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Coffins and Coffin Fragments of the Third Intermediate Period

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BUDAPEST CATALOGUES OF THE EGYPTIAN COLLECTION

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COFFINS 119

Coffins and Coffin Fragments of the Third Intermediate Period

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BUDAPEST CATALOGUES OF THE EGYPTIAN COLLECTION

Coffins and Coffin Fragments of the Third Intermediate Period


va Liptay

Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, 2011

Coffins

Inv. no. 51.2093/12


Anthropoid inner coffin (yellow type; colour scheme: polychrome decoration on a yellow background) Wood (sycamore / Ficus sycomorus), plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), varnish Height 191 cm Width 54 cm Depth (at the footboard) 52 cm Date: second half of 21st Dynasty Name / Titles: _i - n - s -Im n t (according to the hieratic inscription on the footboard) / n b t p r Sm ay t Im n Provenance unknown Purchased by Dr. Dezs Bayer-Krucsay, Royal Chief Consul for Sweden, in the vicinity of Thebes and donated to the Museum of Fine Arts in 1938 as a gift. Condition: the hands and the front part of the legs of the lid are missing; the inner decoration of the bottom is severely damaged and has almost disappeared; restored (1972) Literature: Oroszln Dobrovits 1939, 8485 and fig. 2122 (No. 87); Varga Wessetzky 1955, 67; 19643, 5; Varga 1974, 19792, 3034; Varga 1988; Niwiski 1988b, No. 59; Liptay 2003; Liptay 2008a, 42, 44 and fig. 1, 2, 5 and 7.

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 13)

I LID (Inv. no. 51.2093/1; Pl. 1)


The face is framed by a tripartite wig patterned with alternating yellow and blue oblong rectangles (chequered pattern).
For similar patterns of wig, see Chassinat 1909, fig. 16; Niwiski 1988b, pl. VIIIA; Egner Haslauer 1994, 18/36; Gasse 1996, pl. XXXI, 2; van Walsem 1997, fig. 250251. (However, in the last mentioned of these the monochrome small rectangles have a moulded surface, and the pattern of the wig is similar to half-bond in masonry.) HEAD

A hair-band runs around the forehead. The pattern of the hair-band consists of a central decorating motif of stylised flower petals (alternating coloured blue-red in a rectangle pattern, with a point in the middle of each flower). This pattern is repeated in and so rhymed with two components of the decoration of the wsx -collar. The forehead is decorated by three lotus flowers, a frequently occurring element of female head-dresses of this coffin type.
For the classification of hair-bands, see van Walsem 1997, 111114 (IIb).

The two earrings are also moulded, and painted in the same colour scheme as the wig. The two moulded lappets of the wig rest on the chest, partly covering the breasts. The lappets are tied with red and yellow coloured five-folded lappet-bands.
The representation of lappet-bands continues a tradition originating before the early 21st Dynasty. For the classification of lappet bands, see van Walsem 1997, 111114 (VIe).

The prominently sculptured nose and mouth are artistically equilibrated by the mellow and relaxed face. The painted eyes are gently accented. Between the two lappets of the wig the neck and the uppermost part of the chest are covered by a smaller collar with a pattern of blue stripes on a yellow base, and with a lower row consisting of drop-shaped pendants.
For analogies, see van Walsem 1997, 116, n. 196, and fig. 248; Niwiski 1995, pl. X, 1. COLLAR

The actual wsx -collar is a richly decorated composition of different motifs, comprising of several stylised vegetal wreaths covering the greater part of the abdomen down to the hip.
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It applies three main motifs: 1 an alternating coloured, red-blue rectangle pattern, with a point in the middle of each rectangle.
For analogies, see van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Aa; see also the pattern of the hair-band of 51.2093 above.

2 a round-shaped petal motif


For analogies, see van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Ab.

3 a sharp-edged petal motif


For analogies, see van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Ad.

The lowermost and widest wreath consists of alternating lotus and papyrus flowers in profile, with two other flowers appearing between them which are represented en face (van Walsem 1997, 122, Va). Below the collar and around the waist both sides of the lid are decorated with an additional lotus flower directed diagonally towards the hands.
For analogies, see e.g. Englund 1974, 57, fig. 4, 9 and 11; Egner Haslauer 1994, 26/37 and 28/37; 6/10; 10/15; Niwiski 1999, pl. V.

Both attached hands are missing; the traces of the dowels are still visible.
LOWER PART OF LID

From the lower end of the collar down to the line of the knees a vertical frieze consisting of coloured rectangles of various sizes (a so-called block-frieze) runs down along both edges of the lid. From the line of the hip to the toes the surface of the lid is divided horizontally into seven scenes. Scene 1 The upper line of the lower part is bordered by the wsx -collar itself and divided from the next band by a thin red line. The central figure of the first scene is a scarab supporting a red sun disc surrounded by a green circle by its front legs (1), and holding a Sn -ring with its hind legs. The scarab is flanked by Osiris on both sides, who is seated on his throne, wearing the crown of Upper Egypt on his head and the red-coloured sSd -fillet knotted on his crown. The i my - wt symbol appears in front of the god. Opposite the seated figures a winged, human-shaped protective goddess is depicted, kneeling on a n b -basket, stretching out her arms and spreading her wings. Both goddesses can be identified as Isis. On the head of the right one the sign of her name appears with some additional hieroglyphs. Two additional motifs, a papyrus stem and a d wAt -sign also occur behind her. She holds a mAat -feather in her hand. Between the two outspread wings two additional hieroglyphic signs (a feather and a d wAt -sign) can be seen which function as (space-) filling motifs. In front of the feather held in her upper hand a uraeus is also depicted, facing her emblematic counterpart, the vulture goddess standing on a nwb -sign, combined with an an x -hieroglyph. Behind the vulture the hieroglyph of the STy t -shrine is represented. The following motifs can be seen above the wings of the goddess on the opposite (left) side: a scarab with sun disc, the sign of the STy t -shrine and a uraeus (2). Scene 2 The central figure of the scene is a large-sized goddess with outspread wings and a red headband (sSd ) knotted on her forehead. Upon her head a falcon standing on the top of the i m n t t -sign reflects her chthonic qualities. The falcon is flanked by two winged uraei with ointment cones upon its head (van Walsem 1997, 351352: humanisation) and holding a mAat -feather. The latter two figures can be identified as Neith according to the inscription
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written above them (Assmann 1972 and 1973; van Walsem 1997, 350). Behind the winged uraeus on the right and above the wing of the goddess there are two space-filling motifs: a STy t -shrine and a mAat -feather. Opposite the latter a bA-bird is represented in the company of some additional space filling hieroglyphs (an i mAx -sign, a t -sign and the three strokes of plural). Behind the winged uraeus on the left a sun-disc, another uraeus and some further space filling signs (among which the word i mAx is identifiable) are represented. Scene 3 Similarly to Scene 1, below the body of the goddess the central figure is a scarab, this time with a green-coloured sun disc and with a Sn -ring. The sun disc is flanked by two cobras wearing Upper Egyptian crowns. The tails of the snakes are decorated with a dotted pattern. The cobras are followed on both sides by the figure of Osiris seated on his throne, with his monogram upon his head, and some additional space filling signs (on the right: d wAt and nTr aA; on the left: nTr aA). In front of both gods an i my - wt symbol appears and opposite them a squatting protective goddess is represented. On the basis of the sign placed upon their heads both can be identified as Isis. They raise their hands before their faces referring to the gesture and act of mourning. Each has an an x -sign hanging on their arms. By the arm of both goddesses an i m n t t -sign occurs as a space filling motif, and behind the one on the left side the composition is supplemented by an additional Abydos-emblem combined with a uraeus and an an x -sign. Scene 4 At the upper end this scene band is bordered by a horizontal divider line (block-frieze), a motif comprising of rectangles of different sizes and colours. The central motif of the third scene is a figure of a cat combined with a mAat -feather and wearing a sun disc with a uraeus upon its head. Only the green-dotted edge of the red contoured sun disc is visible. The cat is seated on a nwb -sign, facing an i my - wt symbol. Its figure is flanked by two protective goddesses in the shape of winged uraei wearing At f -crowns and holding mAat -feathers between their wings. Above both snakes additional space filling signs and pseudo-hieroglyphs can be seen, partly referring to the name of the goddesses (Neith). Above the right one a d wAt -sign and two STy t -shrines are recognisable. The same spot on the left side is occupied by the name of the goddess Neith and the word STy t written twice. In addition to these some other symbols (a Hb -, a pr- and a t -sign, and a papyrus roll) can also be identified. Scene 5 The upper divider is a block-frieze. The central character of the composition is a kneeling winged goddess again, this time wearing a green-coloured sun disc combined with a uraeus. The surface on both sides of her head is decorated with a pattern combining strokes and dots imitating the rays of sunlight; a motif conveying solar symbolism.
For analogies, see Besanon A. 779 and A. 780, where the motif occurs on the lid as well on both sides of the scarab supporting the sun disc (Besanon 1990, 21); Niwiski 1988b, pl. XVB.

The central goddess is flanked by two further protective goddesses manifesting in the shape of a vulture, standing on nwb -signs, and equipped with an x - signs. The neck of the right one is adorned by a m n it -necklace. The next figure behind the vultures is a squatting figure holding an an x -sign (3). The additional empty places behind them are filled with hieroglyphs, pseudo-motifs and ornaments imitating uraeus and other signs. Scene 6 After the usual upper divider pattern (block-frieze), in Scene 5 the scarab recurs as a key figure, supporting the remains of a red sun disc with its front legs, while holding a Sn -ring
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with the hind legs. The solar god is flanked by uraei with t it -symbols hanging from their necks on both sides.
For uraei combined with t it -symbols, see Niwiski 1995, p. 27, pl. II, 1 and V, 3; see also Scene 5 on the right side of the box of the discussed coffin.

The scarab is surrounded by two Osiris figures seated on their thrones and wearing green sun discs on their heads. In front of both divinities an i my - wt symbol is represented. Behind them, on the edge of the scene a squatting goddess with an an x -sign can be seen on both sides (cf. Scene 3). The right one is named Isis by the sign on her head and her figure is supplemented with the word d wAt . The name of the left one is barely legible. Scene 7 The decoration of the lowest part of the lid covering the feet is in a rather fragmentary condition. It is mostly comprised of illegible fragments of inscription columns. On the right side, however, a large-sized an x -sign can still be identified. On the basis of the remains the text must have been a version of the Ht p - d i - n iswt formule. FOOTBOARD: two lines of hieratic inscription (Pl. 2)

The chantress of Amun, _i - n - s -Im n t , justified; the rm nw #n sw - [m -?]; the x+6th year of II Sm w, day 20; taken to rebury. Despite some less clear details, the hieratic graffito seems to contain significant new evidence concerning the 21st-dynasty non-royal re-interment activities that took place in Western Thebes.
For graffiti with similar contents (?) on the coffin footboard, see Niwiski 2004, 86, fig. 156; on coffin lids, see e.g. Niwiski 1988b, No. 6; Antwerp 1995, No. 33 (Antwerp, Museum Vleeshuis AV. 88.1); Taylor 2001b, 181, fig. 128 (British Museum EA 15659 = Niwiski 1988b, No. 259); and on a label, see Dodson 1991, 180182. For graffiti on royal coffins, see Daressy 1909; Gardiner 1951; cf. Janssen Dodson 1989.

The inscription even seems to add the name of the deceased (Sm ay t Im n _i - n - s -Im n t) which is not recorded on the primary coffin decoration itself.
For similar, relatively rarely occurring theophor personal names containing the name of the goddess Imenet, see Lieblein 1979, II, No. 1150; Ranke PN II, 397, 20; Niwiski 1989, 388 (London 48), 400 (London D). The name obviously refers to the Theban goddess worshipped at Karnak whose cult statue took part e.g. in the processions celebrated during the Beautiful Feast of the Valley, see Jauhiainen 2009, 149.

If our interpretation is correct, the reburial (wHm q rs t) was carried out by a certain rm n called #n sw[- m -?], on the 20th day of the second month of Sm w of an indefinable year. The date itself is close to the days of the Beautiful Feast of the Valley celebrated in the second half of the second month of Sm w (i.e. at the new moon in II Sm w), and this coincidence may raise the possibility that the reburial took place close to (or during?) this festive occasion.
For the date of the Beautiful Feast of the Valley, see e.g. Schott 1950, 107; Marciniak 1971; Marciniak 1974, 32; Graefe 1986, 187; Jauhiainen 2009, 150. NOTES ON THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE LID

General remarks According to the typology worked out by A. Niwiski (1988b, 73) the lid accords to the type III-c, (cf. J. H. Taylors IB, see Aston 2009, 272273), the use of which started in the second half of the pontificate of Pinodjem II and was finally succeeded by the type V
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(van Walsem 1997: stola-type) in the early 22nd Dynasty, after a short period when they were used simultaneously. The richly decorated floral collar covers the arms so that only the hands are visible. Below the collar the alternation of the protective goddesses spreading their wings over the mummy and the horizontally arranged scenes divided from each other by block-friezes lends a kind of strongly characteristic rhythm and natural harmony to the decoration/artistic layout. Among the different aspects and manifestations (xprw) of the great god the scarab holding a green or red coloured sun disc and alternating with the figure of the winged goddess in the succeeding horizontal registers is in an indisputably dominant position on the lid. The rhythmical variation of the two above mentioned iconographic elements (i.e. the scarab and the winged goddess) is markedly broken by the central figure of Scene 3 (i.e. the cat seated on the nwb -sign, combined with a mAat -feather and wearing a sun disc with a uraeus on its head). The motif of the cat in the company of the imy -wt symbol makes it evident on the other hand that it fulfils exactly the same function as the scarabs appearing in the same central position in the other scenes. There is an important difference, however: the scarabs (representing the solar nature of the great god) are flanked in every case by the symbols/manifestations of his chthonic aspect (i.e. Osiris seated on his throne with a sun disc on his head), while the cat on the nwb sign unambiguously expresses both of the mentioned aspects of the great god in itself.
Cf. the tomcat-shaped manifestation of the sungod in the Litany of Re: No. 56, in Hornung 19751976, 69. Note: I am indebted to Peter Gaboda who has drawn my attention to the trigramms of Amun-Ra among which the figure of the cat is frequently combined with the mAat -sign and the n b -hieroglyph. In this case, consequently, the sign-group can be a cryptographic writing of the hidden name of Amun(-Ra). See Drioton 1957; Drioton 1958; Hornung Staehelin 1976, 119121; Malek 1993, 9293.

The other central figure, the winged goddess of Scene 2 emphasises her funerary aspect by the falcon standing on the top of the i m n t t -sign that she wears on her head. Her figure in Scene 4, on the other hand, obviously stresses her solar aspect. As for the cobra, vulture or female shaped apotropaic winged goddesses standing on both sides of the central figures, their presence and their wings guarantee protection for the different aspects of the great god (i.e. the scarabs framed by the pair of Osiris, the falcon upon the head of the central goddess, or the seated cat). On the discussed lid they can be associated chiefly with Isis and Nephthys according to the inscriptions and monograms, but in other cases, for example in the scenes of the outer decoration of the box, they can be interpreted as Nekhbet and Wadjyt as well.
For the vulture shaped apotropaic goddess appearing on 21st-dynasty Theban coffins, see van Walsem 1997, 140.

(1) The red coloured sun disc contoured by a green line vs. the green coloured sun disc contoured by a red line refer to two different aspects of the sungod. The red one is his manifestation by day, while the green (or blue) one is his nightly aspect. The appearance of both together expressively denotes the solar cycle in its entirety (van Walsem 1997, 143144). Nevertheless, the green colour also alludes to the beneficent, regenerating energy of the sungod in contrast to the destructive, punitive power of the red one (Liptay 2002). (2) The STy t -shrine is not only a frequently used space filler motif (cf. horror vacui), but also an important chthonic symbol referring to Sokar; i.e. a designation of the territory of the Netherworld. In certain cases, however, and primarily when appearing in the company of the two tutelary goddesses (the northern cobra and the southern vulture), it can be considered as a reference to the northern and southern itrt-shrines (van Walsem 1997, 129130, 169, 344). (3) The squatting, slightly bowing mummy shaped figure is reminiscent of those that appear as the Sons of Horus in the scenes occurring on some 21st-dynasty Theban coffins in connection with Osiris and the s d -feast.
For analogies, see Niwiski 1989a, 143144 and fig. 34; Niwiski 1995, fig. 36, 45, 52, 110; Mller 1901, 7273, Taf. IV (= Schmidt 1909, fig. 725).

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On the ritual level of interpretation the motif seems to be associated with the role played by the royal children during the s d -feast (Mller 1901, Abb. 2; cf. Naville 18871889, Pl. XVI). Besides this, however, the motif can be interpreted on a cosmic level as well, in the context of the solar aspect of the great god and his role fulfilled during creation. In certain cases the Sons of Horus (with the same iconography) seem to assist and adore the moment of Separating of Heaven and Earth as the members of the Ennead (Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 19, scene 5). The two figures squatting one below the other in another papyrus published by T. Andrzejewski (1959, 5051) can be identified as the gods of Chaos (Heh and Hehet), i.e. the powers taking part in the act of creation and refer to the analogous figures assisting at the birth of the sungod in the last hour of the Book of the Night versions of Ramesses VI (Piankoff Rambova 1954, fig. 130 and pl. 8) and of Osorkon II (Montet 1947, pl. XXV). The inscription attached to the figures in the referred to Warsaw papyrus is identical to that published by G. Mller (1901, Abb.2, mentioned above), therefore they can undoubtedly be identified as the Sons of Horus as well at least at this level of interpretation. For the connection of the Sons of Horus with the sungod, the solar symbolism in general and the Heh-gods in 21st-dynasty Theban funerary context, see Liptay 2003; for the motif, see also Padova 1987, 106, No. 8.
Similar mummy-shaped, chthonic figures seem to appear in some cases beyond the above discussed contexts, see Niwiski 1988a, Abb. 1b; Niwiski 1995, fig. 95; Gasse 1996, pl. XXIX, 2 (in a pair, on the top of standards) and XXX, 1 (replacing the canopic vases, under the funerary bier).

II OUTER DECORATION OF BOX (Inv. no. 51.2093/2; Pl. 2)


HEAD

The central motif of this part is a large-sized t it -symbol combined with lotus flowers (1).
For t it -symbols on head ends of 21st-dynasty coffins, see Gasse 1996, pl. XV, 2; Niwiski 1995, fig. 6, 64 and 73 (combined with Dd -columns); for the motif, see van Walsem 1997, 191192.

RIGHT SIDE (Pl. 2)

Upper frieze. The frieze running along the upper edge of the case, along the whole length of the coffin, consists of three parts. 1 a long line of inscription An offering which the king gives to Osiris, Lord of Eternity, Foremost of the Westerners, Wenennofer, Lord of Abydos, King in nHH-Eternity [1], Lord (?), the great god, he who encircles heaven [2]. May he give a thousand of things (or: bread ), a thousand jugs of beer, a thousand of oxen, a thousand of fowl, a thousand of Ht p -offering, a thousand of geese, a thousand of everything good and pure, everything good, chosen and sweet, a prt - x rw -offering to Osiris, Lord (?), Foremost of the West.
[1] The most obvious reading/interpretation is n iswt m HH , notwithstanding its unusual/incorrect writing. For 21st-dynasty occurrences of the title, see Chassinat 1909, 16; Niwiski 1995, 58, 60, 61, 62, 72; LGG IV, 331 (Der Knig whrend der nHH-Zeit ). [2] On the divine epitheton pXr p t , see LGG III, 107 (Der den Himmel durchluft ); on the magical connotations of the word pHr, see Ritner 1993, 5763, esp. 62.

2 a decorative frieze consisting of alternating coloured rectangles of different size (block-frieze) 3 a broad dark green band The vertical sequence of scenes running below the frieze comprises of six panels, which are divided from each other by one or two vertical columns of hieroglyphic inscription.
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Text 1: one column of inscription The lower part of the inscription is damaged. The upper part is mostly illegible (in k Hr (?) n b []). Perhaps it imitates an in k -utterance of one of the Sons of Horus.
For utterances of the Sons of Horus on the same spot, see e.g. Niwiski 2004, pl. XV.

Scene 1 The central figure of the scene is an Abydos-emblem standing in front of an offering table and an i my - wt symbol. The Abydos-emblem is adorned by a uraeus diadem, with an an x sign pending on the neck of the cobra that wears the Upper Egyptian crown. The pole of the i my - wt is barely visible due to a vertical crack on the surface of the box.
For the iconographically same type of the i my - wt emblem, see Jrgensen 2001, 2:10. For the Abydos-emblem represented on the same spot of the coffin box, see Lacovara Trope 2001, 48 (No. 37) and 50 (No. 38); Niwiski 1988b, pl. XVIIB.

Between the offering table and the Abydos-emblem the following space filler hieroglyphs are placed: i m n t t , nTr aA (i.e. titles referring to the Abydos-emblem that manifests the chthonic aspect of the great god). Below the richly provided offering table, between its three supports, two tall, long-shaped jars stand with lotus stems wound around their bodies.
Cf. the same jar on Scene 6 of the same side, used for performing libation. On the hieroglyphic space fillers, see van Walsem 1997, 271.

On the tripod offering table the offerings piled one above the other are arranged in three levels. The levels are divided from each other by mats. The details of the items are sketchily worked out: round and long shaped loaves of bread alternately, with a bunch of onions on the top. Text 2: one column of inscription Revered before the great god, Lord [of the West]. Scene 2 This scene makes up a symmetrical composition with the next one (Scene 3). The central figure is Osiris seated on his throne, wearing the Upper Egyptian crown, holding a mace and a whip in his hand. An offering table and an i my - wt symbol are placed in front of the deity. A cobra goddess combined with an an x -sign can be seen opposite him.
For the insignia (i.e. a stylised HD-mace and a whip) held in the hands of Osiris, see Myliwiec 1979, 206207 and Abb. 6 bc; Kffer Renfer 1997, 109, Abb. 8; Schmidt 1919, fig. 833; Chassinat 1909, pl. XIV (on the top of the heap of offerings, behind the figure stabbing Apophis); Berlev Hodjash 1998, II.6.811;

Below the offering table similarly to the former scene two tall, long-shaped jars stand with lotus stems wound around their bodies. The offering table itself contains round and long shaped pieces of bread, and pieces of meat with vegetables (a lettuce and a bunch of onions) placed on the top.
For similar components of the offering table, see Niwiski 1995, fig. 15, 17.

Text 3: one column of inscription which divides the symmetrical blocks of Scenes 2 and 3 from each other The great god, Lord of the Shetyt of the West. Scene 3 Between the offering table and the god wearing the Upper Egyptian crown and holding a mace, two i my - wt symbols can be seen. The cobra goddess is placed upon the pole of the first one. In front of Osiris the inscription nTr aA n b can be read. Under the offering table the usual two jars appear again, with a lotus bud stem around them.
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On the table bread in round and long shapes, pieces of meat (ribs of beef ?), a lettuce and a foreleg of an ox are piled, with various kinds of fruit (grapes, pomegranate, and a third type) with a cucumber on the top.
For similar kinds of fruit on the offering table, see e.g. Niwiski 1995, fig. 23 and 107; Egner Haslauer 1994, 31/46 and 46/46; Hermitage 1974, No. 101.

Text 4: two columns of inscription The great god, Lord of the Netherworld, Lord of the Shetyt, Lord of the Netherworld, Lord of [the Shetyt (?)]. Scene 4 The scene is divided into two parts by a frieze consisting of oblongs of various colours and sizes (block-frieze). In the upper register four adoring bA-birds are represented, oriented to the direction of the head of the coffin, with different quantities of stylised offerings in front of their legs (2). Behind them a cobra goddess combined with an x -sign closes the row of figures. However, her role in the composition is not limited to being merely an iconographic motif. As her body is supplemented by a t hieroglyph and the determinative of her name, the figure should be interpreted as a linguistic sign as well. The full length of the lower part of the scene is occupied by the coils of a huge, green-red striped snake; i.e. the defeated Apophis. Text 5: one column of inscription Revered before the great god. Scene 5 The central figure is a large sx m -sceptre (3). The sceptre is adorned by two m n it -counterpoises and surmounted by a green coloured sun disc surrounded by a red contour line. The sun disc is decorated on both sides with a hanging uraeus wearing the Upper Egyptian crown. Both uraei are placed above a t it -symbol. The central motif is flanked by two protective vulture goddesses, providing apotropaic power for the actual manifestation of the god. The figure of the vulture goddess (Nekhbet), similarly to the cobra occurring in the former scene (Scene 4), can be considered partly as an iconographical motif, but may be interpreted (can be read) as a hieroglyph sign as well, as the last consonant of her name and the determinative do supplement the figure. On the right side, a STy t -shrine and a d wAt -symbol are also added to the composition. The vulture on the left stands on a structure which comprises of a nwb -sign, the symbol of the lower sky and a base. Below the base a t it -sign combined with lotus flowers and a Dd -column are placed. The symbols situated below the vulture on the right are similar to the left ones: a nwb -sign, the symbol of the lower sky and a base constituted by a t it -sign between two Dd -columns. Text 6: one column of inscription I am (?) the Lord (?) of the Netherworld.
The clearly visible red-outlined n b -sign has been corrected to a papyrus roll. It seems that the two first signs may be the same as in Text 1 of this side. Probably as in that case this text column also imitates an i n k -utterance of one of the Sons of Horus (perhaps that of Duamutef?). For utterances of the Sons of Horus on the same spot, see Niwiski 2004, pl. XV.

