Wreck Stacks, Electrical World, pp 71-73 (April 1983). Rosenberg, H.S., et al., Construction Materials for Wet Scrubbers: Update, ~01s. 1 & 2, EPRI CS-1736, prepared by Battelle Columbus Labs. (March 1981). Rosenberg, H.S., et al., Construction Materials for Wet Scrubbers: Update, vols. 1 & 2, EPRI CS3350, prepared by Battelle Columbus Labs. (July 1984). Pierce, R .R. and Semler, C.E., Ceramic and Refractory Linings for Acid CondensationParts I & I I, Chem. Engr. (12/l 2183 and l/23/84). Sheppard, W.L., Jr., Failure Analysis of Chemically Resistant Monolithic Surfacings, Chem. Engr. (July 23,1984). ASTM, Manual of Protective Linings for FGD Systems, STP837 (March 1984).



18. 19. 20. 21. 22.


24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

2 An Architectural Specifier Looks at Corrosion Resistant Masonry

Milton Wilmington,

H. Potter Delaware

PREVIEW This materials information Material which sonry will chapter will present It will an overview of corrosion resistant construction, and accurate practitioner, resistant will maappear detail in be

and methods. limitations affect

discuss the importance Basic Data required known

of complete

needed to establish

for Design Development. of corrosion This approach frequency

not commonly

to the architectural

design are listed. has resulted

Lack of knowledge mistakes. with

construction The

in costly

sophomoric inclusion. other forewarned The exposures posures, product processes. important. employee

but such errors have occurred information While is covered redundant, will

sufficient that the

to warrant

more specifically

and in greater

chapters. average

it is important

less experienced

of these limitations. architect never or very seldom more likely food these encounter severe corrosive exin his practice. He will with encounter the so called milder areas,

such as food processing. The The toilets correct

manufacturing, Involved will

preparation, will

food serving and dairy i.e., sterilizing contaminants toilets is as well as in the

are the cleanup involved media

design of an area which also become corrosive and

not harbor in public


and change facilities. to contain much more successfully of plastics. to the many-fold in the field increase in knowhow The need for

We have learned in metallurgy, overall protection

last 20 to 30 years. This can be attributed in protective coatings protection of the structure

or building

has evolved into a more localized.

and is needless to say, more sophisticated.


An Architectural


Looks at Corrosion




If the pert help, The lish charts technical these suspect

architect that


a severe corrosive of chemical

exposure, mortars

he should field.

seek expubSuch The of are

is unless he is very experienced manufacturers charts listing details can varies otherwise. the situation, by the National retain the degree their products

in the corrosion resistant and various


and cements agents.

extensive indicate

corrosive and mortars. degree order of

of resistance

of the cements resistant however, excellent a consultant. the to

These manexpertise so they


also publish representatives until proven

of corrosion be of help, widely from


construction. taker

representatives So, to best cover

An accredited

Corrosion is sug-

Specialist, gested.



of Corrosion



DATA with query type the owner him duration. of cleaning to know active. his operating Determine shock procedure, low is or may water-hot, include corrosive temperatures The elements anticiReof type factor.

Review anticipated; pated view the

in detail. Thermal to

and high cold,

and their

be an important steaming.

be used, or solvents what Also,


agents and solutions

can be a factor. Be aware that materials low concentrations such as caustics floor the are in a pop-

It is important very corrosive. Simple boiler was outs several Typical room made, feet things the from

is corrosive.

of some acids are very

some alkaline

are not

always conical conditions

simple. shaped were to hot chemist

As an example, pop-outs. noted. The

the concrete frequency of the floor adjacent the floor buffing of

was developing following boiler

When a remedial


was greater

close to the boiler. increasing operations aided

The temperature to the touch

was ambient to the boiler. was buffed kept by compound This was a may be is ex-

of powerhouse producer


is godliness, The fluid them

to a high gloss. Access to a good the concrete reacted thermal a serious not likely A (about listed. posures with the aggregates triggered

on site plus excellent causing increase


in solving

the problem.

in the concrete by only The a small What

to expand.

reaction exposure

in temperature. corrosive to one person designated by the owner corrosive


is important. to another. resistant design All the Oh civil seemed technically

is mildly



to be versed to

in all design laboratory when responsible

areas, particularly included for a sewer

or corrosion project However, 100 feet).

construction. connection were was an exthe owners blew damage system in order the materials to be discharged design He queried acid. the will whole

a chemical engineer

the sewer

perienced his cork. vitrified would ment

man suspicious HF even clay pipe. in trace

of all liaison quantities was pipe. of the


rep again and got

yes, just

a trace of hydrofluoric necessary. basic data Today,

The designer severely waste

(75 parts per million)


probably should

be in plastic include

When the development

is complete,

the design data docuto be used on the

all design






and Chemical





project. owner

List all material or principal especially surprises;


Also note final


Insist that person.


review the information, in work neither with corrosion

not just the liaison the document. materials. resistant


insist on evidence that the owner has reviewed portance pleasant situations, tenance does the owner.

This is of great imYou want no unmany strange maintenthe plant

We have experienced

for example,

the liaison person did not talk with was a gap in knowledge

ance superintendent, procedures.

hence there

of proven plant main-

MATERIALS Corrosion trenches, brick,



OF CONSTRUCTION-MASONRY is generally more commonly

SYSTEM used in floors, basically fire and are cova bed joint of



and pits or catch basins. Other applications in detail. consists of an impermeable or mortar with joints

are chimneys, specialized

and the lining of process vessels. Both are highly system cement mortar,

ered in other chapters The masonry corrosion corrosion With mortars resistant resistant


between quality

the brick filled


usually the same as the bed joint. the adhesive of the cements and with the masonry line of dewill develop element hair cracks at interface The membrane

the exception

of the epoxies,

is not high. They

units; consider these joints not watertight. fense and is the watertight Substrate While several substrates are acceptable,

is the major

in this construction.




is by far finish will used as Do evapma-

the most common The finish not provide membranes. bleed oration

and the most satisfactory. can be critical. for adhesion A dense steel troweled required of some of the materials

of the concrete float

the porosity A carpet floats

finish will

provide just about the correct texture. or those intended some bedding to prevent or membrane

not use magnesium water. of water.

as this will close the surface and prevent the escape of with

Do not use curing compounds These are incompatible in very poor adhesion.

terials resulting Floor drainage drains. flange

drains are generally which

cast into the concrete. to the drain body,

They are furnished with weep holes

with a into the over in

is dished

The outer

or top edge of this flange The neck of the drain

should be cast flush with or slightly should then extend units. above the flange can be obtained of the masonry

below the top surface of the concrete. and into the flange. different Membrane The more common lation than that corrosion in floor resistance. membrane lengths to accommodate

The membrane

various thicknesses

is asphalt,

hot applied.

It is a different floors,


used in road or roof construction It is impermeable to fluids. with

and is designed for maximum At elevated all openings to the top of extending

and at edges must be curbed,


An Architectural


Looks at Corrosion




the curb behind nor defects The major inequities

the brick.


the asphaltic


is used to correct


in the


in no case shall the membrane is critical, a minimum

be used to correct of in an

in the substrate. of the asphalt thickness. applied an asphaltic installed membrane up to 1 thick concrete base slab. In the southwest severely damaging of l/s, a maximum


Ys I, l/4 is the optimum Example. attempt Texas the joints bon film Other compared Note. Thin Movement finished Masonry summer to corrrect

A contractor

an improperly

sun, the asphalt softened membrane is adversely

and the brick shifted, by solvent.

in the brick floor. such as Tedlar@ membranes

Repair of the area ran into five figures. affected A layer of fluorocaror Kynar @ 2 mils thick, used. They is placed on top of the memare usually defects considered thin,


brane in such exposures. are sometimes rarely to the asphlatic, Asphaltic will exceeding will /a thick. Epoxies are commonly

used. Thin membranes membranes

should never be used to correct membranes through not absorb

in the substrate. in the substrate. joints in the

bridge minor joints or cracks in substrates. movement work. Expansion in substrate.

are very rigid and will telegraph directly

to the finished

surface must be located Units

over the joints

Bricks are manufactured absorption. ASTM C-279 Type The Type L, 2l/4 thick,



shale and are very dense with used and in general Brick


H or L. are most commonly fiber brick fiber brick. is the result of the extrusion process during of the clay scored, is in the direction of the extrusion meet the called is preferred. 13/s thick

needs of the user. The vertical packing house tile is a horizontal The fiber manufacture. matrix. mat or textured structure The fiber patterns. fiber structure

of the brick

The texture

of the sides of the extrusion structure is extruded fiber

can be varied to provide in a ribbon

The horizontal cut to 8 lengths. an emery from form excessive within

1 3/8 x 37/8 then wire pattern or have to spalling

The surface texture The horizontal load traffic during

may be smooth,-diamond brick shock. resulting Voids

grit surface. wheel brick the

is more susceptible a period

and to thermal

or blisters may of exposure, While the

the burning

process. After

salts tend exposed

to filter

into these voids and expand, of brick recommended. resistant brick

in spalling.

faces of this type fact.

is more easily cleaned, the use of horizontal manufactured in the USA has an

fiber brick is not often Important expansive thermal liner tile, concrete larly, Liner growth f/ate factor

Corrosion Expansion

of 0.16%

in any direction,

3/s in 20 feet. This is not a brick there is also

expansion. smooth

joints every 10 to 15 feet should be specified. to the above mentioned or grooved backs. These are used to line pipe or trench walls poured. Simi-

and Tile:

In addition They

faced with dove tailed then concrete

pipe and trenches. mortar, tile known

are set into the forms, joints filled with corroof the tile is available.

sion resistant

half round

as channel

This may be installed in



and Chemical





the same manner poured installed movement mended Quarry membrane under without

as the liner plates and used as trench the channel They thermal tile. a membrane.




and around

Note channel tile and liner plates are and the like. They are not recom-

are subject to the physical stress due to the situations. it is installed usually through spilled without an asphaltic As noted such as surface. in a

of concrete, Tile: Tile


in submerged

or high corrosive

is used in much of the food process and food preparation adhesive membrane an epoxy type. irregularities to the finished

areas, also toilet

and change areas. In general, a thin substrate attribute plant the

but with

above, the concrete humps and bumps. Cleanliness synthetic row,


must be true to line without of the quarry raw latex when tile installation.

All such flaws will telegraph

is a major elastomer Quarry up easily. Patterned require will

For example,

stuck tightly

to the con(very narmate-

crete floors. rial cleaned Note. ganic quarry plain laws often tile that

tile was used with an epoxy density

bed and a furan joint

Due to the greater

of the quarry pattern

tile the unvulcanized will harbor

tile such as the diamond under a non-skid the surface surface. Emery

grease and orsafety


It is not acceptable meet non-skid

some local sanitary grit embedded However,

laws. Labor

in the surface of the may comand is difficult areas. It the stain and the Tile lnIt is an


the employees

the emery Tile: Tile

wears out their commonly

shoes too quickly

to clean. Warn the owner. Ceramic is mentioned nection with is quite used in toilets and shower here only a corrosion solutions Council to note that the case of quarry resistant grout, the installation so common found of America from exposure in toilet areas. The Handbook for Ceramic tile. and quarry tile when used in con-

will withstand (uric acid)

ing and discolorization strong cleaning The Tile stallation ANSI which

to urine


is an excellent

guide for both ceramic

standard. American 1430 New York, Do not forget National Standards Institute

Broadway NY 10018 joints in ceramic tile and quarry tile


work must be


over joints Resistant

in the substrate Cements

but not limited

to such locations.

Corrosion These dundancy Sulfur before

and Mortars chapters in greater depth. Again at risk of resimilar to as-

are covered Cements:

in other Sulfur

here are a few things to keep in mind. base cements flowable are heated in a kettle cements cements poured hot, done in several steps to assure the joints are filled temperature. Other Sulfur Sulfur are plasticized are filled with (Thiokol@). plasticizers have been tried but

phalts and joints cement using 0.6% olefin

cools below polysulfide

none have proven as effective

as the polysulfide. on exposure

either silica or carbon depending


in the case of hydrofluoric

An Architectural


Looks at Corrosion





In the


of reducing carbon



some manufacturers


only the more expensive it. If silica is ordered, Resin Mortars: epoxies. phaltic. materials. Therefore, Some Except The


If carbon

is specified phenolics, membrane

you are charged for polyesters and the

you are only charged for silica but get carbon filler. This group includes the furans, are used as thin and polyesters, concrete will beds in lieu of asreaction. is in-

of these mortars for the epoxies alkalinity of the

most of these are acid catalyzed retard the catalyzing before such a mortar

the concrete


must be neutralized using an epoxy

stalled in direct contact Much quarry excellent problem system

with concrete. bed with furan joints. It overcomes This is an the acidity several that this, for moderate (patented) laying filled exposures.

tile is installed particularly

of the furans,

is not subject

to stain damage at one time

and is easy to clean. Note expired

this system Sanitary

was proprietary Note. When

but patents tile,

years ago and to our knowledge the grooves are completely areas and when organic

were never renewed. groove backed with quarry it is important To accomplish the bedding mortar.

the back of the tile should be buttered materials as host to deposits Also, the mortar note will the and subsequent reaction

before the tile is set. (In food preparation growth.) The same applies to packhas a narrow opti-

are used in process, voids in grooves will serve bacterial

ing house tile and other grooved back units. of the catalyzer temperatures in the mortars will accelerate mum temperature range. Elevated the mortar of accelerator to a point where does not set Brick to be

set up before application.

Cold will retard so mortar

at all. In cold weather, The proportion

should be stored in a heated room. to resin in epoxies Store the epoxy is critical.

used should be heated to 70F for at least 24 hours prior to use. In cold conditions, the accelerator will not flow well. in a warm area.

Expansion There the mortar up. The joints. ination as nitric They

Joints are many expansion joint materials. The general practice is to leave

out of the joint.

Then partially epoxy

fill with a vinyl sponge rod as a backused for filling such

so called and bacterial that

flexiblized growth.

is most commonly

Sponge rod is not used in food plants due to possible subsurface silicones are better for strong oxidizing they lose adhesion in a project. chemical

contamsuch is

Several years ago, a series of tests were made and it resistance, in wet or submerged primer. exposures.

was found

acid. Unfortunately


very dry clean surfaces and a silicone before you use silicone

A test installation

recommended Required

Details that the installation be carefully detailed. Do not leave it to

It is important the discretion

of the contractor.

Figure 2-1 is a suggested detail.



and Chemical







-KEY 1. 2.

Acid-brick laid in acid-resisting mortar over a liquid-tight membrane. Expansion joints around periphery of floor, continued through capping. Also spaced equidistant from drain, 10' to 15' apart. Drain, centered between expansion joints. joint. Not surrounded by an expansion -



Pipes through floor, surrounded by a skirt so pipe can be removed and replaced. Expansion joint around skirt, set out slightly from skirt. Gutter or trench, sloped from ends to center, drains through wall, down floor on opposite side. Note expansion joint next to trench, 2 brick out from trench wall. Peripheral expansion jozonadjacent floor continues through trench and across brick capping. continued Outlet through common wall permits trench to drain. Membrane through outlet and protected by sleeve set in acid-resistant cement and mortared to brick lining.



Figure Z-l: A typical section of the construction: curbs, expansion joint-including locations, edges, slopes-a minimum of % per foot, floor drains, sleeves and all penetrations.




3 Metallic Shells

Thomas Wilmington,


Degnan Delaware

INTRODUCTION Corrosion resistant masonry lined metallic process equipment combine three vital components that must be designed to complement each other and function as a whole. First, there is a metal shell, generally made of carbon steel, which must provide a rigid leakproof elastic casing to support the ceramic lining, the possible stresses resulting from its growth, thermal stresses, the contents of the vessel and other static and dynamic loadings that will be imposed upon the vessel when it is placed in service. Second, a membrane is almost always applied to the inside surface of the shell to protect it against corrosion. The membrane can range from a few coats of paint to an elastomer or plastic lining. The metallic vessel must be designed and fabricated so that the I in ing can be properly appl ied . Third, there is the masonry lining itself, which must be designed with the necessary thickness and shape to be thermally and mechanically stable. The lower coefficient of thermal expansion of the lining compared to that of the shell, under thermal loading, for example, must be compensated for by the insulating effect of sufficient lining thickness to keep the lining in compression.



General Considerations The vast majority

lined vessels have SA-36 been gineers)

of metallic shells for Corrosion

made of ASME,1 Grade (American quality C structural

Resistant Masonry (CRM)

Society carbon of Mechanical steel, Ensometimes

or SA-283


Metallic Shells


called "tank steel." These are the least expensive grades of weldable steel plate. They are similar steels. SA-36 has slightly higher strength [58,000 psi (400 MPa) minimum tensile and 36,000 psi (248 MPa) minimum yield] than SA-283 Grade C [55,000 psi (379 MPa) minimum tensile and 30,000 psi (207 MPa) minimum yield] .The API (American Petroleum Institute) Standard 620 II Recommended Rules For Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks"2 allows a slightly higher maximum allowable tensile stress for SA-36 than SA-283 Grade C [16,000 psi (110 MPa)vs 15,200 psi (104MPa)],butthe more conservative ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Para UCS-23 shows the same maximum allowable design stress of 12,700 psi [ -20 to +650F (-29 to 343C)] for both grades. It should be noted that the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Para UCS6 has the following restrictions on the use of SA-36 and SA-283 (Grades A, B, C and D) steels when used for pressure parts in pressure vessels:

(1) The vessels are not to be used to contain lethal substances, either liquid or gas. (2) The materials are not to be used in the construction steam boilers. (3) The design temperature at which the material -20F (-29C) and 650F (343C). (4) of unfired

is used is between

For shells, heads and nozzles only, the thickness of the plate on which strength welding is applied shall not exceed S/8" (16 mm).

It is recommended that the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 be used for the construction of CAM lined metallic vessels. The use of Code construction is only required where the operating pressure exceeds 15 psig, but it should be remembered that a CAM lining can swell and exert high stresses. Although SA-36 and SA-283 have been the most common shell materials, in many cases they are not the safest or most economic steels to use. Brittle Fracture

Over the years, a number of steel vessels, including those that have been lined with CRM, have failed by brittle fracture. A photograph of a failure of a brick lined tower, 60 ft. high that cracked the fulJlength of the shell is shown in an article "Brick-Lined Tanks" by R. Ladd3 in the March 14 issue of Chemical Engineering p 192-198. The author knows of a similar experience where a lined "dry tower" in a sulfuric acid plant failed in a similar manner on a cold day in February. A "dry tower" drys combustion air by passing it countercurrent to a downward flow of sulfuric acid. During the last twenty years, there has been an increasing awareness of the danger of brittle fracture of steel vessels at ambient temperatures, largely as a result of the work of Pellini and Puzak4 at the Naval Research Laboratory and their investigations of failures of World War II ships. Their" Fracture-Analysis Diagram" (Figure 3-1) shows that a small flaw can initiate brittle fracture at tem-



and Chemical





peratures but that exceeded.

at or below the critical There

the nilductility flaw




of a plate, has been Mechan-

size increases rapidly analyses of structures

once this temperature Fracture to derive critical

has developed

a science based on Plain Strain

ics to make sophisticated

flaw sizes.







NDT + 30-F TEMP. -

NOT + 60-F

NOT + l20.F

Figure 3-1: Fracture analysis diagram. Reprinted with permission from Naval Research Laboratory Report 5920, Fracture-Analysis Diagram Procedure For the Fracture Safe Engineering Design of Steel Structures, W.S. Pellini and P.P. Puzak, Figure 9,p 8 (March 15, 1963).

NDT temperature Method thick Charpy seldom NDT

temperatures ratio,




to plate and are dependent size, among other test (ASTM E-208

on mangaNDT Standard Transition mm) by Code high

nese to carbon

thickness Drop

and grain

things. True

can be determined of Ferritic NDT Steels)

by a drop weight Weight but is only for

for Conducting

Test to Determine applicable thinner plates

Nil-Ductility can


to plates % (15.9 be estimated

or thicker. Vessels built fail from temperatures testing, testing


V notch impact testing. in accordance brittle fracture, with Section even when VII I, Division constructed 1 of the ASME of materials with

because the maximum which which is done out VIII,


design stresses are only /4 of is also bene-

the minimum Hydrostatic ficial drostatic

tensile strength,

is generally 1% times NDT

less than % of the yield strength. the design pressure, temperature. (h)l hydrostatic testing of some plate defects as long as the hyThe Code recom-

by causing plastic yielding is carried [Section failures hydrostatic testing

at the tip of crack-like above the be carried Division was below out with to occur the NDT

mends that

the metal wall temperature during

above 6OF (16C). Nevertheless, because the metal

1, Para UG-99

have been known



and a stress riser, such as the presence other or a large defect, was present.

of two unreinforced

nozzles near one an-

Metallic Shells


Corrosion resistant masonry (CRM) lined steel vessels can present a special risk of brittle fracture because high stresses can develop by:

Swelling of the brick or mortar. Swelling of the membrane. Crystallization Corrosion of the product handled in and behind the brick. is penetrated.

0 0

products of the shell if the membrane

It is recommended that carbon steel material for non-refrigerated outdoor vessels be selected from Table 3-1, based on the design temperature. The information in this table is taken from API Standard 620,* except that only materials listed in Section II of the ASME Code are included. API Standard 620 lists these and also ship and structural grades that are not included in the ASME Code. API Standard 620 covers large storage tanks operating below 15 psig [and 200F (93C)I while the ASME Code covers vessels designed to operate at 15 psig or higher. The API Standard allows 20% higher allowable stress than Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME Code. The design temperature for outdoor, non-refrigerated tanks according to API Standard 620 is the lowest mean daily temperature on record for the locality plus 15F (8OC). Isothermal lines showing the lowest mean daily temperatures for the United States is shown on Figure 3-2. This design criteria was established by API after failure of a few large new oil storage tanks during hydrostatic testing with: a view to providing a high order of resistance to brittle fracture at the lowest temperature to which the metal walls of the tank is expected to fall on the coldest day of record for the locality where the tank is to be installed.* In practice, many vessels designed for outdoor service in moderate climate are constructed of ASME SA-516 Grade 70, a fully killed, fine grain practice pressure vessel quality carbon steel plate for moderate and lower temperature service, so as to provide protection against brittle fracture. Low Temperature Service

If a CRM lined pressure vessel is to be designed for below -20F (-29C) for reasons other than seasonal atmospheric temperature, Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME Code requires that the materials and fabrication practices meet minimum notch toughness requirements (Paragraph UG-84). Paragraphs UCS-65,66 and 67 cover the requirements for vessels operating below -2OF. The use of SA-36 or SA-283 is not permitted. Impact tests are required except for seasonal temperature excursions below -2OF (-29C) or when exempted by paragraph UCS-66 (c) which states that no impact test is required for materials used for metal temperatures below -2OF (-29C) when the minimum thickness is the greater of those determined under the most severe conditions of coincident pressure (external or internal) and temperature in accordance with UG-21 for temperatures of (a) -2OF (-29C) and above and (b) below -2OF (-29C). in which case the coincident pressure (internal if above atmospheric pressure and external if below atmospheric pressure) shall be multiplied by 2X. Paragraph UCS-67 requires postweld heat treatment of all vessels requiring impact testing, unless exempted in paragraph UCS 66 (c). Heat treatment shall



and Chemical





Table 3-1:


Requirements with API

for ASME 620

Pressure Vessel Steels in Accordance

to Be Used at Various

Design Metal Temperatures Standard

Code, (Sect. II Design Metal Temperature* To 314 inclusive To 65"~ and over To 1 inclusive To 4 inclusive 25' F and over To 1 inclusive Over 1. -5F and over To 4 inclusive Over 4 Note 6 SA 36 Any listed in Note 6 SA36Mod. SA 442 SA 442 SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA 442 516 662 737 442 516 537 662 737 442 516 537 662 737 516 537 662 737 2 55, 60 55. 60 55, 60 B, C B 55, 60 55,60.65,70 Class 1, 2 B, C B 55, 60 55.60,65,70 Class 1, 2 B. C B 55.60,65,70 Class 1, 2 B, C B Grade

none none "One Nate 5 Note 3 Note 1. 3 Note 3 Note 3 Notes 1, 2 Note 2 Note 2 Note 2 Note 2 Notes Notes Notes Notes 2,3,4 2.3.4 2.3.4 2,334

Specifications Special Requirements

-35F and over

To $ inclusive

To 1 inclusive


Excerpts from Table 2-1, API Standard 620, "Design and Construction of Large, Welded. Low Pressure Storage Tanks," Seventh Edition (1982). Reprinted by courtesy of The American Petroleum Institute, except only equivalent ASME Code grades shown. *Design metal temperatures for unheated outdoor tanks in no" refrigerated service shall be 15F above the lowest one day mean ambient temperature for the locality recorded as determined from Figure 2 or from similarly authentic metereological data.

1: Note 2: Note 3: Note 4: Note 5:

Note 6:

The steel shall be made with fine grain practice. The plates shall be normalized or quenched tempered. All plates over 14 inches in thickness shall be normalized. Each plate shall be impact tested and meet the Charpy V notch (ASTM A 370, Type) requirements of Par. 2.2.5 of API Specification 620. API Modification to ASTM A 36 requires the manganese content to have a range of 0.80 to 1.20. The material supplied shall be other than rimed or capped steel. ASME SA 36, SA 283 Grades C 6 D. SA 285 Grade C, SA 442, SA 516, SA 537, SA 662 Grades B h C. SA 737 Grade B.

alnl!lsul dJe740 UO~lW7J~SUO~ /X/k U@SG~OZ9

wnaloJiad [dJ

uw!Jawbj UOJ)


AsaiJno3 SaJnleJadWal


(7361) lUa!qWe



SyUel fiU!MOL(S


aJnSSaJdMO7 :Z_E

pap/aM alll&j



Ut?Z3UJ &paLlO

SCXJ!l (eWJal/lOSl

ZSS, 08 dn rImsay epeuRJ 10 Ol~luO~,0 !Q



and Chemical





be in accordance ment). ment) The minimum from Exempted quirements


paragraph and


(Procedures with the

for Post Weld Heat Treatheat treatment refor Post Weld Heat Treat-

vessel shall comply UCS-56

post weld

of UW-10

(Requirements specified

that apply to all design temperatures. grades of steel normally temperature A-20431b Standard for low temperature acceptance For General service and the as abstracted For Requirements of mill Charpy V notch testing,



Steel Plates For Pressure Vessels are as shown in Table 3-2. Table 3-2: Generally Available Meeting (Normalized
Acceptance Charpy Criteria V Notch Specification Energy Absorption and

Grade-Thickness-Minimum V-Notch Requirements Condition)

Test agreed Temperature

Test Temperature Indicated



and Tempered

OF For otherwise



(unless upon)

Avg. 3 ft.

for lbs.min.

Minimum for specimen ft. lbs. 12 12 15 12 A A A A 516, 1



Over to 2

over to 3

Over t 5



15 15 20 15

Grade 1


-50 -80

-40 -75 -90 -150

-30 -75 -90 -125

-20 _-_ -_

537 Class (2Jg max.) 537 (2Y 203 Class max.) Grade

2 -90 E -150

Source: Copyright. permission.


Standard 1916

Specification Race Street,

A20-Sib, Philadelphia,

Table PA

15. 19103. Reprinted with


The design temperature temperatures temperatures normalized If ultra efficients shown notch test requirements testing temperature

should be at least IOF since it will

(6OC) higher than the testing V

in the table,

be necessary to meet Charpy

in the heat affected It should to -32OF

zones of welds. Also the minimum also be noted (-196C) that plates must be 9% nickel is likely

listed are for longitudinal may be higher. and tempered down or quenched

tests. For transverse tests, the minimum to meet these requirements. are required, steels with their lower co-

low temperatures expansion

steel and austenitic of thermal

stainless steels can be used. Nickel may be preferred, of the CRM

since low temperature

to result in excessive compression of expansion of austenitic Service for CRM lined

lining with the higher coefficient

stainless steels.

High Temperature It is unusual wall temperature.


to be designed


a high metal and incinera-


it is possible for the walls of furnaces




tots lined with stantial Although

refractories the ASME (538C),

and insulated

on the outside

surfaces to develop subunalloyed carbon steels below

metal surface temperatures. Code permits the use of certain it is desirable to limit their use to temperatures

as high as 1000F

8OOF (426OC) for two reasons: 0 0 Low strength Graphitization of welded (426C) compared to alloy steel. structure in the heat affected above 95OF (51OC) zones oxida-

of the pearlite At

components and higher.

upon long exposure to temperatures temperatures

of 8OOF

tion of unalloyed The most popular alloy, MO) and 12 (1% Cr-%% Corrosion Resistant

carbon steels becomes significant. IOOF (400-593C) Grades range are the low 11 (114% Cr-%%

steels for the 750-1 types MO) class 2.


such as SA 387

Shells S30400 (Type 304) and UNS S31600 (Type

Austenitic 316)

stainless steels UNS

have been used for the shells of CRM 0 A CRM containing lined S30403 (Type

lined vessels. Some examples stainless steel vessel with 30% nitric

are: siliacid


cate mortar


is successfully

used for boiling to protect

an abrasive slurry. satisfactory

Stainless steel is used because there is membrane the steel shell in

no economically

such service and an unlined the abrasive slurry.


stainless steel shell could not withstand

A special CRM tion limit ceptable





316 stainless steel) vessel an iron contaminavessel would to unaccontribute UNS S31600

is used to manufacture have adequate chemical

chlorosulfonic resistance

acid with but would

in parts per billion. iron pickup.

An unlined


stainless steels have high coefficients thickness of brick, to provide

of thermal



50% higher than those of carbon ment of a greater temperature The cost. The corrosion struction rosion. Nickel coefficients alloys such as Alloy of thermal

steels. This property more

can result insulation

in the requireand reduce the

of the shell, and to prevent

it from expanding

away from the lining. as well as reduce of chloride stress stainless steels. It is cor-

use of stainless steel cladding cracking, that in severely a principal low carbon corrosive

can minimize

this problem the possibility of austenitic C max.)

use of clad steel can also minimize cause of failure grades (0.030% environment 600 (UNS


be used for clad con-

to avoid possible intergrannular N06600)

have been used to fabricate chlorinations. Alloy 600 has of carbon steels. The

shells of CRM

lined vessels used in high temperature expansion comparable

to those

shells are often cooled externally and also to keep the CRM

with a falling film of water to reduce corrosion

lining in compression.



and Chemical





Table 3-3:


Design Stresses

Allovable (Source:

Design Srressea (ksi) For Hera1 Temperatures I. Not Exceeding: ASHE Code Section VIII. Division 1* - Para UCS-23 and WA-23)

Specifications !M)

17.2 L7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2

SA 537 Cl 1 (under 24 thick) SA 537 C1 2 (under 2Y rhlck) SA 203 Grade E (34% Nickel) 16.3 16.3







Sh 240** NS 530400 NS s30403 UNS S31600 NS 331603

15.7 13.4 16.2 13.3

14.1 12.0 14.6 11.9

2.1 0.3 2.5 0.0

1.2 9.5 1.6 9.2

0.6 9.1 1.0 8.6

6:: Carbon ___SA 36 SA 283 Grade D SA 285 Grade C SA 516 Grade 70 Lou Alloy Sreels SA 387 Cradr 12 Cl 2 (12 cr. 4% na. (N+T) SA 387 Crrdr 11 Cl 2 (1U cr.-u no (N + T) Steels


Ii--i--r1 I
- 1050

12.: 1 12.: 1

13.1 1





17.1 i

L6.1 1




I IL6.:














Reprinted *consu1r With Pemission. latest issue of The llmerican Secrio VIII. Society since of echanical are

Engineers. twice Laver yearly. sets of



**Tw sets of dimeoslonal

allowable srabllty

stresses critical

are given for each grade in A-23. in cera,,,ic lined equipment.


shown since






Considerations corrosive services such as hot caustic, nitrates, ammonia and cy-

In certain anides, aswelded less thermally Code, Section ture of 12OOF cyanide

carbon and alloy steels are subject to stress corrosion Stress relief should be in accordance 1, Paras. UCS-56 70,000 sulfide and UW-40, except (593C)

cracking un-

stress relieved. VII I, Division (648C),

with the ASME that a temperatensile strength. steel

instead of 1 IOOF

will be necessary in the case of acid can cause hydrogen are found in NACE Refining Recom-


of steels with

psi (483 MPa) minimum and hydrofluoric affected

Other services such as hydrogen embrittlement bolting. mended of of the welds RP-04-72 (P-l) Recommended Practice Steel

and heat

zones of vessels and alloy to Prevent

practices to avoid this problem Methods and Controls Welds in Corrosive Petroleum

In-service Cracking Environments.


Economics There CRM able. paper.

of Steel Selection are a number of steels which can be used to construct fracture the shell of a suitin this

lined steel vessel. The steel selected Consideration One way, should

should be the most economically discussed earlier

be given to brittle


by Adams

is to compare

the metal costs in dollars per loading 3-4 is shown with 1 would in Table

square foot in pounds where Boiler thick would weight) cwt,

of plate surface stressed (under per linear inch of crossection. that Section of plate

design pressure) to identical This approach in accordance

it is assumed

a vessel shell designed structural

The ASME inches

and Pressure Vessel Code, if designed using SA-36 pounds and SA-36 include a width the 1982 per square foot

VII I, Division surface.

be 0.625

steel. This would


a plateweight (hundred a a of $0.30

of 25.50

The price of steel at the mill a cwt extra of a length extra of $0.15 a structural

base price extra

for carbon

steel of $24.25

extras of $0.95 extra, (9,072

a cwt, consisting of $0.45 a cwt.

plus thickness pounds

cwt. There

is no quantity

since it is assumed that there will be a minimum kg). On this basis, the cost of plate steel is $6.43 in a similar An manner, using adextra for

order of 20,000

per square foot. The cost of using other ditional V notch of $0.30 quality, impact per cwt test extras

steels was calculated appropriate for

pressure vessel, fine grain practice, was included for the non standard

heat treatment thicknesses

and Charpy calculated

each grade.


steels other than SA-36. Results of this study show in Table suitable more peratures. otherwise where brittle fracture and should SA-537, require be considered normalized metal of the 3-4 that SA-285 Grade C is economically Grade 70 costs little temto low ambient is not a problem. SA-516

for most tanks subjected for low temperature Grade 70. does not reported cost. a little psi (130 necessarily the The higher

Class 2 is preferred SA-516 economy Adams relative

services that would mirror strength the relative steels have but they since

Although fairly reliable

relative index

costs of the vessel in place, more spring-back will also be thinner in bending



metal cost is a


and require 20,000

more care in welding, MPa) should

and require than

less welding. be avoided,

Design stresses greater

Table 3-4:




of Carbon

Steel Plate

Steel Specification SA 285 SA 516 SA 36 SA 36 (API modified SA 537 Heat treated with Long. Impact tests SA 516 Normalized SA 516 Normalized with Long. Impact tests SA 537 Heat treated with Long. Impact tests


Minimum Yield (ksi) 30 38 36 36 60

Minimum Tensile !kSi) 55 70 58 58 a0



allowable (ksi) 13.8 17.5 12.7 12.7 20.0

!linimum hickness (in.1 0.575 0.454 0.625 0.625 0.397

Base Price Extras ($/lo0 lbs: ($/lo0 lb 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 2.10 4.80 0.95 2.55 15.25

3se and lbs/ ?xtras sq.ft. j/l00 lb: 26.35 29.05 25.20 26.80 39.50 23.48 21.93 25.50 25.50 19.19

6.19 6.37 6.43 6.83 7.58


C 70

ilass 2 0 2%" ncl. 70 70

38 38

70 70

17.5 17.5

0.454 0.454

24.25 24.25

10.75 11.75

35.00 36.00

21.93 21.93

7.68 7.89

:lass 1 to !?$I ncl.










Prices as of November 15, 1982 Source - Lukens Steel Company - "Lukens Plate Steels" Assumptions: 20,000 pound minimum order. 96" length and 72" width Maximum Allowable Stresses per ASMX Code Section VIII, Division 1, (1980) Para UCS-23, for -20 to +650"F except SA-537 A-36 Modified is made to fine grain practice with manganese in range 0.80 to 1.20 percent by ladle analysis.




this will which support crack.

result in a tensile strain greater than 0.067% the upper brittle that limit in inelastic factors thickness lining, its movement

(670 microinches

per inch)

is considered

for good design. Since the steel shell must must be limited selecting or the lining will steel are

Other minimum

must be considered


a stronger

and stiffness requirements.

DESIGN Thickness

CONSIDERATIONS of Shell lined vessel operates difference between at ambient temperature or so that there is a of the vessel, then into account the

If the CRM nelgligible Boiler the thickness following (a) (b)


the inside and outside be calculated VI II, Division 1 taking

of the steel shell should

by the rules of the ASME

and Pressure Vessel Code, Section stresses: Internal pressure

Loadings described

in Para. UG-22: contents under operating pressure due


of vessel and normal including

or test conditions,


to static head of liquids.


Superimposed tached

static reactions


the weight machinery,

of atother


such as motors,

vessels, linings and insulation. (c) (d) (e) Weight of internals Dynamic loading growth of shale or fireclay growth silicate growth. brick in acid or aqueous of 0.16% (or 3/a in. in brick.6 Some acid, may also bottoms and batch to batch. There including agitators and heating elements (coils)

The irreversible 20 feet). mortars, contribute heads, 10% sometimes

service. The growth is sometimes

can be up to a maximum varies from mortar

The irreversible more growth to irreversible can such as sodium

in red shale than in fireclay in sulfuric In flat In cylindrical

shells and dished squeeze joints in-

be added

to the thickness.

in shells, it is necessary to incorporate

to the brickwork.6 If the operating given twice metal (Ref. to designing the operating temperature pressure the pressure. of 60F is to be 15 psig or less, consideration permit hydrostatic testing testing (before of brittle Hydrostatic must should lining) be at

vessel to (16C)

be done at a minimum fracture.

to minimize

the possibility the CRM then

1, Div. 1, Para. UG-99h). If a thermal difference will joints Vessel Construction

exist between in the lining, With

lining and the shell and Publication 6K157 suggests using the

expansion Acidproof

are not provided



and Brick



and Chemical







to determine stress:

the increased


of the shell required


resist this reversible

&AT,,where: At, tb E, Eb = Increased thickness


s >

of shell-inches

= Thickness = Modulus = Modulus

of brick lining-inches of elasticity of elasticity for steel psi (Table) in compression for brick lining-psi

(may vary from s, A, Ab = Allowable = Coefficient = Coefficient

2 x 1 O6 to 7 x 1 06) (Table) (Table) (Table)

stress for shell-psi of expansion of expansion

for steel-inches/inch/aF for brick-inches/inch/F

AT, = Average temperature ATb=

Average temperature

rise of the steel F rise of the brick F temperatures. much higher Charging a cold vessel pressure of the brick the steel tank will exdesign stress (Ss) shell thickness of

This calculation with a hot fluid

is based on equilibrium will generate

in a short time

lining against the steel shell and is not recommended. When the term pansion of the brick for the steel. NACE l/4 (6.4 Publication 6K-157 also recommends a minimum mm) for vessels four feet or more in diameter plates. more than the CRM and lining, the then the lining will compression be necessary. linparor pressure, excessively since the lining is weak in tension. allowable expand and a minimum thickness in parentheses lining is negative, it indicates pand more than the brick lining or that the stress in the steel shell caused by exis less than the maximum allowable

of 3/s (9.5 mm) for bottom If the steel tanks Conversely, if the crack under any internal lining



stress in the lining is exceeded, An allowance An internal for corrosion allowance corrosion

it will also fail. loss of the metal is not necessary membrane allowance painting. may sometimes if a relatively may, however, clearances impermeable be required,

ing such as a plastic or elastomeric is to be lined. ticularly to permit Tolerances The agraph ameters tory ifies that lindrical ASME UG-81 from Boiler permits the An external corrosion if the vessel is installed sandblasting

is to be installed

before the vessel on side or bottom



and maintenance

and Pressure Vessel Code, an out of roundness diameter. standard more than This DIN




1, Par-

maximum 28050,

of 1% variation 4 (10.54

of all di-

nominal A German not vary

is not sufficient Section by measuring

to assure a satisfacissue) specthe radians and that


lining. must

the roundness

shall be determined to be CRM

the radians

310.4% from

the average value in the cy-

part of the apparatus

lined after final erection.




Table 3-6:

Mean Coefficients Austenitic i./ilI/F X

of Thermal


of Steels and

Stainless Steels*
10-6 between 68~ (2oY) and:


212-F IOO'C 6.51

392F 2OOY 6.13

572F 3OO'C 7.12

600F 312-C -

TeLllperE&rCZs 752F BOOP 400C 422-C 7.45 -

932OP 5oo"c 7.73

1OOO'F 532-C -

11OO'F 597C

Carbon Steel (SAE 1020) Alloy Steels l%Cr.g4Ho. lkxCr.l%Mo.

7.32 7.65

7.56 7.72

7.63 -


Steels 9.6 8.8 9.9 9.0 10.2 9.7

(UNS) 530400 S316')O







Table 3-6:



of Elasticity

of Steel and Austenitic

Stainless Steels* 106psi

Material Temperature

70F 21C Carbon Steels

Austenitic Stainless

200F 92C 29.5

400F 202C 28.3

600F 312C 26.7


Steels (UNS s30400 531600)










Table 3-7:



of Steel and Austenitic ft/hr/"F/in. Temperature



Materials 212'F 100C Carbon Steel (SAE 1025) Austenltic Stainless Steels (UNS S30400 and S31600)
*See References 14 and

392OF 2oo"c 340


300C 319

752F 400C 296

932F 500C 273












and Chemical





Table 3-8: Carbon Domestic Foreign 96.7 93



of Brick

Property Weight3 Lbs/ft % Water Absorption Modulus of Rupture psi compressive Strength Psi

Fireclay Type H ASTM C-279 135-145

Red Shale Type L ASTM C-279 145

Foamed Glass 12











7,000 Min.



Coefficient of Thermal 1.7-1,: Expansion ill.lilIl"F x 10

2.8-3:6 x 10

2.4-3.26 x 10

3.0-3:2 x 10

1.6 x 10-6

Thermal Conductivity 36-46 BTU/hs/ft/"F/in.



Source- Sheppard "A Handbook of Chemically Resistant Masonry." Reprinted With Permission.

Another company


for controlling


specified (Appendix)

by a major


and included

in the model specification

is as follows:

(a) (b)

The out of roundness of a cylindrical of the difference A template circumference When not exceed ceed 1s inch). with between

vessel shall not exceed 0.75% and minimum diameters. of the shall

the maximum

an arc length of three to the wall, (except

feet or five percent radium gap or deviation

shall be made to the specified the maximum at welds where %6 inch

of the vessel.

held tightly

the gap shall not ex-


The sidewall m) long straight the wall edge,


as determined

by means of a three-foot against the wall parallel

(0.9 to the

(or 25% of the length of the vessel, whichever shall be held tightly gap between taken the straight at juncture

is greater) edge and of heads

axis of the vessel. The maximum shall not exceed /a inch. shall not exceed

l/16inch except Measurements

for welds, where the gap

and shells shall meet this criteria. The ASME flanges, limited themselves. Code (Paragraph UG-81) permits a l%% out of roundness of the must be

but does not mention Where to 0.4%. (Reference

the out of roundness of the bodies of the nozzles are to be sleeved, the out of roundness

these nozzles

8, p 73).







Dished or Conical Bottoms: Supports must be so located as to support the vessel and its extra weight uniformly and completely without distortion of the vessel. Thus: (a) (b) If support legs are used, they should be centered lining column tangentially to the vessel body. under the brick

If a continuous skirt is used, the skirt should be centered directly under the brick column and should be vented to provide adequate ventilation under the vessel (Reference 8, pp 73-74) so that the temperature of the bottom will not be significantly hotter than the shell during operation.

lf the head of the vessel is not to be brick lined, it may be necessary to inan internal thrust ring at the top of the vessel to contain the brick lining in compression. Flat Bottoms: Flat bottom vertical cylindrical tanks present particular problems. The bottom must be so constructed and supported as to be completely rigid and well ventilated from the sides and underneath. This may usually be provided by I beams. The bottom shall be tack welded to the I beam so that the bottom will not flex and crack the lining when it is installed. (Reference 8, p 74). The maximum free span between I beams can be calculated on the basis that the maximum deflection under full load conditions shall not exceed the free span divided by 1000. However, in the case of vessels containing only gas at atmospheric pressure and no internal spheres, then the deflection can be as great as the distance divided by 500.9 It is good design to leave sufficient space between I beams to allow for maintenance: perhaps enough space for a man to crawl between them.



Figure 3-3: Tank head. The right way and the wrong way to weld a dome head on a cylindrical tank. It is next to impossible to make a tight weld in the head on the left, due to the inaccessible void. A continuous filled weld is used on the head on the right.



and Chemical








are frequently The uninsulated


on the


or on concrete above ambient, remain submore than the the brickwork There is no are usutanks cannot is be

pads. In the case of CRM this can be disastrous. stantially cooler cooler sidewall.

lined vessels, operating

at temperatures will expand

side walls of the vessel will to rise up, disrupting on number and the tank circumferential

than the bottom.

The steel bottom

This will cause the bottom This has happened if this occurs, large, vertical method with

and causing satisfactory Another that lined

it to fail. repair

of occasions.

and foundation flat bottom

ally a total loss. problem API The the standard satisfactorily. design of the shell to top head construction top head is supported be welded (Figure 3-3). to the roof if a satisfactory

on a steel angle leaving an inacmembrane,

cessible gap. The shell should or any coating, Horizontal is to be applied Vessels


Vessels of this design should port for the sels must 120 of circumference. be avoided loaded weight

be provided



saddles with

supfor vesand


and design should be computed 8, p 74). between Long, small diameter the two support to one support only

of the vessel. (Reference The vessel should

since excessive bending


will damage the lining. be permitted Rectangular Flat

be anchored

to slide over the other upon expansion or Square Vessels for CRM

and contraction.

walls are undesirable

lined construction.


arch effect


needed to force the brick against the membrane This arch effect is done for the by deliberately length may be attained designing uniform an outward from top

and supporting

steel structure.

by contouring

the walls of the vessel. This so that the vessel is

curve into each wall, continuous to bottom,

of the wail,

wider at the mid-section in a rectangular difference measured If ence figured the between

than at the ends. vessel in which the length dimension of the long sides is 1% or more be such that the and the cross end dimension, of that curve should

times that of the short sides, the amount the cross center

on the long side, is 2% of the length of the long side, and the differon the short side is 4% of the short dimensions. long side is less than 1% times that of the short, or if the vessel is in each case, should be 3% of the side dimension. six feet or longer sides, however, inches (four in no case should the difline at each side to on a side. all of the perceninches out of the straight

square, this difference In vessels with ference measured If

be less than eight at the center). the

In vessels with shorter sides, increase the percentages are expected to contain solvents,

2% and 4% and do not design for less than two inches deviation vessel contents tages given above shall be doubled. The This will always bottom result of the vessel should, and following A masonry and except if practical,

be dished under the same decontour as the vessel walls. of parts expand of design will stresses exare composed

sign specifications

the same uniform lining

in a vessel of which

all walls and bottoms

of very large cylinders. away from the lining,

laid up inside this type cases, when calculated

be strong and tight

so long as the outer in unusual

shell does not thermally




teed joints

the compressive in construction.

strengths thicknesses

of brick

or mortar,


not require

expansion service, saving of

Such a design makes possible, of acid proof

in low temperature at considerable the bottom, joints.

the use of minimum labor and material. If mended with mum


it is impractical that squeeze

on account joints

of size to contour expansion

it is recomfor mini-

at least the sides be contoured. and additional joints of the brick walls will expansion or square tanks will of the walls or bottom. should be supported measurable of the fully supports

The bottom

can be provided However,

peripheral thickness Rectangular

still be possible and except in them. usually (Reference require external

in rare occato preon close

sion without vent deflection A flat


8, p 64). reinforcing


by continuous loaded divided

I beams welded

enough centers to prevent In any case deflection exceed the distance run from

deflection. vessel between by 1000. supports shall not beams should vessels, The


one side completely

to the opposite.

In the case of rectangular parallel

the recommended

design is to carry them across the bottom,

to the short

dimension, and continued To provide adequate welded the vertically I beam support.

out both sides. stiffness to the walls, gusset plates or T-bars should be top to the bottom, of the walls the top should on the same center as on is kept should from flexing by be stiffened, preferably to periphery

to the sides from The bottom plate.

its weld to the bottom by a channel, welded exactly exactly the channel or at the completely opposite


least, by a heavy angle, which the top.

be continuously be welded 34)


The gusset or T plates should stability. A sketch

at the top and at the bottom the web, to give optimum

to the centers of the I beam supports, (Figure shows

how this should be done.


_ _ _ _. II#;


z=: __

r=- _-_ _- - -_


Figure 34: Recommended style of reinforcing for a rectangular steel tank. Note gusset (section above, left) welded at top to channel, on side to tank wall, on bottom to extension of I beam. I beam weld is to face exactly opposite web (see Section B-B). This type reinforcing prevents deformation of tank walls when loaded. From Chemically Resistant Masonry, by Walter L. Sheppard, Jr., 2nd Ed. (19821, Marcel Dekker, NYC, p 81. Used by permission.



and Chemical





I beams stead,

are not welded




of the ends of the tanks. welded


I beams are welded

in from the ends and continuously at the top and continued to the short

to the first

I beam inside the tank end. The short sides also require gusset or T-plates. These
are also welded (Reference to the channel welded down the sides of the in from the end. for presends to be continuously 8, p 80). or square vessel suitable service. (Reference If such a vessel is to receive a masonry with dished or hemispherical 8, p 80). lining, it must be I beams running

These supports will not make a rectangular sure or vacuum designed or as a sphere. as a cylinder

heads, both top and bottom VIII.

Such vessel must also be designed in accordPressure Vessels, Section

ance with the ASME Flooring Sometimes trowelled following

Code For Unfired

it is necessary to apply to a steel decking.


brick or monolithics is not recommended

such as for the

epoxies reasons:

This practice

Unless the steel deck is rigidly causing the brick or monolithic If the steel decking ture flooring. If the flooring which siderable undergoes


it will flex under loading,

lining to crack. from expanding during tempera-

is restrained

changes by support

pillars or walls,

it will flex

and crack the


cycling, of thermal flooring,

a monolithic expansion. which

coating This can

is bonded to the steel will develop differences in coefficients in the case of a brick

cracks because of the conis not bonded

be prevented

and is free to slide by providing Steel decking transmits

expansion which


in the brickwork. to crack


have been known

plastic monolithic If the designer

coatings and brickwork. to protect a steel deck with acid-proof brick, he


should consider the following


recommendations: should be sufficiently to prevent vertical expansion. thick and be rigidly should previously. midsupbe


steel decking at frequent



any flexing

or bulging due

to movement

or thermal

The design criteria tanks, as described only

the same as for flat bottoms


The point

design must



anchorage joints,

at a suitable

and the deck should as it stretches. humping

be able to slide latterally or flexing. and be as thick

over the other



if used, must be carefully

located to prevent 0 All

welds must be continuous

as the plate to pre-

vent flexing. 0 In preparing tamination. the steel for application Surface preparation of a coating or membrane, the con-

steel surfaces must be free of mill scale, rust, grease or other shall be as specified

by the manu-




facturer or applicator, sandblasting. Construction Details

but a minimum


is commercial

Nozzles, Inlets and Outlets: signing inlets and outlets. (1)

Three principles

must be kept in mind in de-

Membrane surfaces should be continuous and unbroken throughout the interior of the vessel and through all inlets, outlets and other openings so that the contained liquids may not find and penetrate any discontinuity or juncture with a different material. In other words, the openings should be flanged, not screwed and interior surfaces must be radiused and blend smoothly into the wall of the vessel.

(2) The membrane, as it passes from the vessel body into the lining of the opening must be protected from thermal and mechanical damage in the same manner as in the membrane inside the vessel, and that masonry protection, such as a sleeve or brick lining, must be continuous and part of that same structure. (3) The design must take into account all stresses in the masonry, including any shearing movement of the masonry lining against the outlet. Then the outlet location must be designed as a point of no movement between expansion joints or stress relief points. If, due to the complexity of vessel design, not all stresses may be relieved, and shearing moments must be anticipated, a flexible material must be selected to sleeve the outlet, rather than the usual ceramic sleeve. From these principles, it should be noted that inlet and outlet piping or steam piping leading to heaters or coils should not, if at all possible, pass through the vessel wall or bottom, but be brought in over the top. If they must pass through a wall or bottom, then the designer should try to design them to pass through a properly lined or sleeved opening so that said service elements are not part of the supporting structure, and so that the membrane can remain continuous and intact. (Reference 8, p 76). All nozzles and externals should be suitably braced and strengthened by gusseting or by welding collars to prevent bending or deformation under blows or movement, thus causing damage at point of entry into vessels. All nozzles should be flanged and matched with an over-sized flange so that the I.D. of the sleeve will mate with the I.D. of the connecting pipe. (Reference 8, p 77). Manholes should be designed large enough to allow for removing sand after blasting, provide ventilation during membrane installation, to admit workman, equipment and brick during lining and to allow for the thickness of the brick lining. Two 24 inch nozzles are suggested for large tanks. Small nozzles should be avoided. It is difficult to line a nozzle under three inches IPS and not practical to line one under two inches, IPS. Nozzles should be kept as short as possible to allow proper surface preparation, membrane application and ceramic lining. Recommended maximum lengths are shown in Appen-


Corrosion and Chemical Resistant Masonry Materials Handbook

dix I, "Guideline Specification For the Design and Fabrication For Metallic Vessels Which are to Receive Chemical-Resistant Masonry Lining For Chemical Immersion Service." Internals: Agitators, coils, dip tubes, baffles and thermometer wells are normally made of an unlined corrosion resistant metal. This can cause galvanic corrosion of the steel shell if the membrane is not impervious or becomes damaged and the liquid in the tanks is an electrolyte. Galvanic corrosion can be prevented by electrically insulating internals from contact with the shell or metal parts which are connected to the shell. The interior of the shell should be kept as clean and uncluttered as possible. Reinforcements should be on the outside of the vessel. The type of membrane lining may impose specific limitations on the type of baffles, outlets and inlets and the like, which the designer may wish to install. If coils or heaters are installed, they shall be kept a minimum of six inches away from the walls or bottom of ceramic lined vessels. Welds: The vessel shall be welded, using full penetration, longitudinal and circumferential butt welds. Welders and welding procedures should be qualified in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX "Welding." The welds on the inside of the vessel should be continuous, nonporous, smooth, blend smoothly into the adjacent plate surfaces and not extend more than Ih6 inches above the adjacent surfaces. This can usually be done by using certain welding techniques. Otherwise the welds must be ground flush. It is also necessary that circumferential welds do not cause a draw string or constricted effect and that longitudinal welds do not cause distortions when heads of different thicknesses are welded to shells, the inside surfaces must be even and flush. Surface Preparation: The steel surfaces to receive the membrane lining must be smooth, free from pits, millscale, weld splatter, and lap welds. Corners must be rounded to an internal and external radius of 1/8inch minimum. The surface must be sandblasted just before application of the membrane on interior surfaces and a paint system on exterior surfaces. Sandblasting should be in accordance with specifications supplied by the manufacturers of the membrane and protective coating system. This may require welding inside corners and then grinding to the proper radius.
Pressure Testing Vessels fabricated
Code must be

in accordance





and Pressure


temperature quirement, as a proof against amic culating brittle lining

of 60 F (16 C). for less than 15 psig are not legally obliged to meet this rebut should be so tested both to assure that the vessel is leak tight and test, providing some mechanical stress relief and some protection fracture is installed. in service. Since the vessel should be tested should before the certhe additional test pressure. stresses of the lining be used in cal-

hydrostatically o o

at 1 Y2 times


at a minimum

Vessels designed

the hydrostatic

Metallic Shells
Model Specification specification covering the design and construction


A sugges\ed

of metallic

vessels to be lined with a membrane and ceramic lining for chemical immersion services is shown in Appendix I. The author has used various sources in prepar' ing this specification, including a model specification prepared by Pennwalt, and excerpts from "Chemically Resistant Masonry" by W .L. Sheppard. (Reference 8).

APPENDIX: GUIDELINE SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN AND FAB. RICATION OF METALLIC VESSELS WHICH ARE TO RECEIVE CHEMICAL RESISTANT MASONRY LININGS FOR CHEMICAL IMMERSION SERVICE 1 00 SCOPE 1.1 This specification provides guidelines for the design and fabrication, of vessels that are to be membrane-Iined, and to receive a chemical-resistant masonry lining for corrosion resistance. 1.2 This specification pertains to carbon steel vessels, but may be used where more corrosion-resistant steel or alloy materials are used for vessel construction . 1.3 Vessel design shall be in accordance with ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII-Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, Division 1 (latest edition) and in particular, conform in design to Section UG-22 Loadings, subsection (a)4. 2.0 REQUIREMENTS 2.1 Engineering Considerations 2.1.1 Vessels shall be designed so that no interior surface shall exceed a tensile strain of 0.067% (670 microinches per inch) during operating or design conditions. (Tensile strain is defined as the allowable design working stress, divided by the modulus of elasticity of the steel.) In the case of carbon steel, this strain equates to a maximum design working stress of 20,000 psi (130 MPa). Steels shall have sufficient notch toughness to avoid brittle fracture under both operating and shutdown conditions. Suitable steels for atmospheric design temperatures are tabulated in API Standard 620 "Recommended Rules For Design and Construction of Large Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks." Special consideration should be given to areas of potential high strain such as unsupported bottom areas, sidewall to bottom weld joints, properly aligned welds, distribution of loading at supports, etc. All flat surfaces shall be straight and true, and all curved surfaces shall be smooth and continuous. Supports for tanks and vessels, which are to receive brick linings, must be located to support the weight of the brick lining,



2.1.4 2.1.5



and Chemical





shell, internals, contents and other loadings uniformly and completely without distortion of the structure. If a vessel is conical or dome-headed, and support legs are used, they are typically centered under the brick lining column, tangentially to the vessel body. If a vessel is conical or dome-headed, and supported by a continuous skirt, the skirt is typically centered under the brick column of the equipment, and it must be vented to provide adequate ventilation under the equipment. If the vessel is flat-bottomed, the bottom must be constructed and supported as to be completely rigid, and well ventilated from the sides and underneath. This type of support is usually provided by cribbage or l-beams. Flat bottoms are less stable than dished bottoms and should be avoided, particularly if the vessel will be subject to fluctuating temperature and pressure. Dished bottoms shall be suitably stiffened as well as the juncture between the bottom and the sidewalls. Horizontally aligned cylindrical vessels are typically supported on padded saddles. Such saddles shall support the lower 120 of the cylinder, and the support pads shall be wide enough to prevent concentrated load points. 2.1.6 The design of shell thicknesses of vesselsmust take into account loading created by the design operating conditions, the weight of the lining materials, residual stressesto be created if the brick lining is to be pre-stressed, thermal stress conditions under maximum and minimum operations, shutdown conditions and varying external ambient conditions, and also, stresses created by the irreversible growth of brick. Supports must take into account the weight of the lined vessels and contents and also any dynamic loading they may have to resist. The bottom flatness of a vessel shall be measured by means of placing a straight edge across the full diameter of the vessel/tank bottom, and measuring the distance between the underside of the straight edge and the steel. The distance measured at any point must not exceed % (6.3 mm) or the diameter divided by 1000, whichever is greater. If the vessel is a gas filled tower without internal piers, the maximum deflation shall not exceed the diameter divided by 500. l-beams shall extend across the full diameter and chords under the vessel bottom so that the steel walls and bottom are fully supported. The bottom steel shall be tack-welded to the l-beams such that the bottom will not flex and crack the brick lining when installed. The underside of the vessel shall be allowed to ventilate, i.e., do not set directly on a full concrete pad. The space between the supporting l-beams must be dimensioned in such a way that sufficient space is maintained to allow a workman to crawl between them. With respect to the bending through of the bottom construction, the following shall be met:




5 1

If the free span between the beams supporting the steel floorplate is a, then the deflection of the steel plate measured across this span (deviation from a straight line) shall be no more than a divided by 500 under full load operational conditions. 2.1.8 The sidewall flatness of a cylindrical vessel shall be measured by means of a straight edge having a length of 3 (0.9 m) or 25% of the height of the wall, whichever is greater. This straight edge shall be placed against the wall at various locations. The distance between the straight edge and any point on the steel shell is to be measured. The maximum deviation from true linearity shall not exceed %6 (1.6 mm) except at circumferential welds where the deviation shall not exceed l/s (3.2 mm). Rectangular vesselsshould not have straight sides and preferably not flat bottoms. The sides should be designed with an outward curve on each wall. The depth of the curve should be a minimum of 1% of the length of the vessel and 2% of the width of the vessel. The measured differences between the cross center dimensions and the cross end dimensions should be within the specified range. Also a template shall be made with the specified curve. The template shall be 3 long (0.9 m) or 25% of the length of the side to be measured, whichever is greater. When the template is held against the wall, the template deviation shall not exceed l/16 (1.6 mm). Stiffness must be provided to keep all walls rigid and to prevent flexing.


2.1 .I0 The outof-roundness of a cylindrical vessel shall be determined by measuring the maximum and minimum internal diameters in the same planes. The difference shall not exceed 0.75% of the larger diameter. Also a template shall be made representing the calculated arc of inside cylindrical wall. The arc length should be 3 (0.9 m) or 5% of the circumference, whichever is longer. When held tightly against the wall, the maximum gap (deviation) shall not exceed %6 (1.6 mm) except at longitudinal welds where the gap shall not exceed l/s (3.2 mm). See Figure 3-5. 2.1 .I 1 The maximum out-of-plumbness (in inches) of a vessel shall not exceed the tank height x %oo, where the tank height is expressed in inches.

In brick lining vessels, it is not a matter of particular concern that vessels be perfectly plumb. If the vesselshave floating heads, then the plumbness does become very important. It is more critical for out work that we have the center line established, and then our other criteria, namely, out-of-roundness will tell us if the steel is acceptable for receiving a chemicallyresistant masonry lining.



and Chemical





outaf-roundness of cylindrical shells to be lined. A = greatest diameA - B < 0.75%A. Template length = (0.9 m) or 5% of circumference, whichever is greater. Maximum deviation from true arc = 116 (1.6 mm), except l/a (3.2 mm) permitted at longitudinal (not circumferential) welds. Figure 3-5: Allowable

ter, B = smallest diameter,

2.1 .I2

Vessels must be tested and found to be liquid tight before being lined. Pressure vessels must be hydrostatically design pressure as required methods: by the ASME Vessel Code. tested at 1% times Boiler and Pressure

Non code vessels must be tested using one or more

of the following (a) (b) (c) (d) Note:

Fill with water Hydrostatic test at 1% times design pressure welds using specified should internal pressure of

Vacuum-box-test Air/soap/water Water

temperature test.

be a minimum

6OF (16OC). Air/soap pressure hydrostatic 2.2 Accessibility 2.2.1

test must be preceded by a higher

All surfaces of the steel vessel interior for welding, surface preparation manway diameter

shall be readily


and lining application. for working entrances during





shall be 24 inches (60 cm). In field erected vertical tanks, one manway (work) level. of two

should be located

near ground

Large vessels should (2) manways, ground

have a minimum 18Oapart.

one in the roof and one near

level, preferably





Additional ventilation



be provided

as needed to facilitate

and material


during lining work.


2.3.1 The alignment matched longitudinal of steel plate surfaces at butt weld joints shall be l/16 (1.6 on the thicknesses mm) on both circumferential of the together, and joints inside surfaces are welded vessel. Where such as heads the to within

plates of different outside

and shells, the thicker same thickness 2.3.2 All

plate shall be machined

or ground on the

surface with a 4: 1 taper so as to have approximately as the thinner plate at their junction.

welds that will

be lined over shall be continuous. shall be allowed.

No inter-

mittent 2.3.3

or spot welding

All welds shall be ground to remove sharp edges, laps, undercuts and other surface irregularities All weld spatter followed by grinding for finish. undercutting or similar debeand projections. Chipping (See Figure 3-2). may be utilized if shall be removed.


Pinholes, pressions

pits, blind holes, porosity,

shall not exist in the finished

surface of the weld

fore or after blast cleaning. 2.3.5 Temporary welds used for attaching alignment plates and dogs

and arc strikes shall be ground smooth. 2.3.6 Circumferential height plus variation and longitudinal tolerance. seam welds-allowable (Weld height is defined sheets of steel .) this parmm) long weld as the

and distortion

from the plane of the welded Seams: take To

Circumferential ticular straight (203 concern,

check (406

a 16

edge, plumb

it on the weld so that 8 8 (203 mm) is below. between the straight

mm) is aboveand

If the measured mm) and anywhere, necessary


edge and the steel shell is greater than % (3.2 then the weld is too high, or string effect, corrections Seams: take To are to be made. check this particu(0.9 meter) long arc of tank across the steel and between is is the there has been an excessivedraw

Longitudinal lar concern, template wall weld. and cut

a 3 foot

to the calculated it horizontally tight against it

center the the


measure ture too and of

maximum tank l/s wall. (3.2

clearance If the

the curvature greater than

of the template mm)

and the curvaclearance

then the weld

high or has caused excessive distortion, necessary corrections are to be made.


