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About the novel Gullivers Travels recounts the adventures of an Englishman, Lemuel Gulliver, who trained as a surgeon but

took to the seas when his business failed. In an unemotional first-person narrative that rarely shows any signs of self-reflection or deep emotional response, Gulliver narrates the adventures that befall him on his travels. Gullivers adventure in Lilliput begins when he wakes after his shipwreck to find himself bound by innumerable tiny threads and addressed by tiny captors who are in awe of him but fiercely protective of their kingdom. They are not afraid to use violence against Gulliver, though their arrows are little more than pinpricks. But overall, they are hospitable, risking famine in their land by feeding Gulliver, who consumes more food than a thousand Lilliputians combined could. Gulliver is taken into the capital city by a vast wagon the Lilliputians have specially built. He is presented to the emperor, who is entertained by Gulliver, just as Gulliver is flattered by the attention of royalty. Eventually Gulliver becomes a national resource, used by the army in its war against the people of Blefuscu, whom the Lilliputians hate for doctrinal differences concerning the proper way to crack eggs. But things change when Gulliver is convicted of treason for putting out a fire in the royal palace with his urine and is condemned to be shot in the eyes and starved to death. Gulliver escapes to Blefuscu, where he is able to repair a boat he finds and set sail for England. After staying in England with his wife and family for two months, Gulliver undertakes his next sea voyage, which takes him to a land of giants called Brobdingnag. Here, a field worker discovers him. The farmer initially treats him as little more than an animal, keeping him for amusement and eventually sells him to the queen, who looks upon him as a diversion and is entertained by his musical talents. Social life is easy for Gulliver after his discovery by the court, but not particularly enjoyable. Gulliver is often repulsed by the physicality of the Brobdingnagians, whose ordinary flaws are many times magnified by their huge size. He is generally startled by the ignorance of the people hereeven the king knows nothing about politics. More unsettling findings in Brobdingnag come in the form of various animals of the realm that endanger his life. Even Brobdingnagian insects leave slimy trails on his food that make eating difficult. On a trip to the frontier, accompanying the royal couple, Gulliver leaves Brobdingnag when his cage is plucked up by an eagle and dropped into the sea. Next, Gulliver sets sail again and, after an attack by pirates, ends up in Laputa, where a floating island inhabited by theoreticians and academics oppresses the land below, called Balnibarbi. The scientific research undertaken in Laputa and in Balnibarbi seems totally inane and impractical, and its residents too appear wholly out of touch with reality. Taking a short side trip to Glubbdubdrib, Gulliver is able to witness the conjuring up of figures from history, such as Julius Caesar and other military leaders, whom he finds much less impressive than in books. After visiting the Luggnaggians and the Struldbrugs, the latter of which are senile immortals who prove that age does not bring wisdom, he is able to sail to Japan and from there back to England. Finally, on his fourth journey, Gulliver sets out as captain of a ship, but after the mutiny of his crew and a long confinement in his cabin, he arrives in an unknown land. This land is populated by Houyhnhnms, rational-thinking horses who rule, and by Yahoos, brutish humanlike creatures who serve the Houyhnhnms. Gulliver sets about learning their language, and when he can speak he narrates his voyages to them and explains the constitution of England. He is treated with great courtesy and kindness by the horses and is enlightened by his many conversations with them and by his exposure to their noble culture. He wants to stay with the Houyhnhnms, but his bared body reveals to the horses that he is very much like a Yahoo, and he is banished. Gulliver is grief-stricken but agrees to leave. He fashions a

canoe and makes his way to a nearby island, where he is picked up by a Portuguese ship captain who treats him well, though Gulliver cannot help now seeing the captainand all humansas shamefully Yahoolike. Gulliver then concludes his narrative with a claim that the lands he has visited belong by rights to England, as her colonies, even though he questions the whole idea of colonialism.

Summary

Part 1 A Voyage to Lilliput


Shipwrecked due to a storm, Gulliver reached Lilliput, where people were no more than six inches high, where sheep, horses, and "large" fowl fit in the palm of Gulliver's hand. Dubbed by the Lilliputians as the "Man-Mountain," Gulliver's presence posed such gigantic problems that the government had to enact special legislation to deal with such things as Gulliver's diet and the manner in which his excrement was to be handled. Throughout this book Swift juxtaposes Gulliver's physicality and bodily functions against the ultratidy, picturebook-tiny, form-obsessed Lilliputians. Many of the Lilliputians' political machinations represent inflamed incidents in the English politics of Swift's time.

Chapter 1
[The author gives some account of himself and family. His first inducements to travel. He is shipwrecked, and swims for his life. Gets safe on shore in the country of Lilliput; is made a prisoner, and carried up the country.] The novel begins with Lemuel Gulliver recounting the story of his life, beginning with his family history. Lemuel Gulliver was born to a family in Nottinghamshire, the third of five sons. Although he studied at Cambridge as a teenager, his family was too poor to keep him there, so he was sent to London to be an apprentice under a surgeon named James Bates. Gullivers father now and then sent him small sums of money, which he used for learning mathematics and navigation with the hope of travelling. When his apprenticeship with Mr. Bates ended, he went to study physics at Leyden for two years and seven months, knowing it would be useful in long voyages. Soon after he returned from Leyden, Gulliver, on a recommendation from Mr. Bates became a surgeon aboard a ship called the Swallow for three years and travelled to various parts of the world. Afterward, he settled in London, working as a doctor. He got married to a woman named Mary Burton. His business began to fail when his patron, Mr Bates died, so he decided to go to sea again and travelled for six years. The last of these voyages did not prove very fortunate, and Gulliver grew tired of the sea, so he decided to settle down with his wife and family. However, his practice did not match his expectations, and he decided to accept one last job on a ship called the Antelope. In the East Indies, the Antelope encountered a violent storm in which twelve crewmen died of excessive hard and a poor diet; the rest were in a very weak condition. On the 5th of November, which was the beginning of summer in those parts, the seamen spied a rock within half a cable's length of the ship; but the wind was so strong, that the ship was driven directly upon it, and immediately split. Six of the crewmembers, including Gulliver, boarded a small rowboat to escape. The seamen rowed till they were able to work no longer, as they were already tired with the labour they had put in while on the ship. They therefore trusted themselves to the mercy of the waves. Shortly, the rowboat capsized due to a sudden storm from the north and Gulliver lost track of his companions. They were never seen again. Gulliver, however, swam safely to the shore. Gulliver walked nearly half a mile inland but, being weakened by his struggle against the storm, could not discover any sign of houses or inhabitants. Tired, he lay down on the grass to rest, and soon fell asleep. When he woke up, he found that his arms, legs, and long hair had been tied to the ground with pieces of thread. He could only look up, and the bright sun hurt his eyes, preventing him from seeing anything. He felt something move across his leg and over his chest. He looked down and saw, to his surprise, a six-inch-tall human carrying a bow and arrow. At least forty more little people climbed onto his body. He was surprised and shouted loudly, frightening the little people away. They returned, however, and one of the little men who ventured so far as to get a full sight of Gullivers face, cried out, Hekinah Degul in admiration. The others also repeated the same words several times. Gulliver struggled to get loose and finally succeeded in breaking the strings binding his left arm. He loosened the ropes tying his hair so he could turn to the left. In response, with a shrill cry TOLGO PHONAC the little people fired a volley of arrows into his hand and violently attacked his body and face. When this shower of arrows was over, Gulliver was left groaning in grief and pain. He once again tried to loosen his bonds and the little men attacked him with arrows and spears. He decided that the safest thing to do was to lie still until nightfall. The noise increased as the little people build a stage next to Gulliver about a foot and a half off the ground. One of them, a person who from his appearance Gulliver decided was a person of

quality, climbed onto it and makes a speech in a language that Gulliver did not understand. But before he began his oration, the man cried out three times, LANGRO DEHUL SAN; whereupon, immediately, about fifty of the inhabitants came and cut the strings that fastened the left side of Gullivers head, thus giving him the freedom of turning to the right, and of observing the person and who spoke. Gulliver was starving and he indicated that he was hungry by putting his finger frequently to his mouth, and the little people brought him baskets of meat. He devoured it all and then then made another sign, to show that he was thirsty, so they brought him two large barrels of wine. Seeing him eat and drink such large quantities, they shouted for joy, and danced upon his breast, shouting, HEKINAH DEGUL. Gulliver was tempted to pick up forty or fifty of the little people and throw them against the ground, but he decided that he had made them a promise of goodwill and was grateful for their hospitality. He was also struck by their bravery, since they had climbed onto his body despite his great size. An official climbed onto Gullivers body and informed him that he was to be carried to the capital city. Gulliver wanted to walk, but they told him that that would not be permitted. Instead, they brought a frame of wood raised three inches off the ground and carried by twenty-two wheels. Nine hundred men pulled this cart about half a mile to the city. Gullivers left leg was then padlocked to a large temple, giving him only enough freedom to walk around the building in a semicircle and lie down inside the temple. Textual Questions 1. Why did Gulliver leave school when he was 17? What did he do? Born in middle class family --father had a small estate in Nottinghamshire; third of five sons; at fourteen joined Emanuel College in Cambridge Had to leave college at 17 father unable to maintain him at Cambridge -- joined Mr. James Bates, an eminent surgeon in London, as apprentice wanted to go to sea --learnt navigation, mathematics and physic joined as surgeon on the Swallow, under Captain Abraham Pannel, --worked for three and a half years, travelling to the Levant, and some other parts. On return wanted to settle in London; took part of a small house in the Old Jewry married Mrs. Mary Burton, second daughter to Mr. Edmund Burton, hosier, in Newgate-street, with whom I received four hundred pounds as dowry. 2. How does the Antelope get wrecked? violent storm while passing from the South Seas to the East Indies took them to the north-west of Van Diemen's Land. reached latitude of 30 degrees 2 minutes south. on 5th of November, --spotted land-- a rock within half a cable's length of the ship; strong wind; driven upon ship splits. 3. What happens to Gulliver's companions on the Antelope? Can you find any lines that express Gulliver's emotions about his fellow sailors? If so, write them down. Most of the sailors died Twelve of crew died of excessive hard work and poor food; the rest were in a very weak condition. When ship split after hitting the rock six of the crew, including Gulliver, left the ship in a rowboat

They rowed, for about three leaguestoo tired to row any longer Carried by waves Gulliver survived others drowned Gulliver not bothered -- What became of my companions in the boat, as well as of those who escaped on the rock, or were left in the vessel, I cannot tell; but conclude they were all lost.

4. Through Gullivers Travels Swift comments on Englands growing power. Justify Gullivers Travels written when England, despite its small size, rising in power on the basis of its formidable fleet. growing military and economic power brings England into contact with new animals, plants, places, and things, and most significantly previously unknown people with radically different modes of existence. small stature of the Lilliputians a physical incarnation of exactly these kinds of cultural differences. 5. How does Gulliver use the Lilliputians to comment on society? physical size and cultural differences -- radical difference in power between Gulliver and the Lilliputian nation. Gullivers physical size and strength (giant as compared to six inch tall Lilliputians) give him obligations and capabilities far beyond those of the people who keep him prisoner; Swift reveals the importance of might in a society guided by right. Lilliputians pitifully small in Gullivers eyes, but are unwilling to see themselves that way Gulliver fears the Lilliputians but has condescending attitude --Englands position with respect to the people it was in the process of colonizing. Comments on humanitys position at the centre of the universe by demonstrating that size, power, and significance are all relative think of themselves as normal and of Gulliver as a freakish giant Gulliver may himself be the Lilliputian to some other nations Englishman. 6. What information do you get about Gullivers character from this chapter? Gulliver belongs to middle class of his time born in Nottinghamshire -- attended Emmanuel College, a respected, but not dazzling, college. The neighbourhoods that Gulliver lived in Old Jury, Fetter Lane, and Wapping are all lower-middle-class sections. Gulliver is "gullible." He believes what he is told; honest man, and he expects others to be honest. Gulliver does not always understand the meaning of what he sees-- gradually discovers, moving from one exact detail to another, that he is a prisoner of men six inches tall. Indifferent; not given to forming attachments with people; has travelled with crew; but dismisses their deaths unconcernedly in two sentences.