Scene 6 The last scene of the left side displays a version of the cow emerging from the mountain, one of the most popular motifs on 21st-dynasty Theban coffins. The cow goddess wears the special head-dress of Hathor, a red saddle-cloth and the red sA-stola on her neck (van Walsem
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1997, 117118), while coming out of the mountain of the West. In front of her a bunch of papyrus stems is placed in a vase. Above her body a one-winged wDAt -eye can be seen.
For the symbolism of the vessel before the cow, see Gutbub 1961, 4650 (la vase de livresse); Keimer 195455, 226230. For the one-winged wDAt -eye, cf. the symbolism of the one-winged sun disc, see Derriks 2009.

The figure of the cow is flanked by a cobra goddess on both sides. As they are supplemented with additional hieroglyphs behind them their figures represent the writing of their names (WADy t) at the same time. The uraeus before the cow goddess is combined with an an x -sign, while the other one in front of the mountain is placed on a platform comprised of a mat and a Hb -sign. At the slope of the hill, behind the cobra goddess, a STy t -sign can be seen, denoting that the action of the scene belongs to the sphere of the underworld.
Note: The STy t -sign can also refer to the tomb entrance often represented in this context, partly emerging from the hillside.

Text 7: two columns of inscription Revered before Osiris, Lord (?), the great god, Lord of the Netherworld. Upper frieze. The frieze running along the upper edge of the box, along the whole length of the coffin, comprises of three parts. 1 a long line of inscription An offering which the king gives to [Osiris], Lord of Eternity, Foremost (of the Westerners), Wenennofer, Lord of Abydos, [King in] nHH-Eternity [1], Lord of Dt -Eternity, the great god, he who encircles heaven [2]. May he give a thousand of [everything, a thousand of bread ], a thousand jugs of beer, a thousand of oxen and fowl, a thousand of Ht p -offering, a thousand of geese and of everything good and pure, a thousand of every(thing) good, chosen and sweet.
[1] See the parallel text on the right side. [2] See the parallel text on the right side. LEFT SIDE (Pl. 2)

2 a decorative frieze consisting of oblongs of alternating colour and size (block-frieze) 3 a broad dark green band Text 1: one column of inscription Revered before []. Scene 1 Cf. Scene 1 on the opposite side The Abydos-symbol that represents the chtonic aspect of the great god stands before an offering table and an i my - wt -sign. The emblem is equipped with a m n it -counterpoise and adorned by a uraeus diadem, which has an an x -sign hanging on the neck. In front of the Abydos-symbol, the divine titles (nTr aA n b i m n t t) can be read, referring to the divine emblem. Above the small offering table heaped with pieces of bread, jars, pieces of meat and a lettuce, a vulture goddess stands on a nwb -sign, with the usual grammatical supplements of her name behind her figure. In front of the table the figure of the cobra goddess occurs, combined with an an x -sign. Text 2: one column of inscription Revered before the great god, Lord of the West.
COFFINS 15

Scene 2 Unlike the analogous scene on the same spot of the opposite side, the symmetrically arranged pair of scenes is not separated by any kind of bordering motif or divider. On the right side Osiris appears seated on his throne, wearing the Upper Egyptian crown and the sSd -fillet, holding an an x -sign in his hand instead of his royal insignia. In front of him stands an i my - wt symbol. On the top of the symbol a cobra-shaped goddess (WADy t) is depicted. She is supplemented by the signs of the last two linguistic components of her name. Before the head of Osiris the epitheton nTr aA is placed referring to his divine feature. It is complemented by an i m n t t -emblem denoting the territory where the depicted event takes place. The two last consonants of the word, however, due to the lack of space, were transferred to the left half of scene. The composition is closed with a piled high offering table that occupies the whole height of the scene-block. The offering table contains the following items: various kinds of bread, a lettuce, a bunch of onions, and a lotus flower on the top. Under the table two jars are placed with lotus stems wound around them. Below the altar an additional lettuce can be found. The left one of the twin scenes is more or less symmetrical to the other. The only difference is that the figure of Osiris on the left holds his usual royal insignia (crook and flagellum) in his hand. The offering gifts piled upon the table are also almost identical to those on the right scene. In the upper left corner, however, additional offerings (stylised types of bread) are listed as space filler motifs. Text 3: one column of inscription [?] Osiris, Lord (?), the great god, Lord of the West. Scene 3 Similarly to the analogous scene of the opposite side it is also divided into two parts by a horizontal mat-like borderline. In the upper part three bA-birds can be seen in an adoring gesture, facing the direction of the head of the coffin. In front of each figure offering gifts are placed (2). The heads of the first two are decorated with a stylised lotus flower. Behind the last one an inscription (d wAt) can be read, referring to the otherworldly scene of action. The partly damaged lower part of the decoration is constituted by a row of t it -symbols combined with lotus flowers supporting the upper half of the scene. Text 4: one column The Shetyt (?), Lord of the West. Scene 4 The relatively long panel consists of two parts presented side by side, performing two different levels of the same action. The central figure of the right one is Osiris appearing on his throne with the Lower Egyptian crown on his head, holding an an x -sign in both hands. The word nTr beside his head refers to his (and the deceaseds) regenerated and divine state. In front of the god the i my - wt symbol is placed in the usual fashion, although this time slightly differing from the type depicted on other parts of the coffin. Due to the lack of space the offering table is symbolically substituted by a vessel with a conical top, which contains unguents, a lotus flower and a lettuce. Opposite Osiris a cobra goddess protectively spreads her wings towards him, designated by the name Neith written above her head.
For the (dark) green colour of the Lower Egyptian crown, see van Walsem 1997, 134.

The left part of the composition displays the funerary rites performed in front of the tomb, before entombment. The mummified deceased stands at the entrance of the tomb decorated by a pyramidion on its top. On the two sides of the pyramidion two words (dwAt and i m n t t)
16 COFFINS

can be read, indicating the chthonic locale of the events. In front of the mummy a mourning woman squats behind a small, stylised offering table, with a sketchily designed ointment cone and lotus bud on her head. Behind her figure the symbol of the chthonic god, the i my - wt emblem is depicted, with some barely legible hieroglyphic signs in front of it (aAbt, n b i m n t t).
For the typology of ointment cones in the Third Intermediate Period funerary art, see Taylor 2003, 101. For the occurrence of the word aAbt used as a space filler motif in the same context, see Niwiski 1995, fig. 110.

Before the i my - wt emblem the funerary priest performs the rite. He holds an an x -sign in one hand and offers a sx m -sceptre towards the mummy with the other (4). His head is adorned with an ointment cone and a lotus bud. Above his outstretched arm the figure of the cobra goddess is supplemented by some additional signs which jointly make up the written form of her name (WADy t), an additional d wA(t)-sign and three strokes.
For the common association fields of the sx m -sceptre, the ritual of Opening of the Mouth and the slaughtering of oxen, see Otto 1960, 7378 and 102103; 23 IIIII and 24 II, Abb. 1/43; Jquier 1921, 325; Roth 2001, 608. Cf. the man driving oxen towing the funerary carriage who lifts the sceptre in one hand: van Walsem 1997, 225, 237, fig. 11.

The two short columns of inscription (Ws ir n b nHH n b(t) pr Sm ay t Im n) that can be read in front of the mummy makes it obvious that the deceased taking over the divine qualities and titles of Osiris is identified with the god. Additionally, the inscription reveals that she was a chantress of Amun at Karnak in her life, but does not give her name.
On the frequently occurring n b nHH epitheton, see LGG III, 667669.

Text 5: two columns of inscription Revered before Osiris, Lord, Foremost of the West, the great god, Lord of the Shetyt of the Netherworld.
The n b sTy t d wAt (Der Herr des Schetitheiligtums der Unterwelt ) is a rarely used epitheton referring to Osiris, apparently occurring exclusively in the Third Intermediate Period (LGG III, 756).

Scene 5 (Pl. 2) The last scene of the left side represents a version of the motif of the cow-shaped goddess coming out from the western mountain of the desert side necropolis, cf. the same panel on the opposite side. She stands on a mat base, wearing the typical Hathoresque attributes: a headdress, a red saddle-cloth and a red sA-stola on her neck. In front of her feet appears the vessel with the bunch of papyrus stems, an iconographical motif that is typical in this context.
For the symbolism of the vessel before the cow, see Gutbub 1961, 4650 (la vase de livresse); Keimer 195455, 226230.

Behind the vessel, on the mat base a symbolic offering gift (a stylised Ht p -sign) is also added. Above the body of the cow goddess a winged cobra is placed surrounded with the signs of her name (Neith). The figure of the cow is flanked by the protective figures of the Two Mistresses. In front of the cow the cobra and the vulture appear standing on nwb -pedestals. Below the cobra the hieroglyph of the lower sky can be recognised. The additional hieroglyphs around their figures (the t -signs below the lower sky and the STy t -shrine behind the right cobra) refer to the fact that the figures of the goddesses can be interpreted either as linguistic signs or as iconographical symbols (5). Behind the cow the vulture goddess combined with a wAs -sceptre stands on a composed base constructed by a nwb -symbol, the sign of the lower sky and supplemented with the word d wAt .
COFFINS 17

In front of the mountain the cobra goddess can be seen with an anx -sign hanging on her neck. The other central figure of the composition is the priest pouring most likely water; i.e. performing a libation ritual in the presence of the goddess. The jar held in his hands has the same iconography as the tall, long-shaped ones usually appearing below the altars, wound with lotus bud stems around their bodies (6).
For a libation for the goddess of the West which might have been performed during the burial rite in the necropolis, see Settgast 1963, 6465; Wilkinson 1994, 191; see also the priest performing a libation ritual before Osiris and Isis, in Schmidt 1919, fig. 790; and the priest pouring water for a bA-bird, in Niwiski 1995, fig. 111.

Text 6: one column of inscription Revered before Osiris, Lord of []. The footboard is undecorated.
NOTES ONTHE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE OUTER DECORATION OF THE BOX

General remarks The subsequent scenes of the right and left sides regularly display symmetrically composed variants of the same theme. In the case of Scene 1, the topic is the same on both sides of the head: the presentation of the offering table before the personified Abydos-emblem. The (twin) Scene 2 of the left side and Scenes 2 and 3 of the right side also have the same subject: the performance of offerings before Osiris seated on his throne.
Cf. Scenes 2 and 3 of both sides of the coffin Inv. no. 51.2096, in the present catalogue: the same theme is elaborated on the same spot and in the same way (i.e. by means of twin scenes).

The third composition (right Scene 4 and left Scene 3) of both sides is divided horizontally into two parts (an upper and a lower register) and the main figures are the adoring bA-birds with offering gifts in front of them. The focal point of Scene 5 on the right side is a large-sized sx m -sceptre, i.e. one of the manifestations of the great god. It obviously parallels with the message of Scene 4 occurring on the same spot of the opposite side where the priest performing the funerary rites for the deceased presents the same sceptre to her. The personified sx m -sceptre conveys the same symbolism in a more figurative sense. The different levels of interpretation displayed in parallel emphasise the common core meaning. The last scenes on both sides give two slightly different versions of the motif with the cow goddess coming out of the western mountain the usual decoration displayed on the foot ends of 21st-dynasty Theban coffin box sides. According to the above, it can be unambiguously established that the composer of the scenes deliberately made an effort to create iconographic and conceptual symmetry in arrangement. (1) The t it -sign symbolising and manifesting Isis is a very common motif of the head end of contemporaneous Theban coffin boxes. Although the traditional protective goddess of this place is Nephthys, and the usual place of Isis mourning for Osiris is on the foot end, the goddesses can occasionally replace by one another (van Walsem 1997, 191192). The role of Isis on the head end can also be explained by the fact that the foot end is often undecorated on these types of coffins. (2) A similar motif appears in the upper register of the 9th section of the Book of Gates where one can encounter nine bA-birds adoring and greeting the sungod. In front of the bAbirds portions of offerings are placed (bread and vegetables) which constitutes provisions for them on the Island of Fire, according to the adjacent text. The bA component of the personality ensures mobility for the deceased, i.e. the ability to move freely between the sky and the Netherworld. The offering meal assigned for the bA is necessary to ensure eternal life after death and following the bA of the sungod ascending into the sky.
18 COFFINS

The Island of Fire that can be located at the eastern border of the sky, is in the same place where the enemy of the sungod (Apophis) is to be defeated at dawn, before sunrise, and where the Primeval Hill emerges from the Abyss. Therefore, at different levels of interpretation, this mythical island can be identified as (1) the first visible manifestation of creation as well as with (2) the meeting point for the living and the dead which provides a channel of communication between the two spheres and, consequently, can be located in the territory of the cemetery (Assmann 1969, 242, n. 75 and 271271).
Some 21st-dynasty variants tend to emphasise the solar aspects of the scene, but the number of the birds is obviously not fixed: Schmidt 1919, fig. 755; Perdu Rickal 1994, 29, fig. 13; Niwiski 1995, fig. 59, 61, 62, 76; Lacovara Trope 2001, 47; Stadler 2001, Taf. XVIII; Schmidt 1919, fig. 853; Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 26; Piankoff-Rambova 1957, No. 28; Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 29 and No. 30; Nagel 1929, Pl. IV and pl. VIII; Egner Haslauer 1994, 39/46. See also the motif of three bA-birds standing on a standard: Chassinat 1909, Pl. XIV and Schmidt 1919, fig. 682 (after the scene of defeating Apophis, a generously laden offering table and the motif of the four oars). In another case bA-birds occur associated with the scene of Separating Heaven and Earth: Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 19, scene 5. A version of this scene can also be found in the tomb of Osorkon II (Montet 1947, pl. XXXVII) where the central figure is a ram-headed, mummy shaped deity wearing a sun disc upon its head.

(3) The sx m -sceptre can be primarily associated with Anubis and Osiris (as the father of Anubis). Other concepts, however, attribute a solar character to Anubis. In this constellation his father is Re, while his mother is one of the cow-shaped goddesses (Nephthys, Hathor or Hesat), see van Walsem 1997, 305306. On the other hand, Anubis is also closely linked to Wepwawet, whose strong solar associations were due to the role which he played in defeating the enemies of the sungod. In some 21st-dynasty versions of the Litany of Re the sx m -symbol appears among the nightly manifestations of the sungod.
For the s x m -sceptre with m n it -counterpoise as an aspect of the sungod, see Niwiski 1995, fig. 48d; Niwiski 1988c, Abb. 2b; Piankoff 1964, 91 and 151 (with the name Anubis); Piankoff 1964, 115; Osiris with a similar sceptre upon his head and with the name Anubis: Taylor 2001b, 29, fig. 13 (in this context see also Niwiski 1999, fig. 97); the s x m -sceptre with two mummy-shaped, snake-headed deities: Niwiski 1995, fig. 4; s x m sceptre on the head of a mummified figure: Niwiski 1999, fig. 21.

Within the complex, multi-levelled symbolism of the sx m -concept, the meaning cult image must also play a significant role in this context; cf. the three components of the entity of the great god: the Body (Underworld), the BA (Heaven) and the Image (Temple) (Assmann 1969, 193). (4) Regaining control over the eyes and mouth, and generally of the senses as a high point of the funerary ritual is one of the vital preconditions of rebirth after death. At a mythical level it was symbolised by the offering of the Horus-eye to Osiris which, according to the Pyramid Texts, provided control over the bAw and sx m powers, see Roeder 1994, 5761. The sxm power is one of the extra qualities possessed by divine beings and the blessed dead, and manifests itself in the cult statue as well. In the Pyramid Texts the word sxm is associated with the ruling power gained by the deceased. The sxm power manifests itself in the most obvious way in triumph over enemies/hostile powers. Therefore the offering of the sxm -sceptre is closely linked to the ritual of defeating enemies (i.e. the triumph of Horus over Seth and the triumph of the sungod over Apophis) performed in the course of the funerary ritual, symbolised by the slaughtering of oxen. This motif perfectly reflects the idea how the regularly presented offering meal provides an opportunity for the deceased to take possession of the sxm power again and again. This is why the offering of the sxm -sceptre symbolises rebirth in one scene, while the personification of the same sceptre alludes to the regenerated ruler (Osiris) on the opposite side; see also Willems 1988, 150.
COFFINS 19

(5) The two goddesses flanking the divine figure seem to symbolise one of the aspects of Hathor; i.e. her title Mistress of the Two Lands. However, the cobra above the body of the goddess on the other hand, she appears to refer to another divine aspect, the Solar Eye, see Liptay, 2003, 12. (6) The presence of the cow-shaped goddess (i.e. the representation of the divine emanation) can be interpreted on (at least) three different levels. Being the goddess of the sky (the Heavenly Cow) she receives the sungod just arriving at the edge of the western horizon into her body and helps him to embark upon his nightly boat. The chthonic aspects of the goddess (e.g. the goddess of the West), on the other hand, assist the deceased, who has reached the entrance of the tomb, to pass through the liminal zone lying between the terrestrial world and the Beyond. The libation performed by the priest for the cult statue of the goddess, on the other hand, refers to the ritual level of interpretation.
For the origin and symbolism of the motif, see in Pinch 1993, 175179; Heyne 1998; Blumenthal 2000; Liptay 2003; Niwiski 2006b, 263; Pischikova 2008, 190195; Liptay forthcoming.

The inner decoration of the box is polychrome on a dark red base.


For the anatomical contour of the box, see van Walsem 1993, 42, fig. 5d. HEAD

III INNER DECORATION OF BOX (Pl. 3)

On the crown of the head the central figure is a bA-bird represented en face (1). On the right of the bA is the inscription d i wAs, while on the left side the inscription d it an x can be read. Under the wings, on the right side the words n b and i m n t , on the left side the hieroglyphs an x and pr are placed.
For the occurrence of the inscription d i an x on the same spot, see Egner Haslauer 1994, 32/35.

BOTTOM

The surface of the bottom to the line of the knees is entirely occupied by a representation of a large-sized goddess of the West who holds a HqA-crook in her right hand, and an an x -sign in her left. The i m n t t -symbol on the head of the goddess is surrounded by the coils of a uraeus facing her. The body of the animal is combined with an an x -sign pendent on its neck.
For analogies, see Gasse 1996, pl. XXVI, 1; Chassinat 1909, pl. I (6002) and III (6014,B); Egner Haslauer 1994, 21/36; Berlev Hodjash 1998, pl. 28; Niwiski 1985, fig. 1a. On the same spot the Mehen-snake can also appear in the same context: Gasse 1996, Pl. XXIX, 14; Niwiski 1995, fig. 3.

Below the cobra a vulture goddess combined with an an x -sign stands on a Hb -symbol (van Walsem 1997, 137). Under the vulture a STy t -chapel appears with additional hieroglyphs of the word.
The vulture is a frequent motif beside the goddess on this spot: Gasse 1996, pl. XXI, 2; XXVI, 1.

Under the sign-group STy t , next to the legs of the large-sized goddess a very fragmentary and barely visible motif occurs. It depicts a standard with offerings heaped upon it. In addition, there is a jar on the ground, on both sides of the standards pole. For analogies, see Gasse 1996, pl. XXIX, 14 (on the inner decoration of the box: a bA-bird and two of the Sons
of Horus squatting on the standard on each side); van Walsem 1997, fig. 204 (on the outer decoration of the box, next to the crown of the head); Niwiski 1995, Pl. IV, 2 (on the outer decoration of the box).

Behind the figure of the large-sized goddess a hieroglyphic inscription can be read: di anx mi Ra. Under her feet, below the nwb -sign, some additional hieroglyphs (three pr-signs) appear. At the line of the knees, the representation of the large-sized goddess is separated from the two narrow lower registers by a black stripe. The decoration of these lower registers is in a rather fragmentary condition, but in the upper register a figure of a vulture (with a m n it counterpoise on her neck and with an an x -sign in front of her) is still discernible.
For the vulture goddess on the same spot, see e.g. Padova 1987, 106 (No. 8).

20

COFFINS

The lowermost register must once have been decorated with large-sized hieroglyphs which have almost entirely disappeared, except for the wAs -sceptre on the right side and the loop of an an x -sign (or of a t it -knot ?) on the left side.
For analogies, see Jrgensen 2001, 2:25; Gasse 1996, pl. XXIX, 1; van Walsem 1997, fig. 315; Egner Haslauer 1994, 18/36.

On both sides in three registers, pairs of mummy-shaped figures line up, with red straps crossed over their chests. All of them face the same direction; i.e. outwards from the coffin. Each register is divided by thick yellow and black stripes from the other. The only exception is the lowermost register on the right where a white stripe is placed under the yellow one. Upper register 1 the head of the figure is made up by a sun disc flanked by two knives (2); in front of it a HqA-crook is placed with an additional t hieroglyph below it
For analogies, see Niwiski 1995, Pl. XIX, 3, 4 (on the inner decoration of the box); Niwiski 1999, fig. 41, 76, pl. XV.1; see an additional figure among the mummy-shaped beings in the coils of a huge snake, in Scene 1 of a contemporaneous funerary papyrus (Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts, Inv. no. 51.2547; Liptay 2006a, 2006b; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 36); cf. also the sun disc between two feathers on the head of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris (Varga 1987, fig. 14).

SIDES

RIGHT SIDE

2 snake-headed
The snake-headed beings are very common among the divine figures of the chthonic sphere (e.g. Niwiski 1988a, Abb. 2b; Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 10, No. 6).

In front of both figures there is a n m s t -vessel placed on a stand. Middle register 1 feather-headed; in front of him some hieroglyphs n b n rwt and aA STy t (?) can be read
The title n b n rw (Lord of Fear) originally belonged to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Osiris or Anubis (van Walsem 1997, 292; Niwiski 1995, 34). On the title, see LGG III, 664665; see also Bruyre 1952; Grist 1985. For vulture-headed chthonic beings as psychopompi, see Goff 1979, 244 and fig. 157.

2 feather-headed; with the hieroglyph pr in front of it


For analogies, see Niwiski 1988c, Abb. 2b and Niwiski 19871988, fig. 3 (in a version of the Litany of Re); Schmidt 1919, fig. 865; Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 10, No. 6.

In front of both figures there is a n m s t -vessel placed on a stand. Lower register 1 fire-headed; in front of it a n m s t -vessel placed on a stand and the title nTr aA STy t 2 fire-headed; with an i m n t t -sign in front of it
For analogies, see Gasse 1996, XVII, 2; XVIII (on the inner decoration of the coffin). The motif is fairly common among the figures occurring in the versions of the Litany of Re in 21st-dynasty funerary papyri (Piankoff 1964, 70, 75, 87, 88, 92, 94, 96); see also the chthonic divine beings on coffin box sides (Schmidt 1919, fig. 705; Gasse 1996, pl. XVI, 2), and the members of the tribunal of the Underworld in funerary papyri of the same period (Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 6).

Upper register 1 ape-headed; in front of it a n m s t -vessel placed on a stand and the word x n ty 2 ape-headed, in front of it a n m s t -vessel placed on a stand and the i m n t t -sign (the two words inscribed in front of the figures forms the title x n ty i m n t t)
Similar ape-headed figures are very common among the chthonic beings represented on Theban coffins and funerary papyri of the same period. The mummy-shaped, ape-headed deity in most cases can probably be identified as Hapi who can refer by itself pars pro toto to the Four Sons of Horus (van Walsem 1997, 306).

LEFT SIDE

COFFINS

21

Middle register 1 snake-headed; in front of it a n m s t -vessel placed on a stand with the i m n t t - and n f rsigns 2 snake-headed; in front of it the fragmentary parts of the same n mst -vessel placed on a stand; above its head additional hieroglyphs: a t and the sign of the dual Lower register 1 crane-headed; in front of it a n m s t -vessel placed on a stand
For analogies, see Chassinat 1909, fig. 49; Schmidt 1919, fig. 833, 860 (two-headed); Niwiski 1988b, fig. 42, Niwiski 1995, fig. 19, 21, 35; Egner Haslauer 1994, 15/27; Nagel 1929, pl. IV.