Corrosion and Chemical Resistant Masonry Materials Handbook

All fillet to

abrupt welds, or be lined

contours, over,



edges, etc. by mm) off

inside and outside shall machining to

corners, (3.2

be rounded a l/s

grinding minimum 2.3.7 Smooth, mm) ripple-free that

radius. welds with crowns not exceeding l/16 (1.6

in height

blend smoothly

into adjacent

surfaces need

not be ground. 2.3.8 Lap-welded welded from 2.3.9 2.3.10 joints joints shall be avoided wherever possible. If lap-

are used, they must be fully edge must ground


on the inside. transition

The lap welded

to make a smooth

one plate to the next.

(See Figure 3-2).

Riveted joints shall not be used. The use of internal hibited. bolted joints in any areas to be lined is pro-


Connections 2.4.1
2.4.2 All connections Vessel/tank Nozzles diameter. maximum to the vessel shall be flanged. shall be of flanged design wherever 3 IPS and never under mm) and greater with the following nozzles 2 (50.8 possible. 2 IPS in shall have

nozzles Flanged


not be under

lengths in accordance


Nozzle Diameter (IPS)

(inches) 2 3 4 8-24 24-36 Over 36 (mm) 56 76 102 203-610 610-915 Over 915

Maximum Length Shell to Face of Flange (inches) (mm1 3 4 8 16 24 Any length 76 102 203 406 610

2.4.3 Nozzles

The lining thickness length.

may change the nozzle diameter



to be sleeved in brick-lined out-of-roundness. beyond should of vertical


must be limi-

ted to ?0.4% 2.4.4 2.4.5 Nozzles Nozzles

must not extend to be sleeved

the inside of the shell. in the center of heads move-

be placed

and near the bottom

walls. Otherwise,


ment of the lining and shell is likely to destroy 2.5

the sleeve.

Appurtenances inside Vessels 2.5.1

The requirements of Sections 2 and 3 of this recommended inlined. outlet Such apconnecguideline specification include shall apply to any item to be installed agitators, anti-swirl baffles,

side a vessel that purtenances

is to be membrane-and-brick





gauging devices, etc.

ladder supports,

screen supports,


brackets, 2.5.2

If appurtenances

inside the vessel, including

nuts and bolts, canmaterials. the steel or elecsleeves

not be lined, they shall be made of corrosion-resistant 2.5.3 Dissimilar trolytes. metals shall be electrically insulated from

vessel surface if the vessel will contain Bolts shall be insulated and washers. 2.5.4 Heating elements should be attached

aqueous solutions

by the use of dielectric

with a minimum


of 6 inches (15.2 2.6 internal 2.6.1 Structural Structural installed application. 2.6.2

cm) from the lining surface. Members members possible. shall should However, be fabricated be installed of simple on the are shapes lining

Reinforcement reinforcement wherever they round internally,

vessel exterior such as smooth

if such members

bars or pipe for ease of membrane

The use of angles, channels, should members Note: be avoided. If they shall be fully

I-beams, must

and other complex internally,

shapes these

be installed

seal-welded to protect of the

and edges ground. on such internal result in attack on

It is difficult and failure

the membrane will



the metal shell. 2.6.3 Reinforcement externally. 2.7 Surface 2.7.1 Preparation All interior surfaces shall be sandblasted by the membrane of the membrane. and painted in accordto a standard (SSPC or pads and stiffening members should be installed





prior to application 2.7.2 All exterior ance with

surfaces shall be sandblasted specifications supplied

by the customer

or protective

coatings manufacturer.

1. 2. ASME Code For Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII, Division 1 and Section II (1982). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. API Standard 620, Recommended Rules For the Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks, Seventh Edition (1982). American Petroleum Institute. Ladd, R., Brick-Lined Tanks, Chemical Engineering, V 73 No. 6, p 192-196 (March 14,1966). Pellini, W.S., and Puzak, P.P., Fracture Analysis Diagram Procedure For The FractureSafe Engineering Design of Steel Structures, Naval Research Laboratory, p 8 NRL Report 5920 (March 15,1963).

3. 4.



and Chemical





5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.


13. 14.


Adams, Ludwig, Relative Metal Economy of Pressure-Vessel Steels, Chemical Engineering,V76 No.27,~ 150-151 (December 15,1969). 26th Biennial Materials of Construction Report-Chemical Engineering, V 81 No. 24, p 126-128 (November 11,1974). NACE Technical Committee Report 6K157, Acid Proof Vessel Construction With Membrane and Brick Linings. Sheppard, Walter L., Jr., Chemical Resistant Masonry, CCRM Inc., 2nd Ed. (1982), Marcel Dekker Inc., N.Y.C., pp 64,73-74,76,77,81 (1982). Carpenter, G., and Pierce, R.R., Linings for Sulfuric and Phosphoric Acid Process Plants, Paper No. 95, Corrosion 83, National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Physical Properties of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel,Meta/s Handbook, Vol. 1,9th Ed., Bardes, Bruce, E., Ed., American Society for Metals, p 147 (1978). ASM Committee on Wrought HeatResisting Alloys, Properties of Steels and Wrought Heat-Resisting Alloys at Elevated Temperatures, Lyman, T., Ed., Mefals Handbook, Vol. 1,8th Ed,, American Society for Metals, p. 490 (1961). ASM Committee on Wrought Stainless Steels, Wrought Stainless Steels, Metals Handbook, Vol. 3, 9th Ed., Benjamin, David, Senior Ed., American Society for Metals, p 34 (1978). ASM Review Committee on Steel Castings, Steel Castings, Metals Handbook, Vol. 1, 9th Ed., Bardes, Bruce, E., Ed., American Society for Metals, p 393 (1978). Focke, A.E., Elevated Temperature Properties of Construction Steels, Metals Handbook, Vol. 1, 9th Ed., Bardes, Bruce, E., Ed., American Society for Metals, p 652 (1978). ASM Committee on Wrought Stainless Steels, Wrought Stainless Steels, Lyman, T., Ed., Metals Handbook, Vol. 1 ,Bth Ed., American Society for Metals, p 422 (1961).

4 Concrete

Edward G. Nawy Department of Civil and Environmental Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey Engineering

INTRODUCTION Plain concrete is formed from a hardened mixture of cement, water, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate (crushed stone or gravel) , air and often other admixtures. The plastic mix is placed and consolidated in the formwork, then cured to facilitate the acceleration of the chemical hydration reaction of the cement/water mix, resulting in hardened concrete. The finished product has high compressive strength, and low resistance to tension, such that its tensile strength is approximately one-tenth of its compressive strength. Consequently, tensile and shear reinforcement are placed in the tensile regions of a concrete section so that its full compressive capacity can be utilized. In order to obtain quality concrete for structural use, a knowledge of the concrete producing materials and their proportioning becomes essential. This section presents a brief account of the concrete-producing materials, namely cement, fine and coarse aggregate, water, air and admixtures. The cement manufacturing process, the composition of cement, type and gradation of fine and coarse aggregate, and the function and importance of the water and air are reviewed. The reader can refer to books and papers on concrete such as the selected references at the end of th is section . CONCRETE-PRODUCING Portland Cement Manufacture: Portland cement is made of finely powdered crystalline min. erals composed primarily of calcium and aluminum silicates. Addition of water to these minerals produces a paste which, when hardened, becomes of stone-like MATERIALS



Corrosion and Chemical Resistant Masonry Materials Handbook

strength. Its specific gravity ranges between 3.12 and 3.16 and it weighs 94 Ibs. per cu. ft. which is the unit dry weight of a commercial sack or bag of cement. The raw materials that make cement are: (1) Lime (CaO)-from limestone clay clay

(2) Silica (SiOv-from (3) Alumina


(with very small percentages of magnesia namely MgO and sometimes some alkalis). Iron oxide is occasionally added to the mixture to aid in controlling its com position . The process of manufacture can be summarized as follows:
(1) Grinding the raw mix of CaO, SiO2 and AI2O3 with either in dry or wet form. the added other

minor ingredients II II slurry process. (2) Feeding kiln. (3) As the heated its lower (4) As the fusion, perature kiln the mixture

The wet form

is called

into the upper

end of a slightly




the material controlled

passes from rate.

its upper


end at a predetermined, temperature namely, until the pellet of

the mixture combine These

rises to the point it is kept to form

of incipient at that temIh6 in. the port-

the clinkering ingredients product. clinkers. and ground of gypsum of setting

temperature, pellets

at 2700F

land cement

range in size from

to 2 in. and are called (5) (6) The clinker A small or retard (7) is cooled

to a powdery is added during

form. grinding to control

percentage the time

of cement

in the field. and a

The final portland cement small percentage is packed

goes into silos for bulk shipment in 94 Ibs. bags for shipment.

Strength: Strength of cement is the result of a process of hydration. This process leads to a recrystallization in the form of interlocking crystals producing the cement gel which has high compressive strength when it hardens. A study of Table 4-1 shows the relative contribution of each component of the cement towards the rate of gain in strength. The early strength of portland cement is higher with higher percentages of tricalcium silicate (C3S). If moist-curing is continuous, the later strengths will be greater with higher percentages of dicalcium silicate (C2S). Tricalcium aluminate (C3A) contributes to the strength developed during the first day after casting the concrete because it is the earliest to hydrate. When portland cement combines with water during setting and hardening, lime is liberated from some of the compounds. The amount of lime liberated is approximately 20% by weight of the cement. Under unfavorable conditions, this might cause disintegration of a structure owing to the leaching of the lime from



the cement. mineral

Such a situation mineral


be prevented

by the addition

of silicious to pro-

such as pozzolan

to the cement. reacts with the lime in the presence of moisture

The added

duce strong calcium


Table 4-1:
Type of



of Portland


. . . . . . . . . Components. % . . . . . . . . . .
CsS 49

Cement Normal I
Modified II High early I I I Low heat IV Sulfate resisting V

C$ 25

12 6

8 12

2.9 2.8

CaO 0.8

MgO 2.4

General Characteristics
All purpose cement Comparative low heat liberation. Used in large-sized structures High strength in three days Used in mass concrete dams Used in sewers and structures exposed to sulfates

56 30 43

15 46 36

12 5 4

8 13 12

3.9 2.9 2.7

1 .4 0.3 0.4

2.6 2.7 1 .6

l Tetracalcium

alumina ferrite

Influence Disintegration drying The presence

of Voids of of

and Type due

of Cement to cycles

on the Durability of wetting,

of Concrete: thawing

(a) and

concrete minute


and the propagation

of resulting

cracks is a matter the cement mixing. with

of great importance. paste increases the by the addition of

air voids throughout to the concrete while

resistance of concrete air-entraining (b) Disintegration vented. ally type

to disintegration. due to chemicals

This can be achieved in contact


the structure

such as in or preUsu-

the case of port structures Since the concrete and sodium, II cement magnesium

and sub-structures

can also be slowed to chlorides structures. sulfate-resisting


in such cases is exposed to specify

and sulfates of cements.

it is imperative

will be adequate

for use in seawater

Water and Air Water: tate ing. Water chemicals having harmful ingredients, strength contamination, and setting of a mix. reacof water relative to the but only place, silt, oil, sugar or other of cement paste is destructive to the properties chemical the mixture Water is required with in the production the cement, Normally, of concrete water in order to precipiand to lubricate can be used in mix-


to wet the aggregate, drinking

for easy workability.

and might adversely Since colloidal tion whole between cement of the mixture

effect the workability gel or cement and water,

paste is the result of only the chemical it is not the proportion that is of concern after in any study,

of dry materials in the finished

the proportion honeycombed

of water skeleton

relative to the cement. product

Excessive water hydration

leaves an uneven has taken



and Chemical





while product pores give of


little in both

water Air:

prevents With

complete weaker


reaction than


the cement. from


cases is a concrete in the hardened

and inferior If evenly

contemplated. the mix, these could distributed density, the entrained air inair Air-

Entrained improved pores by

the gradual to the

evaporation concrete. product. of finely

of excess water distributed, very uniformly air-entraining decreases and reduces of

are produced artificial


To achieve divided by adding workability, the

even distribution agents such required

introduction the product

bubbles as vinsol sand should crete.

throughout resin.

is possible increases and these optimum

Air-entrainment reduces mix. bleeding For

creases durability, content be kept


in the


percentage fraction

at the required air content

value for the desired mix starts


of the conweaken control

The optimum strength.

is 9% of the mortar of the total

of the concrete.

entraining the concrete

in excess of 5-6% Ratio:

to proportionately discussion, strict

Water/Cement has to be maintained mix. cretes.

Summarizing ratio

the preceding ratio, governing as the

on the water/cement is considered be the criteria as the ratio

and the percentage real measure

of air in the con-

Since water/cement it should given It is usually

of the strength of cement

of the concrete, in the mix. Aggregates Introduction: bulk crete, tively

design of most structural to the weight

of weight

of water

Aggregates product.

are those They that

parts of the concrete 60-80% with




of the finished and solid,


of the volume

of the conas in-

have to be so graded homogenous, exist

the whole

mass of concrete the smaller

acts as a rela-

dense combination, between

sizes acting

ert filler

of the voids that

the larger particles.

Aggregates (a) (b) Since reasonable Coarse fect tion, gel. The common (1) Natural or rock or strength, types. the final weathering from

are of two types: (gravel, (natural crushed stone, or blast furnace sand) part of the mix, the more that the mix if the smallest aggreis of size afslag)

Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate the aggregate

or manufactured the major

constitutes for the specific Coarse than

gate in the mix

the cheaper

the cost of the concrete, job in which is classified Properties concrete effects. aggregate

provided it is used. as such

workability Aggregate: is greater strength organic types

of the particle

/4 in. (6 mm).

of the coarse aggregate coarse aggregate bond with

of the hardened destructive impurities,

and its resistance

to disintegramust the cement

and other

The mineral have a good

be clean

and must

of coarse aggregate stone: type. This While

are: by crushing be of igneous, rock gives and placing natural stone

crushed from it

is produced could crushed in mixing


The rock

sedimentary, concrete the other than



is less workable




Natural ning


This rock

is produced

by the weathering of streams.


of run-


on the

beds and banks

It gives less strength

than crushed (3) Artificial shale, They Crete. (4) Heavyweight demands due to the cial bility corase gamma-rays and

but is more workable. aggregates: These used of other to are mainly produce manufacturing slag and lightweight expanded concrete. such as con-


are frequently by-product

are the

processes, for lightweight


slag or expanded

shale, or pumice


nuclear-shielding atomic had age and to the number

aggregates: hazards to reactors



specific radiation speX-rays,

of our

of nuclear shield against

increasing have

of atomic be produced of prime

and stations,


and neutrons. types

In such concretes,

economic barites,

and workaand

considerations aggregate

are not


The main heavy magnatites,

are: steel punchings,

limonites. While concrete ft. The density criteria. both sand. terial concrete made property In certain with with these ordinary heavy aggregate aggregates rather density than weighs weighs primarily about from 144 Ibs. per cu. ft., depends cement while on the ratio in others

225 to 330 Ibs. per cu.

of heavy-weight product govern. aggregate from cases, high Fine be clean filler

radiation-shielding is the only is smaller

concrete consideration, made,

of the compact and strength

on the water


Fine Aggregate: It ranges gate should a well-graded aggregate. The detail recommended always

size filler

in most cases, of mahave For

in size from

#4 to #lOO organic

U.S. Standard impurities, #IO0 sieve.

Sieves. A good fine aggreclay or any deleterious It should preferably standards.

or excessive

of size smaller conforming fine


combination concrete,

to the ASTM

sieve analysis


steel shot of the

and crushed and fine

iron ore are used as fine aggregates are given in

gradings C-330




and C-637.

Admixtures Admixtures which mediately economy, mixtures


are materials or during other





or hydraulic

cement im-

are used as ingredients before or for so as to

of concrete the mixing. make it more

and which Their function suitable

are added for the work

to the batch at hand, types

is to modify The major

the properor for of ad-

ties of the concrete


such as saving energy.16

can be summarized Accelerating Air-entraining Water-reducing Finely divided

as follows:

admixtures admixtures admixtures mineral and set controlling admixtures

0 a 0

admixtures concretes


for no-slump



and Chemical





Polymers Superplasticizers

CRITERIA The lows: Compactness The with tion. Strength Concrete the different Water/Cement solid be the

FOR QUALITY general characteristics

CONCRETE of quality concrete may be summarized as fol-

space occupied aggregate criteria

by the concrete for those types


as much which

as possible,

be filled may radia-

and cement

gel free from


Compactness nuclear


of concrete


should types Ratio should





and internal



of failure.

This ratio Texture Exposed withstand In order parameters: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Quality

be suitably


to give the required

design strength.

concrete to achieve

surfaces these

should properties,








adverse weather

conditions. quality control and quality assurance in the selection and processing of the following

have to be rigorously


of cement of cement and cleanliness of adhesion mixing in relation to water in the mix

Proportion Strength Interaction Adequate Proper Curing

of aggregate between cement paste and aggregate

of the ingredients finishing and compaction not below 5OF of the fresh concrete while the placed concrete


at temperature

gains strength. A study to be taken of these prior requirements shows that most of the control in handling actions have

to placing of criteria Most value. mix

the fresh


Since such a control of proportioning

is governed and placing, for each mix of histori-

by the proportions the development should be studied. cal and academic The most

and the mechanical design

ease or difficulty methods

based on the theory

have essentially concrete




of proportioning


is the American



Concrete In addition



both for normal


and lightweight to produce

concretes. level of 28conand exspecimen C-143. The

to the aim of designing strength,

a mix to achieve the prescribed

day compressive tent of workability is formed mold is lifted,

mix design is also intended


crete easy to place in the forms. is the slump. metal into a conical

A measure of the degree of consistency In the slump test, the plastic concrete as described in ASTM Standard


leaving the concrete

to slump,


spread or drop in height. of the mix.

This drop is the slump measure of the degree of workability Mix Designs for Nuclear-Shielding Whereas from the water/cement gamma the foregoing ratio, Concrete discussion

it is seen that the design criteria shielding against X-rays or density

was and on

in concrete the criteria magnatite garytes, (for normal concrete

used for density,

rays and neutrons,

is compactness

of mix regard-

less of workability. steel punchings, previously. Tables 4-2, for structural Results concrete

To achieve maximum magnatites,

tests have been conducted instead

various mixes using crushed

ore or fine steel shot instead of sand, and or limonites of stone as discussed and Table 4-5 proportioning



and heavyweight necessary

concrete) tools for


give the

mixes.* of these tests for both compactness and strength have shown that to 3.5 to 4.5 gallons of water.

the w/c ratio must be limited

QUALITY Workability (a)



or Consistency test by means of the standard in the mix indicates ASTM Code. The slump in in-


ches recorded (b) (c) Remolding Kelleys

its workability.

tests using Powers

Flow Table.

Ball Apparatus. is accepted as ASTM standard.

Only the first method Air Content Measurement when air-entraining Compressive

of air-content

in fresh concrete

is always

necessary especially

agents are used. of Hardened Concrete 6 in diameter Cylinder that the concrete position, and 12 high in compresand should be


This is done by loading sion perpendicular the same mix turbed traffic. until


to the axis of the cylinder.

molds must be filled with is placed,

and at the same time the concrete disturb is hard

placed at once in the same vertical If it becomes

in a place where they will be undisadvanced to accept do so very gently and carefully,

and the cure sufficiently

necessary to move them,

but on no account

them for the first 24 hours.



and Chemical





Table 4-2:



Water and Air Content Maximum




Slumps and Nominal

Sizes of Aggregates*

Water. lb per c yd of concrete for Indicated nominal maximum sizes of aggregate Slump. in. !b in.

) $5in. 1 3: in. ( 1 in.


1 1% In. 1 2 1n.t 1

3 1n.t

6 1n.t

concrete 300 325 340 1.5 215 3w 315 1 260 % 0.5 240 265 265 0.3 210 230 0.2

1 to 2 3 to 4 6 to I Approximate amount of entrapped au in nonair-entrained concrete, percent

350 365 410 3

335 365 385 2.5

315 340 360 2

Air-entrained 1 to 2 3 to 4 6 to 1 Recommended average: total air content, percent. for level of exposure: Mild exposure Moderate exposure Extreme exposuretf --~ *These quantities of mixing water are for They are maxima for reasonably well-shaped of accepted specifications. tThe slump values for tests made after removal concrete containing of particles larger 4.5 6.0 1.5 4.0 5.5 7.0 3.5 5.0 6.0 305 340 365 295 260 305 325



3.0 ::;

250 275 290

240 265 260

225 250 270

200 220 -

2.5 4.5 5.5

2.0 4.0 5.0

1.51. ;:;0g**

Log* 3.0$!** 4.00

use in computing angular coarse

cement factors for aggregates graded are

trial batches. withm brmts on slump

aggregate larger than l!; m. than l!$ m. by wet-screenmg.


fAdditiona1 recommendations for air content and necessary tolerances on air content for control in the field are given in a number of AC1 documents, including AC1 201. 345. 316. 301. and 302. ASTM C 94 for ready-mixed concrete also gives air content lirmts. The requirements roportloning concrete consideration in other documents may not always agree exactly, so in of the job and also meet must be given to selecting an aw content that will meet tf: e needs the applicable specifications. 5For concrete containtng large aggregates which ~11 Prior t0 testing for air Content. the Percentage of a~ should be as tabulated in the 1% in. column. However, include the air content as a percent of the whole. be wet-screened over the l!; expected in the 1:; in. nunus initial proportionrng calculations in. sieve materlal should

*When using large aggregate in low cement factor concrete. air entramment need not be detrimental to strength. In most cases nuwing water reqwrement is reduced sufflclently to improve the water-cement ratio and to thus compensate for the strength reduang effect of entrained air on concrete. Generally, therefore. for these large maximum azes of aggregate. air contents recommended for extreme exposure should be considered even though there may be little or no exposure to moisture and freezing. ttThese values are based on the criteria that 9 percent of the concrete. If the mortar volume will be substantially this recommended practice. It may be desirable to calculate percent of the actual volume. air is needed in the mortar phase different from that determmed in the needed air content by talcmg 9




Table 4-3a:

Relationships Compressive

Between Strength

Water-Cement of Concrete



Compressive strength at 28 days. psi* 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000

Water-cement Non-air-entrained concrete 0.41 0.48 0.57 0.68 0.82

ratio, by weight Air-entrained concrete 0.40 0.48 0.59 0.74

*Values are estimated average strengths for concrete containing not more than the percentage of air shown in Table 5.33. For a constant water-cement ratio, the strength of concrete is reduced as the air content is increased. Strength is based on 6 x 12 in. cylinders moist-cured 28 days at 73.4 f 3 F (23 ? 1.7 C) in accordance with Section 9(b) of ASTM C 31 for Making and Curing Concrete Compression and Flexure Test Specimens in the Field. Relationship assumes maximum size of aggregate about ?i to 1 in.: for a given source, strength produced for a given watercement ratio will increase as maximum size of aggregate decreases; see Sections 3.4 and 5.3.2.

Table 4-3b:

Maximum Concrete



Ratios for

in Severe Exposures*


of structure

Structure wet continuously or frequently and exposed to freezing and thawing+

structure exposed to sea water or sulfates

Thin sections (railings. curbs, sills. ledges, ornamental work) and sections with less than 1 in. cover over steel All other structures

0.45 0.50

0.40: 0.45:

*Based on report of AC1 Committee 201. Durability of Concrete in Service, previously cited. tconcrete should also be air-entrained. :If sulfate resisting cement (Type II or Type V of ASTM C 150) is used, permissible water-cement ratio may be increased by 0.05.



and Chemical





Table 44:


of Coarse Aggregate of Concrete

per Unit of Volume

Maximum size of aggregate, in.

Volume of dry-rodded coarse aggregate* per unit volume of concrete for different fineness modull of sand 2.40
0.50 0.59 0.66 0.71

2.60 0.48 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.73 0.76 0.80 0.85

2.80 0.46 0.55 0.62 0.67 0.71 0.74 0.78 0.83


?a ?2 ?L

2 3 6


0.75 0.78 0.82 0.87

0.53 0.60 0.65 0.69 0.72 0.76 0.81

*Volumes are based on aggregates in dry-rodded condition as described in ASTM C 29 for Unit Weight of Aggregate. These volumes are selected from empirical relationships to produce concrete with a degree of workability suitable for usual reinforced construction. For less workable concrete such as required for concrete pavement construction they may be increased about 10 percent. For more workable concrete see Section

Table 4-5:


of Fineness Modulus Lightweight

by Weight Aggregate

and by Volume

for a Typical

OPWIlW? Slew size 4 8 I6 30 50 too Pan ___ in. 0 181 0.0937 0 0469 0.0232 00111 0 0059 nnenr. mm 4.76 2.30 ,.I9 0.590 0 297 0.149 rncdl, Iby a,h,l

PerCenl retaaned by weneht 0 21.6 24 4 18.9 I4 0 II 6 9.5 = J.I)Z

Cumulative percent retaIned by weight



21.6 46.0 64 9 78.9 90 5 LOO.0

nnm...nlDdI. IbY IYme, = 222




of Plain Concrete is performed

Beams by 3 point loading of plain concrete beams of

This experiment

size 6 x 6 x 18 which have spans three times their depth. Tensile Splitting These line load Tests by loading the standard as 6 x 12 cylinder splitting by a in

tests are performed perpendicular

to its longitudinal

axis. The tensile


pounds per square inch (fi) can be defined


P = total value of the line load registered D = diameter L = cylinder of the concrete height cylinder

by the testing machine



The results of all these tests give the designer a measure of the expected strength of the designed concrete in the built structure.




The techniques necessary for placing concrete depend upon the type of member to be cast, namely whether it is a column, a beam, a wall, a slab, a foundation, a mass concrete dam, or an extension of previously placed and hardened concrete. For beams, columns and walls, the forms should be well oiled after cleaning them, and the reinforcement should be compacted and thoroughly moistened to about 6 depth to avoid absorption of the moisture present in the wet concrete. Concrete should always be placed in horizontal layers which are compacted by means of high-frequency power-driven vibrators of either the immersion or external type as the case may need. It must be kept in mind, however, that over-vibration can be harmful since it could cause segregation of the aggregate and bleeding of the concrete. Curing Hydration of the cement takes place in the presence of moisture at temperatures above 5OF. It is necessary to maintain such a condition in order thatthe chemical hydration reaction may take place. If drying is too rapid, surface cracking takes place. This would result in reduction of concrete strength due to cracking as well as the failure to attain full chemical hydration. To facilitate good curing conditions, any of the following methods can be used : (a) Sprinkling with water continuously

(b) Ponding with water (c) Covering the concrete with wet burlap, plastic film or waterproof curing paper to retain the

(d) Using liquid membrance forming curing compounds original moisture in the wet concrete

(e) Steam curing in cases where the concrete member is manufactured under factory conditions such as in cases of precast beams, pipes, and prestressed girders and poles. Steam curing temperatures are about 15OF. Curing time is usually one day as compared to five to seven days necessary for the other methods.




The mechanical properties of hardened concrete can be classified as: (1) short term or instantaneous properties and (2) long term properties. The short term properties can be enumerated as (a) strength in compression, tension and shear and (b) stiffness measured by modulus of elasticity. The long term prop-



and Chemical






can be classified

in terms

of creep and shrinkage. properties.

The following


present some details of the aforementioned Compressive Strength

Depending quality of

on the type of mix, the properties compressive Commercial strengths production psi to 6,000

of aggregate, and the time and up to 15,000 psi or aggreconof concrete psi. 6 in. by 12 in. cylinders rate of loadStates are of conbecause from class with ordinary

the curing,

of concrete

more can be obtained. gate is usually crete strengths

in the 3,000

psi to 10,000

psi range with the most common

in the range of 3,000 strength, laboratory C-39.

The compressive cured under standard usually taken from crete in the actual of the difference The ACI quency

fk, is based on standard conditions specifications

and tested at a specified

ing at 28 days of age. The standard ASTM structure

used in the United

It should be mentioned and curing conditions.

that the strength

may not be the same as that of the cylinder

in compaction

code specifies for a strength

test the average of two cylinders level of an individual f:,

the same sample tested of testing, of concrete consecutive strength 500 psi. The duction

at the same age which as satisfactory

is usually 28 days. As for the fre-

the code specifies that the strength tests equal or exceed the required

can be considered strength

if (a) the average of all sets of three and (b) no individual f: by more than must be designed of plant pro-

test (average of two cylinders) average concrete strength

falls below the required a concrete mix

for which depends

should exceed f: by an amount and its prior documented


on the uniformity

record of test results.

Tensile Strength The tensile the tensile tensile testing strength strength f,t of concrete is 0.10 is relatively <0.20 f:. low. A good approximation It is more difficult for tension test. of rupture fr of rupture problems testing, for with with


fk < f,t

to measure

than compressive A number subjected splitting used method


because of the gripping are available splitting


of methods to bending, strength

the most commonly For members rather than tensile is measured tion having The weight weight crete: (a) (b) ACI

being the cylinder

the value of the modulus

fi is used in design. The modulus at two C-78). for the modulus of rupture points,

by testing a span of specifies

to failure,

plain concrete

beams 6 in. square in cross-seceach 16 in. equidistant of normal

18 in. and loaded a value of 7.5 f: concrete are the

from the end supports of the beam (ASTM concrete.

In most cases, lightweight concrete. The following

has a lower tensile strength than normal code stipulations for lightweight con-

If the splitting If f,t concrete lation

tensile strength


is specified of 0.75 weight

fr = 1.09 f,t < 7.5 fk

is not specified, and 0.85 may be used for

a factor mixtures

is used for all lightweight concrete. Linear interposand and lightweight

for sand-light

of natural

fine aggregate.




Curve of the stress-strain analysis relationship of concrete is essential for develin concrete loaded After ultimate shortly structures. obcomstrengths

Knowledge oping Figure tained pression thereby parallel cylinders all the 4-l from

and design terms stress-strain

and procedures specimens

shows typical

curves for various concrete Cement Association. At

tests using cylindrical by the Portland the curvilinearity of loading of the failure


in uniaxial

as reported increasing except

approximately of its stiffness load, cracks

70 percent

stress, the material become

loses a large portion distinctly

of the diagram.

to the direction

visible, and most concrete thereafter. the strength of the concrete,

those with

very low strengths

fail suddenly

It is to be noted

that the higher

is the compressive

larger is the linear portion

of this stress-strain diagram.







Figure 4-1: Stress-Strain Curves for Various Concrete Strengths



and Chemical





Shrinkage Two shrinkage. the fresh exposure types Plastic concrete of shrinkage shrinkage occur in concrete: plastic shrinkage and drying placing by in such by the of

takes place during Exposed concrete attained

the first few hours after surface. than Moisture Drying

in the forms. faster from the

surfaces are more easily affected surface it is replaced

to the dry air because of their from the lower

large contact

cases evaporates bleed water develop the hydration Shrinkage rated with ume. The

layers of the concrete



after the concrete chemical after

has already

its final set and a good portion gel is accomplished. process. If a concrete are more unit

process in the cement reversible shrunk, having fully time undergo

is not a completely

is satuvolto


it will

not expand such that shrinkage:

to its original resistant

rate decreases with

since older


stress and consequently Several factors affect (a) Aggregate: ment paste, vulnerable with The

less shrinkage, of drying

the shrinkage


becomes almost asymptotic

with time. the magnitude aggregate

acts to restrain with In addition, or with

the shrinkage

of the ceare less of a



high aggregate


to shrinkage.

the degree of restraint

given concrete

is determined

by the properties

of aggregates; those

high modulus

of elasticity process.

rough surfaces are more re-

sistant to the shrinkage (b) Water/cement ratio:

The higher the water/cement

ratio, the higher

are the shrinkage (c)

effects. element: Both the rate and total in the volume of shrinkage magnitude for of

Size of the concrete shrinkage element. members However, regions.

decrease with

an increase

of the concrete larger process to reach surface, the ex-

the duration

is longer

since more time at a depth

is needed for the drying of ten inches from at twenty-four

the internal

It is possible that one year is needed for drying the exposed inches below

to commence ternal (d) Type than ment. (e) Admixtures: ture. hardening Pozzolans surface.

and ten years to commence

of cement: other

Rapid-hardening shrinkage cracking


shrinks somewhat cements restraining


types while shrinkage

compensating if used with

minimize reinforce-

or eliminate

This and


varies depending chloride of the concrete

on the type increases the

of admixthe shrinkage.

An accelerator

such as calcium

used to accelerate


can also increase the drying


while air-entrain-

ing agents have little effect. (f) Amount of reinforcement: the relative Reinforced difference concrete is a function shrinks less than

plain concrete;

of the reinforce-

ment percentage.



Creep Creep or lateral material tained load. Initial additional flow is the increase in strain with time due to a suselastic strain while the by deducting shrinkload is the creep stain. deformation. Although


due to load is considered

strain due to the same sustained be observed directly strain from

Creep cannot

and can only be determined the total

elastic strain and shrinkage

age and creep are not independent tion of strains is valid, hence: Total The strain (et)


it can be assumed that superposi-

= elastic strain (ee) of a concrete

+ creep (ee)

+ shrinkage

(fsh) by the con-

composition ratio,


can be essentially


water/cement cement straining content effect

aggregate and cement


and aggregate and cement the aggregate

tents. Therefore,

like shrinkage, increase creep.

an increase in the water/cement Also as in shrinkage,

ratio and in the induces a re-

such that an increase in aggregate content

reduces creep.

REINFORCEMENT Concrete ditional concrete Steel fabric, is strong in compression is occasionally but weak in tension. used to reinforce Therefore, reinforceloads. Adzone of to rewire The

ment is needed to resist the tensile stresses resulting reinforcement beam sections. Such steel is necessary for concrete of reinforcing E, consists

from the induced

the compression

for heavy

loads in order and welded standards.

duce long term deflections. reinforcement properties modulus, fv f, of bars, wires, with ASTM all of which are manufactured in accordance steel are:

most important (a) (b) (c) (d) Steel They 345 Youngs Yield




Size or diameter reinforcement

of the bar or wire is normally designated and mostly yield point, as Grade 40, 60 and 80 steels. and 80,000 psi (276, point. yield

have corresponding and 517/Nmm2,

yield strengths of 40,000,60,000


have a well-defined the yield strength strengths

For steels which as the strength and 0.0035 the 40,60 The For most Welded of placing

lack a welldefined

value is taken to and


to a unit strain of 0.005 tensile

for Grades 40 and 60 steels corresponding psi.

for Grade

80 steel. The ultimate at fracture

and 80 grade steels are 70,000,90,000 percent elongation source,

and 100,000

varies with

the grade, bar diameter

manufacturing modulus

ranging from 4.5 to 12 percent behavior is assumed

over an 8 in. gauge length. and the Youngs

steels, the

to be elasto-plastic

is taken as 29 x IO6 psi. wire fabric the fabric is increasingly used in slabs and walls because of the ease of reinforcement spacing and better bond. sheets, control



and Chemical





The fabric reinforcement is made of smooth or deformed wires which run in perpendicular directions and welded together at intersections. Additionally, fiber reinforcement made of fine elements and of various shapes are used to produce fiber-reinforced concrete. The fiber material can be steel, fiberglass, or polypropylene in various forms. The fibers are mixed with the aggregate in the concrete. When the concrete hardens, they tend to increase the ductility of the reinforced concrete elements and considerably reduce plastic shrinkage cracking as well as cracking in general. The fiber elements range in diameter from 5 to 500 thousandths of a millimeter and 12 to 25 millimeters in length. Table 4-6 gives the standard reinforcement grades and strengths of steel and wire fabric. Table 4-7 gives the geometric properties of standard steel bars.
Table 4-6: Reinforcement Grades and Strengths
Ultimate Strength (f, 1, psi 70,000 90,000 70,000 90,000 80,000 85,000 80,000 80,000 75,000

1982 Standard

Type Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade 40 60 40 60 60

Minimum Yield Point or Yield Strength (f,), psi 40,000 60,000 40,000 60,000 60,000 75,000 70,000 70,000 65,000

Billet steel A6 15 Axle-steel A6 17 Low alloy steel A7 06 Deformed wire Smooth wire

Reinforced fabric Reinforced fabric



Table 4-7:


Area and Perimeter

of Individual
Dimensions Cross-Sectional Area (Ab), square inch 0.1 1 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1 .oo 1 .27 1 .56 2.25 4.00


. . . . . . . . Nominal
Bar Designation, Number Weight per Foot, pound 0.376 0.668 1.043 1.502 2.044 2.670 3.400 4.303 5.313 7.65 13.60 Diameter (db), inch 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.128 1,270 1.410 1.693 2.257

. .. . . .
Perimeter, inch 1.178 1.571 1.963 2.356 2.749 3.142 3.544 3.990 4.430 5.32 7.09

8 9 10 11 14 18


In summary, quality concrete can be produced if adequate quality control and quality assurance are exercised in all stages of its production and in the se-



lection of all its constituent materials. As the concrete is placed in the forms, the curing process has to be fully attained and the sequence of stripping the formwork (and reshoring if necessary) has to be well planned and correctly executed. Control test to determine the compressive and tensile splitting strength have to be in full accordance with ASTM standards and full loading of the finished system realized after the concrete has achieved its 28 days strength as a minimum. Transient loads during the construction process have to be strictly controlled as they can reach levels higher than the actual design loads when the shored concrete can least sustain them. The recommendations given in this section, if followed, can result in quality concrete consistent with the environment it is expected to service.
Acknowledgement Significant portions of this chapter are adaptations from Reinforced Concrete: A fundamental Approach, by Edward G. Nawy, 1985,720 p,, Prentice-Hall, Inc., with their permission.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards-Part 14, Concrete and Mineral Aggregates, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, 834 pp (1983). ACI Committee 221, Selection and Use of Aggregates for Concrete,Joornal, American Concrete/nsriture,Proceedings,Vol.5B,N0.5,pp 113-142 (1961). American Concrete Institute,AC/ Manual of Concrere Pracdce, Part 5 (1985). ACI Committee 212, Admixtures for Concrete, Manual of Concrete Practice, Detroit, Ml,ACI 212.1 R-B1,29pp (1983). Nawy, E.G., Ukadike, M.M., and Sauer, J.A., High Strength Field Modified Concretes, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 103, No. ST12,pp 2307-2322 (Dec. 1977). American Concrete Institute, Super-plasticizers in Concrete, ACI Special Publication, SPS2, Detroit, Ml (1979). Mindness,S. and Young, J.F.,Concrete, Prentice-Hall Inc. (1981). Nawv, E.G., and Balaguru, P.N., High Strength Concrete, Chapter 5, Handbook of Structural Concrete, Pitmen Books, Ltd., and McGraw-Hill Book Co (1983). Pennwalt Corp., Pennwalt Standards For Concrete Vessels Designed ro Receive Brick or Membrane andBrick Lining, Technical Data BMS301 (March 1974). ACI Committee 211, Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight and Mass Concrete (AC1 211 .l al), American Concrete Institute Standard, pp l-320 (1981). ACI Committee 211, Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Structural Lightweight Concrete (AC1 211.281), American Concrete Institute Standard, pp l-18 (1981). Nawy, E.G., Strength, Serviceability and Ductility-Chapter 12, Handbook of Sfructural Concrete, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York (1983). Nawy, E.G., Reinforced Concrete-A fundamentalApproach, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 720 p (1985). Nawy, E.G., Simplified Reinforced Concrete, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 324 p (1986).

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.


12. 13. 14.

Timber as a Structural Material to Support Chemical Resistant Masonry


Lee Sheppard, Incorporated


C. C. R.M., Havertown,


The following uid tightness that follows W. Siebert, material factories chemical Wood


deals with masonry-a Properly

the use of wood type designed,

as a supporting requiring wooden


ture for chemically-resistant been and continue Materials

of construction unlined in many

total liq-

and rigid support. is intended to reflect

tanks have

to be used most satisfactorily Performance, walls, floors

services, and nothing 1983).]

on such construction. history,

[See, for instance, Oliver

Vol. 22, No. 10, p, 9 (Oct. and roofs of dwellings,

Since the beginning for frame, cooking, where all manner treatment

of recorded

wood has been used as a structural and for the shops and the tanning products, of medof food preparation

of end products

were produced-including of all manner

of leather,

preparing of textile

and packaging

fibers and the dyeing of cloth,

icines, and many other crafts and industries has also been used for hundreds and food stuffs, as material tanks and for the first two of chemicals 19th tanks century,

involving chemicals. of years to contain During 20th, the aqueous solutions from staved half of the wooden into which latter for anything

of construction of the

barrels to storage

and process equipment. decades

rectangular solutions

were used in steel mills to contain in dilute sulfuric

the acid pickling

steel was dipped long, particularly ture tighter, swell, well wooden

to remove scale. The life of wood acid which of halogen

in this service was reasonably tend rather less to how

swells wood and makes the strucacids which to leak. But no matter before

not as good in solutions tanks are constructed, will

perhaps even to shrink

it and cause the tank

in severe service, especially leak or weep-long floors under

if not carefully the economical pro-


sooner or later they

life of the wood

has passed and, therefore, 74

such tanks require


as a Structural



tection. iously

Strong damage

acids wood,




chemicals-particularly wooden

alkalis-can floors, when

sersuch memat-

and without

some protection, maintenance.

spillage occurs, will require expensive When, a protective tempts tures. Brick in the lining brane was first receiving

193Os, a system of acid brick work notice as a method of protection what for rubber-lined mortar of floors steel tanks,

over a liquid-tight of concrete to protect membrane more

floors and struc-

logical than that timber

be made to use acid brick and sulfur pickling

in the same manner

linings over an asphalt were surfaced over timber plants. enough with

were installed Brick and shops, a the brickfloors in topping. flexing many for of brick-

in wooden century, phenolic

tanks in steel mills in the latter were applied

part of the 3rd decade of this brick and sulfur.

and a number resin mortars

floors in electroplating braced to prevent functioned 195Os, similar of % epoxy from

few breweries, work from

and in a few chemical under load,

Where the floors flexing

were sound and well many

of these floors with


and several of this design are still in service. food and candy Where these and cracking, lined wooden wet (with plants were constructed, were sufficiently adequate and rigid these floors

In the mid a surfacing

to prevent

the topping The

and where

provision good.

was made for expansion, service. record

have also survived

given economical

tanks has not been equally and many to the interior solutions

The designer must bear in mind that wood water When dry, it shrinks. In a pickling

is not dimensionally dissolved

stable. When it swells. be applied before putso but

of chemicals

in water) would leaking

tank, the asphalt membrane tank to prevent membrane

as a membrane the wood which

of the wooden When

ting the brick into it. But this barrier dries out and shrinks. the now leaks at the tear.

keeps water out of the wood,

it shrinks,

it tears the asphalt membrane, in this area swells-usually the timber, and to creand this type of lining for chemically-rewith an impervious masonry. The by spills or memthe wood will

Not only

is the tank now leaking on the floor, and the wood enough to distort in rectangular

the area around

leak is now wet,

not enough to stop the leak, but quite (hot asphalt membrane But when sistant masonry, wood, wood membrane will and acid brick)

ate more leaks. No tank of this design could be kept tight, the wood is only to be the structural to be contained of then the wood the porosity originally except Shrinkage

tanks was abandoned. support

and the solution of

is too strong for unprotected

or is non-aqueous, because

must be protected wetting

the chemically-resistant for accidental seasoned material,

be dry continuously, Even when after erection.

brane leakage. dry out further tween tion.)

built with

will take place and cracks will open bethe staves in the walls of cylindriare used throughout the construcbase, it caused rupturing. on the surface of the wood and other problems

the planks (In

in the bottom

and between

cal tanks.


of course, planks

If a membrane Techniques

is to be placed directly and elasticity the cracks,

must have the strength by this dry condition facturers. adequate required nailing,

to bridge these cracks without instability in recent

to deal with

have been developed is the application

years by wood tank manusheets, with This may not be

One procedure when properly

of marine grade plywood

to the entire

inside surface of the wood tank.

designed prefabricated

PVC bag liners are to be installed,

and such design may be used for other types of membranes.



and Chemical





During perience


and emptying

or ambient


changes, tanks may exif is pronounced



and changes of shape in the shell walls, particularly may be particularly expecially walls and the bottom, stave design-brick membranes-have if the bottom

the tank is permitted at the juncture concrete. In cylindrical occasionally rubber out

to dry out. The movement

of the vertical tanks-wood

and membrane

linings are still in of replaced by spread

used. Where they are employed adhered elastomeric contact They bag membranes.


the hot asphalt-and to the interior PVC

fact all other completely or other

been eliminated,

The bag is fitted face. The flexible

the tank and suspended from the top of the tank as a loose liner, carefully in complete tearing. over all the interior elongation currently without in use have a 300% and so can adjust to structural where desired, by cutting

bag liners movement the slot

may be anchored,

short grooved

slots in the bag, and tacking into the wood, tained liquid

large head, long shaft, pins or tacks through to the timber. seal beyond

but not driving the pins home into the wood, from leaking through the slot around

thus leaving the bag To prevent the conpatch the limit of the slot,

free to move the length of the slot in relation is placed over the pin head, with the vulcanized so that the movement of the bag around

the pin, a large rubber

the pin is not obstructed.








Figure 5-1: Typical connection of wood stave wall to wood bottom of round wood container ready for membrane and chemically resistant masonry installation.


as a Structural



The brick lining (if one is required cal protection contoured successful. that, ment. to the bag membrane) designed, recommended vessels, properly It is not often

to provide thermal is then laid within of lining this type


or mechani-

the bag. In cylindrical has been moderately shapes since the moveIt is important moveand vessels should liner, to prevent of any

for rectangular more difficult

ment of the wooden

walls is somewhat

to control.

in such cases, the walls be adequately The bands on cylindrical to the proper tension prior

braced externally to the installation

tanks and tie rods of rectangular

be adjusted

bands on the former be secured to shell wall to maintain their positions. In tanks where brick wall linings may not be desired, brick floors are sometimes from for installed in the bottoms 3, 1980, to protect the bottoms (and perhaps the bag liner) Chemical of three Processing rectangular in 1958, and for acid/sulThe units are to timsteam jets, mechanical September Douglas Fir tanks, abuse and the like. provides 316 with (Canadian

Page 21,

a case history

creosoted apparently furic lead-lined, ber floors, supports floor fully

stainless tie rods, installed at the date of publication

still used by the purchaser of copper with acid brick


and brass bars up to 50 feet in length. laid over the lead in the tank bottoms.) monolithic toppings

If it is desired to apply either it is best, first, must be supplied, a smooth, plywood, visual deflection of the floor

or acid brickwork loading rebuilt. will Next,

to verify surface. uniform

that any anticipated If any movement and supports making

not cause sand the

at all is visible, additional then nail over it and that to a uniis now

or the floor

surface until matched,

surface has been attained,

sheets of marine

at least % thick, and covered

sure that all edges are carethem anywhere, plastic wood with

with absolutely surface.

no open cracks between smoothly

the nails are all countersunk form smooth applied If acid brick laid out and placed or a polymer

is to be used, the glass-reinforced on the usual centers. is to be applied, the periphery



in the usual manner, concrete,

and the brick laid over it, expansion If a monolithic, polyethylene filled whether separator with

joints carefully a /4 topping bars should be placed, joint seal-

set above the cracks around the bars removed, ant. will develop When, over timber and could today, that with that

of every sheet, the monolithic expansion that,

and the cavities thus formed telegraphing

If this is not done, you can be certain cracks at these points, sheets below it. 1930s and early in the

sooner or later, the monolithic through the surface the pattern

of the plywood

194Os, linings of the above types were used if not the least exand tanks with is rarely available and companies of units Barring stave are so great

substrates, be employed


was one of the least expensive,

pensive, structural


Long heavy beams and planks were readily available, of large diameters, timber Though very long individual

in the construction

walls as high as 100 feet. long heavy units. market concrete of shorter Wood

beams and planks can still be assembled stave tanks are seen in many may well and wood stave walls, where a bottom

by finger jointing


such items bottoms tanks

opt for the design and construction the diameters entirely out of timber.

it is not economical

to construct of this type for chemical

bad workmanship, ter ducting as well.

have demonstrated

long life. Wood

pipe is still being installed

wastes and may be used for large diame-



and Chemical






Cl .i



PLUNCER TYPE ..s wan.,

Figure 5-2: Book).


of Brooks


Co., Bellingham,

WA (from

The Doug/as Fir Use


as a Structural



Lug for Tank and Pipe Hoops.



Chimr length. Figure 53: Tank Co.). Courtesy of Caldwell Tank Co., Louisville, KY (Successor toThe Hauser-Stander



and Chemical





The known final

choice of of a support economic system will, of course, be based on the well of wood and any be very




manufacturers conditions masonry will

tanks, when supplied be imposed other pertinent similar taining modate to that a variety

with dimensional

requirements, masonry,

weights and other forces to operating for consideration. used for conto accom-

by the chemically-resistant supports

data, should be able to supply cost estimates for chemically-resistant wood There for cylindrical of aqueous or rectangular solutions.

The design of wood

tanks presently

will be some differences imposed

the additional

loads and requirements

by the chemically-resisin which will offer wooden con-

tant masonry and the membrane. There may be certain situations tainments and supports tages and economies The components ried by manpower of other tools. In confined occur, or where seriously materials.

and site conditions masonry are relatively

for chemically-resistant structures

some advan-

over supports of other materials. of wooden Erection small and can be carcomponents and hand manpower into areas inaccessible to the larger and heavier using only

can be completed

spaces where spills, overflows the ambient affected conditions by mild

or some leakage may occasionally corrosive, wood will not be liquids which would

are mildly

or rapidly

acids and some other

damage other structural



The design of wood than wood on mathematical and metal tanks is based more on experience and textbook theory. should and craftsmanship selection of the



components the wood,

for the structure there

be made by experienced

wood tank manufacturers. When selecting and economical for specific the cost; a lower and a membrane. judgement machinery, The partly but may by such operating etc. rods or hoops in unlined to the hydraulic load of past experience. wood tanks is determined previously, the related imposed As noted by the contents, may impose addesigner are choices to be made to achieve a suitable service. Some species are better than others of the lumber chosen will affect if the tank is to be lined with plywood varies with the tank size, but the may be influenced loads from super-imposed tank for the specified


The grade, or quality, of the lumber as excessive

grade can be considered The thickness conditions

of the manufacturer,

based on previous experience, agitation,

size of the metal be modified

by calculations

by dictates

chemically-resistant ditional should versible sistant


lining on the walls and the bottom of loads on the structure expansion consequent soaking and

loads on the walls requiring be aware of the possibility growth masonry. characteristics The accidental

more tie rods or hoops. The tank

caused by the irreof the chemically-reswelling of the dry

and the thermal

wood shell may also be a factor to allow for.


as a Structural


8 1

hard clay, concrete. etc.




Pier or Pile and Beam construction.

Concrete Piers

Chime Joists

4 TYPEC W&l Construction

Figure54: Typical foundation arrangements for wood Courtesy of the Canadian Wood Pipe and Tank.

stave tanks






and Chemical






Outlets are furnished in Duriron. bfonel Metal and Bronze. When Installed in the bottom of the tank the flange Is countersunk. Ground plug 1s furnlshed to fit tapered seat. Lag sciew type outlets are furnished In bronze wltb lead plug cast on bronze I bolt.



for Pickling



Figure 5-5:

Tank outlets

and steam jets. Courtesy

of the Caldwell Tank Company.


as a Structural















Figure 56: Detail of a wood bumper inside a brick lining in a pickling tank. Note that with this design, all hardware is kept out of the tank to prevent any chemical attack. Courtesy of the Pennwalt Corp.

POSSIBLE SIZES AND SHAPES There is an economic and practical limit for the diameter to which a wooden bottom can be built for a round tank. Though wooden bottoms have been built in the range of 60 to 70 feet in diameter, it is probable that, today, the alternative of a flat concrete bottom will have to be considered for economic reasons when the diameter exceeds 30 to 40 feet. In tanks with concrete bottoms, the wood staves stand vertically on a horizontal ledge around the circumference of the bottom and are sealed against an inner vertical concrete lip. Many tanks over 100 feet in diameter have been built in this manner and have given adequate service. However, when the concrete and the wood staves are supports for the chemically-resistant masonry, the sealing of the membrane at the junction of the wood and the concrete can become complicated. The wood stave walls will always expand and contract relative to the concrete base. The amount of movement is related to the tank diameter and may be caused by changes in the temperature of the hoops, liquid level in the tank, or other operating conditions such as vigorous stirring or agitation.



and Chemical





Wood cylinders, shape. Wood circular transport

tanks have been built in most common rectangular

shapes: vertical

and horizontal

and square boxes, even vertical

stave walls in an elliptical pipes, ducts Semifor the

has also been extensively some with

used for round and rectangular linings,

and stacks for pulp mill and smelter exhaust flumes, abrasion-resistant of mineral slurries. of linear thermal eliminating many

fumes and for liquid effluent. have been built

The coefficient be ignored struction expansion


of wood

is so small that it may in the conand expensive

in long structures. joints. Used alone,

This property wood

can be most attractive

of long ducts,

the necessity for complicated constructions services. structures

have served satisfactorcould be modi-

ily for very long periods in certain chemical Basic design criteria fied as required Finally, the three the wooden mum result to make masonry. developed them suitable

for these wooden

for the support

of chemically-resistant and installers of each of the membrane on the total and final can

it must be stressed that designers, suppliers, elements: the diverse performance of any the chemically-resistant properties structure support must cooperate,



discussing and agreeing of the materials Failure created to obtain

design so that economy,

are combined

for maxi-

and safety.

such agreement

in the failure

by the marriage

of such diverse


Acknowledgements The writer wishes to thank Mr. Fred Cressman, of Waterloo,Ontario,for his assistance and suggestions, and for authorizing the use of four drawings, numbers 2 through 5, and copies of items 1-3 in the Bibliography. The current technical bulletins from National Wood Tank Institute were supplied by the Hall-Woolford Wood Tank Co., Inc., of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Douglas Fir Use Book, sections of the 1961 edition reprinted in 1962 by Brooks Lumber Company, Bellingham, Washington. lnsfrucrions for Erecting Open Top Tanks, Canbar Products, Ltd., Waterloo, Ontario. Wooden Tanks for Every Purpose, The Hauser-Stander Tank Co. Technical Bulletin S-82, Specifications for Wood Tanks and Pipe. Technical Bulletin 758.

Both the Technical Bulletins are published by the National Wood Tank Institute, 848 Eastman Street, Chicago, Illinois. They contain useful chemical resistance data and tables for wood.

6 Some Notes on Plastics as the Supporting Structure


Lee Sheppard, Incorporated


C.C. R.M., Havertown,


Although not widely recognized by either manufacturers or users, it is possible to upgrade an all-plastics vessel to accept thermal conditions, and perhaps even some chemical exposures, beyond the limits of the bare plastic by the use of a lining of chemically-resistant masonry. One such design, now perhaps seven years old, involves all F RP equipment designed to reclaim spent HCI pickling solution in steel mills. The original designer perhaps thought that the very hot concentrated acid, as it entered the 6 foot diameter receiver, might be beyond the acceptable limits of the FRP, and he therefore inserted a 2% inch brick liner in the unit to accept the impingement of the entering HCI. Several units have been built to this design and, to date, no complaints have reached this writers ears. However, if the equipment had been larger, the story might well have been different. The high coefficient of thermal expansion of the FRP in larger units, and in cases where a considerable difference between operating and ambient temperatures will occur, will inevitably result in the expansion of the FRP away from the brick lining, resulting in loss of support for the walls and their eventual collapse. A simple brick bottom to withstand abrasion and impingement has a better chance of survival. If the FRP designer plans on a marriage of FRP and masonry, he would do well to carefully study the following documents: Custom Contact Molded Reinforced Polyester Chemical Resistant Proc-

ess Equipment

(PS15-69), a Department of Commerce years old, but still containing much useful information and the manufacture of tanks, ducts and pipes. 85

Standard 15 on materials



and Chemical







Glass Fiber



Resin Chemical


sistant Tanks Contact sistant


D-329981) Reinforced Thermoset Resin Chemical Re-


Glass Fiber

Tanks (ASTM

D-4097%2) the dead weight of all the materials weights that that may be may be conse-

He must carefully used in the tained lected he will masonry masonry

compute lining

and add this to all other structure) in service. many than require expansion flexible will

in the vessel (or other has a coefficient that lining FRP not need to allow

Unless the lining material

of thermal is much more

times that of acid brick, He must, however, Therefore, strong, built if a must be derigid supagainst it suffibrick.

for expansion

stresses in addition. acid


is to survive within inflexible. (and/or fall bracing

an FRP structure, This banding). If a flat

the structure adequate, bottom

signed to be rigid and ports and external lining will resting crack on it will

oil cans a brick include

break up. If a wall flexes, will

a brick


and probably of the

in. The design should therefore between then plastics primarily

cient reinforcing Because expansion, operating

to prevent any visible (to the unaided vast difference components with

eye) deflection. and masonry in thermal qualwill heat transmission


good to moderate

ities have use in few temperatures be close to ambient. bination

FRP structures-and

in those that will have high insulating of a com-

in the lower thermal

ranges when the vessel exteriors with extremely

On the other hand, materials

values may have a very real future book on closed cell borosilicate In contact mold, then which 0.75. the (cooler and joints the FRP molding, between the the

in such design. Here we are thinking glass block. Chapter with 17.) can be attached an elastomeric

of FRP and closed cell borosilicate glass block, block, blocks made

(See the section of this to the inner adhesive, and Now when block,

say 2 thick,

laid up upon, the

and bonded liquid

to, the back of the block. face will of 96OF.

the molds

are stripped,

contact temperature

be the borosilicate

has a top surface operating of thermal FRP Thus, it is possible to operate

In these higher thermal while keeping thermal drop

ranges, the coefficient inner FRP they surface ducting, below

conductivity at about liners

of the block ranges from 0.60 to 32OF. be used. have always been limited to use at which range of the resins from are manufactured first building For greater

a vessel so lined at, say, 600F,

of the



a thicker

layer of block would

pipe and chimney the acceptable the designer If cylindrical shaped

temperatures winding fabric they

top thermal materials may consider

are made.

by filament

on a mandril, body.

a layer of closed sub-

cell borosilicate stance to permit are adhered

glass block on the mandril, some movement without

and then winding

on it the resin-glass

The joints between

the block would of the individual joints

be made of an elastomeric The insulation

blocks with the FRP to which value of the alive to keep the elastomer on the surface.


or block.

blocks has been shown by experience at the bottom of the joint

to be sufficient

even when it is heavily


Section III Membranes


Sheet Linings


Lee Sheppard,


C.C. R&l., Incorporated Havertown, Pennsylvania

HISTORY For three-quarters have known that, of sheet natural if uncured the adhesion ber that ral rubber finishing centrations 14OF. Hot asphalt applications ner lined with made granite lective system from blocks. adhesion timber, had been used for many years in concrete service, and also, of course, unlined tanks made by hollowing which tanks, inin sebrick for similar wood tanks rubber of a century, metal and probably equipment longer, rubber manufacturers discovered rub-

how to protect

from corrosion

by the application

to the surface was many by sulfuric

of the metal. times greater

It was quickly than that

sheet was bonded tightly

to the metal surface and cured in place, of precured Inasmuch of the adhesive alone. as natu-

of the rubber

relied for bond on the curing is little affected of lining was a natural

acid in concentrations

below the oxidizing for use in steel acid con12Oand

range, this type

for steel tanks designed

mills for the pickling varied from

of steel (removal

of mill scale), where of between

10% to 15%. and at a temperature

and small pickling

out cavities

But the use of hot asphalt cold flow to steel and so would a number the asphalt of inventive

as a liner for steel tanks had been unof the asphalt demonstrated and open cracks in the membrane it adhered. with To overcome the manufacrubincluding to make


due to the erratic


in the areas of cold flow below the points where similar

this difficulty, ber, in which rubber.

persons experimented with

ture of asphalt sheet lining materials, These asphaltic compound

in form to the sheets of natural various admixtures, sufficiently

was compounded

sheets were then warmed 88

Sheet Linings


them joints


and adhered to provide in many

to the


of steel tanks membrane provided that

as a lining, This type




a liquid-tight


of sheet from

was found mechanical In the 140F,

to work 193Os,

such applications, considered

it was protected

damage on the exposed surface by a brick lining. it was generally sheets would against at temperatures acid-brick much over rubber only age at an uneconomical damage, rate, so it was the as an internal internal lining well it was gensur-


usual practice protection-not thermal below erally 14OF

in lining tanks

in steel mills to install mechanical

but also to provide of the rubber By the 1940s.

insulation considered

and to drop the surface temperature that natural rubber 1960s. could

so as to increase the life of the linings. and by the

be used economically up to 18OF. elastomers,

at 160F

face temperature,

some manufacturers

were recommending such as neoto some

it as giving economical In the late 1930s. prene (chloroprene), than corrosives interest oped natural

service at surface temperatures and early rubber. had been developed Then which

194Os, a few synthetic during

had better


the second World rubber, resulting

War, the disrupin an accelerated resins for had been develsheet linings mechanof number

tion of sea lanes created in all synthetic sheet lining applications. and given field chemical mentioned ical and sources. In the was offered it for monia. above, a wide

a shortage of natural

rubbers, other elastomers, By the 196Os, a myriad variety of materials become tests so that today, have

and in thermoplastic of alternatives

besides the two original having different available vinylidene from a great



195Os, an elastomer for a number and more. This

made from material

chloride after

and called Saran has not seen with am-

of years as a vessel lining, but the author was cured

a decade



OF SHEET of sheet most frequently with a number it is intended, used today from is still natural rubber. It may or fillers, depending including on fabto soft to hard, and from a uni-

The type be compounded formly

of different varying


the service for which calendered ric-reinforcing. Many different form butyl sheet lining rubber.

sheet to laminates

of soft and hard or laminates

synthetic elastomers are also compounded

materials. Examples are: neoprene, with Hypalon,

and calendered butyl

and chlor-

Asphalt-based sheets, usually compounded

able, and still used in some lining exposures. With plasticized for chrome ber. the war years, polyviny/ PVC compounds,

some rubber,

are still avail-

chloride (PVC)

resins came under study, and available as calenand rubfor

based on these material and chromic limit limit

resins, became mixtures now

dered sheet lining materials-the such strong oxidants (A higher which the continuous as nitric

of choice for stainless steel pickling acid which rapidly seldom attack natural

plating and other exposure employing temperature modification

of chemicals including seen is PVDC,


is said to be 170-IgOOF.)


Corrosion and Chemical Resistant Masonry Materials Handbook

The Germans had researched PVC in depth, and after the war, rigid, unplasfirst from offered French and Gerof vessels and for a wider range of sheet) at but the addition of the unplastiits rigidity, high to softo

ticized many

PVC sheet and pipe became quickly other purposes. The unmodified

available, sheet

man sources, and then in the United chemical once

States, for the fabrication resin material However, limit then available, the usefulness (actually

resistances than did any other (necessary the chemical one present resistance.

of a plasticizer lowered

if the sheet was to be flexible

like rubber

cized sheet was limited uous, though coefficient of thermal

by its low thermal day manufacturer it conform slowly expansion,

given as 140F contin-

gives it as 15OF),

and its memory. to an irregular return

It could be warmed

ten and shape it and make cool and harden perature in that or higher,

surface, then permitted shape, tearing

shape. But when it was bonded.

it was warmed to its original

again to the same temloose

it would

from any surface to which Further, gradually no really disbonded from

high bond adhesive was found fabric

for it, so that the surface Efforts to improve but this

the adhesive over a period of time. of cases, the fabric an unplasticized

the bond included


into the face of the rigid material,

was largely abandoned The corrosives derside bonding ily most

because, in a number method to provide

pulled out of the PVC face to the sheet to the un-

sheet so that the sheet still disbonded. successful was found to be a laminate, calendering a plasticized

(or back side) of the unplasticized to the substrate, Domestic years, this laminate is available sheet

sheet to provide

a good surface for NJ, and readago, but curin northsheet,

leaving the rigid side exposed sheet was manufactured was discontinued from Europe, first on import in the manufacture

to the harsh chemicals. in Trenton, a decade

For many rently,


the material

and is stocked as a plain

ern New Jersey.



1950s. backing


then, like the early PVC sheet, with a fabric agent was ever found its use in this manner lining material synthetic all the Angeles for a number


to it. No effective has not heard of a sheet or

for this material, of years.

and this author However, laminated surface.

there is available

having a sheet of polypropylene 1950s. a myriad from

to a sheet of natural

rubber to provide following Rubber

an adhesive accepting domestic

Since the early

of sheet materials

have appeared, (Yearbook literature.) variously

and today of the Los

are available Group,


Inc. and various manufacturers (NR), (top temperature





continuous, Hard natural Butyl 212F) Chlorobutyl Nordel@ EPDM)

170-18OF rubber

intermittent) 185F) (IIR) (top temperature 200-

(top temperature isoprene polymer)








Sheet Linings



(Buna N,



(top temperature

about 210F Neoprene 180-200F) Hypalon@ variously Viton@ applicator membrane used with ture exacting

intermittent) (chloroprene polymer) (CR) (top temperature variously

(chlorosulfonated 200-220F) (fluoro lining. elastomer) Though under






(As of this writing,

no tank


is offering

a Viton they

sheet lining for a tank require careful

as an impervious

both calendered to provide

sheet and an adhesive to be and exact high temperalining under on procedures a satisfactory

it are available, conditions.




are being conducted

and methods.) Chlorinated Polyvinyl polyethylene chloride (CPE) (PVC) (top temperature 1 40-1 50F) others)


Polypropylene (top continuous In addition, Polyvinyl


with a backing of rubber variously importers 200-230F) are: laminate

(and probably

temperature from




(top temperature laminate


Polypropylene Polyisobutylene

(and system to bond it without rubber (top temperature

backing) others


and probably

The most successful method But, of course, where it is not always example may of protecting sheet lining the substrateof bonded tightly a vessel has proven to that substrate. wastes

to be by the use of an impervious Take as an extreme the substrate tank.

possible to obtain more

a tight bond to the substrate. pond for chemical compacted tank, soil. Or conor a leak-

the lining

of a retention solid than

be nothing

sider, perhaps, the emergency ing wooden containers, substrate

lining of a badly damaged concrete the leakage of contained

In order to prevent

liquids from such and the tear-

loose bag or envelope remains sufficiently

liners have been used, and so long as the excessive movement limits of the bag are not exceeded, or other environmental be successfully use even in composite considerbonded to linlinings em-

sound to prevent

ing of the bag, such a procedure Occasionally, the substrate, ploying ing from attempted

and as long as the thermal has been reasonably when the chemical exposure

successful. that cannot

ations have dictated acid brick thermal study without

the use of a material or other rigid internal damage.

this same principle or mechanical

has found

facings to protect

the membrane and should

An application persons.

of this kind requires the not be

most careful

and construction

if it is to be successful,

the advice of experienced



and Chemical





The great ported require For the satisfied: (1) metallic

majority of bonded usually sheet linings are applied to rigid, well-supsurfaces. must be


carbon steel, though those linings that do not can often also be applied to concrete the following basic requirements

heat curing installation


to be successful,

The substrate without successfully

must be, in itself, a liquid-tight, to apply any bonded



any open or working

seams or joints.