7. Bring out the contrast between the Lilliputians and Gulliver. Gulliver manages to break his bonds, and as he does so, one of the Lilliputians shouts an order and the rest shoot their arrows at Gulliver. In a moment, the tiny ones subdue the giant.

work crew arrives and starts building a stage; a person who's obviously a noble arrives and makes Gulliver a long, highly oratorical speech. Gulliver doesn't understand a word, and responds to this show by putting his finger on his mouth and grunting to indicate that he's hungry; contrast between the tiny, ceremonial Lilliputian and the giant Gulliver impressed by Lilliputians as they do sophisticated calculations to arrive at the exact amount of wood they will need for Gulliver's cart; devise a pulley system to raise Gulliver from the ground to the cart; Lilliputians don't hold Gulliver in such high regard; housed in a polluted temple; "creeps" inside his lodging.

Chapter 2
[The emperor of Lilliput, attended by several of the nobility, comes to see the author in his confinement. The emperor's person and habit described. Learned men appointed to teach the author their language. He gains favour by his mild disposition. His pockets are searched, and his sword and pistols taken from him.] Once Gulliver was chained to the building, he was finally allowed to stand up and view the entire countryside, which he discovered was beautiful and rustic. The countryside appeared like a garden, and the enclosed fields, which were generally forty feet square, resembled so many beds of flowers. These fields were intermingled with woods of half a stang, (A stang is a pole or perch; sixteen feet and a half). The tallest trees were seven feet tall, and the whole area looked to him like a theatre set. Gullivers process of relieving himself is described painstakingly. He writes that he describes this process in order to establish his cleanliness, which has been called into question by his critics. Initially he walked inside the building as far as his chain permitted to relieve himself. After the first time, he ensured he relieved himself in open air, and two servants carried away his excrement in wheelbarrows. The emperor came on horseback from his tower to visit Gulliver. He ordered his servants to give Gulliver food and drink. Though the emperor was dressed plainly, and carried a sword to defend himself, he was awe-inspiring being taller by almost the breadth of a nail than any of his court. His features were strong and masculine, with an Austrian lip and arched nose, his complexion olive, his countenance erect, his body and limbs well proportioned, all his motions graceful, and his bearing majestic. He was twenty-eight years and three quarters old, and he had ruled for about seven years. He and Gulliver conversed, though they could not understand each other. Gulliver tried to speak every language he knew, but nothing worked. There were several of his priests and lawyers present, who were commanded to try and talk to Gulliver; and he spoke to them in as many languages as he knew but all to no purpose. After two hours, Gulliver was left with a strong guard to protect him from the crowds who thronged about him, coming as close as they dared; and some of them, disobeying orders, even shot arrows at Gulliver, as he sat on the ground by the door of his house. In fact, one of them very narrowly missed his left eye. As a punishment, colonel ordered six of the ringleaders be seized and tied up and placed them in Gullivers hand. Gulliver put five of them into his pocket and pretended that he was going to eat the sixth, but then cut loose his ropes and set him free. He did the same with the other five, which pleased the court. After two weeks, a bed was made for Gulliver. It consisted of six hundred small beds sewn together. As the news of his arrival spread throughout the kingdom, curious people from the villages come to see him. As a result, the king directed that those who had already seen Gulliver should return home. No one was allowed to come within fifty yards of his house, without license from the court; as a result the government earned a sizeable amount of money in fees. Meanwhile, the government tried to decide what to do with him. Frequent councils brought up various concerns: that he would break loose, for instance, or that he would eat enough to cause a famine. Some suggested that they starve him or shoot him in the face to kill him, but others argued that doing so would leave them with a giant corpse and a large health risk. Officers who witnessed Gullivers lenient treatment of the six offending soldiers reported to the council, and the emperor and his court decided to respond with kindness. They arranged for the delivery of large amounts of food to Gulliver every morning which were to be paid for from His Majestys treasury. Six hundred domestics were assigned to wait on him, and tailors were hired to make him clothing, and teachers appointed to instruct him in their language.

Every morning Gulliver asked the emperor to set him free, but the emperor refused, saying that Gulliver must be patient. The emperor insisted that Gulliver swear a peace with him and his kingdom. He promised that Gulliver should be treated with all kindness. The emperor also ordered him to be searched to ensure that he did not have any weapons. Gulliver agreed to this search, and the Lilliputians took an inventory of his possessions. In the process, all of his weapons were taken away. Ironically, the two items that escape the view of the Lilliputians are his spectacles and his telescope. These have symbolic significance; they enable Gulliver to see more clearly up close and far away. Textual Questions 1. What impression do you form of the country of Lilliput and the people? country inhabited by small people six inches countryside looks like continued garden, and enclosed fields, -- forty feet square, resembled beds of flowers. fields intermingled with woods -- tallest trees about seven feet high town looked like the painted scene of a city in a theatre. people braveface the Man Mountain; inquisitive leave towns and villages to come and look at Gulliver 2. Describe the appearance of the Emperor of Lilliput. past his prime; being twenty-eight years and three quarters old Awe-inspiring; taller by the breadth of a nail than his courtiers. His voice was shrill, but very clear and articulate; and I could distinctly hear it when I stood up. strong and masculine features, an Austrian lip and arched nose, olive complexion, his erect posture, his body and limbs well proportioned, graceful, and his bearing majestic. dress plain and simple; fashion of it between the Asiatic and the European on his head wore a light helmet of gold, adorned with jewels, and a plume on the crest. Carried a sword almost three inches long; the hilt and scabbard were gold enriched with diamonds. 3. What impression do you form of the emperor of Lilliput at this point? awe-inspiring; taller by the breadth of a nail than his courtiers. clear and articulate in his speech brave rides up to Gulliver; horse bucks; able to control rules with advice of his council uses appearance of Gulliver to earn money not far-sighted orders villagers to get food for Gulliver who eats a lot; later causes famine 4. Six of "the rabble" are turned over to Gulliver so that he can punish them. What have they done wrong? What does Gulliver do to frighten these six ringleaders? some of the Lilliputians disobeyed orders of emperor for Gullivers safety; shot arrows at Gulliver; one narrowly missed his left eye. as punishment, colonel ordered six of the ringleaders be seized and tied up and placed them in Gullivers hand.

Gulliver put five of them in pocket; pretended that he was going to eat sixth, but then cut loose his ropes and set him free. did the same with the other five pleased the court.

5. Why does the Emperor have to issue a proclamation against his people coming to see Gulliver? news of Gullivers arrival spread through kingdom, large numbers of Lilliputians came to see him villages were almost emptied; resulted in great neglect of agriculture and household affairs emperor issued several proclamations and orders of state, against this inconvenience. directed those who had already seen him should return home, and not come to his house, without license from the court as a result the secretaries of state got considerable fees. 6. Why does Gulliver allow the Lilliputians to control him? Gulliver much larger than Lilliputians; giant-like does not hurt/ harm them despite being attacked attacked by six soldiers; brought to him; scares them but lets them go probably felt indebted to them after they give him food and drink he may be amazed at the fearlessness and bravado of the Lilliputians; filled with admiration 7. Bring out the significance of the small size of the Lilliputians as compared to Gullivers large size. difference in size between Gulliver and the Lilliputians emphasizes the importance of physical power Gulliver earns the Lilliputians trust despite threats, Gulliver could crush the Lilliputians by simply walking carelessly. humour comes from the Lilliputians view of the situation: despite the evidence before their eyes, they never realize their own insignificance. keep Gulliver tied up, believing they can control him; in truth he could destroy them effortlessly. 8. What do you learn about Gulliver from his interaction with the Lilliputians? gentle does not attack Lilliputians even though they shoot arrows at him; attack him with spears knows many languages; tries to talk to Lilliputians; learns their language Gulliver sympathetic in description of Lilliputians does not ridicule their size; nor make fun of pretentious behaviour as they try to keep him captive sense of humour catches six soldiers who attacked and pretends to eat themthen sets them free 9. What dilemma does the Lilliputian government have in regard to Gulliver? though Gulliver is docile; the government has its hands full with him. council members fear his diet could cause a famine; if killed stench of carcass might pollute city, even bring on the plague good reports on Gulliver's behaviour convince the emperor not to harm him

Gulliver gets a suit of clothes tailored in high Lilliputian style, language lessons, and sufficient food even though it will require special additions to the national treasury.

Chapter 3
[The author diverts the emperor, and his nobility of both sexes, in a very uncommon manner. The diversions of the court of Lilliput described. The author has his liberty granted him upon certain conditions.] Gullivers gentleness and good behaviour impressed the emperor and his court, and indeed upon the army and people in general and earned their trust so he began to hope that he would be set free, as he is getting along well with the Lilliputians. He made a good progress in understanding and speaking the language. The emperor decided to entertain him with shows, including a performance by Rope-Dancers, who were Lilliputians seeking employment in the government. For the performance, which doubled as a sort of competitive entrance examination, the candidates danced on ropesslender threads suspended two feet above the ground. Whenever a vacancy occurred, either by death or disgrace, candidates petitioned the emperor to entertain him with a dance, and whoever jumped the highest earned the office. How long and how skillfully a candidate could dance upon a rope determined his tenure in office. The current ministers continued this practice as well, in order to show that they had not lost their skill. Of the ministers, two were particularly adept: Flimnap, the treasurer and Gulliver's friend, Reldresal, principal secretary for private affairs. Gulliver was amazed to learn that these diversions were often attended with fatal accidents. He, himself, saw two or three candidates break a limb. This danger was especially true of the ministers, for, in trying to excel themselves and their fellows, they strained so far that they at times received a fall. In fact, a year or two ago, Flimnap was saved from breaking his neck, as one of the king's cushions, that accidentally lay on the ground, weakened the force of his fall. As another diversion, the emperor laid three silken threads of different colours on a table. He then held out a stick, and candidates were asked to leap over it or creep under it, a feat for which they were then rewarded with one of the ribbons. The horses of the army, and those of the royal stables, were daily led before Gulliver, and they gradually lost their fear of him. The riders would make the horses leap them over his hand, as he held it on the ground; and one of the emperor's huntsmen, riding a large horse, jumped over Gullivers foot, shoe and all; which was indeed an extraordinary leap. Gulliver built a platform from sticks and his handkerchief and invited horsemen to exercise upon it. The emperor greatly enjoyed watching this new entertainment. The emperor was so delighted, that he ordered this entertainment to be repeated several days, and once he desired to be lifted up and give the word of command. The empress also wanted to climb up and it was with great difficulty that Gulliver persuaded her to let him hold her in her close chair within two yards of the stage, when she was able to take a full view of the whole performance. This entertainment had to be abandoned when a horse stepped through the handkerchief. Though Gulliver could save both horse and rider, he decided that it was too dangerous for them to keep riding on the cloth. About two or three days before Gulliver was set free some Lilliputians discovered Gullivers hat, which had been washed ashore. He asked them to bring it back. Soon after, the emperor asked Gulliver to pose like a colossus, or giant statue, so that his troops might march under Gulliver. Three thousand foot, and a thousand horse-riders did so, the foot soldiers marching twenty-four abreast, and the horse-riders sixteen, with drums beating, colours flying, and pikes advanced. Gullivers petitions for freedom were finally answered. Gulliver had to swear to obey the articles put forth, which included stipulations that he must assist the Lilliputians in times of