2 snake-headed; in front of it a n m s t -vessel placed on a stand and the i m n t t -sign Above the two figures the n bt s nD title can be read.
NOTES ON THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE INNER DECORATION OF THE BOX

General remarks The inner decoration (and especially the bottom) of the middle piece (the so-called inner coffin) of 21st-dynasty coffin ensembles is often in a rather poor condition owing to the direct contact with the materials used during mummification (van Walsem 1997, 305 and n. 974), just as in the case of the discussed coffin. The decoration of the base and the sides are independent iconographic elements (centrifugal composition, see Niwiski 1988b, 92; Aston 2009, 271). The chthonic divine beings lining up in registers on the two sides of the box look outwards from the coffin. The background of the decoration is dark red (Niwiski 1988b, 9097; Ikram Dodson 1998, 232). In the earlier period of the coffin type the inner surface of the bottom was regularly occupied by a large-sized, central figure of a deity (the goddess of the West or Osiris/the Dd -pillar). Later, however, this dominance of large-sized figures on coffin bottoms was gradually replaced by a more horizontal arrangement. The process finally resulted in the appearance of vignette-type scenes covering the whole surface between the sidewalls (van Walsem 1997, 8990). The bottom of the displayed coffin clearly shows the dominance of the above mentioned large-sized figure of a deity (the goddess of the West actually) on the red background (vertical centrifugal composition, see Niwiski 1988b, 95). (1) The bA-bird represented en face or in profile has Ramesside origins (van Walsem 1997, 270271). The scene records the very moment when the bA after traversing the sky in the company of the sungod is descending to start its nightly visit through the Netherworld, return to the tomb and unify with the mummy lying in the coffin (Niwiski 1989, 62).
For the bA-bird en face on the head end of the inner decoration of 21st-dynasty coffin boxes, see e.g. the next item of the present catalogue (Inv. no. 51.2095); Babraj Szymaska 2000, No. 23; Gasse 1996, pl. XII, 2, 3 and pl. XXX, 14; Hornung 1976, 30; Kffer Renfer 1997, 10, Abb. 5; Patch 1990, p. 80, No. 62; Schmidt 1919, fig. 756, 793; van Walsem 1997, fig. 235, 431, 432; Stewart 1986, pl. 7 and 10. Cf. other figures represented en face in 21st-dynasty Theban funerary iconography: Schmidt 1919, fig. 794 (mourning woman en face); Schmidt 1919, fig. 842 (a chthonic deity en face); Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 22 (a funerary papyrus the iconography of which focuses on the depiction of chthonic figures represented en face).

(2) The sun disc between two knives as head-dress or rather as an attribute worn on the head can be associated with Atum travelling in the night barque (Myliwiec 19781979, 2, 263264). Therefore, this figure undoubtedly refers to one of the manifestations of the sungod in the Netherworld.

22

COFFINS

Inv. no. 51.2094/12


Anthropoid inner coffin (yellow type; colour scheme: polychrome decoration on a yellow background) Wood (sycamore / Ficus sycomorus), plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), varnish Height 189 cm Width 52 cm Depth (at the footboard) 56 cm Date: end of 21st Dynasty Name / Titles: anonym / no titles Provenance unknown, but presumably from Western Thebes Presumably from the ex-collection of Ferenc Kiss, purchased in 184344 and donated to the Hungarian National Museum in the 19th century; transfer from the Hungarian National Museum in 1934 (as No. 786) Until 1936 it seems to have contained a mummy, but after the opening of the coffin in 1936 the mummy was lost. I am indebted to Tams Mekis for the references concerning the ex-collection of Ferenc Kiss. On the footboards of the lid and the box: a red number 8, referring to the inv. number given at the opening of the coffin in 1936. Condition: the outer decoration is apart from some damage to the decoration in good condition; the inner decoration of the bottom is totally damaged; restored (1995) Literature: Oroszln Dobrovits 1939, 8384 (No. 86); Varga Wessetzky 1955, 67; 19643, 5; Varga 1974, 19792, 3034; Varga 1988; Niwiski 1988b, No. 60; Nagy 1999a, 5659; Liptay 2003, 22, 135, fig. 6; Liptay in Czre 2007, no. 1; Liptay 2008a, 45, fig. 8; Liptay 2008c; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 32.

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 46)

I LID (Inv. no. 51.2094/1; Pl. 4)


The face is framed by a single-coloured tripartite wig which has an even surface on the crown of the head, while the two moulded lappets under the head-dress have a pattern made of monochrome small rectangles with a moulded surface.
For the elaboration and decoration of the wig, see van Walsem 1997, fig. 250251. HEAD

Above the forehead the wig is covered by a hairband which runs around the head and is decorated with a floral petal motif. The forehead is adorned by a bouquet of three lotus flowers in the middle that links to a broad red and yellow striped band running along the top of the head down to the back of the neck. The face is framed and the ears are covered by a stylised vulture head-dress, an attribute representing Nekhbet.
For the classification of the head-dress, see van Walsem 1997, 111114 (IIbIV)

At the height of the shoulders the lappets are decorated with a threefold (red-yellow-red) lappet band. The right lappet of the wig is partly damaged.
For the classification of the lappet band, see van Walsem 1997, 111114 (IIc).

On the neck, directly below the chin, two red wavy lines mark the wrinkles on the throat.
For analogies, see e.g. Budapest 51.2096 (see below); Antwerp 1995, AV 88.1 (front cover).

The finely cut eyes have a faraway look. A slight smile playing across the full lips endows the face with a kind of peaceful, solemn countenance. The two lappets of the wig partly cover the stylised moulded breasts which are each adorned by a rosette.
For similarly stylised breasts, see Kffer Renfer 1997; Niwiski 1988b, pl. IVA, VI, XII COLLAR

COFFINS

23

The actual wsx -collar is a richly decorated composition of motifs, comprising of several stylised vegetal wreaths, covering the greater part of the abdomen down to the hip. It alternates three main motifs: 1 a sharp-edged petal motif (van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Ad) 2 an alternating coloured, red-blue rectangle pattern, with a point in the middle of each rectangle (van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Aa; see the pattern of the hair-band above) 3 a round-shaped petal motif (van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Ab) The lowermost and broadest wreath consists of alternating lotus and papyrus flowers in profile, with two other flowers appearing between them. The latter two are represented en face (van Walsem 1997, 122, Va). The chest between the two lappets of the wig is adorned by the same sharp-edged petal motif that was used in the decoration of the collar. The motif of the separately carved, outstretched hands is one of the most striking features which were intended to indicate the female sex of the dead lying inside the coffin. The band beneath the wrists placed in a crossed position on each other is decorated with a garland of lotus flowers.
LOWER PART OF LID

In the triangle-shaped corner enclosed by the right edge of the collar and the edge of the lid a squatting, mummy-shaped figure appears with a sun disc on its head, and with a t it -sign above it. At the same spot on the left a similar squatting, mummy-shaped figure occurs, wearing an ointment cone and a lotus flower on its head. Above the figure further space filler signs were added to the composition. From the edge of the collar downwards on both sides a one-columned inscription occupies the whole length of the lid, containing poorly elaborated hieroglyphic signs which were intended to imitate an offering formula. The space between the garland of lotus flowers that forms the lowermost part of the collar and the line of knees is divided into two by horizontal scene blocks. Both of them are flanked by winged sun discs at the upper and lower borderlines. On both sides of each sun disc an i m n t t -sign is discernible, sometimes supplemented with d wAt -signs. The uppermost and lowermost sun discs are red, the middle one, however, has lost its coat of paint, thus revealing the wooden surface of the coffin. Scene 1 The central figure of the scene block flanked by the upper and middle sun discs is a HH-god kneeling on a three-levelled base of mat, wearing a sun disc on its head, and holding its attribute, the long palm-ribs in its hands.
For HH -figures represented on coffins of the period, see Verner 1982, 54/75 (in the same position, on the lid); van Walsem 1997, fig. 477; Niwiski 2006a, pl. 32 (b) (appearing on the inner decoration of the box)

The HH-god is flanked on each side by the figure of Osiris sitting on his throne, with a red sun disc on his head. In front of them an offering table and a stylised vegetable (a kind of lettuce) are placed. Around all the three above mentioned figures some almost completely illegible hieroglyphlike space filling signs can be seen. The central motif is bordered on both sides by an apotropaic goddess who stretches her wings towards the central deity. The body of the right one is substituted by a triangle-shaped sign (rd i?), while the left one is represented as a human-headed female deity, with a sun disc upon her head. By their heads and behind their bodies meaningless space filling signs are placed. In addition to these, behind both figures an i m n t t -symbol stands as the closing motif of the scene. The scene is divided from the middle winged sun disc by a frieze combining different coloured blocks (block-frieze).
24 COFFINS

Scene 2 The central figure of the scene band bordered by the middle and the lower winged sun disc is a sx m -sceptre, the top of which is surmounted by a green sun disc. In front of the sceptre stylised vegetables are placed on both sides. The central motif of the sx m is flanked by the figure of Osiris seated on his throne, wearing a red sun disc on his head. In front of the gods an offering table appears surrounded by space filler signs imitating hieroglyphs. The central group is bordered on each side by the apotropaic cobra-shaped goddess spreading her wings towards them. They wear red sun discs upon their heads. Around their bodies space fillers, and behind the left one additional d wAt -signs can be recognised. On the right side, the right lower part of the middle winged sun disc and the body of the cobra goddess are damaged. Behind the goddess there are signs imitating the Ht p - d i - n iswt formula, while on the same spot on the left side an i m n t t -symbol is represented. The scene is divided from the lower winged sun disc by a frieze combining different coloured blocks (block-frieze). The surface between the lower winged sun disc and the toes is divided vertically into three zones by means of two hieroglyphic text columns flanked by two friezes consisting of short, coloured bands. The text columns comprise of signs intending to imitate the usual offering formula (Ht p - d i - n iswt) and some divine titles of Osiris.
The tripartite decoration of the lower part (generally cca. from the line of the knees) can be observed from the pontificate of Pinodjem II (van Walsem 1997, 358; Daressy 1909, pl. 42ff.)

In the middle column three scene panels follow each other. Scene 1 Its upper border is occupied by a frieze consisting of a row of uraei wearing sun discs, followed by a band imitating a mat base and finally a stylised Hb -platform. Below the complex border motif the actual scene panel again represents a sx m -sceptre surmounted by a green (?) sun disc which is flanked by a squatting figure of Osiris wearing a red sun disc on each side. The two deities hold their divine insignia in their hands. The offering tables placed in front of them are almost indiscernible and surrounded by space filler signs.
For analogies with the squatting divinity on panels of lids, see Psota 2001, 35, fig. 23.

Scene 2 The border motif between Scenes 1 and 2 is a frieze combining two different motifs: a broader frieze consisting of horizontally red and green hatched columns which is flanked by a pair of bands imitating a mat base (and can be considered as a kind of cavetto cornice imitation).
For this type of frieze, see van Walsem 1997, fig. 40; Egner Haslauer 1994, 31/37 (where below the frieze of uraei a similar band formed by hatched columns can be found).

As for the key motif of the second scene itself, that is again a sx m -sceptre surmounted by a green sun disc, flanked by two standing mummy-shaped deities who are wearing red sun discs on their heads. Between the figures are virtually indiscernible space filler signs. The base of the scene is formed by a Hb -platform. Scene 3 The third scene is separated from the former one by a broad frieze consisting of uraei with a sun disc, followed by a Hb -platform, another broad frieze with horizontally red and green hatched columns (the cavetto cornice-type) and a band imitating a mat base. The prominent figure of this scene is similarly to the above a sx m -sceptre adorned with a red sun disc. On both sides of the sceptre a squatting figure of Osiris can be seen, with
COFFINS 25

crossed arms on his chest and wearing a red sun disc on his head. Around the figures there are space filler motifs which are not identifiable. The base of the scene is formed by a Hb platform. The remaining space downwards to the toes is filled by the following decorative motifs: a broad frieze with the row of uraei adorned by sun discs, followed by a mat base and an almost unrecognisable Hb -platform, closed with a cavetto cornice-type frieze. Both the right and left side columns consist of three scene panels separated from each other by friezes and bands similar to the middle column. The scene panels of the two outer columns are symmetrical to each other. Scene 1 The first panel is bordered from above by a band containing a frieze with a row of uraei wearing sun discs on their heads, a mat base and a Hb -platform. The prominent figure of the first scene on both sides is a mummy-shaped deity sitting on a throne with a lotus bud on its head. In front of it offering gifts are presented, among which only two vegetables (a kind of lettuce) can be recognised. The space filling motifs are similar to those ones used on other spots of the lid. In addition to the above listed motifs, at the end of the right side an additional standing mummy-shaped figure is attached, with space filler motifs behind it. The base of the scene is formed by a Hb -platform followed by a frieze consisting of horizontally red and green hatched columns. Scene 2 The scene is also framed from above by a frieze of uraei with sun discs nad a mat base. The topic of the composition is similar to that of the former scene: it displays the mummy-shaped deity in front of the offering table. The lower border of the panel is formed by a mat base. Below it a cavetto cornice-type frieze serves as an introductory motif to the next panel. Scene 3 The panel is filled by the stylised figure of a winged goddess, the right one of which is cobrashaped. Below the panel the remaining space at both corners is decorated with red and green concentric lines. A blue-red-blue striped pattern runs along the edge of the footboard. The footboard is undecorated.
NOTES ON THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE LID

General remarks According to the typology elaborated by A. Niwiski (1988b, 72) the lid can be classified as type IIIb (cf. J. H. Taylors IB, see Aston 2009, 272273), which was introduced sometime during the second half of the pontificate of Pinodjem II and was in use as late as the beginning of the 22nd Dynasty. Most of the coffins of this type are of a relatively poor quality, even if they were made for a member of the high priests family. A lot of them are anonymous. The possible iconographic criteria for typology / dating are as follows: The three protecting deities bordering the two scene bands between the broad collar and the area of the knees are winged sun discs with straight (not curved) wings (see van Walsem 1997, 163164). On both sides of the scenes the figures of the human- or cobra-shaped winged apotropaic goddess the typical iconographic motif of this spot spread their wings towards the central figures (van Walsem 1997, 165). The surface of the lid in its whole length from the line of the knees to the toes is divided into three blocks by two vertical borderlines. These borderlines themselves comprise of three parts: a single text column between two block-friezes. Each of the three blocks consists of three scene panels. The horizontal borderlines between the scene panels (e.g. the frieze of
26 COFFINS

uraei with sun discs or the stylised cavetto cornice motif) bear a close resemblance to the elements used in funerary and temple architecture.
For the decoration on the lower part of the lid, see van Walsem 1997, 176178 and 358359. For the symbolism of the frieze of uraei with sun discs (as reference to the Hall of the Double Maat and BD 125, see van Walsem 1997, 185; Seeber 1976, 65.

The decoration of the surface below the knees is in a marked contrast to the typically horizontal arrangement of decoration between the collar and the knees. This apparent difference between the iconographic arrangements of the upper and lower parts of the lid is apt to lend yet greater emphasis to the geometric (and robust) appearance of the lower region.
For the decoration covering the area of legs in stola-type material, see van Walsem 1997, fig. 40.

The discussed coffin lid may be the characteristic piece of a transitional period introducing the latest phase. The sun discs surmounting the frieze of uraei again appear to be an important iconographic feature proving a later date for the piece within the period.

II OUTER DECORATION OF BOX (Inv. no. 51.2094/2; Pl. 5)


The original decoration of the crown of head is covered by a presumably modern layer of paint. Frieze: The frieze running along the whole length of the upper edge of the box is composed of four parts. 1 a frieze of uraei with sun discs 2 a frieze imitating a mat base which repeats the motif occurring on the panels of the lid (a stripe hatched vertically with red between two dark green horizontal lines) 3 a band consisting of groups of signs which were intended to imitate hieroglyphic text (Ht p - d i - n iswt formulae, i mAxy x r formulae and some divine titles of Osiris) 4 a frieze imitating a mat base Under the frieze the whole surface of the right side is covered by short text columns, filled with groups of signs with the same contents as mentioned above. Frieze: Similarly to the other side, the frieze running along the whole length of the upper edge of the box is composed of four parts. 1 a frieze of uraei with sun discs 2 a frieze imitating a mat base 3 a band consisting of groups of signs with the same contents as mentioned above 4 a frieze imitating a mat base Under the frieze the whole surface of the left side is covered by short text columns, filled with groups of signs with the same contents as mentioned above. The rhythmical sequence of texts running along the left side of the box is broken only by a single panel containing a scene: a variant of the motif of the cow coming out of the mountain (Pl. 5). At the desert hillside decorated with undulating lines, the entrance of the tomb is depicted, with the strongly stylised Ramesside-type pyramid on the top. Only the head of the cow-shaped goddess is shown, surmounted by a sun-disc between her two horns, with a sacred tree (sycamore or acacia) before her.
For analogies where only the cow-head or the former part of the body of the goddess emerging from the mountain is depicted, see e.g. Berman 1999, 334 (scene Z); Niwiski 1989a, fig. 31 and 56. For similar tree-representations, see Berlev Hodjash 1998, pl. 69, II. 54. 7; Riggs 2005, 219, fig. 107. LEFT SIDE (Pl. 5) HEAD RIGHT SIDE (Pl. 5)

The footboard is undecorated.


COFFINS 27

NOTES ON THE EXTERIOR DECORATION OF THE COFFIN

General remarks The inscriptions and space filler motifs applied on the exterior decoration of the lid and the box undoubtedly indicate that their composer was not fully aware of their meaning: he could not read and interpret hieroglyphs, and was not familiar with most of the used symbols. It seems that he only insisted on imitating the usual decorative motifs that appeared on coffins of this type. Interestingly, however, notwithstanding this anomaly, both the lid and the inner decoration of the box bear the unmistakable marks of 21st-dynasty Theban coffin iconography. In fact, the stylistic differences between the inner and the outer decorations of the box are at first sight embarrassing and inexplicable. Nevertheless, similar hieroglyphic text imitations or pseudo-hieroglyphs and sketchy representations can be observed on the exteriors of the box walls of some other pieces originating from the same sub-period (Berlev Hodjash 1998, 36; Rait 1984, 133134, no. 283). The inner decorations of the boxes again have a yellow background with the traditional motifs similarly to the discussed Budapest coffin. A reasonable explanation for this unusual phenomenon is provided in the publication of the coffin kept in Riga (no. D-1636) which was supposed to have been re-painted and re-used in the Roman period (presumably because it had lost its decoration by then), in consequence of which only the characteristic cobra-frieze along the upper edge of the box of the original 21st-dynasty exterior decoration seems to have remained more or less unchanged. The same iconographic and epigraphic features can be observed on another piece, found in situ in the Theban tomb of Padihorresnet (TT 196; Graefe 2003, 114117). The special interest of this find apart from the well-documented archaeological context stems from the fact that on the exterior of the left side wall one can observe some traditional 21st-dynasty scenes of the last phase of this coffin type as well as some unusual compositions set side by side (Graefe 2003, Taf. 46: Detail B3.7 B.3.10 and B.3.16 B.3.20). Returning to the discussed Budapest coffin, as far as the iconography of the box is concerned its closest parallel is undoubtedly the piece kept at the Muse dAix-les-Bains (Rait 1984, 133134, no. 283) which, according to the black and white photos of the catalogue, displays similar pseudo-hieroglyphic columns running along the left side of the box without any scene panel and an analogous inner decoration. The pseudo-texts inscribed on the box sides of the piece in the collection in Riga are more roughly made. Moreover, although its decoration keeps the characteristically alternating scene panels and text columns of 21st-dynasty Theban tradition, their iconographic features are largely different from that tradition. The decoration of the lower part of its lid, on the other hand, seems to show some similarities to that of the Budapest piece. Based on the above, it is tempting to assume that the discussed pieces may have formed a specific group within the 21st-dynasty Theban coffin corpus and that their re-painting (and perhaps re-use) in later times cannot be excluded.

III INNER DECORATION OF BOX (Pl. 6) The inner decoration of the coffin is polychrome on a yellow background.
HEAD

The principal motif at the crown of the head is a bearded bA-bird with outstretched wings and arms, depicted with a face in profile, and an an x -sign in each hand. At each of the four corners of the composition a stylised pair of feathers is placed.
For analogy, see a similar composition of a bA-bird with its face in profile, but with the feathers replaced by an x -signs: Gasse 1996, XXVII, 12.

BOTTOM

The decoration of the bottom has almost completely disappeared, but on the basis of some still visible traces on the left edge one can try to reconstruct at least its original layout: it may have consisted of six (?) horizontal registers which were divided from one another by broad
28 COFFINS

black twin-stripes. The lowermost register must have displayed a chapel-like construction with a finely elaborated cavetto cornice frieze on the top. Inside the structure hieroglyphic signs of an offering formula can be discerned. Above it a register was placed with the representation of a bearded deity sitting on his throne, presumably a left part of a symmetrical composition. Higher up, one can find the silhouette of a bA-bird. At the height of the neck additional hieroglyphic inscriptions can be seen. The zone of the head seems to display a feather motif similar to those represented at the crown of the head (see above). On both sides in three registers, groups of three mummy-shaped chthonic beings stand looking out (i.e. in the direction of the edges of the coffin wall), wearing the red crossed stola on the breast. The connecting point of the two stripes of the stola and both ends of them are adorned by green circles (pompons). They wear red belts on their waists with a hatched or net pattern, the ends of which hang almost to the ground.
For similar groups of three chthonic beings on the inner decoration of box walls, see e.g. Gasse 1996, XI, 2; XII, 1(with belt), pl. XXII, 12 (without belt). SIDES

Upper register 1 human-headed, bearded figure with an ointment cone and lotus flower on his head (1)
For analogies, see Gasse 1996, pl. XXVI, 2 and XXVII, 1 (with belt).

RIGHT SIDE

2 human-headed en face, inside a sun disc, with the lappets of the stylised wig on the shoulders (2)
See Liptay 2008c; Babraj Szymaska 2000, No. 23 (on both sides on the same spot). Further examples of the representation of head en face on the same spot: Berlev Hodjash 1998, pl. 49; Stewart 1986, pl. 8.

3 human-headed, bearded figure with ointment cone and lotus flower on his head; from his waist downwards only parts of his shape have remained visible owing to the soaked surface. The borders of the panel are formed by a broad dark green band and the motif imitating a mat base above the figures, and a sole broad dark green band below them. Middle register 1 snake-headed, with wig and feather on the head
For analogies, see Gasse 1996, pl. VII, 2 and VIII, 1 (with belt), XXII, 2 (without belt).

The lines of the 2nd and 3rd figures have completely disappeared due to the above mentioned wet stain. The borders of the panel are formed by a broad dark green band and the motif imitating a mat base above the figures, and a single broad dark green band below them. Lower register 1 human-headed with beard 2 the upper part of the body of the 2nd figure is damaged and has disappeared due to the wet stain 3 the upper part of the body of the 3rd figure is damaged and has disappeared due to the wet stain The borders of the panel are formed by the motif imitating a mat base above the figures, and a sole broad dark green band below them. Upper register 1 human-headed with beard, with ointment cone and lotus flower on the head 2 sun disc-headed, decorated with stylised lappets of wig on the shoulders
COFFINS 29 LEFT SIDE

For sun disc-headed chthonic beings, see Niwiski 1988b, pl. XXIIA (on the inner decoration of the coffin, depicted with beard); Patch 1990, 69 (on the side wall, with uraeus); Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 15; Blackman 1917, pl. XXVI (sitting on the top of a mound, with a uraeus, in a 21st-dynasty interpretation of the 12th hour of the Amduat, in the upper register).

3 human-headed with beard, with ointment cone and lotus flower on the head The borders of the panel are formed by a broad dark green band and the motif imitating a mat base above the figures, and a single broad dark green band below them. Middle register 1 snake-headed, with wig and a feather on the head 2 human-headed with beard, with ointment cone and lotus flower on the head 3 hawk-headed, with wig
For analogies, see Gasse 1996, XXII, 1 and 2.

The borders of the panel are formed by a broad dark green band and the motif imitating a mat base above the figures, and a single broad dark green band below them. Lower register 1 human-headed, bearded, with ointment cone and lotus flower on the head 2 human-headed, bearded, with ointment cone and lotus flower on the head 3 human-headed, bearded, with ointment cone and lotus flower on the head The borders of the panel are formed by a broad dark green band and the motif imitating a mat base above the figures, and a single broad dark green band below them.
NOTES ON THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE INNER DECORATION OF THE BOX

General remarks The rows of chthonic deities decorating both side walls of the coffin are displayed on a yellow background which is a typical distinguishing feature of pieces made during the later development of the coffin type (Niwiski 1988b, 9097; Ikram Dodson 1998, 232). The surface of the bottom is not dominated by the characteristic feature of the earlier phase, i.e. the figure of a large single divine figure anymore, but has instead been divided into six (?) horizontal registers containing smaller compositions. The decoration registers of the sides and the bottom are not linked with each other semantically, but form separate units (cf. centrifugal composition, see Niwiski 1988b, 92; Aston 2009, 271). Consequently, based on features of the inner decoration, the discussed piece can be considered as a typical representative of the last phase of yellow-type coffins. The severe damage of the decoration at the bottom area can be attributed again to the direct contact with the mummified body (van Walsem 1997, 305 and n. 974). However, the serious damage to the inner decoration of the right side wall could have been caused by leakage (of rainwater?). Nonetheless, the symmetrically composed and represented groups of chthonic deities on the left side, which have remained mostly intact, provide considerable assistance in the reconstruction of the damaged registers on the right. Therefore we can attempt to reconstruct them as follows: Right side, middle register: snake-headed human-headed hawk-headed Right side, lower register: three human-headed figures. (1) Ointment cones and lotus buds appearing on the top of the head of mummy-shaped, human-headed deities originally indicated and featured the blessed state of the deceased in Egyptian funerary iconography. The exciting innovation on 21st-dynasty coffins is that these attributes were extended to the iconography of the gods as well, as a logical issue of the process that took place in the iconography of that period, called humanisation (van Walsem 1997, 350351).
30 COFFINS

(2) The head en face inside the sun disc similarly to other manifestations of the sungod represented inside the disc refers to the nightly/otherworldly aspect of the god (Liptay 2008c, with additional references). In the middle register of the 11th hour of the Book of Gates, the passenger of the solar barque manifests as a head en face. In one of the New Kingdom royal versions (Tawosret, KV 14) of this scene the head is placed inside the sun disc (Hornung 1972, 287). The text accompanying the representation discusses the power of Re revealing itself through the face of the god at the very moment of opening his eyes: his glance is able to expel the nightly darkness of the underworld/primordial chaos and to create the order of the universe. The role of the sungods eyes are even more emphasised in the above mentioned analogy of the motif (Babraj Szymaska 2000, No. 23): in both cases where the gods face was represented there inside the sun disc, the hieroglyph of the eye was added to the composition. The attitude of facing as an iconographical motif is not a common feature in Egyptian representations: its application, therefore, always indicates that it must have a significant role in the symbolism of the composition. The face and the eyes (i.e. its visage) are one of the most important channels/media through which divine (i.e. superhuman) abilities and capacities can be revealed both beneficial and destructive forces (Hornung 1972, 279 and 466467; Assmann 1977, 364).