(It is not possible or thermal ex-

lining over a void. If there is any liquid, rupturing

movement-even how small-you (2) The substrate

the pressure of a contained can anticipate surface must (You the eventual be very cannot

pansion of the structure

on either or both sidesof the void, no matter of the lining).

smooth expect

and free of contamito obtain sound bond

nants and rough spots. to a rough or dirty (3)

surface.) or bending the

The design must be rigid enough to restrain any flexing that may exceed the ability structure.

of the liner to flex or bend with



can be no sharp internal

or external

angles or corners.

Sheet and

linings must be rolled even the thinnest corner. The Protective welded prepared find that Rubber Linings for Manufacturers Technical

or curved to fit all changes of direction

such linings cannot

fit into or over a right angle

Association Bulletin which

(see Bibliography) provides specific

has prepared standards

a for

steel structures concrete,

to receive such sheet linings. but the engineer enunciated

No such standard are followed, applicator

has been and the before he vessel.

who plans to design such a vessel will

if the principles points

in this steel standard

above four


and if he consults a competent he should be able to produce

starts to pour the concrete,

a satisfactory

In the most


it has been customary linings on carbon exceptions conductivity to test for continuity linin

hemisphere, sheet fillers,


(and similar) have conductive

steel vessels by using a high An alternative method some-

voltage electric ings which

spark. The only an electrical or other obviously to another Obviously,

have been those sheet (or other) test using an electrolyte to the substrate will work, cannot solution metal.

such as carbon.

times seen employs a swab on a copper through spection European an ammeter filler is conductive, practice

conductive neither

probe completing

a low voltage circuit If the and only a visual inbe so tested. test

probe grounded test method include applications

is possible.

to concrete either

does not normally

a spark or conductivity

and relies solely on visual inspection.

Sheet Linings


Sheet linings fall into four different categories when classified by method change chloride, on beof at Joints welding

of curing-a in application. polypropylene, the curing tween

word with

many shades of meaning. undergoes no appreciable we find precured rubber. rubbers, polyvinyl the sheet.

(1) Precured.

This is a sheet lining which sheets and butyl of the adhesive

In this category, asphaltic

Here we rely almost totally

or hardening

used to anchor

sheets in some of the applications

are made by heat or solvent In those where curing upon the

welding of the ad-

of the laps or lap strips, PVC being such a material. laps is not possible, success of the lining depends and thermal materials hesive to a high level of chemical (2) Selfcured. dered with ural rubber (3) the sheet at ambient

resistance so as to complement, may be compounded of time,

its exposed edges, the resistance of the sheet. Some elastomeric temperatures. sprayed and calenslowly cure noted in nata chemical curing agent which will, over a period and troweled employed controlled coatings,

This type of curing is primarily

and neoprene in Shop.

and has not, in recent

years, been, to the writers Cured ture to cure, usually best handled (4) sealing boxes Field the and cured in the shop. Cured. under

knowledge, carefully

for total cure of sheet linings. high pressure and temperaSuch conditions are therefore, is only applied It conditions.

Some sheet linings require

in an autoclave, Natural filling

and this type of material, rubber it with is an example steam, or

of this kind of material.

can be cut, fitted,

and applied

in the field and then cured, either by placing them by section, filling with

by closing and steam, and so

vessel and

and sealing steam

over the surface,


cure the lining section by section.

Repairs can be made in the same manner.

It is not the purpose of this section However, he will to advise the reader on the manufacunderstand certain exhow he can and how he cannot rubber and the asphaltic

ture of sheet lining materials. aspects of the process so that pect such lining materials linings, the plantation tic or other blend it with able compound the anticipated amount the total weight. The compound truded between sheet desired, is then basic material (rubber) or from lining Just as in the manufacture

the end user should know

to perform. of sheet natural sheet the as the sheet lining manufacturer the refiner or importer that will receive his synthetic plasticizers, and other receives it from elastomer, it-and


the manufacturer thermoplaswill have to under actual

of the synthetic


basic resin from fillers, stabilizers, will-as which

the company a lining-perform

produces its function length


to make a suitThe

satisfactorily of time.


and for

an economical

of the basic resinous material

in the compound between

may be as low as 70% of rolls, or perhaps exthe thickness of flat it is

calendered finished section

calender rolling-to


by a final is required,

or if a curved

pressed into a mold where

held forced


and Chemical





until with

it has totally lacks strength layers

conformed or the ability

and set into the desired to withstand (glass, synthetic and thermal limit


If the basic carbon,


rapid flexing, fabrics,

it may be reincotton,

of a selected fabric alters the chemical reducing a lower thermal

etc.) or a layer of another Compounding terials-almost resistance and often invariably

resinous material. resistances of the basic masheet has less chemical compounding. limits. Thereit, so that the finished

than the resin before

But the principle fore,

reasons for selecting these materials chemical

in the first place are based state, are cal-

on these same or better endered molded or molded part,

resistances and higher thermal in the uncompounded on the exposed layer

in a few cases, some of these materials, in a composite so that the compounded

side of the sheet or

side may be used for bond to anchor the resistance is exposed to the cor-

lining to the substrate while the side with better rosive environment.



ABSORPTION linings and coatings Penetration can, over a varying period of time, through be the


penetrated in coatings coating

by corrosives.

occurs, of course, through

voids and holes to a greater tests for involvthat

and sheet linings, Diffusion

but it can also take place by diffusion have the characteristic is the ability of fluids to absorption. of absorption,

or sheet. All materials them,

or to a lesser degree. pass through absorption, the diffusion

and gases to diffuse or to There are ASTM Test procedures to measure

but is not identical

but at the time

of this writing,

none has been approved There

of corrosives through Cell through

sheet lining materials.

ing the use of an Atlas the rate of diffusion If, therefore,

are being studied. an object

is general agreement

is related to its density at a slower regular

and its thickness. rubber sheet

Thus, a very dense polymer hydrochloric making

is penetrated

rate than a less dense one. soft natural the rubber with will give

acid can penetrate a hard rubber, service.


/I thick at too rapid a rate to be economical, a very dense filler, If a very thin trated dered /I thick, many years of satisfactory

we can compound


in the same thickness



a thermoplastic

resin can be peneit is penetrated. the economicriteria in

in a year to a year and a half by a corrosive, should

then the same resin, calen-

be able to serve for 8 to 12 years before system and so further material

An inner lining of brick over the sheet lining surface will create stagnant conditions at the surface of the membrane cal life of the lining. The rate of diffusion the determination through the lining is then a major of lining thickness. extend

CHEMICAL There available



RESISTANCE available through which thedesigner can search

is no master document

in order to select the sheet lining

most suitable

for his exposure.

In fact, those

to him do not even use a common


system to distinguish

Sheet Linings


the exposures to confuse in many


are economically further,


from those which

are not. And or supplier on


the tables of chemical

resistances which are available or other from resinous basewhatever pubis warthat he and suran inner

cases are based on data collected on the basic elastomer, material follow should

by the manufacturer

tests conducted fore, lished ranted tion,


not on the compounded the designer material

that has been calendered up his material with to be certain selection that the firm

into the sheet. Therethe calendered

he uses by consulting applicators, exposure.

supplying what

sheet and his licensed the reader will for limit.

he specifies documents exposure provide

for the anticipated find

In the bibliography of readily is required

at the end of this sec-

listed a number screening insulation


may consult face thermal masonry

his preliminary If internal into

for both chemical

in order to reduce the sur-

face temperature lining.

an acceptable

range, he can, of course,


OR DEGRADATION No matter how tough, by sourcewas little in

All sheet linings are subject to damage in many ways. how strong, a lining is, it can be damaged Damage forgotten with mechanically-by abrasion, a matter and many of the been under holed, the other noticed. or by a blow. frequently However, leaks in the generated often can, however, external day

a sharp object, an external tanks

come from

by management.

Before the cutbacks of pickling this writer and required been

on janitorial has noted

services in steel mills,


the present

housekeeping have appeared steel shell

major steel mills, he has learned by quiet questioning, pickling the tanks that outside-the puddles The clean from having

that as much as 75% repair have and of the on the floors under them attacked

by fumes from be kept

of waste acid accumulated exteriors-especially and painted, and the floors


of the tank.

the underside

vessel bottoms-should Linings the chemical accept entire

should be free of all waste, dirt and puddles. can be damaged content temperature been lining lost purchased by exceeding the thermal first checking purchasing trace that limits, or by changing in fact suppliers that A sulof on of the vessel without because the acid-containing anyone to see if the lining will linings-and changed

the higher vessels-have the tank

or the new chemical.

Tank agent

and unknowingly destroyed furic good example in this period hydrofluoric problem. Failure The tained of the For


of a chemical



it was in the shipment.

of this is the switch in the late 1960s and 1970s in steel from to hydrochloric. was reclaimed acid-amounts its effect and reworked so small that acid that contained the vendor see the photos trace amounts in the section

acid pickling

Much of the acid that was sold to steel mills never thought of it as a

on a lining,


Analysis. same type with benzene of problem a powerful and carried can result from solvent. the contamination of the conamounts of liquid In at least one case, small the membrane


in waste hydrochloric

acid caused swelling and penetration into the vessel


the acid through



and Chemical






holing it before






of the



a river,


the leak was discovered.

REPAIRS Almost dures paired before stalled well all sheet they great. a repair enough too linings were are repairable, installed. economical to usually continued including the following linings service, the the same procebe readvice who inthe damfor

by which

Even shop-cured

can usually providing sheet himself lining bond contractor

to provide Consult contract lining,

age is not the

the manufacturer anyone, of course, a vulcanized off. a leak

of the original manufacturer sheet


original lining. bear that

unless, that

installed adis so it is hole, and

the original One hesion-so difficult sheet most repair with lining

must high that

in mind


has high

to remove be burned and point not the amount adhesive that material

it in order

to apply

a different if a high outside

replacement of the tank, the to locate

it must that

Consequently, appears will true on the


is penetrated

probable it. This

of penetration lining produces necessarily sheet lining

of the sheet

is opposite that bond. will

and the minimum a selfcuring however, membrane

of inner which

need to be removed of sheet linings strength either a lower

is, of course,

are adhered This writer to a fluid-

believes, applied

a thick

is normally in which

to be preferred serve.

for any exposure



ON CHEMICAL and Viton@

RESISTANCE are registered industry.) Du Pont The trademarks. action, Company resistance limited the shelf you (Neoand is (Wildata life. select

Nordel@, prene now generally DE)


was originally

a Du Pont on

trademark in the well such

but was lost documented as Hypalon@, equipment are

by court Du Pont

used by everyone furnishes Some with the basic materials sheet material


request linings,

corrosion mixes). have

on these three Warning: Check to turers carefully criteria.

(not on the compounded and the manufacturer in your tables

the supplier

of the lining meets

be sure that Chlorinated


manufacthe Dow from

polyethylene (Plaquemines, laminate Company, of data from

resistance LA). chemical CO. PVC sheet Denver, the Dinamit for

available tables




Polypropylene the Gates Rubber Chemical Chemical Mannheim,

resistance and rubber

are available

resistances resistance


polypropylene NJ. is available

imported from Braas,

sheets can be obtained




West Germany. discussed are in general from manufacture, major and chemical sheet rubber covering them are available all of the

The rest of the materials resistance tables manufacturers.

Sheet Linings


The General Chemical Resistance of Various Elastomers. See the 1979 Yearbook of the Los Angeles Rubber Group, Inc., Los Angeles, CA. Protective Linings TechnicalBulletin, Rubber Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC. The Vanderbilt Rubber Handbook, R.T. Vanderbilt Co., Norwalk, CT. Membranes Behind Brick, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., Chemical Engineering, May 15, 1972.

While adhered this book linings The was in its final for chemical preparation exposures with stage, two film adhered additional types of One


have come to our attention. rollers to a substrate

is a sheet with, ber-asphalt has been coated sive lap strip tary product

as the exposed with

face, a Tedlar@* primer. only Sheet

to a layer of rubsurface that with an adhepartic-


sheet is applied an adhesive applied available procedure Though resistance

edges are butted to protect

of Tedlar@ presently

over the joint from and chemical

it. This is a proprie-

one source, which will supply

ulars of the application of this basic material. best overall It is adhered can accept elastomer narrow chemical surface adhesive.

resistance tables upon request. but made entirely has probably the available sheet linings. Hala@ the use this material adhesive,

The second sheet lining

is also a fluorocarbon-Halar@,** quite with expensive, a rubber-type of any of the generally

to the substrate temperatures

and though damage,

of 300F tooled

and above without to accept

of the sheet must be limited strip is heat-sealed

to the 220F

range due to the thermal a weld strip, Full data on the material,

limit of the and then a its installa-

Joints are butted, resistance is available

over the joint.

tion and chemical

from the manufacturer.

TedlarB is a tradename, property of the E.I. duPont Company for a polyvinyl fluoride polymer which is manufactured by casting in a sheet and stretching to orient the molecules. The personnel of the Elastomers Division of that company advise that Tedlar@ has excellent resistance to most inorganic acids, bases and salts, and to many, but by no means all, organic compounds and solvents, especially in the liquid phase. However, some solvents in the vapor phase can slowly diffuse through it. The Sauereisen Cement Co., of Pittsburgh, PA, supplies this sheet under the tradename of Sauereisen #90. **Halar@ is a tradename of the Allied Corporation, Morristown, NJ, for their polytetrafluoroethylene sheet (similar material to duPonts Teflon@,). Allied markets this sheet through its own sales force.

Fluid-Applied Membranes


Lee Sheppard, incorporated


C.C. R.M., Havertown,


INTRODUCTION One of the three the membrane. ture (substrate) from vital attack components by liquids of chemically-resistant f6 is to protect (or other environment) environment as one that construction to which is

The function

of a membrane

the supporting

strucit is exlife but quite

posed. A true membrane, penetration of the lining. (or gas) tight, slowly, lithic ture trated liquid provide

as used in this paper, is defined liquid chemical is defined or monolithic behind wash. only

as a total

barrier to the

of the anticipated A semi-membrane

for the economic can be penetrated, it, though

only very slowly.

The brickwork liquids

inner liner is almost never liquid through of the brick or monoextremes of heat, from to which the struc-

so that

and gases can penetrate the membrane from

and reach the membrane liner is, therefore, to protect fluid abuse, and from attacks acid contained a total or penetrate with

it. The purpose


If the environment very slowly

is exposed sulfuric

the structure barrier.

(as, for instance, concenthen it is not vital that the one through hand, which gas or

in a carbon steel tank), A semi-membrane, very slowly, only



can diffuse

may be used in such cases to if the sulfuric bedamon the steel substrate at all will quickly

a construction to 30%,


life. On the other of the corrosive of the membrane a total

acid is diluted

then the attack

comes so rapid that age the substrate. is required.3 During

any penetration8r9

In such a case, a true membrane,

barrier to penetration, used true memwas used on con-

the early years of this century, Hot-applied asphalt, 98

the most frequently at least 3/4 thick,

brane was sheet rubber.




Crete floors, forced with were largely with painted

and in the lining of concrete a layer of hot-applied sulfur.4 unsuccessful or other layers, media

vessels. In the latter Applications to so smooth

case, it was reinto steel a surface and due were conducted years, a numand in sufBecause dif-

of hot asphalt

due to poor adhesion applications,

to the sag caused by cold flow of the asphalt. fluid ber of such materials ficiently fusion imum tection, material thick (permeation) recommended that have been identified, can function rates through thicknesses with different different

Many experiments which if applied

and over the intervening as true membranes.




are rarely the same, either of the coatings, the minadequate proObviously, materials there is no one as we can, to-

for the attacking

or for the generic classification of application, the type of material.

in order to obtain

vary considerably is suitable

for all exposures.

The purpose of this paper is to review

for the reader as many gether with methods

types of fluid-applied and of test.

of application

METHODS The would (1)

OF APPLICATION earliest methods of applying fluids as membrane applications, as we


were: (or squeegee)-used for hot asphalt applications and

Melt and pour

some other similar materials. (2) Brush and mop application-used for hot asphalt. (3) Air spray-used for thinner or better dispersed dispersion coatings for thick paint-type coatings and

or solution The first two material became apparent

coatings. methods were preferred and with because they delivered minimum labor. today the maximum it quickly and watervary greatly

in a minimum that

time frame, mops-though satisfactory


still favored

by roofers

proofers-do in thickness transmit

not deliver

results, for two coating,

reasons. They

due to the patterns found the coating the

of the mop application, which

and the strings from the strings act as wicks and are designed to act primarily for scrubto rough conto apply

mop are frequently through as a barrier against. into

in the finished

the very materials

the coatings

Brushes are better,3 thick paints. 1940s made

but are used today

bing a primer Air vinyl

surface of a substrate

or for applications 195Os, The

crete surfaces of cold-applied sprays were thickly about coatings

Mops are completely and early

prohibited. of the airless

used in the enough this time started finish.

in attempts advent

to act as membranes. more rapidly roller

spray equipment

it possible to spray

a more viscous mathan unia fin-

terial, and so to build film thicknesses In the 195Os, painters by brush or spray. form coats and smoother It is often

and with fewer coats. provides more

using rollers to apply paint more rapidly application rollers are excellent for smoothing

stated that While

ished coat, and may be satisfactory such as steel sheet, they such as concrete where the scrubbing

for application action

on a very smooth


are not as satisfactory

for application

to rough surfaces

of a brush may better fill the irreg-


Corrosion and Chemical Resistant Masonry Materials Handbook

ularities, or perhaps for porous surfaces such as some wood substrates where the impingement pressure of a spray may provide better wetting. Through the 19305 and early 19405, the uses of phenolic and furan mortars had become standard for "acid brick" and much experimenting was done to see if these same resins could be used as barrier coatings (membranes) .Ambient temperature curing agents were used with the mortars, but these were not as effective with resins when used as coatings, due to cure shrinkage and cracking. Glasslined vessels had been in use for some time, and the baking methods of applying glass linings were quickly adapted to phenolic resins. For a short period, furans were also applied in this manner, though such applications are no longer often noted. With the advent of fluorocarbons, this same method of heat curing of spray coatings was successfully applied to them. In the early 19505, the Hercules Powder Company (now Hercules, Inc.) developed a polyether resinous coating sold as Penton@ , that originally showed great promise (though it has since been abandoned) which was applied in this same manner . These additional variations of heat applications appeared about this time: (1) Heating the target material and immersing it in a thick suspension of the coating material, a partially cured fluid resin, or even a thick solution of the resin, so the resin would migrate to the heated object and gel on the hot surface, then be further baked or ambient cured in place. Th is is sti II a favored method of applying vinyl plastisols. (Plastisols are, however. more frequently applied by airless spray.) (2) The Schori Company pioneered hot metal ing of hot metal to the surface of another planned for melting or spraying metals, since been adapted to the application of terials, including sulfur . spraying to apply a coatmetal. Though originally this same procedure has many other coating ma-

(3) As a variation on these methods, the "fluidized bed" was developed. Here, a very finely ground powder of the resinous material is placed in a container and a small volume of air or neutral gas is blown into the bottom of the container to "lift" the powder and keep it floating. Into th is agitated bed, the heated target is inserted so that the resin particles migrate toward and agitate against the hot surface, melt, and fuse to it. This system was successfully used with Penton@ and has since been employed with other resins. We occasionally note applications of coatings by "electrostatic deposition," an approach similar to electroplating of metals, where an electric current is passed through a suspension or solution of the coating material, and the particles of the coating material become electrically charged and are drawn and migrate to the target where they deposit and adhere themselves electrostatically.




To apply a fluid coating, it is obvious that the material to be used must first be fluidized. This means that it must be melted, dissolved or suspended in something, or be in a partially cured or polymerized fluid state, from which it will, after coating, solidify. Of all the items on earth, only water increases in volume when it goes from the fluid to the solid state. All dissolved materials occupy less space after they have separated out of solution or suspension. All resinous materials used today for coating, as they pass from fluid to solid condition ("cure"), will shrink in varying amounts. Therefore, in all coatings, a shrinkage stress of one type or another builds up as the coatings cure, dry or harden. Various procedures to relieve these stresses, each suited to a particular type of coating, have been developed .but some residual stress will always remain . The more thick and viscous the coating is-the more heavily it is filled with an inert filler--the less will be the shrinkage, the less the stress and, therefore, the greater the resistance to cracking and the longer the life of the coating excluding chemical degradation. Fillers can also add strength-reinforcing-to the coating, and depending on the particle shape, may assist in making the coating a true barrier to fluid penetration (or permeation). Among the many types of fillers in use are: powdered silica, powdered carbon or graphite, powdered resinous material, powdered barytes, nylon and other textile fibers, carbon fibers, glass fibers, and glass flakes. The powdered materials act primarily to reduce shrinkage, though they do also add some strength just as aggregate adds strength to concrete. The fibrous materials add both tensile and flexural strength to the coating. The flakes or platelets of glass, ultrathin, tiny slices of glass, do all these things, but also increase the diffusion resistance, because as the coating is applied and cured, these flakes or platelets orient themselves parallel to the surface that is being coated, and overlap each other. After the coating is cured, for any corrosive that is applied to one surface to pass through the coating to the underside, it must follow a devious path-reaching the surface of a glass flake, following the edge of the flake, and down the edge through the coating to the flake beneath, and then along that surface to the edge of that flake and down to the next flake, and so on. Thus, a true barrier may be attained if the coating is fiakeglass-filled by using a lesser thickness of coating than if the coating is used alone or with another type of filler . Some coating materials, such as epoxies, are "self-leveling." That is, they will flow to the lowest point and end up as a dead flat surface-thick on hollow spots, thinned out over peaks. If they are to be applied to vertical surfaces, either very rapid cures or the addition of some agent to make them "thixotropic" (causing them to hang in place and to prevent running) is necessary. Thixotropy is often attained by the addition of a fumed silica (for instance, Cab-O-Sil@) or by the use of a polar solvent. Plasticizers can be added to brittle or hard resins to make the coating more flexible. Bentonite clay is added to suspensions to assist in preventing settling and/or caking. The addition of any of these filling materials, whether inert fillers, plasticizers, solvents or other modifying agents, will, of course, affect the chemical resistance of a resinous coating. The finished coating formulation does not usually have as good a resistance to certain organic materials, or to strong acids or strong alkalis, as the basic resin before it was modified. Beware of lowered chemical resistance if there is any indication that the coating materials have been modified to improve application.



and Chemical





Attached might neric The

are two tables to help the reader understand membrane for the liners which, accepted resistances from though use behind generally brickwork. The first methods claimed many for

the wide

variety thought

of of,

possible fluid-applied be considered types, second showing indicates

not commonly of application principal different

is a tabulation

of geof each.

the chemical for either

ones. The

materials author table plication ditions. plicator

for these tables no claim

were collected

sources, and the The application for the apand ap-

can make


or accuracy.

may serve to guide the reader to those items which

are practical

he had in mind, and the resistance chart to those best suited to his conIn all cases, the designer and user must rely on the manufacturer for specific recommendations and warranties.

Table 8-1:


Baked Coatings


CEZamiC CTFE E-CTFE FEP FEP-Amide PFA Phenolic Plastisol PPS PTFE PTFE-Ceramic substrate PVDP

F. N. Q.


B - Hot Squeegee C - Brush D - Trowel E - Roller F - Air Spray G - Airless Spray II- Hot spray I - Hot Dip J - Fluidized Bed K - Electrostatic I.- Putty ussd to ~~0th H - Reinforcing used N - Primer required on Steel 0 - Primer optional P - Primer required on Concrete Q - Sa.88coat required R - Intermediate coat required S - Finish coat required T - Finish coat optional u - Ambient cure v - mat clxe

F. J. K. N, S, V F. J. K, N, S. V F. J, K. N. S. V F, v F, J, K, N. S. V C. F, G, Q. S, V F, G, I, N.

F, J. K. N. S. V F, K, N. T, V F, N, T, V
F. G,

J, K, N, R, 9, V

w - Application to concrete possible




AMBIENT CURED COATINGS Acrylic Latex Asphalt Emulsion Asphalt Hot Asphalt Mastics Aliphatic Polyurethane Bituinastic Butyl Ccmentitious Chlorinated Rubber Coal Tar Epoxy EF-Y Epoxy Acrylic Epoxy Asphalt Epoxy Ester Epoxy Phenolic Epocy Phenolic Asphalt Epoxy Polysulfide Epoxy Zinc Fish Oil Based Gilsonite Asphalt High Temp. Silicone Hypalon Inorganic Zinc Silicate Linseed Oil Long Oil Neoprene Nylon Oleoresinous Oil Modified Polyurethane C. E, F, 0, U, W A, C, D. E, F. G, 0, A. A, B, C. D, M. C, D. F.
H. P. M, P. U, N, U, P, U,

P, U, W

C, E, F,

G, 0,

C. E, F, G. 0, P. U, W A, C, D, En G, N. P, U, W A, C, D, U, W C, En F, G. U. W A, C, E, M. U, W C, D. E, F, J, K, M, N, 0, P. U. V, W C. E, F, G, K, 0, U, W A, C, E. M, U. W C, E. F, G, K, 0, U, W C, E, F, G, 0, S, U C, E, F. G, 0, U C, D, E, N, P, U, W C, F, G, S, U C. E, F. P, U. W C, E. F. G. 0. P, U, W C. E. F, G, V C. E. F, M, N, P. U, W C, E. F, G, S, U C, E. F, C, E. V, C. E, F, G, U, W G,


W M. N. 0. P. U. V, W

G, L.

I, J, K, V C, B. F. G. U. W C, E, F, G, 0, p, U. W



and Chemical






organic Zinc

C, E. F.

G, S,


C, E. F. G, U, W F, G. J.

Phenolic Phenolic Alkyd Phosphate Polyester Polyester Epoxy Polyurethane Polyvinyl PVA

C. E. F,

G. U. W

C. E, S. U C. D. E. F,


J, K, L, M, N, 0, P, R, S, U, W

C. D, E. F, G, J, K, L, M, N, 0, P, R. S, U. W C. E. F. 0, P, U, W C, E, F, G, I, J. K. L, N, 0, P, U, V, w C, E, F, G, 0, T, U, W


C, E. F. G, S, U C. E, F, G, U, W C, E, F, G, U, w C. R. F, G, U. w C, E, F, G. U. w C, E, F, G. U, W C, E, F, G, U, w C, E. F, G, U. w C, E, F, G. U. w C, E, F, G, I, J, K. L, N, 0, P, U, V, W C, E, F, G, U, W C. E. F, G. U. w C, D. E. F, G, J, K. L. M, N, 0, P, R, S, U, W C, E. F, U, W C, E. F, G, U, w C, E, N, U C, E, S, U C. E. S, U

Silicone Acrylic Silicone Alkyd Silicone Epoxy Silicone Polyester Soya Oil Alkyd Styrene Butadiene Tug Oil

Urethane Vinyl Vinyl Acrylic Latex Vinyl Copolymer Vinyl Ester Vinyl Latex Vinyl Phenolic Viton Wash Primer Zinc Chromate




Table 8-2:




1 Acetic acid - 109 and less 10%


I :/c


zz a e
r t

5 f ii E % 5


z a

B kT I - - - R R N N R R C R N R N R R R R N R R R R R C N R R R R N R R R N N R R R R N R R R N R R R R N R R R N N R R R R N R

r :

a E B D

r d


z R C C N N R R R R N R R R Y Y R R R N C N Y Y R R


- R R C N R R R R C R R R R N R R p. N N N N

R R C i/C N R R It N N R R N N N N


C z/w :/N N

Acetic acid - about *ccetone Acetate= of alcohols



N R R R R R R R R R R R I:


Aluminum chloride and 5UlfSt.S solurions Aimmnium chloride,nitrate


and sulfatesolutions AnvmniumHydroxide lvnyl alcohol imiline

Barium chloride and sulfide solutions 3arium Hydroxide Boric acid Bromi.?e water Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite, chloride and nitrate solutions Calcium hydroxide to 25% Calcium hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride acid 10% solution










Chloracetic Chlorine Chlorine

dioxide water



Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid to 5% Cyanide plating copper solutions






salts, solutions

Ethyl alcohol Ethylene dichloride and sulfate



Ferric chloride solutions Hydrofluosilicic Formaldehyde Formic acid GaSOliIlS



:/ R :/






R R I( N N C




:IZNl 4 Zd




and Chemical






Green liquor (papermills) Hexane Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogenperoxide .Jet fuel KerDSene lactic acid ta 20% Elagnesium salts solutions naleic acid nethyl alcohol Hethylenechloride Methyl ethyl ketone Milk Nickel salt solutions Nitric acid to 5% Nitrobenzene Oil.5 - Animal oils - Mineral Oils - Vegetable Oleic and Oxalic acids Perchloric acid Phenol to 5% Phosphoric acid dilute Picric acid to 10% Wtassium cyanide Potassium hydroxideto 30% Potassium hypechlorite to 3% Potassiumsalt solutions (other sodium chromate Sodium cyanide Sodiumhydroxidetea30\





i j


4 :: c

Sodium hypochlorite to 3% Sodium salt solutions (other) Srearicacid Sugar (various solutions~ sulfiteliquor (papermills) Sulfur dioxide (vet and dry1 Sulfuricacid dilute Tall oil Tartaricacid To1Uel-M Trichloroethylene wea sOlUtions White liquor (papermills) Wine xy1ene Zinc salt solutions


5 i:

i ; : ;


I 9 9 c

R R / R R R R R R N N R R N N R R R -




c c
R R N R */ N R














The information surmnarizedin this table is taken from many Sources, including manufacturers' literature. The author can not guarantee it, and suggests that

the user verify, with the manufacturer and by his own tests, the suitability of any coating hc plans to use for exposure to his anticipated environments, prior to application.

1. 2. 3. 4. Membranes Behind Brick, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., Chemical Engineering, Vol. 79, No. 11,pp 122-126 (May 15,1972),Vol.79,No.l3,pp 110-116 (June 12.1972). Chemically ResistantMasonry, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., 2nd Ed., pp l-4 (1982). Chemically Resistant Masonry, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., cit., pp 14-16. U.S. Patent No. 2.134837, granted 1 Nov. 1938 to Claron R. Payne,on a sandwich of /r+ hot applied sulfur mortars as a reinforcing stiffener between two l/e. layers of hot-applied asphalt. This was succeeded in the 1950s by a reinforcing layer of glass fabric when that material became available. There is a mass of material on sprayed rubber, but perhaps the most useful is the Vanderbilt Rubber Handbook published by the R.T. Vanderbilt Company of New York. The author still finds handy the 9th edition of this work, published in 1948, containing 714 pages including useful tables and index. Current edition-1978.




and Chemical





6. 7. 8. 9.

Protective Lining Performance, Byron I. Zolin, Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 66, No.B,pp 31-37 (August 1970). Natural Rubber Tank Linings, T.E. Saxman, Materials Performance, Vol. 4, No. 10, pp 43-115 (October 1965). The Basics of Membrane Permeation, Robert N. Rickles, Henry Z. Friedlander, Chemica/Engineering,Vol. 73, No.4.p~ 163-168 (April 25.1966). Permeability of Polymers to Gases, Vapors, and Liquids, Alexander Plastics.Vol.43,No. 3,pp 139-150.194-213 (March 1966). Leborits, Modern

Rigid Nonmetallic Membranes


Lee Sheppard, Incorporated


C.C.R.M., Havertown,


As early as the late 1940s. vessels with in place. since rigid structure tem, In that PVC period, there


were made to inner-line membrane nitric of

steel or concrete such a liner available and below, from that the the acid. But layer sys-

rigid liners made from concentrated was limited

rigid PVC sheet, or to fabricate system 14OF such as 30%

was no other oxidants

could withstand

or chromic This triple expansion plastic,

to service temperatures coefficient of


an inner acid-brick many

liner for insulation. of thermal FRP, rigid and is only

each layer of a vastly different developed kind of this

one adjacent, Liners propylene,



seen today. such as polybeing the reto an in

have been fabricated

or even of fluorocarbon

sheets. The use of such inset, prefabricated most common floor-often adjacent

linings has continued acid-brick making there steel. In the last decade precast and preformed concretes,

off and on over the years-the surfaced continuous floor

cessing of a small stainless steel vessel in a concrete or monolithic not the membranes

area. Obviously, 45,

there are problems

in such construction,

and the best approach, 15. The procedure

even though indicated

a cure-all,

is given in Chapter


is, of course, applicable and a half, gutters in very is quick

to all rigid inserts, and not just stainless manufacturers dimensions, have started to market which the user may note

various limited

or trench

sections of various plastics and polymer from wastes. The stated advantage of but the user should and unless the


assemble a trench that joints between

or gutter

to handle


the use of such materials

and easy assembly,

these components

are not always liquid-tight,




and Chemical





unit is completely

assembled on the bank prior to placement, are available or vinyl from a number

it cannot

be tested,

and the user has no assurance that it will not leak. Units of this type tured from a polyester also on the market. ran castable. flange-a shown of sources, usually manufaca few epoxy structures are a fuas of an ester resin, although items rarely

At least one vendor off-the-shelf

is casting such units to order from membrane

The standard,

have a top circumferential system, make the provision masonry, (1)

necessity if they are to be mated with an adjacent in the drawing designer joint must (or cited above, and the buyer of purchase. keep in mind that should

such a flange a condition The expansion joint,

for chemically-resistant joint), is only effective

expansion/contraction (2) bonded of material

if it is

placed over a membrane,

to or fully

pressed against the sides of the can take place without through the masonry this type totally (which asphalt opening and back

and (3) if it is composed

soft enough to compress, or designed

in such a manner that movement a passage for hot gases or liquids to the whether bed. Concrete designers expansion of asphalt materials as suitable composed

in the masonry to pass directly joint fillers. chemical

have long considered Actually, or any other

board and similar of materialunsuitable and it does not for

substance-is resistance

unacceptable. be bonded

Even if it had adequate this type of material

most exposures), of chemicals.

is not elastic, is hard to compress,cannot

to the sides of the joint,

and is not any barrier at all to the intrusion

10 Hot Asphalt


Lee Sheppard, Incorporated



Haverto wn, Pennsylvania

Hot of


applications and surfacing the

to prevent materials. in many up to to wished



are probably and from refining

the oldest ponds times, then

all coatings have bottom ways, With

As a natural bring protect. were from is not should runs out


asphalt earliest of were

and deposits natives spread still in similar

have been found heated they

parts of the world With occurring the

asphalt similar of

it to a flowable asphalts,


it on surfaces residues,

petroleum employed coal procif cases, not not to prishould hot asThe to ket-

to naturally coal oil

and being waste products, product-bitumen-became bitumen care asphalt asphalt formulation. manufacture, around the asphalt, instance, and hot should

less expensive coke-making Though identical,

to use. and other useful for many,

the development

essing, a similar not mix compatible them. mer, nor with For

available. be taken not before

all, of the same purposes,

and in many

in chemical

services a bitumastic

be used with

if the supply with

of hot

a job is completed, and application materials of

it be finished phalt chief prevent tles from might phalt should burn, When not

a bitumen covering primarily

Specifications are written purpose water which terproofing

selection surfacings bulk

highway vast in roofing

and the roofing

and wa-

industries, of the

in which application

of these

are used. is obviously in gas-fired

and waterproofing is melted with the mops. this type contains and spread always membrane asphalt

penetration. messy,

In such work, in buckets unpleasant

the asphalt

it is withdrawn

This is, as one of an asasphalt of work.

guess, very employed

work-with chemical the still,


but it is still the least expensive as a liquid-tight As it comes from be used.

way to handle

seal, ordinary

a lot of unsatu-




and Chemical





rated carbonaceous

compounds, products

which that



to oxidizing saturated molecules is attained.

chemicals asphalt.

or In

gases can react to form have as good resistance ment Light at the refinery, fractions softening

are brittle

and can crack. blown in the are driven


does it

to otherchemicals and all unsaturated solvents D-36)

as does fully bonds

order to resolve this matter,the

asphalt is oxidizedor in the mix

by an extra treateliminated. a ball standThis All asphalt off until a weight

or low boiling point (ASTM This means that

and ring

of 210-23OF

has cold flow. On vertical amount ambient selected, months shrink not 230F ing point.

even at ambient


ing on it will very slowly surfaces,

sink into it, extruding to cold flow point, if a material brittle, Such rise.

the asphalt under it to all sides. under its own weight.

it can sag over a period of time,

of cold flow or tendency temperatures. the asphalt as they However,

is, of course, related to the softento cold flow at point is during winter asphalt, voids and will exists. with too high a softening experienced apart,

The higher the softening we may find that become

the less the tendency

at the lower temperatures perhaps crack and pull

may become cool) system.

and (since all things, especially creating that a crack, or break in the

leaks in the membrane reseal when softening softness point,




has shown

at the 210-

the best compromise of the asphalt matrix


these two extremes and related

Lastly, the asphalt should be free of any kind of filler. The tion. point following requirement and weight, (texture) is a secondary unfilled consideraby simply Although (ASTM a quite C-36) under satisfactory asphalt may be obtained

the requirements ASTM

that it be oxidized,

asphalt with softening the matrix asphalt

2 1 O-230F , some users like to add to this a penetration D5. This test is run by holding dropping the depth of penetration. upon it a needle of prescribed dimensions

at a prescribed


and measuring

If it is desired to run this

test, the following At 115F-50 At 77F-100 At 32F--200 Percentage 75 Ibs. Experience asphalt has proven dissolved taining

are acceptable g weight g weight g weight needle, needle,

results: in 5 seconds, less than 7.0 mm in 5 seconds, 3.5-4.5 mm mm 65-

needle, in 60 seconds, 2.5-3.5 soluble in C&-not

of material

less than 97% weight/ft3,

has also shown


to obtain solution

an adequate The cheapest,




and the substrate,

a primer

is required.

and also the best, asphalt, or run, to The to be stock con-

to be an asphalt in a high flash and allowed


of the same matrix from a related

one with only a slightly a minimum

lower softening solvent to dry

point from the same or a compatible in solution. This primer is applied

fraction-preferably until

of 10% of the asphalt

the substrate hot melted strength

all the solvent fraction surface, melting

has evaporated, and joining cannot

leaving the asphalt asphalt

residue on the surface and in the pores of the substrate. is then applied yielding If properly to the primed applied, a bond to the surface much exceeding the hot asphalt coating

the residue remaining, of the asphalt. pulled off.

the tensile

Hot Asphalt


This type inner major injury lined repairs,

of membrane acid-brick.

is especially Tanks


as a lining for concrete have served well, installation, injury

vessels, without it has alexternal In pickling in a


so constructed

for 20 years and more. When repairs have been required, been due to inadequate, careless or improper or to mechanical of the concrete) attempts failed hot asphalt

most always the early Without

(such as cracking with


years of this century, exception, poor such tanks installation

were also made to construct and acid-brick periods of time,

tanks of steel plate, few months, for obvious

membranes in short

inner linings. sometimes Except surof the is

by internal

acid penetration techniques, sound bond

of the hot asphalt


these failures were due to the fact that does not offer a satisfactory Due, perhaps, the quality to the asphalt. to oils or

steel, no matter face to obtain lubricants adhesion in others, sound, phalt either

how well-cleaned a uniform,

and primed,

included lightly.

in the surface, perhaps some other factors, varies over the surface. above, cold flow increasing slight or nonexistent. As noted slowly Where

of the asphalt

In some spots, it bonds tightlyoccurs. Where the bond the bond is weak, the aspulls to

the sag is very

pulls loose or stretches, Asphalt

the drag on the tightly


areas next to them.

does not stretch very well and in a short time,

apart or cracks between make

the areas of tight bond and poor bond. Acid then penefind a hole in the steel with the user is warned tank. no membrane directly

trates to the steel at those points and burns a hole. When bricks are removed repairs, we invariably of it. Consequently, in front membrane

never to rely on a hot asphalt

to line a steel (or other metal)


SUBSTRATES above, hot asphalt surface. upon. may be supplied timber, successfully masonite to concrete. or other It

As noted may board,

also be applied

to properly



or any absorbent

Its bond to most plastics, as to steel, is erratic,

and should not be depended

APPLICATION Concrete (or other defined unfilled, suitable substrate) to receive a hot asphalt membrane of the same or stiff

must be clean, dry, and free of curing oils and from The primer, or a compatible, fraction, brush permit should (roller oxidized into asphalt

release compounds. in a high flash petroleum with a broom and allowed to dry to

in the first part of this paper as a cut-back dissolved the concrete surface

be scrubbed

or spray


is not recommended) This usually have become takes about faint.

the solvent to evaporate.

3 to 4 hours, at which If the black color coat of primer in which the

time the odor of the solvent will of the asphalt fades away, is necessary. The manufacturer or becomes

This leaves a black deposit

in the pores and on the surface of the concrete. gray, the concrete shipped

is porous, and another paper cartons

Repeat until the surface remains black. is usually in the open-end will have cast it as it was taken from the still. The cartons are laid




and Chemical





on their phalt

sides, split with kettle.

an axe, and the paper cartons paper. The lumps of asphalt had previously material,


leaving the asinto or waterbefore material


any adhering

are then dumped cleaned

the asphalt proofer the asphalt can destroy a wood-fired ently

If the kettle molten

been used by a roofer or different

or for any other

it must be completely

is put into it. The presence of any incompatible the effectiveness of this type of membrane. overheating, kettles, asphalt with pot was used to prevent gas (or oil) heated to 390F, The temperature smoking

In the 1930s and 194Os, and fires. The presburners, are There about the middle temperature. it, keeping the pot controllable


satisfactory. should full,

of the melt should be controlled 36OF being a good pouring stirring

of the range 320F monitoring

be a man on the pot at all times, occasionally the temperature, be kept and making certain

that no lumps of unmelted from wind. If the asphalt

asphalt are poured out in any of the pails carried to the applicators. The pot should under cover and shielded any air from asphalt should catch fire, turn off the burners, cloths or sacking to prevent the flames. Under These will chemicals contaminate the work. the no circumstances place the cover on the pot, and apply wet reaching the asphalt. chemical thoroughly All asphalt This will smother be used. by such touched should extinguishers cleaned

and the area.

must be discarded

and all equipment

prior to prothe flames The asphalt has evapoforce and to

ceeding with

Water must not be used. It will not extinguish of water from until of water asphalt rain drops will cause foaming. all foaming into from nearby. the melting material cut from a handle stops and all water steam with explosive

and even small amounts must then be heated rated. Larger amounts melted splash hot burning Pails of the the mechanic lated who

and stirred

can flash are drawn

asphalt over anyone is to apply

pot and carried (wearing or other from

it to the concrete. usually

The mechanic masonite

insufloor cethe

gloves) or his helper board,

pours out the molten 18

on the concrete tapered

and spreads it out, ment/fiber contact contact surface. squeegee helper squeegee, the wall, in two

using a squeegee, approximately

long by 6 to 8 wide, 45 to form The molten

edges into the top on about

at the top. material

The long shiny the it up

face should also be cut to a 45angle. To apply it to a vertical the wall, surface, at the

is swept from

side to side by the squeegee until is held against towards coating very fluid

it cools and hardens, bottom where

leaving a smooth,

such as the straight wall of a tank, the it joins the floor, rapidly carries

pours the hot melt

on the center of the squeegee, and as it runs along the Melted material runs off both sides of the squeegee the mechanic puddle catchit toto coated,

the ends of the squeegee, the mechanic the surface. streams. As all the melt and toward

runs off the squeegee, the area he previously

finishes his upward ing the melt ward and sweeping solidified. running

sweep, and at once dips the squeegee into the melted down the wall, worked. from smoothing out the run, and carrying

at one side and sweeps upward, the area previously the melt upward

He repeats the movement side of the squeegee, the center from

at once, spreading and continues

the other

sweep the material He then

and toward

both sides until it has all the entire

moves to one side and repeats this process until

wall has been covered. A roofer

If the wall is curved, the squeegee should be cut to match if he tries to bid this work, or a general contrac-

the curve when held flat and level against the wall at 45. or waterproofer,

Hot Asphalt


tor unfamiliar absolutely squeegee without spraying


it, will want They properly fluid through

to use mops to make this application. shed strings into the melt, membrane from will yield a smooth, the asphalt done, cleaner

Mops are act as

prohibited. application, bubbles



wicks and transmit

face to back. The surface, Hot method.

pinhole-free should area. try may

or blemishes, entire/y

than any other


is also barred.

If mops turn

up on a site, all work or roofer to the

be stopped to bid this When be should

until they are removed Occasionally work, though this occurs, advised that and that proofing, points, of

from the site, not just the work a waterproofer always belonged

on large jobs, it has traditionally

brickmasons. contractor

if a jurisdictional such disputes Councils

dispute have always

arises, the masonry

in the past been settled acidproofing, until

in Washington,

the Trades

have agreed that melt is continued At this point,

as against waterover any high

belongs without


to the brickmasons. a thickness, a layer of asphalt-impregnated pressed into it using paint workers can use Experienced

Application glass fabric

of the hot

l/s has been attained. is laid over the asphalt Wrinkles

layer and carefully must be avoided.

rollers to iron it smooth. long sections of fabric, or just learning, procedure. 2 applying When asphalt should

a yard or a meter wide. Those doing it for the first time, be advised to use short pieces until they get used to the they will put wrinkles into the fabric the layers. Edges of all fabric them from coming a thickness sheets should be lapped loose or protruding. a second l/s of hot for the the of %I. For floors, this is However, be encountered,

If they do not do this carefully, small amounts tightly

and lumps into the following layers together

of hot asphalt at the laps when needed to cement glass fabric providing for is completed,

and to prevent

the layer of asphalted over the fabric, thickness and tanks, thickness finished

is applied

the accepted normally

a hot asphalt a hydrostatic

membrane. head will

lining of trenches accepted


is 3/s, and a second layer of glass fabric

and a third

layer of hot asphalt should be applied.

GAUGING The thickness

THICKNESS mechanic applying the hot asphalt is also responsible the required provide marked for gauging the full %I. He must with a off with a file himself

to be sure that

he actually

has applied

gauge his work

as he progresses, the point

and to do this must he has previously

gauge. The simplest along with on the melt. brane.

is a large nail that

r/s, % and 3/s from

of the nail. This he carries in his overall pocket he has applied a sufficient thickness, more hot mem(or 1/4 or 3/s, depending he must apply in the asphalt

a piece of chalk. When he thinks on which he is working)

he can sound the coating with the nail. If the fig mark layer is not covered, As he withdraws

his gauge, he leaves a hole behind uniformity, circling

He circles the hole at once with the piece of chalk, to determine with the next step-more the flame

and tests several other or perhaps the fin-

areas for thickness fore proceeding ish of the job-the torch masons trowel

the holes in each case. Be-

melt or glass fabric, to yellow.

test holes must be sealed. To do this, he takes a small propane He places the tip of his brickclose to the hole, and plays the flame of

and lights it, adjusting

against the membrane,



and Chemical





the torch

on the


of the trowel.

As the heat travels to the tip, he carefully works the melted

it starts material

to soften the asphalt, ure of the membrane

and as this happens, and chemical

to close and seal the test hole.

Failing to perform penetration

this step will result in the fail-

of the substrate.



REPAIR in the surface of hot asphalt When (opened) applying the membranes hot asphalt, are not acceptthe mechanic

Blisters or bubbles able as they paths exist indicate in the

that air is in the membrane membrane. more material

and in voids, and perhaps liquid If one appears in the in the same manis applied over the inside by

should never apply surface, it should

over a blister or bubble. and the cavity If more hot liquid

be broken


ner that the gauging holes were repaired. hole without subsequent repairing

it, the air in the hole will expand this will

as it is trapped

the next hot layer, and a blister will appear at the same spot in the new layer. As layers are applied, quite likely repeat again and again, until at the finish to the substrate. If this is the in which the of eight of the application, case, the hole will gauging there exists a hole clear through and that

be too great to repair in the manner area may have to be cut-a

hole was repaired,


to ten square inches-and in which the original You may wonder

each layer will have to be repaired was applied.

in the same manner

material what

the source of these bubbles or blisters may be. Blisor air. If the substrate inside the concrete, transmitted In either possible is at all portoo deep to

ters are caused by one of two things-water ous, it contains see. When causes the tle. the hot asphalt is applied,

air. Or there may be some water the heat, or the water

into the concrete, case, it tries to essource is the kethas not stirred has just useda

air to expand

to vaporize. An alternative

cape, and in doing so, causes bubbles. it all out, some foam power mixer, may have gotten

If a few drops of rain get into the kettle, is spread, a bubble by hand, membrane too much

and the pot tender formed.

into the pail the mechanic

and as this hot material into the applied

If the pot is stirred with A few random

or even vigorously hot asphalt without

the surface can trap air which can get blisif there are more than one another apand

in the same manner. trouble-but

ters can be repaired Where plication as water

per square foot this problem the bubbles of hot asphalt or air is present. with will

should be corrected again expand applications

before proceeding. in the substrate, or air in the substrate

are caused by air or water

the water

again cause blisters. terial before removing area thoroughly and there the surface with


will continue

to cause blisters as long is to dry the

It is, therefore,

a waste of time to apply more hot maThe best procedure or both. If time does not permit, it may be possible to seal epoxy, and then in

the source of the trouble. heat or with a dessicant

is not a great deal of moisture a concrete

or air present,

sealer, such as an amide-hardened either after an injury

apply the primer In making service, or after up before

and hot asphalt over this. a repair of the membrane, removal asphalt of unsound around to the lining (blistered) membrane a torch material, to warm always flash and soften it

the cold hardened placing

the repair with

new hot material,

so that the new may blend in with the old.

Hot Asphalt


Always material

lap any directly and to the

new the of it.



the old

in the membrane. this can trap blisters. over in more

Never more Instead, the bare


new hot the melt

on the new bare spot

void melt, and

area, because resulting spread

air between place the spot,

bare spot adjacent

it sideways


the air in front

LIMITATIONS Hot tection. and picked to when asphalt However, exposed asphalt floors. membranes to warm, are excellent moving, behind they contained In warm can stick it should brick or other can be damaged liquids asphalt traffic will mechanical can often in damage probe both memAs brick

even at low temperatures, the liquid. Asphalt

mechanically, rut or other-

up and contaminate floors.

weather, not

wise damage shoes and The noted floor sults especially under brane.

to shoes resulting

Consequently, for

be used as unprotected should flow. not be exceeded.

3/4 dimension hot the asphalt into if unreinforced, load

membranes membranes heavy traffic,

on floors have cold


In thicker loads,

dimensions, This rethe load,

or standing causing around

can push the laterally. bearing

the membrane, pressure bond between However, over

it to extrude the brick brick,

in a balancing the floor. or other



and a shear stress on the to rupture Committee standing

the adjacent most

and has been known agreed by ASTM agree that not exrises. should designers

Load limitations authority. floor

have never a /4 hot

been formally experienced membrane

loads on a brick


ceed 25 psi at ambient


lesser pressures

as the temperature

REINFORCING In the fabric 193Os, layer hot asphalt membranes However, /s thick plasticized layers were in 1940, of usually a patent mortar decade, unreinforced. No glass and

had yet layer on From

been developed. of hot in this time to of between two

was issued on the use as a reinforcing asphalt. this design glass fabric (See the was the availhas been fabric

of a /a thick stiffening chapter one able. the fluoric most

applied book.)



Sulfur frequently that

For the following in vessel linings-until except where


glass fabric acid fluorides or carbon


the present, reinforcement In those

asphalt-impregnated a polyester reinforcement



and hydrofiber

acid are involved.


may be utilized.

(See the section

on membrane

for details.)

OTHER For the pipe sewer

APPLICATIONS almost 100 vitrified

OF HOT ASPHALT years, clay hot asphalt much has been employed sanitary as a joint filler for in


pipe used to construct Waste section

sewers. The joints for clay industrial

are assembled

and poured

in the way described of this book.

lines in the


Where used for this pur-

7 18


and Chemical









is usually point






with has

cresol or a similar been employed bell-and-spigot Many with vent truded weather, freeze Crete. fluid


and the hot asphalt However, waste line. seal, poured

need be neither

an oxidized a leaking

nor a high softening joint


in a few

cases, hot asphalt

as an external unfilled

in a pouch

secured around

in an industrial joints of

In such use, the higher softenfloors were frequently is recommended. expands etc. filled If exin hot shrinks can the conand

ing point oxidized years hot asphalt,

asphalt is recommended. in concrete used as a space filler in void areas to preapplications when the structure with rainwater, which

ago, expansion Neither when damage)

and it was sometimes

penetration. it stays extruded expansion


by the two

sides of a closing joint, the weather or with

cools off, and the structure can attack

back to its old size, leaving a void to be filled causing



In any case, the bond of hot asphalt applied even without little value. expansion or contraction

in this manner

is negligible

of the substrate,

this kind of seal is of



APPLICATIONS of two water) they general types have been available brittle, coating. for decades. Asphalt As-


putties (with

phalt emulsions are also available solvent. engineers Coatings

have often

been used to coat the tops and outsides coatings Both with or softened under with a pertroleum brittle. where safety

of steel stacks, where

dry to a hard, often of this type

in which the asphalt is extended and putties been used as membranes

are less likely to become brickwork

types have occasionally the use of hot asphalt. The user should fied or extended tally this evaporation or cavities where tiny molecules do through coating trapped any away, with until the water

have been concerned remember, a solvent, or solvent

that there may be safety hazards connected however, present that when a barrier made from remains through material

is emulsitoand when

the coating that diffuse Further,

it does not solidify evaporates, has tiny especially

in the formulation behind

occurs, the structure the water like HCI, can slowly

pores, holes those with can not or they

or solvent was, and chemicals, if the brickwork


the dense hot asphalt.

covers this type of

or membrane in it. If water destroying

too soon, some of the water remains so that the emulsion can cause the asphalt If solvent remains,

or solvent will be blocked does not harden completely, to reemulsify


chemicals the barrier.

and so wash

the membrane

can rather easily

be penetrated, Asphalt These include has been used as a major component epoxy-asphalts (much some of which They due to their in many coating formulations. and urethane-asphalts. are the most higher in and are howused in refineries)

Of these the urethane-asphalts, satisfactory temperature reasonably ever, they acids. Fluid substitutes good

are true copolymers, freedom from

for hot asphalt.

can be used at exposures cold flow, and solvent

than can hot asphalt barriers. can be penetrated, (cold) applied

Like the asphalt though membranes



at a much slower

rate, by small molecule in this volume.

are discussed elsewhere

Hot Asphalt
ADDITIONAL Asphalt pharmaceutical flooring for NOTES is a culture companies drug houses, medium for many molds, especially those produced this type


by of

as antibiotics. the engineer Other

Therefore, should

in designing whether

and specifying


drug is to be manufactured
membranes service are furan-glass Sometimes vious with rectly years ago, Robert thin containing waste. (liquid-tight) fabric

in the area under design. If the answer is yes, asphalt types of membranes (most frequently an asphalt that are suitable for this used) and PVC sheet. with an imperMore than twenty solventsoftened membranes to reinforce layer rather (Kynar@),

should be avoided. it is desirable reinforcing sheets


than glass fabric. the purpose

Pierce obtained

a patent on reinforcing

hot asphalt membranes being to handle


This design has had mixed was exposed

results. The top asphalt surface, di-

under the brick, joints

to the solvents and rather quickly For floor application,

and damaged. Therefore, quate, Where membrane free, top

The fluorocarbon

sheet is lapped at the edges rather than welded. this design is often adewet exposure. it appears imthat under a liquid head in continuously is so extensive it is fed from a subsurface by ignoring

may be penetrated.

but it is rarely acceptable moisture it, or where and then sheet, then

(or air) in the substrate be attained laying lapping laying

possible to eliminate layer of hot asphalt, plasticized of it. The PVC wrinkles

source, a satisfactory in the first thin pinholeout all on re-

can sometimes

the blisters

over this layer a 6 to 12 mil thick all edges 2 or more, another l/s thick plastic stiffer and rolling

and air bubbles,

layer of hot asphalt sheets yields mixed

use of visqueen

and other

sults due to poor bond to both asphalt and mortar, out air pockets and wrinkles. The following as a membrane derived from for its accuracy. Table 16-l: Hot Asphalt Membranes Chemical Resistance Table

and the difficulty

of working

is based on the use of hot asphalt masonry cannot inner liner. lt iS assume responsibility


used with

a chemically-resistant

a number

of sources and the author


with Glass Fabric

R = Recommended Key: C = Conditional * = Reinforce with polyester or carbon cloth, Membrane Temperature 80F 14OF C C C R R R R R R R R N R C N N R R R R R C R R N R

N = Not recommended not with glass cloth.

Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid, up to 10% Acetic acid, glacial Alum Aluminum chloride Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulfate Amy1 acetate Amyl alcohol

Chemical Aniline Aqua regia Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium nitrate Barium sulfide Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid, 10% Benzoic acid Boric acid Bromine water Butyl acetate

Temperature 1405 80F N N R R R C N R R R N N N N R R R N N R R R N N



and Chemical





Chemical Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Cadmium chloride Cadmium nitrate Cadmium sulfate Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide Calcium nitrate Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine dioxide, water solution Chlorine gas, dry Chlorine gas, wet Chlorine water Chloroacetic acid, 10% Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid, up to 5% Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 20% Chromic acid, 50% and over Citric acid Copper chloride Copper nitrate Copper sulfate Dichloroacetic acid, 10% Dichlorobenzene Diethyl ether Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethyl sulfate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glvcol Fluosilicic acid* Formaldehyde Formic acid Gasoline Glycerine Gold cyanide Hexane Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid* Hydrofluosilicic acid* Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen sulfide gas,

Membrane Temperature 80F 140F R N R R R R R N R R R R R C R N N N R C C N N N C C C N R R R R N N N N R N N R C C N N R R N R R R C C C R R R R R

Chemical Isopropyl ether Kerosene Lactic acid Lead acetate Lead nitrate Linseed oil Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium nitrate Magnesium sulfate Maleic acid Mercuric acetate Methyl acetate Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl sulfate Mineral oil Mineral spirits Muriatic acid Nickel chloride Nickel nitrate Nickel sulfate Nitric acid, up to 5% Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 40% Nitric acid, 50% and over Nitrobenzene Oleic acid Oxalic acid Perchloric acid Phenol Phosphoric acid Phosphorous acid Phosphorous trichloride Phthalic acid Picric acid Potassium bicarbonate Potassium carbonate Potassium chloride Potassium cyanide Potassium ferricyanide and ferrocyanide Potassium hydroxide, up to 30% Potassium hydroxide, 30% and over Potassium nitrate Potassium sulfate Pyridine Rochelle salt Salicylic acid Silver nitrate Sodium acetate Sodium bicarbonate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride

Membrane Temperature 140F 80F N N R R R N R R R R R R N R N N N N R R R A R R N N N C R N N R R R R N R R R R R R C R R N R R R R R R R N N R R R N R R R R C R N R N N N N R R R R R C N N N N R N N R R R R N R R R R R C N R R N R R R R R R R



Hydrogen sulfide gas, wet Iron chloride Iron nitrate Iron sulfate

Hot Asphalt


Chemical Sodium cyanide Sodium hydroxide, up to 30% Sodium hydroxide, 30% and over Sodium hypochlorite, up to 3% Sodium hypochlorite, 15% and over Sodium nitrate Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfide Sodium sulfite Sodium thiosulfate Soya oil Stearic acid Sulfur dioxide gas,dry Sulfur dioxide gas, wet Sulfur trioxide gas, dry Sulfur trioxide gas, wet

Membrane Temperature 80F 14OF R R C C N R R C R R N C R R R R R C N C N R R C R R N N R R R R

Chemical Sulfuric acid, up to 50% Sulfuric acid, 80% Sulfuric acid, 93% Sulfuric acid, over 93% Sulfuric acid, fuming Sulfurous acid Tannic acid Tartaric acid Tin chloride Tin sulfate Toluene Trichloroethylene Trisodium phosphate Tung oil Urea Xylene Zinc chloride Zinc nitrate Zinc sulfate

Temperature 80F 14OF R C N N N R R R R R N N C N R N R R R R N N N N R R R R R N N N N R N R R R

Some with have above. viding trenches the water There membrane hot been it over

safety asphalt, many

engineers although centuries efforts to for These

have become very that few



fears of safety

problems to as a there

injuries cold and

or accidents asphalt putties

have been traceable As a result, for have but hot asphalt

the several material.

it has been used industrially. their limitations such putties liquid head, are put

substitute materials floor

membrane they

been discussed usable profor all out. before

As a membrane are never pits. has dried is no system. and

installations, if asphalt they

are often in service for


to a standing

less frequently be washed a hot

Remember, out real equivalent

emulsions can reemulsify

of them,

and may

or economical



REINFORCING Since branes flooring type points tured the late

FABRICS 194Os, they



MEMBRANES in asphalt brick, about memboth the in for this only

glass fabric

has been used as reinforcing in association vessels. that the the with industry glass fabric yard acid and No absolute


have been installed lining have of concrete been have

and in the of general with threads You with

specifications must

of glass cloth

set up within been a weight


be manufacmust then as that company be to

of a loose twist, containing

per square through

of 3 oz or less, and asphalt chemical

an open weave. saturated be used for

must be able to see light For probably

it. The fabric

a liquid complete Strength Strength

the same, or a compatible, 40 years, one major specification:

the membrane.

has used, with

success, the following with with warp fill

92 psi 64 psi



and Chemical





Weight Weight Thread Thread A cloth major to conform but with that

uncoated coated count gauge

1.33 oz/yd= 2.20 oz/yd= 24 per inch each way 0.0035 purchases Type fabric, inches thick a lighter Federal asphalt-impregnated Specification 4666. for chemis that It

manufacturer/supplier to ASTM D1668-73, for roofing

I, and

These are specifications ical service; turer III, phalt impregnated with is important has reported an organic

not intended problems. with upon

by the writers requirement, Type coal-tar

since the adoption no delaminations asphalt; asphalt, pitch Type and resin selected not

of this purchasing or other and agreed coal-tar, II is impregnated

the manufacpitch, and Type since as-

I material

by vendor

and purchaser.

be used as an impregnant

and coal-tar

are not always


Here are the details Average Thread Fill Average Tensile weight strength dry weight count

of this specification: 1.4 oz/yd= (25.4 20 f 20 mm of width)

per inch

Warp threads impregnated

1 minimum
minimum both

24 _+ 1 maximum 24 + 1 maximum 3.0 oz/yd* directions the strength of the warp maximum

* 1 minimum

2.0 oz/yd2

75 psi minimum,

*May be 10 (11) to 12 (;I thread.

1 if each thread

is double

When fluorides stainless

the (such


membrane should than

is to

be used pickling that

in an exposure solution the polyester

involving tank

acid for

as a nitric-hydrofluoric the designer rather

in a pickling fabric


specify the above

given above

be used for reinforcing

glass cloth.

