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# Result

a.

## Current E=5V E=10V E=15V

I 1.670 3.330 5.000
I 0.835 1.665 2.500
I 0.835 1.665 2.500
I 1.670 3.330 5.000

I 1.68 3.40 5.08
I 0.84 1.70 2.54
I 0.84 1.70 2.54
I 1.68 3.40 5.08

b.

## Voltage E=6V E=12V E=15V

V 1.952 3.902 4.878
V 2.098 4.195 5.244
V 2.098 4.195 5.244
V 1.952 3.902 4.878

## Voltage E=6V E=12V E=15V

V 1.956 3.89 4.93
V 2.092 4.19 5.30
V 2.107 4.21 5.30
V 1.959 3.90 4.89
c.
Theoretical data for verifying Ohm’s law

V I(mA) R(kΩ)
0 0 1
1 1 1
2 2 1
3 3 1
4 4 1
5 5 1
6 6 1
7 7 1
8 8 1
9 9 1
10 10 1
11 11 1
12 12 1
13 13 1
14 14 1
15 15 1
Experimental data for verifying Ohm’s law

V I(mA) R(kΩ)
0 0 1
1 0.96 1
2 1.93 1
3 2.93 1
4 3.88 1
5 4.83 1
6 5.69 1
7 6.71 1
8 7.69 1
9 8.70 1
10 9.70 1
11 10.76 1
12 11.72 1
13 12.80 1
14 13.84 1
15 14.80 1
Discussion

1. Ohm’s law state that the voltage across a resistance is directly proportional
to the current flowing through it.

2. In Ohm’s law, the resistor should be a constant value and therefore that the
voltage-current characteristic is linear.

## 3. Since resistor is a passive element, the power supplied to the terminals is

absorbed by the resistor. Note that the charges move from the higher to the
lower potential as it passes through the resistor and the energy absorbed is
dissipated by the resistor in the form of heat.

## 4. In reality, all practical resistors exhibit non-linear behaviour because the

resistance of any resistor is affected by condition, such as temperature, which
are in turn linked to past and present current flow through the element
(current flow causes heating)

5. Kirchhoff’s current law state that the sum of the currents into a junction is
equal to the sum of the currents out of that junction.

6. In a parallel circuit, the current acts as a current diveder which it divide into
several path when entering a junction. The number of current paths is equal
to the number of parallel branches. The additional amount of current are
acquired when the parallel branch are added. Since, the source voltage is
constant in parallel circuit, an increase in the total current from the source
means the total resistance has decreased.

## 7. To measure the current, the ammeter is connected to the circuit by series.

8. Kirchhoff’s voltage law state that the sum of all voltages around a closed path
is zero; the sum of the voltage drops equals the total source voltage.

9. In a circuit, the total source voltage has a polarity opposite to the voltage
drops.

10.Voltage in a series circuit acts as a voltage divider. Therefore when the total
source voltage came across the circuit contains two different value of
resistance, the voltage value in each resistance is different, since the current
flow in the circuit same . If one of the resistor have the value twice to the
other one, the voltage value of the resistor also twice to the other one.

11.To measure the voltage, the voltmeter is connected to the circuit by parallel.

## Suggestions for further work in the future

1. Hand the lab manual before the lab starts, therefore students can understand
the procedure and study the experiment before the lab.

## 2. Prepare the proper equipment and component.

3. Give the further explanation about the aplication of the experiment in the
industry and life.

Conclusion

1. Kirchoff’s current law was proved, which the sum of current enter the junction
is equal to the sum of current leave the junction.

2. Kirchoff’s voltage law was proved, which the total voltage in a close circuit in
equal to zero

3. Ohm’s law was verified, the relationship between voltage, resistance and
current can specifie as V=IR.

References

1. J. David Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, (7th Edition), John Wiley and
Sons Inc,2002

## 2. David E. Johnson, John L. Hilburn, Johnny R. Johnson, Peter D. Scott, Basic

Electric Circuit Analysis, (5th Edition), Prentice Hall, 1995

## 3. Robert J. Herrick, DC/AC Circuits and Electronics: Principles & Applications,

Theorem Delwan Learning, New York, 2003

## 4. Thomas L. Floyd, Principles Of Electric Circuits: Electron Flow Version, (3rd

Edition), Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1993