COFFINS

31

Inv. no. 51.2095/12


Anthropoid inner coffin (yellow type; colour scheme: polychrome decoration on a yellow background) Wood (sycamore / Ficus sycomorus), plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), varnish Height 186 cm Width 47.5 cm Depth (at the footboard) 60.5 cm Date: late (or end of?) 21st Dynasty Name / titles: anonym / no titles Provenance unknown, but presumably from Western Thebes Purchased by Gusztv Seiden; transfer from the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts in 1933 (as No. 777); longterm deposition in the Museum of Fine Arts; acquisited from Gusztv Seiden in 1956 At the left lower corner of the footboard of the lid: four lines of inscription in black S G [SA]LE IN [GE ] RMANY 1926, presumably referring to the name of the owner and the circumstances of the purchase For the former owners one-year sojourn in Paris in 1926, see Majoros 1984, 239 and 253, n. 64. Condition: horizontal crack on the lid at the knees; the lower parts of the decoration on both sides of the box are severely damaged; the inner decoration of the bottom is almost totally damaged and has disappeared; restored (1985 and 2004) Literature: Oroszln Dobrovits 1939, 85, no. 100; Varga Wessetzky 1955, 6, pl. I/1; 19643, 5; Varga 1974, 19792, 3334, fig. 18; Varga 1988; I. Niwiski 1988a, no. 61; Nagy 1999, 5659, fig. 40; Liptay in Czre 2006, no. 4; Liptay 2008a, 4344, fig. 6; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 31.

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 79)

I LID (Inv. no. 51.2095/1; Pl. 7)


HEAD

The simple blue wig is covered by the vulture head-dress. The body/head of the vulture is indicated by a stylised semi-circular motif on the forehead. The appearance of this stylisation is an important criterion for dating the coffin to the turn of the 21st and 22nd Dynasties (van Walsem 1997, 113). The wig itself is tied by a band comprising of coloured stripes.
For similar adornments of the wig, see Niwiski 1988b, colour plate A.

The ears are adorned with large round-shaped rosette-earrings. At the height of the shoulders the lappets are decorated with a five-fold lappet band with the colour pattern yellow-red-yellow.
For the classification of the head-dress, see van Walsem 1997, 111-114 (IIIa IV VIe).

The gentle line of the small face counteracts the sharpness of the nose and the seriousness of the (asymmetrically designed) black-contoured eyes.
COLLAR

The upper part of the breast between the two lappets of the wig is covered by a stylised feather-motif.
For similar decoration on the breast, see van Walsem 1997, 116.

The actual broad (wsx) collar is a richly adorned composition of floral garlands extending as far as the line of the hip. The garlands alternate the three following motifs: 1 alternating coloured, red-blue rectangle pattern, with a point in the middle of each rectangle (van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Aa; see the pattern of the hair-band above) 2 round-shaped petal motif (van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Ab) 3 sharp-edged petal motif (van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Ad) The individual garlands are separated by red, green or blue bands, some of them decorated with a hatched pattern.
32 COFFINS

The lowermost and broadest wreath consists of alternating lotus and papyrus flowers in profile, with two other flowers appearing between them. The latter two are represented en face (van Walsem 1997, 122, Va). The nipples of the breasts partly visible under the wig are symbolised by a painted floral motif.
For a similar motif, see Inv. no. 51.2094 in the present catalogue; Kffer Renfer 1997; Niwiski 1988b, pl. IVA, VI, XII.

The separately carved and attached hands are opened with the palms downwards, which is characteristic of female coffins of the discussed type. On both sides of the lid, from the lowermost border of the collar a single vertical column of inscription runs along the whole length of the coffin. Scene 1 The central figure of the first scene band below the broad (wsx) collar is a winged sun disc flanked by a mummy-shaped standing deity on each side. In the corner enclosed by the lower outline of the collar and the edge of the lid the following motifs are visible: on the right side, in the upper part of the area a mummy-shaped figure squatted on a nwb sign can be seen (holding the insignia of Osiris, wearing an ointment cone and a lotus bud), with an i m n t t -sign above; between the standing and squatting figures an i my - wt symbol is placed; in front of the legs of the standing god a lettuce, a n m s t -vessel and two additional space filling motifs are added on the left side a squatting figure (similar to the opposite one) can be found, with the insignia of Osiris in its hands, and with two hieroglyphs above it ( pr and i m n t t). Scene 2 Under the winged sun disc, the next scene band displays another aspect of the sungod, i.e. the scarab pushing the red sun disc in front of it, with the symbol of the STy t -sanctuary below its hind legs. On both sides of the sun disc a uraeus wearing the Upper Egyptian crown hangs down, with an an x -sign on the neck. The motif of the scarab is flanked by a symmetrically arranged pair of scenes: Osiris wearing the Upper Egyptian crown is seated on his throne and on a Hb -platform, with the vulture goddess in front of him. The central figures of the composition are protected by the outspread wings of a goddess, wearing a sun disc on her head and placed on a n b -basket on both sides. Behind the goddess on the right a sx m -sceptre is added, while the left one is followed by a sx m -sceptre and a STy t -sanctuary, respectively. Scene 3 The prominent figure of this composition is a kneeling goddess with outspread wings and with a sun disc on her head from which a uraeus hangs down on both sides. Based on the sign recorded above the goddess she can be identified as Neith. In the field above the head of the goddess, on both sides of the Neith-emblem, a vulture is placed (the right one upon a nwb -sign), and this motif is followed by the figure of a mummiform deity sitting on a mat base, holding an an x -symbol in its hand and wearing an ointment cone and lotus bud on its head. The sitting figure is followed by a bA-bird on a similar platform, equipped with a mAat -feather and another sitting god holding an an x -sign. Behind the latter a lettuce and a standing mummiform deity are depicted on the right. The standing deity on the left side is placed on a standard. Scene 4 The scene field is bordered by block-friezes from above and below. The composition focuses on the figure of a scarab, which pushes the sun disc forward by its front legs. The central figure of the sungod is flanked by a mummiform deity on each side
COFFINS 33 LOWER PART OF LID

facing towards the edge of the coffin lid, wearing a sun disc on its head, and standing on a mat base. Both sides of the above described group of three are protected by a winged cobrashaped female deity. Behind the right one, on the very edge of the scene the emblem of the East can be seen in the company of a sitting mummiform god on a Hb -platform who holds the insignia of Osiris. Behind the left one a lettuce and a dwAt -sign closes the row of figures. Under the above mentioned lowermost coloured bordering frieze the decoration surface is divided into two symmetrical halves along the axis by a one-columned hieroglyphic inscription band which is flanked by a vertical block-frieze and a blue vertical band of similar size as the central hieroglyphic column. The one-columned inscription on the legs: Words spoken by Ra-Horakhty-Atum, Foremost of Southern Heliopolis (i.e. Thebes), Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost [of the West, he who resides in] Abydos, [Isis, the Mother of the God, the Eye of Ra, Nephthys, Mistress of the gods. May they give]. The surface bordered by the line of knees and toes consists of four scene panels on both sides. Scene panel 1 The upper frieze of the panel combines a frieze of uraei with sun discs and a block-frieze. Osiris seated on his throne, wearing the Upper Egyptian crown, facing the protective vulture goddess standing on a papyrus column. Next to the deity a lettuce and the imy-wt emblem can be seen, followed by two standing mummy-shaped figures, with a iAbtt-symbol between them.
For the motif of the vulture standing on the papyrus column, see e.g. the fragment Inv. no 51.2085 in the present catalogue.

Scene panel 2 The upper frieze of the panel comprises of a Xk r-frieze flanked by two block-friezes. For the symbolism conveyed by the Xk r-frieze in this context, see Taylor 2003, 111. The central figure on both sides is a deity sitting on his throne, wearing an ointment cone and a lotus bud on his head, in the company of a large-sized bA-bird with flagellum opposite to it. On the edge of the right scene two additional standing mummiform deities are placed, with a iAbt t -emblem between them. On the left edge, on the other hand, only one standing divine figure can be seen surrounded by a lettuce and some d wAt -symbols. Scene panel 3 The panel is separated from Scene 2 by a block-frieze. The composition represents the figure of a sitting, mummy-shaped deity holding the insignia of Osiris in its hand, supplemented with a mAat -feather and a sx m -sceptre on the right edge and by an i my - wt symbol and another standing deity on the left. Scene panel 4 The panel is separated from Scene 3 by a block-frieze. The representation of a winged goddess can be recognised on both sides, with a sun disc between their wings. The right one can be identified as Neith, according to the hieroglyphic sign referring to her. After the usually applied divider (block-frieze), the remaining surface of the lid extending to the toes forms a semi-circular arched panel which is decorated with green and red concentric lines, broken only by the vertical column of inscription in the middle. This motif can symbolically refer to the sign xa denoting the first appearance of the sun god at dawn and the Primeval Mound of creation at the same time, clearly alluding to the manifold symbolic functions of the coffin. It fits in well with the symbolism conveyed by the foot ends of coffins
34 COFFINS

which generally embodies the liminal zone of passage (back and forth) between this world and the Beyond.
For the motif appearing on the same spot (i.e. on the feet of the lid), see 51.2094 above; and see also Antwerp 1995, pl. 56; Berman 1999, 316; Padova 1987, 106 (No. 8 on the inner decoration of the box, in the lowermost register); and for similar connotations, see Inv. no 51.1995 of the present catalogue where the motif of the winged sun disc occurs on the same spot. For the sign xa appearing on a coffin, see van Walsem 1997, 188 and 190; on a funerary papyrus: Keel Schroer 1998, 20 and Abb. 12, where the motif can be connected both to the conception of the Primeval Mound and the chthonic symbolism of iAt -mounds. For the symbolism of the foot end of 21st-dynasty coffins, see e.g. Piankoff Rambova 1957, fig. 18. For foot side of coffins and the notion of passage on Middle Kingdom coffins, see Willems 1996, 109, 132138; Eyre 2002, 149; on Third Intermediate Period coffins, see Liptay forthcoming; on Late Period coffins, see Manassa 2007, 452.

A red band runs along the edge of the footboard. The footboard is undecorated. General remarks According to the typology elaborated by A. Niwiski (1988b, 72) the lid can be classed as type IIIb (cf. J. H. Taylors IB, see Aston 2009, 272273), which was introduced during the second half of the pontificate of Pinodjem II and was in use as late as the beginning of the 22nd Dynasty. Most of the coffins of this type have a relatively poor quality, even if they were made for a member of the high priests family. A lot of them are anonymous. Besides the various aspects/manifestations (x prw) of the great god (winged sun disc and scarab holding a red or green sun disc) the figure of the winged goddess is also represented in the horizontal scene bands between the lowermost border of the collar and the line of the knees. The prominent figure of the horizontal scene bands; i.e. the scarab as the solar aspect flanked by the otherworldly form of the same deity (Osiris with Upper Egyptian crown or Ra-Osiris wearing a sun disc on his head) are protected on both sides by the figures of apotropaic goddesses who, as the outermost figures of the composition, spread their wings towards the central group of the scene. Below the line of the knees similarly to the decoration of Inv. no 51.2094 (see above) the three-columned pattern divides the field into two symmetrical halves. Unlike Inv. no 51.2094, however, in this case the middle column does not consist of scene panels at all, but merely of a hieroglyphic inscription bordered by two separating bands combining a blue vertical stripe and a block-frieze. This arrangement highlights the central inscription (i.e. the gods invoked in the text) as the focal point of the composition. Consequently, the chapellike panels of the two symmetrical columns on both sides are less emphasised, and rather form the background. Through this arrangement, the composition creates a certain sense of gracefulness, at least compared with the same area of Inv. no 51.2094.
NOTES ON THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE LID

II OUTER DECORATION OF BOX (Inv. no. 51.2095/2; Pl. 8)


The decoration is so damaged that it is beyond repair or reconstruction. Frieze: The frieze running along the whole length of the upper edge of the box is composed of three parts. 1 a frieze of cobras (without sun discs) 2 a decorative frieze consisting of rectangles of various colours and sizes (block-frieze) 3 a broad dark green band Text 1: two fragmentary columns of inscription beginning with the formula i mAxy x r
COFFINS 35 HEAD RIGHT SIDE (Pl. 8)

Scene 1 Only the upper third of the scene is visible. The composition itself was originally flanked by two huge imntt-symbols. (Only the upper part of the imntt-symbols is perceivable and the blurred contours of a Dd -column between them.)
For similar compositions, see Berlev Hodjash 1998, pl. 28, II. 9. 5 (on the footboard).

Text 2: three fragmentary columns of inscription beginning with the formula i mAxy x r Scene 2 The composition consists of two, symmetrically arranged scenes which are divided from each other by a vertical divider column which originally may have contained the formula i mAxy x r. The central figure represents Osiris with a sun disc on his head, seated on his throne, holding his royal insignia (mace and whip) in his hand. He faces the protecting goddess who is depicted here in the shape of a vulture, equipped with a lotus (or papyrus) stem, standing on the n b -platform (in her role as one of the Nbty). The n b -platform is placed on another lotus stem; i.e. the heraldic plant of Upper Egypt.
For Osiris holding a mace, see the same spot of Inv. no. 51.2093 in the present catalogue; for chthonic deities holding maces in Osirian context, see Inv. no. 87.4-E in the same catalogue. For similar iconography of the vulture goddess, see e.g. Leclant 1961, pl. I.C; in the company of Osiris wearing a sun disc on his head: Inv. no. 51.2085 in the present catalogue.

On both edges of the symmetrical composition a mummiform divine figure stands; in front of the left one an additional STy t -chapel symbol is also visible. According to the analogies (see e.g. the shortened version of the composition on the opposite side), before the standing figure an offering table and/or an i my - wt symbol must originally have stood, of which now nothing can be seen. Text 3: three fragmentary columns of inscription beginning with the formule i mAxy x r Scene 3 Almost all of it is damaged. On the basis of certain traces which have remained from the original decoration a hypothetical reconstruction of the composition can be attempted as follows: on both edges a standing mummiform deity might have stood, supplemented with an i m n t t -sign in front of them. It can also be supposed that the central figure of the scene was a sx m -sceptre in the middle, with a sun disc on its top. Text 4: three fragmentary columns of inscription beginning with the formula i mAxy x r. Scene 4 Only the upper third of the scene has remained, and even then in a rather fragmentary condition. The scene was originally divided into two horizontal registers. In the upper right corner the stern of a barque is visible with the rudder, surrounded and supplemented by two dwAt -signs. In front of it the squatting deceased is placed on a mat base, looking towards the cabin of the barque which hides its passenger, the actual manifestation of the deity. The hawk-headed figure with a sun disc on its head of which only the uppermost part has remained visible is encircled by the body of a uraeus. On the left edge of the composition, at the stern of the barque a huge cobra spreads its wings towards the god, with a STyt -chapel in front of its body.
For a similar composition with barque, see Patch 1990, 69 (also on the side wall of the box); Kitchen 1990, II, 126 (No. 57), with a winged cobra in the same position; Niwiski 1995, fig. 86 (bA-bird in the barque); Niwiski 1985, fig.2c.

36

COFFINS

For the squatting figure of the deceased, see the last scene of the left side of the coffin in question (in the context of the motif of the cow coming out of the mountain); see also Chassinat 1909, 63 and pl. VII (the squatting figure of the deceased at the end of the sun barque is in the same position); Jrgensen 2001, 2:10. The same figure frequently appears in the context of the judgment where this squatting posture is associated with ritual purification, see Taylor 2001b, 18, fig. 5.

Of the lower register nothing can be seen, but on the basis of the analogies, one would expect the image of the defeated Apophis. Text 5: three fragmentary columns of inscription beginning with the formula i mAxy x r. The ends of the columns are completely damaged. Scene 5 A symmetrical pair of scenes, of which only the upper third part has survived. The central motifs of the scene are two sitting figures of Osiris turning their backs to each other, with the Upper Egyptian crown on their heads. Between the two gods, a motif of a sun disc decorated with uraei hanging down on both sides serves as an axis, separating the two halves of the composition. Under the sun disc, between the bodies of the snakes the upper part of the body of a scarab can be seen. In front of both divinities a vulture stands on a lotus/papyrus(?) stem. In front of the right vulture a STy t -shrine accompanied by an additional d wAt -sign refers to the otherworldly locale of the events. On the left the symbol of a STy t -shrine is placed behind the crown of the god, while a d wAt -sign can be seen in front of the head of the vulture. The areas behind the figures of the sitting divinities was originally decorated with two cobras. On the basis of the remains the right one must have worn the Upper Egyptian, and the left one the Lower Egyptian crown. The composition may have been completed with a t it -symbol under the scarabs body since the two motifs often accompany one another on 21st-dynasty Theban coffins.
For analogies, see e.g. Niwiski 1985, fig. 2c; Antwerp 1995, pl. 10; Niwiski 1995, 27; Kffer Renfer 1997, 111, fig. 11.

Text 6: three fragmentary columns of inscription beginning with the formula i mAxy x r Scene 6 Due to its fragmentary state, the context of the original decoration cannot be reconstructed here with any certainty. Nevertheless, judging from the theme of the opposite scene, i.e. the version of the motif of the cow coming out of the mountain, the most probable candidate here is a version of the scene with the mistress of the Sycamore(1).
For possible analogies with the supposed scene, see Niwiski 19871988, fig. 5; Niwiski 1995, fig. 14; Jrgensen 2001, 2:14.

Frieze: The frieze running along the whole length of the upper edge of the box is composed of three parts. 1 a frieze of cobras (without sun discs) 2 a decorative frieze consisting of alternating coloured and sized bands (block-frieze) 3 a broad dark green band Text 1: two barely visible columns of inscription beginning with the formula i mAxy x r Scene 1 (in a rather fragmentary state) Here the composition seems to combine a central t it -symbol flanked by two mummiform, human-headed chthonic beings. (The left one is in relatively good condition, in contrast to the right one which is barely visible.) Of the t it -symbol only the upper part of its loop is
COFFINS 37

LEFT SIDE (Pl. 8)

discernible along with it a lotus flower on the left. The figure of the left mummiform deity is supplemented by a dwAt -sign behind, and by a STyt -shrine in front of it, while the usual symbolic offering, a stylised lettuce is placed at its legs. A STyt -shrine and two dwAt -signs are visible around the right one. Text 2: three columns of inscription 1 Revered before Isis the great. 2 Revered before Osiris. 3 Revered before Nephthys. Scene 2 The symbol positioned in the centre of the composition is a sx m -sceptre, equipped with a m n it -counterpoise on both sides and surmounted by a red sun disc surrounded by a dashed blue circle. The sceptre is flanked by two seated figures of Osiris wearing the Upper Egyptian crown and holding a mace and flagellum. Opposite them the protective vulture goddess appears again, standing on a papyrus column. Behind the god (on both sides) a lettuce and a large-sized n m s t -vessel is added to the decoration. Above the offering vessel a symbol of the STy t -shrine is placed. The twin scenes are bordered on both edges by two human-headed, mummiform chthonic deities wearing ointment cones on their heads. Behind them a huge i m n t t -symbol closes the series of motifs. Text 3: three columns of inscription 1 Revered before Isis. 2 Revered before Osiris. 3 Revered before Nephthys. Scene 3 (Pl. 8) The iconography focuses on a large-sized sx m -sceptre (without a sun disc on the top), equipped with the mnit -counterpoise on both sides, symbolising one of the otherworldly manifestations of the sungod. On the left and right sides of the sceptre two, almost identical scenes are placed. The prominent figure on the right side is the standing figure of Osiris wearing a long robe with a striped pattern (resembling the festive s d -garment) and the Lower Egyptian crown, and holding the HqA-crook, with a hieroglyphic sign referring to Neith above his head (2). Opposite the divine figure two additional human-headed, mummiform deities appear, with ointment cones on their heads. At the feet of the first one a lettuce can be seen. Behind the second divine being a iAbt t -emblem on a standard is added to the scene. (Cf. the previous scene is framed by i m n t t -signs.)
For similarly executed iAb t t -emblems, see van Walsem 1997, 270 and fig. 432; Perdu Rickal 1994, 27.

The left Osiris-figure is quite similar to the other, and labelled by the same inscription (Neith). He is also accompanied by two otherworldly beings (the first with the head of a jackal and the second with a human head, both with the usual ointment cones and lotus buds). Between them a lettuce stands on the ground and another d wAt -sign occurs above. Text 4: three columns of inscription 1 Revered before Isis. 2 Revered before Osiris. 3 Revered before Nephthys. Scene 4 Two mummiform divinities are seated on their thrones back to back, with ointment cones and lotus buds on their heads. Between their figures a group consisting of a small-sized Dd 38 COFFINS

column and two loaves of bread (?) separates them as a vertical axis. Both sitting gods face the usual manifestation of the female protective principle, the vulture upon a n b -platform, supplemented with stylised offerings placed on mat bases below. The composition is framed on both sides, behind the figures of the vultures by a standing human-headed mummiform being. The lower part of the panel, especially on the left is badly damaged. Text 5: two fragmentary columns of inscription beginning with the formula i mAxy x r Scene 5 (Pl. 8) The lower part of the decoration of the scene panel has entirely disappeared. The remains, however, leave no doubt that the composition must originally have been a variant of the scene with the cow coming out of the mountain (1). On the right edge the squatting figure of the deceased appears again (see Scene 4 of the opposite side). Above her a STy t -shrine, an ointment vessel and a papyrus roll are lined up. Opposite the deceased a part of the papyrus bunch (almost certainly originally placed in an offering vase) is clearly visible, just like the inscription above it which refers to the actual divine manifestation: wt -r n bt i m n t t . Of the figure of the cow goddess only the painted eyes, the head-dress (double feather with a sun disc) between the horns, and the uppermost part of her speckled body are discernible. The attached symbols behind the deity are an additional STy t -shrine and a winged uraeus. The composition is closed by the representation of the tomb standing on the hillside of the western desert, but it is in an extremely fragmentary condition except for the pyramidion on the top of the building and the supplementary space filler motifs (two d wAt -symbols and a pr-sign.
For the figure of the squatting deceased, see Scene 4 on the opposite side of the discussed coffin; Lacovara Trope 2001, 48 (left side, the scene of the cow coming out of the mountain).

Text 6: two fragmentary columns of inscription beginning with the formula i mAxy x r The footboard is undecorated. General remarks The first scene of both sides regarding their iconographical repertoire (Dd -column and t it -symbol) as well as the structure and arrangement of composition appear to be closely linked to each other. Moreover, it seems that the aspects of the great god occurring on the left side (Dd -column, sx m -sceptre, Osiris and other mummiform deities of the underworld) are mainly of Osirian/chthonic character, while on the right side one can rather find representations expressing the solar nature of the deity and its attributes (t it -symbol between mAat -feathers, sun disc, sun barque, scarab) instead. The three columned texts that separate the individual scenes from each other were regularly accorded the same arrangement in every case: the column referring to Osiris is flanked by the two columns invoking Isis and Nephthys. This arrangement is clearly reminiscent of the pictorial representation where the figure of Osiris is usually surrounded by the divine sisters in order to be protected from both sides. (Cf. the structural arrangement of the composition in Scenes 1 of both sides.) (1) Although the composition is in a rather fragmentary state, on the basis of the visible traces it can be supposed that a version of the Sycamore-scene might have been displayed on this spot. The close connection between the cow- and sycamore-motifs, i.e. the two female divine aspects is unquestionable, as they regularly appear in one and the same composition or opposite to each other on the left and/or right foot ends of 21st-dynasty Theban coffin boxes.
COFFINS 39 NOTES ON THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE OUTER DECORATION OF THE BOX

On the symbolic connotations of the two motifs associated with each other in 21st-dynasty iconography of coffins, see Heyne 1998, 6566; Billing 2002, 293305; Liptay 2003; Liptay forthcoming. A. Niwiski (2006b, 263) associates the motif with the existence of real sycamore trees in front of the temple of Mentuhotep in those days. Cf. Inv. no 51.2094 of the present catalogue where the motifs of the cow and the sycamore tree appear in one and the same scene. For some additional examples, see e.g. Niwiski 1995, fig. 23; Gasse 1996, pl. XVI; and as parts of the same composition: Niwiski 1995, 1415 and fig. 34; Niwiski 1988b, pl. XVII B, Schmidt 1919, fig. 803805; Lacovara Trope 2001, 50.