11 Fired Glass and Porcelain as Membranes


Lee Sheppard, Incorporated


C.C. R.M., Havertown,


For much liquids

of recorded primarily


glass containers

have been employed sizes.

to hold

of all kinds,


and for by fragility

the manufacture and by available

of acids and salts. Their to fire on metal thicknesses attack surto

use has been limited

Over the past century, faces, glass and porcelain be a liquid-tight tained thermal long liquids. economical they Satisfactory age is limited ally and mild barrier to

techniques in suitable protect abuse. the

have been developed formulations the substrate from

and in adequate chemical

by con-

In such composite mechanical service could repairs to small over

structures, Reactors and years,

the glass is better have been

able to withstand have given in sizes if the damusu-

made in such a manner manufactured from glass.

larger than

have been if made entirely of damaged areas, either When damage any necessary advantages externally. and fired. of glass-lined Jacketed heating heat glass linings is extensive, repairs

have been possible, of tantalum lining the fired

by the insertion

plugs, or by the is removed,

use of resin mortars. by sandblasting, is applied One of the heat the (or cool) contained in masonry-lined efficient lined formula with glass lining

are made in the steel shell, and a new steel reactors obviously is not desired, is the ability are not circulation to of

principal the unit media while


possible The co6 and 8 thick

equipment, through

so if internal an external


is necessary. steel

of heat transfer a fired


the wall of an allglass of heat transfer 98 and 123, is between

vessel is between through depending

Btu/hr/ft/F/in, and firing

the coefficient


glass lining of the glass.

on the type,




and Chemical





Though metal cept Very limit cepted best resistance


are many

variant chemicals.

formulations In general,


the glass frit types appear

used to coat to offer the vessels can acof 35OF. increases, thermal damage


at this

time the amorphous


to corrosive

such glass-lined

all acids except mild alkalis is 212F. but acceptable

HF and acid fluorides temperature water

up to a surface Thus,

temperature As alkalinity temperatures,

can also be handled Deionized limit can,

at this temperature. especially neutral at high point


decreases. near the

at pH 12, the normal

glass linings, If the borosilicate, pH ranges. glass-lined ium, gallium clean so that tamination Why,

salt solutions is shifted

of the pH scale can be acthan the amorphous in the extreme Thus, crystalline and dependsuch as selen-

up to the 35OF glass type there Higher

of acid solutions. to crystalline in chemical may, however, glass rather resistance, primarily

is a decrease temperatures

be accepted. molten glass-lined reduced

vessels can handle environmental to the

molten conditions,

salts up to the even some noted, is greatly temperature

lOOOaF range, metals,

ing on other

and zinc at temperatures other down-time with between eliminated. such excellent anyone

as high as 145OF. vessels are easy to and interbatch con-

In addition

advantages batches high

is virtually then, would

resistance lining

and fine chemivesresisperin of at 9 impact

cal resistance tance mitting strong carbon pH of fired alkalis, brick

ever want primarily

to install they of 212OF.

a brick

in a glass-lined by a blow, Further, with

sel? The answer contained

lies, of course, liquid

in the brittleness through the lining But

and poor to the steel.

glass linings. there

If unprotected, limit in front 173F.

may be damaged

to penetrate mortar

is a thermal temperature about

if we interline a surface

and furan

of the glass, the vessel can be operated while too, would having protect temperature Thus, brick that offer if the operator

12 and an internal tool into

of 235F,

on the glass lining a heavy

of only

were to drop crack-

the vessel, the carbon its integrity resistance

the glass from for mortars indicate 1 l-l for

ing or chipping-retaining Unlike tics which manufacturers figures The lined membrane, damage ply taken the chemical simply advise per year graphs

as a membrane. tables are available tables that Table and plasthe not recommended, or test,

recommended, equipment in a variety

of glass-lined from to

loss in thicka borosilicate for a glasstype of

ness of the lining glass lining. criteria except of

of exposures.

gives examples-

of one of the major in designing care when paper must

manufacturers a masonry inner with

be followed that greater fiber for


vessel are basically to the fired not only

the same as those

to be observed be taken

any other masons It is normal

by the

to prevent to apbefore but Out-

glass lining ceramic plane permit

installing against

the masonry. damage when

a /B layer allow the

to the surface as the of which the brick

of the glass lining laying expands lining or grows.

proceeding, also to so that without lets. lets should

as a precaution fluorocarbon

the brick,

a shear sleeve can

movement movement

be sleeved with

sheet sleeves. Such sleeves are necessary masonry damage by deforming could the glass at the out-


stresses in the masonry


Glass and Porcelain

as Membranes




: Combinations

of Concentrations Greatest

and Temperatures

Loss in Weight

Greatest Loss at PercentageConcentration Hydrochloric acid 8 - 10% 24 - 26% 18 - 20% 20%

At LX.S/YlZU 0.1 nun 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 1.0 mm

Temperature 235OF 271'F 357'F 378OF

Boiling Point of Acid 224-F 217OF 237OF 237OF

(Temperature - % - weight loss said to be fairly typical also for hydrobromic, hydriodic and chloracetic acids) Sulfuric acid 18% 21% 370 28% 0.1 mm 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 1.0 mm 228'F 263OF 333='F 407'F 2260~ 233F 241F 237OF

(Also typical for sulphurous acid) Nitric acid 35% 31% 33% 36% 0.1 mm 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 1.0 mm 252OF 290F 360F 415='F 232OF 230F 232OF 233='F

(Also typical for nitrous acid) Phosphoric acid (minimal corrosive effect at low concentrations, more effect at high. Tests only run to 85%. Indications are that above 85%, there may

well be areas of greater attack than those noted.) 62% 74% 60% 62% Acetic acid 0.1 mm 0.2 Imu 0.5 mm 1.0 nun 19SF 245OF 298'F 35S'F 258OF 290OF 255='F 258'=F

(representative of a great number of organic acids) 30% 6.5% 7.0% 6% 0.1 mm 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 1.0 mm 0.1 mm 0.1 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 0.5 mm 1.0 mm 1.0 mm 292OF 342'F 410'F 442OF 230F 140'F 260F 176OF 296OF 212OF 320F 236'F 212F 212OF 212'F 212'F ___ --___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Sodium hydroxide

pH pH pH pH pH pH pH pH

10.0 13.6 10.0 13.6 10.0 13.6 10 13.6

(Good for pH to 14 at ambient. NaOH 4% by weight is pH 14.

Typical for alkali hydroxides.)



and Chemical





Greatest Loss at PercentageConcentration Sodium carbonate pH pH pH pH 12 12 12 12

At Loss/Year 0.1 Imu 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 1.0 mm

Temperature 176F 202'F 24SF 284'F

Boiling Point of Acid ___ ___ ___ ___

(Typical for basic alkali carbonates) Funmonia pH pH pH pH 13 13 13 13

0.1 mm

185OF 226*F 279OF 320'=F 310'F 345F 392OF 425OF

___ ___ --___ -__ --___ ___

0.2 mm 0.5 Irun 1.0 mm 0.1 mm 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 1.0 nun

Clean water * (de-ionized)

Thickness loss min/year Liquid phase Vapor phase Bromine Ferric chloride, 10% solution Monochloroacetic acid 20% Oxalic acid Phosphorous acid 70% Succinic acid saturated solution 15S='F Boiling less than 0.1 less than 0.1 less than 0.2 less than 0.1


less than 0.1

less than 0.1

302OF 230F

less than 0.2 less than 0.1

______ less than 0.1


less than 0.5

less than 0.1

It may not be understood by some readers that pure, de-ionized water can penetrate many linings, and can, in some cases, cause more damage than 9 number of corrosive chemicals.

1. Chemically ResistantA4asonry.W.L. Sheppard, Jr., 2nd Ed., p 213 (1982).

Composite Engineering Laminates, edited by Albert G.H. Dietz, M.I.T. Press (Cambridge, MA), See Chapter 16, Glassed Steel by William B. Crandall, pp 317-322. Tanigawa, T. and Koizumi, K., Properties of Borosilicate Glass and Its Application to Corrosion-Resistant Apparatus, Haikan Gijustsu, Vol. 2, pp 63-70 (1983). Andrews, Andrew I ., Porcelanin Enamels; The Preparation, Application and Properties of Ename/s,Garrard Press,Champaign, IL (1961). Lorentz, R., Glass Enamel-Efficient Protection Against Corrosion, Trib. Cebedeau, Liege, Belgium, No.460,pp 111-115 (1982).

12 Lead as a Membrane

Oliver W. Siebert

Monsanto Corporation St. Louis, Missouri

Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr.

C.C. R.M., Incorporated Havertown, Pennsylvania

Chemical times called

leads (defined soft lead,



as 99.85%

minimum industry



are used primarily

in the chemical protective

in environAgainst pro-

ments that form thin, surface, e.g., solutions more tection. Alloys ment by its poor timony, fatigue ture, soluble films


and self-reparable acetates

films over the metal lead offers little

of salts such as sulfates, carbonates or chlorides,

or phosphates.

such as nitrates, tin, calcium, properties qualities.

of antimony, structural

tellurium lead

and arsenic offer some improveprimarily is lead alloyed with 1 to 13% anforms

in the mechanical

of lead, but its usefulness is limited Hard

usually about 6 to 8%. These alloys have greatly increased tensile strength, resistance, and hardness. with Calcium in the range of 0.03 to 0.12% at room alloys lead. While these alloys age-harden alloys may be improved Tellurium temperaand stress-

age-hardening rupture of about addition which truded prove

that aging process might take 30 to 60 days. The tensile strength resistance 1.5% tin. 0.04% of the lead-calcium However, tellurium the

by the addition lead to exand inSome

this increases the aging time to 180 days. A 7% tin bearings. lead is chemical grain growth point of water. has been added. of tellurium antimony, up to about 127 In wrought, retards and especially

to lead is used to make about lead products, addition Arsenic,

creases fatigue


and tin act to harden lead and imthe boiling

its physical




and Chemical





grades of chemical hance the corrosion Lead, pansion.

lead have small percentages resistance and to improve has a low melting material poor that will room

of silver and copper its creep and fatigue

added to enresistance. of ex-

a heavy metal,


and a high coefficient

It is a very ductile of its relatively system.

creep under a tensile stress as low creep resistance, without lead is

as 1 MP (145 lbf/in). Because rarely ondary tion. wood temperature used as a lining support in tanks and other process equipment some secapplica-

It is possible to lead-line Unlined and maintain the tight

wood stave tanks but this is not a desirable fit of the joints. When lined with

wood tanks depend upon moisture

in the process fluid to swell the lead, the wood structo maintain

staves dry An

and shrink. steel

The hoops then have to be tightened type construction and vertical

tural integrity. open

This movement

can cause damage to the lead lining. can be used to overcome structural steel supports. while in the use of lead lined wood vessels. Sheet lead attached it may to the noted be thoroughly straps. This type of inspected

basket-frame noted with around

some of the problems straps are wrapped construction

the horizontal and weld because

The lead sheets are formed is advantageous service. Faults are apparent The most common resistant membrane a mechanical to protect Tanks After the top adjoining. After fabric tween support may barrier

and repairs easily made. is to line the steel vessel with lead as a corrosion brick or tile lining. The brick acts as and wear resistant barrier lead) or the bonded from the inside behind a ceramic


for the lead as well as a thermal by either

the weak soft lead from damage. be lead-lined techniques. all weld beads, burrs, and other projections about the sheet lead is applied to the wall. It should be lapped over 4 inches over those or glass bethe loose (hung

(homogeneous) of the steel tank,

removing edge of the

vessel and each sheet extended together

The sheets should be welded material,


around the entire exposed edge. is added to act as a cushion

the lead has been installed or similar the brick

and tested, a layer of asbestos, ceramic

to 1s inch thick, changes. to combine

and the lead to protect due to thermal strength lead lining is an effort structural

the lead against abrasion during expanthe corrosion or integral resistance of lead lead is a layer structure. moveof bondflux relative metallic method

sion and contraction A bonded with the superior

of steel. Effectively,


of lead bonded to the steel to form a homogeneous By effectively ment between ing includes ing, chloride materials tion after anchoring the two metals is minimized. of zinc, zinc-ammonium to the cleaned solder. heat lead/tin

the lead to steel at all points of contact, The most common Following stannous the steel is tinned. chloride, surface.

a step by which

sand or grit blastor other by a torch applica-


are applied

This is followed

of a 50/50 which will

To apply

hard or soft lead by means of a torch, long enough to melt the tin coating, Usually, three /4 inch. This same operation lead on the a portable

the heat is applied coatings

to the tinned

steel only

the torch

is applied

to the lead being applied. up to about step by using a 6% antimonial

build the lead thickness the pre-tinning thickness

can be done without first coat application. A more uniform

of lead may be achieved

by holding

Lead as a Membrane


dam a distance thickness and dam.



the prepared Molten


corresponding repeated until

to the desired the entire vessel

of the lead lining. The dam is moved, This technique of silos.

lead is carefully

poured onto the heated wall slip-form used in the

and the operation is not unlike

is lead-lined. construction accelerated tallization, brick

that of a concrete in addition

Sheet lead linings, corrosion,

at elevated

temperatures, and/or

to being subject to not crysa at tempera-

tend to fail by some uncertain inter-granular

process, though penetration,

causing embrittlement (73C).

tures above 165F perature between

If the vessel is to be exposed to such temperatures, to provide sufficient insulation is advisable.

lining of a thickness

to bring the shell temceramic) paper of the

below this temperature

Figure 12-1 shows how such a brick to allow movement

lining may be installed. brick without

Note the layer of asbestos (now usually paper functions the lead.

the lead and the brick, which seizing or abrading

Asbostoa shoot linlmg 1: in. 0, - I*rr)

h in. no qaakr

fhaa f in.

Lhnt OTbonded kod lining

Wald ho _

Acid proof brick

hood rid. rbod cowring

Figure 12-1: When pressure is involved tesy of Lead industries Association.

brick and lead lined tank bottoms

are dished. Cour-

Lead for sulfuric type


are most frequently is not indicated


in the process equipment beginning where is water the product soluble.

designed this

acid manufacture.

As noted

at the

of this chapter,

of membrane Figures

in exposures

of the reacof lead memlead is layer

tion between

the lead and the process chemicals 12-2 through

12-5 show the increases in the corrosion of acids as temperatures is formed. The resistance on the solubility is plotted

brane by various acids and mixtures exposed to nitric acid, lead nitrate ther attack in the nitric by the nitric

rise. When

of the lead to fur-

acid depends

of this lead nitrate in Figure 12-6.

acid, and this solubility

in turn decreases with the increase of nitric

acid concentration.

This change in solubility



and Chemical






Figure 12-2: Corrosion of lead by sulfuric Lead Industries Association.

acid as a function

of temperature.












IA0 C.




Figure 123: Association.


of temperature

on lead in sulfuric

acid. Courtesy

of Lead Industries







150 I25

150 I25

75 50 25

75 50 25


Figure 124:




100 O


of Lead Industries Association.



X lo-' I6




cm "27

Figure 12-5: sociation.


of lead in mixed


HCI. Courtesy

of Lead Industries




and Chemical






Pb (WO,,,/#o



PAtlS Ib (MO~)2/100 ?MTS Sm. 70

__..-.-SOLlJBlLllY [fb(NO&]



60 SO 40

_. --.---..----


30 20


20 30 40 HMO% CONC1NTRATtON. PER CENT lead nitrate in nitric



Figure 12-6: ciation.



acid. Courtesy

of Lead Industries


A brick by contained ble salts can acids seriously sulfuric


has the secondary or suspended or removed Figure

effect matter.

of protecting The protective

the lead from surface film

abrasion of insoluto of a 20%

slurries affected.

be thinned

by such abrasion, any entrained

and so the resistance how the velocity

12-7 shows graphically corrosion as velocity

acid solution

at 77OF, without


passing over the face

of a lead lining

can cause increasing


0035 : 8 <.cmo 3 : f . 0025

5 0020 F : t w : OOlS

0 .oolO K 2 / .mOS +,a xx)00o 40 I ./ / .-


I mx n$.o. 01 2S.C

80 1 120 I6o 200 240 ! 280 320 560 ELOClTY OF SOLUTION ACROSS SURFACE - FEET/MINUTE on corrosion



Figure 12-7: Effect of velocity of Lead Industries Association.

of lead in 20% sulfuric acid at 20C. Courtesy

Lead as a Membrane


For chemical plications: York, careful very lead

detailed A

information the reader published

about by

lead Jinings, the Lead



properties, Resistant Inc.,

and ApNew be or as

resistance, Guide,

is referred

to Lead for Corrosion Industries material. Association,

NY. Caution. Lead is an electrically carbon form brick where result conductive and/or the service couple, in the wasting them and The designer in contact as anode brick should with not to place will carbon-filled includes with of the the layer mortar the carbon lead. lead. fiber.

close to lead linings and carbon mortars should mortar, or other This will be placed or a thick

an electrolyte If carbon

in solution,

a galvanic

and the or carmay be insulating

lead cathodic. bon-filled barrier Teflon@ inert

are to be employed between fluorocarbon sheet,

in the same design, a thick

an electrical Such barriers

of a carbon-free,


layer of ceramic

or organic

13 Glass Fabric Reinforced Furan Membranes


Lee Sheppard, Incorporated


C.C.R.M., Havertown,


While reinforced

it is probable built-up

that much of what follows employing other phenolic) mixed

can be applied resinous

to most glassthe furan to be used The installaStates, service exoxi-



(and perhaps occasionally in the most difficult, tions of acids and/or tion overall furans type resistance

resins are those most appropriate with organic intensive solvent materials.

high temperature alkalis is labor

services where exposures can be combinaand furan resins have the best In the United

of this kind of membrane to the are generally


of such combinations. normally

the least expensive phenolics next,

of those resins used in chemical materials

and so, all things being equal, of service with otic, or possibly a vinyl

furans would

be the first choice for this are particularly

if the solvent

ester or polyester

if the corrosives are too strongly was pioneered operating under It worked

dizing for either a furan or a phenolic. The use of glass fabric-reinforced 1940s for service much in chlorinating more expensive sures at 200F, and though perience carbons) The from sures where furan membranes in the late high presout well, process equipment to install

in the presence of HCI and organic solvents. and requiring it has become (other

a higher degree of exfor use in expofluoromade

and care to install correctly, no satisfactory has been found. membrane

a standard

sheet lining

than the very expensive than are brick mortars

itself must be more


the same resin because if it is to wet out and penetrate must be more fluid will be more shrinkage from the stability than a mortar and strength 134 would in the finished membrane imparted

the fabric,

the resin

formulation that there

be. This, of course, means than with the morby the glass fabric, a

tars, and except

Glass Fabric


Fur-an Membranes


higher coefficient of expansion. sum of its two tainly those

of expansion. the thermal

The glass fabric expansion

itself has a very low coefficient as a whole is the


of the membrane

parts, the fact that the two parts vary so much in this regard cerstresses within membranes of the brick the membrane. have coefficients to which lining they or facing material Sooner of expansion over the double and may be bonded,

results in built-in

Glass fabric-reinforced probably three times that

of the steel or the concrete a high coefficient since the two coefficients the


membrane. ones can be to both surand do




two low coefficient is bonded

a source of real trouble, faces, especially result not have identical in rupturing must be bonded tion of bonding it. Whichever

if the high coefficient surfaces will of expansion. However,

be at different this type

temperatures of built-up

or later these stresses can membrane


to one strong surface if it is to survive. The designer has the opit either to the substrate, or to the brick that will be placed on between the memhe may deand ushot (perFor example, between

he decides to do, he must put a bond breaker it is not to be bonded. to use a bond breaker lining directly so that tank,

brane and the surface to which cide, in lining a concrete the membrane, ing a strong asphalt with the brick membrane bonding lining. it. from the

the concrete becomes

and to lay up the brick furan bed joint,

against the membrane

the membrane


This can be done by applying first on the concrete If this is done, cracking and the concrete

a glass fabric-reinforced subsequently cracks

membrane upon

YI thick

and then building

up the resin the rigid right the the

haps over a cold seam), the asphalt will provide a slip-plane resin membrane concrete, through membrane membrane entire and as well. if the membrane the the crack would concrete to cracked, protect

and prevent

had been bonded to the have telegraphed from which through

the membrane. was designed and attack

If the membrane the concrete. to anchor true with

cracks, the chemicals substrate, concrete Therefore,

can pass right

Furthermore, and attacked.

is absorbent, in lining rather

so the than to a


can be penetrated prefers

a concrete

vessel, this writer the substrate.

the lining to the brickwork a steel tank.

The reverse is usually stable structure steel tank,

Here we have as a substrate membrane

of high strength.

To install

the resin glass fabric

in a

we first sandblast a high affinity

the steel to a near white for the resin-glass fabric neoprene

surface, and then apply a membrane or urethane that is to be we apper-

special adhesive primer, ity to develop

selected for the strength the membrane

of its bond to steel, and its abilandcured,

laid up on top of it. After ply a bond breaker haps /a thick, but to provide brane-from brick binder nally, mortar,

has been completed

over it, such as a liquid enough pad to prevent


not only to prevent a thick

the bonding

of the brick to the membrane, over the memto tear. of the the that

the brick-slipping

hanging up on any high points and causing the membrane of the resin is made in the same manner elsewhere in this volume, with furan, must be a resin-not is unable covered the exception

The selection

as the selection

of the membrane is, first, only

a silicate or a sulfur-and then a phenolic the chemical to handle

the order and, fia exposure,

of choice

the lowest

possible shrinkage

if one of these two fabric

vinyl ester or a polyester. The usual reinforcing

is an open weave,

light twist,





and Chemical





cloth. There tory.

A glass mat is not acceptable are varying specifications for

reinforcing this cloth,


it has no tensile by a number

strength. of differ-


ent installers

and users. The following

is one that

has been found

to be satisfac-

Minimum Average dry weight Average weight after treatment Average tensile strength (both directions) at 7OF Thread count-warp -fill* *A count of lo-12 is acceptable strength of the warp. 1.4 oz/yd2 1.6 oz/yd2 75 psi 20 20


2.6 oz/yd2

24 24

if the fill thread has double the tensile

This specification was developed committee standards mortars. treatment. resin, formed,l able. is not handled

is ASTM concerned that

D-l 668-73, D-8 primarily with


I I I (organic

resin treated) and

and This

by Committee

for roofing

and waterproofing. material,

chemically-resistant are applicable glass cloth most This Volan cannot

no other by resin a special a furan is inavailthe use rec-

by this committee ordinary

to the subject glass fabric material material synthetic

of this book.

It should

be noted fairly A

be wet very well requires

If delamination Until

is to be prevented, recently, when was specified. complex. different The silanes, be used will

glass fabric

was to be used with was, the writer is no longer resins involve

a Volan Current


a chromeorganic treatments are many results the ester. for

of glass to be used with are to be obtained. I am informed the epoxies, for that

of silanes. There one if satisfactory ommended polyesters esters, resins. but where

and it is important These are specific with epoxies,

to use the correct treatments for ones for the polywith furan in and if this guidance

glass is to

and different in contact phenolics, can supply resins. obviously whether

and vinyl not those

the ones specified

also function

No treatment

is identified be run. of the specific acid

glass to be used with for all other environment, for membranes, too

is required, If will not asphaltic, side the vent that

tests should

The glass manufacturer treatments in the cloth. (for fabric

the determination hydrofluoric serve. limits attacks is usually

is present

glass fabric resinous or are outor a sol-

In such cases, reinforcement a polyester-type fabric a carbon of polyester polyesters), is a suitable cloth

Where the service conditions high a temperature fabric: cloth may be used.


The following Dacron Nexus from


for the polyester

polyester Veil

reinforcing. fabric yarn South Hackensack, 1.3 oz/yd, NJ 07606 16 mils manufactured by Burlington Industries

Style Dacron

1012 #IO6

Du Pont Barton

Source: This thick,

Plastics, woven

170 Wesley Street, fabric, coarse

is a square



used in 1 to 3 plys or layers. exposure to high concentrations of strong alkalies, neither

In continuous

Glass Fabric


Furan Membranes


glass nor destroy

polyester polyester

fabric fabrics.

is suitable,

or there


be solvents




In such cases, carbon Carbide


is recommended.

A suit-

able one is offered Catalog Width Weight Carbon

by the Union VCA


No. X2215 43-45 inches



per linear assay 95%


lb (10 oz)

Will burn

in air at approximately



INSTALLATION In glass fabric primer), a layer the glass fabric to the application, terial. vice, greater around elled carefully the hands soaking However, than each. over the placed until through reinforcing of the is rolled a monolithic formulation into indicated surfacing (after applying to l/s the required thick, and

topping or pressed

is spread,


it, covering reinforced

areas as large as is convenient by the manufacturer membrane leaving system, consisting of the maserspace is of areas not is trowwith resin for chemical a 2 wide

up to the size limits in applying that a furanglass

it is recommended The mortar

a checkerboard than the

3 x 3. be installed, square, the tapering flat white the other with

one square at one time, brick mortar then down surface edges,

(in a thinner


and a square rubbed square,

of glass fabric and worked black with 2 away,

on it, rolled entire it from

over the mortar,

of the glass has become

side. Then the next the glass cloth days open minimum

is laid in to cure (14 At

the same manner. These squares of mortar undisturbed days the tared viously tapered However, three sible. The reason somewhat cure larger shrinkage for the procedure that of most over Failure in the to the as outlined other is the cure resins, procedure perhaps of stress period, this system, build-up shrinkage of the resin, this stresses in the deappliresin as it cure bethan synthetic and the fact that internal as long after in the seven days can result the furan if the end for no less than period, covered squares. the (For surface over each, are allowed temperature seven 2 this wide part at a surface strips of 70F

is at GOOF-the

cure temperature between 6 wide wide lapping the 2 the cloth

permissible). 2

of that placed

the squares strips

are mor-

and cloth

in the same manner, is extended cure is vital, from

over the preof glass cloth 2 over the

of the work,

are used,

and the mortar seven days time After 3/s2 to

bare strip, point, if this

edges of the squares.) is recommended this may at this is possible. minimum application a surface of of if down mortar, be reduced has elapsed, to an absolute a final overall


days at 7OF.

the cure time l/s thick,

is trowelled

to as uniform

as pos-

continues material. due

an extended to follow membrane continuing to 3 squares


in the membrane velopment cation cures. as one

of stress cracks year,

By limiting


and permitting



and Chemical





fore putting be much less.

in place the patches between place before the patch

squares, about half of the cure shrinkis placed, and the stress build-up point favoring will

age will have taken

This cure shrinkage of this type phalt during has sufficient the 7day The designer chemical with

stress build-up over a hot to relieve

is another asphalt

the application The as-

of membrane cures. should


on concrete.

cold flow

much of the stresses in the resin squares of rigid membrane the exposure expansion is used, it will joint joints material are re-

note that membrane Therefore, either. should

if this type can accept there

be because no flexible environment.

to the anticipated

is no flexible that

that can accept this exposure such a membrane For such design, quired.

Consequently, on design

any vessel that must be lined no expansion elsewhere in this volume.

be so designed

see the section

REFERENCES 1. Source of information: Mr. Albert Ralston. 2. Source of information: Mr. Harvey Atkinson. 3. Chemically Resisrant Masonry, W.L. Sheppard, Jr., (2nd Edition) 208-212 (1982).

Marcel Dekker, pp

14 EpoxylPhenolics

Al Hendricks Wisconsin Protective Coatings

Green Bay, Wisconsin

An epoxy/phenolic resistance phenol materials

is a class of material that

that exhibits between

outstanding the reaction

chemical of a bis1 mil

due to the cross linking can be formulated

is formed

with epichlorohydrin

and the phenolic/phenol-formaldehyde to be applied at various film thicknesses

resin. These from

to % inch depending

on their end usage.

PROPERTIES Epoxy air dried. The which tion from bake systems applied polymerize 350 to 400F by heat (177 generally to 204C). requiring This type temperatures of formularanging range between phenolics can be classified into two classes of materials; bake or

is normally

by dip or spray application to produce

to a film


1 mil to 8 mils. Generally, liners.

this system produces a very hard finish although a degree of flexibility, either such as those systems or

they can be formulated used for container polyamide to obtain curing Air dry or low force brush, roller or trowel

cured systems utilize applications.

amines, amine adducts,

agents for polymerization. type


can be formulated

for spray,

Since these materials

do use a catalyst of sol-

curing, they will have a limited

pot life. This can vary from one-quarter and the amount generally from 60%

hour to 24 hours depending vent in the formulation.

on the type of catalyst utilized

Systems vary in their solvent content

to 0% solvents. As the solvent decreases, the pot life also decreases substantially.



Corrosion and Chemical Resistant Masonry Materials Handbook

RESIST ANCE The chemical resistance of epoxy phenolics varies with the formulation de. pending on type of resins and percentage of modification, total volume of pig. ment, and type of curing agent used . Water Resistance Excellent
ious types of

resistance is normally
water o including potable,



epoxy phenolics in vardeionized, at tempera-

tures up to 250 F. They also demonstrate resistance to steaming which may be required for sterilization or general cleaning. Solvents The baking systems have excellent resistance to alcohols, aromatics, hydrocarbons, aliphatics, and ketones. Special formulations with both the air dry or low force cure type materials can be produced to provide resistance to the same solvents as the high bake systems. Many of the air dry systems will be resistant to splash and fumes of the solvents mentioned . Alkalies The bake systems demonstrate excellent resistance to alkalies including sodium hydroxide at concentrations up to 73%. Generally the temperature resistance to continuous immersion is suitable up to 200F (93C). The air dry systems demonstrate excellent resistance to various concentrations of alkalies but are generally limited to a maximum temperature of 150F (66C).
Acids The would sistance acids. acids with acid to Many resistance be poor sulfuric, of epoxy phenolics Special for to continual immersion mineral acids, conditions to provide from remost and fatty

generally dilute

to fair.

formulations nonoxidizing

are available

hydrochloric, of nitric, formic,


are available

resistance chromic

to spillage

and fumes

the exception

or hydrofluoric.



Continuous exposure to temperature conditions in excess of 300F can be detrimental to many of the formulations. Excessive temperature will normally result in cracking of the coating system. Abrasion Resistance The abrasion resistance of epoxy phenolics will vary depending on the formulation, but they generally are rated between good and excellent. Special formulations can produce films which are resistant to continual scuffing or heavy truck traffic .

Epoxy/Phenolics Weathering


Epoxy phenolic formulations generally show good retention of flexibility and impact when exposed to weathering, although they do have a tendency to chalk.


Formulations are available that will not impart taste or odor to commodities that may be stored in direct contact with the coating systems. These systems must then meet the requirements as are outlined by the FDA, USDA or EPA.


and intended usage. to a white metal blast. depth of profile re-


Surface preparation depends on coating formulation could vary on steel substrates from a commercial is also essential to obtain ultimate adhesion.



quired is proportional On concrete surfaces, taminants or abrasive and this can blasting.

to the total dry film thickness of the coating system. the general requirement is to remove latents and conbe accomplished by chemical preparation, scarifying

APPLICATION Formulations are available for application by dipping, spraying, brushing, rolling or troweling. The dipping application is normally limited to the baking systems since they do not require a catalyst for polymerization. The spray equipment may consist of either conventional air atomization, airless or two component mixing. Trowel applications are limited to the 100% solid flooring or lining systems.

Bake Systems Generally denser modities Air Dry used to line tank sodium containers cars and for food and paint products-heat various concom-

tubing-railroad including Systems


vessels containing solvents.


and various

Generally containing ages-chemical terior solvents-concrete solvents. food

used to line the commodities vessels containing floors

interior sodium devices

of railroad hydroxide, exposed exposed

tank syrup,

cars and storage wine, and other

vessels bever-

such as sugar, corn


salt solutions-exalkal ies and alkalies and

of vessels and air moving

to fumes to spillage

of acids, of acids,

and trenches

Section IV Masonry Units


15 Acid Brick and Silica Brick

James P. Bennett U.S. Bureau of Mines

University, Alabama

William M. Eckert
Dow Chemical Corporation, Texas U.S.A. Freeport,

ACID BRICK Properties




Early use of ceramics

sands of years to terra-cotta sel liners oped cept from that used for evolved day through the present






can be traced granite




vessels and sewer pipes. sandstone, brick. alkali and high their

Chemical-resistant and stoneware brick with are made Clays higher were

the use of metal, masonry for limited

red shale and fireclay and water

These acid-proof contact They exposure. forming chemical reddish brick, or other



use in direct

most acids, exprimarily structure or shales in iron a

hydrofluoric, imparts to make low

clays or shales fired

to high temperatures, give them The main membranes

a semivitreous resistance. hue, being brick are buff


red shale brick raw materials content.

and silica than and higher barrier chemical brick, they

used in fireclay

which of acid

in appearance is to provide them from nature

in alumina attack


to abrasion

and to shield backed



or excessive

thermal for


Due to the porous material. brick

of such simidry

are usually

by an impermeable

The manufacturing lar. One of three shaping


red shale and fireclay is used in brick

are very extrusion,




Acid Brick and Silica Brick


pressing, or hand molding. The clays or shales are crushed, mixed with water in a muller-type mixer, pugged, de-aired, and extruded. A coarse, nonplastic material such as sand or a calcined raw material (grog) may be added during mixing to control shrinkage or warpage during firing. The extruded material is wire-cut to size, with surfaces occasionally scored or textured to increase mortar adhesion. After extrusion, some manufacturers re-press the brick before drying and firing to increase dimensional accuracy. Bricks are then fired in either a periodic or a tunnel kiln in an oxidizing atmosphere. Red shale is typically fired from 1800 to 2100F while fireclay may be fired as high as 23OOF. After firing, red shale usually is more vitreous and resistant to abrasion and erosion, but poorer in thermal shock resistance, than fireclay. Of the other techniques used to fabricate brick, dry pressing provides accurate dimensional control, while hand molding is generally used to fabricate small quantities of specialty shapes and can result in a more porous piece. The lower firing temperatures, higher glass content, and lower absorption generally associated with red shale brick are due to larger amounts of alkali and iron compared to fireclay, as shown in Table 15-I. Iron content averages over 6% for red shale, and combined KzO and NazO are over 4%. Also, SiOZ content is higher and A1203 lower than fireclay. The crystalline mineral phases present in red shale and fireclay brick are also listed in Table 15-l. The firing time and temperature determine the degree of conversion of the starting materials into glass and other phases that provide the desired physical properties. Both brick types contain similar amounts of quartz, mullite, and an amorphous (glass) material. The higher firing temperatures of fireclay can produce a cristobalite phase not present in red shale. Hematite and rutile exist in the red shale after firing, and both can be leached in certain process environments. Table 15-I:

Ranges of Chemical Present in Acid Brick


and Mineralogical


(Red Shale and Fireclay)

Red Shale Brick Fireclay Brick

Property Chemical SiOl

A1203 Fe203 K2O


Wt % 61.4-67.0 18.6-29.4 4.7-6.8 2.5-4.6 1 .0-l .6 0.7-l .3 0.5-0.7 0.1-0.4 Major Trace-major None Minor None-trace 56.868.6 22.9-38.7 0.8-3.0 l-3.2 l-2.8 0.1-I .2 0.2-0.5 0.01-0,8 Trace-major Minor-major None-major None-trace None-trace Minor-major

TiO2 MgO Na20 CaO Phases identified Quartz Mullite Cristobalite Hematite Rutile Amorphous



and Chemical





The physical along higher fireclay. H,S04 formation of elasticity with in test) plication.

properties red of shale poorer

of red shale and fireclay and mineral is slightly cold shock lower crushing resistance type phases, shale



in Table the bricks density Limited

15-2, apand than in-

chemical Generally, modulus

composition rupture, brick thermal on thermal

determine and fireclay bulk

in porosity strength, than thermal

and absorption (ASTM brick.


red but

also has a higher conductivity,

acid resistance,


is available


and modulus

and is listed Table 15-2:

for each brick Physical

in Table



Ranges of Acid Brick

(Red Shale and Fireclay)

Red Shale Fireclay Brick 5-l 3.3 l-6 136-l 50 3-10 1 ,l OO-3,500 5,000-18,000 6-l 0 2-3.5 3-10

Property Apparent porosity, pet Absorption, pet Bulk density, lb/ft3

HzS04 acid resistance (C-279), pet Modulus of rupture, psi Compressive strength, psi Thermal conductivity,* Btu .in/hr.ft.OF Thermal expansion coefficient, (75to 8OOF). in/in F x 10 Modulus of elasticity,* IO6 psi *Limited information available.

Brick 3.2-12.5
0.4-5 142-156 0.7-6 2 ,ooo-3,800 10,000-22,000 7-9 4-5.5 3.6-13.3

Some fect ceous ence brick


brick during

develops Black firing,

black coring possibly in the may not

coring caused with past


production, oxidation kiln effect factor having C-279,




properties. The core Debate that meeting

is due to incomplete by dense as to the a statement (Brick unburned carbon

of carbonaor a fast firin a low valcoring description properties hearts but and C-410 of acidand is and difto be on

material state.

stacking or iron in its test in brick black C-980

ing schedule. physical mentioning unless otherwise Volume proof clay ferent brick products. generally chemistry can occur, less than swelling permeable toured Brick

is associated C-279l

has existed ASTM coring physical (also

of black

properties. accompanied


black the

be a significant of ASTM

by bloating

and lamination. requirements

may provide

acceptable expansion to

performance.) known causing to as irreversible a dimensional environment that expansion a brick designed, the of moisture growth or swelling) over time, porosity brick from observed and brick with increase

is a phenomenon Firing conditions, the amount typical

thought all affect although predicted.2 stresses system. volume

be similar

expansion can occur

in structural

exposure of swelling linear of


Unrestrained expansion brick or

up to 0.2% constructed, surface strength initial

or higher or utilized, of an imof a conusually

in use has been found of the flat

If a vessel is not properly cause the backing, exceed


to heave off


compressive with


versus time

is parabolic,


Acid Brick and Silica Brick


occurring system and


and slowing potential




in temperature Proposed

or pressure

of a

cause an increase temperature. specimens designing

in the rate of expansion. of a brick The to about include volume expansion

method? of steam, should

of estimatpressure, by into

ing the swelling elevated brick when heating account cially C-279, from The

the application


is reversible betaken

1 lOOoF. Volumeexpansion system. of acid brick C-279, C-410 performance to ASTM

an acid-proof

The chemical by published a bricks a crushed weight data,

and physical tests similar sample with the chemical brick

is evaluated

commerto lost acid. abmust no of user

and C-980.

According of weight sulfuric water

resistance after

is determined 48 hours

by the amount concentrated

in boiling of rupture

loss, along determine ones attempt when

the modulus general results, property of brick industrial to evaluate brick

and the percent of the brick. simple in ASTM might test. occur that C-279,




This test because

and similar be exercised one test chemical conditions chemical dict brick Some ing two nitric similar. tallic tallic moved dicating crushing

to classify

by a rapid, that


using these all physical Testing enough tests for ion

as mentioned changes brick

indicates may

in a variety simulates

environments. environments, behavior. laboratory

in an environment performance, experience

be necessary


for several to preof exposand in cold

has been acquired on the effects bricks changes this ion


have been reported4, different fireclay No significant

different strength (References

red shale and two values. to Sample weight The

to hydrochloric were noted

acid environments

110 days. weight

losses and total mathematically order of the

ion weight document removal from

losses were are to meof meamount to be reinby the the HCI the total An in by

losses throughout general

ions, salts from the

and weights in the the

are determined

the weights found

leachate.) brick



Fe > Al > Ca > samples bond siliceous 15-1 shows during

K, Mg, Na > Ti. Silicon in the HCI or HN03 mineral no strength from with

was not



or silicate why

phases were brick

not affected samples into

acid environment. Figure leach solution amount increase

This may explain the total from leach observed the with brick the

changes were observed.

ions removed a brick results increased

110 day exposure.

For a given acid concentration, increasing the amount of ions removed. 15-2. An

of ions removed acid total similar from ion

temperature. increase

in acid concentration

also increased

Nitric temperature a result creased

are shown When

in Figure the

at a given acid concentration to that from brick brick in HCI. decreased. highest and firing was found C-279 test 40 to 60 wt the

caused an increase however, the had the between

in ion removal the amount total

rate, of toenreon using ion

acid concentration

was in-

% at a given temperature, In both temperature to exist procedures porosity

tal ions removed vironments, moval, havior. H2S04 although No clear exposures

HCI and HNOsacid highest data also influenced and leach

chemistry ASTM

leach be-

relationship under

determined behavior

HCI or HN03. Applications Red shale sonry materials and fireclay acid brick are probably systems. Many the most widely trenches, used mafloors,

in chemically-resistant



and Chemical








q a20 n =30

wt pet wt pet









Red shale Total



Fireclay samples


ions leached


acid brick

in 110 days of HCI exposure.

Hz40 wt





wt pet

Red Figure 15-2:




Fireclay samples



ions leached


acid brick

in 110 days of HNO3exposure.

Acid Brick and Silica Brick

and reactors well loys. have these much materials can As the as their protective materials lining. Acid brick

performs alof conand fire-

and costs Red shale

less than



or corrosion are understood.


and fireclay their

be used very name acid

successfully brick implies,

as materials red shale Under

struction clay tions,



uses and limitations and most

Chemical generally

Resistance: resistant (with Fireclay

are generally fireclay

to organic

inorganic such as HF).

acids at temperatures acidic as that brick reagents. condichemiwhich is also Expoof a contained color. Acid


some exceptions, to red shale when

is preferred

discoloration product other of alkali HCI

cal is to be avoided. resistant avoided. than tration also brands peratures the acid when to chlorine, caustics that Note

does not have as high an iron content solvents, chemicals This and many chemical can specific

can leach out of red shale and so does not affect organic various is present. alone the time sure to alkali or strong concentrations For

hypochlorites be more chemical becomes

are to be aggressive concenIt should of different firing temthe an oxidizing

in combination example, why

same chemical chlorine cannot that limits

individually. determine acid with prior

is one reason serviceability brick

in all exposures. properties the same. Clays,

be noted of

chemical may vary brick


and physical are not

red shale and fireclay and kiln If time of specific Limit: it.

different permit,

manufacturers, tests should

or even with

same manufacturer. ate performance Temperature ies. Cyclic properties 16OOF practice 550F ulus of

and facilities

be set up to evalumaterials var-

to installation. use temperature physical operation, load, of these and the 18OOF. might the bricks However, at first. their physical general of There thermal strestends has less on materials

The maximum lining can thickness, For continuous

conditions, can affect fireclay limit cyclic

red shale can be used up to to a maximum seem low Also generally temperature

while should under

be used to approximately red shale and fireclay This temperature especially One is that porosity, low (6-10


conditions. and low when

are several reasons for this. elasticity conductivities ses can cause lack the ability to be slightly ture and glassy phase reason of the bricks silica overall are relatively damage more bonding higher to absorb lower

these materials Btu-in/h-ft2-OF). fluctuate internal shock, too mainly

have a high modthermal Fireclay usually

red shale. quickly.

As a result,

conditions to thermal together, cyclic


and relieve thermal

stresses effectively. Its microstructure porosity than

resistant the brick

because of its microstrucshale. Another depends crystalline the alpha increase reverse crystalline form quartz for that reaction forms in-


and higher conditions quartz brick. results the below Alpha acid This

to avoid

temperature composition.

in some is the major At 1063F, The Other in a volume


mineralogical into

in red shale and most additional


phase can transform phase takes version and causes place when (ex.,

beta quartz.

stress within drops volume might

brickwork. 1063OF. in fireclay. which

the temperature and higher Rapid

of silica

cristobalite) problem. Effect: inside

also be present

These have lower



can add to the cyclic with within both If the

temperature Pressure materials. the brick may pressure

pressure conditions, This rapid

changes liquid

can also cause problems permeates-into the liquid can generate the trapped critical

Under try



a vessel decreases

suddenly, expansion

to expand.

stresses, and



and Chemical





cracking porous substituted actually The most Several mally, 0.16%, occurred, majority floors, fall the try out.

or slabbing material for it.

can result. carbon

If cyclic brick)


pose a problem, over


more or

(e.g., Growth: their


be veneered

the acid


Irreversible increase rate rate rapid more growth

Under overall

certain dimensions, with

conditions, exhibiting usually cycle when conditions.

red shale and fireclay irreversible occurring between The brick two Wet environments within are dry. that

brick growth.


on moisture

cause the years. Noris has The

of expansion, are needed growth between increases back



if the conditions observed and production much

wet and dry. average growth growth

irreversible varies larger sufficient but

is not brands

conditions runs. Brick linings

The amount are restrained swelling.

of growth

are not pressure

uncommon. is generated with

in an arch configuration of problems trenches, Expansion proof utilize corner walls baffle

do not exhibit are associated walls, many

expansion. to inhibit that

Once minor further is not fully

brickwork into joints


etc. The brick times expansion

can heave upwards, the system system, the

bulge or actually to accommodate point of a to it is desirable center-continuous sidewalls,

joints system. can be

must When bowed

be incorporated designing outward of straight.

growth. to


can be the weak factor.

corrosion structural curve)

an acid to limit (away Towers

brick from which

the concept to corner head, The

of restraint instead

the growth

For example,

have bricked

but an unlined in compression. Dimensions: Fireclay true than (8 x 3.75 tically). supports,



use of a retaining of fireclay x 4.5 brick

ring to keep the brickwork may differ from red shales.

dimensions (9

sizes can be modular x 2.25 or 4.5).

x 2.5

or 3) tends tower

or the same as red shale shapes (domessuch as packing


acid brick many

to be more dimensionally of masonry intervals

red shale and is available Fireclay saddles, spargers,

in a wider


is also used to fabricate

and feed boxes to name a few.

SILICA Properties The high


use of silica to acid brick

brick cannot

in chemical-resistant requiring a h.igh degree cannot acid.


is limited, phosphoric alkaline




applications brick, to

of chemical


where or is

traditional of fluorine. to provide

be used, such as concentrated be used in strong As with acid brick, other

acid free


however, abrasion Because


any concentrations a barrier from chemical Early fractories

of hydrofluoric brick

its main function or structures

and to protect porosity



may be as high as 16%, silica brick structure. employed formation them as rehad firTypically bond these bricks at lower thermal materials

is backed

by an impermeable chemical-resistant for steel furnace additions of higher

material masonry (usually purity for

and a support

usage of silica bricks promoting

or coke oven applications. CaO),

up to 3.5% flux ing temperatures. Silica resistance brick

and improved acid-resistant

low-temperature usage. These


has been developed

are man-

Acid Brick and Silica Brick


ufactured silica, The mixed The avoid impurities.




approaching quartzite, fired that and specialty fired Care must 2000F, vitreous brick AlsOs identified converted


A typical

brick into

uses high-purity to remove structure. size and is

such as the prefired with bricks


has been mined graded to the

and washed a vitreous particle

The silica is then material an organic pressing, are dried intergrain can occur analysis with

to a high temperature

is crushed binder, although and then bonding. above of



and in some cases, a flux. in a tunnel or periodic in firing quartz kiln and 15-3.

The mixture at about 1850F,

shaped by dry promoting formations constituent, kali. balite. Table original

shapes may be slip cast or air rammed. be taken where brick. in Table Silica 0.2% is the major the and less than diffraction an amorphous MgO or althat and in brick cristobalite usage to trans-

temperatures Chemical

about silica 0.5% brick

in the highly

is listed

less than silica

or Fe,Os into

Phases in the quartz

by X-ray


is predominately

phase and cristo-


Ranges of Chemical


and Mineralogical

Phases Present in Silica Brick

Property Chemical SiOz
A1203 Fe203

Range wt %


0.2-0.5 0.02-0.3 0.01-0.02 0.02-0.1 0.02-0.03 0.01-0.2 None-minor None-minor Major

TiOz MgQ CaO Alkali (Na20, KzO, LizO) Phases identified Quartz Cristobalite Amorphous

The facture. crushing bricks difficult, Type ufactured standard firing that

physical Silica high

properties purity

of silica



as Type and strength

1 and Type lower

2 in Table manucold The firing manduring and sev-

15-4, depend

on silica brick silica

and the manufacturing higher bond in porosity and flexural formation


used in their in density, during usually

is typically content makes

strength, accounting



than acid brick. grains


for the low strength are for material between below called fused pressing, This although grain 800F. Type in Type suppliers slip

and high porosity. vitreous crystalline giving there silica brick silica or air ramming some may be used for nonformed its high ther-

1 properties by dry shapes.

a 98% rebonded casting contains

is located

boundaries, Currently,

the material

mal expansion eral European 99.5+% talline 800F. the pure silica The second

behavior type,

are one domestic product

manufacturers. 2, is more of a speciality made from as much crysbelow to shape rebonded silica. This material use different does not contain thermal processing

phase as found domestic

1, and has a lower and a proprietary


The two

techniques method.



These differ-



and Chemical





ent processing ent physical

techniques properties. Table 154:

yield Standard



have similar


but differ-

and special Property

shapes can be obtained. Ranges of Silica

Type 1 12-16 5.5-7.2 116-120


Type 2 7-16 3-14 112-128 NA 500-2,000 2,000-l 2,000 4.2-8.5

Property porosity, % Absorption, % Bulk density, lb/ft3 HzS04acid resistance (C-279,* % wt loss Modulus of rupture, psi Compressive strength, psi Thermal conductivity, Btu .in/hr.ft.F Thermal expansion coefficient, in/in OF x 10% 75 to 800F 800 to 2 ,OOOF Modulus of elasticity, lo6 psi *Limited information NA = Not analyzed available


1.4 500-800 4,500-7,000 5-8.5

2.2-2.8 0.2-0.8 1.1

0.4-O .65 0.4-0.65 3.5-5

Although acid bricks havior. formance Some ing silica trends minimal. and HN03

published chemical


such as ASTM no standard


may be used to determine silica brick a bricks or to evaluate

an beper-


test exists to predict

It is necessary in a simulated laboratory brick by leach crushing sample 15-3

to rely on personal test environment. test results


have been reported6J7 environments observed after for were

on the effects 1 IO days.

of exposloss, was brick, re-

to HCI and HN03acid strength weight shows during

No significant Weight

in cold

acid exposure. from into brick Unlike solution amount

as measured


or by the amount ions removed

of ions leached, samples the acid


the total

in HCI


110 days of exposure. of ions leached The total the highest All chemical that why

no definitive gardless from the brick


in the quantity below


of temperature averaged the wt

or acid concentration. 0.2 wt %. ions showed the predominant samples, this indicating may explain

of ions leached rates, while

In general, less than was not affected strength 0.06

Fe and Al %. Silicon,

ion removal constituent no trends

Ca, Mg, Na, K, and Ti ion removal leached from any

was minor.

ions were removed the siliceous

in amounts in the brick, was not


by chemical


in cold crushing

changes were observed.

Applications Chemical content silica the below usually glassy bond Resistance: 98% should phase. For acid proof construction, that earth silica brick contain oxides lower with an SiOz of in to MgO)

not be used. Materials of alkaline the bond

amounts resistance

have a concentration As a result,

(e.g., CaO,

phase will

have poor

acid which

can lead to failure

of the brick

in service.

Acid Brick and Silica Brick


KEY m= 50c





HCI, wt

20 pet








wt pet

Figure 16-3:


ions leached from silica brick in 110 days of acid exposure.

In general, clay (again with Temperature the maximum is the above quartz. can take continuous 3OOOF. Thermal is difficult design might highest 2000F, place ganic solvents







over resistant

red shale or fireto chlorine, factors or-

the exception other Like Limit: temperature

of HF). any for


is also very

and many

non-alkaline other cyclic is then brick maximum

chemicals. ceramic service. will cycled, material, When crystallize many affect 2000F goes and to silica products. In general,

use temperature limit the vitreous/fused

of high purity silica grains

the temperature to cristobalite is restricted

If the operating which service only,

temperature will tear the then and the

the various operation

silica inversions is approximately situations Changes The thermal that of SiOZ at temless. is far su2). Sometensile it in



use temperature Resistance: for the silica brick

Expansion to directly be needed

Thermal silica

Shock brick

In many

substitute to avoid operation type silica expansion Above thermal brick,

red shale or fireclay. differences. 2) is much some that silica product

subjecting because material that that silica product

to destructive less than crystalline is much (Type

or shear stresses during expansion acid (Type brick. of the The less than that vitreous 800F. the of acid

of expansion (Type which contains matches of high


1) has a thermal

closely resistance the

of acid brick materials

peratures perior to


the expansion

As a whole,






and Chemical






the partially is operating on cause of the brick the


silica brick hundred grains and the enough SiOz

has problems degrees to fracture. resulting The strength can take

in splash situations. and process on the bricks place

If the liquid sur-

material splashes face to version silica silica

at several bond between

Fahrenheit This volume

it (infrequently), crystalline and Abrasion is less than that temperature are concerned, physical


is probably change

due to inphase. of of resistance porosity types

of that higher

Strength and lower 1) is softer introduces ditions. posited stances terial rapid should purity vitreous brick,

Resistance: of acid brick. during the brick

and abrasion

This is because of both containing products with salts, Under pressure. grains purity will



As far as the different some crystalline (Type alums, moist 2). Overall under these etc.,


SiOz (Type weak strength wet/dry will conbe deweak in-

and weaker a specific process the pore

than the specialty limitation chemistry high

silica materials

If the within

contains internal Loose of high

spaces of the brick. fractured. types

conditions, bricks away

these suband ma-

can hydrate bond

and exert is easily Both excessive.

The silica be washed

tergranular Pressure

loss can become Effects: pressure Irreversible Cost:

silica materials changes is not of

seem to tolerate large magnitude with high of the is beto acid

changes. Growth:

However, Irreversible

frequent, brick

rapid growth (Type

be avoided

as it should

be with

any ceramic. a problem

silica materials The cost silica brick purity

as it is with of the fused which types and higher contains

red shale or fireclay. silica product manufacturing 2) is more than that phase (Type 1). This more. When compared some crystalline

cause of higher


the cost of both

of silica is at least triple

and usually

1. American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Specifications for ChemicalResistant Masonry Units. C-279-79 in 1984 Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Section 4, Construction; Vol. 4.05, Chemical-Resistant Materials; Vitrified Clay, Concrete, Fiber-Cement Products; Mortars, Masonry, pp 170-I 72 (I 984). American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Specifications for Industrial Chimney Lining Brick. C-98082 in 1984 Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Section 4, Construction; Vol. 4.05, Chemical-Resistant Materials; Vitrified Clay, Concrete, Fiber-Cement Products; Mortars, Masonry, pp 743-745 (1984). Ritchie, T., Moisture Expansion of Clay Bricks and Brickwork, National Research Council of Canada, Division of Building Research, Ottawa, Building Research Note No. 103 (October 1975). Lomax, J. and Ford, R.W., Investigations Into a Method for Assessing the Long Term Moisture Expansion of Clay Bricks, Transactions and Journal of the British Ceramic Society,Vol.82,No.3,pp79-82 (1983). American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Specifications for industrial Floor Brick. C41OSO in 1984 Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Section 4, Construction: Vol. 4.05, Chemical-Resistant Materials; Vitrified Clay, Concrete, FiberCement Products; Mortars, Masonry, pp 264-265 (1984). Bennett, James P., Corrosion Resistance of Ceramic Materials to Hydrochloric Acid, Bureau of Mines RI 8807 (1983). Bennett, James P., Corrosion Resistance of Selected Ceramic Materials to Nitric Acid, Bureau of Mines RI 8851 (1984).





6. 7.

16 Carbon Brick


Lee Sheppard, Incorporated



Haverto wn, Pennsylvania

Carbon which cannot nor is nearly insulation

bricks readily

are that



chemical-resistant by other kinds and they their

construction of brick. Inasmuch provide selection


exposures cost as much by only

be handled

as their

10 times

of shale or fireclay, to mechanical

not nearly is dictated four into



the most compelling (1) Where ject where when caustic (2) (3) to


These reasons may be divided will be present

categories: in exsub50 ppm

HF or acid fluorides parts per million followed to heat, spillage

in concentrations conditions or on floors, of in excess be exposure

cess of 1,500

in wet/dry or in floors there

by washdown, or where

used in a vessel lining, subjected alkalis. thermal shock

continually will

wet, especially to strong

Where extreme Where there

is anticipated. for the release of compressive

are design

requirements lining. linings

stresses in the masonry (4) As a facing for brick

in a high pressure

vessel where


loss of pressures The first category

may be anticipated. is self-explanatory. Carbon-filled materials are every-

where indicated under conditions involving HF and strong carbon or graphite are, at this time, the only construction stand units these explains chemicals. The relatively their high ability than porosity any other with to a large degree is perhaps is put into to withstand types 9

alkalis. Brick made of units which can withbrick and other and to The acid units. thermal shock

of carbon

dissipate Take brick that


stresses better a pressure service

of masonry

last category

the most difficult and brought

for the reader to visualize. of shale or fireclay conditions, up to operating say, 100

as an example

vessel lined




and Chemical





psi internal hours. linings tion under the more of The

pressure, vapors suddenly liquids

and and


then which

held Now


those that

conditions the operator


24 to 48 the at the end in a fracor the brick Because of cycling, of a dense includwill has often laid with lining, can but it and


are in the vessel will suppose drops

have permeated

and stabilized a second. the pressure, This very

at this opens result have


of a cycle gases and

a valve and the pressure is an almost condensed brick from them

to atmospheric push for into

The that


the vapors

and absorbed

to leave the

and return of the brick leaving standing the

to the vessel interior. face. With the joints, additional if made pattern. conditions,

of the density brick. and more

of the brick results face material who action

these pressures spalls away, material,

are restrained

by the face materials

in the spalling


low absorption

out in a waffle down

To the viewer ing the operators look fluids. preserve good brick been misdiagnosed The cure, the bed and side joints

has not been briefed in bringing chemically, presence

on the operating and in fact of hydrofluoric


so fast,

the surface

as if it had been attacked as due to the however, the will is the brick. permit the

the condition of carbon brick, brick

acid in the contained

same. A face course The carbon the rapid brick, bleed-out with

of resin mortar,

over the face of the existing

rest of strength, reinforcing

far greater brick

porosity from behind

tensile while

of the vapors

the acid


of the shale or fireclay


spalling. manufactured in the western hemisphere by only volume of its product goes into steel millsand into of this writing brick.) All been manufactured modules. The tolerances one other Because standard manufacturer sizes-in has primathe soaps, carbon it is employed shapes-splits,

Carbon brick is currently one company and the greatest other started 9 are: Length: Width + l/s and thickness: Scoring lowing is available f l/16 only metallurgical production x 2.5

uses. (At the time of an acceptable service, or 9 it has always x 4.5 x 3 available.

rily in refractory x 4.5 arches,

in refractory in manufacture

keys and wedges-are

and supply




l/16 maximum l/s maximum

Out-of-square, on the

any dimension: not

basic straights,

on the shapes. The fol-

are the physical

properties. Table 16-1: Properties of U.S. Bricks

1.55 gr/cm3 77.3 kg/cm2 527.3 kg/cm2 175.7 kg/cm2 0.119 x lo6 kg/cm2 0.012 Cal/cm2/*/sec/oC

Density Tensile strength Compressive strength Flexural strength Modulus of Elasticity Thermal conductivity (K-factor) Mean coefficient of expansion (7O'F to 212F)

96.7 lb/ft3 1100 lb/in' 7500 lb/in2 2500 lb/in2 1.7 x IO6 lb/in2 36 BTu/ft2/in/hr/"F -6 1.5 x 10




The thermal hind




that where

domestic such




a high coefficient (if there is one) a considerable

of be-

conductivity, therefore, brick

gives little must

insulation insulation Note half two

to a membrane is required, also that of that of brick

it and,

thickhalf of thermal many the were carbon

ness of these expansion that struction change, agents United also brick, physical of fireclay.

be employed. brick is less than these designer, brick until

the coefficient together

of thermal

of domestic Thus, is difficult

of shale and about

mating for the


in a single con-

and in the areas of considerable in this hemisphere carbon through brick

close to impossible. carbon though, is available source recently, and distributors. Kingdom, There The major are no ASTM select data supplied of imported German that and is from brick




standards by the

or specifications manufacturer.


so the user must and chemical figures 16-2:

the brick

he plans to use on the basis of the Tables 16-2 and 16-3

give comparative

for these materials. Properties of British Bricks, Two Suppliers


Primary Supplier Density Tensile Compressive Elasticity Thermal conductivity at ZOOOF Expansion Apparent porosity Ash 93 lb/ft3 1000 lb/in2 9000 lb/in' 1.49 gr/cm3 70.5 kg/cm2 630 kg/cm2 1.06 x 10

secondary supplier 96.9 lb/ft' 1.55 gr/cm3

8960 lb/in'

630 kg/cm2

3.6 x lo6 lb/in2

20.0 Buu/ft'/in/hr/"F 2.5 x lo3 k cal/m/hr/DC 3.6 x lS-6/oF 21% 6.5% (also a 0.7% low ash) 8.0 x 10-6/oC

41.6 5.2 BTuft24in/hr/OF x 10 k cal/m/hr/C 8.3 x 1o+/.=c 18% 6-7% (also a 1% low ash)




of German


(No Longer


and Polish


POLISH BRICK English Units only 97 lb/ft3 1150 lb/in3 10,000 lb/in2 1500 lb/in' 1.6 x lo6 BTU/ft'/in/hr/"F 3.6 x 10-6/oF

Metric units Only Density Tensile Compressive Elasticity Thermal conductivity Coefficient of Expansion Apparent Porosity Ash 1.45 kp/l 60-70 kp/cm' 300-350 kp/cm' 0.9-1.0 x 102kp/cm2 2.1-2.3 x 10' k cal/m/h/C 4 to 5 x lo-5/Y 25% 6-8 (also a 1% ash)


The residue, be attacked though sources major for low ash (under most



(the ash) is the only for chemical either alumina are similar


of the brick caustic. economical oxide-may


can a The the

by exposures 1%) brick chemical of the

to hydrofluoric is better exposures, brick ash-silica,

acid or to strong will provide world-wide,

Therefore, ash brick, life. not

service than the higher

of the carbon components

used for

and therefore,

and ferric

be ex-

petted turer that


and Chemical





to states

vary that

greatly not


the proportions the same.

may The

be different North The German

and the minor manufacstates it. producer data.



be necessarily but


he has never manufacturers, Table

run an ash analysis. it is privileged, however, 16-4:

he has run an ash analysis, British

and he refuses to disclose the following

The two

have supplied of Ash*


Major Supplier Si02 A12o3 Fe2o3 ng0 Ti02 CaO Kz" Na20 Only the two British suppliers 34.70 24.0% 20.4% 1.0% 0.8% 1.5% 0.2% 0.99 have supplied this

Minor Supplier 39.029

37.27% 17.7% trace trace

trace trace

The carbon The manufacturers normal


of course, are all pretty only

burn well

if exposed agreed it can of about

to heat and a source of oxygen. that carbon brick can be used in in a reducas high as (340C), though


to a limit of oxygen)


ing atmosphere 5OOOF (2760%). Since all brick

(absence linings

be used at temperatures to abrasion,

in vessels are subjected

the degree dependin comparC704, the fol-

ing on the contents commonly using lowing the the standard results,

of the vessel, at least one user has been interested brick. brick three 16-5: Employing with samples 1,000 the standard grams British abrasion

ing the abrasion resistance of a standard fireclay acid brick with that of the most
used British blasting fireclay testing Table for test, ASTM yielded technique,

(+ 5 grams) of silicon
carbon brick


and the standard of each.

Comparative and Carbon

Results Brick

of Abrasion (ASTM C704)



Fireclay brick a loss of weight 6.04 1

Carbon brick % loss of weight 5.46

8.24 1 average 6.74%
5.94 1 1

) 1

10.00 ) average 7.69% 7.6 )

If the two outside measurements are omitted, the following are the averages. 5:999 6.538

From ent sures masonry

the above, internals,

it would from


that plates strong

the carbon brick. alkalis, and packed


is not greatly construction yet stringers


in abrasion include

resistance such hydrofluoric

the fireclay or

Where beams,

as support acid


the expoand plates

Carbon Brick


made of carbon the crystalline ment ical Dictionary). their physical

or graphite allotropic Graphite from

are substituted of carbon, soft have parallel from

for the ceramic characterized





by a hexagonal feel (Condensed and physical brick. Plastic, directly carbon to the

arrangeChemand and a strengths.

of the atoms.

It is relatively blocks both closely the

and has a greasy similar those chemical

These are available, cal properties graphite Caution: lead lining metals metals breaker will


States and British of the carbon the manufacturer. brick

manufacturers, carbon

properties are readily Do not

These physi-



are also available. place carbon stainless steel. cell with or graphite Direct the or blocks between cathodic avoid the against and many carbon, between units.
see the

or against

contact metal

set up a galvanic of the metal. carbon-filled be inserted

and such

cause the wasting and the should

For the same reason, mortars used to join them.

For fuller



A voltage



on Design.

Working, L.C., Formed Carbon and Graphite in Industry, Ceramic Bulletin, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp 4044 (1953). Raub, H.S. and Miller, J.L., Designing with Carbon and Graphite, Chemical Engineering, Vol. 72, No. 11, pp 97-102 (May 24, 1965); Vol. 72, No. 13, pp 119-126 (June 21, 1965). Schley, John R., Impervious Graphite for Process Equipment, Chemical Engineering Vol. 81, No. 4, pp 144-150 (February 18, 1974); Vol. 81, No. 6, pp 102-110 (March 18, 1974). Sheppard, Walter L., Jr., Chemical ResistantMasonry, 2nd Edition, pp 8,9,35,36.

17 Closed Cell Foamed Borosilicate Glass Block Lining System


Lou Schmidt

Penn walt Corporation Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

A foamed in inorganic, composed is lighter bustion. cells and cut than Table

borosilicate acid/corrosion

glass block resistant glass foamed providing of linings,

lining lining

system materials chemical

is the first with


innovation It is closed It com-

in over half a century. completely support and thermal and does not resistance.

of borosilicate into blocks types other

to 12 lb/f?



easy to install composition

17-1 lists the chemical 17-I

of the block. Borosilicate


: Chemical

Composition Glass Block

of Foamed

Boric oxide Potassium oxide

18% 2%

The from waste to posures



may be used to protect by both chemicals processing, metallurgical,



or FRP substrates Applicable pulp to exand paper, or-

deterioration incineration


and temperature. petrochemical, among

in the chemical or to augment

and power


industries, masonry


it can be used monolithic



or cementitious

ganic linings.
*Throughout this paper, when mention tion, in order to shorten the title, only block is referred to. There are available fect, and blocks of foamed glass that are block made of borosilicare glass, foamed form, will meet the physical and chemical is made of glass block or other similar designathe subject closed cell foamed borosilicate glass plain blocks of glass which have no insulating efnor closed cell, or are not borosilicates. Only those in a closed ce// (and, hence, liquid and gas-tight) standards of the subject material.