war, survey the land around them, help with construction, and deliver urgent messages. Gulliver agreed and his chains were removed. Textual Questions 1. Describe the Lilliputian method of recruiting officials to high posts. officials to high posts and high favour at court recruited by entertaining emperor; not always of noble birth, or liberal education; skilled rope-dancers when great office fell vacant, either by death or disgrace five or six candidates petition emperor to entertain his majesty and the court with rope-dance dancers, performed upon a slender white thread, about two feet long, and twelve inches from the ground often ministers commanded to show skill, to convince the emperor not lost their faculty. diversions attended with fatal accidents or candidates breaking a limb another diversion where emperor lays on the table three fine silken threads of six inches long; one blue, the other red, and the third green emperor holds stick in his hands, both ends parallel to the horizon, while the candidates either leap over the stick or creep under it one who performs with most agility is rewarded with the blue-coloured silk; the red is given to the next, and the green to the third, great persons at court are adorned with these 2. How does Swift satirise the British government through the Lilliputians? procedure for choosing Lilliputian government officials arbitrary and ridiculous --skill at rope-dancing officials t literally forced to jump through hoops in order to qualify for their positions. Swift intends for us to understand this episode as a satire of Englands system of political appointments infers that Englands system is similarly arbitrary. Swift compares it to way people in high places get advancement; implies people are not always promoted or rewarded because for skills needed for the job, but because they have done something to make people in power like them. feels trying to get ahead as humiliating and fraught with danger as tightrope dancing. receiving royal honours: so much grovelling, "leaping and creeping," for a little piece of blue, red, or yellow thread. 3. How do the Lilliputians show that they are not as afraid of Gulliver as they were at first? emperor and people impressed by Gullivers gentleness and good behaviour danced on his head played hide and seek in his hair. horses jumped over his arm; jumped over his foot army marched between his legs as he stood like a Colossus 4. How does Gulliver make a playing field for the Emperor's cavalry? Gulliver ordered several sticks two feet high and the thickness of an ordinary cane taking nine sticks fixed them firmly in the ground in quadrangle, two and a half feet square;

fastened handkerchief to the nine erect sticks; extended it on all sides; tight as the top of a drum; took four other sticks, and tied them parallel at each corner, about two feet from the ground four parallel sticks, rising about five inches higher than the handkerchief, served as ledges on each side twenty-four best horses exercise upon it; Gulliver placed them up, one by one officers divided into two parties, performed mock skirmishes, discharged blunt arrows, drew their swords, fled and pursued, attacked and retired fiery horse pawing with his hoof, struck a hole in handkerchief; overthrew his rider and himself; horse strained left shoulder; rider unhurt given up 5. Gulliver says that he swore to obey the Lilliputians' rules for his freedom, "even though some of the rules were not as honourable as I would have wished." Pick the rule you think Gulliver is referring to and explain why Gulliver might call it dishonourable. (Choose any one and elaborate) The man-mountain shall not depart from our dominions, without our license under our great seal has limited freedom; free within the confines of Lilliput; cannot leave till Lilliputians give him freedom. If an express requires extraordinary despatch, the man-mountain shall be obliged to carry, in his pocket, the messenger and horse a six days journey, once in every moon, and return the said messenger back (if so required) safe to our imperial presence. treated as a messenger; required to perform such service at emperors behest) 6. Gulliver agrees to the conditions of the instrument, whereupon my chains were immediately unlocked, and I was at full liberty. Was he at full liberty? Comment. conditions for Gulliver's freedom include Gulliver must perform many tasks for the kingdom, ranging from messenger to surveyor to raiser of stones, and "do his utmost to destroy" the Blefuscudian fleet. Otherwise (!), Gulliver is at "full liberty." Gulliver reacts by prostrating himself before the emperor

Chapter 4
[Mildendo, the metropolis of Lilliput, described, together with the emperor's palace. A conversation between the author and a principal secretary, concerning the affairs of that empire. The author's offers to serve the emperor in his wars.] After regaining his freedom, Gulliver went to Mildendo, the capital city of the Lilliputians. The residents were told to stay indoors, and they all sat on their roofs and in their garret windows to see him. The metropolis was 500 feet square with a wall surrounding it. The wall was two and a half feet high, and at least eleven inches broad, so that a coach and horses may be driven very safely round it; and it was flanked with strong towers at ten feet distance. The city was an exact square, each side of the wall being five hundred feet long. The two great streets, which ran across and divided it into four quarters, were five feet wide. The lanes and alleys were from twelve to eighteen inches. The town could hold 500,000 people: the houses are from three to five stories: the shops and markets well provided. The emperor wanted Gulliver to see the magnificence of his palace, which was at the centre of the city where the two great streets met. It was enclosed by a two feet high wall, and was twenty feet away from the buildings. The outward court was a square of forty feet, and included two other courts: in the inmost were the royal apartments, which Gulliver could not see for the great gates, from one square into another, were only eighteen inches high, and seven inches wide. As the buildings of the outer court were at least five feet high, it was impossible for Gulliver to stride over them without causing damage. So, Gulliver cut down trees to make himself a stool, which he carried around with him so that he could sit down and see things from a shorter distance than a standing position allowed. About two weeks after Gulliver obtained his liberty, a government official, Reldresal, came to see him. He told Gulliver that two forces, one rebel group and one foreign empire, threatened the kingdom. The rebel group existed because for about seventy moons the kingdom had been divided into two factions, called Tramecksan and Slamecksan. The people in the two factions were distinguished by the heights of their heels. The animosities between the two parties ran so high, that they would neither eat, nor drink, nor talk with each other. Reldresal told Gulliver that though high heels were most agreeable to their ancient constitution, the current emperor had chosen to employ primarily the low-heeled Slamecksan in his administration. He added that the emperor himself had lower heels than all of his officials but that his heir had one heel higher than the other, which gave him a hobble in his gait. At the same time, the Lilliputians feared an invasion from the Island of Blefuscu, which Reldresal called the Other Great Empire of the Universe. He added that the philosophers of Lilliput did not believe Gullivers claim that there were other countries in the world inhabited by other people of his size, preferring to think that Gulliver had dropped from the moon or a star. Reldresal described the history of the two nations. The conflict between them, he told Gulliver, began years ago, when the emperors grandfather, then in command of the country, happened to cut one of his fingers. His father commanded all Lilliputians to break their eggs on the small end first. He made this decision after breaking an egg in the old way, large end first, and cutting his finger. The people resented the law, and six rebellions were started in protest. The monarchs of Blefuscu fuelled these rebellions, and when they were over the rebels fled to that country to seek refuge. Eleven thousand people chose death rather than submit to the law. Many books were written on the controversy, but books written by the BigEndians were banned in Lilliput. The government of Blefuscu accused the Lilliputians of disobeying their religious doctrine, the Brundrecral, by breaking their eggs at the small end.

The Lilliputians argued that the doctrine read, That all true believers shall break their eggs at the convenient end, which could be interpreted as the small end. Reldresal continued that the exiles gained support in Blefuscu to launch a war against Lilliput and were aided by rebel forces inside Lilliput. A war had been raging between the two nations ever since. Reldresal requested Gulliver's aid in the perpetual battle. Gulliver complied with these words: "I desired the Secretary to present my humble duty to the Emperor, and to let him know, that I thought it would not become me, who was a foreigner, to interfere with parties; but I was ready, with the hazard of my life, to defend his person and state against all invaders" 1. Briefly describe the Lilliputian capital, Mildendo. Mildendo, the metropolis city an exact square surrounded by wall, each side being five hundred feet long; wall two feet and a half high; at least eleven inches broad, so that a coach and horses may be driven very safely round it; flanked with strong towers at ten feet distance two principal streets five feet wide; ran across city; divided it into four quarters; lanes and alleys from twelve to eighteen inches town capable of holding five hundred thousand souls; the houses three to five stories; the shops and markets well provided. 2. Describe the palace of the emperor of Lilliput? emperor's magnificent palace in the centre of the city where the two great streets met; twenty feet distant from the buildings enclosed by a wall of two feet high; wide space between wall and palace outward court square of forty feet-- included two other courts: in the inmost were royal apartments; most splendid apartments that can be imagined buildings of outer court were at least five feet high-- the walls were strongly built of hewn stone, and four inches thick 3. Why did Reldresal come unaccompanied to see Gulliver? Reldresal came to talk to Gulliver discussed political situationthe political parties; Blefuscu came alone; did not want anyone to overhear plans 4. Name the two political parties in Lilliput. What is the main difference between them? How can Reldresal tell that the heir to the throne isn't sure which party he belongs to? for about seventy moons past two struggling parties; TRAMECKSAN and SLAMECKSANget names from the high and low heels of their shoes high heels -- ancient constitution present emperor makes use only of low heels in the administration of the government, and all offices animosity between these two parties very high; neither eat, nor drink, nor talk with each other the TRAMECKSAN, or high heels, larger in number; but the power wholly in the hands of SLAMECKSAN. the heir to the crown cannot make up his mind; one of his heels is higher than the other, which gives him a hobble in his gait.

5. Lilliput and Blefuscu, the "two great empires of the universe," have been at war for 36 moons? How did the 36 Moon War start? though the primitive way of breaking eggs was upon the larger end; but present emperors grandfather, happened to cut one of his fingers while he was breaking an egg the emperor his father published an edict, commanding all his subjects to break the smaller end of their eggs. result of order there have been six rebellions; one emperor lost his life, and another his crown trouble constantly fomented by the monarchs of Blefuscu; exiles found refuge in Blefuscu eleven thousand persons have suffered death, rather than break their eggs at the smaller end; many hundred large volumes have been published upon this controversy: but the books of the Big-endians have been long forbidden, and the whole party rendered incapable by law of holding employments Blefuscans accused Lilliputians of creating a schism in religion-- offended a fundamental doctrine of our great prophet Lustrog but the words are these: 'that all true believers break their eggs at the convenient end.' a bloody war has been carried on between the two empires for six-and-thirty moons, with various success 6. What impression do you form of the Lilliputians after reading of their political views? In this chapter Lilliputians seem as mentally small as they are physically diminutive Like any big rivals Lilliput and its equally tiny neighbour Blefuscu conceitedly think that they are the only two "great empires" in the universe. Even the presence of the gigantic Gulliver can't convince them of their relative insignificance Reldresal informs Gulliver, Lilliputian philosophers have logically proved that Gulliver must have dropped from outer space, because there couldn't be food enough for him on earth. their histories, "which go back six thousand moons, make no mention of other empires than Lilliput and Blefuscu" narrow view of both philosophers and historians so bound by their prejudices that they can't see things clearly in their proper proportion. the warring parties are the High-Heels and the Low-Heels; the Lilliputian emperor favours the Low-Heels while the Lilliputian heir to the throne wears one high heel and one lowa Blefuscu and Lilliput are at war because of religious differences, represented by the manner in which eggs are broken before being eaten; earlier everyone broke the larger end of the egg. Political crisis and war with neighbour over non-issues