(2) The prominent figure of the 21st-dynasty Theban funerary scenes associated with rituals performed during s d -festivals often wears the same garment, supplemented with the Lower or Upper Egyptian crown/double feather and sun disc/ram-horns etc. on its head (see Mller 1901, 7273 and Taf. IV; Schmidt 1909, fig. 725). Cf. the aspect of the sungod wearing a similar robe and ram-horns in the middle register of the 3rd hour of the Amduat.
For additional analogies, see Schmidt 1919, fig. 812 (with the Upper Egyptian crown); Niwiski, 1989a, 143144 and fig. 34; Niwiski, 1995, fig. 36, 45, 52, 54; Egner Haslauer 1994, 34/37 (snake-headed).

The pictorial evocation of the s d -rituals which had originally been intended to serve the royal renewal clearly began to be used in order to ensure the rebirth of the deceased in 21stdynasty Theban funerary iconography. This conceptual development finally resulted in the fact that the scene had been raised to a cosmic/mythical level only through representing its protagonist as a divine being, i.e. the actual solar and chthonic aspect of the great god.
For analogies, see e.g. Niwiski 1989a, fig. 34; Lacovara Trope 2001, 48; Berman 1999, 316319.

The inner decoration of the box is polychrome on a dark red base.


HEAD

III INNER DECORATION OF BOX (Pl. 9)

The central figure on the top of the head is a stylised motif of a bA-bird with outspread wings which is intended to imitate a t it -symbol.
For analogies, see e.g. Hornung 1976, 26; Verner 1982, 23/23; Niwiski 1988b, pl. XXII A; Niwiski 1995, fig. 77.

On both sides of the birds head two hieroglyphs are placed (r and Gardiner D 54, with an attached d wAt -sign on the right). These groups of signs denote the verb pri which is displayed here in order to symbolise and emphasise the mobility of the bA component of the deceased in this situation, i.e. its free passage back and forth, between the celestial and otherworldly spheres.
For the verb p ri on the same spot/in the same context, see e.g. Hornung 1976, 30; Patch 1990, 80; Niwiski 1995, pl. VI, 2, XVI, 2 and XXII, 1; pl. XI, 1 ( p ri and aq); Psota 2001, 28, fig. 18.

Additional symbols around the wings, on the right: a d wAt -sign (Gardiner N 15), a longshaped piece of bread (?), the symbol of the goddess Neith, a t hieroglyph and an i m n t t emblem; on the left: a d wAt -sign and a t hieroglyph (1).
For similar signs on the same spot, see Niwiski 1995, pl. XII, 3. BOTTOM

The decoration of the bottom is almost totally damaged. However, based on some traces, which can still be discerned, it can be concluded that the surface was originally divided into at least four horizontal registers. The upper and lower registers were thicker, while the middle one focused on a relatively large-sized divine figure. In the upper register the blurred contours of a large-sized an x -sign flanked by two d i hieroglyphs still can be seen. At the right corner of the middle register the upper arch of the feather of an i m n t t -symbol (?) can be seen. It is almost impossible to identify the large central figure. Some traces of a
40 COFFINS

collar and two long bands of the belt hanging down, however, seem to refer to the goddess of the West.
For analogies, see Niwiski 1995, pl. III.2; Niwiski 2004, pl. XVIII.3.

On the right side, next to the legs of the goddess is what appears to be an i m n t t -emblem seems to appear. In the registers below the (hypothetical) goddess only the contours of an ointment vessel (?) and a STy t -shrine are recognisable on the right side. On both sides in three registers, groups of mummy-shaped chthonic beings form the decoration, looking out (i.e. in the direction of the edges of the coffin wall). They wear long red belts and red crossed stolae on their breasts which are adorned by green circles at the connecting point of their two strips and at both ends. (See the inner decoration of Inv. No. 51.2094 in the present catalogue.) In the upper and middle registers are two standing deities, and a single sitting figure can be seen in the lowest register. The scene panel on the top of the head is separated from the upper register by a thick black line. Upper register 1 standing bearded, human-headed figure, with ointment cone and lotus bud on his head and with the inscription nTr aA in front of him; at his legs a vegetable (lettuce) is placed in a vessel
For similarly depicted stylised lettuces as offerings, see e.g. Niwiski 1995, fig. 24; Egner Haslauer 1994, 10, 27; Jrgensen 2001, 1:15. SIDES

RIGHT SIDE

2 feather-headed, with a nTr-hieroglyph in front of his face Separating motif: a band imitating a mat base between two blue bands. Middle register The upper and middle registers are separated from one another by a thick black line and a band imitating a mat base. 1 standing human-headed, bearded figure (without ointment cone or lotus bud); with the inscription nTr aA in front of him. 2 bearded snake-headed figure, equipped with a feather and with a lettuce offering at his legs Separating motif: a band imitating a mat base flanked by two broad blue lines. Lower register 1 sitting human-headed figure holding a wAs -sceptre combined with a Sn -ring in one hand, and an i m n t t -emblem in the other; with an ointment cone and lotus bud on its head. In front of it: the divine title nTr aA and the i m n t t -symbol
For wAs -sceptres combined with Sn -ring on 21st-dynasty Theban coffins, see e.g. van Walsem 1997, pl. 1517; Hermitage 1974, No. 107 (held by a cobra-shaped goddess)

A thick black line serves as the base for the lower register. Upper register The separating motif which divides the head-panel from the upper register has completely disappeared. 1 standing bearded, human-headed figure (without ointment cone or lotus bud); with a fragmentary inscription (nTr aA), and with the usual lettuce offering at his legs 2 the figure is almost entirely damaged, apart from the nTr-sign in front of his face and the lettuce offering at his legs
Cf. the feather-headed figure occurring on the opposite side; one can assume that the same figure must have stood here. LEFT SIDE

COFFINS

41

Separating motif: a band imitating a mat base between two blue bands. Middle register 1 only some parts of the face of the human-headed figure have remained visible, with a nTrsign in front of it 2 nothing can be seen of the figure
Based on the analogous representation of the opposite side one can assume that a serpent-headed figure must have stood here.

Separating motif: a band imitating a mat base between two blue bands. Lower register A thick black line serves as base for the lower register. 1 sitting human-headed figure with an ointment cone and a lotus bud on its head, holding a wAs -sceptre in its hand; with the inscription nTr aA and an i m n t t -symbol in front of it.
NOTES ON THE INNER DECORATION OF THE BOX

General remarks The decoration is in a very poor condition, especially the bottom part (van Walsem 1997, 305 and n. 974). Nevertheless, it seems obvious that the interior design of its decoration shared some common features with Inv. no 51.2093 of the present catalogue: The groups of chthonic beings lined up on the right and left sides of the coffin box look outwards from the coffin in both cases. The base colour of the decoration is dark red. The iconography of the bottom was dominated by a large-sized figure of a divine being (Ikram Dodson 1998, 232; Niwiski 1988b, 9097). Moreover, as far as can be ascertained from the still visible traces of its decoration, it may have displayed a centrifugal, semi-horizontal composition (see Niwiski 1988b, 9097). (1) The group of signs appearing here are reminiscent of the inscription pri d wAt pri p t (which occurs in other cases on the same spot/context, see e.g. Kffer Renfer 1997, 10, Abb. 5). The verb pri (with the same writing) is sometimes flanked by the symbols of the West and East (see e.g. Perdu Rickal 1994, 27), again alluding to the ability of the ba to travel between celestial and otherworldly spheres and to join the cyclic tour of the sungod.

42

COFFINS

Inv. no. 51.2096/12


Anthropoid inner coffin (yellow type; colour scheme: polychrome decoration on a yellow background) Wood (sycamore / Ficus sycomorus), plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), varnish Height 113.5 cm Width 35.5 cm Depth (at the footboard) 44 cm Date: late 21st Dynasty early 22nd Dynasty Name / titles: Ns - tA- [nTrt] (female child) / n b t p r SmAy t n Im n -Ra n iswt nTrw For 21st-dynasty Theban coffins of (female) children, see Niwiski 1989b, 7980; Chassinat 1909, 8185. However, it has never been usurped by an anonymous man as stated in A. Niwiskis publication (1988b, 114). Provenance unknown, but presumably from Western Thebes Transfer from the Hungarian National Museum in 1934 (as No. 764) E. Mahler (1902, 145) was mistaken in his assertion that the former owner was Gizella Csuzy. In fact, the former owner is unknown. The coffin is reported to have contained a small, sealed papyrus-roll (Inv. no. 51.2183) and a pair of red-coloured leather sandals of a child (Inv. no. 51.2539) which were said to have been found by Ede Mahler at the first opening of the coffin (see Oroszln Dobrovits 1939, 122). According to the records (599/1939), in 1936, at the second opening of the coffin, a scarab was found which was tied to the blue-striped yellow fringed linen shirt of the mummy of the infant. For sandals deposited in 21st-dynasty Theban coffins of children, see Daressy 1907, 26 (No. 50), 29 (No. 83), 34 (No. 129). On the footboard of the lid: a scratched number 10, referring to the inventory number given at the opening of the coffin in 1936. Condition: The hands are broken and missing; the broken nose has been repaired and restored; the surface of the coffin is cracked in several places; the decoration of the lid was restored but is still in a poor condition; the inner decoration of the box has almost totally disappeared; the outer decoration of the sides is damaged in many places; restored (1985 and 20042007) Literature: Mahler 1902; Oroszln Dobrovits, 1939, 83, no. 85; Varga Wessetzky 1955, 7; 19643, 5; Varga 1974, 19792, 32; Varga 1988; Niwiski 1988b, no. 62; van Walsem 1997, 378 (Bu 1); Nagy 1999a, 58, fig. 39; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 33.

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 1012)

I LID (Inv. no. 51.2096/1; Pl. 10)


The tripartite wig is decorated with blue stripes on the varnished yellow background and fastened above the forehead with a broad hair-band alternating two decorative patterns: one containing red and blue rectangles and another decorated with a petal motif.
Cf. the two, identically patterned components (no. 1 and 3) of the broad (ws x) collar (see below). For this type of hair-band, see Jrgensen 2001, 1:2 (where, however, the two cited components are arranged in reverse order). HEAD

The hair-band is adorned with a bunch of three lotus flowers in the middle, which continues in a vertical broad striped band (i.e. stylised lotus stems) along the top of the head down to the nape. The two moulded lappets of the wig rest on the chest, partly covering the breasts. The lappets are tied at the height of the shoulders with red-blue-red coloured lappet-bands on a white background.
For the classification of the lappet band, see van Walsem 1997, 111114.

COFFINS

43

Both the whole surface of the neck and the face was originally painted in a fine cream toned white, but now the (rather thin) pigment layer is loose and movable, and therefore tends to peel off.
For the whitish tone of the faces of 21st-dynasty Theban coffins of children see, Goff 1979, 93, n. 46.

On the neck, directly under the chin, two (or three?) red wavy lines mark the wrinkles of the throat.
For analogies, see Budapest 51.2094 (see above); Antwerp 1995, AV 88.1 (front cover). COLLAR

On the visible part of the neck, between the two lappets, traces of a feather-patterned adornment are still discernible.
For the feather-patterned design on the chest, see van Walsem 1997, 116; see also Inv. no 51.2095 in the present catalogue.

The actual wsx -collar is a richly decorated composition of different motifs, comprising of several stylised vegetal wreaths, covering the greater part of the abdomen down to the hip. It applies three main motifs: 1 an alternating coloured, red-blue rectangle pattern, with a point in the middle of each rectangle (van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Aa; see the pattern of the hair-band above) 2 a round-shaped petal motif (van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Ab) 3 a sharp-edged petal motif (van Walsem 1997, 115 and fig. 257Ad) The various patterns are separated from each other by green or red lines. The lowermost and broadest wreath consists of lotus flowers in profile, with two alternating flower patterns appearing between them. In the first case two round, stylised flowers (painted in white with a red contour line) in profile are placed opposite each other, with an opened papyrus flower in profile. The two following lotuses flank a group consisting of a pair of round, rosette-shaped flowers opposite each other with an unknown floral motif between them (van Walsem 1997, 122, VIb). Both attached wooden hands are missing. In the area between the two lappets and the hands the crossed red braces/stola, i.e. the main characteristic feature of the last phase of this coffin type are represented, partly covered by a pectoralis.
For this type of stola, see van Walsem 1997, 125 III1 and fig. 275.

The rectangular pectoralis itself was originally painted on the breast at the height of the wrists, but almost nothing has remained of it. However, one can identify some details in the archive photo from the beginning of the 20th century, on the basis of which the following reconstruction can be attempted: The central motif of the composition framed by a block-frieze was a sun disc flanked by uraei crowned with additional sun discs and holding an x -signs on their bodies. Below this the body of a scarab on a nwb -platform can be discerned. The decoration of the area bordered by the cobras and the scarab is so seriously damaged that it cannot be reconstructed again.
LOWER PART OF LID

Below the collar, around the waist both sides of the lid are decorated with a lotus flower directed diagonally towards the hands.
For this motif on the lid, see Inv. no 51.2093 in the present catalogue.

The decoration area below the collar is divided into horizontal scene bands and bordered at its upper and lower ends by the figures of two divinities with outspread wings. Scene 1 Immediately below the collar a winged sun disc occurs. The central figure of the scene panel downwards is a scarab crowned by the h m h m -crown, surmounted with a sun disc.
For scarabs adorned with the h m h m -crown, see Jrgensen 2001, 2:5; Hayes 1959, 421, fig. 267; see van Walsem 1997, 328331.

44

COFFINS

Under the hind legs of the scarab an additional sun disc is placed between the twin mountains of the horizon (Ax t). The scarab itself is flanked by two figures of Osiris seated on his throne placed on a n b -platform, with a sun disc (painted in green, surrounded by a red contour line) combined with a uraeus on each of their heads. Opposite the god, on the right side a bA-bird stands on a standard. Between the two figures the following symbols can be seen: a libation vase, an offering table and a mAat -feather. The motifs behind Osiris on the left have worn off, apart from the traces of a standard of the bA-bird. The composition is flanked by two goddesses with outstretched wings, squatting on n b -platforms. Between their wings two signs ( pr and an x) are added in the company of a vulture on a n b -basket. Behind the left vulture an additional space filler (the inscription nTr aA) can be discerned. Both winged goddesses face the figure of a hawk equipped with a flagellum, and are accompanied by uraei behind them. At both corners enclosed by the motif of the winged sun disc and the block-frieze framing the scene, above the head of the winged goddesses, some fragmentary traces of the representations of Anubis seated on his throne are still visible: in the case of the right one only the contour lines of the throne are discernible, while on the left the head and ears of the canine are also recognisable. According to the above cited study published by E. Mahler in 1902 the deity once held both a sceptre and a flagellum in his hands. In front of the seated god offerings are placed: a n m s t - and a qbH-vase one above the other. The decoration of the small area under the baskets serving as platforms for the winged goddesses is completely damaged; the above cited publication was therefore the source to facilitate its reconstruction. According to E. Mahler here we can see Sakhmet in a squatting position, equipped with the attributes of Osiris, i.e. the sceptre and flagellum, and an additional scarab (Mahler 1092, 147). Scene 2 Below Scene 1 the figure of a squatting winged goddess appears, wearing a sun disc on her head. The sun disc is surmounted by the symbol of the sky. Above the wings of the goddess lie jackals on both sides accompanied by the inscription: In pw n b tA-Ds r x n ty sH nTr. In front of the lying canines libation vases can be seen. Behind them some additional motifs (a cobra and a sun disc) serve as space fillers. Under the winged goddess, the area between the knees and the toes is separated from the previous scene panel by a horizontal frieze imitating a building faade (cavetto cornice). The centre of the lower part of the lid covering the legs focuses on a one-columned hieroglyphic inscription flanked by a broad blue band and a vertical block-frieze on both sides. This central motif divides the surface vertically into two symmetrical parts. The inscription is as follows: Revered before Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the West, [the great] god, Lord of Abydos. [May they give] Ht p -offering, everything [ good and pure daily to Osiris, mistress of the house, chantress of ] Amun-Ra, King of the gods, Ns - tA- [nTrt].
The name of the owner was read by E. Mahler in 1902 as Ns - tA- nTr(t) and this reading was adopted by the later exhibition guide (Oroszln Dobrovits 1939, 83) as well as by the 21st-dynasty coffin register worked out by A. Niwiski (1988b, No. 62). The possibility of the reading nTr(t), of course, cannot be precluded, since the contours of the nTr and t signs can be proved almost without doubt.

Along both sides of the text column three scene panels follow each other. The decoration of the right side is almost completely damaged, except for Scene 1 which is still partly visible. Scene 1 The panel is bordered from above by a frieze comprising of uraei with sun discs which represent a building faade and is intended to imitate a shrine. Under the uraeus-frieze the faade
COFFINS 45

is combined with a blue band symbolising the firmament. The symbolic chapel is supported by Dd -columns that frame the panel on both sides.
For the chapel-motif supported by Dd -columns, see e.g. Jrgensen 2001, 2:5, 6, 12, 13, 18, 19; Gasse 1996, pl. IX, 12 and X, 12; Egner Haslauer 1994, 2122/36, 21/37, 1315/27.

The prominent figure of the scene is Osiris seated on his throne, wearing a red sun disc and a red sSd -fillet on his head, receiving the worship of the deceased entering the shrine. The presented offerings placed before him are as follows: a n m s t -vessel with a lotus flower on the top, supplemented with some additional motifs (a uraeus combined with an x -sign and a d wAt -symbol). Above the scene the following inscriptions can be read: nTr aA, i my d wAt . The right panel is almost completely damaged, aside from the upper part of the body of the deity which is still visible, as well as the sun disc on his head and the curve of the HqA-crook held in his hand. Scene 2 The symmetrical panels are separated from the previous ones by an upper bordering frieze imitating a cavetto cornice. Similarly to the previous pair of vignettes the scene is placed in a chapel supported by Dd -columns. However, unlike those it is covered by a twin-vaulted roof symbolising chthonic, otherworldly realms, combined with a narrow band decorated with a hatched pattern and a blue stripe representing the sky under it. The scene is almost totally damaged, but its publication in 1902 recorded that the central figure of the composition was the canine-headed Anubis sitting in front of an offering table. The inscription nTr aA as well as a wAs -sign and an an x -symbol can still be read.
Additionally, it is worth noting that according to the description of E. Mahlers publication (1902, 148) the Dd -columns are entwined by a snake (i.e. a cobra) along their whole length.

Scene 3 After the separating frieze (?) the next scene panel (covering the feet) displays a bA-bird lifting both hands in the gesture of worship/praise/salutation. Opposite the bA-bird a sitting figure (a funerary god or the deceased herself?) can be seen, holding a papyrus flower, with an ointment cone and lotus bud on her head.
Mahlers publication (1902, 148) refers to two bA-birds, but the second is no longer visible. For the motif of the papyrus flower held by the person presenting offerings, see Hermitage 1974, No. 107; papyrus flower in the hand of the mummy-shaped Atum-Osiris, see Myliwiec 1979, 203, Abb. 4b, 205, Abb. 5d, 207, Abb. 6d; papyrus flower in the hand of the deceased, see Keel Schroer 1998, 2526, Abb. 15 and Abb. 16 (with bA-bird). The latter study (Keel Schroer 1998) correlates the motif with the solar boat ornamented with papyrus flowers in chapter 110 of the BD, and linked it to the sSS wAD -ritual performed for Hathor.

Between the two fragmentary figures the title nTr aA and the Ht p - and mAat -signs are placed. The edge of the lid on both sides is marked by a block-frieze and a fragmentary text column running from the lowermost line of the collar (at the height of the chest) along the whole length of the lid. Text column on the right: Revered before Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the West, the ( great) god, Lord of [Abydos. May they give] Ht p -offering, [], of oxen, fowl, incense, [], everything good and pure [to Osiris, mistress of ] the house, chantress of Amun-Ra, King of the gods. Text column on the left: Revered before Ra-Horakhty-Atum, Foremost of Southern Heliopolis (i.e. Thebes), [the great god], he who goes forth from [the horizon], he who makes his appearance in his barque, Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the West, the great god, Lord of Abydos. May they give Ht p -offering, everything [ good and pure] to Osiris, mistress of the house, chantress of Amun-Ra, King of the gods.
46 COFFINS

General remarks In the second cachette tomb of the Theban Amon-priesthood discovered at Deir el-Bahri (Bab el-Gasus) among the coffins manufactured for adults some coffins made for children were also found and their inscriptions undoubtedly refer to the fact that priestly titles and burials were guaranteed practically for every Theban citizen of the Amon-theocracy, even in childhood (Niwiski 1988d, 96, n. 2; Niwiski 1989b, 7980; Chassinat 1909, 8185). Our piece is further evidence of this social phenomenon. According to the typology elaborated by A. Niwiski (1988b, 78) the lid belongs to the type V (cf. J. H. Taylors ID, see Aston 2009, 275) which gradually developed from the type III in the second half of the pontificate of Pinodjem II. It was in use as late as the reign of Osorkon I as the latest phase of yellow type coffins, but after that time it disappeared from the archaeological material available. The two most characteristic iconographical features of this latest phase (type V) are 1 the red straps crossed over the chest (stola: van Walsem 1997) imitating the real leather braces holding together the mummified body wrapped in linen bandages, and 2 the extremely broad garland collar covering the whole chest to the line of the waist. Despite the poor state of the lid decoration the iconography of the surface under the collar can be relatively well reconstructed. The zone between the collar and the knees displays the usual horizontal layout. The scene panel bordered by two winged protective divine figures (i.e. the sun disc and the sky goddess) represents a symmetrical group of figures comprising of a scarab with the h mh m -crown flanked by two figures of Osiris wearing sun discs on their heads and two winged protective goddesses. The upper line of the winged sun disc is curved; a characteristic feature which is typical of the earlier phase of the subtype V or stola-type lids (van Walsem 1997, 163). The lower part of the lid, in the area bordered by the line of the knees and toes is divided vertically into three parts. The middle text column comprises of one vertical text band placed between two broad blue stripes with no text (pseudo-text), which is flanked by block-friezes. The appearance of this pseudo-text on the middle partition of the lower part of the lid is an iconographical feature which is characteristic of the earlier phase inside the latest subtype (van Walsem 1997, 177). The friezes separating the symmetrical panels from each other emphasise the sanctuary-like character of the coffin decoration: the frieze with uraei refers to the solar context, while the one with twin-vaults refers to the chthonic world, both conveying the cosmic symbolism of sanctuaries, further emphasised by the Dd -columns supporting the roof of the shrine as a symbolic firmament. According to the above, the coffin lid has two significant iconographic features which argue in favour of an earlier dating inside the latest phase of the yellow type corpus.

NOTES ON THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE LID

II OUTER DECORATION OF BOX (Inv. no. 51.2096/2; Pl. 11)


The scene panel is bordered by three text columns on both sides. The scene itself depicts a Dd -column flanked by two Tit -signs. The Dd -column is crowned with a head-dress comprising of ram horns, two tall feathers and a sun disc. Between the two Tit -signs short hieroglyphic inscriptions can be read.
On Tit -signs in the context of the top of the head, see van Walsem 1997, 191. For the same motif, see Myliwiec 1979, 204205 and Abb. 6; Milde 1991, 59 (in connection with chapter 18 of the BD); Niwiski 1988e, fig. 297 (on the footboard of the outer coffin); Niwiski 1995, fig. 64 (a Tit -sign between two Dd -columns, on the top of the head); Niwiski 1995, fig. 73 (in the first scene of the right side of the box); Egner Haslauer 1994, 31/46 and 46/46 (as a frieze running along the side of the box) HEAD

Above the right Tit -sign: Is t n b(t) wr(t) m wt nTrw Above the left Tit -sign: Is t n b(t) wr(t) m wt
COFFINS 47

Text columns on the right: Words spoken by Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Lord of the Shetyt, Lord of heaven. [May they give]. [Revered before Osiris], Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost [of the West], the great god. Words spoken by Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Lord of the Shetyt, Lord of heaven. [May they give]. Text columns on the left: Revered before Anubis, Lord of the [Sacred Land, Foremost of the] Divine Booth, []. May they give. Words spoken by Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Lord of the Shetyt, Lord of heaven. May they give Ht p offering. [Words spoken by Isis the great, Mistress of heaven, the Eye of Ra, Mistress of all gods, Mother (of the God ).]
RIGHT SIDE (Pl. 11)

Frieze: the frieze running along the whole length of the upper edge of the box is composed of four parts. 1 a frieze of cobras with sun discs on their heads facing the head of the deceased 2 a decorative frieze consisting of alternating coloured and sized bands (block-frieze) 3 a long hieroglyphic text band beginning on both sides from a winged sun disc on the top of the head 4 a decorative frieze consisting of alternating coloured and sized bands (block-frieze) The hieroglyphic text band: [Words spoken by Ra-Horakhty], he who illuminates the Two Lands with his two eyes (1), Atum, [Foremost of Southern Heliopolis (i.e. Thebes)], the perfect god, he who ascends from the horizon, he who makes his appearance in his barque, Osiris, Lord of [nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the Westerners], the perfect god, he who resides in Abydos, Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Lord of the Shetyt, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Ruler of Dt-Eternity, Wenennofer, (Lord of ) the Living, Anubis, Foremost of the Divine Booth of the Shetyt (?), he who is upon the earth, Isis the great, Mother of the God, Mistress of heaven, the Eye of Ra, Mistress of the pr- n f r, Nephthys, (Sister of ) the god, Mistress of heaven, the Eye of Ra, (Mistress of ) the pr-an x t (2). May they give a thousand loaves of bread, a thousand jugs of beer, a thousand pieces of linen, a thousand Ht p -offerings (to) Osiris [blank place for the name], justified. Scene 1 The composition is placed in a twin-vaulted otherworldly chapel. Below the vaulted roofs a narrow strip with a hatched pattern (imitating a cavetto cornice) and a frieze with grape motif form the upper edge of the scene. The central figure is the personified Tit -sign supporting the roof/sky with both arms, standing on a nwb -symbol.
For the twin-vaulted top, see van Walsem 1997, 258259. For analogies of the narrow stripe with a hatched pattern under the twin-vaulted top, see Gasse 1996, pl. XVI, 12; pl. XXV, 12. For the frieze patterning grape motifs, see van Walsem 1997, fig. 435 and 458; Jrgensen 2001, 2:10-2:13 and 2:162:19; Antwerp 1995, pl. 6.