Cell Foamed


Glass Block




Some such quench chimneys of molten installed block with tion tions, lining as wet


applications flue and inlet/outlet



in air pollution (FGD) carbon linings for steel tanks;

control scrubbers, liners

equipment baghouses, of concrete covers furglass at


gas desulfurization ductwork; linings;

chambers sulfur

and breechings; pits, linings;

FRP stack tanks

steel or concrete petrochemical borosilicate internal of corrosion a lesser overall into nozzles, the are:


and acid storage material, or

nace and heater

and acid process vessel linings. the foamed monolithic and hot face temperatures masonry a unique little may block added also providing with up to 960F. combination weight be fabricated system one. It may also be used linings proteclining T-secdesired glass It is


as a semi-refractory

withstands above The

refractory, and heat

chemical-resistant 960F conservation foamed liner

temperatures thickness. This properties block

glass block glass lining


inserts and other borosilicate of other


shapes. lining into combines Its features foamed all inorganic alkalies. renders results it rarely it virtucapillarin surface will come to permeability,


of a number


Chemical not resistant ally ity

Resistance-The to weak to hydrofluoric Structure-The to penetration

completely bases, all organic closed-cell of harsh zero,

closedcell, and almost

borosilicate acids.

is resistant Closed-Cell impermeable

acid, acid fluorides

or strong of with With

nature chemicals. contact

the block liquids behind


absorption of the contact block with acid

at practically lining only. the operating Range-The condensates above among with of

wetting in direct

Since the membrane chemicals, block and process corrosive materials fluctuating lining

its life is extended. system chemicals organic has high resistance and the thermal lining materials. resisThis to condiex-

Wide tance


low-temperature to withstand densates be used tions. Low pansion peratures thermal Low therefore of brick, conditions. ture at the it provides

high-temperature lining widely

gases or concentrated and allows such a block

acid conlining

at temperatures is unique in applications Coefficient of without shock can protects Thermal the of 2

the limits

of most


temperatures low upset lining from coefficient

and acidic

Thermal allows

Expansion-A the block to itself inches of 2%

of thermal operations and the

1.6 x lO%/F spalling.

to withstand

the wide

range of temwhere insulation glass block brick; 12 costs 17-1 several the of about

It is resistant or destroy structure

or bypass materials



the support insulation

such damage. borosilicate equivalent acidic lining, reduces reduces life. acid-resistant liquid

Conductivity-Two. power block provides the longest results

of foamed of conventional insulation

has 5.7 times

the thermal exposures in a thinner giving

even under

to completely overall longer can and substantially


This attribute surface of the gradient vessels, brick. abrasion cases, the

energy Figure for

to keep a vessel at a required shows the thermal In process courses block at the block. of acid against face In both

temperature membrane for various foamed facing

the tempera-


thicknesses glass block over abuse over

of the block. be substituted serves both lower exceed the to protect

the from

A brick when block

the block temperatures

mechanical operating installed

and to

temperature of the brick re-

of the block

the limits

a membrane

and beneath



and Chemical





duces the ternal


of brick usually


and thereby power, by high

cuts installation eliminates cooler maintenance remains

time costs,

and costs. on process

Due to its excellent insulation, equipment. are minimized. The outside

insulating surface

the block

the need for exand heat losses


of the equipment

(Based on 75O F Ambient.

10 mph wind)


5OF. > 2OOF. 3OOF. 4OOF. 500F. 6OOF. 7OOF. OF. of foamed borosilicate glass 8OOF. 9OOF

HOT FACE TEMPERATURE Figure block. 17-1: Temperature gradient for various thicknesses

Low installed support structural tures.

Density thickness structure. support



Thickness-Low increases


of 12 Ib/ft3 adds only reduces

and a thin to the struc-


to acid-resistant

brickwork, design flexibility,

3 lb/f?

This feature

steel shell and

costs and permits

the construction

of tall,


INSTALLATION The material Typically, sistant pliers 2% block integrity used but

METHODS of any lining system quality depends of the not only actual on the quality of the an

also on the contractor contractor

installation. a high-quality

Therefore, installation.


specialty a masonry

is required experienced will

to ensure

in the special


of acid-resup-

brickwork application to meet the for

construction instructions. 9

have the expertise

to follow

the block I%,


are normally a particular temperature. or substrate

x 6 and supplied of a variety thermal not for is determined gradient experience a high-quality

in thicknesses by the hot is calculated temperatures lining system

of I,

2 and of the or the that

requirements application The does

of applications.

The thickness to ensure

face temperature beyond

operating membrane mended

its recompre-

limit. requirement is a properly

The primary


Cell Foamed


Glass Block




pared or the full

substrate. roundness



uniformity substrate

of the flatness should

of a rectangular Small the deviation a near-white

substrate can and ensure metal finish such as

of a curved

be verified.


be marked contact Carbon (SSPC-SPIO during blow

and the block of the block. steel

can be easily cut to minimize must be sandblasted must to

substrates #2) Concrete


and maintained surfaces Old concrete

at least 5F above the acid dewpoint be free of any imperfections must be free of oil, grease or chemibe clean and dry and mainof alloy supplier. steel, FRP or or-


holes or honeycombing. Both carbon 5OF

cal contamination. steel and concrete during the must be specified substrates must tained above installation. Preparation by the block

ganic-coated Bonding


Systems are two different bonding systems employed inorganic with the block: mortar. a ureThe

There thane choice

asphalt depends

adhesive/membrane on mechanical Asphalt which or the

or a special considerations


and on the chemical A urethane asphalt

and thermal serves alloy and

environment. Urethane as both nent steel, material concrete Generally, acids, (within tant bases and the Adhesive/Membrane: and a membrane bonds other barrier salts the organic blocks linings elastomer steel, an adhesive to protect and the substrate. also functions the block to It is a two-compoas a moisture and the substrate. and inorganic on and temperatures is not resisby itself

to each other between

and to carbon


(or membrane) in solution range).


is resistant chemical


at various The actual


recommended environment to them.

resistance though mortar that the

may depend

the specific is resistant ical and It

of the application.

The adhesive/membrane compounds

to strong

acids or petroleum-derived In such exposures, forms relieving and stress

the block

the compatible by

must be used. serves as a mechanvibration and of behind as high any lining as the the

The adhesive/membrane thermal of remains stresses cracks. 180F block. At through designed, at 18OF the top continuous the joint. or below of the block operating Because expansion

an elastomeric mechanism thus of the


absorbing as low

contraction hot face


probability to line

elastomeric at the

at temperatures

as -40F


adhesive/membrane above the block 180F will and

temperatures between blocks of the

up to 400F.

adhesive/membrane the bottom

in the joints of the joint and remain lining. is frozen

char to different conductivity, char that portion that as a membrane, forms

depths will be the the the subl/16 block

low thermal

if properly retains

and back joint, chemical being


elastomeric. In place

The glasslike charred

integrity of the

It also retains

resistance created on is then

and, although of the joint, would crack

at the

small block block. To strates, thickness

size prevents the block

large stresses from with

install the with

adhesive/membrane is applied to the he

properly troweled


adhesive/membrane a trowel.

substrate thickness.

at a minimum The coated

The adhesive/membrane also at a minimum

on the back,

sides and end of the block



and Chemical





is moved place between component mal brane and


and l/s



the adhesive

on the substrate removes

as it is slid into may form is a twothe therIts thermal block. The

forming Inorganic

side and back joints. and the substrate. Mortar:

This action

voids that mortar when

the block

Silica-Based silica-based

The completely exceed the shock

compatible the block of the


used to bed and bond capabilities

chemical and

environments vibration chemical


and where

and thermal resistance

are not serious to that

factors. of the 22.)

characteristics cured joints by usual The mortar tumastic, a system

are identical resistant. An prepared

are rigid,

dense and abrasion bricklaying ester of

(See Chapter concrete epoxy, the behind mortar with

may be applied or vinyl

to properly methods. membrane joints,

or steel substrates asphalt, bithe block joints paper, of lining to enmust syswith and next FRP. to alsupa

acid-resistant polyester protection


is required Because filled

sure corrosion be designed tems those pensive abrasion have

the substrate.

are rigid,

of expansion/contraction to prevent been cracks. Linings developed materials. high-cost



Combination of other than better

Incorporating that combine steels These layered stainless heat

Glass Block: the features ceramic and

A number of the They

glass block linings resist acids

and refractory alloys. energy.

are less ex-


and reduce is the proper

losses, saving installed limit with

In all cases, the layer conditions. over its resistance of the block FRP cannot conditions, and

to the substrate Figure The block fire, port layer loys for the of


selected of FRP

for the operating its adhesive/membrane and enhances low density reinforcing, The

17-2 shows the block extends type the temperature and pickup of design paper may

chemicals this

of static because,

electricity. without


load of other, ceramic for their



Depending be placed

on the thermal between the block of thermal

have to

FRP to


large difference

in coefficients


Figure 17-2: Foamed borosilicate fiberglass reinforced plastic.

glass block and urethane

asphalt adhesive/membrane


Closed Cell Foamed


Glass Block

Lining System


Figure the limit limit, placed distort

17-3 shows At block than on the

a steel vessel lined block for to 800F the lining block



under brick

insulating thickness

firebrick reduces This load

and acid brick. temperature for the lower

high operating under the

temperatures, or any material

a proper other

or below. alone,

The maximum organic lining is necessary

temperature is 800F. the




on the block at temperatures

by another

may cause the block

to creep and

above 800F.

1 1 300F

Acid-resistant fireclay

membrane borosilicate glass block reduces

Figure 173: Combination lining incorporating foamed borosilicate glass block courses of brick required to lower temperature to acceptable level at the membrane.

The block the temperature sult is a thinner closed-cell Linings In heaters corrosives, perature are not too well! point ceramic blanket A densing eliminates


the place lining

of additional with added resistant

courses of brick chemical

in further because the

reducing of the are

at the hot overall

face of the membrane

to an acceptable resistance over

level. The re-

nature using

of the block. high-temperature as above: used for the combustion ceramic The fiber blankets itself blanket is not of wastes or other are used to reduce chemical-resistant range, drops and, blanket below because behind potential the tembut bemonolithics block

based on the same principles and furnaces insulating steel to acids shell. temperatures highly on the thought

cause operating

are in the behind steel the

1800-2OOOF the often

acid condensates does its job the acid dewthe the it is wet, the

be a problem. to condense The ability.

However, blanket on and becomes the


The temperature fiber blanket. which



the steel shell and saturate


loses its insulating design this problem.

incorporates The block

foamed power

glass block the acids from

blanket and con-



on the steel and adds insulating

of its own to the lining.



and Chemical





The brane brief system


lining, or other

installed organic



its urethane


adhesive/memare lining

or inorganic expalantions is particularly

mortar, of those


a number linings

of improvements applications. the foamed where

over conventional The following glass block

acid brickwork

in many


suitable. Systems by the combustion may of before coal and petroleum venting coke are acid

Flue Gas Desulfurization Stack high mosphere. condensates glass block of gases generated oxides and high that A lining

in sulfur


be removed system

the gases to the atThe borosilicate resistance materials withsilialre-

in an FGD temperature

be subject that

to low temperature intervals. the thermal

gases at alternating systems acid to fluctuate calcium resistance

is one of the few lining materials, shock the resistance like they

combines between


of chemical-resistant the two

and the thermal out harm. Inorganic cate high and

conditions sodium flue

monolithics silicate Because



silicate, the dry



are able

to withstand and tend

gases at they may

temperatures. Organic linings

are porous vinyl

to crack,


low acid vapors sist wet peratures An rating than only in online acid

to reach the substrate such as polyesters, at low condensates testing The many

and condense. esters or fluoroelastomers but will not accept higher tem-

temperatures is needed.


a semi-refractory after block

independent FGD

laboratory an Atlas lining

gave the block is expected

its highest

performance longer service after

of 10 in FGD systems systems. linings alternative

test cell program

and test installations

to give much

of which

have failed

in the same environment

a year or less.

Waste Incineration The potential phosphorus taminant is variable incineration corrosives and sulfur is almost and they 1100 the of liquid present. oxides always must to and solid Usually wastes produces fluoride, gases with a variety of of congases may

they chloride. one

are some

combination composition Before from before the they pollutants.


and some hydrogen in any

but the primary incineration incinerator enter above

hydrogen be scrubbed

The exact


unpredictable on the

incinerator. offgases the to 600F

can be vented, Depending range ber. from While chamber dewpoint are cyclic inlet ation. Foamed is a good wide the range

of these noxious

particular 2100F.

operation, Typically, to 500 will

gases are sent

to a conditioning a scrubthe acid in the deterior-

to lower

the temperature problems with frequent ductwork laid may


is in operation, periods during

the gases may of idleness, shutdowns mortar


and corrosion operations scrubber

be minimal.

But because most


gas condensation can cause serious over a suitable

and outlet

glass block for of acid that

in its silica-based these the areas. During block condense

membrane to the When




it is resistant

on the surfaces can withstand

of the ductwork.


is operating,

the high

gas temperatures

Closed Cell Foamed


Glass Block




coming tance cracking.

from allows

the the

conditioning lining to

chamber alternate may


scrubber. the two

Its thermal environments precipitators is required chamber inevitably for




without in conjuncIf if it some a it. But

Waste tion with

incineration a scrubber.

systems The

use electrostatic may come no special before lining process The

precipitator usually with acid barrier

or after the scrubber.

it comes after precedes itator cooling hot

the scrubber,

the scrubber, and

the gases from

the conditioning This

enter the precipproduces lining provides insulation

and are saturated consequently acid-resistant


condensates. and eliminates

glass block


the need for external

on the precipitator. Smelting Operations gases in the most 600-900F range are carried primarily scrubbing. by a scrubber through is not ducts to a scrubbefore exiting operais an 100%; therefore,

Smelter ber to remove through tion may

of the contaminants, of removal after present

sulfur Because


a stack.

The efficiency are still

some corrosives normally form

the scrubbing This


the temperature ducts leading

to the 125-18OF from the scrubbers glass block.

range, acid condensates to the stack.

in the exit

ideal area to install dewpoint during (generally shutdowns

the borosilicate a reheater 350-4500F) affecting the scrubber

In some smelters, the gas without tack from against need for support,

is installed so the acid

to raise the exit remains ducts Even with

gas above the acid and exits to chemical protection the with ata reheater, however,

as a vapor are subject


the ductwork. and exit glass block outer little added


acid condensates. of the foamed (2) lower (3) insulation, provide: weight (1) chemical that which condensates, shell temperature installation eliminates

The capabilities acid external

saves on structural and easy repairs.

and (4) a quick

and relatively


Baghouses Baghouses verted them. contents other cloth into The flow In certain acids that with these corrosives processes, dewpoint are large rectangular collect steel structures to allow stream containing the filter contain However, acids an array bags to drop sulfuric of intheir


bags that is interrupted


in flue gases flowing

up through

periodically the exhaust

hoppers. applications, can be highly frequent glass block may acid and corrosive. At operating and with startups, temperatures these fall above 450F, in intermittent below their both walls.

are in the gas phase and not a problem. shutdowns condensation bonded eats away

and corrosive

the steel baghouse

Borosilicate the high operating for external Tall Stacks Along tall stacks. eliminated with

its adhesive/membrane is eliminated.

can handle


and the acid condensates.

Once again, the need


on the baghouse

all its other


the blocks structural

lightweight support

lends itself

to lining or


it adds only

3 Ib/ft2,

can be minimized

on tall stacks.



and Chemical





Even though safe from ture iar problem causes lining block sition Pickle from point Tanks tanks may drop

the gases entering point lining of view, materials. the dewpoint and forces to top, specify

a stack

may be above the acid dewpoint is tall (>200 ft), This presents


a corrosion below failure bottom and then to many

if the stack

the temperaa familglass

once it reaches the top. The wet condition maintenance. materials designer

at the top of the stack the tran-


With the borosilicate of the stack.

the stack different

need not try to determine for each section

Pickle acids brick

can be continuous temperatures pickle tanks to are lined

or batch condition with mortar needed

processes that and clean

use sulfuric metals

or other products. More than to the deallows for is a

at elevated


Conventionally one course The a thinner is not bonded course

two over

or more courses a rubber

of acid-resistant

set in a suitable of brickwork

acid-resistant is usually

membrane. stability. tanks where and

to reduce

the temperature

sired level at the hot face of the membrane insulating lining over power The tank with brick and chemical membrane is first its urethane lined and better that

and to provide resistance with for pickle

of the glass block membrane, is placed

protection asphalt

stability finally

a concern.

the rubber mortar

the block over the block less brick


of acid-resistant

laid in acid-resistant

for mechanical The foamed less installation serving brane heat, against

protection. glass block time. and the saves costs at the outset long-term costs effects by giving of strong by requiring energy protection and It also yields savings in: (I) better costs by conto the memThe serviceable years longer than

(2) maintenance deteriorating is expected lining alone.

acid and heat. as 30 years-10

life of a block the typical


to be as long

acid brick

Vessel Covers The glass block and its lightweight, ties prevent Since been proper solved the used the 17% of energy costs. the linings foamed borosilicate glass block In most In some failed. only well. lining system has with have cases, in the the handled metal alloys processes be found. applicat.ions other mentioned. lining where exposures, cases, they In other system, is perfectly because suited of its resistance to lining to acid liquids and vapors properas

vessel lids.

Its insulative

loss of process heat through

the cover thereby

saving as much

the mid-1970s, extensively

installation, a corrosion lining

are performing


in which

systems previously


an environment have worked. change

considerably to the

more expensive As industrial corrosion foamed must

and new ones are developed, to be adapted is providing system

new solutions solutions.

As it continues lining

to new applications, one of those


glass block

Pierce, Robert R. and Semler, Charles E., Ceramic and Refractory tion-Part I, Chemical Engineering,81-84 (December 12.1983). linings for acid condensa-

Closed Cell Foamed


Glass Block

Lining System


Pierce, Robert R. and Semler, Charles E., Ceramic and refractory linings for acid condensation-Part II, Chemical Engineering, 102-104 (January 23, 1984). Carpenter, W. Graham and Pierce, Robert R., Sulfuric and phosphoric acid plant lining systems, Chemical Engineering Progress, 57-61 (March 1982). Rittenhouse, R.C., Protective coatings for power plants, Power Engineering, 30-38 (December 1982). Berger, Dean M., Trewella, Robert J. and Wummer, Carl J., Evaluating linings for power plant SOI?scrubbers,Power Engineering, 71-74 (November 1980). Sheppard, Walter Lee, Using chemical-resistant masonry in air pollution control equipment, Chemical Engineering, 203-210 (November 20,1978).



and Insulating


Paul E. Schlett Exxon Research Florham and Engineering Go.

Park, New Jersey

From time to time it becomes necessary to design process equipment in the chemicals industry to contain high temperature reactions or to incinerate or process toxic chemicals to more inert substances. These conditions are corrosive and erosive to metals and require the use of protective barriers to prevent failure of the equipment. For low temperature 300F) conditions, various types of organic membrane linings provide corrosion resistance or special metal alloys may be used. Certain inorganic monolithic lining materials are also used at intermediate temperatures (600-1000F). These techniques for protecting against shell corrosion are discussed extensively in other chapters of this volume. However, when temperatures exceed the maximum service I imit of these types of I inings, it becomes necessary to consider materials which will either protect the chemically-resistant membrane from heat so that it will continue to protect against metal shell corrosion, or to design high temperature linings which of themselves will provide corrosion protection. These materials are normally refractories and are primarily brick, refractory concretes or other chemically-resistant masonry. This chapter provides the equipment designer with a basic discussion of various types of refractory brick linings which can be used to 3300F, depending on the process .

A number of factors affect the selection of refractories 170

for use in corrosive


and Insulating Firebrick






A number of factors affect the selection of refractories

applications. be considered. This section lists and briefly it should discusses those At the outset, be remembered lining system system. Often parts type already that

for use in corrosive

which should are the refractories


most vulnerable part of a h igh temperature to protect other permanent parts of the signed a result, lection tact will with the thought followed thicknesses design that the permanent be designed, lining by a decision requires suppliers

since they are designed times, systems are deshould to lining metal first sevesconwhich Because own earlier rein last as costly or should prior and the be used. As

of the equipment of lining been fixed

as to what set internal

have sometimes

since process


sel has already fit

been engineered refractory established taken to fit

and, in some cases, purchased. who are expected protect equipment, into the metal, unit and they last, small, linings have had they future

At this point, linings provide their do not

is made with the already

to provide

the neces-

sary thermal refractories quirements, the project. Occasions changed or reduce ment some erating formance provide to lining have, former terials tion step. ent protect may had

insulation, are often are made as well Early also

and last as long as all other consideration are too have, could areas that

components. despite often

long or perform

as they

been considered may also minimize costs. new with

consideration in a project arise when

of refractory and reduce companies

design changes later current

maintenance developed yields,

processes new products, existing



to increase unsafe



of environmentally



in an effort to reduce costs. Because these changes virtually always provide kind of a competitive advantage, companies are very hesitant to discuss opconditions only half perform complete with the people needed for lining only outside information a fraction information for their own company. When refractory owners peroften new the changes very radically their new formulations operation due to process changes, to refractory and processes. been equipment consultants as well

in an effort as it could from of feed masimula-

Once again, given,

the resulting

as long or a fraction examination,

used samples or samples in laboratory work between


been provided

been provided tests. Enlisting

for comparative consultants which appear

performance early to

analyses design

refractory all of

in process be equal

is a very wise vastly differConse-

The designer approaches,

is frequently

faced with

early decisions in their


quently, the least expensive route is selected in an effort to keep costs down. Where refractory linings are involved, a seemingly insignificant decision may have quite an impact on refractory discussion performance and subsequent process that re-

liability. It is hoped consideration temperature scribed most and honest be provided listed timization

the above

has led the reader to understand


of refractory lining process design work. satisfactorily to the refractory of refractory lining a description

design is important in all corrosive and/or high Since customized refractory linings can be prerequirements, The following what as complete should are parameters conditions/requirements in knowing as possible is important

to meet the performance of operating consultant/supplier. performance.

as a guide

to assist the designer

for the op-


Corrosion and Chemical Resistant Masonry Materials Handbook

variety of refractory materials are available which provide for a wide


range of service temperatures from ambient to 3300F. When designing linings for use at certain temperatures, one should note the performance criteria for the lining (i.e., to contain chemically inert or active gaseous atmospheres, to contain molten corrosive liquids, to protect a metal shell from impact/abrasion/erosion by high temperature solid materials, to thermally insulate for process efficiency, to accept without damage any fluids which may condense when the unit is idle, or to withstand stresses due to rapid temperature cycling) . Maximum use temperatures are reported on refractory data sheets in terms of pyrometric cone equivalent (pce). In essence, this pce defines the temperature at which a small standard sized cone of the material slumps due to softening. Table 18-1 lists the pce numbers with the corresponding temperature limits and generic types of brick which fall within the various pce ranges. These reported pce's indicate a refractory's maximum use limit when exposed to a gas-fired environment; however, they may actually soften at much lower temperatures due to reactions with the atmosphere they are containing. Table 18-1: Approximate Pyrometric Cone Equivalent (PCE) Values of Generic Classes of Fireclay and High Alumina Refractory Brick Refractory Brick
Pyrometric Cone Number 12 13 14 15 ----16 17 18 19 20 23 26 27 End C -Points OF Brick Types

1335 2440 1345 2460 1400 2550 1430 2605 ,_-_---------2715 1490 1510 2755 1520 2770 1540 2805 1565 2845 1605 2905 1620 2950 1640 2985 29 1660 3020 31____-----------_____ _____l_s!h_-3!S.!J-__________ 31'h 1700 3090 32 1715 3125 33___ __174z.__3_1LO_____________ 34 1765 3205 35 1785 3245 36 1805 3280 37 _____1&2I?__~~P________-----38 _____l65Q__Q3_Q________________ 39 1865 3390

I .E 2 a S 8

I ._
a 8
E 2

Fi .E

a 8 8

40 1885 3425

41_____1_97____3580 _1 ._-


42 _____3J15___36~~_____________________


and Insulating



For tories




in very


atmospheres, very

insulating lightweight


may be used. These types as brick

of refractories

are normally or refractory above

can be purchased amic fiber. When design layer lowing quality hottest actual their operating

shapes, as castables are very layers at that above


and as cerbest to The those The folat their the at it is fail

temperatures of


28OOF, refractory

it is often products. itself. limit to withstand

linings exposed

composed and strength not

several enough behind

of different temperature their hottest back-up

to the hot gases should

have a pee high enough


to support service will

layers of refractories and should faces lining hot which hot and

the hot face layer layer

may be of lesser refractory of refractory shrink heat toward and melt through that

be operated In these

maximum layers

are against either cause

the next cases, the lining so that service



failure limit,

or excessive there

losses. If a hot the lining

face layer will soften Proper tures enough when and signing turers ance mortar the in

has been over-insulated its maximum and . design above of multicomponent their maximum and heated potential slump

the temperature overhead, linings the


level and approaching catastrophically involves

is a danger

on side walls

or sag when refractory

and eventually

to resist high are not exposed hot face layer

temperato temis strong creep

being sure the hot faces of all components limits, and that the weight and stresses imposed to its limit. from refractory also


to support highly test data those

on it by the rest of the lining on high temperature manufacturers to assist in deto manufacallowbe from aggressive,



load Proper

are available allowance Heat-setting

around published inert joints

problems. should be made according the mortars parts kinds who often provide necessary more

expansion data.

atmospheres; are the most that

however, vulnerable expansion These specialists

as atmospheres of the lining allowances of lining


and must, should

therefore, be thoroughly

minimized. discussed lining Rapid are very where ter Such not cling. not cling tening, rapid

This requires atmospheres. refractory with

be made in areas away details experience linings

aggressive design.

have had extensive harmful in most to refractory facilities,

in brick since they wareare cyhas sofcyto it for are

temperature Although face of cooling hot

cycling not the of refractory

is very expected linings



have been cases by spraying lining cycling lining where

have been performed the metal extreme led to such complete

on the


or. against have by found

shell of the equipment. refractory temperature the refractory limit,

attempts common, Where been

at rapid problems inert

inspections caused are often




on a smaller and when

scale due to thermal


are involved, may


to temperatures and shrinkage extreme against swings which corrosive than chemical should perform as compared

approaching occur, very where

its maximum

densification can be more temperature linings

ranges and speed of thermal products which are to be exposed Suffice desirable which are not refractories

dense low porosity Linings for

are be-

ing used to protect extreme to high say that

attack. well

be designed in cyclic

such conditions. shock-resistant







are very weak

to corrosion-resistant



and Chemical






strong To this

and dense and, therefore, must moderate form of point, in the

more thermal into

shock lining

prone. details

At times, for inert

howatmosbeing the per-

ever, these properties pheres

be compromised When impurities products or altered. reducing

one product.

and high temperature of combustion rather than

have been discussed. are oxidizing

are added to the atmospheres or feed inert, stocks, refractory lining

contained atmospheres formance Atmospheric When ture pounds fluorides, pheres, duced tassium, fractories, sion results formed low of the glassy material volves form and, posed dium alpha Beta of

or when

can be radically Composition refractory sodium, chlorides, refractories

linings having lithium, sulfides, perform

are intended products potassium, phosphates in their differently

to contain vanadium along design. with

moderate or reaction and titanium the usual

to high temperacontaining and combromides, atmosrepore-


of combustion

COZ, CO, Hz, and corrosive

02, extreme

care must

be taken

In these highly materials containing metals flux lining.


they lining

do in clean environments. may be drastically sodium, lithium, mostfireclay-type erosion

The service when they

life of hot and/or

face refractory titanium.

are exposed

to environments These alkali point of a refractory high temperature

vanadium, thus from

reducing wear point, often

the melting by particulates freezes to form

of the lining,

and so reduce Rapid

the effecand abrato bezone the face into exsothe and,

tive maximum

service temperature face during spalls

of the fluid-softened operation, a glass. The frozen in thermal by little, Little

hot face. The liquid when cooled surface or reacted between hot linings hot brick

on the hot lining surface

its melting

due to differences lining. erosion attack


and the unaffected by either metal form of alkali

the complete

can be attacked their

or spalling various

due to melting. components to bloat of the brick on their

Another expansive

on the hot faces of refractory with cause brick about melt form than

high temperature crystalline erode form

reaction phases which


subsequently, to does phase alumina When sodium not of

or spall.

An example from to

is the case of alumina 1700F with beta the to 3OOOF. sodium bond alumina, alumina, very eventual refractory the thermal

at temperatures a low alumina, corundum, greater bonding


temperature volume

it reacts with

aluminate. failure.

has a much the brick metals

dense corundum service

therefore, pected the hot tion lining and ture tory

disrupts alkali inert hot metal data of over face.


causing for any

are present lining

in processes,


life can be exused on selecin the

atmosphere brick

performance performance as cool

material by judicious gradient

However, face

can be optimized

of the Alkali a good


and designing as possible. by a number When

to keep the hot face brick attack

has been studied to these help have been in alkali

of refractory with the high one should

companies temperarefracBased on general

base has been established. refractories their tests which alkali


exposure suppliers and



and enlist

in optimizing conducted,

refractory following


experience guidelines

are some

for refractory




and Insulating





react with

fireclay the

and high alumina is that

brick. and melting

In the case of fireclay, the brick. In the tion. High fired, low for porosity, case of alumina,


of fluxing




a mineralogical




super duty into the brick

fireclay surface Li,O,



suggested penetration limits means within the the


services to 2OOOOF. The low porosity vapors with of reaction These the brick would attack. matrix.

minimizes and thus purity the and K,O with High

of the alkaline amount brick


levels of TiO,, matrix.

Fe,O,, impurities

CaO, MgO,


impurities Sixty to The duty ture from From the the

in the atmosphere alumina brick

to accelerate


seems to perform range. These

best in the 2OOOF bricks brick should also be above. temperabrick protected is mentioned service




high fired,

low porosity afforded bricks silica

and low in the impurities by the 60% alumina above mullite, of the alumina to form reaction. plus alumina will occur, to brick mentioned is a higher and

advantage fireclay limit. with

over the super

The majority

in a 60% alumina is therefore


the alkali/alumina 2400F alkali/alumina alumina brick up, 88%

is suggested. that the lining

Although of does not

reaction service

the higher

refractoriness exposure. at 24OOF well

is necessary


soften Another above alkali Refractory services sium having shock evaluate to alkali These other due shown ies, the tween commonly and good to aluminate damage. relative test

and sag during alternative

in the high temperature brick

to the 88% plus alumina brick which to thermal to evaluate for composition slags; however, a lining of different developed vapor lining. available Unit contain which types for attack shock.


is aluminachrome but is very companies develop spine1 When refractory susceptible continue new to alkali designing




refractory has recently will

performance been

in these A magneas





identified to thermal


it is also susceptible be exposed

to alkali by exposing

at high tests to them are


manufacturers at temperatures initially alkali in the Variations

have the capability of refractories those iron and the approximating of these tests An example through operation

to perform expected steel


compositions procedures, called

in service.


slag tests. concerning gradients 18-I. knowledge

have been made to answer of alkali cup penetration slag test is of a typical research

questions to thermal in Figure best various In spite

and depth

of the types


tests and studpredictions bethe ser-


can only which



performance variables

of refractories. linings

also affect

vice life of refractory

these corrosive



Corrosion and Chemical Resistant Masonry Materials Handbook

Figure AI2O3 Caprio tesy of

18-1: (Upper) Cup slag test on 42% AI2O3 brick. (Lower) Cup slag test on 60% brick. From Refractories for Hazardou s Waste Incineration" An Overview, James A. and H. Edward Wolfe, 1982 National Waste Processing Conference, page 148. Courthe Harbison-Walker Refractories Co.

High temperature atmospheres containing fluorides, chlorides, sulfides and phosphates also affect lining performance. Of these, fluorides are the most detrimental. Very little information is available for use in predicting service life of refractories exposed to this very corrosive halogen which, while in the liquid or gaseous state, reacts with refractories to form soluble salts of the bonding matrix and virtually disintegrates the lining. High temperature fiuoride-containing atmospheres may be experienced when incinerating many toxic chemicals. Fluoride levels in the range of very few parts per million may reduce refractory service life to months or even days. No effort is made here to suggest acceptable fluoride levels or to recommend a specific type of refractories for the service. Con-


and Insulating



sultants perature they form they silica.

are available fluorides. not


provide when



Suffice both

it to say that


cial assistance Although contact soluble do not This

is required


units to handle chlorides

high and low temperformance Chlorides material when also though for use

as severe as fluorides, in both most glassy service performs the components materials. where well

also reduce and liquid

refractories salts with react with

gaseous of


a refractory


An excellent


in chloridecontaining refractory

temperatures in exposures

do not exceed to chlorides

19OOF is fused because of its vitby

reous or glassy morphology. Performance measuring ified into ASTM the relative C279 of refractories performance acid solubility performance and sulfides of may exposed to chlorides refractory can best be determined types in actual properties. brick lining below of different compositions various also types service A mod-

using small test panels of different relative

and physical of refractory

test using an HCI solution

can also give insights in chloride performance, are norshell. One lining so by and lining or the for an and not be done the gaseous vametal the may for

containing but mally por that method

environments. influence form. refractory detrimental by sulfates only limits of the attack lining in the liquid portion Consequently, refractories

Phosphates are only attacked dewpoint which all parts

and phosphates by these are above when units as operating insulation is no good closed

at temperatures of the lining liquids dewpoint. exceed

in the cooler

near the This

corrosive the vapor are operating

is to design

using external temperatures. shell, becomes inside. unsafe

insulation However,

at relatively

low pressures design

temperatures to limit through, cell foamed

the metal

the use of external since there shell section 17). the (Chapter

condensation either from

in a refractory the outside

means to observe

the shell for hot spots or glass block

areas where alternative phosphates only With lining gradient to the this

has corroded on

See the


The condensation refractory

of aqueous lining but to lining lining,

solutions toward the also will both

of fluorides, metal severely

chlorides, carbon


in a refractory in mind,

shell can be detrimental corrode alternate temperatures

steel shells.

it becomes as related a refractory


to consider operating

designs to improve and the thermal

performance through


OPTIMIZED LINING As stated shell from excessive tories; the tains limit shell metal A hot







the function and overheating. as the most when designed

of a refractory One normally significant lining high above. the system Two


is to protect protection characteristic also effectively process

the metal against of refracprotect conused to

corrosion temperature against

considers may

protective temperature lining shell designs.

however, corrosive

a properly corrosion materials refractory

gas stream

mentioned lining

designs commonly with lining

shell corrosion shell

are hot and cold

has been constructed




and Chemical





proportioned temperature dense, there condense. Hot where the

in a manner above will But be no attack






to be maintained liquids which corrosion.

at a would the

the vapor


of the process. components high

If none of the gases conof the process temperature sulfates low for attack

of the metal the gaseous in

shell by corrosive

in cases where designs are

steel shell, a hot shell design would shell used than high, perhaps stream. the hot shell greater They shell. refractory lining the

not be effective particularly 0.5 wt %, sulfides however,

in minimizing and/or

applications are present required the shell memone conin proc-


are impractical, In these lining

temperature to insulate

esses such as 12OOF or less due to limitations to achieve externally A cold brane structs ditions metal brane. forming Otherwise, protection. Other conserve minimize high especially pected, able, using shell. the shell Care to raise its temperature above

in materials

and thickness

cases, it is not uncommon the dewpoint. to protect will is designed

an impermeable In this design, be resistant enough

on the shell from refractory within should the kinds energy experienced

deterioration so the hot

to heat exposure. face material range the environment that

to the conto keep the memof per-

in the operating effective be taken will

and thick of the design lining


impermeable is capable

to ensure


at the maximum



in the equipment. no corrosion efforts through to to the is exexpanby

membrane of and hot failures

be damaged

thermally the result Three liner limit

and provide of overzealous measures gradient lining

are sometimes unit efficiency.


can be taken

the possibility if the

of such a failure. face refractory of higher lining use temperature


the thermal should of the service



be as steep as possible, material temperature support back is not availthe brick

maximum the of

and if a refractory design creating refractory the



in such a manner and metal

as to allow Third, supports

for thermal

sion without Since

excessive brick

stresses in the lining. ledge are very different

a combination

refractory often physical linings

to the metal the same comfor assistance measdurto entheir

even within suppliers

positional in obtaining ures. IFBs ing high sure that maximum Brick

classes, the designer necessary


contact properties


and in applying to shrinkage

the above and melting design exceeding

used as back-up temperature the back-up use limit.

are also subject Care should exposed

operation. linings

be taken

in gradient

are not

to temperatures

Shapes When designing a refractory available custom-made brick lining, one should lining consider fit into using brick sound manu-

shapes which lining. volves facture. into brick brick.

are readily

and which to allow to fit

provide onto

the most structurally power presses for brick brick normally

To have bricks the costly Other special

a precise

a vessel in-

fabrication molds

of molds and firing. times

shape alternatives dimension,


air ramming method quality

compositions results in costly pressed to those for

wooden/metal Special

The latter but of inferior are often

shapes of proper shapes.

to the machine

shape delivery


long as compared



and Insulating







in standard blocks, assistance

configurations in selection sound should


as straights, from shapes brick

arches, refractory



rotary which

kiln provide

etc. Numerous

guides are available of standard linings. carefully


and combinations With the above sition, used, spelled analysis and select

required and for

to provide of the for brick

structurally brick that

guidelines, physicals use those

the designer

examine in which

the compofor use is to be

of all manufacturers fit the description


in the thermal

ranges required

the processes

the equipment

and requirements

out above.

1, Caprio, view, Mech. Modern J.A. and Wolfe, H.E., Refractories for hazardous waste incineration, an over1982 National Waste Processing Conference (Book No. 100150). Am. Sot. of Engrs., New York, NY. Refractory Practice, Harbison-Walker Refractories Co., Pittsburgh, PA,






Lee Sheppard, Incorporated


C.C.R.M., Havertown,


Porcelain marily dye purity they for (1)


are used as linings cleaning, there brick (2) all in combination

very product with

occasionally purity,

where (3) high

the wear

need is priresistance, In the and batches so

ease of

and (4) high strength, industry, of colors. visible. Chemical clay clay,

(5) best chemical inter-batch residues so that

resistance. contamination earlier

in particular, Porcelain They

is concern are white, porosity,



are easily The of baked fined burning most alumina, blends stitute the plasticity, aluminum of

have zero

and the surfaces as ceramic clay;

are glass smooth, wear made Kaolin clay). point

may be easily cleaned. Dictionary coated white clay; defines or glazed bole; porcelain with largely is de(kaolin) which, a fusible has a high substance. white fusion

as (china refractory In the the

argilla; purity,


A whiteand is the (40%

due to its great plus impurities of chemical (a mixture as a general power, high product

of all clays.

It gives the composition and water. and electrical of kaolin form term for

as mainly porcelain,


55% silica) together body strong silicate porcelains

manufacture of the

the manufacturer and spar to conas defined in that possess good to a white hydrated pure,

sand, clay Dictionary bonding product.

and ball clay) and fire. those clays

he will

Ball clay,



and which relatively


or cream-colored

These clays are fine grained,

. .

. used as bonding and plasticizing agents or chief ingredients a sodium and po. ., floor and wall tile. Spar is primarily



tassium purer higher ucts

silicate the must


is used as a flux, and the higher temperature. used to form manner analyses vary, they from of the but

and to lower the percentage that

the firing of alumina are fired

temperature. in the mix,

The the

ingredients the mix in this to chemical will What

be the firing

Because terials, basic relative content, only son with tory acid trated will the

the bodies naturally bodies from

to produce not

the prodmafrom of the or The only

are made

occurring to year,

mixed as the

or quarried deposits

varies considerably, can only be indicated

manufacturer materials terms. and other



and compositions do determine data is based with

in general phases.

is the crystalline on the identity brick porcelain blocks make

phases of the mineral of these (or tile) in comparilaboraacid, concen-

all analytical that forms chemists and and for of fired know,

characteristic As most equipment, fluorides, alkalis slowly etch

is an absolute

chemical-resistant glass and porcelain Some but they strong halogen

is zero porosity. very except (other satisfactory hydrofluoric as hot than such

resistant fused boiling

to almost alkalis. them,

all harsh chemicals acids




or attack the

can still serve, even in such exposures, (other (A1203) than a regular body) for a

economically specific tor. For high increases,

long periods. particular of alumina point (38-40% a 95-98% scale vary 9 at 98-99% are fired body, porcelain of alumina increases, with the percentage present is a determining must facalso

In selecting service,

As the percentage the softening example, strength

the hardness less than be fired is fired

of the end product 15% alumina, at about

rises, and the firing probably will body alumina) body from 6-7


be increased. up to a 2200Hardfor a high those for for shale,

a regular body and Mohs to

at approximately (1600-1700C). body, and 7-7.5 figures with



An 85% alumina


(1500-155OC) nesses on the strength acid brick body, which

at 2900-3100F for a regular Compare these


in the ranges 1900-195OF the alumina the cost of very content, regular high


and 2 1 OO-2200F Obviously, brick lining. a vessel will and except mated

(11 50-1 2OOC) for f ireclay. the higher body brick there of the cost of a porcelain brick for lining class, porcelain (which will

the higher For example, be roughly

10% of that involving of the firing

for porcelain temperature),

of the 85% alumina be little




can be approxidifference and body and

as a percentage

in the performance The following mineralogical (3840%) mixing Pressing ufacturers, more by W.D. ing and Ames, porcelain them, may brick is zero

of the materials. table provides a comparison of the after may regular body brick. selecting

the physical high

properties strength


and the

In manufacturing, be done

the raw materials, prior to firing, either but whatever

and proportioning by casting system

be formed, Any may (John Jones

or pressing. the man-

in a number

of ways, number

is used, the end from

requirement detailed


of shapes are available glazed or unglazed. to either Berard Introduction State

and in a variety information M.I.T. by G.T. Kingrey, Testing,

of thicknesses, be referred Wiley and M.F.

The reader desiring to Ceramics, ProcessPress, Industrial University

and Sons), or Ceramics: (Iowa




and Chemical





BODY PROPERTIES Regular FIRED DENSITY HAP.DNE?& POROSITY (Mh Scale) Dye Test) Zero at 100,000 100,000 5,000 (Unglazed) (Glazed) 10.4 3.2 Section) Section) 10,500 15,000 SPECIFIC GRAVITY .087 2.41 lbs/ 6-7 lbs/ psi psi psi psi 17.0 3.7 Zero at 100,000 psi psi psi psi psi in/in/OF lbs/ Body High Strength 2.80 .lO lbs/ eody




140,000 8,000 20,000 25,000 x lo6 x 10m6 ____ 400



x lo6 psi x 10-6 400 in/in/OF



kv/in. -___ 5.6 0.89

kv/in 6.9 0.63%



(1 mc)









(Fired) 75.0% 15.0% 10.0% 50.00 10.0% 2.0% 38.00 100.0% 100.0%


The designer least expensive with an acid similar. brick

may note that lining, lining,

if he requires feasible

the most cleanable to mate porcelain of thermal

surface, brick

yet the are quite

it is entirely since their

as a facing



The author wishes to thank Mr. Zoltan Szilagyi, of the Lapp Insulator LeRoy, NY, for his assistance in preparing the above paper.





Hans J. Hoffmann Abresist Corporation Indiana



IS RAW BASALT? deposits can be found and mineralogical veins. is usually for column shaped. only These columns and augite stand appear surface. Generally, these rare. olivine in many parts of the world For rock and occur with varying the raw

Raw basalt external basalt deposits




out of the tertiary plugs or bedded face of basalt

era are subvolcanic

in the form

of cylindrical at right augite

The cleavage as phenocrysts.

angles to the cooling and magnetite;

The base materials

basalts are composed

of plagioclase

glass is relatively

MANUFACTURE Dense, of fused The poured to two material with made mm mold select

OF FUSED basalt with

CAST uniform

BASALT structure and is required melted material crystalline for the manufacture (125OOC) and

cast basalt. raw into days basalt where to is mined, molds. a uniform temperature hardness crushed, is raised at 2300F is placed in a specific structure. flat surfaces for pipe for sand or iron achieve The solidified and fine in the annealrange, for up This gives the can be lined systems the are 21

ing furnace,

and lowered

its extreme or

and resistance. shapes. Standard flat to tiles. procedures. standard casting Thicker Cylinders

Fused square for

cast basalt

is cast in many

rectangular or centrifugal spun and tiles.

in static

Wall thickness thickness

ranges from


cast cylinders

30 mm


cast cylinders

liners can also be made.


ANALYSIS composition of basalt SiOz


The average analytical


Amount -45-48% -14-16% -12-14% -lO-12% -8% -6% -2% Trace I


Silica Alumina
Iron oxides Calcium oxide Magnesium oxide Potassium and sodium oxides Titanium oxide Manganese and sulfur

Fez03and CaO


MgO K,O and NazO TiOg Mn and S



and Chemical





About cates

45% of the (primarily


is as magnetite


Fe304, and about

55% in sili-



USE OF FUSED The manufacture ago.

of the Fused fused cast cast basalt also was pioneered known under from in West Germany the registered the destructive to: tradeforces chutes, is used world-

about mark wide

60 years ABRESIST, in virtually Typical


is abrasion all industries that

and corrosion to protect may be lined tanks, under

resistant. equipment include,

The material

of wear. equipment but are not limited separators, mixers, pressure head. under provide hoppers, or under service flumes, gravity life. conveyors, conditions. it may be said that basalt linings long-maintenance-free vessels, cyclones, a liquid etc. or vacuum

Pipe systems In general,

can be operated



About 8 175 lb/ft3 0% by weight 71,000 lb/in2 4.2 x b3 lb/in 14-17 x 1061b/in2 4 x IO-in/in OF 8 Btu/in/ft2/hrloF About 7OOF 10,000 ohms

Hardness Mohs scale (diamond = IO) Density Water absorption Compressive strength Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Linear thermal expansion (at 2OOF) Thermal conductivity (at 200F) Operating temperature limit Electrical resistance (tested at 3 volts and 1 mm distance)

Fused times. cific are shown

cast basalt does


not degrade and maintains is very a smooth good. Typical surface test at all results spe-

The chemical chemicals


of the material

on the following at specific

pages. Though temperatures

chemical under

resistance his own

data to many specific

has been determined, and the operating

the user is advised conditions. may retemperature

to run his own tests to be certain Varying concentrations influences Material for will sult in different Choice of Setting

of resistance

of the chemicals on the lining.

Another chemical type sulfur conditions. of mortar

consideration is the required

proper choice

application of

of fused cast basalt tile under and setting mortars, material. silicates, The resins, and the operating



the bonding hydraulic

vary may

depending include:

on the exposure



or mastics.




of Tile Construction Plain (nonplug conditions. type) tile for installation system with a mortar head.This through is recommended Mechanically under attached hole,

chemical tile

A membrane

may be required.

is generally attack

not recommended The fluids


under a liquid resulting


holds true under chema bolt or welded failure

be other. it fused of the lining.

ical situations. causing

This basalt, holds true

or moisture

will penetrate

of the base material,and

all types ceramics,

in premature lining materials, or any


high alumina




OF FUSED tests

CAST were


TO BASES the resistance of the fused



to demonstrate

cast basalt to various

bases. The values cited

are average values.

Base Potash lye (25% KOH) hot, flowing Potash lye (10% KOH) stationary

Test Temperature 175F

Resistance I%) 100 Test Procedure Operational test; no weight loss after 112 days. Material Testing Institute, Neuwied, W. Germany; no weight loss after 30 days. Operational test; weight loss of 0.6% after 9 months. Materials Testing Institute, Neuwied, W. Germany, 0.9% weight loss after 30 days. Materials Testing Institute, Neuwied, W. Germany, 0.2% weight loss after 30 days. Operational test; no weight loss after 25 days.



Soda lye (25% NaOH) hot, flowing Soda lye (10% NaOH)







Soda solution

(5% Na,C03)




Calcium chloride (CaCl2) pasty and flowing stationary *Plate test.



OF FUSED tests


were made to demonstrate the resistance of the fused


cast basalt to various




and Chemical





Acid Hydrochloric acid (25% HCI), flowing

Test Temperature 60F

Resistance (%) Almost 100 Test Procedure Operational test up to 41 days, weight loss less than 0.2%; weak bleaching of surface. Materials Testing Institute, W. Germany; 0.6% weight loss after 30 days. Operational test; no weight loss after 60 days. Materials Testing Institute, Neuwied, W. Germany; 0.4% weight loss after 30 days. 0.003% weight loss after 7 days (19 Dec. 1968). Materials Testing Institute, Neuwied, W. Germany; no weight loss after 30 days. Operational test; 0.5 mm was etched away at surface after 20 days Materials Testing Institute, Neuwied, W. Germany; 22.8% weight loss after 30 days. Materials Testing Institute, Neuwied, W. Germany; no weight loss after 30 days. Tests by many dairies and the Kiel Testing Institute, W. Germany; no weight loss after 3 years.

Protective Layer Hydrochloric acid (38% HCI), stationary 60F Almost 100

Sulfuric acid (40% H$OQ), stationary Sulfuric acid (94% H,S04), stationary







acid (HzSOa)




Nitric acid (65% HN03). stationary



Hydrofluoric (20% HF)



Limited resistance*

Hydrofluoric (40% HF)



Limited resistance*

Propionic acid, stationary


Lactic acid (8%) flowing, stationary


*Plate test,

CONCLUSION Fused masonry. combined cast basalt These with linings has an established will work action place in the field well when hard particles. of chemically the chemical Worldwide, resistant attack many is in-

particularly of sharp,

the abrasive






such conditions.

U.S. installations





vessels, etc.

Technical data was taken from the Handbook of Abrasion and Corrosion ResistantABRESlST Linings by Abresist Corp., S.R. 13 North, Urbana, Indiana 46990, a subsidiary of Schmelzbasaltwerk, 5461 Kalenborn, West Germany.



A. Bonar Division Materials York Co.

Refractories Sohio Engineered Niagara

Falls, New

INTRODUCTION Silicon chemically ponents. range systems. carbide inert Refractories systems is a man-made made while from mineral silicon which carbide has high hardness, of refractories can be obtained is generally with a wide of bond

and can be obtained

in the form

and special com-

of bond



have a few types


SYSTEMS systems carbides, are generally will perform the key as: silicate glass) in assessing how any refractory, with a corrodent. Permeable includsilicon

Bond ing silicon carbide

in contact

refractories bonded (silicon

can be classified (SiOz, A120sSi02, oxynitride) nitride). refractories

Oxide Si20Nz

Si3N4 (silicon All high of these

are permeable system

to gasses and liquids. to be readily attacked

The relatively if it is suscepti-


area allows

the bond

ble to dissolution

by the corrodent.



and Chemical





Several silicon ance components. Reaction Sintered All formed peratures They


are available

as fine grained


high toler-

These products

can be classified as: residual Si) aid). is


(Sic bond with

(either alpha or beta SiC bond with a sintering SIC refractories forming

permeable by standard

start with alpha silicon carbide grain which such as pressing, tamping, vibrating


or cast-

ing into shapes with Reaction are then available

binders added in the mixing stage. After firing at elevated temthe desired final bond phase is formed, by all of the above techniques. of silicon a silicon metal is part to form carbide where large amounts silicon carbides are formed in the compacted

in either air or nitrogen, bonded fired

in an atmosphere carbon Residual

to react with

bond at high temperatures. after firing. Sintered as standard silicon plastic carbides forming with to form

silicon is left in the pores of these products by all the traditional such as injection of additives methods as well comin

are formed techniques



pacts are sintered inert atmospheres Table carbides.lA4

small amounts essentially

at very high temperatures and impermeable

a single phase silicon carbide structure. of permeable silicon

19-1 details typical





Physical Properties

of Commonly

Used Silicon SIC Reaction Bond



Property Modulus of rupture (psi at 70F) Density (g/cm3) Porosity (%) Thermal expansion coefficient (mean) (in/in/OF) x 10 Thermal conductivity (Btuin/hr/F/ft2) Specific heat (mean cal/g/C) Permeability (cc of air/min/in2/in in H20 pressure) Chemical analysis SIC SiO;?

SiO2 Bond

SiO2 Bond

SisN4 Bond

SisN, Si20N2 Bond

SIC Sintered Alpha

3,000 2.57 14

3,500 2.58 14

6,200 2.62 15

6,200 2.60 15

47,000 3.09 0.0

80,000 3.10 0.0

2.6 109 0.28

2.6 109 0.28

2.6 113 0.28

2.6 113 0 28

2.8 174 0.34

2.2 170 0.22

3.5 90.0 8.5 0.7

3.2 88 .o 9.6 1 .6

3 .O 75.0 0.5 0.3 23.5

3.8 86.0 0.6 0.3 13.0 -

imp. 92.0

Imp. 100.0 -

SisN, Si,ONs Si




CORROSION In general, phases present Permeable to their

MECHANISMS corrosion refractories There resistance are thus is determined generally more which The by the stability susceptible would of the various to corrosion phase exposed the general then significantly due to attack mechremoved

and the surface

area available

to attack. area of bond is attacked,


and the consequent are very in an aqueous exposing

high surface If Sic

the corrodent. SIC by dissolution anism as a reaction

few corrodents medium.

is one of oxidation product

of the SIC to SiO*. fresh

SiOz is usually

SIC surfaces

to corrosion.


SOLUTIONS or corrosion concerned Even then, carbides below oxide, with of the permeable corrosion silicon in contact long periods carbides with
in aqueous media is

Attack generally ally, fluoric. generally Mixed resistant nitride 19-2

of the commonly up to 200 to 400 for

used bond

phases. Generhydrosafely are

SiO;? bond

phases are the most stable concentrations bonded A12036i02, low silicon common Typical carbides acidic by SiOl bond

all acids except

ppm can be handled of time if temperatures

by silicon

200-250C, phases are generally of HF. Silicon similarly strength the next nitride for oxide most corrosion and silicon bonds. these oxyTable quantities perform solutions

to acids including bonded typical with 19-2: weight

to mixed values


loss and retained

products shown.6

in contact Table

for the times

and temperatures


Resistance of Permeable
Weight Change % -0.6 -1 .o wo.05 -2 .oo -0.6 -0.3 -0.4 -0.4 0.4 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.2 -0.1 +0.1 +0.2 -0.1 -0.1 +0.3 % Initial Strength Retained 65 74 96 74 84 82 81 91 85 85 78 99 100 81 71 85 74 63 74 91

Silicon Carbides

Bond Phase SiO, Al,03-SiO, Si3N4 Si3N&i,ON, SiO;! Al203-Si0, Si3N4 Si3N&i,ON, SiOz Al203-Si02 Si3N4 Si3N&i,ON, SiO, Al,03-SiO, Si3N4 Si3N,-Si,ON2 SiOl A1203-SiO, Si3N4 Si3N4-Si20Ns

Corrodent 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 40% 40% 40% 40% 99% 99% 99% 99% NaOH NaOH NaOH NaOH HCI HCI HCI HCI HN03 HN03 HN03 HN03 H,S04 HzS04 H,S04 H$O, H,S04 H,S04 H,S04 H,S04

T, C 96 96 96 96 96

Time of Test, hr 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 100 100 100 100 (continued)

96 96 105 105 105 105 110 110 110 110 220 220 220 220



and Chemical








. .30ppmHF . Weight Strength

. IOOppmHF. Weight Strength

Change %

. .200ppmHF. Weight Strength

Change %

. .

Bond Phase SiOs SisN4 SisN4SisONs


Change %

Retained %

Retained %

Retained %


HzS04 0.5% HN03


H,S04 0.5% HN03

+o .7






80% H$04 0.5% HN03





+2 .a


T=150C,t=200hours. Samples were 3/4 x 3/4 x 4X bars.

impermeable perform 19-3?f6 temperature Si3N4 able for generally Both or Si20N, reaction for

silicon better longer bonded reaction

carbides than periods the and bonded

of both sintered


sintered refractories can weight of their



bonded, in Table to higher area avail-

permeable with

as shown be exposed surface bond

products lower

of time relative

loss than the oxide, phases.



is due to the inertness


and to the greater




Resistance of Impermeable Corrosion Rate (mils/yr)



Corrodent 25% NaOH 50% NaOH

Reaction Bonded 73

Time of Tests
Sintered (hr)


10% 10% 20% 37% 70% 30% 50% 70% 70% 60% 95% 95% 40% 60% 85% 85% 40%




Nay303 NasS04 HCI HCI HCI HN03 HNOs HN03 H NO3 HsSO, H2S04 H *SO4 H$SO4 H ,PO; HsP04 H3P04 HjP04 HF/lO% HF/57% HF

0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.2 4.0 1.0-I .9 0.2 0 .o 0 .o 1 .2 0.0 0 .o 2.3 0.2 HNOq HNOj 100 0.2 0.2

I .a

Boiling 100 100 100 Boiling Boiling 100 Boiling 200 200-225 100 200 Boiling 225 100 Boiling Boiling Boiling 100 60 25 25

144 144 1,000 288 1,000 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 125-300 144 144 144 144 576 100 100



Silicate, well acids. 100C. fractories in contact suffer In general, Sintered products Si3N4 and with large products Na&Os Si20N, bonded weight NH40H permeable Even the acceptably solutions refractories reaction to their attack do not perform in

sodium relative



and sintered up to about of these re-

losses compared

performance any

do perform and point

in this environment do not solutions.

up to the boiling

of even high concentration

All diffusion reaction increase away


in acidic through

are generally existing usually products controlled increase by surthe

of the

and basic solutions the boundry Elevated carbides layer

of the reactant rate. Thus,

on the exposed velocities

faces of the aggregate the corrosion the active

or bond elevated surface


temperatures as the corrosion

temperatures sites.

and high local fluid

tend to are swept

rate of silicon


When preferable terial ment of

evaluating to look


FOR for

CORROSIVE potential after

SERVICE use in corrosive before service, it is

carbides weight

at both

and strength screening phase study

changes exposure Retained important


on a maenviron-

of construction. developed exposures of whether may inside the

Retained is the the


to the operating published strength attack

by a laboratory bond This

or from

information is an excellent extensive surrefractories by imvolprodoc-




indicator the attack where faces. posing

has undergone to the corrodent

and how

have been. of the part strength factor

is especially can then strength

in permeable as well from

is exposed

as the outer purposes tests.

Retained a safety

information data

be used for design level found weight selection

on the retained strength

Where ume change For ucts, true cur only able phase original ways for to

retained affects

is unavailable,

loss and, if possible, criteria. and sintered generally


be used as general

impermeable corrosion on the surface check by for weight


such as the reaction be calculated,


rates can usually of the parts. of the microstructure reaction deposits deposits be for

as the reactions after of testing

Examination detected

of the material in pores, or initiation initiation

is also desirnot to the due from

of phase alterations microcracking different

loss measurements, having

alteration products.

reaction generally for



Data should cubation ceptibility of parts, periods especially

a test conducted hours with or more. bond

for as long as practical Short time might differ

but alin sussurfaces

a minimum to corrosion

of 300-500 attack

tests may mask in-

on interior

phases which bonded

as compared

the bond

phases of the outer products.

in Si3N4, Si,0N2

and reaction


Corrosion and Chemical Resistant Masonry Materials Handbook

Silicon carbide brick are dimensionally stable and thus do not shrink or grow during service unless significant amounts of reaction products are present. Reaction products generally are of a lower density than the silicon carbides and may cause swelling or cracking depending on their concentration and the strength of the silicon carbide shape and the lining design. Lining design using suitable and compatible mortars is necessary for proper performance.8 The most superior performing lining is doomed to fail if the mortar is attacked, the mortar reacts with the brick, or the lining is not allowed to expand and contract freely during service.

1. Advanced Refractories, Form A-2380, Niagara Falls, N .Y ., Sohio Engineered Materials

Company (1981 ). 2. Hexoloy High Performance Engineered Silicon Carbide, Form A-12024, p 23, Niagara Falls, N.Y ., Sohio Engineered Materials Company (1981) . 3. Cast Refrax Silicon Nitride Bonded Silicon Carbide, Form A-2379, Niagara Falls, N.Y ., Sohio Engineered Materials Company (1981 ). 4. Treseder, R.S., NACE Corrosion Engineers Reference Book, pp 217-220, Houston, TX, National Association of Corrosion Engineers (1980). 5. Kingery, W .D ., Introduction to Ceramics, pp 332-335 and 614-618, New York, N .Y ., John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1967). 6. Chemical Resistance of Carborundum Refractories, Form A-2587, Niagara Falls, N.Y ., Sohio Engineered Materials Company (1981). 7. Fontana, M.G., and Greene, N.D., Corrosion Engineering, New York, N.Y., McGrawHill, Inc. (1967). 8 Sheppard, W.L., Jr., A Handbook of Chemically Resistant Masonry, Havertown, PA., C.C.R.M. Inc. (1977) , 2nd edition (1982) Marcel Dekker, N .Y .C. 9. Corrosion of KT Silicon Carbide in Acids, Form A-12003, Niagara Falls, N.Y., Sohio Engineered Materials Company (1979).



A. Richter


GEOSS New Hampshire

Granite is a naturally occurring, chemically resistant masonry. The silicate

minerals comprising granitic rocks are not soluble in many commonly used industrial solutions and the rock has desirable physical properties such as high



strength, low permeability and low thermal expansion. Granite is a cost effective material for many industrial applications because the manufacturing process requires only the shaping of components by sawing and lapping. A further advantage is its availability in large slabs and blocks for particular industrial requirements.



Granite is a natural rock that crystallized from a silicate fluid within the earth's crust and consists of visibly interlocking crystals of quartz and two feldspars with lesser amounts of minerals such as micas, amphiboles or pyroxenes. The term granite as used commercially includes a much wider range of mineral compositions than the term granite used by geologists. However, most commercial granites used in applications where resistance to chemical deterioration is important are from the quartz-rich end of the range of igneous rock compositions. They may be geologically defined by such terms as granite, quartz monzonite or granodiorite. The so-called "black granites" are chemically and mineralogically very different from quartz-rich granites and are not considered here.



Granite is most commonly used in applications where physical stability, durability and strength in a mildly acid environment are required. Historical uses of granite as a chemically resistant masonry include its use as flooring in places where "oil of vitriol" (sulfuric acid) was made. In the nineteenth century, granite blocks hollowed out to form tubs were employed by steel wire companies to hold dilute HCI baths for pickling off mill scale from the wire. Some of these tubs are still in use today. There are currently three main areas of granite use in industry, could be used more widely. Granite Surface Plates Precision ground flat slabs of granite are used in a variety of industries as inspection surfaces and machine bases. Surface plates range in size from a few square inches of surface to single plates weighing 60 tons. The surfaces can be ground to tolerances of a few 100 thousandths of an inch per square foot of surface. Granite is specified for surface plates because of its stable physical properties, resistance to corrosion and abrasion, and its availability in large homogeneous slabs. Granite Press Rolls Cylinders of granite are used in pressing pulp webs in the manufacturing of newsprint. The granite rolls range in size from 5 feet long by 2 feet diameter to 30 feet by 6 feet. The temperatur~ in the newsprint making machines range from although it



and Chemical





ambient sulfuric rolls desirable Granite

to around and of

175OF and the acids its resistance to

pH may pulp.

be as low Granite under web from

as 5.5 from those

the release of pulp press and the


by the

is used to make conditions the granite Lines



release characteristics Skid Caps and Tank is used to form

of the pulp


Liners in Steel Pickling tank liners (bottoms,

Granite and skid and for

walls and covers) acid pickling solutions

and skid caps

bars in and between or Fe,(SO&


in continuous of about

lines for the deof HCI or HzS04, selected are re-

scaling of steel. The acid baths are commonly FeCi3 at temperatures and impact wear use as skid caps and tank


200F. quartz-rich

The granites because they

liners are generally


to the abrasive

of the sliding

steel as well

as the corro-

sion from

the acid baths.

PROPERTIES In Tables masonry gray range in values granite,

OF GRANITE 194 for and granite 19-5, the chemical vary granite. together and greatly with physical from the values properties granite for Barre, of granite the

are given.


the values is given

to granite,

Vermont in TaIt is

a widely that

used industrial but for

The ranges of values granite be obtained

ble 19-5 are not recommended ated before


are a guide resistant

to possible masonry.

values for all granites.

the properties

a particular

and evalu-

using it as chemically 19-4: Chemical


and Mineralogical


of Granites


Composition SiO;? Ti02

A1203 Fez03

Range for Granites 66.0-72.0 0.2-0.5 13.2-17.0 0.2-l .5 1 .2-2.7 0.0-0.1 0.7-l .7 1 .8-3.8 3.5-3.8 2.7-6.0 0.5-0.9 0.2-0.7 0.0-I .o Mineral Composition

Barre, VT Granite3 68.1 0.3 16.5 0.3 1 .3 tr 0.8 2.4 3.6 5.3 0.6 tr 0.7

Fe0 MnO MgO CaO Na20

K2O Hz0 p205 co2





Range for Granites IO-40 15-50 15-50 O-18 o-15 O-25 O-25

Barre, VT Granite 26.5 15.2 43.1 9.3 5.5

Quartz Microline Plagioclase Biotite Muscovite Amphibole Pyroxene

SiO2 KAISi30, NaAISi30&aAl2Si20S K(Mg,Fe)3(AiSi,0,,)(OH)2 KA13Si~OI~(OH)2 (Na,Ca)~(Mg,Fe,Al)~(Al,Si)~O~~~OH)~ (Ca,Mg,Fe)&06





Physical Properties

of Granites
Barre, VT Granite6 0.23 0.5 10% 165 89 28.6 x lo3 4,632 2,484 3.8 x IO 2

Range for Granites45 Absorption (%) Porosity (%) Permeability (darcies) Density (lb/ft3) Shore hardness Compressive strength (psi) Shear strength (psi) Modulus of rupture (psi) average Coef. of thermal expansion (in/in/OF) Thermal conductivity (Btu/hr-ft-F) *From Reference 7 0.1-0.4 0.4-2.0 Not available 157-170 70-l 00 14-47 x lo3 3,700-4,800 1,430-3,060 3-5 x 10% l-3

The properties are its naturally as that feldspar soluble. avoided caicite the erals in dilute




an attractive expansion



masonry minquartz,

low permeability, HCI and H2S04. the major with selecting (Fe&) of these a fine the area.

thermal Hydrofluoric

(in generally

the same range

of acid-brick), and mica, Contact when (CaC03)

high strength

and the insolubility acid is the only of most be avoided. quantities

of its component acid in which granites, minerals minerals


industrial of certain

are easily should be

HF must therefore more than trace a granite are soluble minerals grain There for (FeC03)



industrial are highly

use. Carbonate soluble affect

such as minerals fillings, industrial

and siderite

in HCI. Sulfide in veins and crack the life of the in an industrial

such as pyrite presence In general, tals product.

in HzS04.