Chapter 5
[The author, by an extraordinary stratagem, prevents an invasion. A high title of honour is conferred upon him. Ambassadors arrive from the emperor of Blefuscu, and sue for peace. The empress's apartment on fire by an accident; the author instrumental in saving the rest of the palace.] The empire of Blefuscu was an island situated to the north-east of Lilliput, separated from it by a channel eight hundred yards wide. Gulliver kept himself hidden from the Blefuscans who had no information about me. He spied on the empire of Blefuscu and devised a plan for seizing the entire Blefuscudian fleet. He asked for cables and bars of iron, out of which he made hooks with cables attached. He then waded across the channel to Blefuscu and reached their ships at port. The Blefescudians were so frightened when they saw him that they leapt out of their ships and swam to the shore. Gulliver attached a hook to each ship and tied them together. The Blefuscu soldiers fired arrows at him, but he kept working, protecting his eyes by putting on the spectacles he kept in his coat pocket. He tried to pull the ships away, but they were anchored too tightly, so he cut them away with his pocketknife and pulled the ships back to Lilliput. In Lilliput, Gulliver was greeted as a hero and the Emperor confers upon him the highest title of honour, Nardac. Emboldened by this victory, the emperor asked him to go back to retrieve the other ships, intending to destroy Blefuscus military strength and make it a province in his empire, forcing the people to break the smaller end of their eggs. Gulliver dissuaded him from this action, which he believed to be unjust and the equivalent of enslaving the Blefescudians. Embittered and angry, the Emperor and several of his ministers turned staunchly against Gulliver and called for his destruction. In the words of Gulliver: "And from this time began an intrigue between his majesty and a junto of ministers, maliciously bent against me, which broke out in less than two months, and had like to have ended in my utter destruction. Of so little weight are the greatest services to princes, when put into the balance with a refusal to gratify their passions." Three weeks later, ambassadors arrived from Blefescu and offered a peace agreement, which the Emperor agreed to with conditions favourable to himself. Gulliver used his influence at court to help the Blefescudians with regard to the treaty, and the war ended with Blefuscus surrender. The Blefuscu delegates were privately told of Gullivers kindness toward the Lilliputians, and they asked him to visit their kingdom. He wished to do so, and the emperor reluctantly allowed it. Gulliver learnt that Flimnap, the Lord High Treasurer, and Bolgolam had represented to the Emperor Gulliver's dealings with the Blefescudian ambassadors as disloyalty. For the first time, Gulliver realised that the Lilliputian courts and ministers may not be perfect. As a Nardac, or person of high rank, Gulliver no longer had to perform all the duties laid down in his contract. He did, however, have the opportunity to help the Lilliputians when the empress room caught fire. One night, Gulliver was awakened by people milling around his door. Courtiers arrived and begged Gulliver to come immediately to the palace, where a fire had broken out in the empress's apartment due to negligence of one of her maids. He forgot his coat and, being unable to put the flames out with his clothing, he thought of a new plan: he urinated on the palace, putting out the fire entirely. He worried afterward that since the act of public urination was a crime in Lilliput he would be prosecuted. The Emperor promised Gulliver a pardon, which, however, did not arrive. Also, Gulliver heard that the Empress was so offended by his action that she moved into another part of the palace, ordering that the apartments on which Gulliver urinated must never be repaired.

Textual Questions 1. How does Gulliver spy on Blefuscu? intended invasion, Gulliver avoided appearing in the open; Blefuscudians did not know of him lay down behind a hillock spied on Blefuscu with his telescope. 2. How did Gulliver capture the Blefuscudian fleet? ordered great quantity of strongest cable and bars of iron; trebled cable to make it stronger, and twisted three iron bars together; bent these hooks; fixed fifty hooks to fifty cables waded and swam to Blefuscu enemy frightened when they saw him; leapt out of ships, and swam to shore; fastened a hook to prow of each ship; tied cords together; pulled Blefuscudians shot arrows; hit Gullivers hands and face; to save eyes wore spectacles ships held fast by their anchors; cut cables that fastened anchors easily pulled fifty of Blefuscudian naval ships 3. What does the Emperor of Lilliput want Gulliver to do for him? Why does Gulliver refuse to do so? wanted Gulliver to capture remaining Blefuscudian ships desired to reduce Blefuscu into a province of Lilliput; destroy the Big-endians; compel people to break smaller end of eggs he would be sole monarch of the whole world. Gullivers refusal sign he feels some responsibility toward all beings though small Blefuscudians had rights; including freedom from tyranny unusual size gave him power but did not wish to misuse. 4. How and why does the attitude of the Emperor change toward Gulliver? Lilliputs emperor desired Gulliver to capture remaining Blefuscudian ships; desired to reduce Blefuscu into a province of Lilliput; become sole monarch of the whole world. Gullivers refusal sign he feels some responsibility toward all beings; though small Blefuscudians had rights; including freedom from tyranny open bold declaration of Gulliver not liked by emperor decided never to forgive Gulliver. 5. What does the court of Lilliput think of Gulliver's meeting with the ambassadors to Blefuscu? six ambassadors from Blefuscu saw Gulliver as friend; visited him he entertained them; asked for permission to meet their emperor their master; Flimnap and Bolgolam saw this interaction as sign of estrangement from Lilliput; not Gullivers intention realised intrigue of courts and ministers. malice of enemies brought great misfortune at Lilliput court 6. How does the Empress react to Gulliver's putting out the Palace fire? What law had Gulliver broken?

one midnight Gulliver hears commotion at his door; the empress apartment on fire Lilliputians trying to put out fire; but water at some distance; buckets the size of large thimbles; violent flame; this did no good Gulliver could have stifled it with coat; but left at home; urinated on palace; fire wholly extinguished in three minutes broke rule of not urinating in public place empress offended by his action; moved into another part of the palace; ordered that apartments on which Gulliver urinated must never be repaired.

Chapter 6
[Of the inhabitants of Lilliput; their learning, laws, and customs; the manner of educating their children. The author's way of living in that country. His vindication of a great lady.] In this chapter provides the reader with information regarding Lilliputian culture, their customs and beliefs and the personal treatment that he receives from the Lilliputians. According to Gulliver everything in Lilliput their animals, trees, and plants was sized in proportion to the Lilliputians. Their eyesight was also adapted to their scale: Gulliver could not see as clearly close-up as they could, while they could not see as far as he could. The Lilliputians were well educated, but their writing system was odd to Gulliver, who joked that they wrote not left to right like the Europeans or top to bottom like the Chinese, but from one corner of the page to the other, like the ladies in England. The dead were buried with their heads pointing directly downward, because the Lilliputians believed that eventually the dead would rise again and that the Earth, which they thought was flat, would turn upside down. The better-educated Lilliputians no longer believed in this custom. In Lilliput a person who wrongly accused another of a crime of which the latter was found to be innocent, was immediately put to a cruel death, and the one who was unjustly accused was rewarded materially. Not only that, he received a title of distinction from the emperor. Deceit was considered worse than theft, because honest people were more vulnerable to liars than to thieves, since commerce required people to trust one another. The Lilliputians found it odd that in Gulliver's country the judiciary system was based mainly on punishment. In Lilliput, those who obeyed the laws were rewarded -- anyone who obeyed the laws for "seventy-three moons" was rewarded with a title of honour and a goodly sum of money. As for the hiring practices of the Lilliputians, we have read about the importance of rope jumping and other such skills in the attainment of public office. The Lilliputians believed morals counted more than abilities, since those with high intelligence were usually lacking in moral virtues. Mistakes made in ignorance, reasoned the Lilliputians, usually had less serious consequences than those made by corrupt cunning. The Lilliputians considered ingratitude a heinous crime because "whoever made ill returns to his benefactor, must needs be a common enemy to the rest of mankind... and therefore... not fit to live." Children were raised not by individual parents but by the kingdom as a whole. They were sent to live in schools at a very young age. The schools were chosen according to the station of their parents, whom they saw only twice a year. The schools for young nobles were spartan, and students were trained in honour, justice, courage, modesty, clemency, religion, and patriotism. The schools for tradesmen and ordinary gentlemen were like those of the nobles, but the duration of schooling was shorter. The Lilliputians educated women to be reasonable, agreeable, and literate. Workers and farmers had no schools. There were no beggars at all, since the poor were well looked after. After giving details of the customs and beliefs of the Lilliputians, Gulliver resumed his tale. He described the visit of the Emperor and his family. They came to dine with Gulliver and brought Flimnap with them. The dinner proved to be a disaster because Flimnap, the royal treasurer, was appalled when he reckoned the cost of feeding and housing Gulliver. What was more, Flimnap charged, his wife was attracted to Gulliver and had visited him secretly.

Textual Questions 1. What happens to the Lilliputians if the person on trial proves his own innocence? How is the accused paid back? a person who wrongly accused another of a crime of which the latter was found to be innocent, was immediately put to a cruel death a person who was unjustly accused was rewarded materially; out of accusers goods or lands the innocent person quadruply recompensed for the loss of his time, for the danger he underwent, for the hardship of his imprisonment, and for all the charges he has been at in making his defence if fund was deficient, largely supplemented by the crown. in addition, he received a title of distinction from the emperor; proclamation of his innocence made through the whole city. 2. What is the worst crime to the Lilliputians? Why? looked upon fraud as greater crime than theft; mostly punished it with death alleged care and vigilance and common sense may protect a man from thieves honesty has no defence against superior cunning deceit worse than theft, because honest people were more vulnerable to liars than to thieves commerce required people to trust one another as they had to deal upon credit if fraud was permitted and connived at, or had no law to punish it, the honest dealer would be undone, and the knave get the advantage. 3. How are people rewarded for following the laws for 73 Moons? judicial system of Lilliput not based only on punishment; those who obeyed the laws were rewarded anyone giving sufficient proof -- obeyed the laws for "seventy-three moons" was rewarded given certain privileges, according to his quality or condition of life; got proportionable sum of money out of a fund appropriated for that use given title of SNILPALL, or legal, which was added to his name, but did not descend to his posterity. 4. Swift uses the laws of Lilliput to show that these people's ideals are good but that the people themselves have not actually been good enough to follow them. List an example of how the people of Lilliput do not live up to the ideals they have set for their society. Gulliver tells us that "ingratitude is a capital crime" to Lilliputians reason --people who are mean to those who have done them a favour are obviously going to be even meaner to the rest of mankind so dangerous and must be put to death Yet Lilliputians haven't managed to stamp out ingratitude Gulliver's brought fifty ships of the enemy fleet to the Emperor all he gets -- new title and the jealous plotting of the High Admiral. 5. Write a brief note on the education system of Lilliput. children sent to live in schools at a very young age schools chosen according to the station of parents, whom they saw only twice a year

schools for young nobles were spartan, and students were trained in honour, justice, courage, modesty, clemency, religion, and patriotism schools for tradesmen and ordinary gentlemen were like those of the nobles, but the duration of schooling was shorter those designed for trades are put out apprentices at eleven years old, whereas those of persons of quality continue their learning till fifteen women were educated to be reasonable, agreeable, and literate children of workers and farmers did not go to school.

6. Why do the girls leave the public nurseries at twelve? young girls of quality educated much like the males; only exercises of the females were not altogether so robust; girls taught some rules relating to domestic life; learning limited in case of girls general belief wife should be always a reasonable and agreeable companion girls taken home at twelve years old; marriageable age girls from lower rungs of society were instructed in works proper for females 7. At dinner with the Emperor and his family, Gulliver overeats. How does Flimnap use that against him? emperor, empress, young princes of the blood of both sexes, and Flimnap, the lord high treasurer, came to dine with Gulliver Gulliver ate more than usual Flimnap always Gullivers secret enemy; got opportunity of harming him represented to the emperor "the low condition of his treasury; that he was forced to take up money at a great discount; that exchequer bills would not circulate under nine per cent. below par; Gulliver cost his majesty above a million and a half of SPRUGS" (their greatest gold coin) " would be advisable to take the first fair occasion of dismissing him 8. Which two Lilliputian customs does Gulliver present as good for society. customs that Gulliver present as good-- contribute to good of community or nation as opposed to those promoting individual rights or freedoms ingratitude punishable by death; anybody treating benefactor badly enemy to mankind children raised by community rather than parents; raised in public nurseries; parents financially penalized if they burden society by bringing children for whom they cannot pay into the world.