A vulture equipped with a flagellum is placed at the right arm of the t it -sign, and at the left hand there is a wDAt -eye. The motif is also flanked by a pair of bA-birds standing on mat bases, with ointment cones and lotus buds on their heads. The left one lifts its hand in front of its face in the gesture of worship/salutation. Before the bA an offering vessel and the symbol of the STyt -sanctuary can be seen. Behind the bird space filler inscriptions can be read: d i. sn Ht p and iAt. Around the feet of the bird funerary offerings are placed. The hand of the right bA is not represented, but the offering vessel is present. The inscription behind the bA reads: imAxy n pr n b nHH. The inscriptions in front of the vessel read: [d i. sn] Ht p; dwAt.
48 COFFINS

In the lower register under the bA-birds on both sides squatting mummy-shaped, vultureheaded chthonic deities can be seen. They hold a HqA-sceptre and a flagellum in their hands. Behind the left one the signs of the title n b nHH, in front of the figure n b p t can be read. Behind the right one there is an additional space filler sign (d wAt). They flank a rectangular structure symbolising an otherworldly sanctuary. Its central part is a square decorated with a diagonally hatched pattern framed by three (blue-red-blue) stripes on both sides and above.
According to the earlier publication of the piece (Mahler 1902, 152), the expression p r d wAt could be read above this gate of the underworld. For a similar rectangular structure, see Scene 4 on the opposite side.

Text 1: five columns of inscription at the arched line of the shoulder Revered before Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, [Foremost of ] the West, the great god. Revered before Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, [Foremost of the West, the great god.] Revered before []. [Revered before ]. [Revered before Osiris, Lord of ]. Scene 2 (in a rather fragmentary condition) The central structure is, again, a sanctuary (friezes on the faade: frieze with uraei surmounted by sun discs, cavetto cornice, block-frieze) supported by a front column. The main figure of the scene is a deity seated on his throne, wearing a sun disc with a uraeus, holding a HqA-sceptre and a flagellum. In front of him are barely visible traces of an i my - wt emblem, at his knees and on the other side of the emblem is an offering vessel containing liquid (qbH-vase). Between the divine figure and the chapel some almost illegible short offering formulae [ d i . sn Ht p r a n b and d i . sn Ht p m d wAt (?)] can be found. In front of the chapel appears the deceased wearing an ointment cone and a lotus bud on her head, showing the gesture of worship. Before her feet an offering table stands, with two tall, longshaped jars with a lotus stem wound around their bodies. The offerings piled upon the table are indiscernible, but the symbol of the STyt-sanctuary under the arms of the deceased is still visible. Above her figure three columns of inscription can be read: i mAxy x r (on the right), d i . s n Ht p (in the middle), i mAxy x r Ws ir [n b nHH d wAt] (on the left). Text 2: two columns of inscription Words spoken by Ptah-Sokar-Osiris [. May they give Ht p -offering.] Words spoken by Ptah-Sokar-Osiris [. May they give Ht p -offering.] Scene 3 (the symmetrical parallel of the former composition) In an identically represented sanctuary Osiris wearing a sun disc on his head is seated upon his throne. In front of him some traces of the i my - wt symbol are still perceivable. The inscriptions opposite the enthroned figure: i mAxy x r (twice), d i . s n Ht p. The outlines of the deceased are almost totally worn and barely discernible, nevertheless her head as well as the ointment vessel she holds in her hand are still identifiable.
For the ointment offering (i rt / rd it mDt), see van Walsem 1997, 288.

Text 3: five columns of inscription at the curve of the elbow Words spoken by Ptah, Lord of the Duat [], Osiris, Lord of the Shetyt, Lord of heaven, (earth) and the netherworld []. May they give Ht p -offering, everything []. Revered before Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the [West, the gods.] Revered before Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the [West, ].
For nb pt dwAt, a rarely occurring divine epithet, apparently in use only during the 21st Dynasty and later in the GrecoRoman Period, see LGG III, 628 (Des Herr des Himmels und der Unterwelt); cf. nb pt tA dwAt (LGG III, 627).

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49

Scene 4 The central figure of the composition is a large-sized sx m -sceptre standing inside an otherworldly chapel (twin-vaulted roof and a faade below it, with friezes decorated with a hatched pattern and grape motif). The sceptre is surmounted by a sun disc from which uraei hang down on both sides. The symbol is flanked by two winged cobras wearing sun discs on their heads. The body of the left one is decorated with a Sn -ring, while between its head and upper wing three Neith-symbols and a STy t -sanctuary are placed.
For similar protective goddesses in vulture shape with outstretched wings, equipped with Sn -ring, see Besancon 1990, 22; Jrgensen 2001, 1:7

In front of the right cobra: three Neith signs, and three other hieroglyphs ( pr, n b, iAt). Between the wings of both serpents the motif of a human-headed sphinx lying on a n b sign (3) can be found. In front of the left one: a STy t -sanctuary; behind it: a Sn -ring and an additional space filler sign (Ht p). On the head of the right one: an ointment cone and a lotus bud, in front of it: an offering vessel containing liquid; behind it: a Sn -ring and a Ht p -sign.
For a composition with the s x m -sceptre, see Scene 5 of the right side of Inv. no 51.2093 above. For the sphinx motif, see van Walsem 1997, fig. 494 and 495 (between the wings of Nephthys on the lid); Hayes 1959, fig. 267; Niwiski 1988b, No. 341 (on a platform imitating a palace faade motif, on the side of the outer coffin box); Taylor 2001b, fig. 169 (on a platform imitating a palace faade motif; in the company of Nephthys). For the symbolism of sphinxes in this context, see the interpretation of K. Myliwiec (1978-1979, I, 1520, Abb. 2 and 3, Taf. IVV) who emphasises the associations between Atum and Ra-Horakhty on the one hand and those between Atum and Osiris on the other.

There are two additional cobras below the aforementioned ones flanking and protecting the lower part of the scene panel with their outstretched wings. Above the wings of the left one: a wDAt -eye, three Neith-hieroglyphs, a nfr- and a pr-sign. On the same side between the wings: another sphinx figure with a qbH-vase. The figure of the right snake and the decoration of the lower right corner of the scene are badly damaged. Text 4: two columns of inscription Words spoken by Ptah-Sokar-Osiris [. May they give.] Words spoken by Ptah-Sokar-Osiris [. May they give.] Scene 5 The composition is placed in a sanctuary as usual (frieze on the faade: cavetto cornice, blockfrieze). The central figure is the jackal-headed Anubis seated on his throne, holding a flagellum in his hand. In front of his legs: the symbol of the STy t -chapel and the inscription nTr aA. Opposite the divine figure: a bA-bird standing on a mat base, lifting up its hands to the god, wearing an ointment cone and a lotus bud on its head. Behind the bird: the deceased in human form, approaching the god, holding an ointment vessel in his hand. Below the mat base of the bA-bird: from the fragmentary traces of the decoration only a STy t -chapel is discernible.
For similar compositions, see Jrgensen 2001, 2:11; Gasse 1996, pl. LXIII, 4. (in both cases a frieze of uraei surmounted with sun discs is used instead of the cavetto cornice motif).

The inscriptions, divine titles and symbols around the figures: In pw n b tA [Ds r]; pr d wAt with a iAt -sign; i mAxy x r Ws ir n b nHH (next to the head of Anubis); d i . s n Ht p and x n ty i m n t t tA-Dsrt (around the head of the bA); Ht p r a n b, prt - x rw and d wAt (around the figure of the deceased).
The epithet n b p r d wAt was in use during the 21st24th Dynasties, see LGG III, 633 (Der Herr des Hauses der Unterwelt ). For the title p r d wAt , see also Kees 1914; Allen 1994, 2425, n. 34; Willems 1996, 268269.

50

COFFINS

Text 5: two columns of inscription Revered before Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost [of the West]. Revered before Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost [of the West]. Scene 6 The scene is placed in an otherworldly chapel (twin-vaulted top and a faade with friezes decorated with a hatched pattern and grape motif below). The central figure of the composition is a Dd -column worn in feathered shroud and enveloped by wings, standing on a nwb sign. On both of its sides a mAat -feather, and the inscriptions n b pr d wAt and prt - x rw serve as space fillers. Both on the right and left sides are two mummy-shaped otherworldly beings facing outwards, each wearing a feather on their heads. On the right: a bearded snake- and crocodileheaded; on the left: vulture- and bearded snake-headed. The feather head-dresses of the crocodile- and vulture-headed figures are combined with red sun discs. On the left edge of the scene: a vegetable offering (a sort of lettuce) and the inscription d i . s n prt - x rw above it. Around the head of the chthonic figures on both sides the expression pr d wAt can be read.
For similarly depicted Dd -columns, see Niwiski 1988b, pl. XXII; Niwiski 1995, pl. XIX, 2. For the associations between the Dd -column covered with feathers and Ptah (or the royal figure) wearing falcon dress, and the apotropaic goddesses with vulture wings, see van Walsem 1997, 331332. For a similar composition in the 21st-dynasty Theban corpus, see Niwiski 1995, fig. 20 (with otherworldly deities facing inwards).

Text 6: two columns of inscription Words spoken by Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Lord of the Shetyt, Lord [of heaven]. Words spoken by Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Lord of the Shetyt, Lord [of heaven]. Scene 7 The scene is placed in a sanctuary (decoration on the faade: cavetto cornice and block-frieze) where Osiris is seated upon his throne with a sun disc and a uraeus on his head. In front of him: a n m s t -vase with a lotus flower on the top and with a sort of lettuce below, and the word prt - x rw. Opposite Osiris an ape-headed otherworldly deity is depicted which pars pro toto symbolises the Four Sons of Horus (van Walsem 1997, 306). In front of the standing figure: another n m s t -vase with a lettuce offering. Short text columns under the frieze: i mAxy x r n b p t (?); d i . s n Ht p Hwt n bt . Text 7: two columns of inscription Revered before Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost [of the West.] Revered before [Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the West]. Frieze: The frieze running along the whole length of the upper edge of the box is composed of four parts. 1 a frieze of cobras with sun discs on their heads facing the head of the deceased 2 a decorative frieze consisting of alternating coloured (red, yellow, green and blue) and sized bands (block-frieze) 3 a long hieroglyphic text band beginning from a winged sun disc on the top of the head 4 a decorative frieze consisting of alternating coloured and sized bands (block-frieze) The hieroglyphic text band: [Words spoken by Ra-Horakhty], he who illuminates the Two Lands (with) his Two Eyes (1), Atum, Foremost of Southern Heliopolis (i.e. Thebes), the great god, he who ascends from the horizon, he who makes his appearance in his barque,
COFFINS 51 LEFT SIDE (Pl. 11)

Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, [Foremost of the Westerners], Wenennofer, [Ruler of ] the Living, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Ruler of Dt -Etrenity, Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Lord of the Shetyt, Isis the great, Mother of the God, Mistress of heaven, the Eye of Ra, Mistress of the pr- n f r, Nephthys, Sister of the God, Mistress of the pr-an x (2), May they give a thousand loaves of bread, a thousand jugs of beer and (a thousand pieces of ) linen and incense, a thousand of oxen, a thousand of fowl, a thousand of geese, a thousand of Ht p offering (to) Osiris, mistress of the house, chantress of Amun-Ra, King of the gods, [blank place for the name], justified. Scene 1 The scene is placed in an otherworldly sanctuary (twin-vaulted top and a faade with friezes decorated with a hatched pattern and grape motif below). The central figure of the composition is a Dd -column surmounted with ram horns and an At f -crown from which a pair of uraei hang down on both sides. Below the uraei: a qbH-vase with a lotus bud on the top. The Dd -column is placed on a nwb -sign. Under the nwb -sign: two STy t -sanctuaries referring to the otherworldly context of the scene. The Dd -column is flanked by two goddesses kneeling on platforms representing sanctuary faades: Isis with an an x -sign on her arm on the right side, and Nephthys on the left. In front of Isis: the word prt - x rw; in front of Nephthys: the word prt - x rw and a d wAt sign. Under the two platforms: an offering vase containing ointment, a libation vase, and the i m n t t and iAbt t symbols. Above the heads of the goddesses the following groups of signs or divine epithets can be read: nTr aA, tAwy, an x w, n b STy t , d wAt .
According to Mahler (1902, 156) between the two sanctuaries, below the n wb -sign the inscription p r nTr could be read.

Text 1: two columns of inscription Words spoken by Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the West, [the great god ], Lord of heaven who is in the Netherworld. Words spoken by Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the West, [the great god, Lord of heaven who is in the Netherworld.] Scene 2 This scene and the following one form a symmetrical composition, cf. the badly damaged parallel scenes on the same spot of the opposite side. The deity of the columned chapel (faade friezes: one with uraei, cavetto cornice, block-frieze) is seated on his throne, wearing a sun disc with a uraeus on its head and holding a HqAsceptre and a flagellum in the hand. His throne is placed on a platform imitating a palace faade motif. In front of the god: an i my - wt symbol; above the i my - wt : a vulture standing on a nwb -sign, and a STy t -chapel. The figure of the deceased (with an ointment cone and a lotus bud on her head) appears outside of the sanctuary. In front of her: a table with (barely visible) offerings. Under the table: two tall, long-shaped jars with a lotus stem wound around their bodies. Above the table: a STy t -sanctuary. Three columns of inscription above the figure of the deceased: n b p t ; x n ty i m n t t ; Ht p ; d wAt ; d i . sn Ht p. Text 2: two columns of inscription Words spoken by Osiris, Lord [of nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the West, the great god, Lord of heaven.] Words spoken by Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, [Foremost of the West, the great god, Lord of heaven.]
52 COFFINS

Scene 3 The symmetrical parallel of the former scene. The deceased presents an ointment vessel as an offering to the god who is seated in his shrine. Above the i my - wt symbol: a vulture standing on a mat base; in front of the vulture: a mAat feather, a d wAt -sign and a STy t -shrine; behind the vulture: a sign referring to the goddess Neith. The inscription in front of the i my - wt symbol: nTr aA n b p t []. In front of the deceased: an offering table with two tall long-shaped jars with a lotus stem wound around their bodies. The various items of the offering placed on the table are barely distinguishable, aside from a piece of meat (?) on the top and a bunch of onions. Above the figure of the deceased: three columns of short, fragmentary inscription, from which only the first one (d i . sn Ht p) and the beginning of the second one are visible (i mAxy). Text 3: two columns of inscription Revered before Anubis, Lord of the Sacred Land, Foremost of the Divine Booth. May they give. Revered before [Anubis, Lord of the Sacred Land, Foremost of the Divine Booth.] May they give. Scene 4 Cf. Scene 1 on the opposite side. In the otherworldly shrine (twin-vaulted roof and a faade with a composite frieze combining the hatched pattern, a block-frieze and a blue stripe) the central figure of the scene, a personified Tit -symbol standing on a nwb -sign supports the lowermost part of the frieze which symbolises the sky. From both hands of the Tit -symbol an an x -sign hangs. The nwb -symbol itself stands on two Dd -columns which flank a scarab. The t it -emblem is bordered by the figure of a bA-bird with a flagellum on both sides, standing on a mat base which is placed on a rectangular pedestal displaying the palace faade motif. The hands of the bA-birds are in the gesture of salutation/worship. In front of the birds: mAat -feathers. Inscriptions and space fillers around the birds: a STy t -shrine, the expressions n b p t and pr d wAt . Text 4: two columns of inscription Revered before Anubis, Lord of the Sacred Land, Foremost of the Divine Booth. May they give Ht p -offering. [Revered ] before Anubis, Lord of the Sacred Land, Foremost of the Divine Booth. May they give Ht p -offering. Scene 5 In the chapel structure (faade: cavetto cornice, block-frieze and a blue stripe symbolising the sky) the central figure of the composition is a winged cobra with a sun disc on its head. Its body is equipped with a Sn -ring. Before the sun disc: a personified wDAt -eye, three Neith signs, and the title pr d wAt ; behind the sun disc: the epithet nTr aA.
A variant or rather a part of this composition is depicted in Scene 4 on the opposite side. The same motif (i.e. the winged goddess and a jackal or sphinx lying between the wings) can also be used as a sort of decorative frieze on the outer side of a coffin box, see Gasse 1996, I, 2 and II, 1.

Between the outstretched wings of the cobra goddess: a Sn -ring (?), a sphinx with a sun disc on her head, equipped with a flagellum, lying on a n b -sign; behind the sphinx: a STy t -shrine and a d wAt -sign. The figure of the cobra goddess is placed on a narrow pedestal, with the inscription pr d wAt referring to the netherworld below her. Under her lower wing a squatting, mummy-shaped bearded figure (4) faces a vulture-shaped goddess equipped with a flagellum and supplemented with a Neith symbol above her. On the right edge of the scene: a STy t -shrine and the title pr d wAt .
COFFINS 53

Text 5: three columns of inscription Words spoken by Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the West, the great god. Revered before Anubis, Lord of the Sacred Land, Foremost of the Divine Booth. May they give Ht p -offering. Words spoken by Osiris, Lord of nHH-Etrenity, Foremost of the West, the great god. Scene 6 The composition is placed in the otherworldly chapel (attributed by a twin-vaulted top; faade friezes with a hatched pattern and grape motif). The central figure of the scene is a sx m -sceptre equipped with m n it -counterweights on both sides, crowned by a sun disc from which uraei hang down on both sides, wearing an x -signs on their bodies. On both sides of the sceptre are offering tables. On the right one: two round-shaped loaves of bread, a vessel containing liquid, two baskets, a piece of meat, and a bunch of onions on the top. Below the table: a sort of lettuce and the title pr d wAt . On the left table: the same kinds of offerings, with a lettuce, and a n m s t -vessel; below the table: the title pr d wAt . The scene is bordered by two pairs of chthonic divine figures looking toward the centre of the scene, with jackal and bearded snake heads on both sides. The heads of the snakes are decorated with feathers. Before both figures on the right side and the snake-headed on the left lettuces stand, while a n m s t -vessel can be found in front of the jackal-headed one. Text 6: three columns of inscription Revered before Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, [Foremost of the West]. Words spoken by Anubis, Lord of the Sacred Land, Foremost of the Divine Booth. May they give. Revered before Osiris, Lord of [nHH-Eternity, Foremost of the West]. Scene 7 The last scene is located at the desert hillside of the western necropolis. At the feet of the mountain the mummified deceased stands with an ointment cone and a lotus bud on its head. Behind her the entrance of her tomb can be seen, with a pyramidion on its top. Behind the building the chthonic, otherworldly symbolism is conveyed by a iAt -mound and a d wAt sign. At the upper left corner the personified sun disc is represented with arms receiving the morning aspect of the sungod which is manifested in scarab shape (5). The figure of the deceased is preceded by her bA aspect standing on an i m n t t -emblem, with an an x -sign on her raised arm. Before the i m n t t -emblem some space filler symbols can be seen: the title pr d wAt , a d wAt -sign and a qbH-vase. Opposite the deceased and the bA a woman with an ointment cone and a lotus bud on the head (perhaps the deceased herself, see the iconography of the figure in Scene 5 on the right side) presents an ointment vessel as a funerary offering. The inscriptions above the figures: i mAxy x r (twice), Ws ir n b nHH. Text 7: two columns of inscription 1 Words spoken by Anubis, Lord of the Sacred Land []. May they give [Ht p -offering]. 2 Words spoken by [Anubis, Lord of the Sacred Land,] []. May they give [Ht p -offering].
NOTES TO THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE OUTER DECORATION OF THE BOX

General remarks There is an obvious parallelism between Scene 1 of the right and left sides where (similarly to the decoration of the sides of Inv. no. 51.2095) the central figures of the composition are the Dd -column (closely associated to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris) and the t it -emblem symbolising Isis. Scenes 2 and 3 both on the right and left sides are basically identical as conveying the same content, i.e. displaying the interaction between Osiris (with a sun disc on his head, residing in his chapel which is decorated with a frieze of uraei) and the deceased presenting an offering to him.
54 COFFINS

Scene 6 of both sides can also be associated with each other thematically as well as structurally: two otherworldly figures flank divine emblems (the Dd -column in a feathered garment/the sx m -sceptre with a sun disc on its head) in both cases. Some recurring motifs can be observed on the sides of the box: the personified Tit -symbol (right side, Scene 1/left side, Scene 4), the winged goddess with the human-headed sphinx between her wings (right side, Scene 4 / left right side, Scene 5), and the sx m -sceptre (right side, Scene 4 / left side, Scene 6). Patterns of shrines Regularly recurring, standard elements of the iconography of the sides are the sanctuaries, undoubtedly intended to emphasise the symbolism/function of the coffin as a funerary chapel/divine shrine, see van Walsem 1997, 359261. The other place is the lower part of the lid covering the legs and feet where the scene panels are modelled as chapels. Five types of the faade friezes can be distinguished on the coffin: a. twin-vaulted roof, below the top faade friezes with a hatched pattern and grape motif b. cavetto cornice, block-frieze c. cavetto cornice, block-frieze and a blue stripe symbolising the sky (a variant of the b. type) d. frieze of uraei crowned with a sun disc, cavetto cornice e. frieze of uraei crowned with a sun disc, cavetto cornice and block-frieze (a variant of the d. type)
For the different types, see van Walsem 1997, 255263.

Gods displayed on coffin walls It can be clearly observed how the role of Sokar and Ptah-Sokar-Osiris becomes increasingly significant and emphatic during the last phase of the discussed coffin type as compared to the previous sub-periods both in representations and in textual sources. The great popularity of this otherworldly aspect of the great god inherently combining solar and chthonic features remained high at a later point too during the 22nd23rd Dynasties; see van Walsem 1997, 306307. It is interesting to compare and contrast this phenomenon with the divine names appearing on coffins already discussed in the present catalogue. It is conspicuous that in the inscriptions of the first (and in my opinion the earliest dated) coffin (Inv. no. 51.2093) Osiris (Wenennofer) is the only invocated god. However, in regard to Inv. no. 51.2095, which on the basis of its iconography must originate from a slightly later phase of the same period, the name of Ra-Harakhty, Isis and Nephthys also occur beside that of Osiris. On the piece in question, however, a deliberate effort to feature as many divinities/divine aspects as possible (Ra-Harakhty, Atum, Osiris, Wenennofer, Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Anubis, Isis, Nephthys) can be observed.
On the great popularity of Anubis in the 21st-dynasty Theban coffin material, see van Walsem 1997, 200201.

(1) sHD tAwy m Ax ty =fy : see LGG VI, 485 (Der die beiden Lnder mit seinen Glanzaugen erhellt ). This variant of the epithet came into fashion during the 21st24th Dynasties and became frequently used later even in the Greco-Roman Period. In the Third Intermediate Period it occurred as a divine title more often on coffins than on papyri beside the name of Osiris, Ra, Ra-Horakhty, Ra-Horakhty-Atum and in one case also after the general designation great god . Cf. the occurrences of the word Ax ty ( die beiden Glanzaugen) in the Sonnenlitanei (LGG I, 48).
For other readings (nTrty or wDAty) of the double wDAt -eyes, see sHD tAwy m nTry =fy during the 21st24th Dynasties (LGG VI, 488); and sHD tAwy m wDAty =fy during the 21st24th Dynasties (LGG VI, 487); see also Zandee 1992, I, 542. For additional 21st-dynasty versions of the text, see e.g. Jrgensen 2001, 2:9 and 2:15; Egner Haslauer 1994, 21/36 and 29/36; Niwiski 1995, 44 (CG 6053: nTrty); Niwiski 1995, 103 (CG 6077: nTrty); Niwiski 1995, 107 (CG 6076: nTrty); Niwiski 1995, 136 (CG 6112); Budge 1896, 33; Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 10 (scene 2, 12th column: wDAty).

