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SOLID WASTE

WHAT IS SOLID WASTE?


ANY UNWANTED OR DISCARDED MATERIALS RESULTING FROM RESEDENTIAL,COMMERCIAL,AGRICULTURAL AND HOUSEHOLD ACTIVITES.

TYPES OF SOLID WASTE


MUNICIPAL WASTE INDUSTRIAL WASTE AGRICULTURAL WASTE BIO-MEDICAL WASTE

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE IN KATHMANDU


THE TOTAL WASTE GENERATED IS 450TON/DAY.
TYYPES OF WASTE QUANTITY/TON

ORGANIC

252

INORGANIC 135 TOXIC OTHERS 9 54


Source:KMC,2001/2004

COMPOSITION OF WASTE

THE COMPOSTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE.

DEALING WITH SOLID WASTE


SOLID WASTE

WASTE MANAGEMENT

POLLUTION PREVENTION

THROWAWAY OR HIGH WASTE APPROACH

LOW WASTE APPROACH

BURYING

BURNING

3R-PRINCIPLE

GENERAL PROCESS OF HANDLING WASTE


WASTE GENERATION WASTE HANDLING AND SEPARATION, STORAGE AND PROCESSING AT THE SOURCE. COLLECTION SEPARATION AND PROCESSING AND TRANSFORMATION OF SOLID WASTES. TRANSFER AND TRANSPORT DISPOSAL

3-R PRINCIPLE
REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF WASTE GENERATED CAN BE
REDUCED THROUGH OUR SMALL EFFORTS. THINGS THAT LAST LONGER,THINGS THAT CAN BE USED MORE THAN ONCE

REUSE WE CAN REUSE MANY THINGS BEFORE


WE THROW THEM AWAY POLYTHENE BAGS,CLOTHING,SHOES,CONTAINERS ETC.

RECYCLE
MANY ITEMS SUCH AS PLASTICS,PAPER,CANS CAN BE RECYCLED TO USE AGAIN.

RECYCLABLE MATERIALS
THERE IS A NEED FOR ENCOURAGING THE USE OF REUSEABLE MATERIALS. TOTAL RECYCLABLE MATERIALS = 150 TON/DAY

SCRAP METAL = 3832 TON/YEAR


PLASTICS= 3832 TON/YEAR PAPER = 3825 TON/YEAR GLASS, BOTTLES = 5875 TON/YEAR

PLASTICS
PLASTICS ARE PRODUCED FROM PETRO-CHEMICALS. PLASTIC INDUSTRY IS AMONG THE LEADING PRODUCERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PLASTICS ACCOUNT FOR ABOUT 8% BY WEIGHT AND 20% BY VOLUME OF MUNICIPAL WASTE. MOST PLASTICS USED TODAYS TAKE 200-400 YEARS TO DEGRADE. RECYCLING OF PLASTICS ARE USUALLY EXPENSIVE THAN TO MAKE NEW PLASTICS.

SOLUTION:COMPOSTING AND RECYCLING


COMPOST IS ALSO KNOWN AS BROWN MANURE, IS THE AEROBICALLY DECOMPOSED REMNANTS OF ORGANIC MATTER. IT IS USED MAINLY IN AGRICULTURE AS SOIL CONDITIONER AND FERTILIZER. VERMICOMPOSTING IS A TECHINQUE OF COMPOSTING THAT IS GAINING POPULARITY. RECYCLING INVOLVES PROCESSING USED MATERIALS INTO NEW PRODUCTS IN ORDER TO PREVENT WASTE OF POTENTIALLY USEFUL MATERIALS REDUCE THE CONSUMPTION OF FRESH RAW MATERIALS REDUCE ENERGY USAGE

OBSTACLES TO RECYCLING
LACK OF RECYCLING PLANTS IN MANY PARTS OF COUNTRY. LOSS OF GRADE AFTER BEING RECYCLED. NO PROPER COLLECTION. NO PROPER SEGREGATION. LACK OF AWARENESS TO RECYCLE THE THROWAWAY

PRODUCTS.

PAPER OR PLASTIC?
WHAT DO YOU CHOOSE?

SOLID WASTE AS A RESOURCE


RECYCLING PREVENTS POLLUTION CAUSED BY THE MANUFACTURING OF PRODUCTS FROM VIRGIN MATERIALS. RECYCLING REDUCES THE NEED FOR LANDFILLING AND INCINERATION. RECYCLING SAVES ENERGY. RECYCLING DECREASES EMISSIONS OF GREENHOUSE GASES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE. RECYCLING CONSERVES NATURAL RESOURCES SUCH AS TIMBER, WATER, AND MINERALS. RECYCLING HELPS SUSTAIN THE ENVIRONMENT FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS.

INCINERATION AND BURIAL


INCINERATION IS A WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY THAT INVOLVES THE COMBUSTION OF WASTE. ASH IS THE REMAINING INORGANIC MATTER. REDUCES VOLUME OF WASTE BY 60%. THEY PUT HIGHLY TOXIC DIOXINS AND FURANS, AND TINY PARTICLES OF LEAD, CADMIUM, MERCURY AND OTHER TOXIC SUBSTANCES. BURYIAL IS A GARBAGE GRAVEYARD. A PROPERLY-DESIGNED AND WELL-MANAGED LANDFILL CAN BE A HYGIENIC AND RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE METHOD OF DISPOSING OF WASTE MATERIALS. ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS SUCH AS WIND-BLOWN LITTER, ATTRACTION OF RODENTS, AND GENERATION OF LIQUID LEACHATE.

IMPACTS OF SOLID WASTE


FOUL SMELL INCREASE IN DISEASE TRANSMITTING VECTORS THAT LEADS TO EPIDEMIC.

POLLUTION
GLOBAL WARMING

EUTROPHICATION

WHAT CAN WE DO?


ADOPT THE 3R PRINCIPLE ENCOURAGE THE USE OF COMPOST RATHER THAN CHEMICAL FERTILIZER. RAISE AWARENESS AMONG THE PUBLIC THROUGH VARIOUS TRAINING AND INTERACTIVE PROGRAM.