Chapter 7
[The author, being informed of a design to accuse him of high-treason, makes his escape to Blefuscu. His reception there.] For two months an intrigue had been forming against Gulliver. One day, when Gulliver was preparing to visit the emperor of Blefuscu, Gulliver received a "secret visit" from a government official whom he had helped when the emperor was displeased with him. He told Gulliver that Flimnap, Skyresh Bolgolam, and others had approved articles of treason against him. The emperor and the council were preparing a list of articles for Gulliver's impeachment. He showed Gulliver the document calling for his execution. The charges included: 1. urinating in a public place; 2. having refused to destroy all the Blefuscudians who wouldn't forsake the "Big-Endian heresy"; 3. having helped the Blefuscudians with the terms of the peace treaty; 4. preparing to go to Blefuscu, for which the emperor had given only verbal permission. Although the emperor showed many signs of his great leniency; he urged others to consider the services Gulliver had done him, and endeavoured to attempt to lessen the magnitude or seriousness of his crimes. Some in the council, including the treasurer and the admiral, insisted that Gulliver immediately be put to a painful death. Their plan was to set Gulliver's house afire and then shoot him with poisonous arrows as he tried to escape. His sheets and clothes would already have been treated with a poison that would have him tearing his flesh, and die in the utmost torture. The general came into the same opinion; so that for a long time there was a majority against Gulliver. However, the emperor was resolved, if possible, to spare Gullivers life, at last brought off the chamberlain. Gulliver was told that Reldresal, principal secretary for private affairs, who had always been Gullivers friend, had asked for his sentence to be reduced, calling not for execution but for putting his eyes out. This punishment had been agreed upon, along with a plan to starve him to death slowly. The official told Gulliver that the operation to blind him would take place in three days. Fearing this resolution, Gulliver crossed the channel and arrived in Blefuscu where the people had long expected him. Two guides guided him to the capital city, also called Blefuscu. At the gates the Blefuscudian emperor and his retinue came to greet him. Gulliver told his majesty that he had come to Blefuscu as promised and with the permission of the emperor of Lilliput. He offered the Blefuscudian emperor any service in his power, consistent with his duty to the emperor of Lilliput. The Blefuscudian emperor was generous but Gulliver faced a number of difficulties as he had no house or bed. Textual Questions 1. List the charges brought against Gulliver in your own words. four charges of treason two most serious - urinating in the courtyard of the Royal Palace (though it was to put out a dangerous fire), refusing to bring Blefuscu under Lilliputian domination (because nations and peoples have the right to be independent and self-governing). other two charges included talking to ambassadors from Blefuscu planning to visit that country (though he had the Lilliput emperors verbal sanction). 2. Gulliver is accused of treason when he is not even a citizen of Lilliput. List the punishments that the Lilliputians are considering giving Gulliver.

treasurer and admiral insisted Gulliver be put to the most painful and ignominious death, by setting fire to your house at night; general would take twenty thousand men, armed with poisoned arrows; shoot Gulliver on the face and hands get servants to strew a poisonous juice on his shirts and sheets, which would soon make him tear his own flesh, and die in the utmost torture Gulliver be blinded; loss of eyes would be no deterrent to bodily strength; might still be useful to his majesty;

3. How does Swift bring out the absurdity of the charges against Gulliver? charges written in formal language serves to emphasize their absurdity Swift makes mockery of formal language by showing how it can be used to mask simple fears and desires, such as the Lilliputians desire to eliminate the threat that Gulliver poses 4. Which "merciful" punishment does the king choose? Do you think it is merciful? Why? emperor fully determined against capital punishment; yet council thought loss of eyes too lenient; wanted another punishment Reldressal said once blinded Gullivers establishment could be reduced; grow weak and faint, lose appetite, and decay in a few months stench of carcass would not be dangerous; diminished by half not merciful taking out eyes barbaric; foresaw it resulting in slow death 5. Why doesn't Gulliver resist the Lilliputians? Gulliver promised "not to hurt the people." fed and clothed him friends among the Lilliputians

Chapter 8
[The author, by a lucky accident, finds means to leave Blefuscu; and, after some difficulties, returns safe to his native country.] Three days later, he saw a boat of normal sizethat is, big enough to carry himoverturned in the water. He returned immediately towards the city, and asked the emperor of Blefuscu for help to fix it. He desired loan of twenty of the tallest vessels left in the Blefuscudian fleet, and three thousand seamen commanded by the vice-admiral. Fastening the boat to nine of the men of war and pushing it from behind, he got the boat inland. Turning it upside down he found it was not much damaged. He could repair the boat and sail it to the Blefuscudian capital. He asked the emperor for permission to return to his native country; and begged for materials to fit it up, which was granted. At the same time, the emperor of Lilliput sent an envoy with the articles against Gulliver. He wrote that Gulliver had fled from justice; and if he did not return to Lilliput within two hours, he would be deprived of the title of NARDAC, and declared a traitor. The envoy further added that in order to maintain the peace and amity between both empires, Gulliver be returned bound hand and foot to Lilliput to receive his punishment. The Blefuscudian ruler refused, and sent it back with the message that Gulliver will soon be leaving both their kingdoms. To Gulliver he offered complete protection for the rest of his life. Gulliver realised that the emperor of Blefuscu and most of his ministers were very glad of his resolution. After about a month, the boat was ready and Gulliver set sail. He arrived safely back in England, where he made a good profit showing miniature farm animals that he carried away from Blefuscu in his pockets. He stayed there just two months, and then "insatiable" as he was to see foreign countries, he set sail for Surat. Textual Questions 1. How does Gulliver get a boat? How does he bring it on shore? How long does he take to make paddles? saw an overturned boat half a league off in the sea; with help of twenty ships of Blefuscudian fleet, and three thousand seamen got boat inland turned boat upside down; little damage took ten days making paddles; sailed to the royal port of Blefuscu sought emperors permission to depart 2. What does the envoy from Lilliput want the emperor of Blefuscu to do? Lilliputs envoy informed the monarch of Blefuscu, Gulliver had fled from justice despite the leniency of the Lilliput emperor; punished Gulliver only with the loss of his eyes; that I; and if he did not return in two hours, deprived of my title of NARDAC; declared a traitor. to maintain the peace and amity between both empires, emperor of Blefuscu send him back to Lilliput, bound hand and foot, to be punished as a traitor. 3. What does Gulliver take for food? What does he take for souvenirs? What does the king of Blefuscu refuse to let Gulliver take home with him? food-- carcases of a hundred oxen, and three hundred sheep; with bread and drink; as much meat as four hundred cooks could provide

in addition took six cows and two bulls; same number of ewes and rams feed for cattle; hay, and a bag of corn wanted to take a dozen of the natives; emperor did not permit; searched pockets; made him promise "not to carry away any of his subjects, although with their own consent and desire."

4. Bring out the contrast Swift draws between common men and politicians. draws brilliant, concrete, and detailed contrast between the normal, if gullible, man and the diminutive but vicious politicians; politician midget compared to Gulliver normal person is concerned with honour, gratitude, common sense, and kindness representative person is a midget compared with the truly moral person 5. What do you think of Gulliver at the end of Part I? considering what he's been through, Gulliver seems to be a dependable person not cruel, though he's been treated cruelly; not violent, though he's been dealt with violently; not crafty, though he's been dealt some rude blows by Lilliputian cunning nave; good finer qualities of character, rather than physical size, that lend Gulliver stature while he's in Lilliput. 6. Write a short note on the people of Lilliput. Lilliputians tiny, six-inch tall people; proportionally tiny buildings and trees and horses ruled by an Emperor; high court officials appointed according to skills with rope dancing; not governed according to rational principles filled with self-importance; possess all the petty vices and follies of humankind: greed, hypocrisy, selfishness, and moral corruption; spend time plotting against one another ungrateful; even though Gulliver has made himself useful in Lilliput's wars against Blefuscu, the Emperor sees him as dangerous; wants to get rid of him despite small size capable of doing a great deal of harm treacherous and cruel-- think up gruesome ways to kill Gulliver; Lilliputian king's agreement to the plan that Gulliver be blinded and starved is presented as an example of his mercy and justice 7. Write a character sketch of the Lilliputian emperor. taller than his six inch tall subjects by the breadth of a nail. has the pompous name of Golbasto Momaren Evlame Gurdilo Shefin Mully Ully Gue power and majesty impress Gulliver laughable -- despite tiny size believes he can control Gulliver proud of possessing the tallest trees and biggest palace in the kingdom quite hospitable, spending a fortune on his captives food. threatening and sinister figure embodying political tyranny and abuse of power despite diminutive size; displays willingness to execute his subjects for trivial reasons of politics or honour; gives him a frightening aspect

vulnerable to manipulation by his ministers, Flimnap and Skyresh Bolgolam; too easily influenced by his favourites; leads to sudden shifts in loyalty loves war, and really wants to enslave the people of his neighbouring island, Blefuscu; turns against Gulliver when he refuses to help him destroy Blefuscu's freedom

8. Who is Reldresal? Write a brief note on him. Lilliput's Principal Secretary of Private Affairs displays personal courage and trust; allows Gulliver to hold him in his palm while he talks politics warns Gulliver of danger embodies the treachery of politicians; claims to be Gulliver's friend but comes up with plan to get rid of him by blinding and starving him to death presents plan as an example of mercy 9. Briefly discuss Flimnap and Skyresh Bolgolam. Flimnap is Lord High Treasurer of Lilliput wily politician who excels at rope-dancing-- satirical reference to the machinations necessary to achieve and maintain power. Skyresh Bolgolam is Lord High Admiral of Lilliput becomes Gulliver's enemy due to envy of Gulliver's success at defeating the Blefescudians.

Part 2 A Voyage to Brobdingnag.


The tables were turned on Gulliver when he reached Brobdingnag. Here the natives were giants, and Gulliver began to think of himself as a Lilliputian. Throughout the book he was constantly afraid of being injured, and indeed he was often hurt; his feelings of insecurity gave rise to other feelings we have not seen in Gulliver before, notably disgust, violence, and shame.

Chapter 1
[A great storm described; the long boat sent to fetch water; the author goes with it to discover the country. He is left on shore, is seized by one of the natives, and carried to a farmer's house. His reception, with several accidents that happened there. A description of the inhabitants.] Two months after returning to England, Gulliver became restless again. He set sail on a ship called the Adventure, travelling to the Cape of Good Hope and Madagascar before encountering a monsoon that blew the ship off course. The ship eventually arrived at an unknown island and a group of sailors including Gulliver went off to explore it. Gulliver left the group to do some looking around on his own. There were no inhabitants about, and the landscape was barren and rocky. Gulliver was walking back to the boat when he saw his mates running for their boat. He was about to call out to them when he saw they were being pursued by a "monster." The sailors made their getaway, leaving Gulliver behind on that island of monsters. When he saw the giant was following the boat, Gulliver ran away, and when he stopped, he was on a steep hill from which he could see the countryside. He was shocked to see that the grass was about twenty feet high. He walked down what looked like a high road but turned out to be a footpath through a field of barley. He walked for a long time but could not see anything beyond the stalks of corn, which were forty feet high. He tried to climb a set of steps into the next field, but he could not mount them because they were too high. As he was trying to climb up the stairs, he saw another one of the islands giant inhabitants. He appeared as tall as an ordinary spire steeple, and took about ten yards at every stride. Struck with fear and astonishment, Gulliver hid in the corn, and heard him call in a voice that sounded to Gulliver like thunder. At that, seven monsters, who appeared to be servants or labourers, came and began to harvest the crop with scythes. Gulliver lay down and bemoaned his state. He was sure he would die there, and for the first time Gulliver yearned mournfully for his family. "I reflected," says Gulliver, "what a mortification it must prove to me to appear as inconsiderable in this nation as one single Lilliputian would be among us." But he had enough presence of mind to realize that such prideful thoughts were ridiculous at such a time. For, he reasoned, he'd probably end up a "morsel in the mouth of the first among these enormous barbarians...." One of the servants came close to Gulliver with both his foot and his scythe, so Gulliver screamed as loudly as he could. The giant finally noticed him, and picked him up between his fingers to get a closer look. Although the giants fingers were hurting him, Gulliver did not struggle in the least for fear he should slip through his fingers as the giant held him in the air above sixty feet from the ground. Gulliver tried to speak to him in plaintive tones, bringing