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55

(2) Notes on other divine epithets: x n ty Iwnw Sm a: see LGG V, 780 (Der Vorsteher von Armant ); used during the 21st24th Dynasties as an epithet of Atum or Ra-Horakhty-Atum. pry m Ax t =f : see LGG III, 4950 (Der aus dem Horizont hervorkommt ); used typically as a divine title of Ra-Horakhty-Atum during the 21st Dynasty. xaw m wiA=f : see LGG V, 643 (Der in seiner Barke erscheint ); frequently occurring during the 21st24th Dynasties as the divine title of Ra-Horakhty-Atum.
See also Gasse 1996, 58 where a close parallel of the above texts appears in connection with Ra-Harakhty-Atum (x n ty Iwn w nTr aA p r m Ax t xa m wiA).

x n ty sH- nTr n STy t : see LGG V, 862 (Der Vorsteher des Gotteszeltes des Schetit ); used during the 21st24th Dynasties as an epithet of Osiris. Tpy - tA: see LGG VII, 393 (Der auf der Erde ist ), according to which, however, this epithet of Anubis seems not to be attested during the 21st Dynasty. Hnwt pr-an x(t): see LGG V, 177 (Herrin des Lebenshauses); the divine epithet of Isis, Nephthys, Neith, Nut, Hathor or the goddess of the West; especially frequently occurring on coffins of the 21st24th Dynasties. Hnwt pr- n f r: see LGG V, 179 (Die Herrin des Balsamierungshauses); the divine title of various goddesses (e.g. Isis and Nephthys) during the Third Intermediate Period. (3) Scene 4 of the right side emphasises the otherworldly aspect (as the guard of the necropolis) of the human-headed sphinx lying between the wings of the goddess, see all the attributes and iconographical motifs (the ointment cone and the lotus bud on its head, the STy t -shrine and the qbH-vase) appearing in the composition. In Scene 5, on the other hand, the solar aspect of the same figure (with the sun disc on its head) seems to play a prominent role.
For the sphinx-motif, see van Walsem 1997, 146 and 152153; Myliwiec 19781979, 15 (Abb. 12), 1720 (concerning Atum).

(4) The squatting figure is one of the manifestations or aspects of the deceased, a motif occurring on 21st-dynasty variants of the scene of the Weighing of the Heart: Seeber 1976, 40, 72 ff., 107 ff.; Piankoff Rambova 1957, fig. 38, 39, 40 (where the squatting figure of the mummified deceased accompanied by the vulture goddess sometimes appears in the lower half of the composition symbolising the netherworld spheres); Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 8, scene 5 (where the squatting figure and the vulture are transferred to another composition although the otherworldly judges are still present in the lower register); Niwiski 1999, fig. 27, 39 and 111. (5) The composition is a version of the scene of the cow coming out from the mountain with the representation of the necropolis located along the edge of the desert and the mummy standing in front of the entrance of its tomb, without displaying the figure of the cow goddess.
For analogies, see Patch 1990, 79, fig. 61 (where the figure of the cow is also absent); Egner Haslauer 1994, 30/37 (where the sun disc comprising of the scarab approaches the outstretched arms of the male figure emerging from the mountain but instead of the figure of the cow goddess the scene is associated with the Sycamore goddess, a recurrent parallel of the cow-motif on 21st-dynasty coffins); Schmidt 1919, fig. 852 (where the scarab is approaching the embracing arms of the goddess of the West); Englund 1974, fig. 1 (where the ram head, i.e. the nocturnal aspect of the solar god is placed inside the sun disc). See also on contemporaneous funerary papyri, e.g. Chassinat 1903, pl. III = Refai 2007, 162, Abb. 9 and 10.

The motif with the scarab/sun disc and the receiving male or female arms is a version of the Schluszene of the Amduat which was originally concerned with the final phase of (or rather the passage between) the nightly journey of the sun and sunrise at dawn. In this way the scene of the cow coming out from the mountain which gives a cosmic interpretation of the
56 COFFINS

ritual entrance of the deceased into the netherworld (equated with the sunset at twilight) is combined with its counterpoint, i.e. the motif of the sunrise. The arms receiving the scarab aspect or the scarab surrounded by the disc equally allude to the nocturnal (i my it n=f ) form involving the morning manifestation of the solar god. Thus the variant in display is meant to represent the whole solar cycle in one composition.
For the i my it n =f form, see Assmann 1969, 3940; LGG I, 228229; Liptay 2006b, 19. For the scarab and the nocturnal aspect of the sun, see Myliwiec 19781979, 7577; Myliwiec 1979; Goff 1979, fig. 139, 140, 145; Stadler 2001, Taf. XVIII (in connection with Osiris). For the motif of the sun disc with arms in the 21st Dynasty, see Niwiski 1989a, fig. 26a, 41 and 76; Liptay 2006a, 3839.

III INNER DECORATION OF BOX (Pl. 12) The inner decoration of the box is in a rather poor condition. Judging from the visible traces, the background was painted yellow.
Almost nothing of the original decoration has survived, except for the upper part of an inscription pr d wAt or STy t (?) at the lower left edge. Almost nothing of the original decoration has survived. Some traces indicate, however, that the bottom might have been divided into five (?) horizontal registers. The figures still visible on the left side make it possible to reconstruct the iconographical arrangement of the sides: it was formed by groups of two standing, mummified otherworldly beings facing outwards, in three registers. Only the fragmentary figure on the extreme right of the lowest register is perceivable. It has a vulture (?) head, similarly to the opposite one. In front of the figure: a nTr-hieroglyph. Upper register Only the figure with a jackal head on the extreme left is visible. In front of the figure: a qbHvase (?), an ointment vessel, and the inscription In pw n b tA-Ds r in front of the head. Middle register The only visible figure of the decoration is the extreme left, bearded human-headed one. In front of the figure: the inscription nTr aA n b d wAt . Lower register Only the vulture-headed figure on the extreme left is visible. The yellow background colour of the inner decoration as well as the groups of figures of the side panels facing outwards (centrifugal and perhaps horizontal composition, see Niwiski 1988b, 9697) allow the piece in accordance with the lid type to be dated to the final phase of yellow type coffins.
For the arrangement of the figures on the sides, see Gasse 1996, pl. VII, 2 and VIII, 1; pl. XI, 2 and XII, 1; Antwerp 1995, pl. 2225. NOTES ON THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE INNER DECORATION OF THE BOX HEAD

BOTTOM

SIDES

RIGHT SIDE

LEFT SIDE

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57

Inv. no. 51.1995/12


Anthropoid inner coffin Wood (sycamore / Fycus sycomorus), linen, plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black) Height 179 cm Width (at the shoulders) 48 cm Depth 39 cm Date: late 22nd Dynasty early 25th Dynasty Name / titles: _i -r- iAwt / m ry nTr Provenance unknown, probably from Akhmim Transfer from the Archiepiscopal Museum in Eger (No. 1) with the following note: involving a male mummy which has totally fallen apart so that the remains consist only of bones Condition: apart from the reconstructed top of the head, in very good condition; restored (1980) A label with a black number 9 on the upper edge of the footboard Literature: Varga Wessetzky 1955, 6, pl. I.2; 19643, 6 and pl. XIV; Varga 1974, 19792, 56 and fig. 34; Varga 1978 (published with wrong inv. no.); Vozil 1980 ; Aufrre 1987, 2122; Elias 1993, 655 n. 33, 687 n. 70; Nagy 1999a, 5960, fig. 41; Liptay 2008, 43, fig. 4; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 35.

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 1315) The basic colour of the background of the text columns is white, with a greyish coloration, symbolically imitating silver leaf. The scene blocks, on the other hand, are painted on a yellow base, symbolising gold (see Taylor 2006, 264265).

I LID (Inv. no. 51.1995/1; Pl. 13)


HEAD

The face as is usual in the case of contemporaneous coffins manufactured for men has a vivid brownish red colour, equipped with a braided false beard. The head is covered by a blue-yellow striped tripartite wig. The eyes and the eyebrows have blue contour lines. The faraway but confident look and the expression of the face reflect serenity and calmness. Since the damaged surface of the top of the head has been reconstructed in modern times, only some traces of the original motifs of the floral wreath or fillet remain visible. Based on the evidence of other pieces belonging to this type, however, the original decoration of the top of the head can be reconstructed with certainty as a composition showing the large-sized scarab beetle facing the forehead.
For analogies, see e.g. Taylor 2003, 107; Taylor 2006, 266 and Plate 47 (b).

COLLAR

The stylised floral wsx -collar covers the entire upper body down to the middle of the chest. The collar motif is preceded by broad green and red stripes separated by narrow yellow lines on the neck.
For similar motifs above collars on 21st-dynasty Theban anthropoid coffins see e.g. Inv. nos. 51.2093 and 51.2095 of the present catalogue.

The floral wreath itself is composed of seven garlands which are separated from each other by two green, yellow or red stripes, except for the two lowest ones where three separating bands were used. Below the collar the central figure of the lid, the composite figure of the nocturnal manifestation of the solar god occupies the whole surface of the lid (Pl. 15). The divine form combines the ram head wearing a tripartite wig and uraeus with the body of a falcon with outstretched wings. The bird grasps a Sn -ring with both claws. The face is painted green. The inscription belonging to the figure above the wings and arms: BHdty nTr aA sAb nb pt. Below the wings, at both corners: a t -sign and an egg-determinative either as an addition to the word p t of
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the inscription above the wings or to the names of the goddesses (Isis and Nephthys) who protectively surround the deity from both sides (see Varga 1978, 47 and n. 11).
On the hawk-shaped and ram-headed solar god appearing in the Schluszene-variants of the Book of Caverns, see Taylor 2003, 106 and Taylor 2006, 266269; on the ram-headed winged scarab, see Assmann 1972, 62 and 70; Darnell 2004, 398400. For the 21st-dynasty Theban association of the winged hawk-shaped solar god wearing a sun disc on his head (frequently occurring on 21st-dynasty coffin lids) and the divine title sAb Swt , see van Walsem 1997, 119120 [d]. For the same divine form on Third Intermediate Period coffins, see Niwiski in Bickel 2004, 119121 and Abb. 38d.

The edges of the lid are framed by block-friezes; i.e. a pattern containing oblongs of different sizes and colours which was a much-used and popular separating motif between different iconographic sections of coffin lids of the period. Below the winged central figure as a continuation of the tail feathers of the bird a hieroglyphic text column runs down to the toes. The central column is flanked by a block-frieze and an additional separating band with a feather pattern on both sides.
The frieze with a feather pattern occasionally occurs on coffin lids as early as the 21st Dynasty, see e.g. Gasse 1996, pl. XXXI, 1; Niwiski 1988b, pl. XVB. LOWER PART OF LID (Pl. 15)

The single inscription column displays multi-coloured hieroglyphic signs (Pl. 15): An offering which the king gives to Osiris, Foremost of the Westerners, the great god, Lord of Abydos. May he give a perfect burial to the Beloved of the God, _i - @r- iAwt , son of the Beloved of the God, @r.
For multi-coloured hieroglyphic texts on Third Intermediate Period coffins, see Elias 1993, 686687, n. 70 (who mentioned the discussed coffin as an example of the phenomenon). For the spell of the name of Osiris, see Elias 1993, 655, n. 33. For the unclear significance of the title m ry nTr, see Taylor 2006, 283284.

The text column divides the decoration field below the waist into two symmetrical parts with three scene panels on both sides. Upper right and left scenes The upper edges of the scenes below the wings of the ram-headed god are formed by a separating motif consisting of three parts: a combination of a block-frieze between two bands with a feather pattern. Right side panel: the standing figure of Osiris with the At f -crown on his head and with a long stick in his hand (1). Above the figure: the hieroglyphs of his name (Ws ir); in front of his legs: a stylised lettuce as an offering.
For similar iconography of the lettuce offering before the feet of the god on 21st-dynasty coffins, see Kffer Renfer 1997, 109; Berlev Hodjash 1998, pl. 5758; Hayes 1959, fig. 267 (under the winged sun disc, in front of the feet of Osiris/the deceased; Brunner-Traut Brunner 1981, Taf. 110 (next to the head of the winged goddess, on the left); Berlev Hodjash 1998, pl. 58; Hermitage 1974, No. 110.

The next figure behind him is Nephthys with raised arms, wearing the symbol of her name on her head. Above her arms: the supplementary signs of her name (a t -sign and an eggdeterminative). Below her arms: a wAs -sceptre flanked by two an x -signs. Behind the goddess the standing figure of Anubis can be seen, with the hieroglyphs of his name before him. Left side panel: the standing figure of Osiris with the crown of Upper Egypt on his head. Above his head his name (Wsir) can be read. In front of his feet: a stylised lettuce as an offering.
COFFINS 59

The next figure behind him: Isis with raised arms, wearing the symbol of her name on her head. Above her arms: the supplementary signs of her name (a t -sign and an egg-determinative). Below her arms: a wAs -sceptre flanked by two an x -signs. Behind her: an i m n t t symbol. Middle right and left scenes The middle panel on both sides is divided from the upper one by the same separating motif consisting of three parts: a combination of a block-frieze between two bands with a feather pattern. Right side panel: two of the Four Sons of Horus (the ape- and the jackal-headed ones) with mummy-shaped bodies decorated with a red net pattern, holding a piece of linen. Between them one column of hieroglyphic inscription recording their names: Ws ir Im s ty Ws ir QbH- snw =f . Left side panel: the other pair of the Sons of Horus with human- and hawk-heads; the human-headed one holds a piece of linen in his hand; both mummy-shaped bodies are decorated with a red net pattern motif. Between them one column of hieroglyphic inscription recording their names: [Dd - m d w n] Ws ir Im s ty py. Lower right and left scenes The scene panels of the lowest zone covering the feet display a winged sun disc on both sides. Below the bordering block-frieze a yellow-red striped pedestal serves as a base both for the lid and the box. The inner side of the lid is undecorated, but its whole surface is painted white

II BOX (Inv. no 51.1995/2; Pl. 14)

The box is rather shallow which is a typical feature of the coffin type in question and it is covered with white plaster. The striped pattern of the wig continues on both its outer sides. Below the wig a multi-coloured hieroglyphic text column runs along the edges of the box on both sides starting from the line of the shoulders. Inscription on the right An offering which the king gives to Ra-Horakhty-Atum, Lord of the Two Lands, the Heliopolitan. May he give bread, beer, oxen, fowl, incense, linen (to) the kA of Osiris, the Beloved of the God, _i -r- iAwt . Inscription on the left An offering which the king gives to Osiris, Foremost of the Westerners, the great god, Lord of Abydos. May he give bread, beer, oxen, fowl, incense and linen to the kA of Osiris, the Beloved of the God, _i -r- iAwt . Both the interior and the exterior of the box are undecorated, but painted white. The middle axis on the rear body-field of the box, from the lower part of the wig to the pedestal, functions as a symbolic dorsal pillar.

NOTES ON THE TYPE AND ICONOGRAPHY OF THE COFFIN

General remarks The discussed coffin is a fine example of the cartonnage-like wooden coffins (see Niwiski 1988e, 218221; Taylor 2006, 277) dated to the late 22th early 25th Dynasties which were intended to imitate the material and the mummiform shape of the one-piece cartonnage containers, i.e. the typical inner coffin-type of the preceding period. In order to gain a cartonnage-like appearance the wooden surface was coated with plaster and a linen cover.
60 COFFINS

Various iconographical inventions (e.g. applying the pedestal below the feet and the back pillar along the vertical axis of the bottom) were gradually also introduced, the aim of which was to emphasise the sculpture-like character of the coffin (Niwiski 1988e, 219222; DAuria Lacovara Roehrig 1992, 167; Elias 1993, 433; Taylor 2001a, 174; Aston 2009, 284). The decoration scheme also inspired by cartonnage coffins became considerably simplified and gradually increasingly dominated by Osirian symbolism (van Walsem 1997, 365). In the case of the Budapest coffin the lack of inner decoration a major influence of cartonnage envelopes strengthens the argument in favour of an early datation inside the history of the cartonnage-like coffins, while the pieces of the same type manufactured later tend to display inner decoration, exploiting all the available wooden surfaces again (Niwiski 1988e, 219; Taylor 2003, 112). An extremely close parallel to our piece originating from Akhmim (and dated back to the 22nd23rd Dynasties) is published by S. Aufrre (1987, 2122 and pl. IIIIV) who refers to the Budapest piece. Cf. another analogous piece from Akhmim: Autun 1988, 223227 (No. 263). Taking into consideration the fact that the workmanship, elaboration and iconography of the coffins are almost identical, it is tempting to assume that the Budapest coffin of unknown provenance comes from the same archaeological site. The appearance of the multicoloured hieroglyphic texts further confirms the Akhmimic origin of the coffin (Elias 1993, 686687, n. 70).
S. Aufrre mentions two additional pieces which do not contain inner decoration, but are coated with white plaster, see Hugonot 1984, 8196; for an additional Theban piece without inner decoration, see Taylor 2006. For the theophoric name of the owner, see a female variant of the same composition, Di-Aset-iaou, chantress of Amun, owner of a Theban wooden coffin dated back to the same period (Rannou 1999, 9698, No. 127). For the composition _i -X- iAw (t), see Thirion 1979, 8688. For the close relations between contemporaneous priestly families of Akhmim (Min) and Thebes (Amun-Ra), based on the genealogical lineage found on an early Libyan period cartonnage coffin, see Liptay 1993, 2326.

(1) The stick held by the god could refer to the equivalence of his qualities and nature with the nocturnal sun (primarily with Atum who is sometimes represented as an old man leaning on a stick), cf. Myliwiec 1979. In addition, it could be regarded as a playful or enigmatic allusion to the name of the deceased lying inside the coffin (_i -r- iAwt). Cf. New Kingdom sticks containing inscriptions wishing a grand age and long life for the owner (Ss p iAwt n f rt), originating from mortuary context, see Fischer 1986, 49.

COFFINS

61

Coffin fragments

Inv. no. 51.325


Fragment of an anthropoid inner coffin box (colour scheme: polychrome decoration on a white background) Wood (sycamore / Fycus sycomorus), plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), unvarnished Length 32.2 cm Height 28 cm Thickness (upper edge) 3.4 cm Date: early or middle 21st Dynasty? Name / titles: anonym / no titles Provenance unknown Purchased at the turn of the 20th century by Bonifc Platz On the back: a label with the name of the owner (Dr. Platz Bonifc gyjtemnye). On the upper edge of the piece: a black number 360 (?) written in pencil. Condition: the one and a half columns of the left inscription are fragmentary; the three-columned inscription on the right side is damaged; on the back the remains of linen stuck to the wood can be found; the holes used for joining the two parts of the coffin are clearly visible; restored (1958) Literature: Varga 1955; Varga Wessetzky 19643, 20 and pl. XI.1; Varga 1974, 19792, 35 and fig. 19; Nagy 1999, 8586 and fig. 72; Niwiski 1988b, No. 58.

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 18) The fragment was originally a part of one of the sides of an inner anthropoid coffin box. The pigment traces on its right edge, however, allow the supposition that it must have been the last scene on the foot end of the right side. Only the exterior is decorated. The scene itself is a version of the Separation of Heaven and Earth (1). The upper and lower edges are framed by block-friezes. The scene is bordered by columns of hieroglyphic inscription on both sides. Geb is looking backwards, leaning on his right arm with his other arm placed on his left knee. The arched body of Nut is represented purely with red contour lines, only her breasts (green), wig (blue) and head fillet (green-striped) are painted. The contours of the body of Shu are also outlined in red, but some parts (arms and legs, the lower part of the upper body) are painted in red and green. The creative action of Shu, i.e. his supporting of the sky is assisted by two ramheaded deities standing with raised arms, wearing a similar garment and an At f -crown. Behind the goddess: a wDAt -eye, and an inscription referring to her (Hnwt tAwy). Above her body: a pair of n f r-hieroglyphs flanked by a wDAt -eye on both sides.
For the pair of wDAt -eyes as an apotropaic motif vs. a purely aesthetic emblem, see van Walsem 1997, 199. SCENE

Behind the right wDAt -eye: a ram with an At f -crown. Behind the left wDAt -eye: a bA-bird (2).
WDAt -eye and offering vessel in the same context: DAuria Lacovara Roehrig 1992, 165 (No. 119).

Right side (three columns of inscription): [Revered ] before Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, residing in the Shetyt. May he give a thousand of [bread ], a thousand jugs of beer, a thousand of oxen, a thousand of fowl, a thousand of incense, and a thousand of everything [ good and fresh]. Left side (two fragmentary columns of inscription): pA n m a sw [] biAw (?) [] sw rm w
COFFIN FRAGMENTS 65

TEXTS

NOTES

The lack of inner decoration characterised the early phase of yellow type coffins i.e. from Ramesside times to the early 21st Dynasty, and the mid-21st Dynasty (Ikram Dodson 1998, 232). The same phenomenon as well as neglecting the varnish on the exterior, on the other hand, could simply refer to a modest customer who made do with a simpler design, or to provincial workmanship. (1) The appearance of the scene of the Separating of Heaven and Earth in a private funerary context is one of the iconographic innovations of the 21st-dynasty Theban funerary art. Apart from its obvious regenerative connotations and allusions to the Heliopolitan version of the creation, however, in the 21st-dynasty representations the solar symbolism seems to play a prominent role as well (Kramer 2010). Furthermore, some occurrences of the scene on 21st-dynasty coffins or in funerary papyri may be considered as abbreviated or compressed versions of the traditional Book of the Night/Day or Nut-book representations of New Kingdom royal tombs (see e.g. Piankoff Rambova 1957, No. 19; Niwiski 1989, 39, fig. 2. and 82). It is somewhat surprising, however, that the scene has seemingly been placed at the foot end of the box wall on the right side, whereas the usual as good as regular place of this composition is at the height of the shoulders, see Liptay 1992, 1213; Stadler 2009, 236239; Kramer 2010; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 34. For the symbolism of the scene, also see Bettum 2004, 115117. (2) BA-birds appearing on representations of the Separating of Heaven and Earth emphasise its presence at creation. In our case the appearance of the ram and the bA-bird together evokes the vignette of chapter 85 of the BD where they usually occur alternately (Hornung 1990, 172274 and 468; van Walsem 1997, 189), while the text of the chapter itself declares the divine nature and qualities of the bA and its identification with the bA of the creative god. See also Piankoff Rambova 1957, No 19 (closing scene), where the ram-headed bA travels together with a human-headed one; and a version of the Separating of Heaven and Earth where the composition is flanked by the figures of the deceased and the sungod manifesting in ram form (Niwiski, 1988b, pl. XVIA). In other cases a pair of bA-birds showing the gesture of worship flank the solar symbol, see e.g. Niwiski 1989a, fig. 68; van Walsem 1997, 189 and fig. 7.

66

COFFIN FRAGMENTS

Inv.no. 87.5-E
Fragment of the left side of an anthropoid inner coffin box (yellow type; colour scheme: polychrome decoration on a yellow background) Wood (sycamore / Fycus sycomorus), plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), varnish Length 46 cm Height 27 cm Thickness (upper edge) 3 cm Date: middle 21st Dynasty Name / titles: r-Ht p / no titles Provenance unknown Purchased at the turn of the 20th century by Bonifc Platz; transfer from the King Saint Stephen Museum (Szent Istvn Kirly Mzeum), Szkesfehrvr in 1987 The Egyptian Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest preserves another part of the same coffin (Inv. no. 87. 4-E, see the next item in the catalogue), while an additional (third) part is kept in Uppsala (Victoriamuseet, Inv. No. B. 57 = Mahler 1913, 24; Niwiski 1988b, No. 393), coming from the bequest of another Hungarian collector, Zsolt Bethy. On the right side of the lower edge: the inscription 1893 painted in red. Condition: horizontal crack along the upper edge; the pigment is partially worn down to the original wooden surface; with visible traces of the dowels Literature: Liptay 1992; Nagy 2006, 69; Liptay in Tiradritti 2008, no. 88; Liptay 2008a, 42, fig. 3; Nagy 2009, 39; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 34.

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 17) The fragment originally belonged to the left side of the anthropoid inner coffin of r-Ht p. Judging from the arched line of the piece, it must have been placed at the height of the shoulders. Only its exterior side is decorated. The upper bordering frieze: 1 a frieze with a pattern alternating uraei with m aAt -feathers
For this unusual pattern of mAat -feathers and uraei where the cobras face the feet of the mummiform coffin (instead of the head), see Liptay 1992, 11, n. 20. SCENE

2 block-frieze The scene is bordered by a hieroglyphic text column and a block-frieze from both sides. The scene displayed on the fragment is a variant of the Separation of Heaven and Earth. The composition is introduced by the figure of the ibis-headed Thot wearing a uraeus and a mAat -feather on his head. He wears a sash across his shoulder (van Walsem 1997, 132-133; Taylor, 2003, 100101) and a broad belt on his waist the ends of which hang down to the floor. The god holds the emblem of the East placed on a standard in his right hand which is similarly to his head crowned by a mAat -feather and a uraeus (1). The arm holding the standard is equipped with an an x -sign. Behind him: an ointment vessel.
For ointment vessels of similar design, see Boeser IX, 12, box, right and left sides, first scene panels.

Before the figure of the god: the divine name and title Hwty n b mAat . In front of the standard: a one-winged sun disc with a uraeus and an an x -sign. Above the an x -sign a Sn -ring is placed. Under the lower wing of the sun disc: the inscription Nwt wr referring to the sky goddess.
For the symbolism of the one-winged sun disc, see Derriks 2009.