If present

can significantly mm)

size (<5 physical

is desirable chemical of granite almost and/or rift,

granite mineral


cause it evens out in a smaller The physical anisotropy physical varies properties graphic



of the individual changes below and

are no major of granite granites

no crystallo(573OC). of causin is the plates The degree of bodies

phase changes in the major components properties in different from grains


are generally

not isotropic. of granite and

0 to 30%. The anisotropy the microcracks grain

is due to the differing to mineral directions in splitiing oriented

stress histories

ing a preferred ite. The three order strongest properties

orientation principal difficulty

in the gran-

are called

headgrain in surface

of increasing direction, in Table

the stone. in the vertical

Because the headgrain direction

it is usually

and skid caps and oriented that are a function

on the end of paper rolls. orientation.

The values of the physical for those properties

19-5 are perpendicular of specimen

to the headgrain

GRANITE Granites tions of the

FABRICATION can be quarried


LIMITATIONS weighing up to 100 tons. smaller into The size limitacapacity shape. components

in blocks fractures In most

are controlled quarry The

by natural rough

in the quarry

and in the lifting granite the desired


cases, however,

are acceptable.


are sawed

and ground



and Chemical






can be finished maintenance

to desired is required



by lapping. other

Precision than


ing can produce Little Worn surfaces

surfaces flat to within can be reground

25 millionths of granite

inch per square foot

surface. cleaning.


if necessary.

1. 2. 3. 4. Smithells, C.J. Ied), Metals Reference Book, 5th ed., London: Butterworths & Co., Ltd. (1976). LeMaitre, R.W., The chemical variability of some common igneous rocks,J. Petrology, 17:589-637 (1976). Murthy, V.R., Bedrock Geology of the East Barre Area, Vermont., Vermont Geological Survey Bulletin 10,121 p (1957). Kessler, D.W., Insley, H., and Sligh,W.H., Physical mineralogical and durability studies on building and monumental granites of the United States, National Bureau of Standards, Research Paper 1320 (1940). Clark, S.P. (ed), Handbook of Physical Constants, Geological Society of American Memoir 97 (1966). Krech, W.W., Henderson, F.A., Hjelmstad, K.E., A standard rock suite for rapid excavation research,U.S. Bureau of Mines RI 7865 (1974). Kranz, R.L., Frankel, A.F., Engelder, T., and Scholz, C.H.,The permeability of whole and jointed Barre granite, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., 16:225234 (1979).

5. 6. 7.





C. Stephans New York


Portland ticularly chemical in lined carbon erate dred mixes tageous The those kraft brick under degrees

cement with

exhibits a basic

good pH. linings

resistance chemical of pulp grout

to attack

by some chemicals, allows vessels. Kraft mill


This cement


its use in the For example, the opdigesters

resistant lining very


and paper

digesters, alkaline Because


is used in the mortar for these linings.

mix for setting

and in the backing conditions of the

and at temperatures low

as high

as several hunof caustic be advanbe-


It is also used in vessels storing relatively resistance mortar to media with


as high

as 40%.

cost of portland lining. lining concrete


and the corrosion if this type use of not a portland bond

a basic pH, it would applied

of mix could

be used for an entire as a trowel A structural

is impractical tank

cause it will

to a steel substrate.

is also im-




for containing tight

a highly tank

alkaline and the The


because of the difficulty that would of containing a liquid

of build-

ing a liquid tank


problems ground lining brick.

be caused by leakin a concrete are hot. mix A is cement

age of an aggressive are compounded method for practical

chemical. creating cement brick

problems is above

if the tank

and the chemicals using a portland and

a complete aggregate is being

to make dense portland Portland alkali 19.37 brick resistant cement

manufactured are composed cement cm (9 inches) brick

used to line some cement cm (2.5 available


and paper mill vessels. These bricks aggregate. inches) density. (138-145 percent. are manufactured controlled conditions relatively lime slaker, They, cm (7.625 of optimum g/cc by 22.86 for

of portland presently by 6.35

and a highly measures The a brick is apinches).

The portland

aggregate is 2.2-2.3 proximately

is specially


its alkaline


and is sized to produce available brick of these

The density lb/ft3). kg/cm


in the currently strength psi) with

The compressive (6,000-8,000 by combining proportions. to form frequent They


a cold water cement, are then brick

absorption aggregate, pressed which and is ex-

of 4-6 weight The bricks and water cured cellent under

the portland The bricks cement

in carefully controlled use. find the

a portland

for lining media tank,

These bricks of alkaline the smelt caustic tion,

use in Kraft

mills because of the amount regeneration storage material application tanks, industry systems, and the corhaving


are used in the liquor the liquor resistant can be used in any

the causticizer, any corrosion



of course,

rosive alkaline proper brick. cement

conditions. care must

As with be exercised

of construcof portland

to insure the proper

Section X Designing Chemically-Resistant Masonry Constructions


45 Designing with Chemically=Resistant Masonry


Lee Sheppard, Incorporated


C.C.R.M., Havertown,


Putting forward.

a sheet rubber are standard


in a steel or concrete to follow.


is pretty





the procedures the type of

vary to some degree, depending adhesive to be used, whether shop, there are generally The principal to use-the ployed. the probably use of decision

on the type of sheet stock involved, instructions for one to follow. in which Thus, the tank a few

or not the lining is to be done in the field or in the


the user must make is the generic type of sheet stock to the environment resistance tables. is to be emthrough calls will supthe choice down to a very few candidates phone

one best suited published

He usually can narrow chemical determine lining

for him which

one of these he will use, and with which in the tank slightly which will to protect bricks

plier/installer If a brick other (usually which that

he will deal. is to be installed becomes must the sheet lining or The designer are best and with and, sheet the matter more complicated.


not the end user) he had selected


and mortars each other, will

suited for the environment, the sheet lining, finally, If the lining, which

and then consider

how well the bricks and mortars mate with expansion will mate with

for the environment tank

how well their coefficients will provide

of thermal

of the steel or concrete combination does not brickwork

in which sufficient

the system thermal

be installed for the

the best protection

for the sheet lining.

provide much


and if the tank rupture

is overheated,

the sheet lining can be seriously damaged. vessel, it could so that and it less than the vessel walls, the brickwork,

If the brick conceivably the wall

lining expands

more than the steel or concrete If it expands no longer supports

the vessel.

moves away from

it, the wall

can break up and fall in. 542






The go into must


complicated the all possible

the structure, study interactions

the more will

varied require

the components because that


its design,


the design between

the designer can affect


these components

the life, strength,




the structure.



PRINCIPLES are four basic principles masonry unit A structure masonry that the engineer of acid and all must keep in mind in any for in deother its in-

signing (I)

a chemically-resistant Strength.

structure. brick shear, face. chemically-resistant continuously them point, together masonry wet condiwill slowly of the is or block Although and depends be reinforced. it has good

composed cannot

chemically-resistant compressive tegrity (2) materials tions, absorb structure acid, loads leaking, the smearing (3) sion they brick, often not brick, then be clear chemical strength, on the bond Porosity under fluids

it is weak of the mortar

in tension With

to the masonry

and/or a continuous units

absorption. hydrostatic and the mortar

head or other used to bond At that as those kind cannot an acid of acid

the masonry until is wet with acid that

the structure

is saturated.

the underside It should, especially

the same chemicals on the underside of this a structure type

on the surface.

If the liquid therefore,

is present although this

of the structure. is strong equipment), structure. brick brick, brittle, to break.

and can support liquid

heavy without

(such as piers and pedestals spillage, nor employed acid-resistant Brittleness. masonry of joints). them

to support

in areas of

of structure by putting composed cannot they growth types that any

be used to hold lining block (which and

to stop leaks in an existing mortar units They bends,

If a vessel is leaking, inside of it, or by chemi-

leak cannot

be stopped

over the area of the leak. or other would if the be flexed are certain or bent cause torsupporting


cally-resistant or shear cannot (4) the grow proven, structure

are all somewhat

around accept two up to but Growth.

For the same reason, or red shale masonry this most growth fired acid units, are clay But made

excessive Irreversible most 0.16% of

vibration. or swelling. of Fireclay for with dry, chemically-resistant The reasons it can happen Such growth in static, and other


dimension. vitrified. brick



unless they

have been fully happen

takes place more quickly cold exposures. units such masonry on the

in cycling, in North What components materials brick extended with (There low which

hot, wet environments, America about (see Side Effects monolithics and or cementing

and slowest

it does eventually

to all acid

at the end of this section). castables? agents Depending type of comand fillers), structures entirely stop, made of these degree. out of acid liquids it. to wet for

(bonding have many

of the same characteristics someone will very If the designing not castable. a design will

to a lesser or greater a structure will a liquid

Occasionally, periods, it

we find such

or a monolithic

When the structure provide but concretes function slowly,

be continuously and the very

is in contact polymeric

eventually, made with of the

pass through is merely

are a very few exceptions: resins.)


dense, very





and Chemical





supply support, and not protection can function satisfactorily. With (I) (1) Tall these four basic principles masonry? structure As a load-bearing brick chimney to use chemically-resistant

for some underlying


such a design would we wish

in mind, for what purpose(s) subjected a bridge, to corrosive

Here we have four specific uses. chemicals. Examples: (3) Outer to to corrosive exit gases. (2) Piers resting the wall is subjected

liners, subjected

in corrosive

wastes and supporting (supporting

or a piece of equipment. where

wall of a building (2) peratures tank rubber The

the roof stringers)

splash or spray of strong corrosives. As an internal insulation lined with in a process vessel, reducing level. Top Examples: rubber sheet. the surface tem(1) Steel pickling of the sufficient (2) on the membrane to an acceptable 21OF.

in a steel mill, 160F,

service temperature lining provides

but bath temperature to protect against could from

The brick


to get the surface temperature

of the rubber sheet down to 14OF. on a floor. if the work

same system (3) Protection the work

the membrane wear or abrasion.

in process vessels or (3) to prevent In use 2 (I), (steel the

live steam from cutting plate, rubber, protect (4)

out the asphalt membrane

etc.) bangs the side of the tank and the brick were not there to protect cut or puncture such damage. sIow/y attacks either the substrate the contained the amount liquid trickle membrane can cut or deform it, but a brick floor

the rubber sheet. In use 2 (3), traffic over it will

over an asphalt

the membrane

If the environment will

or the membrane, and the substrate that reaches the so behind

the interposition or membrane the brick that lined membrane

of a brick lining between reduce to a tiny or substrate. Corrosion

of chemical material


if any, are trapped stop. Example: lining

and cannot the corrosion cylindrical originally

be washed away to uncover further slows down steel tank and may eventually containing a mixture The rubber.

to be corroded,

In a dished


of acid and oil, the steel was swells as the oil into all


sheet natural


enters it, but the brickwork the pores of the brickwork tained tioned alone. porting the liquid from use can The other With the limitations involve three

holds it in place until the rubber has swollen and blocked them preventing

any more of the con-

passing behind the brick. of the basic principles, a structure employ composed wood we note that only the first menof chemically-resistant with a supporting or plastic), masonry structure to which and

it in combination barrier

(steel or concrete, structure will structure

or very is in itself

occasionally, a liquid-tight

and unless the supstructure

to the environment supporting

be exposed,

a membrane

over the

under the masonry permit would port, the structure otherwise with it,

is necessary. The supporting as a whole to accept internal put the chemically-resistant safety by growth factor,

structure masonry

provides the strength to in tension strength or shear, and in itself to supconditions may

loading or surface loading, which

cause it to break up. It must be designed with adequate an adequate all the loading expansion. subject

to which

plus the weight and stresses of the masonry lining, whether dead loador thermal of the supporting structure are covered in earlier is dis-

ing or stresses induced sections of the book;

The design considerations cussed later in this section.


of the selection

of specific



with Chemically-Resistant






be designed that hold tensile monolithic the like cloth, in tension brickwork strength because together (cohesion) materials; or other standard tile with of the are the of the polyand types steel reor

Chemically-resistant problem adhesive mortar ester and chopped thin of anchors polymer reinforcing in this inforcing The ture properties. provides additional with sizeable steel of reinforcing bonds of and of the clay and carbon, ceramic may fibers, mortar

masonry it. The only to

bonds Various and


and the

(or brick).


such as glass, ceramic, surfacing are used

be used to reinforce glass platelets metal, Expanded wire

in some coatings and some

membranes. concretes. rods, on placed use of volume

and stainless

are used to reinforce Other usually paper through reinforcing material polymer with mills

or strengthen concretes coatings special

gunned on the

and cast linings reinforcing. of hollow

have even employed design

The section mills twenty into

describes a design

a hybrid widely

the tile,

used in paper introduces physical

more years ago, but less frequently another generic with that into of

seen today. materials to the the strucwhile it and any completely the system different requires, and chemical brings

in any of these of the reinforcing the system. expansion, If the Therefore, With brickwork,

The marriage

rest of the structure, at the same time cure from to it. can. that of By

some of the strength stress and strain coefficient changes the

It immobilizes introduces further resulting deciding without (as they provided

shrinkage, the

a different

stresses with

of temperature. parts your together. purpose

stresses it will before


overbalance holds consider that

the cohesion

of the system,


even though

the reinforcing use reinforcing, designing a cylindriis is large from the the so


can be accomplished inside of curves drop steel,

Can tension the brick the to cal tank), sufficiently enough 7 x 10) the can brickwork straight as the pression

be avoided? linings

it usually

are on the can be kept the low

are in lining


in compression, (e.g., enough and them

the brickwork expansion away manner, changing If this kept

thick keep

so that the


through coefficient

it to the substrate thermal In this This by wall, 1.) expanding


at a temperature (coefficient in to designing curves, they arch is kept walls

to prevent expansion cannot outwards 45-1

it from 4 x IO). apart.

brickwork be used brick

of thermal a large bowing move

in compression


same, principle is done, in com-


concrete against


at the middle. the tank and Drawing


ever tighter (See Figure contractor

by this


Conversely, slip, the weight not push from walls. costs. officer everywhere, into the membrane

if the concrete of the concrete but tank, in only away

is careless,

and the braces of his forms at the center-perhaps and if the they will separate vessel increases instead grow will

can bulge the wall inward section. reverse supporting this the curve, wall, forms

one short from

If this is not corrected, as the brick so the brick to build with agent than

and brick

are laid over and wall,

the membrane No concrete This slows walls Therefore, out

and eventually

fall in. contoured straight productivity, purchasing a larger and thus

contractor down many will

likes to use curved reduces decide they


to bid the construction can argue the they will pocket

of curved

in the hope

or contracting average profit.

of them.

If successful,



and Chemical







Drawing 1: Concrete Pennwalt Corp.

vessel outline,

wails and bottoms


Used by permission of the

If the

customer the work

insists, they may

however, try



lose money, this design-and so that

and so they





by various

ruses. to get around unfortunately placed it has at in the past, it appears forms in a few technitogether

One way been suggested cal papers-is a slight angle.

by some engineers See Drawing 2.

to make the curve with

a series of straight


This remember membrane for this this

results that

in a polygon the whole so that,


of an elliptical grows, surface surfaces.

shape. The designer is to create structure. at anchor brick will



in curving

the walls

an arch over The reason surface, points-in grow and

the membrane design

as the masonry tightening the flat the flat

it will arch against and press into the because Just if we have a flat only as the


itself against the supporting over it, restrained

is to eliminate growth angles between

we can have lateral case the



with Chemically-Resistant



bulge design, stands.

up away from anchored the surface The

a flat floor,




bulge away

from follows

the flat such a as it



in those angular be filled


If the contractor smooth

is not acceptable the structure. rectangular

for the installation

of the brickwork

angles must

in, and the continuous,

curves estabby gunmay be must 2 is uncannot be

lished by resurfacing In an existing ning gunite concrete techniques, to correct that, when

vessel, the curves may be accomplished corners and building the surface. A similar procedure the design shown trench, result in Drawing the walls brick

into the four

the curves into the walls using

then trowel-finishing unless this is done, designing of

followed acceptable.

the flat areas if flat forms

are used. But the designer

bear in mind Naturally, from duced section) work feet. tion cost of that

a long brick-lined would short point. merely

bowed .I A succession if the were bowed

bows were

in the blocks

separating might be re-

the walls at the juncture sections

of the bows, although and thrust However, walls with

this tendency the expense expansion

(see later in this of such formto the 15 every

used at the juncture with however, and dead

and the laying construction after forms The designer,

of the brick would straight

be uneconomical the contractor surface

when compared joints

should warn any

as part of his specificashall be checked surface or grinding of expansion the flat outward, about with by an bulging before joints In

are stripped, straight-must

the concrete bulge found be removed

independent inward out the concrete of adequate the older that expansion when

inspector, of dead

in the wall-any by chipping number joints off walls

can be accepted. if a sufficient the expansion will width are not provided, the brick to will close up and, as surface. suggested a design 7 from the irinto

On a flat surface such as a floor, continues,

heave upward of the century, the straight of them there noted

designs, dating it was the growth walls

back to the turn bow by sloping which

it was often outwards 1954.


battering vertical that reversible

the plane period, was first thought,


be followed. of brick

In that

was no concern about will if it expanded

It is presumed thermally designer


was supposed joints.

to hold the wall down growth,

the expansion that with floor, free

A moments

however, wall.

tell todays



if the brick on expanding, However, adequate thickness away

heave off of the to support from the

they can also heave off of the battered and the designer has supplied on its base (see below) joints, the problem standing wall

as long as the walls number, size and the conchangesin designing

are dead straight placement

and an adequate of movement

of expansion

crete supporting of the brickwork the bottoms in the tanks, solvents, contour

walls will not arise. we can provide for expansion-dimensional joints. through This same rule is followed the trenches, expansion contain of trenches. with expansion wll flow

When designing a floor,

of tanks or the bottoms or which there

If the liquids that will be held oil, greases, fats, In a tank, we can the joint sealant, then we cannot

for which

is no adequate of providing

plan to use this method the bottom-that walls, we will

for the brick movement. configuration

is, dish it. If we do this, just as we have contoured in arch

keep the brick

and keep it pressed tightly



and Chemical





against the membrane expansion joint, With if the down a trench, are not at the sides, we will walls one wall, as well








the than

if we curve the bottom, not require contoured, points a longitudinal require

so that

it is deeper joint. joint under

in the center We will, across



an expansion below,

the trenchJoints.

across the bottom, as at other

and up the other designated

side, on the average of every Expansion

15 feet,

STABILITY When lined move retain chemically-resistant structure, on the This surface means thermal masonry the of (I) the that is installed substrate, independently there cannot lining. could masonry as a liner masonry relieving of the inside a membranemust be free to or both to be has and

supporting or slide integrity. and with


stresses, expanding substrate, anchors penetrating were

contracting substrate employed, back it and would their pansion smooth second a different usually if one masonry


if it is to

be anchors If such follow Further, the

chemically-resistant the membrane then these of which for any this of and

any corrosive coefficient does, from of the

in the environment of expansion anchors than

the shaft

of the anchor masonry,


into the substrate. would

if the substrate chemically-resistant

the chemically-resistant prevent at a different as the brick expansion rate than would try

expanding elements growth, In order (2) will the and

or contracting the structure differential movement the

the substrate, brick,! for must for. by it in exto expand



is acid

create joints.

stresses within


is provided substrate provided

to be free of stress, and as uniform be as This is must be suitably

as possible, point



as possible,

obstructions later. body

be discussed or curved line

In cylindrical also obtained However, stability tions, lining the work, mean lowed must

vessels or structures, which has eliminated as in rectangular of the structure house, masonry

stability the

of the


by the arch effect designs, depend

need for upon

reinforcing. its foundaThis (or the so that exact general not folless of brick-

in straight


vessels or trenches, structure. or longer the

on the ability of a brick

to balance masonry

just as does the wall

or any other

means that wall

as the chemically-resistant or longer), stability. of While

wall gets higher must a way heights which

of a vessel gets deeper retains that rules using rules are necessary thumb

its thickness specific 45-l) insures while

be increased to compute and lengths have received nor that past designs employed

no one has found to stabilize (see Table

thicknesses some that these acceptance, guaranteed thicknesses generally under that


and which, if these rules were

if followed, are followed. usually that, shorter

can be considered It does mean lives or required expansion The reasons lining.

adequate. failure, that

This does that much


lesser thicknesses successful,

success is

ones that joints for

had considerably be noted advisable heading.

considerable this will

maintenance. be discussed

It should

if interlocking

are to be used, it is

to go to an 8


with Chemically-Resistant



Table 45-1:
Depth <I <2 l-2 2-6 2-6 >6


Needed to Stabilize
Length (ft) <30 <I5 15-30 <I5 >15 any

Heights and Lengths*

Thickness 2-x 2-x 4 4 8 8-12 Re(in)

*For extremes of length and depth, greater thicknesses are advisable. From Chemically sisrantMasonry, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., 2nd Ed., Marcel Dekker, NYC (1982).

The movement point. there

second that The one,

point cannot

mentioned for

above, the



providing further of that,


obstructions rubber sheet joint. (or other lining, the to tries lining over

to as the

be eliminated, instance, of sheet sheets.

requires selection linings These

consideration a sheet at regular

at this intervals, In either chemithese brick move most

Let will

us consider, be joints is a double masonry)

membrane. adjacent

application between thickness lining the

means may

be laps of one If a brick this joint

or butted

edges with

a seal strip

on top of the butt point. mortar over masonry causing the masonry

case, there cally-resistant ridges and under lining likely lining apart. must will the such can

of sheet at that is applied into things the



act as anchors, membrane. conditions, tear the joint If the or weak, for. If


between lining

chemically-resistant in the membrane, is strong and the how

one of two membrane

can happen.

The chemically-resistant leaking. lining This is the masonry and pull lap pads of of that it is comlining

result. is thin To

chemically-resistant can crack sponge

the chemically-resistant to the structure, 3 shows lap or protrusion, linings. The Drawing


damage as the

protrusion is done. prior (or other

of the membrane Two wide,

be provided


the same thickness to the membrane, is to go over bined pressing will protrusion. We have way many to designers into earlier the lap (or mortared the chemically-resistant

and at least 2 brick

are cemented unit) when by

one on each side of the protrusion masonry must be notched-a can slide large enough (move direction why

to the installation masonry that

this joint protrusion) the


to cover the comdirection) hanging

and the sponge masonry If this inch is done, in either the of the flat alternatively, into it. reason

on each side of it-so in either without the chemically-resistant

in place, the sponge to

pads. one


be able


up on the

supplied problems or,

battering growth. wall with

is not

a satisfactory favored but by from to build and it-


irreversible concrete

Another pilasters


is to design lining


it at regular pilasters prevents manner brick ter will

intervals the brick

to leave the wail greater wall itself,

dead flat

to give the wall the concrete expansion If there sponge

stability. it acts as an anchor joints in the brickwork (see Drawing

If the pilaster movement as on both be even self, this design will

is built over require

are no expansion

pads on both

sides in just the same 3) if the joint,

sides of the cap strip because

in the sheet lining it will

is not to heave off the wall more difficult

and fall in. The detail

over the face of the pilasan expansion

have to include



and Chemical





which to


introduce joints


into the wall on them

at that


The alternative

is to of

place expansion leave the which

in the brickwork anchored



all these pilasters and the concrete.


as points

of no movement-all

is as expensive

as, or more expensive


than, contouring

Elastomeric Closed cell sponge

Chemical Resistant

Drawing 3

Frequently building a brick idea will quickly the pilaster by itself, effect. column. only

designers pilaster

seek to




in another The on/y

manner-by of this strengthening

into the brick


A moments weight


tell the designer why this will not work. is the vertical brick alone-to the weight of the holding a height stability from inward.

gives to the lining stood

of the brick

in it. Standing strong man

it in place has any stabilizing of, e.g., IO feet-a

If the column Figure 45-6

should have little trouble case where the brick

pushing it over by pressing against the top bricks in the the pilaster has provided in one the wall at the furthest point exact/y

shows how little is pushed away the pilaster

at the pilaster,



JOINTS-GENERAL composed in the of two or more dissimilar of thermal lined with components, of those there com-

On any structure will be a difference Take, ponents. inner-lined As the ambient 12OF. brick, 70F. than

coefficients a steel tank


as an example, temperature insulation of 70F,

a sheet rubber try

lining and The

with 8 inches of acid brick. internal rises to 200F, so that if the tank the brick to expand. is standing in a room with an than the at hotter

brick act as thermal temperature Although it is only However, when they

the steel shell temperature higher coefficient the brick it was when and they will

will be approximately of expansion lining was installed

the steel has a much 50 hotter the brick were than (and mortar)

on the inside face are now 130F expand accordingly.


In addition,


with Chemically-Resistant









be provided

for. Therefore


pansion joints are needed to permit ing the steel shell of the tank. installed the brick at appropriate on both the steel shell and its rubber gether closing the joints,

this expansion

to take place without

disruptBut since joints-if

This means that some compressible lining will be solid-without expansion

joints must be

spots to allow

the brick to squeeze together. expansion joints

sides of the compressible then the brick

are to move to-

must slide over the face of the rubber expansion joint in chemically joint. If it is 4 of the

lining. This is the first law of expansion resistant masonry not so designed, the expansion trench, joint

joints-every will

must end in a sliding joint below.


or another


not function.

See Drawing

wall of a brick-lined CUtbTiC*to

soldier fit. cour*e.




mge Of floor lCOcret.2 or brick)






and Chemical





The expansion joint and holds

upper joint.

right-hand Note that


shows the way is totally in a fixed lining,

a draftsman immobilized the concrete

first designed the because where the abuts the brick cannot joint joint-

the joint of brick the

ends in the concrete the top upper course left wall.

above the brick


If the top brick

move, then neither In the cannot top

can the brick below it. sketch, It will, brick on the left side of the expansion be able to close the expansion such as a Teflon force it into the capping on the sheet, exists the brick lower left

move to the left because to do so would however,

of the trench

moving to the right if a shear plane-a under the capping. The examples sketch lower to move in both right hand sketch

sliding joint,

None is shown in the drawing. shows the corrected joint design, freeing joint. The directions, and the joint necessary between to open and close. Note that there are and the sliding under the cap for the joint to function a compressible the joint. expansion material The majority (They about joint material

of both

the compression

shows the sliding joint is a great difference joint fillers

in this design. There squeezed for the and a deformable together joint compressible totally material. A true compressible from will is one that can be of the useful in vol-


extruding they

are closed-cell materials

sponges or foams of the type best suited be employed. them are required 25% of their may not be extruded without disrupting

environment enclosed joints They

in which where are installed

the masonry.) Deformable like texture, joint, ing 5).

by compressing hand,

ume and then sliding them materials, of a constant

into the joint. on the other volume. are materials upward of a soft or puttyis used to fill a out of and extruded When this type is squeezed material of material

as the joint

closes, the material

it. As the joint

opens, the, deformable materials pressure,

is sucked down into jt (see Drawbut, sides, the that

Compressible if installed opens, common in putty this type under

rarely have a good bond to the sides of the joint will expand to release that pressure liquids. if it closes. Without to within a good bond to the joint

if the joint

or squeeze together of filler practice foam, or fluid

is rather easily penetrated to fill the joint form and bonded are truly

by contained

It is, therefore, sealant, applied

3/4 in. to % in. of the top with It is important


then seal the top space with the deformable to the sides of the joint. at 90 from are not truly opens the filler tearing does the of the joint to top), resulting than bottom the floor vertical, material motion pull filler. vertical., joints

the sides of the joint

surface, so that as so that they slope in the joint to restrain will which

the the joint opens or closes, the movement If the sides of the expansion either inward far or outward, from greater be pulled requires result will in the joint brick sloped resulting around away the walls adhesive as the joint strength (from

is at right angles with the sides.


at right

angles. The material

be the rather will

early disbondment downward, to top)

If the joint closes pressure on the If the sides are material

and the sides are sloped inward be squeezed tending (from bottom them,

any deformable

in an upward

to lift the brick off the membrane. and the joint

outward upwards

closes, the filler

is forced

and in shear along the sides, causing a loss of bond, eventually out of the joint.

in the filler popping






cement bed


Note dimensional changes of deformable filler in each case, as joints close, and as joint opens. Drawing 5

If the joint (or other properly fluid installed

is made food)

in this manner

in a food plant, it will troubles form with

such as a dairy, and slowly the food

and milk rancid For de-

penetrates odors,

the joint,

a static pool on top of a become joint inspector. with


in the area of the joint, and causing in food

or ferment, this reason, formable the sealant If there floor adhere formable pulling

creating material

it is common rather the milk

practice (or other

areas to fill the entire can collect.

than use closed-cell

sponge at the bottom,

leaving no with a sharp

void in which

food materials)

As the joint closes,

is extruded

at the joint top. Any excess can be removed full, but not protruding. under the joint, as in an expansion slab, the deformable The joint cannot

knife leaving the joint laid directly to the material

is no membrane over a crack as well will bottom


in a tile the de-

in the concrete properly.

sealant will

as the sides of the joint. at the bottom,

If this happens, or close without

not function

open without tearing brick sliding

the filler off the sides of the joint and top of the joint. surfacing a masonry

it loose at the bottom Where over a hot

is laid over a membrane floor), the membrane

(as for instance provides the





and Chemical





joint. cell sum acid ft. tances

The expansion foam of or sponge, to irreversible brick, the apart it must pump cannot will floor the apart

joints topped growth placement

in the brickwork with the and of brick

need only movement expansion. joints

to be compressible placed will which

closed dis-

a deformable thermal


at adequate this


be the algebraic means with to 20 at a 15 ft. into

Normally, on floors

expansion that columns, where

distance by brick


on the

range of temperatures if the area involved piping joint through between simply them. points the interruption

to be accommodated. is broken the floor, occurs. them smaller etc., floors drains,

However, units the points,

be remembered bases, building move require plane, at the point

These fixed


an expansion points they

if heaved them

are to be avoided. continuous Where two ever, pump if there even to 30F, spillage installed joint or over moving Drains pansion is more especially drain, dam, a single continuous

If such fixed expansion between there joint

are single

interruptions by isolating

in an otherwise by placing instance, over 20 Howof the should be

can be handled around fixed such is little


is 3 feet or less-for cycling joint between joint

bases-and it is possible is a steam hot, in that

likelihood with

of temperatures

to dispense jet that small possibly

an expansion on the floor, then liquids,


can play

or the possibility is, install

of very


an expansion control

a space. The

rule to follow or

an expansion joints inpoints,

(1) all points cracks in the

of movement: substrate, but they or elevation

expansion, (2) around of trenches

or construction all fixed drains. in a floor,

between except point


changes joints

in direction points,

are fixed

are at the lowest penetrated at a drain is extruded

and exThere a

are the weakest, drain

and most easily up.

parts of a floor. joint is placed where will

likelihood if the joint as the

of a leak developing is stopped the running place closes, the liquids sealant

than anywhere upwards,

else on a floor, around be a standshould that make it acts as a

If an expansion the drain. midway them. joints,

obstructing joints will flow


The result

ing puddle expansion be designed drainage

at the weakest to run crosswise

on the floor.

Therefore, between of fall-not

it is best to place the drains. with They the slope-so should

at the higher across them, twice is, the of the if the

elevations, not along

of the direction expansion

As a rule of thumb, the expansion will ning. heavy joint take place, thermal joint that

in designing as wide brick

the engineer that

as the maximum in the temperature joint is wide,

expansion of growth the range for

he anticipates and the by for that he is planof the

sum of the amount

of the brick, which

expansion In floors, traffic passing


edges will

be pounded failure size practical today,

over them, frequent

and can crumble Therefore, place

or spall, causing the maximum

and requiring joints

repairs. that


is about of growth for then, size of

3/2 in., to accommodate can take % in., which most as previously in steel

% in. of movement. in the brick available in the old an expansion in about bay for


ing the amount latter The are being rule the

means we are planning of thumb, (for

can be reached designed calls tanks frequently pickling drains. earlier, stated,

15 to 20 ft., the buildings. joint at changes 200F,



least every spacing between

15 to 20 ft.

of brickwork-more apart). objects As stated except

if large thermal operating they should at over

anticipated is at 7.5


to 8 ft. all fixed

also be placed

or around


with Chemically-




One tractors expansion membrane sults from well, brane, other left the reached, bare, of buttering

of the in the joint the

most placing through practice, the



committed (the mortar tilesetters

by both


and con-

of expansion the bed joint floor for primarily mortar


in floors,

is the failure The error often over the

to carry the down to the reas then the is is

under the brick) but

between troweling

the brick

and the substrate. of the bed directly

most often

of brickmasons membrane,

the edges of the brick, it to tighten laid. When already

laying the

it in the mortar planned


on the memjoint joint

and tapping brick

the joint location

and to level the brick face with for the expansion

the side of the brick that will but the mason or tilesetter and either forgotten joint, of the expansion bed under should no hard

act as the face of the expansion may have already it. If the mortar are locked

spread the mortar into a fixed



it or ignored the brick joint,

is left there, position joint canjoint joint

in the bottom not function. The tain filler.

by the continuous designer

the expansion

and the expansion that

make or

clear on his drawings material-only the

the expansion expansion

must extend

all the way down to the membrane rigid


the bed) and may con-




BLOCKS block may be defined, of a brick of a trench to it. a very wet area of floor, of solvent. to be penetrated-is draining into a trench, as the weakest joint, it is very small amounts most likely Inasmuch for our purpose, lining as a ceramic anchor, set in only, to the

A thrust the substrate to direct rather capping expansion than

to prevent in both.

the movement

of a brick facing placed over it. It is used (or surfacing) in one direction damage be used to prevent

the expansion and brick lining

On a floor,

this may

or pit when

it is undesirable

to place an

joint adjacent perhaps,

Let us take as an example and carrying, point in a floor-that flow

the expansion

best not to have an expansion age will the over it. It should normal and back three sufficient of the trench an anchor room, Yet

joint close to the trench where all the liquid spillbe back at the highest point, calls for an expansion it. Much less could the joint wall from below brick from or along the wall of joint to be parallel result in the brick it, into the trench. the expanthree or the brick


to the trench, expansion If, brick capping however, trench,


back pressure from wall, and the trench into the to expand away

to tend to push the

is designed Drawing


along the edge of the it and toward

the brick that

can be forced

sion joint at the high point. Note brick from pit, width parallel standing the brick the concrete

6 shows how this is done. a slot cast into it, back about to accommodate two or pit and running and deep enough the narrowest the length of the trench and one with

is placed with

the edge of the trench to it. The pit is wide course-one parallel with




to the trench thickness,

wall. The depth

may be the full length of obviously the brick will

less the floor

if desired,

or it may be less than this, but not

less than 3 in. If less than the full

length of the brick,



and Chemical





have to be cut. to expend certainly The the wall, then crete

If the floor

is 4 in. thick,

it would

probably is only

not be worthwhile 13% in. thick, it is

the labor to cut off less expensive membrane

1 in., but if the floor a slot the depth accordingly.

than to form

of the length of the balcarried manner, down down with

ance of the brick and adjust the reinforcing is applied to the floor into the slot, across the bottom, across the bottom squared, manner, usual all corners carefully laid in the between

in the usual manner, side, all in the normal reinforced throughout.

up the opposite

side, then to the trench,

up the opposite and properly except wall

The brick are and the

for the soldier course at the slot. The conis now encapsulated anchored in brickwork, and will not come loose.

slot and trench

cap and wail of the trench

are effectively





leads to another from

design requirement-that floor. Obviously, over the trench

of tying

the trench,


or sump wall lining to the adjacent tinuous-passing bottom, possible. wall-the growth floor, only brick structure. in addition, the floor, and up the other it is important See Drawing joint next will

the membrane

must be conBut,

edge, down the wall, across the also must continuous. between from the if at all the floor possible in the half-

side. The brick protection sketch

to avoid placing a brick joint at a stress point, shows the joint with will note, wall coincides in the brick the back joint

6. The left-hand to the factors therefore, membrane.

and the cap brick on the trench (or expansion) this joint We should, be laid

of the brick

As you

both on the trench

wall and on the

be subject

to more stress than any of the other joints as shown in the right-hand sketch. The

avoid this design and place brick at this location block (or if no thrust block, several

in stretcher should

configuration, next

to the thrust

courses back from the edge). This same rule regarding joints to the maximum extent cut brick applies to all brick adjacent The rule is use whole Under brick no circumstances, to expansion or any change of direction. possible. in such locations

use less than a half


with Chemically-Resistant



brick. from

In no case whatever the expansion Where traffic, into sketch brick and traffic joint

use a soap Set back or from cover

or other all cut


of less than the full brick one brick


or thickness

in such a location. a removable

or part a trench a faulty

or more

any change of direction. or pit,or design of the or cover a steel grating lining infrequently unsatisfactory rests directly removable for when disrupit and at that it does not rest direct/y 1 shows Note that at Point part on the brick

is to be set over 7. Sketch drawings.

to support of the corporated weaker left-hand on the cleaning, wheeled tion least early

it is important See Drawing construction than in Drawing The cover there


A, we have an even

construction lining.

we do on the 6. The weight cannot will


of the grating play in it,

fit tightly be some damage trench

if it is to be easily of this are: at that point, (I)

therefore, at Point

and chattering probable behind and

passes over leakage

it. The consequences A, (2) with into both the substrate

of the joint some collapse

of the membrane


(3) probably

of one or perhaps


Drawing 7



and Chemical







this from wall


a step is designed

into the concrete membrane in the


cent to the trench continuously between floor and capping Now

as shown and two

in Sketch whole wall,

3. The floor brick

is carried membrane over the back


the steps so there

is no interruption the second carrying

and trench,

are laid: the first in the step, the floor

the top of the trench and vibration

first to the midpoint the weight into the structure

of the first or beyond, of the traffic indicates Sketch

to the point designed for the cover. over the cover is transmitted on the trench lining. this thinking

as a whole and not directly on the floor. the bottom

The detail as drawn frequently the brick walls erected since the joint trench stretcher between

that the floor will be laid first, then 1, at Point 6, indicates

brick on the wall and the one above it seem This is not the strongest design for a to lay the bottom then wall brick first, brick inside to lay the floor

to lie in the plane of the top of the floor. (pit or vessel) wall. course (lying parallel

It is best practice to the wall),

this. This is the sequence indicated A moments joint other of the wall reflection

at Point B in Sketch 2. If the bottom it is possible for this joint to fail and the placing either a split or a double as

will tell the reader why this is stronger.

is on top of the floor, or for the joint are staggered-by of the lever.

wall to slide inward the bottom

to crack open and wall to fall in. If, on the inside this, we have removed shows the method But in

hand, the joints

brick on the wail

and laying the floor

the joint from the fulcrum Please note the detail of installing a trench a peripheral bottom

at the same point expansion rubbish joint compression

in Sketch 2 which joints,

on the bottom its way

of a trench or pit at the into the joint, immobi-

walls. We can, as is usual with or pit lizing it. By turning over the joint sliding joint to prevent Where at this

put foam in this joint.

can easily find

the second brick in the wall header course, so that it extends and by using a release agent or other and rubbish cannot enter it point, the joint is protected,

and the edge of the floor, as intended.

it from functioning a monolithic rather

than a brick floor adjoins the trench, to prevent leakage at the junction See Sketch 3. Note the following is applied up the trench never down wall

a modifica-

tion of this design is employed lithic and the trench (1) The monolithic (2) The hot always carried bottom) top, very of the top small asphalt up from (3) membrane. membrane

of the mono-

lining sequence. (hot asphalt is

is carried down the bottom brick little

both steps and to the edge of the trench wall. to the top, from the top to the to the vertical wall is is to the joint

and across the steps on the top of the monolithic, step. The are laid up the wall, or no thermal

over the membrane

the last brick and will

being placed on the top step. (4) Unless the pit or trench involve changes, an expansion

placed between

the top brick edge and the vertical wall of the last step.

TRENCHES Open trenches spillage covers. in work If they and gutters areas. are the most common is much where traffic devices for handling area, trenches to remove bulk

If there

in the

require in aisles must

are to be kept heavy equipment

clean, they must be accessible, preferably it will be difficult If they are to drain satisfactorily,

and not under

covers and

to get into them

to clean them.







have reasonably minimum With expensive width

smooth, combined

uniform with


surfaces and a continuous depth

slope with will

no low spots. In order to conserve working accommodate the fluid volume anticipated. on which unit, setting

space, the designer usually selects the he can arrange that

the maximum

those limitations construction

to base design, the designer seeks the least the end result. Obviously, if he around be an it into forms and pouring concrete special metal unit, this would The discussion here. of thermal higher. expansion the However, device.


to accomplish

can use a precast plastic it, or a prefabricated acceptable round or channel space-saving

stainless steel or other and labor-saving pipe,

The use in such areas, of halfof such a design

is not recommended.

in the chapter Consider of concrete thermal alloys floor welds. the

on waste handling is 5.8 to 6.2; of that some,

will not be repeated of carbon steel and nearly

first the special metal design. The coefficient steel is a little of most of stainless

expansion is much

the chemically-resistant If a prefabriin the concrete in damage to the at real enter, the



that of concrete. expand with hot

cated stainless steel or other and hot liquids result Although will will with This will in wrinkling which the

alloy trench

or pit is bedded tightly and quite possibly when liquids

run into it, the alloy will of the structure system can metal expand

more than the concrete. some small clearance since the

such a trench be at the

is installed

sides into

problems movement be lined pansion. certainly Even in applying trench. from

ends and alloy

intercepts dimension. practical

of the trench

greatest exand

be in the lengthwise an undersize with this is not

A small pit may, quite possibly, cushion to accept long, with a trench there will 10 ft.

liner set against a foam

Unfortunately, not in a trench if the

intercepts. problems are resolved, floor continuous be great difficulty into the wastes to make around it continuous


the membrane getting

in the adjacent


to make the membrane down undermining

will result in chemical the metal structure.

the floor Now,

into the concrete it and damaging plastic

and under the

metal structure,

the building

let us consider expansion fillers), system. setting

the use of a preformed is made from of concrete to that

unit made of a castable plastic. a mix designed to a coefficient (and this can be done by the and mated to the floor into the top of surrounding the upper a wide flange

In this case, if the castable of thermal membrane the unit, the unit, use of suitable then


it can be set in the concrete on the membrane under

This can be done by designing more membrane

the flange directly

of the floor

then applying

over the flange and merging the brick floor. trench

layer of membrane sandwiched With flange, made top brick cal and, if properly in line with to keep the lengths away Thrust together, calls for blocks

into the membrane designed the brick from

Thus the flange is (or pit) is practiwill work. must be on

into the membrane.

This type of preformed

and cast from

low expansion


this design the brick will interior

end over the membrane from expanding

on top of the wide Provision a thrust will

of the steel or plastic wall. This is done by installing 15.) when two intercepts

in the floor the trench

and pushing the brick

of the flange

into the trench. (See Drawing

block two be directed close

edge so that all movement

away from that point.

are also necessary

enter a trench

or at opposite sides of the trench a few feet apart. Standard design an expansion joint in the brickwork not closer than 2 ft. or further



and Chemical





than If the these back

3 ft.



intersection back

to absorb


movement the brick

of the


without corner. so that must in the FRP trenches,


sufficient for

pressure joints

to dislodge cannot expansion the same in very and/or the

on the outside locations brickwork be located the

intercepts guidelines from the

are so close together expansion in that area with intercepts, to however, accomplish

or at staggered be met, blocks. joints results

opposite then Along should with

be immobilized usual manner. Do not gutter or pit. Where pated acid of the to cut brick. brick brick the

the thrust

the feeder


a prefabricated

The coefficient trench Since, lining or pit to function will vary

of thermal except etc.), is large,

expansion when

of such a unit mechanical

is far too great abuse is anticiis still the depth the linings the problem But

for such a design to be successful (i.e., shovels at clear-rout,

small areas. life protection it will

best and longest trenches it is obvious that

properly, lining

must slope so that to complete of handling

continuously, with

be necessary

continuously and to mate 4 earlier are about there the slope.

as the them

proceeds This

in order

of the walls see Drawing although whatever Years depth more

the cap brick other if the applied, designs

and the floor. as there were the

As an example,

in this chapter. as many will that

is one way

there ago,

are brickmasons. poured brick

the design, throughout,

be a need to cut brick. concrete and then at a uniform walls installed, to estaband walls. brick next memdown the cost high then course

it was thought could be poured Next, on top concrete to the acid failed.



on the brick

bottom, would

and it could be applied installed,

be graded then

lish the proper laid Acid walls, to the on the got The

a membrane of the

over the concrete a final to the brick the acid depth The them

side to side bonded bottom these into next the Obviously,



membrane establish collapsed. slots for properly

and cemented on the floor the slope, the brick sloped the brick be laid. (I) the This


The membrane

was discontinuous.

used to

through at a uniform

destroying walls, then the was slots than instead point acid was the there A final and then

it, and the bottom method was to form a layer for

of concrete the walls, floor only

in the center. and pushing completed, cost high

brane would would into brane concrete in the more but put and well. melting

be applied this, the

to the entire buttering would


including When

the slots. The brick the memproperly but filled design,

be laid After continuous. and cutting hot brick little

slots. and


problems: labor next cost

of forming worked

(2) the tremendous installing the brick. The

in applying

the membrane method

the brick the slope similar of this.

in the slots. with

idea was to go back to the first concrete, temperatures bottoms, this to use a heavily have not to an asphalt

of establishing asphalt, on top or

in appearance Where on the

road surface,

been excessive reasonably a uniform, the con-

no weight Design the

has worked instance then is a long with

possibility. place to

once again as in the first and lay where the the slope. If the the trench

,constant concrete crete one brick

depth, castable depth.



use a polymer one, by exactly

establish after


can be stepped Now, a polymer concrete

at each point applying without

the depth


membrane, to worry

the slopes can be estabtoo much at the material

lished with


cost of a larger volume

of polymer



with Chemically-Resistant



Locations accommodate outside corners deformable in addition sion joints and control spaced apart they intervals) in depth


expansion being

joints pushed

in trenches and off brick the


be planned, but to by back

not only brick pressure

to at

thermal from elastomeric

expansion material

growth, membrane



in the expansion

joints. joints

In trenches,


to the normal around joints fixed

spacing of expansion

and the placing of expanand cold seams (or evenly into such evenly

objects and over all points of movement if the length does not divide

in the substrate, be placed

at not more than 20 ft. intervals

at lesser distances should

in both directions

at not more than 3 ft. or less and before all step changes

than 2 ft. from all changes in direction in trenches. lining will If the trench 20 minutes mind,

and intercepts,

be exposed joints

to very hot liquids for more than 15 to than once in an hour, it will probably intervals. joints, Of course, It should be kept in such as those will we have from at shorter

at a time, that

or more frequently straight-through have very little

be necessary to place expansion however, line, joint. with considered a straight expansion mediate shown foam two up to now,

expansion strength. the center happen

any variation

such as bulge toward of the wall,

of the trench,


assure the collapse

but it will

soonest at a straight-through interas

In 20 ft. trenches, expansion in Drawing pads,

squared in effect,

ends, it is often possible to eliminate foam between thickness floats in both the brick directions. lining The

joints 8. This,

by the use of end pads of closed-cell


the two of the in


its expansion to be employed

pads must be calculated the thickness

to accept

the maximum




in the end pads.




and Chemical





As the ability courses, which design.




straight-walled with to employ mills there the






the joint,

to line it successfully it will has been Note that be possible although the joints

4 in. of brick, and it is necessary to go to two interlocking 1930s. and design expansion Drawing sliding joints since the 9 shows this in both

in use in steel

are compression in location Although way

courses of brick, and the wall joints course without only, in both to

are staggered

so that

no two coincide, from joint the


its strength.

this drawing with of laying straight,

shows the expansion

inner and outer there weakening

courses as winding the wall by cutting joint

the brick contours out the expansion and only following


is an optional


the brick

on the face course joint passes back

to make

the face course expansion on the back course,

brick contours

so that the rear expansion in the face course.

and forth on each side of the joint

(Blast Furnace

and Steel Plant, Drawing 9

November 1968)

Penetrations as to prevent plished


the trench

or pit wall or bottom

must be so designed 1 on Drawing the floor level.


or bypass of the membrane. of a unit of the Josun type. of drain has a wide collar of a brick,

In drains, this is accomSee Sketch below

by the selection

10. Note that this type the concrete, The membrane

on the shaft at the surface of and under the collar, sandwiching may collect

the thickness is applied thickness

plus membrane, of the floor

over the surface of membrane of the drain,

then an additional weep-holes through

is added over the collar, so that any liquid that

it into the membrane.

Above the membrane the shaft

over the upper face of the collar are








brick and over the membrane preventing


drain through

the weep-holes


down the drain, effectively

any puddling

at the low point.



The brick that all joints, and with

are then laid over the membrane including those between should

and up to the drain, now be %


sure full

brick and drain body, are completely

no voids. The top of the drain 2 shows the method here that a similar beyond

to l/s in. below the the side of the (or into the

surface of the brick. Sketch trench pit). trench concrete applied, with Note of handling from pipe entries through (or pit) to drain 16 in. or more surface liquids type the area above into the trench The pipe extends

of seal is involved.

the design thickness the threads at that entry. the concrete

of the brick lining. The shaft The hot asphalt membrane is

of the entry

pipe is threaded,

going back into the wall area, and the

recessed a % in. minimum the reinforcing 1 in. beyond pipe

being cut to fit around the pipe up to the pipe shaft, and face. A collar threaded down tightly and an additional layer to mate of hot shaft placed is now screwed over the collar against the

out along it for almost the threading membrane Asphalt membrane asphalt the shaft.

on the

in the prepared must NOT

recess in the wall, be permitted clean from it until

(and fabric) be absolutely

and up to a l/z in. along the collar to the end

to get on the rest of the pipe shaft. % in. out from to the shaft. Heat should

The shaft should of the pipe. The be applied 100 to 120F. and bond tightly In placing entries tween are both expansion

brick is then laid up to and cemented between

to the pipe to warm to the metal. expansion points joints joints,

it is just too hot to touch the metal-to it and the brick to flash-cure brick must be notched drains to

This will cause the mortar of membrane

The backs of adjacent and collar, it must

provide for the thickness

as well as the bed joint. that should and pipe bestresses in they be centered

be remembered and that

of no movement, to prevent

the existence

of any unbalanced

the lining.



and Chemical







OVERFLOWS a weir in a trench, from perhaps to allow susthat the level will not be the weir

When the designer wishes to install pended (and wall, balanced built therefore, unlike growth Drawing matter weight) of the liquid

to settle out and be trapped, in the trench

he should



by an equal level on the downstream in the normal fashion, will probably to design it in a curve, with designs a power

side. Therefore, upstream

a straight all-brick from the sides, just However, sketch in

have a short life. It is important, dam on a river. in the left-hand

the center

as a civil engineer a concrete 1 I.

or water-retention

dam, in this case the design must provide The way this is done is illustrated

for the anticipated

of the brick.

Drawing 11

Note that the wall cated .sustain trench wall), should in the guidelines loading width) it should

in this area is built

to a thickness

greater than that indiat a depth of 6 ft. (or

given earlier for pit and trench walls. Since this wall must be 12 in. thick. These thicknesses width The concrete are for a wall length of trench trench bottom

on one side, it is never less than 8 in. thick; of not more than 4 ft. At greater will be required.

and deeper,

(and length of and sides

a greater thickness

be recessed in a smooth

curve, approximately

2 in.; 3/4 in. wider than the


with Chemically-Resistant



anticipated trench


of the wall. After a strip of Teflon

the membrane film

has been applied



and the recesses, and a single thickness

of brick 2% to 2% in. thick is,laid is laid in the recess

in the recess area,

3 to 5 mils thick

in the bottom of the trench. The brick wall is then laid in the usual manner in the floor recess, on top of the Teflon film and the brick in the bottom laid up to it on both the wall, mortared sides. However, film a full is placed joint instead of mortaring the floor brick. brick directly to Teflon with against the bottom side of the wall, film. in the slot, brick are As the wall

and up the side of the wall

to the top of the floor

The floor

and laid tightly

against the Teflon

is built, a uniform space, /4 to l/z in., is left between the ends of the wall and the brick in the wall slot, and this space is filled with a closed-cell foam (or other compressible brick Teflon wall. Now, as the weir wall brick grow and expand, on the Teflon the foam. upstream and will film the brick can release thermal and slide into the brick of the brick in the weir all-brick structures, side. this It will, out of the stress by sliding outward thrust wall. wall under them, is next film joint laid between filler) selected for the anticipated wall brick, wall service. The trench wall a up against the partition trench once again imposing

the mortared

brick and the sides of the divider

slots in the wall, compressing against the wall from The will designer not should be liquid-tight divider wall

This curved design provides for both the and the expansion like other weep

bear in mind that material

into the downstream that settles out. are filled

however, a single depths,

act to trap any suspended concrete the wall structure.

An all-brick

should never be used to make two chambers If the two chambers will to much toward There


is sure to fall down There

the low level side. In addition, always

wall can never be made liquid-tight. of the wall to the other. brick lining installed a weir carried both in such a vessel, the membrane vessel. When section membrane protecting ment-so

be leakage from one side divider wall installed each cavity, and the

should always be a concrete made continuous throughout

over it in the same thickness is to be installed

and design as in the rest of the over such a divider wall, the

or overflow through

of the overflow

should be designed as a slot in the concrete the slot, sides and bottom, and tightly bonded

wall, and the the slot, on move-

and sealed continuously with the brickwork

to the membrane

in the adjoining sides and bottom be centered vertical growth

vessel. Then the brick is laid through point-an expansion joint

both sides. Remember it should one, it may require vessel to prevent

that this is a fixed between from

area of no acceptable joints. around

If the vessel is a deep the inside of each of

a circumferential


pushing the bricks off of the bottom

the slot and disrupting

the brick on the sides of the slot.

This naturally contouring common (for sloping leads into a consideration joints of vessel design. The importance on in Drawings of

and of expansion bottoms),

has been covered earlier; other design details have been touched 1, 3, 4, 5 of may be a need to control the direction

to vessels and trenches 6 (where




and Chemical






movement), liquid

7 (if a removable level. tanks

cover is required), pipe for concrete

8 and 9 for the exvessels-preferably It is appropriate masonry acceptable is is

pansion joints Divider


and 10 for entry

above the normal walls here to mention to provide out 135F. (212OF)

in concrete an additional insulation tanks

have just

been discussed.


of this kind of a design. At the beginIf this is hot asphalt, and in nine

ning of this study, thermal of ten concrete

it was said that a major use of chemically-resistant to the membrane. a concrete with it is, then the top service temperature an adequate thickness wall

It is possible to operate if the asphalt

tank lined with hot asphalt at boiling of acid brick to range. Howthe full of fluid in a never

is inner-lined wall

bring down the wall thickness will

the surface temperature divider baffle) will

of the asphalt to the acceptable baffle both be heated from

ever, if a common will

or a brick-covered

is put in the tank, and there

(or concrete

sides, so that

eventually effect. liquid, the

reach the same temperature The asphalt temperature flow, squeezing of the tank. temperature

as the interior,

be no cooling causing tank, 135F.

will rise to the temperature upwards with and out under a common wall

the contained pressure, concrete exceed

and it will

the failure internal


of both sides of the wall should arrangement.

This rule does not hold true for steel tanks wall in a steel tank with a ventilation

because it is possible See Drawin steel tanks and

to design a divider ing 11, Sketch 2. The design


in this sketch has been a successful standard operating limit

mills for well over 40 years for use in 300 ft. and longer steel strip pickling of five or more compartments, lined form with rubber sheet, top courses of acid brick speed through at close to the boiling temperature temperature, 160F. Two and steel strip is pulled surface

or more at a uni-

are laid over the rubber, the cavities from

one end to the other,

over the common rinse at the end.

walls, passing from strong, hot acid at the start, to hot water

BOTTOMS Above, concrete theory with Drawing were 5, various methods discussed. of attaining there slope in the bottom of The the



is a school of thought sloped

that applies a similar


to the design of tanks with sloped bottoms. a steel tank with a flat bottom a dead flat bottom bottom would the vessel with and attain

is that it is more costly to fabricate a false bottom, stiffeners

to one side than to fabricate slop with bottom rigid cylinder, pouring After

because a sloped fabricated to be designed box, the bottom of concrete finishing

require the

and supports

in different dead flat,

lengths to provide the steel as a right all supports and stiffby


and to keep the sides vertical. in size and thickness. bottom low point,

By fabricating

or a true rectangular an additional

eners can be uniform crete to the desired the concrete 11 .) when

The desired slope is then attained the concrete whatever to a true, the type, smooth is applied

into the vessel and sloping the conplane. to the

has cured, the membrane,

steel walls and continuously Drawing Sometimes,

across the concrete

and up the opposite lining,

side. (See

the design calls for a sheet rubber

the steel vessel


with Chemically-Resistant



is lined completely after the concrete


the sheet rubber it is hoped) the triangular favor


the concrete

is installed.


has cured, an additional


is placed over the concrete sheet already into applied to the several imdifficult properly In other of expanIt will also in the bottom. account

and sealed (continuously steel walls, encapsulating The portant surface, operation fabricated words, engineers factors. and than (I) who

to the rubber

section of concrete to take

this design fail

The application

of the membrane of a steel tank

system over the concrete is a more its bottom with

its continuous the continuous

sealing to the wall lining slope. It is impossible


to the required

to verify the liquid tightness of over the floor.

the seal between there chemicals from

the wall membrane getting

and that last applied fill.

is no test available steel is about faster

to prove that this joint will not leak and permit

down into the concrete

(2) The coefficient

sion of carbon heat and expand heat up a little fill. This will

5 to 10% higher than that of concrete,

a little faster than concrete. than the bottom the material

Thus the sides (which are steel) will used at the seal. If there are any

and try to move away from the concrete

result in stretching

weak points in the joint, they may be ruptured, and if any holidays, they may be enlarged. (3) With the bottom of the tank thicker than the walls by the thickness of the concrete important only fill, the bottom will absorb heat, will not radiating it as fast as the walls, and the membrane the membrane. Whether wait points until out the that to line the steel completely bottom concrete is installed if acid gets into it. The thinking it (but before putting in the concrete or to is arguable. through One school of thought the failure of the memreach the it), it at the bottom be hotter than on the walls. This is near the upper limit of

if the vessel is operating

at a temperature

the concrete

brane on top, concrete will

if there is a complete

lining on the steel, the acid cannot in the tank by a membrane

steel and hole

of the second school is that if acid gets into the is held below lining over the membrane-and the loss over to

and damages

result in the deflection and brick,

of the brick

of both membrane is aware that warn wall

and subsequently the bottom will

of the vessel, before the operator hole and start to leak in time membrane,

he has a problem.

On the other hand, if there is no membrane

the steel below the concrete, the operator preline brick, is to (I) as a furan, be used. bottom.

to shut down and repair before the vessel is lost. A better way all the steel with the appropriate then (2) place the cement such If it is always in the is to using a polymer

and (3) cast the slope into the bottom vinyl ester, or epoxy, If this is done, of which fabricated dissimilar standpoint and cone are present,a problem the bottom joined

as may be suited to the chemistry.

on the acid side, and no fluorides Of course, the thermal with

silicate castable may sometimes above will sloped, from still be present.

it may be possible to avoid having to use brick mentioned already reasoning materials bottoms is preferred, together. maintenance, tanks, obviously the best answer

Regardless have the tank of two totally From the hemispherical

and to avoid the use dished,

of long life and freedom

are the best for cylindrical expansion joints. will

and are the unless prowith brick and

designs of necessity vided growth. with properly

if a vessel is to be prestressed to eliminate designed adequate expansion joints,

(see Chapter

47), or if there

is a desire or necessity In addition,

Flat bottoms, heave upward is required

and frequent


if flexing



and Chemical








can damage by those

brickwork who flat

are to be avoided. have not fully bottom intervals tanks-to

Flat bottoms, their dis-


are the cheapest

to fabricate engineers for

and, therefore,

are the most frequently analyzed avoid

designed-especially advantages. A favorite l-beams of soft that

method should



using the to layer to is

be welded flat concrete

at frequent foundation,

across the

bottom-is weight

pour a good smooth asphalt asphalt this will squeeze storage,

cover it with

a % in. thick

or tar,

and set the tank

on it, allowing

the tanks

out on all sides. If the be acceptable. IOF The higher than that

vessel is to be used only of the surrounding are in contact The bottom, down.

for ambient

But if the temperature

of the tanks contents with

much more than experience cool off, contact below around more keeping with

air, the designs may the air, and will is in direct surface however, radiate the heat. however,


sides of the tank

the wall temperature slowly

the support

pad and its asphalt cover, and cannot heat up until will expand. It cannot as the contents.

It becomes a heat sink, and will IO hotter

it and the contact It is restrained,

it, have reached the same temperature than the walls, the steel bottom periphery with by the hoop press outward. so it cannot in contact its entire cooler

Now, at more than are 10F or because it is at the center the be maximum problem of the the the

of the steel walls, which flex downward it flexes upward

continuously membrane. overheated. worse, tank. asphalt operators damaged yond

the pad. Therefore

to relieve the expansion service temperature The

stresses, and in doing so cracks the brick,exposing is operating of the at a temperature brick lining above the makes the the membrane bottom on the bottom will already

If the interior destruction

of the lining, will

and the membrane Chemicals and into realize the


hole-probably Sooner about the center

near the center

now leak under the tank. the concrete-usually that it is leaking, of the tank, it will

or later, they get through of the pad. Before and probably most likely

have weakened

seriously be be-

bottom There will

and the support

pad will the tank,

repair. As noted

be no way of rehabilitating a common wall

and it will have to vessel into

be scrapped and replaced. earlier, when divides a single concrete support two, that wall is heated protecting while from both sides. The structural walls, cooler. which (The of the wall and as that of the used to wall heat to the surformula

the membrane contained rounding compute

it will come up to the same temperature the outer can dissipate mathematical Therefore,

liquids, air, will

be considerably

the temperature and so will

of the surface of the membrane not be repeated liquids. here.)

is given in the chapter if a common that

on prestressing, is to be included temperature the contained this design

in the design, the membrane If there at this temperature, joints or contents,

must be selected to accept the full is no membrane can handle If due walls this design must be abandoned.

of the contained liquids

is used, and expansion


be used in the brickwork, in the design of any baffle

either to temperature that may intrude

the divider wall must be contoured. will only with extend a short distance

For the same reason, into the interlock

care must be taken

into the vessel. If the baffle

vessel, it may be constructed it into the wall

of masonry, extends

the brick so laid as to the heat sink problem

brick lining. With no membrane, Where the baffle

ceases to be a limitation.

much more than a foot into


with Chemically-Resistant



the vessel and agitation vessel or concrete protection contained design. toured brick liquid. If the and is needed, baffle

is planned, and the


support must accept

(steel in the case of a steel In this case membrane the temperature details should of the of baffle keep the

in a concrete See Drawing is a long

vessel) is usually membrane one, the (with 12 and Drawing


14 for suggested support head) 45-2.)


also be con-

be dumb-bell


a rectangular

so as to

on the shaft

in compression.