his hands together, and the giant seemed pleased., and the giant placed him in his pocket and walked to his master. The giants master, the farmer of these fields, took Gulliver from his servant and observed him more closely. He asked the other servants if they had ever seen anything like Gulliver, then placed him onto the ground. They sat around him in a circle. Gulliver knelt down and began to speak as loudly as he could, taking off his hat and bowing to the farmer. He presented a purse full of gold to the farmer, which the farmer took into his palm. He could not figure out what it was, even after Gulliver emptied the coins into his hand. The farmer took Gulliver back to his wife, who was frightened of him. The servant brought in dinner, and they all sat down to eat, Gulliver sitting on the table not far from the farmers plate. They gave him tiny bits of their food, and he pulled out his knife and fork to eat, which delighted the giants. The farmers son picked Gulliver up and scared him, but the farmer took Gulliver from the boys hands and struck his son. Gulliver made a sign that the boy should be forgiven, and kissed his hand. After dinner, the farmers wife let Gulliver nap in her own bed. When he woke up he found two rats the size of bulldogs attacking him. He was so startled, frightened, disoriented, and disgusted, that he defended himself with his hanger, or sword and killed one of them. Textual Questions 1. What are Gulliver and his companions doing in Brobdingnag? Why do the others leave Gulliver behind? two months after return Gulliver again went to seeship Adventure 3rd of May storm-- strange and dangerous when storm over off course; on 17th day of June, 1703, came in full view of a great island, or continent dozen including Gullivergo to island to investigate --wandered on the shore to find out some fresh water near the sea Gulliver walked a mile on the other side-- saw companions already in the boat, and rowing for life to ship pursued by huge creature walking after them in the sea, as fast as he could; escaped leaving Gulliver behind 2. What was the monster not able to catch up with Gullivers companions? Gulliver saw companions rowing to ship pursued by huge creature walking after them in the sea, as fast as he could; took prodigious strides waded; water not much deeper than his knees, Gullivers companions had half a league start sea full of sharp-pointed rocks; monster not able to overtake the boat. 3. How tall are the eight workers who pursue Gulliver in the hay field? Brobdingnagians very tall labourer as tall as an ordinary spire steeple; took about ten yards at every stride when he picked up Gulliver and brought me within three yards of his eyes-- Gulliver felt he was sixty feet from the ground 4. Size matters. How does Swift bring this out in relation to Gulliver?

Gullivers adventures in Brobdingnag serve to illustrate the importance of physical size reduced to twelfth of size of the people who surround him; pride and importance witheraway. no physical power; impossible for Gulliver to maintain the illusion of his own importance. feels humiliated; insignificant; like a Lilliputian among human beings afraid Brobdingnagians savage and cruelbecause of big size; expected to be a morsel in the mouth of an enormous barbarians when "monster" inspects Gulliver like "a small dangerous animal" --feels as he behaved with a "weasel in England." feels sure the reaper will dash him to the ground "as we usually do with any little hateful animal." Later Gulliver likens himself to a "toad," a "spider," a "kitten," and a "puppy-dog."

4. How does the Brobdingnagians carry Gulliver? Why is this ironic? the reaper picked up Gulliver by the middle between his fore-finger and thumb lifted up the lappet of his coat; put Gulliver gently into it farmer having took piece of small straw; lifted up the lappets of Gullivers coat farmer took handkerchief; doubled and spread it on left hand; placed hand flat on ground with palm upward; Gulliver stepped into it; farmer lapped him up to the head; carried him home Gulliver does this in Lilliput to the important political officials. 5. How does the farmer pick up the money that Gulliver offered him? Gulliver offered purse; farmer turned it around with point of a pin; did not understand Gulliver took the purse; poured all the gold into farmers palm six Spanish pieces of four pistoles each, beside twenty or thirty smaller coins farmer wet tip of his little finger upon his tongue; took up largest coins, and then another; still wholly ignorant what they were made sign to put them again into purse. 6. How does the farmer's wife react to the first sight of Gulliver? farmer carried Gulliver home; showed him to his wife she screamed and ran back-- as at the sight of a toad or a spider when saw his behaviour with farmer -- was soon reconciled slowly grew extremely tender towards him. 7. Bring out Gullivers relationship with Lilliputians and Brobdingnagians. emphasizes importance of size and the relativity of human culture. issues brought up in Lilliput brought up again in Brobdingnag; but this time Gulliver in exact opposite situation many jokes from Gullivers adventure in Lilliput played in reverse: instead of worrying about trampling on the Lilliputians, Gulliver is now at risk of being trampled upon; instead of being feared and admired for his gargantuan size, he is treated as a miniscule and insignificant curiosity; instead of displaying miniature livestock in England to make money, he is put on display for money by the farmer.

Chapter 2
[A description of the farmer's daughter. The author carried to a market-town, and then to the metropolis. The particulars of his journey.] Gulliver was "turned over" to the farmer's daughter, who cared for him in much the same way that she cares for her doll. She was very good-natured, and not above forty feet high, being little for her age. Gulliver's name for the girl was Glumdalclitch, which in Brobdingnagian meant little nurse. In fact, her name for Gulliver, Grildrig, meant doll. Glumdalclitchs dolls cradle became Gullivers permanent bed. Glumdalclitch put the cradle into a small drawer of a cabinet, and placed the drawer upon a hanging shelf for fear of the rats. She became Gullivers caretaker and guardian, sewing clothes for him and teaching him the giants language. News of Gulliver's living at the farmer's house spread quickly, and several visitors came to see him. One day a friend of the farmer came to see him. He looked at Gulliver through his glasses, and Gulliver began to laugh at the sight of the mans eyes through the glass. The man became angry. At his urging, the farmer decided to take Gulliver to the market place and to put him on display for others to see (for a price). He agreed, and much against Glumdalclitch's will, Gulliver was taken to town in a carriage, which he found very uncomfortable. There, he was placed on a table while Glumdalclitch sat down on a stool beside him, with thirty people at a time walking through as he performed tricks. Gulliver was exhausted by the journey to the marketplace, but upon returning to the farmers house, he found that he was to be shown there as well. People came from miles around and were charged great sums to view him. Thinking that Gulliver could make him a great fortune, the farmer took him and Glumdalclitch on a tour throughout the kingdom, including visiting the kingdom's metropolis, Lorbrulgrud. The three arrived in the largest city, Lorbrulgrud, and the farmer rented a room with a table for displaying Gulliver. By now, Gulliver could understand their language and speak it fairly well. There Gulliver performed ten times a day for all who wished to see him. He showed off his knowledge of the local language, drank from a thimble, flourished his (to them, miniature) sword, vaulted with the aid of a piece of straw. In short, he did all the things that people do, except on a toy scale. Gulliver was a great sensation, and the farmer earned a great deal of money. By this time, though, Gulliver had presented far too many performances; he was almost dead with fatigue. Textual Questions 1. Who is Glumdalclitch? Why is she a good person to take care of Gulliver? the farmers daughter, nine year old Glumdalclitch, became Gulliver's nurse; names him Grildrig, which means "manikin." she was good at dressing dolls; made him seven shirts, some other linen, constantly washed them for him with her own hands. Gulliver sleeps in a doll's cradle; hung up high to keep safe from rats Glumdalclitch teaches Gulliver the language of Brobdingnag 2. How does Gulliver's master make money with him? Gulliver taken to town in carriage; uncomfortable; placed on table Glumdalclitch sat on stool beside him entry of thirty people at a time; performed tricks.

exhausted by journey to marketplace; shown at farmers house; people came from miles around; charged great sums to view him taken on a tour throughout the kingdom, including kingdom's metropolis, Lorbrulgrud. Gulliver performed ten times a day showed off his knowledge of the local language, drank from a thimble, flourished his sword, vaulted with the aid of a piece of straw.

3. Who throws a hazelnut at Gulliver? Why does he do that? Gulliver taken on a tour throughout the kingdom, including kingdom's metropolis, Lorbrulgrud; performed ten times a day farmer, for his own interest, did not allow any one to touch him except Glumdalclitch to prevent danger, benches were set round the table to put himout of every body's reach. a school-boy aimed a hazel nut directly at his head; narrowly missed; otherwise hazelnut came with so much violence; knocked out brains-- almost as large as a small pumpkin, young rogue well beaten, and turned out of the room. 4. What opinion do you form of the Brobdingnagians? the giants Brobdingnagians-- kind and decent on surface, Gulliver seems to be mistreated-- yet the farmer is careful with Gulliver and Glumdalclitch especially loving it is true farmer almost kills Gulliver out of thoughtlessness, but never cruel or malicious normal Brobdingnagians not malicious; only children and deformed of that temper not perfect; sometimes, thoughtless and greedy; sometimes malicious. 5. Comment on Gullivers relations with the Brobdingnagians. Gullivers initial experiences with Brobdingnagians not positive first almost trampled by them farmer virtually enslaves him; forced to perform tricks; spectators pay enslavement emphasizes fundamental humanity of the Brobdingnagians happy to make a quick buck when the opportunity arises concretises Gullivers lowly status-- in Lilliput, his size gives him almost godlike powersa hero and a Nardac in Brobdingnag -- opposite effect-- small acts of heroism, like battle against the rats, seen as tricks.

Chapter 3
[The author sent for to court. The queen buys him of his master the farmer, and presents him to the king. He disputes with his majesty's great scholars. An apartment at court provided for the author. He is in high favour with the queen. He stands up for the honour of his own country. His quarrels with the queen's dwarf.] The strain of travelling and performing in road shows began to take its toll on Gulliver and he grew very thin. The farmer noticed Gullivers condition and resolved to make as much money as possible before Gulliver died. Meanwhile, an order came from the court, ordering the farmer to bring Gulliver to the queen for her entertainment. Gulliver performed admirably and respectfully for her. The Queen, was attracted to the novelty of this tiny man, and after Gulliver pleaded his case in the most humble fashion imaginable bowing, scraping, pledging undying loyalty, and embracing the tip of the queen's finger. The queen was delighted with Gullivers behaviour and she became his saviour when she bought him from the farmer for 1,000 gold pieces. Gulliver requested that Glumdalclitch be allowed to live in the palace as well. Gulliver explained his suffering to the queen, and she was impressed by his intelligence. She took him to the king, who at first took him to be a mechanical creation. He sent for great scholars to observe Gulliver, and they decided that he was in fact a freak of nature and unfit for survival, since there was no way he could feed himself. Gulliver tried to explain that he came from a country in which everything was in proportion to himself, but they did not seem to believe him. Gulliver found this "a determination exactly agreeable to the modern philosophy of Europe" where professors used the category of "freak" as a cover for their own ignorance when they came across something that puzzled them. Glumdalclitch was given an apartment in the palace and a governess was appointed to teach her. Special quarters were built for Gulliver out of a luxurious box by the best court artisans. They also had clothes made for him from fine silk, but Gulliver found them very cumbersome. The queen grew quite accustomed to his company, finding him very entertaining at dinner, especially when he cut and ate his meat. He found her way of eating repulsive, since her size allowed her to swallow huge amounts of food in a single gulp. The king conversed with Gulliver on issues of politics, and laughed at his descriptions of the goings-on in Europe. He concluded that not only was Gulliver a freak, but he came from a freakish society as well. Gulliver's stories of Whigs and Tories made the king laugh out loud and exclaim, "how contemptible a thing was human grandeur, which could be mimicked by such diminutive insects" as Gulliver. At first Gulliver was indignant to hear his "noble country, the mistress of arts and arms, the scourge of France, the arbitress of Europe, the seat of virtue, piety, honour and truth, the pride and envy of the world, so contemptuously treated." Gulliver was at first offended, but then came to realize that he too had begun to think of his world as ridiculous. "I really began to imagine myself dwindled many degrees below my usual size." His perspective is suffering in more ways than one. The King and Queen were happy with Gulliver, but there was one member of the royal entourage who is not happy: the Queen's dwarf, who was jealous because Gulliver had replaced him in the Queen's affection. He dropped Gulliver into a bowl of cream, but Gulliver was able to swim to safety and the dwarf was punished. At another point, the dwarf stuck Gulliver into a marrowbone, where he was forced to remain until someone pulled him out. The queen teased Gulliver for being so fearful, and concluded that his compatriots must all be cowardly. Gulliver was terrified and sickened by Brobdingnagian flies and wasps. Where the queen was oblivious to their excrement and other droppings, to Gulliver this falling matter