COFFIN FRAGMENTS

67

The iconographical peculiarity of this variant of the Separation of Heaven and Earth lies in the absence of the figure of Geb.
For the absence of Geb, see Bickel 1994, 190, n. 208; Liptay 1992, 9, n. 15.

The naked figure of Nut is decorated only with bracelets on her arms and wrists. Behind the goddess: a bunch of onions. The arched body of Nut Shu stands below supporting her with his arms. He wears a garment painted green, red and blue, a wsx -collar covering his chest and a blue wig adorned with a narrow fillet. On the top of his head a green scarf is placed. On the right side of his head: the divine name In -Hrt . On the left: the title sA Ra.
For the relationship between Onuris and Shu, see Liptay 1992, 10; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 41. For the symbolism of the scarf placed on the top of Shus head, see Liptay 2002.

The figure of Shu is flanked by two ram-headed deities who are placed there in order to assist him in supporting the sky. Their garments and wigs are similar to those of the central divine figure. In front of their faces: the divine name and title n m w n b d wAt . Before their figures: an offering table with a pile of offerings in a basket (2). Below the table: some kind of vegetable (lettuce?). Behind the left ram-headed figure: an i m n t t -symbol.
For the ram-headed deities assisting in supporting the sky, see Kurth 1975, 99; Budge 1912, pl. CVI.

Shu is protected on his both sides by a personified wDAt -eye represented with red-blue eyebrows and with a raised hand.
TEXTS

Right side (one column of inscription) Revered before Thoth, Lord of the hieroglyphs, scribe (of the Ennead ). Left side (one column of inscription) Revered before Geb, the Heir [of the gods].

NOTES

(1) On chapter 161 of the BD placed near the four corners of rectangular and anthropoid coffins, and on the figure of Thot and the orientation of the coffin with respect to the cardinal points, see Liptay 1992, 1213; Stadler 2009, 236239; Kramer 2010; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 34.
For analogous representations of Thot in 21st-dynasty Theban funerary context, see e.g. Bruyre Bataille 19361937, pl, VI; Boeser 19161920, IX (12); Kitchen 1990, No. 63.

(2) For offering tables with the same peculiar iconography (made in the same atelier?), see e.g. Seeber 1976, Abb. 6 (from Akhmim); Varga 1987 (from Akhmim); Gasse 1996, XXXVII, 12 (probably from Thebes); Jrgensen 2001, 1:116 (unknown provenance). Based on this type of offering table a Akhmimic origin cannot be ruled out for the discussed Budapest piece. This supposition may also be confirmed by the fact that the pattern of uraei and mAat -feathers is irregular, i.e. facing not the head of the mummy as usual, but the foot end of the coffin.

68

COFFIN FRAGMENTS

Inv. no. 87.4-E


Fragment of the right side of an anthropoid inner coffin box (yellow type; colour scheme: polychrome decoration on a yellow background) Wood (sycamore / Fycus sycomorus), plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), varnish Length 47 cm Height 27 cm Thickness (upper edge) 3 cm Date: middle 21st Dynasty Name / titles: r-Ht p / no titles Provenance unknown Purchased at the turn of the 20th century by Bonifc Platz; transfer from the King Saint Stephen Museum (Szent Istvn Kirly Mzeum), Szkesfehrvr in 1987 The Egyptian Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest preserves another part of the same coffin (Inv. no. 87. 5-E, see the previous item in the catalogue), while an additional (third) part is kept in Uppsala (Victoriamuseet, Inv. No. B. 57 = Niwiski 1988b, No. 393), coming from the bequest of another Hungarian collector, Zsolt Bethy. On the right side of the lower edge: the inscription 1893 painted in red. Condition: smaller cracks along the edges; the pigment is partially worn down to the original wooden surface; with visible traces of the dowels Literature: Liptay 1992; Nagy 2009, 9293, fig. 37; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 34.

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 17) The fragment originally belonged to the right side of the anthropoid inner coffin of r-Ht p. Judging from the arched line of the piece, it must have been placed at the height of the shoulders (1). Only its exterior side is decorated. The upper bordering frieze: 1 a frieze with a pattern alternating uraei with mAat -feathers 2 block-frieze The scene is bordered by a hieroglyphic text column and a block-frieze from both sides. The composition is a variant of the scene representing Osiris enthroned on a stepped platform (2), introduced by a snake-headed mummiform figure who holds a HqA-sceptre, a flagellum and an an x -sign in its hands. In front of the standing figure: the inscription i mAxy x r nTr aA and a winged wDAt -eye raising one arm, equipped with a uraeus adorned with an an x -sign hanging from the neck. The central scene is divided diagonally into an upper and a lower register by the body of a huge snake. Upper half of the scene: the enthroned Osiris on the top of a large n b -sign, wearing the Upper Egyptian crown decorated with a sSd -band. He holds a flagellum in his hand and a Sn -ring in his lap. In front of Osiris: the inscription i mAxy. Before his feet: an offering table with pieces of meat; two pomegranates above it; two long-shaped jars below. The procession before the throne of Osiris consists of a group of four figures represented with the gesture of worship/greeting. The first two are Isis and Nephthys with sSd-bands on their foreheads and a Sn-ring above their arms. The pattern of their garment is identical to the one decorating the upper body of Osiris. Between them their names and divine titles can be read: Ist mwt nTr, NbtHwt snt nTr. Behind them: a bA-bird with raised hands, wearing an ointment cone and a lotus bud on its head, a sSd-band on its forehead, and an anx -sign on its arm. Below the bird: a Sn-ring. Behind the bA: a wDAt-eye with red-blue eyebrows and a raised hand. Below the eye: an anx -sign.
COFFIN FRAGMENTS 69 SCENE

In the centre of the lower register, below the huge snake: a stepped platform bordered by block-friezes on both sides. In the middle block of the platform: three n f r-signs on a nwb base. Under the right panel of the platform: a cobra goddess with a papyrus stem in front of her, and with the hieroglyphic signs of her name around her body. Inside the left block: a vulture-shaped goddess equipped with a flagellum. In front of her figure: a mAat -symbol. The platform is flanked by a squatting mummiform figure with a red fillet on its forehead on both sides. The right figure is holding a mace in its hand, the left one is represented with a mace and a mAat -feather. In front of both figures: the inscription i mAxy x r. Behind the tail of the huge snake: an i m n t t -emblem.
TEXTS

Right side (one column of inscription) Chief (?)[1]. May he give offerings to Osiris @r-Ht p, justified.
[1] Supposedly instead of the divine name and title Osiris, Chief of the Westerners (Ws ir x n ty i m n ty w).

Left side (one column of inscription) Revered before Ptah-Sokar-Osiris [].


NOTES

(1) The two pieces (Inv. nos. 87.4E and 87.5E) which originally belonged to the same coffin must have been placed opposite each other, on the left and right sides of the coffin box respectively, at the height of the shoulders. The versions of the Separation of Heaven and Earth frequently occur directly opposite the scene of Osiris on the Stepped Platform, at the shoulder height of 21st-dynasty anthropoid coffin boxes. For some examples, see Liptay 1992, 12, n. 21., and fig. 4 and 6. (2) For the symbolism of the scene, see Lull 2001; Ockinga 2006; Kthay Liptay 2010, No. 34; Liptay 2011.

70

COFFIN FRAGMENTS

Inv. no. 51.2085


Fragment of the left side of the box of an anthropoid inner coffin (yellow type; colour scheme: polychrome decoration on a yellow background) Wood (sycamore / Fycus sycomorus), plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), varnish Length 46 cm Height 28 cm Thickness (upper edge) 2.5 cm Date: end of 21st Dynasty beginning of 22nd Dynasty Name / titles: PA- d i - #n sw / [w ab Im n] Provenance unknown, but presumably from Western Thebes At the upper right corner: a label with the printed number 1899 in black. Condition: damage and tracks on the surface; holes of dowels can be seen along the fragmentary edge; the wooden panel has been cut vertically into two halves, so that the original inner decoration of the panel (= Inv. no. 51.2084) became separated from the exterior decoration (= Inv. no. 51.2085) Literature: Varga Wessetzky 1955, 6; Liptay 2000.

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 16) The fragment was originally a part of the exterior decoration on the left side of the anthropoid inner coffin of PA- d i - #n sw. The upper edge consists of four parts: 1 a frieze of uraei crowned with sun discs 2 a block-frieze 3 a hieroglyphic text band (fragmentary) 4 a single-coloured blue stripe The scene is bordered by five text columns on the right, and six text columns on the left side.
For the composition of the frieze and the number of the bordering (five or six) text columns, see van Walsem 1997, fig. 141; Brunner-Traut Brunner 1981, Taf. 110 (454). SCENE

The scene represents a chapel-like structure, bordered by a frieze with a grape pattern. The central figure of the composition is Osiris sitting enthroned on a mat base, wearing a sun disc on his head. In front of Osiris: a vulture goddess with a mAat -feather, standing upon a structure consisting of a mat base and a Hb -sign placed on a papyrus and a lotus stem. Between the god and the deceased: an offering table heaped with various kinds of bread, pieces of meat, full baskets, a bunch of onions and a lamp. Below the offering table: a long-shaped jar with a lotus stem wound around its body and a stylised fowl hanging from the table.
For the frieze with a grape pattern, see e.g. van Walsem 1997, fig. 435 and 458; Gasse 1996, pl. IXX; Jrgensen 2001, 2:102:13 and 2: 162:19. For the fowl hanging from the table, see e.g. Gasse 1996, pl. VI, 1 (2nd scene); Hermitage 1974, No. 107.

Text band above [the gods in the necropolis], Isis the great, Mother of the God, the Eye of Ra, Mistress of the gods, Nephthys, Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt. May they give a prt - x rw -offering, thousands of loaves of bread [] Right side (six columns of inscription) May you receive sn nw -offerings [coming before you] from the altar [of the bAw of Heliopolis and may you travel in the Neshmet-barque] at the feast [of wagi by yourself. May] let not Sokar turn you back [and may he not let]
COFFIN FRAGMENTS 71

TEXTS

you be confined on the day of the opening [of your tomb.] [The Osiris, wab-priest of Amun], PA- d i - [#n sw, justified, son of ]
The text rather frequently occurs on 21st-dynasty coffins and in funerary papyri and seems to be an excerpt of or derivation from the so-called Abydene formula, see e.g. the references in Liptay 2000.

Left side (five columns of inscription) Ra-Horakhty-Atum, Lord of the Two Lands, the Heliopolitan, Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Lord of nHH-Eternity, Chief of the West, the great god, Lord of heaven, Ruler of the Living, [Lord ] of nHH and Dt . May they give Ht p -offerings and DfAw -offerings, [everything good and pure].
NOTES

Based on the iconographical peculiarities and the number of the text columns bordering the central scene it is reasonable to assume that the fragment originally belonged to a coffin of the final phase of the yellow type Theban coffins (= Type ID according to J. H. Taylors categorisation, see Aston 2009, 275; lid type V and box type IV according to the categorisation of A. Niwiski 1988b; stola-type according to R. van Walsem 1997). The upper frieze with uraei wearing sun discs is also a typical iconographical feature of the same group (van Walsem 1997, 184).

72

COFFIN FRAGMENTS

Inv. no. 51.2084


Fragment of the left side of the box of an anthropoid inner coffin (yellow type; colour scheme: polychrome decoration on a yellow background) Wood (sycamore / Fycus sycomorus), plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), selectively varnished Length 28 cm Height 46.5 cm Thickness (right side) 2.7 cm Date: end of 21st Dynasty beginning of 22nd Dynasty Name / titles: PA- d i - #n sw / [w ab Im n] (see Inv. no. 51.2085) Provenance unknown, but presumably from Western Thebes Condition: damage and tracks on the surface; holes of dowels can be seen along the fragmentary edge; the wooden panel has been cut vertically into two halves, so that the original inner decoration (= Inv. no. 51.2084) of the panel became separated from the exterior decoration (= Inv. no. 51.2085) Literature: Varga Wessetzky 1955, 6, pl. IV/2; Liptay 2002.

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 16) The panel was originally a part of the inner decoration of the left side of the anthropoid inner coffin of PA- d i - #n sw.
In a former publication of the piece (Liptay 2002) due to the lack of decoration on the other side I mistakenly suggested that it must have been a part of the exterior decoration of the side wall of an outer coffin.

The fragmentary scene displays three standing mummiform Sons of Horus (1). They wear wsx -collars, red braces crossed on their chests and red-green bands (or belts) on their waists. The first is the jackal-headed Qebehsenuf, wearing a red wig on its head. In front of its feet the traces of a lettuce can be seen. It is followed by the hawk-headed Duamutef, wearing a blue wig. Above its head: a piece of red-white coloured linen. In front of its feet: a lettuce. The third one is the ape-headed Hapi with a similar piece of linen on its head. In front of this figure: a n m s t -vessel with a lotus flower on the top.
For analogies (especially from the last phase of the 21st-dynasty Theban coffin type), see e.g. Hermitage 1974, 109; Heide Thiel 2004, 3738 (I.4.3). For the iconography of the ears of the ape-headed god which seems to be a frequently occurring feature on Theban papyri and coffins of the given period, see e.g. Hornung 1976, 31; Nagel 1929, pl. II; Egner Haslauer 1994, 33/35; Hermitage 1974, 109. For the cosmic and chthonic symbolism of the red-white linen placed above the heads of Duamutef and Hapi, see Liptay 2002.

SCENE

Behind Hapi, along the fragmentary left edge, at the height of the heads of the figures: the hook of a sceptre; at the feet: a small vessel (basket ?) with bread on the top; above the bread: some traces of a Dd -column.
For the motif of the bread on the vessel or basket, see the piece Inv. no. 51.325 of this catalogue where the same container (Hn wt) a wDAt -eye is placed, probably conveying similar associations.

The panel is bordered by a single-coloured (green) upper frieze. Below the frieze: five short columns of inscription Words spoken by [Imsety], Hapi, Duamutef and Qebehsenuf. May they give offerings.

TEXTS

COFFIN FRAGMENTS

73

Inv. no. 84. 1-E


Fragment of an anthropoid inner coffin lid Cartonnage, plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), varnish Height 17. 5 cm Width 11 cm Date: 22nd Dynasty Name / titles: anonym / no titles Provenance unknown At the upper right corner: a label with the printed black number 1725. Condition: fragmentary Literature: unpublished

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 19) The piece which originally belonged to the lid of a one-piece cartonnage coffin contains a fragmentary representation of the goddess Neith. As far as can be judged from the fragment, the entire decoration of the lid or at least those of the scene panels were originally covered with a layer of varnish. Due to this varnishing process the original white background has become brightly yellow-toned, a feature which makes it definitely similar to Theban yellow type wooden coffins of the previous period. Other iconographic characteristics applied at designing, however, are rather different from those ones used by the Amon priesthood at Thebes during the 21st Dynasty. The scene panel is bordered by blue stripes on the upper edge and a blue-red striped pattern on the right side.
For this kind of panel border, see e.g. Taylor 2001a, pl. 54.2.

The skin of the goddess is painted green. In her function as funerary goddess she wears a cream-coloured kerchief or headgear (xAt or af n t) covering her wig with a red headband.
For Neith wearing the xAt , and for the symbolism of the head-dress, see El-Sayed 1982, I, Doc. 322 (pl. V); Eaton-Krauss 1977; Rammant-Peeters 1987.

On her head: the divine emblem denoting her identity. Behind her: the remaining fragments of the signs composing the divine title n b(t) d wAt , presumably referring to the figure of the goddess. The at first sight surprising absence of female breasts is due to the fact that the head of the goddess turns backwards. The red spot on the back, partly covering her headgear in all probability indicates the knot of the red sheat-dress supported by a single shoulder strap.
For the red dress of this type, see e.g. Taylor 2001a, pl. 54.2. NOTES

General remarks The majority of cartonnage coffins were painted with a brilliant polychrome palette (red, green, lighter and darker tones of blue, and black used for small details) on a background which was often white, sometimes grey. Yellow colouring was created through the use of varnish, resulting in variable tones of the colour. The varnishing was often applied to the entire surface of the lid, in other cases, however, only the principal features of the design (e.g. scene panels or central figures of the panels, etc.) were emphasised, leaving other areas unvarnished and producing a strong contrast between the shiny and matt parts of the design (Taylor 2001a, 172173; Taylor 2003, 105107). A fairly close parallel to our piece is a cartonnage coffin of Padiamenet in the British Museum (BM EA 8862) where Neith is matched with Selkit (Taylor 2001a, pl. 54.2). The horizontal
74 COFFIN FRAGMENTS

scene registers run along the axial centre of the lid, flanked by text panels on both sides. Only the scene field is varnished. In the second register from downwards symmetrical representations of Neith and Selkit kneeling on nwb -signs are placed, flanking an Abydos-emblem. They wear red garments which must be a parallel to the dress of the Budapest goddess. One of their hands is lifted in a gesture of protection for the Abydos-emblem, but their heads are turned backwards as if they were looking outwards, in the direction of the edge of the lid. This composition scheme provides an exact pattern for our fragmentary Neith representation.
For an additional parallel, see Hornung 1976, 28.

On the figure of the goddess As we have seen above, she must have formed the central figure of one of the lateral panels of the lid which regularly faces inwards, i.e. towards the Osirian symbol depicted along the central axis of the lower part of the lid.
For the pair of goddesses facing inwards, in the direction of the central axis, see e.g. New York 1989, No. 67 (standing goddesses in the same red garment); Liptay 1993, 18, pl.VI (goddesses in the same pose). For the pair of goddesses facing outwards, see e.g. Taylor 2003, pl. 61 (in the same position and displaying the same iconography). For goddesses with green skin, wearing similar red garments with collars, bracelets, and anklets, see Taylor 2006, 272 and pls. 49 cd; Taylor 2001a, pl. 52.4 (in the first scene register below the collar). For additional representations of Neith on cartonnage coffins of the Libyan period, see e.g. Jrgensen 2001, 6:10 (a goddess with green skin, adorned with bracelets on her arms depicted on the rear side, in the lower zone); Liptay 1993, 18 and pl.VI (flanking an otherworldly chapel with a hawk-head on the top); British Museum 1924, pl. XIII (the uppermost register under the collar, in the company of Isis, Nephthys and Selkit).

COFFIN FRAGMENTS

75

Inv. no. 84. 2-E


Fragment of an anthropoid inner coffin lid Cartonnage, plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), selectively varnished Height 24.5 cm Width 25.5 cm Date: 22nd Dynasty Name / titles: anonym / no titles Provenance: unknown, but probably from Thebes (Ramesseum?) Condition: fragmentary Bibliography: unpublished

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 19) The cartonnage coffin piece contains a fragmentary representation of a winged goddess, identified as Isis according to the inscription in front of her face. The background of the representation is grey-toned. Greyish grounds on 22nd-dynasty cartonnage coffins may have been intended to imitate silver (Taylor 2001a, 172). The goddess wears a dark blue wig with a red head band, and a varnished yellow (gold-imitated) sun disc upon her head. Her skin is painted green. The tripartite wings consist of blue and red patterned feathers. The edge of the wing of another divine entity is visible above her. She originally faced a winged central figure, of which only some traces of the tail feathers are discernible.
For analogies, see e.g. Quibell 1896, Pl. XXIV, 3; Stewart 1986, pl. 17.

The inscription with the name and divine titles of the goddess is painted in black on a varnished yellow background: [Dd - m d w] n Is t wr(t) m wt nTr. The fragment is bordered by a block-frieze along the right side.
NOTES

Iconographical arrangement The composition scheme must have shown the same features and arrangement that can be observed on Taylors Design 2 (Taylor 2003, 106107), i.e. the sunrise scene incorporating two falcons, displaying a falcon with a rams head, painted directly below the collar, and a second falcon (not ram-headed this time) directly below the previous one which spreads its wings over the abdomen. The lower zone is divided axially by a single line of inscription or by a large Abydos fetish flanked by the winged figures of Isis and Nephthys. Varnishing Yellow was sometimes used for parts of the figures, but was often omitted, the yellow colouring being created through the use of varnish (Taylor 2001a, 172173; Taylor 2003, 105 107). In our case the sun disc, the inscription panel, the borders of the wings, the collar and bracelets of the goddess (i.e. the principal features of the design) are varnished.

76

COFFIN FRAGMENTS

Inv. no. 84. 159-E


Fragment of an anthropoid inner coffin lid Cartonnage, plaster, paint (red, green, blue, yellow, white, black), unvarnished Length 15.3 cm Width 13.9 cm Date: 22nd Dynasty Name / titles: anonym / no titles Provenance: unknown On the side of the pedestal: a label with the black number 1774. Condition: fragmentary Literature: unpublished

DESCRIPTION (Pl. 18) The fragment originally constituted the right corner of the pedestal-like foot end of a cartonnage envelope. The sides of the pedestal display a striped pattern (yellow and red stripes on a grey-toned background).
For the symbolism of the grey-toned background colour, see Taylor 2001a, 172.

The feet of the coffin are painted green with narrow red lines which seem to be a fragmentary part of a wing. At the toes the name of Osiris is inscribed on the right side and a fragmentary figure of the mummified falcon of Sokar is recognisable approximately in the centre of the original surface. The decoration of this area of Libyan period cartonnage coffins is usually not varnished (Taylor 2001a, 172173).
For an analogous piece, see Barwik 2003, pl. 89. For wings and winged divinities (solar discs, scarabs, figures of Isis) appearing in this area, see Taylor 2006, 274, 277 and pl. 48b. Winged scarab: Berlin 1991, No. 129; winged ram-headed scarab: Taylor 2003, pl. 45; New York 2007, fig. 38; winged sun disc on a cartonnage-like wooden coffin (Inv. no. 51.1995 in the present catalogue); wings and the name of Osiris on a cartonnage-like wooden coffin: Aufrre 1987, 21. For similar striped patterns on the sides of pedestal-like feet of cartonnage coffins, see e.g. Taylor 2003, pl. 46 and 51; Germer 1997, fig. 72; DAuria Lacovara Roehrig 1992, no. 122.

The area surrounding the legs and feet on coffins was generally considered as the symbolic boundary between the mundane world and the realm of the dead, i.e. a liminal zone responsible for the perilous passage from life to death. The name of Osiris symbolising the god himself and the mummified figure of Sokar further emphasise this chthonic symbolism, linking the mummified body lying inside the coffin with the otherworldly spheres.
For the mummified figure of Sokar on the same spot, see e.g. Taylor 2003, pl. 46; Hornung 1976, 28. For the lying figure of Wepwawet or Anubis, see e.g. Taylor 2003, pl. 60; pl. 53; Taylor 2001a, pl. 54.2; Strudwick 2006, 252253; New York 1989, no. 67. For chthonic deities with the STyt-sanctuary, see Dallas 1997, No. 89; Taylor 2003, pl. 53; DAuria Lacovara Roehrig 1992, no. 121.

NOTES

COFFIN FRAGMENTS

77

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Abbreviations
ASAE Annales du service des antiquits de lgypte, Cairo BdE Bibliothque dtudes, Cairo BI Bulletin de lInstitut dgypte, Cairo BIFAO Bulletin de lInstitut Franais dArchologie Orientale, Cairo BMHBA Bulletin du Muse Hongrois des Beaux-Arts, Budapest BSAK Studien zur Altgyptische Kultur Beihefte, Hamburg BSFE Bulletin de la Socit Franaise dgyptologie, Paris CAA Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum CdE Chronique dgypte, Brussels CGC Catalogue Gnral des Antiquits gyptiennes du Muse du Caire, Cairo DE Discussions in Egyptology, Oxford T tudes et Travaux, Warsaw GM Gttinger Miszellen, Gttingen JEA Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, London, Liverpool JEOL Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap (Gezelschap) Ex Oriente Lux, Leiden MS Mnchner gyptologische Studien, Berlin MDAIK Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo, Berlin, Wiesbaden, Mainz am Rhein

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OBO Orbis Biblicus Orientalis, Freibourg, Gttingen OLA Orientalia Lovanensia Analecta, Leuven RdE Revue d gyptologie, Paris RT Recueil de Travaux relatifs la philologie et larchologie gyptiennes et Assyriennes, Paris SAK Studien zur Altgyptischen Kultur, Hamburg WZKM Wiener Zeitschrift fr die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Vienna ZS Zeitschrift fr gyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, Leipzig, Berlin

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Coffins and Coffin Fragments of the Third Intermediate Period


By va Liptay

Graphic design, prepress work and photo editing: Eszter Balder and Dvid Remsey Proof-reading: Adrian Hart Technical drawings: Zoltn Martinovich Hieroglyphic texts: Mt Petrik Editorial Coordination: Eszter Szsz

Printed by: EPC Nyomda, Budapest Publisher: Dr. Lszl Ban Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, 2011

Cover illustration: Anthropoid coffin, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, inv. no. 51.2096 REPRODUCTIONS: Artworks of the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest Szpmvszeti Mzeum: Dnes Jzsa, Andrs Rzs, Csand Szesztay The publication of the catalogue was supported by the Hungarian National Culture Fund. ISBN 978-963-7063-80-0

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