(See also Figure

rubber-lined steel
-6 mrta$,













brick 6 mxtar




(see Figure 45-21





Drawing 12



and Chemical





Earlier under the methods

in this of



was mention

of the steel tank

importance on the I-beams for this.

of ventilation and to at frequent the walls lining Angle of a irons used or The than

the tank

if the vessel is a heated supporting this they will around to out ventilation. support are the top provide

one (to eliminate

a heat sink effect),

a fiat-bottomed without ways

intervals be rigid rectangular

to permit so that vessel. welded work

In addition, of

it is important accomplishing of the walls spillage the weld



There way


continuously drips from

and waist

are frequently

as an inexpensive migrate following

stiffness. the tank drips

However, or damage fall

over the top, at that wall, point. rather


of the tank so that

can be puddled

on such girth

angles or

to the welds, under

and hole

use of a channel

at the top, the angle supports

free of the tank under the

and down under

the tank the tank,

side is an improvement. the channel with Is extended 12.) designed wall and

Best of all at the top, to meet the

are gusset plates welded and to the .I-beam base of the gusset plates. Occasionally as channels, ends welded against wall, steel sequent become the placed to the this outside vertical with



the walls, be welded have from from in this against design

The gussets must support the flat wall tank the

to the center been

of the I oppospecified of the of air on the conbe or wall, either and

site the web, and not to the edge of the I. (See Drawing stiffeners body plate. wall. cooling away This Aside

the tank the

and both a column effect it,with may

steel of

encapsulates insulating

preventing local caused by

area from

as much there held

as the area around area, and the the outside of air that

overheating differential with

of the membrane expansion, corrosives designed if the the tank vessels necessary membrane, be reached

stresses in the

is a column

contaminated area that tanks, bottoms.

of the tank

an enclosed Concrete on walls require under or

cannot properly

to be serviced. and reinforced, bottoms provision them. no vertical But they walls vessels. and must

This is not good design. need no stiffeners sinks be made for


are not to be heat

a high them,

temperature with provides


such as designing cylindrical the

to stand off the floor

on a series of piers, stiffeners, as

or have supports Obviously, their bottom frequent It contour support. and Outlets

air spaces between

require rigidity. through failure-in

external still,

of course,

require the most

inlets-penetrations of trouble-and important or agitator funds to



It is, therefore, such

preferable, or inlets. as thermal like may on the be

to load and unload is especially and over heater the wells served to nozzle. or

vessels over the top of a side, and to have no outlets avoid unnecessary Also, than through lining penetrations it. This way, and thermal in the entries. on heat exchangers and the

the top extra

of a side rather details a heater, abrasion

it is unnecessary sleeving manhole inlet pipe details


membrane in Drawing

(See the nozzle 46 on waste leading from to

13, and those steam mechanical by setting or conduit jet

in Chapter conduit from lining


It is necessary, thermocouple, other


to protect or other headers

instrument, into the brick 3

bumping, to provide 12.)

or from


by the contents

of the tank in Drawing

or by equipment. a pocket

This may be done in which the piping

can lie. (See Sketch


with Chemically-Resistant



Membranes Failure of differing the details to


be continued so that eventually



all nozzles Some designs


and outlets) systems 46, and liquid

and over the exterior types that


the membrane

has no discontinuity. membrane in Chapter are occasionally

do this will design.

lead to failure. outlet

may be lapped 13.) The detail in exposures

and the lap pressure-sealed in Sketch that 2 is not

used in a compromise in Drawing as that head, in Sketch

(See the manhole

as safe and foolproof to a continuous

1, but

are not subject

it may have an economical

life expectancy.



and Chemical





CAPPING In designing asphalt tinue brick floor. membrane the brick is carried and concrete lining the tanks, it is common practice to carry the reinforced and to conOften the

up the wails and over the tops of the concrete, in the same manner-over the outside and membrane is properly brick down of the tank, the outside onto

the top of the wall. continued


is veneered with the surrounding

as well,

If such a system

designed and constructed, injury there

the life expectancy can

of the system will in membrane, However, interior terior of enter the building

be a long one. This is a closed system, with no discontinuities for mechanical is no way corrosives must be provided be higher outside than structure. is a problem of the tank The brick interior which in such design that will almost will has two for. The the excertainly

and except there

temperature temperature.

capping wall will


corners-the the

one at the top of the the exterior portion will joint veneer, interior cracks


be hot, and the one at the top temperature. Therefore, difference, and shear movement. are conjoints to close of the capping for the cap the sliding brick

be at ambient parallel

of the cap will in the The is provided 14.)


due to the thermal



to the side walls joints

unless a sliding

expansion tinued top

in the cap to permit vertical to permit brick expansion

this differential expansion

(See Drawing


in the walls

up to this sliding joint is heated moves with

the interior

and open as the tank of the wall remains which joint

up or cooled

down, while the cap brick over the The balance compression the brick joints cap-then


in the wall.

in place closing is no veneer be placed

up into to handle between

the provided brick growth. the cap brick

are only required should

If there

on the outside-only

and the top

of the wall

parallel with the membrane If the tank recommended. walls, before top

on the top of the wall. than concrete, system, bumper, down a rigid capping such as brick is not lining, is carried up the and under the channel and length as the walls, is placed over the bolts and nuts, (See such as a rubber the same width tightly that

is steel rather The membrane A timber and bolted

over the channel terminating. 1 in. thick,

(or angle) at the top and down preferably

not less than

2 in. with corners mitered, to it using alloy rubber-lined resin mortar

of the channel 5-5,

passing through Figure tration

the timber

and through with

holes in the channel. to limit the chemical

page 82).

it is recommended and covered

the head of the bolt be counter-

sunk into the wood,


along the shaft.

COVERS Brick cover From the cannot, of course, be used to line the underside then protection The of a flat cover. What, If the then, over

is fixed

in place,

and is a dome, insulation

it can be brick-lined. for the underside to 1975, procedure

can be done to provide membrane tanks. could

of a flat cover?

at least the first decade

of the 20th


no insulation

be provided.


has been used for



with Chemically-Resistant



Typical rectangular concrete vessel design with Note design of baffle wall extending Into vessel, to keep brick lining in compression.



walls to keep brick lining in arch. contoured and hammerhead design



with glazed block wall.

Interlocking expansion joint in vessel lining ends at rubber inverted T (Tj at brick cap. Shaft of rubber T shear pad permits lateral movement at this point independent of brick veneer on outside of vessel. Cross bar of T is set flat on membrane covering top of tank wail, and brick are laid up to and against the shaft on both sides.

see r3v.xnicall.y


Masonry, Drawing






The lined large,


vessel-whether with a hot column

rectangular membrane for

or circular-has and acid brick. may


completed, in-

completely an all-brick


If the vessel is

or support

the cover

also be constructed



and Chemical





side the vessel, to the same height as the top of the walls. A collapsible is then rib-back the form, mortar outside surfaces liner is cured, built clay up in the cavity flush with plates (ASTM brick liner between the sides and/or are laid flat, the top of the form the top of the sides and of the column C-479) brick, face down and the edges mortared if there After with hot is one), asphalt. with

flat form with Flat top.

next to the column,

on the top of the same to the

as if one is laying floor

used to lay the of the walls are coated concrete manway reader but will the

in the vessel. From masonry. reinforced

the edges of the form have cured, Finally, When

(and over the column, with a layer

the liner plates are the joint over the all this

laid and mortared plates

to the brick is poured,

the joints

of l/4 in. thick is entered,

steel reinforcing. collapsed

of the tank realize,

the form will

and removed, for

and the tank As the a cover with ploying fabricated The permanent plates for brick,

is ready for use. this procedure dome not be very satisfactory cover, the cover polymer may a steel tank. If it is a fixed membrane, of the the or conical it may be lined be steel, emor preconcrete

if the cover

is to be removable,

a high temperature FRP construction. liner plate lining

or a precast

underside there layer than ASTM

of a concrete

cover does not offer between than, the liner joints. of a


For one thing,

is no membrane

and the concrete-only they

of hot asphalt acid brick. C-301-by

over the mortar

The liner plates are not as dense as, have a higher absorption 6% allowable-and liner plates test as that are thinner under is accomplished

acid bricktesting

The absorption

no means as stringent

used for acid brick.

Consequently, ambient

the economical temperature

life of this kind wastes, the cover

of a cover is limited. may last a number and contains off in less than In the Chapter adhesive; tioned early a volatile

In vessels handling corrosive In the light,

of years. But if the vessel operates at an elevated temperature such as hydrochloric past the only closedcell acid, tile may start falling was the same kind of glass block 12 Ib/cu.ft., (see will alternative

a year. 197Os,

covers used for steel tanks. foamed with borosilicate 17) were developed. all joints between These block, a mass of only

adhere to the underside has been applied

of a concrete

or steel cover by using a urethane Insulation


them are made the same way. of both concrete

of this type

to the underside for a decade.

and steel covers and has func-


PRESTRESSING Prestressing pated away operating from is a process employed conditions, or other masonry in design to make sure that under anticishell of a vessel does not expand leaving the lining without there lining-too support on the may be insulation so that lining,

the steel outer

a brick

and in tension. the outside cient internal

Designs of this type insulation

are used where

of a vessel, or there

is to be a thin

thin to provide suffilow enough

to keep the skin temperature

steel will not expand This procedure also used occasionally

faster than the brick. finds primary elsewhere use in the dye manufacturing in other chemical processes. industry, but is It is done by em-


with Chemically-Resistant




a mortar

for the masonry block)

units that follows goes through a certain

two different

setting cycles. temperature The vessel is heated operating and reaches

The brick

(or other

are laid up using wide joints at ambient its primary amount of elasticity. chloride,

inside the vessel, and the mortar to the touch. then filled internally temperature. the conditions. stretching The during totally the tank cannot until However, a neutral the internal with

cure and becomes hard and slowly

it retains solution

such as sodium

temperature dimensions

has reached that it will

the anticipated attain liquid


this slow heat-up, the weight

the shell warms and expands, of the contained with the supporting the operating


and expanded

under the service presses the brick joints hours, and but

As it expands, to permit

lining outward,

keepirrg it in contact the movement. at or the above,

shell; the mortar for 48

vessel is held which period in its stretch cools down,



undergoes After

its secondary

cure-hardening dimensions


48 hours when the heat is removed

the steel tries to shrink back to its original is now solid and immovable. range without this thermal

do so because the brickwork lining. to design for what be required computed,

From then on

the vessel can be cycled through or the masonry In order to determine stretch From for will

damage to the vessel be made carefully amount of 47.

prestressing, be built in the mortar

computations into joints.


stresses will

the vessel, and what the required mortar

This is discussed in Chapter supplier

the data

the designer will refer of stretch


parameters for the of selected for

this vessel design. factor,

He must then

back to the mortar From this factor the number careful smaller in laying

quellung expansion

or amount

that the semicured

the lining will are determined. weight follow of the

accept without The lining, installer

joint fracture. must be very

and the amount the brick,

that the lining

must accommodate,

and size of the joints to use to under the Failure

spacers in the joints

to be sure that they and so make

do not close up or tighten than designed. of the lining.

the joints

exact design and joint size will result in failure



IN VESSELS of expansion joints in vessels follow liquids the same rules as that there is (held) than must be devessel with joints may is an

and location for the

those in floors and trenches. less opportunity when signed should inlet decide inlet, they for. are transient

The designer must remember, the maximum are fixed Therefore, joints.


lining to cool where and, therefore, inlets expanion and outlets

are contained movements points in a tall

As in trenches, between

and, therefore, expansion If there

be centered

pipes penetrating If there to allow however,

the walls near the top, circumferential are no inlets and no capping to expand-sliding

are indicated.

or cover, the designer up the walls.

the lining simply will be minor,

the lining of the inlet will such movement

be sheared off. without

If the tank is not deep Teflon sleeves have

and the expansion liner so that been employed

he may opt for lining the inlet with a flexible damage.

it can accept

for this purpose.



and Chemical







FLOORS of floors, there are a number of matters that must be

Back discussed:

on the subject

(I) (2)

Monolithic The floors and

surfacing. between with and expansion joint by design acid and brick location toppings laid with in

difference protected surfacings,

bonded in floors mortars

tile or brick, protected

and monolithic membrane. of a brick

chemically-resistant (3) How to determine

over an impervious thickness

the appropriate


over a

membrane. (4) (5) Curb design. Walls subject floors. to spray or splash of corrosives, adjacant to acid-

resistant Monolithics To this construction. point,

the discussion require types: into and three

has centered quite

on acid


and similar







may be subdivided


Toppings (usually thicknesses much

surfacings of

applied 1s to more,

to steel,

the and

surface very very


be protected wood) in as

concrete, usually



14 in.,



as % in. or slightly and polymer

most often placed

by troweling. often by pouring or


Grouts casting, repair



in depths

of 1 to 4 in., sometimes


and often

used to

or fill deep holes in a substrate. linings, types which are covered that in other shrink sections of this book. cure

(3) The their they will which

Gunned first two

are materials


placement ability structure-and

as they

and harden. adequate will they The

The usefulness continuous, to the

of these will undamaged, diffusion

be limited fracture-free them

by their of the than is that there the

to maintain to provide to which to


resistance be exposed. will



In addition,

in the great majority expansion types so that and

of cases, these materials does the substrate monolithics,

have different principal

coefficients difference be tightly bond

of thermal between bonded for their the hand,

be applied. the two integrity, substrate because will if they of must to the substrate, relying on the rigidity

are to survive, the substrate tight provide polymer It concrete membrane

and that placed

may not be a liquidA polymer thickness to from if the

between strength crack. at this


or grout, good

on the other

it is used in adequate to protect

physical should

and to be self-supporting, which continue that

may be separated the substrate have

the substrate should

by a membrane be noted

or grout






with Chemically-Resistant



many cure over to bond placing


and varied content,

additives strengths,

to include density, material

in concrete etc. Rarely,


to affect con-

speed, water the concrete

if ever, do they

sider the chemistry react to with the the

of a surfacing and bond


the designer

may plan to place have been found its cure in mixing cement, or the and sand be

to it. A number of the surfacing Care must, nothing

of these additives material therefore, other than and impair be taken

a component concrete concrete that that




and aggregate included shrinkage of In the

has been approved mix. section

by the manufacturer there is a general service, the

of the monolithic summary polymer with

in the concrete materials types and and/or a monolithic should and expansion the

of this book, for

of the cure concretes the kinds wet

characteristics thermal


and for Where

of the various corrosives conditions through bility a membrane

used at this date in chemical ranges they head should a standing surfacing probably are anticipated, be kept

together possibility Under

can accept. in mind.


of diffusion the possiif reinforcing sufficiently on the other or a carbon or are approxof

such conditions,

be included

in the design-eliminating concrete, is available, mortars Monolithic although there

of using a monolithic suitable not so that

surfacing. in polymer environment Most polymer with will is no reason why

It is not usual to use reinforcing material it should strong hand, imately shrinkage filler out for the specific reinforcing be used if desired. reinforced

are, however, applications, fabric, Opinions

is not necessary. include

are frequently fiber evenly is greatest. divided

glass or other


a synthetic

if the exposure when however,

acid fluorides.

as to the desirability

of such reinforcing. is the lowest more

The least cure to wet it must

is experienced Fabric, bond

the resin content reinforcing,

and the amount

is hard to wet with

resin, and in order will will

and get good The fabric in this Many

to the fabric strength than who of

resin and less filler be greater. the

be used. Therefore, the used. will material cures

in such formulations adhered to the there

the cure shrinkage but there

imparts structure designers

to the structure substrate, would

and distributes

stresses as shrinkage filler were

be more

stresses sections.

be if less resin and more to crack fabric recommend are changes

By distributing make an exception change. a monolithic contractor have cut locations. at these

the stresses, there do not locations

is less tendency regularly there

in the thinner reinforcing, and


of direction,



be done

in such areas, extending is applied

2 to 4 in. on each side of substrate, taken joints in most cases the in the slab, and shrinkage in rana concrete or so later, is also of in than

the direction When much should will dom pour weak, concrete occur

surfacing will

to a concrete has already as well, parts another partly slab, expansion

of the cure shrinkage

of the concrete control will joints

place, However, any future where a day

have, perhaps,


in or formed intentionally In addition, one was poured shrinkage

so that

weakened be cold and dry,

of the slab rather pour cured made concrete. probably bridge directly



was completed and with

afternoon against of concrete

or fresh concrete When movement, the substrate

This joint these over

over the years will to this the if they in an old concrete monolithic

also crack. points

monolithics or bridge

are applied a working

crack to crack

slab, such movement

can be expected

it. In other



and Chemical





words, joints

the crack

in the substrate if the floor of expansion and joints still


telegraph directly


the topping.

For this

reason, it is vital that the correct damaging These other. will and selection the topping

is to function surfacing joint prevent

as it was designed to, expansion over these points, filled with exposure, this crack from for so and each

be placed in the monolithic

sealant for the anticipated liquids from entering

that the surfacing undermining

on each side of the crack can move with the substrate without

the topping. expansion isolate sections of concrete they may materials and topping not provide sections are large, however, As topping uninterrupted has shown all the stresses the of a to in-

If these

stresses in the structure. accumulate the concrete. topping is kept from

cure and shrink, distance


over the full pulling Experience

of the topping,


its surface together that of 0.05 to O.l%,

by the bond between the topping where the cure shrinkage monolithic and that is applied

monolithic terruption concrete uniformly number the

is in the vicinity

a dead flat surface more of the adhesive mixed of other

than 20 ft. long without

an expansion

joint or other

in its 20 ft. length, these accumulated bond to the substrate that is the weakest, or has a little characteristics, substrate

stresses can exceed the strength section, or the area of the of the topping that was not or any of a than point

at the thinnnest or a portion

less curing that would

agent in it than another, disbonding

make that area a little weaker occurs, and at that


ones. When this happens,

the stresses now concentrate tual break-up Where stress relief in the topping expansion relief joint of the topping.

as tensile stresses, and cause the cracking is exceeded, simply, therefore, joint

and even-

this 20 ft. linear distance joints. These with are, quite

it is wise to install the topping of sufficient to the stresses

cuts through

surface of the slab filled to exceed the strength joints stress relief joints.



sealer. The stress lines If there are then a stress

cut in this manner at 15 to 20 ft.

prevent the accumulation intervals, obviously there

of the bond of the topping

to the substrate.

is no need for such

But if the expansion

joints are at 30 ft. intervals, at the midpoint to the concrete

of this kind should or ceramic the

be placed

of this 30 ft. span to substrate should with a strong inThe tile laid on a and the length

prevent such stress buildup. If quarry adhesive, cluding tile is adhered exactly same rules as for the monolithic joint be followed, manner.

stress relief,

since the adhesive functions hand, if the floor may

in an identical

must be cut to place the expansion substrate. membrane, expansion from cutting frequent On the other joint in the the membrane

in the tile exactly is protected

over the one in the earlier, as a brick

by acid brick

acts as a sliding joint be offset joint

as described by as much the than in the slab. 0.05


the point Where

of movement

in the substrate-saving the expansion joints should to be greater


the cost of more

brick to match exactly cure shrinkage and larger expansion also indicates the joint but with

is expected

to O.l%,

be planned,

with distances between joints is


joints reduced proportionately. Experience over the joint-if bilized epoxy, that the optimum traffic with (with size for expansion in. across. At this dimension, wheeled is filled 6 in. or greater wheel diameter) hard sealer such as a flexibe accepted without damag-

a reasonably of 50%-can

an elongation

ing the sides of the joint.


with Chemically-Resistant



Elsewhere brick, 20 ft. the there usually

in this section, considered

we have discussed the irreversible 0.16% of any dimension underfired especially with brick

growth (about

of acid 3/s in. in

to be about

of 8 in. brick). From

Some brick,

ones, may grow more manufacturer and that the frequency

than this. width

design experience joints provision in any for

the brick of the particular should that compute so that floor


plans to use, the engineer

of expansion is adequate

he plans, to be certain heaving

such movement

of the floor

as a result of brick growth Differences brane The first choice, acid brane type brick most may often Between

and thermal Joints

changes will be avoided. in Bonded Brick and Brick over a Mem-


all things being equal, laid over a suitable asphalt, although, system

in selecting liquid-tight depending provides

protection membrane.

for a floor


and mortar is hot

The memanother

on conditions,

be chosen.

The membrane or expand the joints

a sliding plane so that as changes, the floor suitably placed exand thermal

brick grow irreversibly, expansion pansion, is selected, not joint joints causing

and contract

under thermal growth

area can relieve the stresses in the brickwork or open somewhat and the brickwork the to match control a half as temperatures

by sliding toward drop.

to close up under

When this type of protection of an inch necesjoints, it is brickwork to the

is thus free to slide the fraction the expansion the joint joint, joint in the

sary to relieve necessary joint, is offset expansion

stresses by moving exactly joint from

into or out of the expansion crack in the substrate. in the substrate, and it can function

or moving

If the expansion the brick can still satisfactorily, proit to anchor

a brick

move into and out of the expansion viding the substrate at some point and prevent It has been learned brick on the floor brick by pressing is bonded it into movement.

surface is smooth,

and there are no irregularities however,

by sad experience, a soft membrane

that if the thickness

of the

is less than 1 in., traffic

over it, even light traffic, like asphalt

can flex the 1 in., These uninter-

and cause the brick to is to be less than bed joint instead of a resin for

crack before too long. Therefore, the brick membrane bonding rupted high bond directly and regular strength, bed joint

when the brick thickness under the brick

to the slab by using a bonding l/s in. thick,

and over the membrane. made of an epoxy

bed joints are usually a nominal and are troweled,

on the surface as a continuous,

layer into which the thin brick or tile is set. All grooves in the back of the filled with the bed material. should be finished for just as carefully a monolithic If this design is to without surfacing low maand to the same in a 18 in. It is not in the are selfthe concrete and substrate as those to grade,

tile or brick should be completely be followed, specifications terial. thickness, advisable substrate leveling With will, to try spots, and prepared This type

to receive the bed material standards required

of bonding in most to correct

bed is very dense, and if applied carefully, not all), function as a membrane. holidays, low spots, and other of the bed. Epoxies, a bed. directly to the substrate,

cases (but the thickness

imperfections in particular,

by increasing

resins, and this can cause settlement the tile or brick bonded

and sag, resulting

in low spots if

the tile or brick are set on too thick

we have in effect



and Chemical






a monolithic From

topping this,


the tile or brick

set in it function

like overjoint

size aggregate. in the exactly to make brickwork

it must be apparent from the joint what that

that we no longer have a sliding The former must be of brick the ex-

plane under the brick or tile, (or tile) above the latter-no this fit.

and so we can no longer offset the expansion in the substrate. matter this may mean in the cutting all cut brick are set back from

Be sure, however,

pansion joints and only whole This also means that vent disbonding, lithic floor remembered the substrate, Determining that, followed unlike

brick used on each side. on this type of floor in a monoalso be to of the brick or tile, and so preIt should

stress relief joints will be required by heaving, brick

to break the lines of stress from the slow growth provide for the cure shrinkage

just as the stress relief joints of the monolithic. if brick (or tile)

on a membrane,

are bonded

and if the substrate Floor Thicknesses

cracks, so will the tile or brick structure.

As was mentioned applied to crack. In addition,

above, a brick asphalt

or tile less than Thus,

1 in. thick

should not be standing memunder can, if in as

over a soft membrane

because traffic has cold flow.

will cause it to flex and eventually a very heavy weight flow-from laid over an asphalt

permanently brane, will, the weight excessive, material thickness tinuous thick

at the same spot on an acid brick floor after a time, to the area under the adjacent cause the floor to break up. alike, brick. No two

cause the asphalt to squeeze out-cold batches

This kind of movement of asphalt

membrane identical

are exactly

nor are any two so it is impossible

areas of the membrane to make any absolute parked

and reinforcing, load-a fixed tank,


to the size and weight case would

of acceptable

loads. What can be said is this: under conheavy vehicle glass fabric (the worst is probably probable load limit for a 14 in.

etc., a permanently like a steam roller)-the

be something membrane


with a single layer of reinforcing into the conditions

about 25 lb/in. To translate this figure in a specific case, the following factors should be borne in mind: (I) The this center height means of the the load above between the membrane. of the brick (With a vehicle, and the


the face of the wheel

of the axle,plusthe


and the thick-

ness of the bed joint.)


A pinpoint around thickness distribution vertical of

load on the the brick.

brick We

itself will

spread the load laterally the load the sure of this angle from

the joint

in a cone pattern cannot

as the stress passes through be exactly

because of the nature of the brick and its composition, worst case a 30 directly the at the point of load. The higher this This can be at to the of the brick (which wide

but we can assume as probably at the apex (1) load can be elevated, done in two ways: the same time and structure) preferably more

it can be spread out.

increase the thickness shear strength tires.

adds more

and less flexibility

(2) use larger diameter

wheels with

faces and

large pneumatic


with Chemically-Resistant



Anticipate, for them. cipated, Where ing up. Curbs Curbs flooding Sketches you Under

therefore, column

in your supports only brick

design, or tank

the worst

load conditions

and plan

pedestals where heavy loading is anticonstruction. vehicles, be breakand standing to accommodate loaded

do not use soft membranes, are concerned with

and plan instead on bonded traffic

sure that you have adequate


it without

are included 1 through

in floor

designs usually

to retain

spills and to prevent in

of adjacent

areas. For this reason, the usual curb design is like that 5 of Drawing 15. A curb is formed

into the floor construc-


above, "Chemical Resistant Masonry", W. L. Sheppard, Jr. (1982).

Drawing 15



and Chemical









is laid, and the reinforcing along the floor may

is continuous


The for

membrane those Where double surface

is continued there

to the curb,

up the side and across the and is the most suitable of liquid.

top to the other

side. This design stays liquid-tight, be frequent to localize

areas where

spills and large volumes

it may be desirable brick might into

a spill, but there wall extending 6 and 7).

is not too much concern above the normal floor

if some small amount handle

of the liquid the matter

reaches the outside of the curbed area, setting (Sketches If the floor is an old one, by following mortar to is then laid up

the floor

as a barrier

or it is desired the concrete curb just this curbed

to add a curb to a new floor, 7. Here, double to build the curb. without

one can be created membrane

the design in Sketch substrate

brick are bonded with The asphalt

an epoxy

to this brick curb, and the floor built. Obviously, area will probably

laid over the membrane a membrane up from modifying leak through the curb. the floor

and bonded to the brick If we want to stop such a to the top of (Sketch with that 8), of

on the face of the brick curb,

leak, the membrane Sketch 4. Walls Subject

can be carried in effect

and over, the brick curb,

the design to equate

to Spray or Splash plants where corrosive, membranes wall may be built and brick between entirely The two of wet conditions rooms, acid are anticipated, walls are Ala roof

In chemical protected ternatively, or other employing block, raked joint with load,

veneers in the same manner or one that brick and mortar.

as floors.

a divider

is to support

A different, cement or

more attractive except

system, tile

is usually or block.

followed latter

in food

plants such as dairies, often of %I in. or more,


are laid just as are regular

that the face joints usually mortar. with

are left void to a depth hydrochloric

back to that depth are cleaned a furan

before the joints set up. After dilute See Drawing

cure, the surfaces of the pointed

acid, and the joints

full with

14 to see how this kind of a wall is mated

to an acid brick Tile* Tile, fixed and/or designer brick structure. identical Tile many chemical rather

floor and membrane.



is often

used where room portions in nature,


the designer

is dealing with brick thickness, The the is wanted.

elevations (2) where should before

and doesnt appearance carefully they which

have the

to accommodate and a show floor of this tile book before

is paramount

read those are similar

that cover tile and not provide


to use, and certainly

he starts detailing


and brick will

end products,

will not accept identical decorative three and tile, which


and are not installed of years. Of the employed small, in thin,


in the same manner. has been used for manufactured, (I) Quarry service: purposes for thousands are plants;


varieties food

most (2)

frequently Ceramic tile,

much resembles a thin brick,

most often

used in laboratories,
*See W.L. Sheppard, 5568 (1982).


Jr., Chemically


2nd Ed., Marcel Dekker,



with Chemically-Resistant




/4 to

3/s in. thick or paper Glazed

vitrified removed

shapes, usually


mounted bed, which

on an open is allowed filled by

weave cloth grouting; which (3)

backing, tile, which

laid in sheets on a semisoft and the balance a glazed face, can be a multitude

to cure, then the backing 4 in. by 4 in. porcelain

of the open joints or even ceramic

of sizes and shapes such as blocks of used in areas that must be faces with a semisoft mortar and then often a

bodies with

one face has a fired glaze. These are most often glaze making brick, cement which are buttered on the contact

kept very clean, the smooth Unlike of portland and tapping uniform, tilesetter before with laid, tilesetters

it easier to sanitize and disinfect. bed-most

have, for hundreds and sand-and Concrete layer after

of years, prepared

set the tile in it, laying a straight edge over it of all the tile to provide to supplying asphalt contractors are accustomed the

the straight surface.

edge to adjust the elevations

level, with

a rough slab on which of paper No matter

to place the bed, and in many cases applyand low temperature grout to the slab (a loose mortar mix grouted dilute with be re-

ing a waterproofing the bed is placed. into the open joints conditions materials placed nomic life. This means that with that weak


the bed has set and anchored All hydraulic membrane, materials

the tile in place) is used service, under must be replaced must floor

the tile, this design is not adequate corrosives. liquid-tight are chemically resistant,

for wet chemical and the


by a sound,

if this tile

is to have an ecoare

the designer

must make certain


his specifications

not misunderstood. the waterproofing joints. tion If a thin

He must carefully exactly and how

specify what the exact surface of the slab what membrane exactly grout what shall be used instead of what bedding material subshall be used in the open to the concrete

must be in order to be accepted, shall be used to set the tile, strate, he must indicate is to be made with of bed rather should ribbons that

it shall be installed, and exactly

bed is to be used to bond the tile directly acceptable thicknesses a flat trowel-not a ribbed

for it and specify that the applicaor serrated void-free one that will lay and so bed on the concrete. is no mistake the installer will

than a smooth, be identified product whether


All materials


so that there

if later another

said to be equal it is indeed equal.

is substituted,

be able to determine

SUBSTRATE A separate strate structures things. section which (I) The of this are book discusses the selection to support verify except the and design of submasonry. selection and to warn the designer


chemically-resistant substrate

This section will not duplicate of three with design are adequate a safety which strength factor will check with selected surface and then

what appears therein, must that


to provide the necessary support of not less than be in direct that that these there l%, without with manufacturers contact preparations is nothing

for the full load anticipated (2) He must he has what of all the materials to determine

visible deflection.

the materials

and installers

the substrate are included

and surface

of the substrate in the materials

should be provided, in his specifications. be in contact

be certain


(3) He must verify

that will



and Chemical





with the substrate that can interact with anything in the selected substrate to prevent full cure and/or adequate adhesion from taking place. This third item is often overlooked. The following are examples. Some admixtures, curing agents, air entrainment agents, and other materials added to concrete mixes can react with and deplete the curing agents in epoxy toppings and bonding agents, preventing adequate cure and resulting in disbondment. Furan and phenolic mortars use acid curing agents. If they are placed directly against carbon steel and/or concrete, the acid curing agent can react with the substrate depleting it in the surface layer and preventing full cure. When pointing joints in portland cement-bedded quarry tile with a furan mortar, it is customary first to paint the portland cement joint face with muriatic acid, which prevents the depletion of the hardening agent and accelerates the cure. Heat applied to the carbon steel surface can accelerate the hardening of the mortar before the surface reaction can deplete the hardener, and so ensure fast and complete cure and a bond to the substrate. These are but two examples. Be sure that the manufacturers of the materials accept your specifications as clear and concise, and as protection against any such incompatibility. Lastly, in concrete construction, all vertical sections are poured against forms. Contractors lubricate forms to prevent adhesion of the concrete to the forms. Be certain that the lubricant or form release materials used are compatible with the materials to be installed and acceptable to their manufacturers and applicators. If they are not, your specification must include provision for removing, probably by brush sandblast, any residue left on the surface of the concrete after the forms are removed as well as provision for inspection to insure uniformity and integrity of the structure. The use of a solvent to remove oil or grease from the surface of formed concrete is not recommended since it drives some dissolved material into the concrete surface.

SIDE EFFECTS Galvanic Corrosion of Lead and Stainless Steel Due to Proximity to Carbon and Carbon-Filled Mortars and Grouts Years ago, college chemistry textbooks used to contain tables listing in order of electrical potential the metallic elements and carbon. For some odd reason, the tables used in schools and colleges today omit carbon. This is even more strange because the most common of the dry cell batteries until only a few years ago, made use of the electrical potential between zinc and carbon-a relationship illustrated by the table. Reproduced below are two such tables, one of which includes carbon. Table 45-2 is taken from John Schleys paper published in 1974 by Chemical Engineering. I have been unable to locate any of the old textbooks that showed carbon in relation to the metallic elements. Table 45-3 is from a college textbook currently in use. Note that there is disagreement in the relative order of some of these metals (due to the differences noted in oxidizing and reducing environments), particularly in the placement of aluminum. However, this does not alter the relationship between carbon and these metals. The reader will observe, however, that when stainless steel (188) is passivated, it becomes


with Chemically-Resistant






to silver and graphite, while if not




close to lead in potential.

Table 45-2:


Series of Metals and Alloys

or least noble

Magnesium Zinc Aluminum 25 Cadmium Steel or iron Cast iron Ni-resist 18-8 Cr-Ni-Fe (active) Hastelloy alloy C Lead Tin Nickel (active) lnconel (active) Hastelloy alloy A Hastelloy alloy B Brasses Copper Copper nickel alloys Titanium Monel Nickel (passive) lnconel (passive) 188 Cr-Ni-Fe (passive) Silver Graphite Cathodic or most noble




Potential Difference Electrode-Electrolyte 0.000 <+0.293 +0.329 <+0.391 <+0.466

Element Potassium Sodium Barium Strontium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Manganese Zinc Cadmium Iron Thallium Cobalt Nickel Tin Lead

Potential Difference Electrode-Electrolyte -3.20 -2.82 -2.82 -2.77 -2.56 -2.54

Element Hydrogen Arsenic Copper Bismuth Antimony Mercury Silver Palladium Platinum Gold Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Oxygen

+0.771 <to.789 <to.863 <+1.079 +1.96 t1.417 +0.993 +0.520 +1.119

-1.075 -0.770 -0.420 -0.340 -0.322 -0.232 -0.228 <-0.192 -0.148



and Chemical





From these tables, chemistry table steel are placed to waste. Of the metals

it will be apparent containing anodic

to anyone

who has studied (e.g.,

elementary stainless of

that if a piece of carbon in a beaker will become

and a strip of lead or of unpassivated an electrolyte (positive) to the carbon,

a 10% solution

salt), the metal

and will start

in the table,

lead and stainless steel are the most frequently liner for steel process equipment, or other internals. reducing it is normal in which As the to to practice to place a brick lining liquid contains to make agitators thermal

used in chemical explained


lead as a membrane from which

stainless steel as the material elsewhere inside of a lead-lined skin temperature acid fluorides select a carbon so it will ring, carbon stitute which

in this volume,

it is common or lower.

process vessel to provide


of the lead to 16OF to a concentration brick as a liner, that to

If the contained

of 50 ppm of HF equiivalent, and to use a carbon-filled


bed and lay up the brick. be apparent

Most of such process vessels will contain by this lining design, an electrolytic To prevent between a voltage breaker


cell is set up in this from occurthe lead and the is to subfiller, but a mortar a sheet of

which the lead will be slowly wasted and penetrated. it is necessary brick. will insert This is done in one of several ways. mortar sulfate) be attacked (barium by hydrofluoric FEP), acid.

The most common a nonconductor For this purpose, Alternatively,

for the carbon-filled not barytes

one that employs is recommended.

containing fluorocarbon the both

resin (such as Teflon@ and the brickwork have been taken.

5 mils or more thick,

may be laid over In some cases, is to be used, it brick lining.

lead lining, precautions

laid over the fluorocarbon. If a stainless steel agitator

should be passivated and kept as far as possible from the carbon Bibliography
1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

Werking, L.C., Formed Carbon and Graphite in Industry, Ceramic Bulletin, Vol. 32, No.2,pp4044 (1953). Morelli, G.W. and Rusinko, F.F., Graphite and Carbon, Chemical Engineering, Vol. 70, No. 26,pp 69-76 (Dec. 23,1963). Raub,H.S. and Miller, J.L., Designing with Carbon and Graphite, Chemical Engineering, Part 1, Vol. 72, No. 10, pp 97-102 (May 24, 1965); Part 2, Vol. 72, No. 12, pp 119126 (June 21,1965). Schley, John R., Use of Impervious Graphite in Chemical Process Equipment,Maferia/s Protection andPerformance.Vol.9,No. 10,pp 11-13 (Oct. 1970). Schley, John R., Impervious Graphite for Process Equipment, Chemical Engineering, Part 1, Vol. 81, No. 4,pp 144-150; Part 2,Vol. 81, No. 6, pp 102-110 (March 18, 1974).

Brick Growth In all designs involving versible period. about growth 1954, of North This growth when acid brick, brick stopped will provision which using must be made for the irreplace over an extended in acid brick prior to ovens and started (or swelling) has been general American takes noted

or swelling manufacturers

was not much


using continuous of face brick, observed for

kilns. show the reader that growth and industrial The literature indicates, commercial construction beyond

A check of the Bibliography used for ordinary half a century

and more.


with Chemically-Resistant



observations, that the amount of swelling and the speed with which it takes place results from water absorption of the clays from which the brick are made, and that it bears some relation to the temperature of firing of the brick. Little has been done in refined testing to eliminate the variables, to determine what, if any, relationship exists to the exact temperature of the firing, together with the duration of firing, and to any phase changes that may take place in the composition of the body of the brick. It is noted, however, that brick which are restrained expand (swell or grow) less than those that are not subject to loading or restraint. It has been noted that steel cylindrical tanks lined with acid brick, have in some few cases actually been split apart, apparently by stressesresulting from this brick growth. On the other hand, where the steel was fabricated of heavy, well-reinforced metal, the brick have grown only until they were tightly pressed against and into the membrane, after which growth stopped. When a single brick in such a lining was damaged by a blow or in some other manner, and had to be replaced, it was noted that upon its removal and the release of the restraint that brick had supplied, the brick on all sides grew or swelled slightly into the void, so that a replacement brick always had to be trimmed on all four sides to fit into the same space. One of the same size as the brick that was removed could not be used. Exactly where the stressesof growth are balanced off against the restraint, no one has yet determined, although at least one company has a project under development to plant strain gauges in such linings to determine what pressures are reached before equilibrium is attained. We do know that most hard burned, low absorption acid brick, meeting Specification ASTM C-279, will grow irreversibly over an extended period of time by approximately 0.16% of any dimension. We also know that such growth takes place more slowly under cold, dry, static conditions, and most rapidly in hot, wet, cycling exposures. We have also noted that brick with the higher absorption-ones outside the limits of Type L-seem to expand more than the 0.16% limit, and that this growth appears to be more noticeable with the lower firing temperatures and the shorter kiln time. However, without conclusive test data, checking the effects of all variables individually, no absolutes are available, and only generalizations can be made. In design, it is important always to plan to accommodate this growth, based on the normal 0.16%, especially on flat surfaces like floors, with adequate expansion joints, or, where suitable, such as in cylindrical designs, by adequate restraint. Failure to do so can result in humping (bulging upward or outward) of flat surfaces, or rupturing the walls of inadequately designed cylindrical vessels.
1. 2. 3. 4.

of Brick

Schurecht, H.G., Methods for Testing Crazing of Glazes Caused by Increases in Size of Ceramic Bodies, J. Am; Ceram. Sot., Vol. 11, PP 271-277 (1928). Schurecht, H.G., and Pole, C.R., Effect of Water in Expanding Ceramic Bodies of Different Compositions, J. Am. Ceram. SOL, Vol. 12 (1929). Hueber, H.V., and Milne, A.A., Expansion and Deterioration of Ceramic Bodies, Nature, No.4480,~~ 509 (Sept. 10,1955). Young, J.E., and Brownell, W.E., Moisture Expansion of Clay Products, J. Am. Ceram. .Soc.,Vol.42, No. 12 (Dec. 1959).



and Chemical





5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13.


14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Hosking, J.S., and Hueber, H.V., Moisture Expansion, Moisture Movement and Dry Shrinkage of Structural Clay Products, Trans. British Ceram. Sot., (1960). Demediuk, T., and Cole, W.F., Contribution to the Study of Moisture Expansion in Ceramic Materials, J. Am. Ceram. Sot., Vol. 43, pp 359-367 (1960). Cole, W.F., Moisture Expansion Relationships for a Fired Kaolinite-Hydrous MicaQuartz Clay,Nature, No. 4804, pp 737 (Nov. 25,1961). Hosking, J.S., and Hueber, H.V., Dimensional Changes due to Moisture in Bricks and Brickwork,ASTMSpecia/ Technical Publication, No. 320 (1962). Cole, W.L., Possible Significance of Linear Plots of Moisture Expansion Against Log of a Time Function,Nature, No.4853, p 431 (Nov. 3,1962). Hosking, J.S., White, W.A., and Parham, W.E., Long-Term Dimensional Changes in Illinois Bricks and other Clay Products, Illinois State Geological Survey Circular, Vol. 405 (1966). Wyatt, K.J., Restrained Moisture Expansion of Clay Masonry, J. Austral. Ceram. Sot., Vol.12,No.2,pp3437 (Nov.1976). Ritchie, T., Effect of Restraining Forces on the Expansion of Masonry Mortars, Materials Research and Standards (Jan. 1964). Jessup, E.L., Moisture, Thermal, Elastic and Creep Properties of Masonry, Cenrre for Research & Development in Masonry Tech. Pub. (Calgary, Alberta, Canada), No. TP-9 (July 1980). Ritchie, T., Moisture Expansion of Clay Bricks and Brickwork, National Research Council of Canada, Div. of Bldg. Research - Building Research Note No. 103 (Oct. 1975). McReilly, Tom, Brick Expansion: Aspects of the Australian Experience, Trans. British Ceram.Soc.,Vol.82,No.l,pp 14-1611983). Grimm, C.T., Moisture Expansion in Brick Masonry, Trans. British Ceram. Sot., Vol. 82,No.l,pp 16-17 (1983). devekey, R.C., Moisture Expansion in Clay Masonry, Trans. British Ceram. Sot., Vol. 82, No. 2, pp 55-57. Fisher, K., Moisture Movement in Brickwork: A Further View, Trans. British Ceram. Soc.,Vol.82,No.2,pp57-59. Papers presented at the Building Materials Section, Brirish Ceram. Sot., Nottingham, England, 8 April 1983: Lomax, J., and Ford, R.W., Investigations into a Method for Assessing the Long Term Moisture Expansion of Clay Bricks; Beard, R., Dinnie, A., and Sharples, A.B., Movement of Brickwork-A Review of 21 Years Experience.

Other Related


2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

Determination of Stress/Strain Relationships in Powell, B., and Hodgkinson, HR., Brickwork, Proc. of 4th International Brick Masonry Conference, Bruges (April 1976). Base, G.D., and Baker, L.R., Fundamental Properties of Structural Brickwork, J. Ausrral. Ceram. Sot., Vol. 9, No. 1 (1973) (formula for compression and bending). Jessop, E.L., Shrive, N.G., and England, G.L., Elastic and Creep Properties of Masonry, Proc. North American Masonry Conference, Colorado, p. 12 (1978). Sorenson, C.P., and Tasker, H.E., Cracking in Brick and Block Masonry, Tech. Study 43, Department of Construction, Expeimenal Building Station, 1976 (Canada) (causes). Thompson, J.N., and Johnson, F.B., Design for Crack Prevention, National Academy of Science, National Research Council, Washington, DC. The Design of Clay Brickwork Expansion Gaps, Brick Development, Research lnstirufe Techniques, 2nd Ser., No. 4, Melbourne (December 1973). Grimm, C.T., Design for Differential Movement in Brick Walls, Journal of he Srructural Div., Amer. Sot. Civil Engineers,Vol. 101, No. ST1 1, pp 2385-2403 (November 1975).

NOTE: To determine lining thickness, number of layers of brick and selection of types, to insulate membranes, see mathematics in Chapter 47, and especially Editors Note, page 623.

Designing with Chemically-Resistant Masonry





of a contoured



See Drawing

Figure 45.2:


of a baffle built into the brick vessel wall. See Drawing 12,Sketch 2



and Chemical





Figure 45.3: One of the earliest acid-resistant tile floors in a brewery (1940), laid in a portland cement bed with a phenolic resin mortar grout.



Figure 45-4: Examples of floors laid with high bond, high strength furan mortar in which cure shrinkage of the mortar has caused the brick to break. The cracks so created have been filled with expansion joint sealant. See Chapter 25.

Designing with Chemically-Resistant Masonry


Figure 45.5: Steel floor plate plant in the cold storage room cemented to the concrete substrate with an epoxy adhesive.

of a dairy.

The steel plates are

Fi~re 45-6: Example of what happens if a designer makes no provision and designs substrate surface flat instead of curved {see Drawing 1) .Note posed to strengthen the wall, was completely ineffectual.

for brick growth the pilaster, sup-



and Chemical





Fi~re 45-7: Building the "Isabel" H2SO4 chamber plant at Copper using the first fast-5etting sodium silicate mortar, DURO@.




Fi~re 45-8: In a modern food plant, a properly designed and laid floor tile (8 in. x 3!/4 in. x 1!116in,) floor, using a '/4 in. thick glass cloth-reinforced hot asphalt membrane and a furan resin bed and grout. Note the fiexibilized epoxy expansion joint.

Section XI Uses of Nonmetallic Chemically Resistant Materials in Waste Handling


46 Uses of Nonmetallic Chemically Resistant Materials in Waste Handling


Lee Sheppard, Incorporated


C.C. R.M., Havertown,


Industrial noncorrosive Leftovers handled fertilize from plant



salts, bleaches, meals and from civilized not

all sorts of corrosive battlefield


waste products-have savages community growth.

been with

us since the earliest

days of man. to

dead, have been to make things, Trash was

by animals remaining

and insects. What As man became from

was not consumed

was biodegraded

and learned

the wastes simply which gratory, the trash

the processes he developed and most were into subsurface As population from in specific wastes poured

were no longer consumeither.

able by animal dumped

or insect,


in pits, and liquid means.)

into holes in the ground from (Perhaps this is a reflection and man became Solid less miwere made to move wastes were

it ran off, or filtered civilization tending and liquid to settle

streams. expanded

on what

areas, various efforts towns and villages.

wastes away

hauled off, then dumped.

And ages ago someone thought spot.

of piping liquid wastes

away from their sources to a collecting

PIPING Small clay times. made caulked diameter and tile diameter and baked clay piping, were formed and fired in the same way that from the earliest revolutionary, fitted backed together, with hot

pottery Larger with with

or brick vitrified spigot


has been available in the United

clay pipe which three

must date from long were

perhaps colonial, bell

days has been unearthed ends, (treated wool

States. Sections of pipe,

to six feet


waste) 594

and this packing





in Waste Handling


poured industrial

tar or asphalt. and animal

This was the usual method wastes are biodegradable (exfiltration) and flooding, end which tree would

of constructing



sewer lines well into the third decade of this century. and are still the main sources it was reasoned, joints in On the other hand, (infiltration) larger volumes because the such leaks expand and in the largest areas of the world. leaked a little Therefore,

Human of fertilizer pipe that

not be harmful.

joints that were too porous would in times of heavy rainfall of fluid waste following develop at the receiving was good fertilizer,

allow the entry of ground water and would find mean handling In addition, way through and would the flow expensive their would be costly. fertilizer blocking

roots would

back on the track operators

of the leaking

more roots inside the pipe, eventually at about the turn North of the century America.

of the sewage proceeding. accepted as

and forcing Thus dling a standard (internal) factory this time for

to open and clean out the line-an engineers which This leakage per day.

who designed waste hanwas generally U.S. gallons per inch of

sewers agreed on an allowable throughout diameter sanitary generally per mile of pipe sewage during

This was 200

appears rather

to have been satiswastes were at it was Pipefrom in innocuous,

this period to handle apparent

and as industrial

(there were exceptions)


usual (with In the liquid many and

the same few exceptions) early 1950s it became oily

them in the same manner. serious contamination

lines were, therefore, industrial waterways to the

designed to this standard. that a problem. swim. Fish no longer were found In many for locations, household

wastes was becoming where children from the

streams and rivers. Greasy, use water allowable

slicks covered sources

the surface of some ponds it was impurposes. for in-

used to

possible Therefore, dustrial not

customary standard


was seen as not acceptable cut so that,

wastes, and in many leakage from

areas it was cut by 75% to 50 gallons. This still was in many Sanitary should rea 5 pound latitude, test load, was unacceptable. but the design engineer wastes often it is found,

good enough,

and in recent years it has been further a bit more

cases, any visual member sanitary that

sewage is still allowed

since small amounts is not taken. oakum day packing industrial

of industrial

find their way into if care in assembly be

lines serious damage

may occur before with

and inspection Obviously used for joints with

a hot asphalt pitch or tar backing cannot nor can one expect sanitary with lines, whether cement. specified portland to get fully they

present poured



in this manner a hot 1. in vitrified

even for gravity

are backed shown

sealant or packed

In present day de-

sign, joints in Sketch pp 64-67) pipe,

clay pipe are most often magazine, methods liquid In the

in the manner

In Water and Sewage Works the writer the materials made amount that

December, of making


(Vol. 122, No. 12,

in vitrified clay is and the probof clay pipe a in dimenin

discussed the the joints C-700.


are or can be used to make these joints, tight. manufacture and firing

lems inherent generally certain joint sions that a pipeline

in making to ASTM

Clay pipe in this hemisphere From the variations and function

of distortion

must be anticipated.

can exist in pipe made to meet this standard assembled in a dead straight

it can be seen that the satisfactorily dimensional differ-

sealant must be able to hold the pipe together

line with considerable



and Chemical






1: Acid-resistant

joints for terra-cotta


ences at each of the available Table figures which joint ternal latest 2 of the standard of the variations the outside could variation be determined. until (1978)

sizes shown

in Table

2 in the subject of the article

standard. full from

in the year of acceptable

of publication pipe including


the barrel thickness


range of annular

space at the opposite

sides of the with in-

In 1975 when the article was written to be 3/2 in. and variations still

this showed the in the


in a 4 in. joint


diameter revision

at 42 in. the possible variation of this standard dimensions been much abbreviated, exact/y what

is 33/4 in. However, tolerances

in use at the time omitting

of this writing, of barrel specifiin the

the table has unfortunately thickness, cation annular and outside

of the barrel, so that with the current the possible variation tolerances first pipe, there is or is not an intention to illustrate the problem

it is not possible to determine space is. Accordingly, whether

on the part this omisthe

of the manufacturers For the benefit sion creates, Refer shoulder both to

to adhere to the same dimensional sets of tables Sketch are here reproduced; issue (the edition assembling the

is not known.

of the reader, and the better

the table from the outside

issue of 197 1, second the current back

of 1978). of the the end of the spigot and with a stiff mix

1. Before

spigot end and the inside of the mating of the bell, should usually end of the spigot and the shoulder of resin mortar, Next roving) which caulked a furan.

bell, including

be sanded to remove

the hard burned surfaces. The

of the bell are then buttered

The spigot is then seated in the bell and shoved ceramic mix fiber of the tool, (or very lightly twisted into is

home against the shoulder of the bell. a long enough around worked section of random a slightly thinner thicker than the largest section of the annular space to form a ring around a caulking Next, space is wide,

has been

same resin mortar, driven home tightly

into the annular

the shaft of the pipe, with in contact with the inof the widest in the

ends overlapping terior fiber of the bell, saturated

at least 2 in., and, with all the way around the resin mortar space, is driven side of the

against the shoulder with

of the bell, so that the ring is tight/y the pipe. and thicker

a second ring of ceramic

than the width

section of the annular ends at the opposite same manner.

in on top of the first, with the lap of the ring follows the first two

bell. A third





in Waste Handling


TABLE Laying Length Nominal Size. in.O, Limit of Minus Variation. in./11 (mm/m) % (20) % (20) s izoi % (20) % (20) y1(20) % (20) % (20) ?i (30) K (30) ?i (30) )L (30) % (30) s (20) ?i (30) Differcncc in Length of Two Opposite Sides, max. in. (mm) Z DIA of clay PIP Outside Diameter of Barrel. in. (mm~~

Inside Diameter of Socket at K in. ( in. (mm~~

1 3Bmg)mAov

min. It(m)



4 6 a IO I2 IS I8 21 24 27 JO 33 36 39 42

2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

(0.61) (0.61) iO.6lj (0.61) (0.61) (0.91) (0.91) (0.91) (0.91) (091) (0.91) (0.91) (0.91)

?i %r %r % K H n* %b (9) (II) (II) (II) (13) (13) (14) (14)

4?4 7x. 9% 11% 13% 17% 20% 24% 27X 31 34% 37% 40%

(124) (179) (235) (292) (349) (437) (524) (613) (699) (787) (873) (956) (1035)

5!4 7%. 9% t:x, 17ti. 21%. 25 28!4 32!4 35% 38f;l 42% 47% 51

(130) (189) (248) I%, (452) (545) (635) (724) (816) (905) (989) (1073) (1200) (1295)

5k 8);. IOH 12% 15!4 I8?4 22% 25W 29% 33 36s 39% 43%

(146) (208) (267) (324) (384) (473) (565) (657) (746) (838) (927) (1013) (1099)

?i (16) ?i (16) X (16) 1%. (17) x M (19) (23)

5 (1.52) 5 (1.52)

45J( (1152) 48% (1232)

48% (1232) 52!4 (1333) Thickness of Socket at Kin. (I3 mm) from Outer End

Depth of Socket. Nominal Size. in.*,

Thickncns of Bar&,

Extra Strength nominal. in. (mm) min. in. (mm) nominal. in. (mm) +a 1x1 % I 1% I Ya I% 2% 2% 2% 3 3% 3% 3% 4 (16) (17) (22) (25) (30) (38) (48) (57) (64) (70) (76) (83) (89) (95) (102) min. in. (mm) %r %r % % 1x6 I% 1% 2 2% 2% 2% 3 3% 3% 3% (14) (14) (19) (22) (27) (35) (44) (50 (57) (64) (70) (76) (83) (86) (89)

Standard Strength nominal. iti. (mm) Yz % % % I I% I% I% 2 2% 2% 2% 2% (13) (16) (19) (22) (25) (31) (38) (44) (51) (57) (64) (67) (70) min. in. [mm) % %r A. 1% 1~~ I% I% I% I% 2/, 2% 2% 2% (II) (14) (17) (21) (24) (29) (35) (41) (48) (54) (60) (64) (67) nominal. in. (mm) min. in. (mm)

4 6 8 IO I2 I5 I8 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42

I% 2 A 2% 2% 2% 2% 3 :: ;; 3% 4 4% 4% Specilicrs

(44) (57) (64) (67) (70) (73) (76) (83) (86) I;;; (95) (102) (105) (105)

I Ih 2 2% 2% 2% 2% 2%

(38) (51) (57) (60) (64) (67) (70) (76) (79) (83) (86) (89) (95) (98) (98)

%r t w % %b

(I I) (13) (14) (16) ((9) (24) (29) (33) (38) (43) (48) (51) (52) (70) (70)

% % h %I A % 1%. 1%. I% 1%. I% ISi I% 2% 2%

(9) (11) (13) (14) (17) (22) (27) (30) (35) (40) (44) (44) (48) (67) (67)

(I(6 1% I%* 1% 2 2%r 2% 2%

3Ya 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3%


should be aware that all pipe sizes arc not universally available.

Sizes on perforated pipe apply only to nominal sizes 4 through 24 in. There shall bc no maximum kqgth. Shorter lengths may be used for closures and specials. l Pipe having the nominal thickness of barrel shown in Tabk 2 may have smalkr inside diameter than the nominal sizes. The outside diameter of the barrel may be greater than the maximum ligurer stated in Table 2. provided the other dimensions are varied accordingly within the specification tolerances. The minimums lor inside diameter of socket and depth of socket may be waived where such dimensions arc conducive 10 the proper application of the joint. * Plain-end pipe shall conlorm to the dimensions in Tabk 2. except those dimensions pertaining lo sockets. The requirement for minimum barrel thickness may be waived when satirfacto~ evidence is prcsenled that the pipe cm meet the required crushing strength and all other requircmcnts of this specification.




and Chemical







Dimensions of Vitritied

Clay Pipe (SI Units) Limit of Mmub Variations from Nommal SIX I Average InsIde Diameter. mm




Laying Length Limit of Mmus Variation. mm/m

Difference in Length of Two Opposite Sides max. mm

75 loo
I50 200 250 300 375 450 525 600 675 750 825 900 975 1050

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 II II II

8 8

I3 I? I4 14 I6 I6 16 17 19 23 available.

9 II I3 I5 I7 I9 21 22 22 22

Specifiers should be aware that all pipe stzes are not universally

After are placed a mortar tar, hand the mortar

the third

ring is caulked

into the space, there


be, if the rings

as described, caulk, packed either into

a 3~ to 1 in. space left in the depth of the bell of a 4 in. of hot poured sulfur mortar place. The liquidtight or a low shrinkage resin morwith

line up to a 1% in. space or larger in the 42 in. pipe. This space is now filled with seal cannot be accomplished


spigot end and the shoulder

of the bell. A look at the large of the bell,

space that can exist between if the pipe is laid in a straight the joint at this point. Neither of bell. This mortar the three functions cavity

one side of the spigot and the shoulder can it be accomplished on curing on the quality applied approach

line, will tell you that you can never hope to seal with the caulk at the end which liquid to ho/d the of in installing and leave voids through of the workmanship

can shrink

can pass. The seal relies totally those rings in p/ace. The mortar fluid

rings. The caulk at the end of the bell acts merely only to reduce deformable

as an anchor

first between spigot end and bell shoulder to the rings, and to fill or smooth the rings must be composed into the annular to caulk tightly specified

at the inner surface of the pipe. Therefore, enough material braided rope look at the tables reproduced such as the can never be caulked (see Section

soft enough, A quick hard facturers material

space. manuand for

above will show the reader at once that a in the past by many space tightly enough to accom-

into the annular

plish the purpose. resin mortars the pipe cannot cations

A look at the cure shrinkage

shown for sulfur mortars

V) also makes it clear that the final caulk at the end of upon to seal the pipe. information the minima to prepare proper given in the standard. specifiI quote from my cited article, to provide

be depended

So that the reader will have adequate for the pipe he is to purchase, he should take, beyond those exceptions





in Waste Handling





used for conveyance pipe, conforming it will it is now

of industrial to ASTM

wastes should specification

be un-

glazed, extra strength From waste this specification will and that

C 700-71.

be evident available

that the pipe itself, if it conforms for gravity and low pressure if he plans to use in sizes from 4 to 42 in. internal In this specification: manufacturer but 75 percent nor two of l/4 to

to the specification, handling, There diameter.

be adequate

in strength

are, however, industrial Fractures that in the socket,

three limitations

that the buyer,

the pipe in nonleaking (1) Section furnish single depth 9, pipe crack of the

sewers, must bear in mind. and Cracks, end permits in the the

has no cracks spigot or


does have a of the end not inches of the

not exceeding the circumference on the interior and/or

a single fracture

in the socket

exceeding lengthwise. inches thickness


inches around

Chips and fractures of the barrel. Yet

shall not exceed two a depth or chips whatso-

in length,

one inch in width, if a liquidtight and Chemical a water

no cracks,


ever are acceptable

line is to be attained. Requirements, absorption subsection 4.2




Physical and 4.3



Pressure Test. The effect

of these

two subsections beads of sweat to appear under 10 inch pipe, this high will should of the

is to permit

of the clay pipe as liquid

high as eight percent

and a hydrostatic

test of ten psi that accepts from 7 minutes for 4 to

on the outside of the pipe, but no running a test duration for provide Most ranging

21 minutes not

36 to 42 inch pipe. An absorption line, and the pressure test days (72 hours) be well regardless below the day prespipe will

a liquidtight quality and will

be maintained diameter.

for at least three first

above maximum sure test. (3) Section in Table the 10,


easily meet a three

Finish their





ends of the pipe shall be the tolerances provided

square with


axes within

2. This same section also defines the scoring on the inner surface of the spigot and permits it is conducive to the proper should be certain of scoring when

surface of the bell and the outer elimination application

of the joint to be used. The engineer on pipe that he buys. for the three material the

that the scoring is provided Originally bestos, as the whether for acid lightly called which a soft the fiber specified

ring seal was African for this work. same clay This may Today specifications be a three



best chemically ceramic


asbestos, call only strand,

blue or white, random such brick twisted roving

is rarely available, fiber

so that current

made from provided

sources as various

as FibrefraxB

or KaoWool@. that of choice integrity,

mass of material, by textile

the three

strands are separated mass (usually

and used independently. may be lightly

The material manufacturers to retain twisted

is the loose fiber

or sliver

by asbestos manufacturers)

but is soft enough to saturate



and Chemical







the soft wet resin mortar of resin mortar anticipated oxidizing

mix and to caulk tightly

into the joint


provide a plug in tight contact The selection of chemical However, exposure bell and end of spigot, if strongly

with all sides. to use to fill the contact the ceramic to area between shoulder caulk depends is a furan on the resin.

and to saturate material formaldehyde

for the sewer. The usual material is likely

be present,

the designer and

should consider

using a vinyl ester or polyester by phenol

resin. Strong solvents are in most resins, and if oxidants probably chemical content should pipe. content go to the former. of the

cases best handled

or furan

solvents are both to be encountered In all events the designer Strong alkalies will stream with the resin manufacturer to be high enough for the pipe itself. the pipe temperature limits to destroy or the liquid

the choice would before making

should discuss the anticipated damage the pipe. a vinyl If the alkali

his decision. (pH) is expected be too high also the standard the hold with it will probably

ester mortar, Clay may Pipe

If this possibility streams

arises the matter enter the

be discussed with Consider The cited

manufacturer at which



service conditions Finally, the selection is the for

to 14OF or lower. of the caulk commonly

If very hot liquids are to enter will

system, this too should be discussed with the pipe manufacturer. at the end of the bell, which sulfur mortar material. joint, with employed specific in the three 1.2% noted, rings must be made. most be expected Being poured below Here hot poured plasticized

Thiokol@ cannot anchor (1)

This, as previously but it will provide over most other it in an unheated in at a

to in itself yield a liquidtight It has three joints weather. hot, can be finished

a sound materials. trench freezing, joint,

the rings.


in freezing

or even sub-zero the lowest

(2) If the rings were caulked


cure temperature

of the resin, but not as low as heat to finish the cure is a completely full joint

the heat of the sulfur pour will provide sufficient in the three rings. (3) A poured a pouring gate is employed. filling

of the resin material providing but continuously filled. toring mortars If the joint and careful filled. (>4%)

Pouring of the joint isdoneslowly, takes place to assure that the joint that the bottom is completely of the joint is

and steadily,

the gate so that cure shrinkage

in the gate and not in the top of the joint, is hand caulked, inspection common

labor being what it is, only by moniof sulfur

can it be certain from liquid to solid.


The only disadvantage

is the high degree of shrinkage

on hardening

If it is vital for the caulk the sulfur available-an toring is completely or from able epoxy this problem. A common probably or flexible inside collar joint must be replaced epoxy (<O.l%

to act as a safety seal behind the three rings, then and lowest shrinkage resin mortar If this is to be used, great care in moniwill be required which not yet noted, to be certain that the joint cannot be seen from the top this purpose and solve will it may well be that a pour-

by the strongest shrinkage).

and inspecting

the installation

full-especially grout

at the underside which

the side of the pipe. Although can be developed

can accomplish

design for clay pipe, one which the pipe manufacturer joint. For this kind of joint than the outside and usually cemented is smaller

try to sell, is a pressure is set into, of the collar

an elastomeric of the against

to, the inside of the bell. The dimension


spigot, so when the spigot is seated in the bell the collar squeezes tightly





in Waste Handling


the shaft of the pipe, neoprene may movement There or PVC, be employed. are two

in theory

making of joint

a tight joint. usually is flexible

The collar is often synthetic,

made of that

although This type limitations


are other,


and allows some independent joint. (I) As pressures of solto

of the two pipes. to this kind of pressure

increase on the inside of the pipe, and even in some cases merely the weight the liquid stream, the contained of the pipe and the joint vents or other swell, plete chemicals or to disintegrate, failure of the joint. will leak. (2) Many can destroy reasons of the waste streams contain these collars, the material pressure wastes. cementing them

liquid can squeeze past the collar along the shaft attack causing them to

that can and will or which

the inside of the bell, resulting employed in sanitary

in the loss or popping

out of the seal and comjoints although often wastes or for sani-

For these

lines should

not be used for industrial

tary lines which

may receive streams of industrial



BACKFILL resistant masonry can therefore joints in clay pipe are rigid. Ground continuous support. movement, what

Chemically that a// industrial others

such as settlement, opinion prepared, require

break the pipe.

For this reason it is important No matter

waste lines be laid with

may have of the stability adjustment operation

of the soil in the area where the pipe is excavation, no matter how well surface bell the can unito attain the suitable in others. smooth

to be laid, this writer and slope after excavations

has never seen any trench

that did not require the trenching

had been completed. surface removal room

These adjustments In addition After

fill in some spots and further are required to provide


to make the joints.

line is in service, heavy rains, flooding cause soil movement form support, provide tion above movement

and even percolation

of groundwater without

and around

the pipe, and eventually, operations concrete

will take place that breaks the pipe. of the line is to pad a few inches In addiby pouring under a continuous

The only way to insure long life and satisfactory continuous support wider than the outside saddles should In lengths distribute that that the saddle, caulking. added require to diameter

of the bell, the full length of the trench.

be provided beyond the

the shaft of the pipe at the bell end so for the pipe, holds it steady during the intermediate chemical saddles should companies concrete be used to

besides acting as support six feet, load.


One of the major be given continuous

all clay pipe of 12 in. diameter

or less be fully

encased and this company

all clay pipe of larger diameter line. Suffice never lost an industrial All spoil from in diameter. that after time between Backfill sewer.

full support were followed

up to the spring

it to say that while these specifications the trench should that

is to be used in backfill, tamped at frequent and tamping

to the depth of

1 ft.

above the pipe should be screened to remove all rock or stone greater than % in. be carefully and under until intervals to be sure saddles and tightly done carefully and it is solidly every few placed around of the ditch, spoil may the pipe between

the walls

and such fill

inches of backfill

one foot

above the pipe line, at which

the unscreened

be used, and as needed to fill the space, stone



and Chemical









be added.


should pipe.

be done carefully



as the fill

is added.


to keep stone away from is required however, make after backfill

the shaft or and tamping has

bell of the pipe will almost certainly In most specifications, is complete. testing, found fill, twice, it will

result in cracked

testing of joints

The designer should understand, be necessary to uncover to test before backfill,

that if a leak shows up on This writer then backto test

the line to make repairs.

it far better especially

repairs if necessary,


and test again.

In the long run it is generally the quality

far less expensive


of the labor used to caulk the joints.