was torrential. His revenge against these giant insects was of two types: some he cut into bits as they flew past; others he displayed as freaks when he got back to England. Textual Questions 1. What was the result of the roadshows on Gulliver? What did the farmer decide to do when he figured about the effects of overwork on Gulliver? because of farmer's greed -- frequent roadshows daily weakened Gulliver lost appetite; reduced to skeleton farmer saw his condition not let him rest and recover decided to make more money before he died invited to court; sold Gulliver to queen a thousand pieces of gold, 2. How did Gulliver come into possession of the Queen? some ladies of the court saw Gulliver -- reported to queen of Gullivers beauty, behaviour, and good sense queen sent for him delighted with Gulliver he, in turn, fell on knees, begged honour of kissing her foot; embraced her little finger in both arms, put tip of it to lip. queen asked if he would like to live at court master's slave-- but proud to devote my life to her service bought him for a thousand pieces of gold 3. Why did the king think Gulliver was not a living being? queen takes Gulliver to king-- thinks playing with doll educated in philosophy and mathematics; assumes Gulliver piece of clockwork can't see what Gulliver really is but must fit him into his prejudices sceptical; doesn't believe Glumdalclitch and her father --think plot to increase Gulliver's price. 4. What did the three professors announce Gulliver was? king assumes Gulliver piece of clockwork-- doesn't believe Glumdalclitch and her father --think plot to increase Gulliver's price brings in three experts to find out truth professors say little creature isn't made according to the usual laws of nature; too small can't conceive there may be laws of nature beyond what they already know decree he is a "Replum Scalcath," a "freak of nature" which adds absolutely nothing to anyone's knowledge of Gulliver or his origins, but seems to sound scientific enough to satisfy everyone. 5. What does Gulliver think of the professors? professors say little creature isn't made according to the usual laws of nature; too small prejudiced; can't conceive there may be laws of nature beyond what they already know decree he is a "Replum Scalcath," a "freak of nature" ; term vague

Gulliver tells them how he fits into his own society; shows he is important no matter how small he looks to them scholars only sneer saying it must be a lie exposes their bigotry

6. How did Glumdalclitch come to be at court? Who took care of her? Gulliver begged queen to allow Glumdalclitch to stay with him -- tended him with care and kindness, and understood to do it so well wanted her to continue to be his nurse and instructor." queen agreed to petition, and easily got the farmer's consent-- glad to have his daughter at court; Glumdalclitch unable to hide her joy king ordered Glumdalclitch look after Gulliver; convenient apartment provided for her at court: governess appointed to take care of her education, a maid to dress her, and two other servants for menial offices; 7. Why did the dwarf become Gulliver's enemy? How does the dwarf try to get back at Gulliver for an insult? How was the dwarf punished? queen's dwarf, jealous because Gulliver had replaced him in queen's affection dropped Gulliver into a bowl of cream, but Gulliver was able to swim to safety dwarf soundly whipped; forced to drink bowl of cream into which he had thrown Gulliver; queen gave him to lady of high quality stuck Gulliver into a marrowbone, where he was forced to remain until someone pulled him out dwarf received sound whipping 8. Why did the Queen think that Gulliver was cowardly? Do you think he was? Why/ why not? frequently teased by queen for cowardice; flies; big as larks flew about; sat on Gullivers food; sat on nose, or forehead; stung him left their excrement, or eggs behind; he could see; Brobdinnagians could not dwarf, catch a number of them --let them out under Gullivers nose he was frightened me, queen amused wasps -- as large as partridges; stings an inch and a half long, and as sharp as needles; afraid of their humming was coward afraid of flies and wasps was not cowards flies and wasps too big; sting could hurt; saw droppings and eggs 9. How does Swift discredit the dwarfs? incapacity to accept Gulliver as a scaled-down version of a Brobdingnagian; while Gulliver sae Lilliputians as miniature men-- not true of the Brobdingnagians king affectionate towards Gulliver but thinks of him as rat-like and made of clockwork discredits Gulliver and his fellow Englishmen; mocks human pretension in Lilliput Gulliver stood tall; watched Lilliputians mimic human pretentiousness and vanities now Gulliver stands small; listens to moral giant discredit human pride and pretense.

Chapter 4
[The country described. A proposal for correcting modern maps. The king's palace; and some account of the metropolis. The author's way of travelling. The chief temple described.] When the King and Queen went travelling about the country, they decided to take Gulliver along. Gulliver wrote a description of the island, the sea around the island, the city of Lorbrulgrud, the King's palace, his [Gulliver's] method of travel on the island, several of the island's inhabitants, and some of the sights to see on the island. The land stretched out about 6,000 miles. The kingdom was bounded on one side by mountains and on the other three sides by the sea. The water was so rough that there was no trade with other nations. The rivers were well stocked with giant fish, but the fish in the sea were of the same size as those in the rest of the worldand therefore not worth catching. In describing the inhabitants of the island, Gulliver focused on their illnesses and diseases. He wrote of giant beggars, horribly deformed, with lice crawling all over them. Gulliver was carried around the city in a special travelling-box, and people always crowded around to see him. He asked to see the largest temple in the country and was not overwhelmed by its size, since at a height of 3,000 feet it was proportionally smaller than the largest steeple in England. Finally, the dimensions of the King's palace were described with the kitchen receiving particular attention. Textual questions 1. What does Gulliver say about the size of the kingdom of Brobdingnag? Brobdingnag was two thousand miles round Lorbrulgrud; six thousand miles in length, and from three to five in breadth peninsula; to the north-east ridge of mountains thirty miles highimpassable-volcanoes three other sides bounded by ocean 2. Why don't sailors ever come to Brobdingnag? peninsula; to the north-east ridge of mountains thirty miles highimpassable-volcanoes three other sides bounded by ocean Europeans do not know if area inhabited or of mortals who live beyond those mountains no sea-port in the whole kingdom; those parts of the coasts into which the rivers flow are so full of pointed rocks, and the sea generally so rough, that even smallest of their boats cannot cross wholly excluded from any commerce with the rest of the world. 3. Why does Gulliver suppose that the king doesn't like to eat whales? river fish large and eaten; sea fish are of the same size with those in Europeso not worth catching; sometimes whale dashed against the rocks; common people feed on it whales large; even Brobdingnagians can hardly carry one upon his shoulders; though Gulliver has seen larger in Greenland king not fond of it; the bigness disgusted him

Chapter 5
[Several adventurers that happened to the author. The execution of a criminal. The author shows his skill in navigation.] Gulliver was happy in Brobdingnag except for the many mishaps that befell him because of his diminutive size. Shortly afterward he attended an execution with great interest. He compared the spurts of blood as the man was decapitated as more spectacular than the fountains at Versailles. In one unpleasant incident, the dwarf, angry at Gulliver for teasing him, shook an apple tree over his head. One of the apples struck Gulliver in the back and knocked him over. But the dwarf was pardoned at Gullivers saying so, because he had given the provocation. Another time, he was left outside during a hailstorm and was so bruised and battered that he could not leave the house for ten days. Once a bird of prey nearly grabbed him and again a dog mistook Gulliver for a doll and took him in his mouth and ran with him to his master. Gulliver was traumatized, needless to say. Gulliver and his nursemaid were often invited to the apartments of the ladies of the court, and there he was treated as a plaything of little significance. Because Gulliver was a sailor, the Queen ordered a special boat to be made for him and a trough in which to sail. The boat was placed in the trough and Gulliver rowed in it for his own enjoyment and for the amusement of the queen and her court. The royal ladies also took part in the game and made a brisk breeze with their fans. Disaster struck when a frog hopped into the trough and nearly swamped Gulliver's boat, but Gulliver bravely drove the monster off with an oar. Yet another danger arose in the form of a monkey, which took Gulliver up a ladder, holding him like a baby and force-feeding him. He was rescued from the monkey, and Glumdalclitch pried the food from his mouth with a needle, after which Gulliver vomitted. He was so weak and bruised that he stayed in bed for two weeks. The monkey was killed and orders were sent out that no other monkeys be kept in the palace. When he recovered, Gulliver was summoned by the King, who was curious to know whether Gulliver was afraid. Gulliver boasted that he could have protected himself with his sword. This enraged Gulliver, and discouraged him. Of course Gulliver was punished for his pride. While out walking he saw a pile of cow dung. He tried to leap over it and landed in the middle of it. Textual Questions 1. What two "accidents" hurt Gulliver while he is in the gardens of the court? (any two) I. dwarf, angry at Gulliver for teasing him; shook apple tree over his head apple struck Gulliver; knocked him over II. left outside during a hailstorm; bruised and battered could not leave house for ten days III. broke right shin against shell of a snail; stumbled over 2. What does the gardener's white spaniel do to Gulliver? gardeners spaniel; picked up Gulliver in his mouth; ran to master set him down gently; well trained; carried between teeth; unhurt; 3. What adventures does Gulliver have with small birds?

smaller birds not at all afraid of Gulliver; indifferent to his presence-- approached within a yard's distance; a thrush had snatch cake out of his hand when he tried to catch them pecked at his fingers once threw a cudgel at a linnet and knocked it down-- seized it bird boxed him with his wings on both sides of his head and body

4. How does the Queen arrange for Gulliver to row and sail? What accident happens to him? as Gulliver was a sailor, the Queen got special boat and a trough made Gulliver rowed in it for his own enjoyment and for the amusement of the queen and her court. at times put up sail; ladies at court gave him wind with their fans; only had to steer sometimes pages blew at sail with their breath; steered starboard or larboard once a frog hopped into trough nearly swamped boat Gulliver bravely drove the monster off with an oar. 5. How does the monkey that carries Gulliver off treat Gulliver? What does the monkey think he is? What finally happens to the monkey? monkey seized the lappet of my coat and dragged him out of his box climbed up to the next roof; crammed some food into Gullivers mouth; Gulliver almost choked on this surrounded by people; dropped Gulliver and escaped thought and treated Gulliver like her baby Glumdalclitch picked food out of my mouth with a small needle; he vomited monkey killed.

Chapter 6
[Several contrivances of the author to please the king and queen. He shows his skill in music. The king inquires into the state of England, which the author relates to him. The king's observations thereon.] Gulliver made himself a comb from the stumps of hair left after the king had been shaved. He used strands of the Queen's hair to make several chairs similar to English cane-backed chairs. which he gave to the queen as souvenirs, and a purse that he gave to Glumdalclitch. The king delighted in music and had frequent concerts at court. Gulliver was sometimes carried, and set in his box on a table to hear them. But the music was so loud that he could hardly distinguish the tunes. Gulliver decided to play the piano for the royal family, but he had to contrive a novel way to do it, since the instrument was so big. He used large sticks and ran over the keyboard with them, but he could still strike only sixteen keys. The King also held several audiences with Gulliver to discuss the culture of Gulliver's home country, England. In these audiences, as requested by the King, Gulliver explained the role of the people in the operation of the government, in religion, and in the legal system, among other topics. The king asked many questions and was horrified. He couldn't understand the English system of taxation, and suggested that Gulliver's figures were all wrong, for the country seemed headed for bankruptcy. Deficit spending made no sense at all to the king. Neither did having colonies, unless it was for purposes of self-protection. He was also mystified by England's having a standing army in peacetime. He was astonished that religious differences give rise to problems. And gambling-what a crazy pastime! He was particularly struck by the violence of the history Gulliver described. He then took Gulliver into his hand and, explaining that he found the world that Gulliver described to be ridiculous, contemptuous, and strange, told him that he concluded that most The king says that though he likes Gulliver, he must concluded that most Englishmen sounded like "the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth" who indulged in conspiracies, rebellions, murders, massacres, revolutions, banishments, the very worst effects that avarice, faction, hypocrisy, perfidiousness, cruelty, rage, madness, hatred, envy, lust, malice, or ambition could produce.

Textual questions 1. How does Gulliver show his ingenuity? Gulliver took forty or fifty stumps of hair of kings beard took piece of fine wood--cut it like back of comb-- made several holes in it at equal distances with small needle fixed stumps in wood made a comb took combings of queen's her majesty's hair; wove seat and back as in cane chairs made a purse, about five feet long out of queens hair with her name written on it in gold letters. 2. How did Gulliver play the piano? learned in youth to play the piano; saw Glumdalclitch play upon one in the same manner

wished to entertain the king and queen with an English tune --but piano sixty feet long-- each key almost a foot wide-- could not reach more than five keys-- press them required too great a strength prepared two round sticks like cudgels; covered thicker ends with mouse skin so as not to damage keys nor interrupt sound bench placed, about four feet below keys Gulliver ran sidelong upon it, that way and this, as fast as he could, banging keys with his two sticks could strike only sixteen keys; could not play bass and treble together played a jig

3. What do Gulliver and the king discuss? England its soil and climate, its government, religions, courts, and history. 4. What opinion does the king form of the English people? king tells Gulliver that English history is a "heap of conspiracies, rebellions, murders, massacres, revolutions, banishments, the very worst effects that avarice, faction, hypocrisy, perfidiousness, cruelty, rage, madness, hatred, envy, lust, malice, or ambition could produce." concludes that the bulk of Gulliver's countrymen are "the most pernicious race of odious little vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth."

Chapter 7
[The author's love of his country. He makes a proposal of much advantage to the king, which is rejected. The king's great ignorance in politics. The learning of that country very imperfect and confined. The laws, and military affairs, and parties in the state.] Gulliver was disturbed by the kings evaluation of England which he decided arose from his ignorance of the country. To remedy this, Gulliver offered to teach the King about England's magnificence. He tried to tell him about gunpowder, describing it as a great invention and offering it to the king as a gesture of friendship, whereby the king could reduce all his subjects to slavery. The King was horrified by the suggestion. He rejected such a bloodthirsty and inhumane proposal, warning the "impotent and grovelling insect" (Gulliver) that he would be executed if he ever mentioned gunpowder again. Gulliver was taken aback, thinking that the king had refused a great opportunity. He thought that the king was unnecessarily scrupulous and narrow-minded for not being more open to the inventions of Gullivers world. Gulliver turned to giving an account of the customs and government of his hosts. The Brobdingnagian army was a national guard or militia; there were no professional soldiers. As for government, it was extremely simple. There were no refinements, mysteries, intrigues, or state secrets. Government depended upon common sense, mercy, and swift justice. Gulliver found the people of Brobdingnag in general to be ignorant and poorly educated. Brobdingnagian learning consisted only of morality, history, poetry, and practical mathematics. The Brobdingnagians could not understand abstract reasoning or ideas. Their laws could contain only twenty-two words and had to be absolutely clear. No arguments could be written about them. They knew the art of printing but did not have many books, and their writing was simple and straightforward. One text described the insignificance and weakness of Brobdingnagians and even argued that at one point they must have been much larger. Textual Questions 1. Why does Gulliver tell the King of Brobdingnag about gunpowder? What is the Kings reaction to what Gulliver tells him about gunpowder and firearms? tells king of gunpowder: regarded king as being prejudiced and given to narrowmindedness as he was secluded from rest of the world; wants to show miserable effects of a confined education to ingratiate himself further into his majesty's favour king was struck with horror at the description of destruction gunpowder could cause, and Gullivers proposal; considered it inhuman would rather lose half his kingdom, than be privy to such a secret; 2. What does Gulliver think of the King of Brobdingnags ideas about government? government based on narrow principles and views king ignorant Gulliver mentioned in Europe several thousand books on the art of governmenthe saw it as poor understanding Brobdingnagians despised mystery, refinement, and intrigue, either in a prince or a minister; did not understand meaning of secrets of state knowledge of governing limited within very narrow bounds, to common sense and reason, to justice and lenity, to the speedy determination of civil and criminal causes;

simple logic "that whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass, to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together."

3. What is the Brobdingnagian army like according to him? Why do they have an army, since there are no external enemies? king's army supposedly consisted of a hundred and seventy-six thousand foot, and thirty-two thousand horse; Gulliver thought not above twenty-five thousand foot, and six thousand horse; made up of tradesmen in the several cities, and farmers in the country; commanded by nobility and gentry, without pay or reward army maintained as nobility often contended for power, the people for liberty, and the king for absolute dominion; occasional civil wars; army maintained to keep peace. 4. What opinion does Gulliver form of the king? Do you agree/ disagree with him? Gulliver finds king to be prejudiced, unnecessarily scrupulous and narrow-minded makes allowances saying he lives wholly secluded from the rest of the worldso unacquainted with manners and customs that prevail in other nations this gives rise to prejudices, and narrowness of agreeBrobdingnagians cannot think of Gulliver as a miniature Brobdingnagianor a man who is smaller in size than them; though sincerely fond of Gulliver, cannot view him as anything except an entertaining fellow, one who is not to be trusted; deny his humanity Do not agree -- moral giants; goodwill and calm virtue amongst them; laws encourage charity; Gulliver accepts the madness and malice of European politics, parties, and society as natural; takes gunpowder and destruction caused by it as a boon whereas king horrified; king curious, eager to learn, not afraid of the unknown-- spends long hours with Gulliver asking him questions about English and European domestic and public ways, politics, religion, and history.

Chapter 8
[The king and queen make a progress to the frontiers. The author attends them. The manner in which he leaves the country very particularly related. He returns to England.] Gulliver spent two years in Brobdingnag, but he was not happy despite the royal family's pampering. He was afraid that he would never escape and would turn into a sort of domestic, albeit royal, pet. Escape seemed impossible; chance, however, intervened: Gulliver was taken to the south coast, and both Glumdalclitch and Gulliver fell ill. Gulliver says that he wanted fresh air, and a page carried him out to the shore in his travelling-box. He asked to be left to sleep in his hammock, and the boy wandered off. An eagle grabbed hold of Gullivers box and flew off with him, and then suddenly Gulliver felt himself falling and landed in the water. He worried that he would drown or starve to death, but then felt the box being pulled. He heard a voice telling him that his box was tied to a ship and that a carpenter would come to drill a hole in the top. Gulliver told them to simply use a finger to pry it open, and heard laughter. He realised that he was speaking to people of his own height and climbed a ladder out of his box and onto their ship. Gulliver began to recover on the ship, and he tried to tell the sailors the story of his recent journey. He showed them things he had saved from Brobdingnag, like his comb and a tooth pulled from a footman. He had trouble adjusting to the sailors small size. While in Brobdingnag Gulliver couldn't bear to look at himself in the mirror as he appeared ridiculously insignificant even to himself. Now, faced with people his own size for the first time in a long while, he couldn't bear to look at them. He looked upon the sailors who saved his life as the most "contemptible creatures I had ever beheld." When he reached home, it took him some time to grow accustomed to his old life, and his wife asked him to never go to sea again.

Textual Questions 1. Why is Gulliver unhappy at the beginning of Chapter Eight? unhappy; afraid; can see no sign of escape tired of being a plaything may have to spend the rest of his life being treated like a poor animal by the Brobdingnagians. king gave strict orders, that if a ship from Gullivers world appeared-- should be taken ashore, and passengers brought to Lorbrulgrudwanted to get woman of Gullivers size so that he would have children disgrace of leaving his future generations to be kept in cages, like tame canary-birds, and perhaps, in time, sold about the kingdom, to persons of quality, for curiosities abhorrent 2. Where is Gulliver when he escaped? How did he get off Brobdingnag? Gulliver and Glumdalclitch accompanied the king and queen to the south coast stayed on for a few days at a palace near Flanflasnic-- a city almost eighteen English miles of the seaside Glumdalclitch was fatigued and ill; had to stay in her chamber

Gulliver longed to see the oceanlooked on it as only scene of escape -- desired to be in fresh air went out with page; half an hours walk from the palace, towards the rocks on the seashore-- set him down page probably went among the rocks to look for birds' eggs Gullivers box picked up by a giant bird and dropped in the ocean

3. Who rescued Gulliver? He is rescued by a ship of Englishmen. Captain Thomas Wilcocks and his crew. 4. What artifacts did Gulliver show to the captain to convince him of the truth of his story? comb made from stumps of the kings beard a gold ring from the queen his pants made of mouse fur four wasp stingers a servants tooth. 5. Write a short note on the Brobdindnagians. Brobdingnagians are giants: around 60 feet tall, their flora and fauna correspondingly huge; along with being physically bigger than Gulliver, they are also morally superior Gulliver feels vulnerable in this country-- stumbles into cow pats, is nearly drowned by frog, captured by monkey; even vulnerable to flies and wasps subject to temptations of humankind, but choose morality and common sense rather than vice and folly; the farmer with his greed and lack of compassion in his attempts to profit from Gulliver is an aberration, not the norm Glumdalclitch is kind and caring; as soon as the Queen of Brobdingnag discovers Gulliver's plight, she rescues him from the farmer Brobdingnagian system of government is based on moral values; members of government lead by example; king questions Gulliver closely about England, and concludes his compatriots are "the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth." farmer represents the average Brobdingnagian of no great gifts or intelligence, wielding an extraordinary power over Gulliver simply by virtue of his immense size 6. The King of Brobdingnag is a giant not just physically but also morally. Comment. a true intellectual, well versed in political science among other disciplines rules people wisely and compassionately questions Gulliver about England; shocked by moral corruption prevalent in government and institutions there eager to learn; asks Gulliver about government in England to learn good practices moral and scrupulous; hearing about bribery, corruption, influence peddling, or hypocrisy, concludes, most Englishmen must be "the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth" a good statesman; asks Gulliver some probing questions about administration and economy that he can't answer gentle and peace loving; Gulliver offers king recipe for gunpowder; when king hears destruction that can be caused demands that Gulliver never mention it again

7. What do you know about the Queen of Brobdingnag. is hardly a well-developed character buys Gulliver from farmer; being exploited; needs entertainment; plays with Gulliver as if he were a doll; earlier had dwarf to divert her earnest in her concern about Gullivers welfare; treats him with kindness and consideration, and grows fond of him; when her court dwarf insults him, she gives the dwarf away to another household as punishment Gulliver describes her as witty and humorous though this description may entail a bit of Gullivers characteristic flattery of superiors as we see no example of it. 8. Write a brief character sketch of the Queens dwarf. queen has 30 feet tall dwarf to entertain her lack of height an indication of weak social and intellectual power thrilled to have someone smaller he delights in torturing Gulliver bullywhen he finds an even weaker man, he's thrilled with the chance to torment him. 9. The farmer is selfish and greedy. Justify. finds Gulliver; brings him home; treats him with gentleness speaks to Gulliver, showing he believes tiny Gulliver is rational like himself Greedy --makes a profit out of exhibiting Gulliver prepared to work him to death in order to make more money. Gulliver taken to town in carriage; shown at farmers house; taken on a tour of kingdom; falls sick; but farmer increases performances to increase earning Not greedy -- exploits Gulliver as a freak and performer nearly starves Gulliver to death attitude not due to cruelty than simpleminded. 10. Who was Glumdalclitch? What do you know about her? Gulliver's kindly 9-year-old 40 ft tall nurse; daughter of the farmer who finds Gulliver in Brobdingnag becomes very fond of Gulliver and takes care of him with great seriousness and attentiveness despite her young age carries him about Brobdingnag in a box meant for his protection, sews his clothes, and generally treats him like a pet so great is her attachment that when queen discovers no one at court is suited to care for Gulliver, she invites Glumdalclitch to live at court as his sole babysitter, she agrees to leave her family and come to court