MANHOLES The century greatest engineers individual of manholes. source of trouble with industrial waste sewers has whether they were

been maldesign


the first three

decades of the twentieth built entirely the clay pipe the

used the same specification or industrial

for manholes, cement mortar,

to be used in sanitary out of common crete bottoms, section manhole clay pipe. of the

sewage. They

were most often

red shale brick laid in portland concrete the poured brick all the around laid brick

usually with con-

into which the ends of the clay pipe were set. Often pipe then with it with tried in a circle over the

line was laid first,

it up to the spring line or the midsection where would go back lines,

was to be. After When those they became

was laid, the workmen most chemicals through with

onto the manhole especially concrete, and of money the masonry tension


and chisel and break out the exposed top of the that in the waste with penetrate the brick coatings and concrete the poured of time and three of hot asphalt


low pH, would

and channel

back along the clay pipe where with of acid brick

it was in contact

to seal or line these structures over the coating. block or brick. resistant or shear. one from chemically in tension outer

occasionally principles

It is a waste (1)

to try to build is no good cement

In doing so they violated Chemically The be supported. to the lining.

masonry: It must

resistant common in

brick/Portland fills with tight, applied liquid,

structure ground

is unreinforced outside

and has no strength

or shear either,

so it cannot

give support also crack. brick thick

As the manhole itself is not liquidor asphalt uniform the between

or the filled

it moves, the brick manhole (2) The masonry lining. The is a necessity

must crack so any lining and therefore, prior to structure putting (3)

inside it will in the

a liquidtight

membrane acid there liquids

over the supporting coating

is called a sealer,

but it is rarely

enough or sufficiently

to be liquidtight. brane is tight properly of time hole

In addition,

is no way to seal the joint or the brick walls, cannot points which cannot

edges of the clay pipe and the concrete and the contained bypass the membrane The only should at those juncture manhole

so even if the memit can even be protected It is a waste manall and is to in which

get back to the substrate,

with the brick lining. satisfactory be formed design is one that is monolithic. one from reinforced, of concrete and money to try to build block or brick. A monolithic by a continuous The next water-stop alternative

and cast, properly

pours are wet to wet or the cold seams protected a concrete the bottom adhesive employed slab be an integral

on each wet to dry pour. Such design requires that part of the structure.





in Waste Handling


construct the manhole of preformed sections, put together with tongue and groove type joints and employing an epoxy mortar continuously and generously in all joints. A prefabricated concrete manhole may be used, providing there are no cold seams discoverable in the structure. Regardless of type, the manhole should be tested liquidtight before being accepted for lining. (See the instructions for this test in Section X on Design.) If the designer decides on the use of FRP pipe or other plastic, a standard on a prefabricated FRP manhole, made from polyester resin is available. (See ASTM D 3753-79).



and Chemical





Note that neither A nor B provides either the continuous external support required to keep the brickwork tight, C supplies support but none have an interior continuous lining of a liquidtight membrane. Sketch 2: From Chemically Resistanf Masonry, 2nd Ed., Marcel Dekker (1982)

Inlets and outlets body brane fitting body and the fitting surface should

must be so designed be tightly sealed with and


all joints


the manhole the the 3

a liquidtight

seal so that the memIn addition, with of the connecting in Sketch

is continuous be totally thrust,

completely so that will

uninterrupted. any movement Note

immobilized the

line, whether

pull or sideways, or rupture

not disrupt

the connection the details

of the manhole


which show both how they should not be designed and what designs are best.

TRENCHES Liquid trenches and and around waste transmission The will above section not ground is often handled by gutters and



up pollutants

and chemicals be repeated masonry,

dripping here.

or spilling principles

on floors of design be the with


on design covers the


so they


space must

given to a design frequently limitations designer of chemically and owner

suggested, especially which

by those unfamiliar can cause difficulty


for the

if the wastes conveyed

in it are to be kept

out of the sub-

strate and out of the soil below it.





in Waste Handling


Brick Mortar Membrane ick ortar

, Membrane Fills Notch

A-With concrete outer shell, we now have support for the brick, but note that the membrane is discontinuous at the bottom where it terminates at pipe edge. B-This is a typical inlet design, with the entry pipe simply embedded in the wall, membrane brought to pipe edge and brick laid around the intru,ded pipe. Ground movement or expansion/contraction of the pipe can push or pull the pipe through the cavity in the concrete and cause the joint and membrane to be disrupted, and contained liquid to get back to the concrete. C-A slight improvement over B in that the pipe cannot be pulled out, but it can be pushed in. D-This is a much improved design. The membrane is carried through a cavity in the concrete to the outside. The pipe is carried through the cavity, inside the membrane, centered by seal rings of caulking, installed in the same manner as the seal rings in the pipe joints, and the balance of the annular space packed full of furan resin mortar. The brick is laid up to and bonded to the intruded pipe with the same furan resin. The only difficulty with this design is that the pipe can still be pushed in or pulled out, so disrupting the joint. However, if this happens, the contained fluid can only leak along the shaft to the outside, without getting through the membrane to attack the concrete manhole. E-This design prevents pull out, but not push in. F-Here the pipe is successfully anchored against movement in or out, and &he membrane is still continuous to the outside. This is the best design. G-If the pipe line is plastic or steel, this design, although less perfect than F, may be used. It holds the pipe rigidly in place to prevent movement but relies for membrane tightness on the seal at the internal notch so that any leakage at that point can enter the concrete along the shaft. Sketch 3: From Water & Sewage Works, Vol. 127, No. 2, PP 51.

The bottom trench,

normal and the especially

design two


a trench

is rectangular, to lay brick

with in the

brick bottom


on the

sides. In order forms

of a narrow

if it is deep, the mason must kneel along side of it and reach are not set exactly on multiples of the brick size,

into it. If the concrete



and Chemical





there will labor tured

also be a lot of cutting came up with half

of the brick

required would

to fit the bottom. pipe)


ago, someone

what he thought round to form

be a great way to save these channel manufacand to separators, the of the trench, Rubber

costs by casting to C70082a. liner would

pipe (also called the forms

into the concrete plates inside be set between and point

the bottom for the wails. When

set ceramic l/i in. wide, all that rubber chemical

the plates. with A.

the forms would

were stripped, to the


have to be done

to finish

the trench

be to remove appropriate

separators exposure.

all the joints

a resin mortar

See Sketch 4, Drawing

applied air renlbrrnc

CWh-UCtlClfl ,Oll

ColtnJCllorl jOI

A Sketch 4

Note that the layer

in Sketch 4, Drawing bonding

A, there is no membrane

at all. If any of the and the tile manufactured of 6%. no

joints leak, the chemical of concrete to ASTM will fall into the trench. to conform According described) (including

waste will get into the concrete the tile to the wall will C479-82 which Note also, that vitrified Standard although

behind the tile and soon be attacked

clay liner platesare allows limit

an absorption

to this standard, test is only liquids attack

an acid-soluble

is set at 0.25%,

specific test is specified small cracks)

to be run, and further, to be run if specified. are permissible. fail to penetrate get through on the substrate. a membrane

the standard In addition, the joints,

says that this (untherefore, that even

some surface defects they will certainly, a membrane, of this brick bottom.

It must be evident, through

if the contained one can expect design, Drawing

in not too long a time,

the bodies of the tile. Without So we next find is applied

a modification

B, where

on the walls, and acid pipe in the trench

laid over the membrane interrupted membrane,

and bonded to the half-round and there will

Just as in the case of the manholes, in the manholes of the old design,

we are dealing here with a discontinuous be leaks in the bottom the channel just as there were pipe (ASTM C700) pipe.

but through

and at the termination

of the membrane

against the edge of the channel





in Waste Handling


To down


such leaks in the pipe, including



membrane at the correct applied,

must be continuous may be formed locations to to accept By the if brick the floor

the sides and under the channel

pipe. Thus the concrete

accept the channel pipe installed, time even more,

depressions between

the bells of the channel making cost all this is done, labor

pipe, then the membrane the joints

and finally

the channel as much, or than

sections as we fit the sections. concrete work)

it is likely (including

that there will have been consumed some expensive

had been laid. Where half-round is poured around (1) the following: of the floor, pipe is merely set in the floor to create a gutter, it. Anyone who designs a gutter poured this way should bear in mind float of portwill be of

If the half-round

pipe is set in the forms as part of the laying next to it and under it will (2) The acid-resistant But these joints to run only At half-depth, joints will have to

the pressure of concrete the concrete is poured

out the pipe unless it is heavily be made before land cement broken. so if the pour to accommodate the capacity it is wide-so rapidly concrete


under it to prevent the intrusion in the half-round pipe, the joints at halfdepth, only

into the pipe joints. and gutters

are hard and brittle, so as

causes any movement surges without

(3) Trenches

are designed overflowing.


of half-round

pipe will be provided

because it will be half as deep as as if designed splash into side. In a will splash capacity. (4) If liquids run

the gutter will have to be wider for the same capacity a lot of floor toward will space for a minimum from the gutter-as this rapidly From

rectangular-using the gutter-they rectangular the other

over the floor

a spill, when they and strike the other liquid will side, the liquid

cross the top of the gutter gutter, is vertical.

cross section side-which


splash across to

the opposite

back and down into the trench. In the case of half-round but sloped down ing into amount onto the floor the gutter, pipe, the opposite be reflected side of the gutter upward is not vertical, and back toward the waste will that the source of the liquid, so instead of bound-

and out of the gutter,

on the other

side. Therefore,

for all these reasons, even with the this design is not recommended.

of brick cutting

may be required,

HOLDING, The concrete, this type

EQUALIZING, usual construction with suitable

OR NEUTRALIZING material for tanks

TANKS to contain or process liquid is on or



is the material

of choice

if the vessels steel, FRP,

are set on or partly even wood. supplied cited The

in the ground. on wood

(See the section on Design for information are plastic or rubber-lined Structures Wood in the Supporting and chemical of the section. section Tank

of construction.) paper


provides Institute tanks or

some design data on this material, in the two Technical in the bibliography of that

resistance data for wood tanks is National ground storage


If above

process tanks or process equipment it is elevated cleaning and repaired and inspection,

is planned,

the designer

should be sure that external quickly

above ground to provide for ventilation so that if leaks develop, damage can occur. before extensive

under the bottom,

they may be discovered



and Chemical







Many scrubber designs make effective use of chemically resistant masonry, especially in the contact area between the scrubbed gases and the scrubbing liquid. The receiver may also be brick-lined as may trenches carrying the waste liquid. If bleeding of the waste and recirculation are planned, additional equipment may also be considered for lining. The Design section covers the recommended procedures to be followed.





During installation of clay pipe and manholes, careful inspection and rigid compliance with specifications is essential. It should be borne in mind that after installation, it is impossible to inspect the workmanship from the outside, and internal inspection is possible only for the exposed surface. There is no way that an inspector can verify that either the membrane or the substrate of the manhole comply with specifications, that holidays do not exist, and that membrane thicknesses are as specified. The inspector should check all work carefully as it progresses, including all membranes prior to brick installation, and all joints in pipe as they are caulked. Water tests on pipe should be made, both before and after backfill. If backfilling is done before testing, there is no way to identify which joint is leaking, and the entire line will probably have to be uncovered-a most difficult task when one remembers that the most common point of leakage is the bottom of the joint. On the other hand, if no test is run after backfill, the owner may not find out for some time that the pipe and/or the joints were disturbed during backfill and tamping, and that the line now leaks. Such damage is often noted when stone is included in the backfill, and where heavy equipment is used in compacting the soil. Where interruptions in the membrane lining in the manholes occur, waste chemicals get back into the concrete manhole body and damage or destroy it over a period of time, resulting eventually in the collapse of the manhole. It is usually a waste of effort to try to repair a manhole that leaks because by the time the leak is discovered, the waste chemicals have usually saturated the concrete, and damage is too widespread. It is better to a bandon the manhole completely. During the following repair, the temperature of the area and all components must be kept to a minimum 60F. The flow through the system is stopped off upstream at the next manhole or point of entry, and the damaged manhole is bypassed, bringing the wastes back into the line downstream. The old manhole construction is completely excavated, removing all contaminated soil and exposing the pipe ends. Plugs are put in the pipe ends to prevent the intrusion of rubbish, and the outsides of the pipes are cleaned and sanded. Inner and outer concrete forms are built around the pipe with the ends passing 3 to 4 in. through the inner form, the inner space and bottom is poured with new high-early concrete. If pressed for time, the new manhole body may be completely poured with epoxy grout. Although this is quite costly, it will cure in 24 hours, and if properly done may not require a membrane and brick lining, depending on the chemical exposure.





in Waste Handling


If joints in the pipe leak badly, caulking around or with the joint and filled with

it is a waste of time to try to fix the leaks by a so-called or asphalt. diaper joint wrapped Repairs from the outside will eventually The only way to

the use of sealers, or with hot sulfur infiltration,

will assist in stopping stop a leaking joint the pipe costly, is now, should however, and faster,

but the seepage of exfiltration on the outside.

start again, pushing off any kind of seal applied be replaced. than trying a possible 90% way of the time, to make

is to cut it out and replace it. If all, or most, of the line leaks, doing the job over again is less There be internally, and this will to save what was done wrong to start with. a repair

covered later. Armoring If the shaft kept of the pipe, or even a joint, through the crack, length manner. a considerable is cracked or otherwise damaged, glass

and the line is leaking in service for This is done fabric and furan mortar.

the line can often be saved, or at least of time During by armoring it with

in the following

all the following

steps, the

pipe must be kept at 60F or higher. (1) Clean the it carefully (2) entire exterior of the damaged section around the full


and for 4 in. each side of the fracture,

and then sand

to remove all the hard burned surface of the pipe. lengths of light, soft, loose weave, glass cloth 13), each long enough to go twice around area. by the manu(as the

Measure out three described

in Chapter

pipe, and wide enough to cover the entire cleaned (3) Prime facturer (4) Mix the pipe surface with a primer


of the furan resin mortar resin mortar

you plan to use. using 10 to 15% more the manuit into satu-

the furan

in a soft mix, mix

resin than facturer

in the bricklaying

(but first check with the cloth

to obtain

his agreement)

and with your hands, work until is completely

one of the strips of glass cloth rated, and the entire cloth (5) Starting around at one end Apply of

is black. the cloth, wrap it tightly and smoothly twice with

the pipe, covering the fractured a C-clamp

area completely

layers of cloth.

or an equivalent

to hold it in place

until it cures. Keep it warm (6) 24 hours later, until it is hard. (7) Remove the C-clamp

(6OF minimum). be hard. If it is not, apply heat

this bandage should

and repeat

steps 5 and 6, but this time wrap direction. making a third bandage with the of

the cloth tightly (8) Repeat third these

in the opposite more

steps once

piece of cloth, upper

once more counterwrapped. ones from loosening the

The shrinkage one below

each bandage will cause it to tighten ages prevents causes it to pull even tighter.

up. Counterwinding

the bandit, and



and Chemical





Although years. Internal Repair

this repair

is not a cure-ail,



it can last for many

In the last few years, a procedure

has been developed

for placing

a seal on

the inside of a leaking clay pipe line. The procedure

is as follows: fabric heavily impreg(or


A sock nated with curing) 150F tures. with

is manufactured a fluid the reaction of The the

of a soft feltlike with which

resin into which remains sock diameter

has been mixed is initiated unaffected

a hardening

agent, range, The

by heat in the temperawith identical a covered

but which

at ambient is made

outside coating.

is completely sock


of the

that of the pipeline between

to be repaired

and the length the same as on each end of

the distance

the interiors lining. inside-out is pumped

of the manholes

the section requiring




is turned

as it is pulled into the

into and through to inflate


pipe, and cold water


it fully,

and to press the resin-soaked (3) As soon as the circulated ture up to 180F, resin is fully The entire sock is fully at which

felt side against the walls of the pipe. inflated, temperature the water bringing the water in the sock temperais


a heat exchanger and cured. should

the internal

is held until the



of the pipeline

now be covered

by a liquidtight

lining. The closed end can now be cut off, the two ends sealed into the manhole linings, and the waste line returned This type once centered vious that type. ploying Although epoxy and the first resins used belonged better chemical considerably resins, to service. designed for the repair of sanitary polyester waste services, at to the terephthalate class. Interest of lining was originally on repairs to industrial

lines and in some cases, it was obthan that offered course, neither by this resin type resin is has this same general system, but emOf

resistance was required more expensive, also available. short for

is now

suitable for all waste exposures. Service experience is still too long-term test data, but what been seen so far appears to be most encouraging.

I. 2. 3. 4. Sheppard, Waiter Lee, Jr., P.E., Chemically Resistant Masonry, 2nd Ed., especially pp 86-l 11, Marcel Dekker, NYC (1982). Haworth, B.C., and Stokely, J.M., A Better Way to Joint Stoneware Pipe, Chemical Engineering, Vol. 66, No. 18,~ 182 (September 21,1959). Sheppard, Waiter Lee, Jr., P.E., Acid Proof Joints in Terra Cotta Industrial Sewer Lines, Water & Sewage Works, Vol. 122, No. 12, pp 64-67 (December 1975). Clyburn, Harry, and Sheppard, Walter Lee, Jr., P.E., Uses of Chemically Resistant Masonry in Lining Air and Water Pollution Control Equipment, Proceedings of the North American Masonry Conference, Boulder, Colorado (August 1978).





in Waste Handling


5. 6.

Sheppard, Walter Lee, Jr., P.E., Redesign Controls Manhole Leakage, Water & Sewage Works, Vol. 127, No. 2, pp 50-52 (February 1980). Applications of Chemically Resistant Masonry in Liquid Waste Handling, Materials Performance, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp 34-39, NACE Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois (March 1980).

Section XII Prestressed Brickwork



Prestressed Brickwork

Keith Department

R. Pierce Sciences

of Mathematical of Minnesota Minnesota

University Duluth,

INTRODUCTION Brick Linings-A General Discussion, lining and the Problem of Tensile Stresses design techA variety of

The installation nique highly must for Since of operating temperatures unless the rounding expand These ically away special coefficient away tensile protective from protecting brick and chemically be careful

of a brick the resistant

in a process vessel is a common from corrosive environments. are available. stresses very well, over will half be operating

vessel jacket bricks that

and mortars tensile

and masonry to ensure shutdown

do not resist tensile conditions.

the designer range at elevated that to

stresses are avoided If a vessel will

the entire

or pressures, design of thermal Thus the from


stresses in the brickwork are used. This of brick is typically

be encountered, to the fact that will try of the surtension. to pull


is due primarily

expansion at elevated cause it cracks

steel jacket.


the steel jacket weakening brickwork

brickwork, affords,

causing and

the brickwork

to be under

stresses will barrier

in the brickwork, also will

the chem-

cause the

the steel shell.

A Solution-Prestressing These tensile ing cure, which excessive in the steel shell. stresses can be avoided an artificial properly When designed, by subjecting the brick the vessel to a prestresslining and a tension to lining never is subjected



in the brick conditions.

stresses over the entire

range of operating 614

Prestressed Brick work



of the Prestressing Process process depends for its success on the existence stages. In the first brick lining, nondeformable It is this After the of the swelling. of mortars

The prestressing which able. fore set hard The they The the first and ternal steel enough second

possess the ability

to be cured

in two

stage, the mortars state, but that not be-

to prevent

the collapse a permanent proceeds the

but are still deformswelling lining provides and

stage cures them

to a rigid,

have undergone prestressing stage cure The cure brickwork

the prestressing. as follows: tensile coefficient is installed has occurred, to the with vessel is subjected stresses to elevated due temperature to the inof the the tenthe in the

pressure. pressure jacket.

encounters higher mortar

in part

and in part contact mortar

of thermal


The prestressing the

swells, rigid

or stretches,

to counteract state. After

sion and to retain is complete, brickwork is subjected brickwork,

the steel support.

When the second is in tension. compression unless

stage of cure cooling, recedes

becomes temperatures undergoes

in its swollen

is in compression to elevated but it never

and the steel jacket tensile

When the vessel conditions

and pressures, stresses are encountered.


more severe than the cure conditions Mathematical The ful which successful Analysis design of a prestressed analysis,

brickwork as can


must the

depend following

on a carefactors

and somewhat


be seen by

must be considered (1) The during (2) The ating (3) prestressing the second brickwork

in the design: mortars without must have enough the swelling capacity to






stage of cure. must be able it will to withstand the resulting both higher oper-


stresses that

be subjected

to during

and shutdown will

conditions. impose higher tensile stresses in the steel shell,

Prestressing which it must

be designed conditions,

to withstand. the thermal gradient across the brick which must not


During lining exceed

operating will material

cause bending

stresses in the brickwork,

stress limits. variables in the design number of a lining: and thickness jacket. will be described can be carerrors in the Ideally, to choice of matebe-

There rials with layers, tween next. ried brick

are a great differing of brick



characteristics, joihts, needed will relative

of brickwork membrane


and mortar techniques will is thin many

use of an impermeable to analyze so that not to to the avoid quickly, produce a design

and steel, and perhaps assumptions as the lining should

the use of an insulating be made

The out

mathematical by hand. program

Simplifying as long

the calculations significant radius

These assumptions

analysis make

of the vessel.

a computer

be available, designs



it possible

to analyze

and to eliminate

the possibil-

ity of mistakes.



and Chemical





The analysis described

is a refinement

of that found

in Reference


METHODS Suppose sel, which temperature, ambient

OF ANALYSIS now that the designer the number has developed a tentative design for the vesfor each layer, and minimum and when coefof the installation


of layers, material conditions, be encountered and inside

specifications maximum

and the thickness

of each layer, as well as the determination and the that will

cure and operating

temperatures ambient

both during operation and outside steps: of

idle. These operating and pressure, ficient.

and cure conditions temperature,

to be specified

are inside temperature heat transfer

The analysis can be broken

down into the following physical properties

(I) (2)

Compute layers. Compute Check swelling




the cure temperatures

and stresses in each layer. that will allowable, occur during the lining cure does If will break


the prestress swelling the capacity the maximum

not exceed

of the materials

in the lining to swell.


up. Redesign and compute (4) Calculate tremes exceeded, Composite Each physical notation) (I) (2) (3) (4) The composite Thermal and mortar the temperatures redesign. of Brick/Mortar of both The

the analysis again. and stresses in each layer conditions. for the exare

of operating

and shutdown

If stress limits

Properties layer

Layers brick and mortar are: must have its composite of the brick key to the




as a combination equations

of the (See Table

properties 7 for the


E = (Wb + W,)/(Wb/Eb k = (&,kb o = (W&,

+ +,,k,)/(Wb

+ W,/E,)
+ w,,,)

+ W,+,)/(Wb + W,)

+ W,)

9 = W,n,/(Wb

value of Poissons Ratio can be taken to be that of the brick. Calculation drops across each layer are calculated coefficients of thermal are temperature-independent resistance, (that by standard conductivity, is, uniform heat transfer as well as all within the


Temperature techniques. physical thermal

It is assumed that


range of operation). per axial foot in a cylindrical

N + 1/(2?rr,h,) + C ll=l R,

The total thermal (5)

vessel, is given by

R = 1/(2iTrihi)

Prestressed Brick work


The first R, computed

two by (6)


are the thermal


of the inner

and outer resistance


Ri and


and the third

is the sum of the thermal

of each layer,


= [(ln(rn

+ dn)

In(rn)ll(2nkn) film and across each layer is







and outer


by the equations: (7)

6Ti 6To 6Tn = (Ti = (Ti = (Ti - T,)Ri/R - T,)R,/R - T,)Rn/R


The temperature

on the inside of the innermost

To = Ti - 8Ti



The temperature by (11) Finally, on the




n and n+l

is given



= T,_j


the average temperature (12) T,

in each layer + T&2


= tT,_t

Stress and Strain Calculations The exact quires radial steel calculation of N+2 of the of radial linear layer and circumferential in N+2 internal and the stresses in each layer unknowns, longitudinal is applied axial namely strain only re-

the solution displacements shell, and that

equations boundaries, that the that follow

the N+l of the to the We also of

vessel. We simplify assume a condition

by assuming the other of plane


layers stress;

the expansion is, no stress

of the steel.

in the


the cylindrical We now each layer to and changing pressure, First of strain

vessel. We also consider give formulas when a new each for

the layer as being flat when the changes conditions undergoes which

layer stresses in in

are being computed. computing the system in strain, in stresses and strains Suppose that, a change temperature-pressure condition, layer the total due to encounters change temperature change. temperature and that

an average changes

Ap in inter_nal change of ATn.

as the sum due to pressure

we calculate changes

can be expressed


changes alone: (13) The two component: d, and elastic (14) strain Ae = AET + Aep components It can be shown modulus are computed that a thin to inner separately. cylindrical pressure First the pressure-induced shell of radius r, thickness given by strain

E, subject

Ap, undergoes

Aep =




and Chemical





In a bonded lining, the effective elastic modulus is given by

N E = (~ Endnlfd n= 1



N = }:; dn n = 1

The value of r is taken to be that of the steel shell. Next the temperature-induced strain is computed: The change in stress in each layer due to temperature change in that layer is determined by the difference between the total strain and the free thermal strain of the layer due to its average temperature (17) Equilibrium zero: change: ASnT = En(AcT -QnAT n) considerations imply that the average stress in the lining must be


N }:; ASnT n = 1

= O

Substituting in the above equation, the temperature-induced puted. Combining this with above calculations produces
N L\pr

strain can be corn


~e =

+ }:; EndnxnL\T n = 1

N }:; Endn n=1 in stress in each layer ~Sn temperature on the hot = QEn(~E is thus n) the tension inner which and outer varies from surfaces of a

The average change (20) Finally, layer mum the

-Qn~T between



an additional

stress distribution,

a maximum


side to a maximum

on the cold side. The maxi-

values are given by (21) Sng = Y2anEnOT n/(1 -Jl.n) stresses in layer n are given by Sn = Asn -Sng (hot side)
(cold side)

Thus the boundary (22) (23)

Sn = ASn + Sng

Prestressed Brickwork
Stresses During The above and After formulae Cure can be used for calculating the stresses induced


in mov-

ing from installation conditions to all other conditions of cure, shutdown, and operation, as long as there is no prestress swelling. However, this procedure cannot be employed during a prestressing cure since the layers with swelling capacity are not perfectly elastic until the cure is complete. The method for mathematically simulating the cure process is as follows: First, compute the layer stresses in moving from installation to cure conditions, assuming that all materials are perfectly elastic. The resulting stresses are examined, and the layers that appear to be under tensile stresses and which contain swellable materials are noted. These are the layers that will swell during cure to neutralize the tension. The swelling is simulated mathematically by repeating the stress calculation with the elastic modulus for the noted layers temporarily considered as zero. This second calculation reflects the actual stresses in the layers at the end of the cure phase. For subsequent calculations the elastic moduli are restored to their original values. Finally, it is necessary to check that the swelling that occurs in the noted layers does not exceed their maximum swelling capacity. The actual swelling is the total strain of the system minus the free thermal strain of the layer, thus the following condition must be satisfied : (24) qn~~e -Qn~Tn

If any of these conditions fails, the lining must be redesigned by substituting different mortars, making the side joints thicker, us!ng smaller-size bricks, and so on.
Stresses at Operating Once the puted the and Shutdown Conditions and stresses have been calculated, conditions the conditions possible operating temperatures. or stress maxima, the vescan be easily simply comas changes that the vesand pres-

cure temperature operating (13)

distributions and shutdown by viewing the severest ambient


at various

using formulas Stresses must

to (24) pressure. for

in temperatures sel will undergo.

and inner This

be checked may

conditions temperatures

be at maximum to exceed

sures at the extremes If any sells lining layers

of idle and/or

are found


must be redesigned.

SAMPLE CALCULATION Assume that specifications for the design of the vessel are as in Table 47-1, the lining consisting of three layers: one brick layer, a mortar bed layer, and the steel shell. This table also displays the calculated composite physical properties of the brick/mortar layers, computed according to equations (1 ) to (4). Table 47-2 shows cure and operating conditions to be used in stress calculations.



and Chemical





Table 47-1:


Vessel Design

Shape: Cylindrical Number of layers: 3 Radius: 35.0 inches to inside of layer number 3 CF TH EXP E-6 2.56 13.3 3.13 13.3 6.5

Layer 1 4.5 0.25

Description Sample brick Sample mortar Composite properties Sample mortar Sample steel Elastic Modulus *E+6 Brick Mortar Composite 6.12 0.426 3.59 0.426 29.0

Inner Radius 33.5 34.75 35.0

Thickness 1.25 0.25 0.375

Therm Cond 8.06 11.3 8.23 1 1.3 312.0 Swell Coeff E-5 0.0 700.0 36.8 700.0 0.0

2 3

Layer 1

Poisson Ratio 0.2 0.17 0.2 0.17 0.3

Maximum Compress 1600.0 2000.0 1600.0 2000.0 13750.0

Maximum Tension 400.0 1800.0 400.0 1800.0 13750.0

2 3

Table 47-2:


Cure, Operating,

and Shutdown


Installation temperature Cure conditions inside temperature Inside pressure Ambient temperature Inner film conductance Outer film conductance Operating conditions Maximum operating temperature Maximum pressure Ambient temperature range

24OF 20 psi 80F 300 Btu/ft-hrwoF 3 Btu/ft2-hr-F 220F 15 psi O-1 OOF

Table by first from equations

47-3 (5)

shows to to

cure (12).

calculations. Stresses are are perfectly the ambient It

The elastic,

temperature using and using

gradient equations changes the layers change

is computed (13) to (24), in conditions containing allowing the assuming has cooled which


assuming installation

all materials cure are only stresses

(note zero). the

temperature that, layer shows layers can among

of IO, Ap = 20,

installation swellable layer a zero to the stress by

is found 47-3 layers. in the all other

materials, The modulus elastic

brick/mortar of Table two stresses These for the various

is under the stresses after the

tension, calculated cure phase

to swell. Table 47-4

last part the

in those


installation changes 47-5 (5)

temperature. and to 47-6 (24), under show for

stresses temperatures operating

be used as a base from and stresses, again

can be calculated

conditions. calculated It is and shutdown specified conditions. limits.

Tables equations seen that

the stresses

all conditions

are within

Prestressed Brick work


Table 47-3:

Cure Temperatures

and Stresses

. . . . . . . Layer Number. 2 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Assuming No Swelling . . . . . . .

Hot side temperature Cold side temperature Hot side stress Percent of maximum Cold side stress Percent of maximum 238.9 190.3 565 141 1247 312 190.3 183.3 -386 19 -338 17


183.3 183.0 -962 7 -862 6 . . . . . 183.3 183.0 2028 15 2129 15 -

. . . . . . . Assuming Swelling
Hot side temperature Cold side temperature Hot side stress Percent of maximum Cold side stress Percent of maximum Percent maximum swell

(Layer 1 Elastic Modulus= 01 238.9 190.3 -341 21 341 a5 96 190.3 183.3 -342 17 -294 15 -

Table 47-4:

Stresses After


to 7OF

1 Average stress Percent of maximum -906 57

Layer Number. 2 44 2

3 2991 22

Table 47-5:

Stresses Under




Maximum Summer Operating Conditions Inside temperature: 220F Outside temperature: 1OOF Pressure: 15 psi inner film conductance: 300.0 Btu/ft*PF Surface conductance: 3.0 atu/ft*PF

. , . . . . . Layer
1 Hot side temperature Cold side temperature Hot side stress Percent of maximum Cold side stress Percent of maximum 219.2 182.7 -285 18 227 57 2


3 177.5 177.2 1660 12 1736 13

182.7 177.5 -319 16 -284 14

Maximum Winter Operating Conditions Inside temperature: 220F Outside temperature: OF Pressure: 15psi Inner film conductance: 300.0 Btu/ft*PF Surface conductance: 3.0 atu/ft*PF

. . . . . . . Layer
1 Hot side temperature Cold side temperature Hot side stress Percent of maximum Cold side stress Percent of maximum 21 a.5 151.6 -966 60 -27 2 2


3 142.1 141.6 3113 23 3251 24

151.6 142.1 -222 11 -157 a



and Chemical





Table 47-6:

Stresses Under Shutdown

at Ambient

. . . . . . . 3

. . . . . . . Layer
1 . . . . . . . Winter Shutdown-Ambient Average stress Percent of maximum -1520 95

Number 2 Temperature: OF 275 15

. .. .. ..
4884 36

. . .. .


Shutdown-Ambient -643 40

Temperature: -55 3


. . . . . .
2179 16

Average Stress Percent of maximum

Table 47-7
Symbols and Notation Elastic modulus, Ib/sq in Thermal conductivity, Btu/ft-hr-OF q Swelling coefficient, dimensionless 0 Coefficient of thermal expansion, in/in-OF IJ Poissons Ratio, dimensionless Btu/ft2-hr-F h Film heat transfer coefficient, N Number of layers in the lining R Thermal resistance, per axial foot T Temperature Tn Temperature at outside of layer n Average temperature in a lining Temperature drop across a layer sT A Change in a parameter when conditions change S Circumferential stress E Circumferential strain d Thickness, inches W Width of brick or mortar, inches E k Subscripts Ambient, or outer surface Brick Mortar inner surface of lining nth layer Radius Stress due to temperature difference

across layer

SUMMARY The whose more book. designer tions.


CONCLUSIONS described relative in this chapter apply only will to cylindrical require vessels

calculations is thin

lining complex must

to the


of the vessel. Thick-walled or spherical, is beyond for performing the scope

vessels, and considerably of this handand the calcula-

vessels of other

shapes such as rectangular mathematical resort analysis formulae


In such cases, exact

are difficult programs

or impossible

to obtain, the complex

to computer






also does



the analysis

of stresses around the experienced accurate analysis This method if he wishes of finite

piping, engineer requires has been reaction

connections, elaborate applied this

supports, techniques

attachments, failure such as the

and so on. While at these locations, Element complex Finite

can design a vessel to prevent with great success to should

Method. references


vessels such as nuclear in the field

vessels. The reader area. References analysis.



to pursue element

2 and 3 are basic textbooks

1. Honigsberg, C.A. and Eschenbrenner,G.P.,Prestressed non-metallic VeSSel linings, Chef?X Eng. Prog., Vol 58, September, 1962, pp 81-84, and Vol 58, October, 1962, pp 97101. Desai, C.S. and Abel, J.F., lnrroduction to the Finite Element Method, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972. Tong, P. and Rossettos, J.N., Finite-Element Method, The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1977.

2. 3.

Editors Note: In determining the insulation (number and thickness of masonry layers) required to keep the surface temperature of the membrane at acceptable levels, the designer may make use of a simplified calculation which is sufficiently accurate for this purpose. The procedure is detailed in Chemically Resisranr Masonry, by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr. (2nd Ed., 1982, Marcel Dekker) pages 112-113. It may be summarized thus: (1) Insulation factor of system, thicknessof layer + thickness K factor + -thickness K factor . (RI)

R =

K factor of layer


Thermal DT

drop of system, = operating temp. - ambient temp. (usually 7OF)



drop for each inch (or other unit) of lining then is, DT, =+; while for each layer DT) = Rl x DT,

Applying these simplified formulae the designer can quickly determine if his design provides sufficient insulation (thickness) or if he requires another layer. The cited reference provides examples of these calculations.

Section XIII Special Subjects



Brian Cooley
Peabody ContinentalUeine Des Plaines, Illinois Company

INTRODUCTION It is probable that if the subject of utility or industrial plants is brought up, the image that would form in ones mind would be of one or more chimneys belching endless streams of smoke into the skies. Whether or not the connotation would be pleasant depends upon your relationship to the industry. Regardless, most people would picture chimneys because of their visual impact, and rightly so, because they are an integral part of the power process. Today, however, they are more than just the simple exhaust pipe of years gone by. Thanks to modern power technology, todays more efficient plants are now able to squeeze nearly all available &us from their fuels before exhausting them. Couple this effect with todays tight emission standards requiring scrubbers and the result calls for an entirely new concept in chimneys. All the years of successful operational experience so proudly hailed by chimney constructors and owners mean very little in the new game where scrubbers are the big stars. There are no track records to fall back on, and the majority of experienced consulting ful for so actly what concerning Concept In power and heavy industrial application, most chimneys are constructed as a tube in a tube, typically cylindrical, owing to the airflow advantages of a 626 engineers have had to abandon old sets of specs which had been uselong. The chimney specialists, also, have little information as to exto specify. This chapter, it is hoped, will furnish some information the effects of modern conditions on chimneys.



circular from and




shell is intended

to shield the inner flue or liner In many cases, it is also used The inner flue in turn

the forces of wind and the effects of weather. gravity support supported the outer with the corbel brick linings which

to furnish protects problems contact without combined inforced effects tance relationship

for the liner itself, as in the case of hanging steel liners (see illustrations). of the flue occur This concept would the effects shell. gas heat and negates the represents a synergistic

shell from cooler

of acid condensation in that neither Together

if the gases were to come in adequately and economically several times over. relast under the the imporalloy

external element

could function

the other.

they complement additive, brick

each other to the point that their structural shell made of either you realize

value is not simply concrete, common flue.

but rather is multiplied

When you consider of highly

how long an unprotected masonry, boiling

or carbon steel would


acid on its walls,

of the interior

Similarly, resistant support

if one attempts material

to design a large free standthe support function materials.

ing structure of a normal

of corrosion high strength

such as acid resistant masonry, of incorporating building

steel, or F RP, he soon realizes the economy

system of common



CONSIDERATIONS prior to the required dry, 4OOF and were Furthermore, operational Thus, chimney infrequent installation acidic therefore of SO2 scrubbers, conditions. Typical above the acid dew itself experienced inherent within For this were

In the past, specifically most chimneys flue point fewer during were gas temperatures normal shutdowns

subjected exceeded

to hot,


plant operation.

the plant difficulties

due to the intermittent other thanat

the scrubbed reason, relatively common Corbel wet

gas systems themselves. acid corrosion

linings were not exposed to shutdowns. and chimneys

severe acidic conditions

start-upsand design factor, There

was not a major

simple to design, construct designs, which will be briefly

and maintain. described.

were a few relatively



(Figure 48-l) shell would upon which be utilized, segmental constructed thin walled with regu-

In this larly brick gravity


a concrete

spaced shelves or corbels linings were

cylindrical support the

laid up. This design represented the exterior brick

an economical

usage of brick be present from the

as a means of insulating in a self-supporting cept would outer foot. The call for airspace, material The direct brick the flue

shell while having the concrete to use far less brick than would liner. A typical brick a few usually specification 4 in. thick from

loads, enabling the constructor independent approximately ranging if insulated, linings concrete

for this conless than a granular a dead each under

linings separated with a poured

shell by an airspace

inches to somewhat be filled


insulating airspace. other against with

such as expanded themselves corbels

shale. In many were designed upon which

cases, it was simply to taper and overlap sat would were nearly always

so that


be protected associated

gas contact.

Since these chimneys due to the higher

a negative

pressure condition

values of stack draft

the hotter

flue gases, not much concern

was given to the sealing details of



and Chemical





the linings because any leakage tended air rather than exfiltration pressure do not normally because of the existence the brick. This boundary is washed friction ful fans. Up until linings were though repaired attack last many areas. They the introduction to occasional effects, come layer, away

to result in suction of infiltrated flue gases under with

ambient negative at

of flue gas. Furthermore, into contact created of a thin film of stagnant by brick

the surface of the brick lining air acting as a boundary surface roughness and surface with the help of powermortar, mixes. the Albe

as the pressure inside the flue becomes positive at high velocities

and effluent

gases are pushed through

and common acid attack

usage of acid resistant cement/lime/sand conditions, mostly mortar

laid up in the usual portland

subjected years, as needed

these linings were able to dry and could the damaged inability mortar

due to the fact that they were kept by simply sandblasting specified with today, above.

and tuckpointing because of their

are seldom

to resist acid

in combination

low flue gas temperatures

and the effects of positive

pressure conditions

as described

Figure 48-l:

Corbel supported

brick lined concrete




(Figure 48-2) brick was also used as a protective of heat. The flue and earthquake. layer to shield the strucranging

In this instance, tural from shell from

the effects

itself was designed to stand alone An airspace was provided to the exterior acid resistant It was bands cir-

against the forces of gravity surface of the brick supported silicate basically brick or common unreinforced

a few inches to a few feet, so that access could be provided liner, a maintenance The axially, structure cement portland advantage itself lining. was laid up in either as previously with

not possible with the corbel described.


but was corsetted

steel tension



cumferentially to maintain stability against buckling failure of cracked vertical segments. This type of design is still quite commonly specified, using acid resistant brick and mortar.

Figure 48-Z:



with independent

brick liner.

Shell Supported

Steel (Figure 483)

As recognized in the above described designs, heat was practically the sole factor in liner design. Given that a steel flue insulated by either an external blanket or internal refractory lining could furnish a similar or better insulating characteristic than brick, these were often specified in lieu of brick as an economic alternate, particularly in tall chimneys where independent brick liner wall thicknesses became prohibitively thick and expensive. A typical design would consist of a fairly thin steel plate flue being carried on grillages supported by the outer structural shell. In most cases, although the steel flue could be designed more economically if carried in tension, the liner would be supported slightly above the horizontal duct entry and allowed to act in compression. Horizontal bracing levels were placed at intervals spaced to resist lateral buckling while still allowing the flue to expand upward without restriction by the outer concrete shell. This approach was taken as a measure to avoid the necessity for expansion joints to account for the large difference in thermal growth of an insulated hot steel flue versus its cooler outer support shell. Todays design of steel flues or other shell supported linings also recognizes the need to account for such differential growth; however, since expansion joint design technology has advanced considerably, the desire to eliminate such joints becomes an economic consideration rather than an operational limitation.



and Chemical





Figure 483:



with shell supported

steel or FRP

liner (shown as tension



CONDITIONS the 1970s and flue and into the 198Os, the most profound has been that The former atmosphere authorities of governmental usage of extremely for dispersion of practically effect on in-

Throughout dustrial regarding boiler

gas systems



on emissions.

tall chimneys has come under As a a

to vent SO, and NO, strong attack result, mandatory fuel plan,

into the upper

by the environmental flue gas scrubbing facilities content, govern system. of a power the burning

all nations.

systems create a major design consideration coal and/or oil in the U.S. In selecting of other and costs, the that chimof plant quite operational naturally has economy and a myriad of in mind.

in all large industrial Factors fueling reheating economic modern natural neys of such as sulfur considerations of scrubbed approach. chimney,

the operator


cost, availability,

characteristics related

a boiler

its flue gas disposal

Since Btus are directly see an entirely are of little they

to investors

flue gas to a point above its dew point is seldom a feasible We therefore new environment benefit. within gas at such low temperatures In fact, todays do our previous knowledgeable heat transfer, concepts

that of a wet acid saturated and stack draft tanks or the engineer fluid the flow normal vessels than

gas buoyancy resemble


stacks. To design them, material technology, beyond considerations

must be highly mechanics, function A/E

in the areas other For this

and many engineer.

of a structural

reason, the team concept

of owner,

and constructor

must come into strong




so that the chimney

system does not fail due to faulty

or incomplete

design criteria.





SHELL a tube system, the goal of the of wind, weather, materials such as have or a are: brick masonry

In selecting the outer shell for a tube within designer carbon which is to provide adequate protection concrete, and seismic forces been utilized. in the most economical

against the effects manner. strengths, Typically, and engineered

or stainless steel, reinforced can result in the obvious preference.

Each has its own particular


and economies

usage of a given type

in a given situation in such choice

choice based upon (1) (2) (3)

The usual factors


Cost of original


Cost of maintenance. Aesthetics. it is not unusual to match Generally, that an owner or architect has a of his someit

In the case of aesthetics, preference plant. for

a given material

or compliment construction however,

the appearance and maintenance

For this reason, the cost of original be considered on a hand

times take on a lesser importance. and should

they are the major factors although short,small diameter stack

in hand

basis. For example,

may be obvious that a steel outer shell for a reasonably is cheaper than either effects dynamic top will of atmospheric downwash, brick or concrete, corrosion (i.e., the downward consideration trailing relative

should also be given to the attributable velocity to aeroat the of the stack effluexpenditure evaluated will simply

or possible flue gas attack

flow pattern

ent attributable

to its low exit velocity

to the crosswind construction

of the stack). be more costly

It may be that a lesser up front over the service life of a chimney maintenance influencing of the outer the original

than a properly

and planned of economy

system approach. regarding

Since it is not possible to describe all conditions shell, this chapter cost of construction.

touch on some factors Steel Shells Generally, cated resulting statement greater

if the geometry in a minimum be the for

of the shell is of a size that can be shop fabrinumber of segments This, being shipped of course, to its erection will be a much are is a very general

site, steel stacks will consideration

least expensive. stacks (150

in that the plate thickness taller of plain carbon steel.

and unit price of material ft. and above)

and those which

not constructed Brick Shells

Due to the relationship gas prices considerably tively (for the kilns), more expensive

between fired clay than

the cost of brick structural

production this effect

and natural has become with the rela-

brick for chimneys

in the past. Couple

small number

of sources for the production

of wedge shaped radial chimney



and Chemical





blocks, and freight costs may also have significant impact on the cost of constructing a brick outer shell. For these reasons, it is not possible to generalize on costs of construction for this type of chimney in this chapter. Consultation with ones preferred constructor(s) for the particular application and location is recommended. Reinforced Concrete Shells

For most utility and large industrial chimney applications, reinforced concrete chimney shells have been specified because of their relatively low costs of initial construction and subsequent maintenance. In chimneys where a fairly large outer shell diameter s required (IO to 12 ft.), the cost of a cast-in-place concrete structure is typically less than field welded steel. Since this chapter must necessarily lfmit itself to that approach most popularly specified, it will describe in further detail only the cast-in-place reinforced concrete outer shell without further consideration of steel or radial brick. (See Figures 484 and 48-5).

Figure 484: Chimney construction-Slip-form technique. The slip-form technique is a method for building a concrete column monolithiclv. During construction, concrete is poured continuously into four-foothigh forms that are steadily rising or slipped up the concrete structure using hydraulic jacks. The steady upward progress of the forms is timed so that the concrete is relatively firm before the bottom of the form slips bv.This method of construction is well suited for projects where time is of critical importance. It also has proved economical for structures of large diameters and for chimneys of extreme height. To reduce labor overtime costs, work is often done on a round-theclock, five days/week basis. Lasers constantly monitor alignment of the emerging chimney to assure proper plumb is maintained. Hydraulic jacks control taper and chimney wall thickness.



Figure 48-5: Chimney construction-Jump-form technique. The jump-form technique of concrete chimney construction has been in use since the turn of the century and has been refined to a remarkably efficient construction method. Specially designed steel forms are raised in regular increments for each pour. The forms are raised by the crew using chain falls connected to overhead beams on the derrick-a structure that incorporates a work deck and is hung by cables from the inside of the concrete chimney. For each new pour, the derrick is raised using chain falls and reattached by cables to the concrete structure. Then the outside forms are raised, as one piece. Reinforcing steel is secured and the inside forms are raised, again as one piece. After alignment and plumb are checked, the concrete is poured. Taper and wall thickness are adjusted by changing the circumference of the forms.

The tailed

design and construction Standard 307.

of reinforced



shells is deAlthough detailed

by ACI

This particular


is the result of many

years of successful experience it is presently calculated materials ficient has not the not change geared only analyses for the effects actual are sufficiently

and is quite conservative wind or earthquake

in its approach.

to static design criteria stresses versus ACI

and does not include allowable criteria

of dynamic

responses, the ratios of stresses for the given are considered sophisticated committee under they do a sufis well limiting review, analyses


low that when dynamic

the shell design drastically. of dynamic accomplished at this

The reason for this is that while the contributory

compilation been

design data for the more time,

aware of these effects allowable and it is expected be included.

and has compensated

for them by conservatively is continually design considerations is as follows.

static stress values. The specification that the abovementioned A brief discussion of each effect

will eventually



and Chemical







It has been observed by many researchers that when a cantito a steady wind flow, there is a certain of vortex effect, velocity at begins to oscillate has been attributed referred in the direction to the effect Karman transverse to the wind axis. shedding. These are eddies of wind

levered cylinder This phenomenon

is subjected

which the cylinder vortices, commonly

to as the Von

such as youd

see in water when rowing a boat. (See Figure 48-6 and 48-7).

1st Mode

3rd Mode

Figure 48-6: The effect of vortex shedding on a stack subjected to a steady wind is oscillation of the cantilevered cylinder in a direction transverse to that of the wind (left). Theory says that vortices are shed intermittently from each side of the stack, causing the motion, Studies of such dynamic wind effects show only the first vibration mode to be significant in design (right).

Figure 48-7: Designers treat radial wind forces as a static load on the stack. Such forces act this way: As a steady wind flows across a cylinder, there is an uneven pressure distribution and a reversal of force, creating a suction on the leeward side.

In theory, pressure drops drop which nance, natural must I.e.,

they are intermittently across the diameter force

shed from as they

each side of the cylinder The resultant and along wind

causing pressure of resoto the

are released. column. wind

causes a lateral when the

having both crosswind of the


be resisted

by the cantilevered frequency

At the condition corresponds



of the cylinder,

these forces are at a maximum.

This generally



occurs within critical

a time

span of

15 to 30 sec. at the critical are fairly resonance for


Since the


for most chimneys is unsteady, normal the

high, and the nature of the winds has a relatively utilizes low occurrence the maximum velocity,

at these higher velocities probability, strength by calculation, and dynamic tall slender resonant the their wind hence values for wind


such loading In many

the materials effects


cases, the critical

is considerably where

higher than any likely the critical velocity wind

steady state wind velocity, enough will to anticipate be subject to by

can be neglected. the quasi-static shedding,

In other cases, such as an extremely is low forces may still be higher than not be governed geometry

structure loadings forces.

occurring, of vortex

the dynamic likelihood induced

anticipated. Only After

In short,

not all chimneys are will of the specific

and some that analysis

a detailed having

of the

shell will yield a determination.

Seismic Loads:
requirements, quasi-static maximum quite namic utilizes history risk areas, the criteria ney code allowable tensile


the design of the shell for wind must be considered. a conservative Further, For low set of the for the chimfurnish

the seismic response of the structure contained within ACI 307 values for shears, moments stress for Grade

and their distribution. to

stresses for static earthquake

are also very low, limiting 18 ksi. In general, 307 requirements two methods

60 reinforcement

seismic zones zero through safe and free from analysis for and data should be

two, a design based on ACI For the more performed. Historically, a time to

will be a dybeen local conthe the


severe risk zones, however, have history the


such analyses. related applies their

The first method, accelerations

response record, of recent under

to several of the more recorded

severe earthquakes approach, specify by various


sideration. reason, the


this seems to be a reasonable of consulting engineers with

it is not necessarily an analysis utilizing

best solution

since it may not be representative majority as furnished

of the actual

site area. For this

local seismic response spectrum universities organizations. depth and committees A design,

research groups such as or other related as other scientific to the soil geological

associated with

the Government considers factors as well

per this method,

and its primary there chimney


the structure

effects of a local nature. In summary, to the concrete feel confident concrete has been a great deal of research and analysis pertaining shell. All in design. known effects have been studied thoroughly and consulting service life. engineer can shell of a reinforced Both the owner constructed,

and can be incorporated chimney

that, when properly will provide

the exterior

a long and trouble-free




LINER afforded to the design of the outer shell of standards for liner specifications. the service requirements for column subjected is stressed by moderate of its strength. stresses, meto thermal

In contrast the chimney This each. wind The Under lining, incongruity

to the thoroughness is highlighted conditions, hand, when

is the relative normal

lack of documented the concrete is constantly

you consider

pressures or by dead load alone to a very slight percentage on the other



and Chemical







and acid attack.


we do have some data and experience linings has been, for may not hold true for Of the commonly standard Liners, used as prebased for design. successes which conditions. recognized

upon which the somewhat liner types, sented fiber

to base our engineering, new and/or unknown

the design of chimney scrubber

the most part,

based upon past operating


the steel flue has a universally The Design and Construction of ASCE (commonly in 1975 from referred of problems

Even this paper,

of Steel Chimney prior years. Similarly,

by a task force reinforced virtually engaged plastic

is a state of the art treatment to FRP)

upon the high percentage

the design of

liners will soon be governed For the present, by those few is so most or are the since there produced In short,

by a state of the art document however, companies little recent simply liner all FRP in their

to be produced

by the industry.

liner designs are proprietary; fabrication and erection. limitations. this chapter covered their is intended



to provide

discussion designed

of liner

designs and their

Since, as stated above, design document is as follows. discussed. A

steel and FRP

liners are either

by a published today

by the fabricator,

designs will be only briefly

general discussion of each type of liner specified Acid Resistant As stated standing likely Masonry earlier, acid resistant brick While

masonry the corbel

(ARBM) supported

has been a long brick liner has independent the


in the industry.

seen its last days with they

the passing of the hot, specified

dry chimney,

brick liners remain those most commonly Typically, sulting from ing cylinders modate two. vertically cool wet gases produced separated in normal from

today. in resisting either or the hot, dry gases redesigned as self-supportspace sized to accomoccurs between the to expand

are used because of their scrubber They



bypass conditions.

are, quite simply,

the outer

shell by an annular no solid contact

shell and liner deflections upward without material restraint strength.

so that

Under the temperature

effects of the flue gas, the liner is allowed by the outer shell. Precluding alone to a few hundred brick liner

seismic loading psi, a small fracrelated to

it is primarily The seismic portant structural mortar allow resultant the major

stressed by dead weight limitations

tion of its ultimate response

of an independent of flue masonry

are those

and leakage

gas. As to its seismic limitations, (average l/s in.) mortar such joint reinforced against overturning joints.

its imWhile the do not The

to note that the usual chimney units laid up in extremely itself is extremely embedded stability seismic their strong use of structure thin

consists of very dense, inelastic dimensions only While

and adherent,

reinforcement vertical


is basically capacity

a stack of bricks of the masonry, characteristics higher

by hooplike some allowmoments For destructures seismic depending In most inThat is, the a

bands to provide veloped generally zones upon by the

of cracked response use in the zone

liner segments. of these

ance is made for tensile preclude

the overturning risk areas.



0 and 1, the structures the liner geometry, an independent be aware

are generally 2 loadings

safe, and occasionally, can be accommodated. isnt always better.

stances where specifier

brick liner is to be subjected thicker

to semisevere seismic

responses, its important should

to note that

that one goal of good seismic design is to produce





flexible brick

structure. segments,

This factor rule which for



the old practice height

of to

constructing ness ratios greater

liners with

of thumb may,

values for in fact,

versus thickin structural imposing

of masonry

subject the structure rather than

seismic damage.

In a nutshell, thickness

its best to let the experts a chimney specification. to flue gas leakage will Annulus liner

design determine previously The further limitations

the wall

used values from a standard of brick

liners related

be discussed

in the chapter,

in the section entitled


Steel and FRP Liners In discussing chapter, simply for the outer Today, of flues. thin walled the historical approach to hot gas chimneys Basically, earlier in this

the concept shell. The

of steel liners was described. for the gases, supported has not changed only much the temperatures temperatures, concept flues, factor

these flues were forces by gases. such steel flues or these types


against buckling for modern of their in specifying in Chapter

the newer

fiberglass normal

conveyed conditions,

the temperature Not only

remains the key concern (described


but overheat

as may occur due to the loss of preheaters bearing in the decision of which FRP 350F under cycles. liners must generally are anticipated liner to use.

I), have major above strength of such a water basis. the acid a viable operating

be ruled out when periods of overheat

overheat as they may,

temperatures lose their however, amount use of with

for extended

of time, conditions

high heat. The duration Another approach to there

be of such

reasonably quenching Typically, dew point

short length that these liners may withstand which has been considered system however, reduce overheat temperatures conditions, do, for those

a limited is the on

an emergency when remain

has been little temperature

success experienced particularly however, systems

these types

of liners under means of wet

severe cyclic acid flue

is traversed

on a regular

basis. They

gas conveyance of mild you

in which

temperatures coating liner,

can be kept cool and well controlled. steel liners, the main certain surface applied for which longer a tall the following problems have been due to within a tall steel When consider the service conditions most coating

As to the concept failures.

its not hard to see why to the normal steel chimney generally feature

systems have not held up. systems have been tube length. to characteristics. because of the difficulstructure. expansion This tends of the coating steel liners that areas in-

As opposed developed, They ties

ductwork a much within

linings exhibit

span of uninterrupted chimney of thermal

The use of expansion of gaining aggravate conditions is even slightly Owing are subjected Under duced wind with of flexure

joints has been kept to a minimum wherein the coefficient

access to them different to uneven

from that of the steel substrate. there are many areas within impingement effects. temperature These distinct ductwork. due to the these movements how many cycles

to usual flow conditions,

face surface bonding everyday

stresses much more severe than normal conditions, the liner is constantly of the outer


and solar movements effects a chimney liner

shell. Coupling

the thermal

of the flue gas, it is easy to imagine experiences applied in its lifetime. coating

It is also easy to under-

stand how even a perfectly

system can fail, since even the tiniest



and Chemical





breach related coating, above, tions. ture, while

in the coating peeling, material from the


can lead to acid attack

of the substrate


its in


and delamination.

Even the tensile

stress induced

the coating Aside relatively

by its own cure shrinkage innate problems

can lead to minute

cracks in the stated It is

as well as loss of bond to the substrate. of operation realities under the conditions construction. controlled one must also be aware a coating one can imagine of the system of chimney involved

easy to apply

under perfectly

shop conditempera-

However, humidity working

the difficulties

in regulating

and other important factors influencing coating application from a suspended deck in a steel liner several hundred feet tall thousand liners must, conditions most cubic feet of air, which when heated tends Any coating use. linings have It is not the select, since system detailed liners. expenacid in the breechsystems conof necessity, allow liberal margins for less transient due to its own buoyancy.

enveloping to become than perfect Those

several hundred quite

sidered for steel chimney application coating

or they will be of little commonly specified


for chimney follows. should

been either cementitious ing ductwork aim their should of this section chapter to

gunites or those which will be described of the brick indicate by liner discussion, system degree. in the factor or A242 the which reader field, which

successes have varied always be done

to a great experts major


of any coating based upon


knowledge While attack ally

of the specific conditions is another

to be encountered. in the use of steel and FRP plate are not prohibitively coatings to protect

Cost, of course, sive, the cost of

mild steel liners made of A36 providing and



can raise the price of the overall Similarly, the material brick lining. or Cast)

system to two or three times that of the plate and FRP resin generhigher than that of substantially

plate itself.

cost of high alloy

raises the cost of these linings to a point specified

the commonly Refractory

Liners (Gunite

In contrast todays applied gunited material

to the basic refractory or cast liners are much utilized wet

services provided more dependent attack. which (Figure

by their

predecessors, of the

upon the ability

to resist possible chemical type of concern chimneys.


the fact that the absorptive when lining

cementitious and brittle they

materials causes another for

in these applications 48-8

are somewhat illustrates

should also be considered a gunned

are specified

placed over a membrane followed in application Since there of structure, interface which direct may

as a lining of a concrete to a steel liner.)

shell. This same design may be shell in this type reach the such as that as they pene-

is no airspace between moisture In the them. likely

the lining and structural event of crack

any absorbed occur with

in the lining

itself will eventually formation, Further, alike.


due to cure shrinkage the inner exposed the lining

stresses, the gases can also come into rather strong acidic We shall discuss we will consider

contact which

areas of the liner. column

trate deeper deposits

into the lining, attack

they cool and condense to form and structural along, further column.

the acid attack the protection

on the lining of the structural

but at this point,



Figure 48-8:


lined concrete


In Japan and Europe, have been constructed erected, proof connected gunite anchors elastomeric

there are many steel stackswith manner: then the installed, and interior

refractory coated

linerswhich and with an acidcracks

in the following

The steel shell is fabricated

mastic. A cementitious shell there

lining is then gunned or cast over mesh the potential membrane. is an acidproof Since this

to the anchors,

the end result being that between

in the lining and the structural bonding chimneys Care must

mastic adheres as well to concrete with refractory when linings. applying

as it does to steel, and since ample mechanical this concept course, there is also feasible for concrete are mechanisms by corrosive in the vicinity through condensation. of the gunite Othershell, attacking Of

devices can be easily furnished,

which this acid resistant membrane be taken anchors to ensure a smooth

can be penetrated the membrane

and complete

seal around and to the anchor.

wise, acid can travel along the anchor to its base in the structural the shell from behind the membrane. As to the chemical sider the variety various materials silicate of materials effects on these types used. Refractory cement, with portland of linings, linings calcium normal

it is necessary to concan be comprised aluminate aluminate cement cement for or lightweight of a and with pH for aggre-

commonly including

compounds They

in combination exhibit

gates. The types lightweight and are somewhat

most commonly resistant

used consist of calcium good strength but are not


and refractory produce

characteristics acid conditions not suitable

to acid attack, aluminate


values of less than 4.0. operating temperatures

Since most fuel sulfur contents below

far more severe than this, calcium

liners are generally

the acid dew points of the gases. There are prod-



and Chemical





ucts on the market, as a refractory Some of them purposes (I) flue? acidic realistic to the will

however, for

suitable for wider in other

pH ranges which could be applied shell alone. For the of this handbook. factors should


steel liners and ducts or for the concrete sections however, lining: of acidic moisture acids condensing low temperatures, conditions the of dew point nitrogen, condensation the following

be discussed

of this chapter, How likely

be considered within the and have due

in the selection Bearing oxide

of a refractory

is the possibility with about contents within strong what

in mind that the acid dew point of a flue gas is dependent content, at relatively prediction the specifier will

upon its

at high temperatures should actually

weak acids condensing information nonuniform elements testing

chimney vanadium,

experiacid inArmed

ence. Since the scientific fluencing with


is difficult,

of sulfur, the data

and other to expect. fuel for

a fuel, empirical

data gained from of what the specific under and

previous experience a given inhow

or laboratory stallation (2) operating worries fairly with chimney

is generally

best indicator linking

experimental If the flue plant about constant. a coefficient

or operational is expected

to its dew point,

the designer can move to the next step. to be dry shutdowns point operating operator startups, between conditions, there doesthe have? In a smoothly are minimal remain the

much control

over the flue gas temperature experiencing traversing Typical the few acid dew

as flue

gas temperatures


differences between

gases entering

and exiting

are within

a small range (less than cycle,

lOoF) for a refractory is witnessed to penetrate if there are is mag-

of thermal


1 .O and 3.0 BtulftlinlhrPF. flue surfaces simply time hand,

Even during run down deeply frequent nified. instance capacity into

a shutdown

and startup

not much acid attack hence little

due to the fact that the acids which the walls, excursions of having even a nonacid

condense on the vertical effect surface. On the other

no pooling resistant

below the dew point, but it will

the likelihood

of acid attack

Not only with the lining experience condensation, if moisture is absorbed all refractories

more surface attack due to thegreater a reduction absorptive, lowering in its insulating This aband any liquid time to evaporate.

also suffer

and not given adequate are somewhat than the typical further

is because virtually present within acteristics dense. expected, sideration between (3) will

sorbed tends to be more conductive the material then cool the surface that


aggregate filler charare moisture to conand conmembrane refractory

itself. The resultant if frequent

of the insulating

and cause more below

It is recommended the lining should For


the dew point

should be constructed

of an acid resistant material of the previously main described for

be given to the addition dry stack,

the lining and the outer shell. a completely the considerations a refractory insulating value and crack control. in which It is desirable to provide lining is to be

linings are generally a reasonably

stiff outer shell for installations

used. This will limit the amount of flexural cracking induced into the lining by movements of the outer shell. It is also desirable to use reinforcing mesh or engineered anchorage devices to limit will crack width so that the insulating sections. charactermay be istics of the lining not be diminished by local cool spots which

present at severely cracked or missing refractory






Liners (See Figure 48-8) it is important concrete for to note that a have of

Without few specifiers simply

going into great detail on this subject, of chimneys unlined gases. They thickness surface which could independent between of the reinforced called

be subject to wet gas conditions, an additional thickness, amount

specified flue interior

liners as a means of steel and the intended reaction Valley However, to be

conveying exposed sacrificial, of a few portedly who

have generally liner.

plain concrete

the innermost

layer of reinforcing

The additional

has been observed to be attacked inches whereupon formed the by-products layer. a passive resistance

and degraded The

by the acid to a depth have reof research on Authority, since the that indeproin chimney

of such chemical

largest amount experience. similar

this subject practice pendent tection.

has been performed

by engineers of the Tennessee accepted, it is prudently

have had the concrete

best sources of operational liners be treated in a manner

has not been widely to wind

recommended to a concrete


loads but still

in need of temperature but most often the initial 400

and corrosion

Last in the discussion their selection, is economy. height sion for a medium Refractory pated maintenance cies in gunite, penditures. expected FRP, From

of liner types, Considering chimney brick,

the deciding


cost alone,

the cost progresas follows: of anticirepair initial exand

lining about

ft. tall is likely

(cast or gunited),

steel and FRP. With is altered

the inclusion major

costs, the progression and coated standpoint costs, the of

since we have seen deficienconsidering effective

steel liners that economy brick they

have required alone, liners offer


independent properly,

the best solution. service for

When designed decades without

and constructed significant

can provide


SPECIFIC Having difficult should annulus effect

DESIGN keynoted

RECOMMENDATIONS-BRICK the term proper than

LINER as pertaining itself. While buckstays, to brick

construction the masonry

liners, we must result


far more

it is not too breechings, appurte-

to specify pressurization


or seismic design criteria such things and many as bands, other

for a given locale which can have a great

in a safe structure, systems, upon.


on the service life of a liner.

In this section,

some of the major

nances shall be elaborated Banding System As anyone exhibit wall. temperatures, perienced and tensile the entire who

has inspected thermal material

a brick gradient


can attest,


all liners of the

cracks after being in service. This is to be expected a substantial exists through the differential such as brick,

since, under operating the thickness when ex-

As a result of this condition, by a nonductile stresses on the extreme height of the liner would

rates of expansion,

place high internal compressive reach a point at which like the

fibers of the wall which can only be relieved ostensibly be broken up into segments much

by crack formation.

Since these cracks could



and Chemical





staves of a barrel, to provide to control point, Consider Suppose stability the

a system of regularly to the structure. of cracking we look that

spaced steel bands is generally aim of the banding mechanism about the perimeter

installed system is

A secondary at the actual


of the liner. At this of this concept. diameter of 20ft. equal

it is important a temperature the

a brick liner having a 12 in. thick wall and an internal gradient multiplied for the brick. The upon steel of 15OF exists between expand interior face of the liner would by the temperature Assuming band,

the hot and cool face. toward a limit


to its circumference cient of expansion mately fraction would crack tight have

at that point and the coeffiapproxia