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Structural Structural Parts Parts for for Transportation Transportation Systems Systems made made from from Aluminium Aluminium

Structural

Structural Parts

Parts for

for Transportation

Transportation

Systems

Systems made

made from

from Aluminium

Aluminium

  • H. H. Kaufmann

Kaufmann 11 ;; A.

A. Mundl

Mundl 11 ,, P.J.

P.J. Uggowitzer

Uggowitzer 22

11 ARC

ARC Leichtmetallkompetenzzentrum

Leichtmetallkompetenzzentrum Ranshofen

Ranshofen GmbH

GmbH

22 ETH

ETH Zürich

Zürich

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

Structural Structural Parts Parts for for Transportation Transportation Systems Systems made made from from Aluminium Aluminium
in in Automotive Aluminium Bodies and Suspension 2001 (samples) (samples) Audi Audi A2, A2, A4,

Aluminium inin Automotive

Aluminium

Automotive Bodies

Bodies and

and Suspension

Suspension 2001

2001

(samples) (samples) Audi Audi A2, A2, A4, A4, A6, A6, A8 A8 BMW BMW 3er, 3er,
(samples)
(samples)
Audi
Audi A2,
A2, A4,
A4, A6,
A6, A8
A8
BMW
BMW 3er,
3er, 5er,
5er, Z8,
Z8, Renault
Renault Aventime
Aventime
Honda
Honda 2000
2000
Porsche
Porsche Boxster,
Boxster, 911
911
Opel
Opel Corsa
Corsa
Lotus
Lotus Elise,
Elise, Opel
Opel Speedster,
Speedster, Ferrari
Ferrari 360
360 Modena
Modena

Mercedes CC--Klasse,

Mercedes

Klasse, SS--Klasse,

Klasse, Maybach,

Maybach, Rolls

Rolls Royce

Royce

in in Automotive Aluminium Bodies and Suspension 2001 (samples) (samples) Audi Audi A2, A2, A4,

Source: Auto Forum 1/2001

Lancia Lancia Thesis, Thesis, Alfa Alfa GTV GTV
Lancia
Lancia Thesis,
Thesis, Alfa
Alfa GTV
GTV

Strong

Strong Engagement

Engagement of

of Al

Al--Producers

Producers

Alusuisse // Alcan,

Alusuisse

Alcan, Alcoa,

Alcoa, Norsk

Norsk Hydro,

Hydro, VAW,

VAW, AMAG,

AMAG, SAG

SAG

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

in in Automotive Aluminium Bodies and Suspension 2001 (samples) (samples) Audi Audi A2, A2, A4,
Aluminium - - intensive Aluminium intensive Audi Audi A2 A2 Body Sheet Body Sheet Al Al

Aluminium--intensive

Aluminium

intensive Audi

Audi A2

A2

Aluminium - - intensive Aluminium intensive Audi Audi A2 A2 Body Sheet Body Sheet Al Al

Body Sheet

Body

Sheet Al

Al 6xxx;

6xxx; Extrusion

Extrusion Profiles

Profiles Al

Al 6xxx;

6xxx;

Vacuum Pressure

Vacuum

Pressure Die

Die Castings

Castings AlSiMg;

AlSiMg; AlMgSi

AlMgSi

3030 mm Laser

Laser Weldings,

Weldings, 1800

1800 Rivets

Rivets

Source: Aluminium Today 1/2/2000

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

Aluminium - - intensive Aluminium intensive Audi Audi A2 A2 Body Sheet Body Sheet Al Al
Body Body inin Al Al -- Sheet Sheet Design Design Ford Ford P2000 P2000 Hydroformed Hydroformed
Body Body inin Al Al -- Sheet Sheet Design Design Ford Ford P2000 P2000 Hydroformed Hydroformed
Body
Body inin Al
Al -- Sheet
Sheet Design
Design
Ford
Ford P2000
P2000
Hydroformed
Hydroformed Tank
Tank
Source: ATZ 12/2000

Alcan:

Alcan:

11

m² Steel

Steel Sheet

Sheet

11

m² Al

Al -- Sheet

Sheet

11

11

m² Polymer

Polymer Sheet

Sheet

m² Mg

Mg -- Sheet

Sheet

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

DMDM

7,75

7,75

DMDM 13,30

13,30

DMDM 17,90

17,90

DMDM 19,70

19,70

Body Body inin Al Al -- Sheet Sheet Design Design Ford Ford P2000 P2000 Hydroformed Hydroformed
Casting Casting Processes Processes for for Structural Structural Parts Parts Gravity Casting Gravity Casting Low Pressure

Casting

Casting Processes

Processes for

for Structural

Structural Parts

Parts

Gravity Casting

Gravity

Casting

Low Pressure

Low

Pressure Die

Die Casting

Casting

Vacuum High

Vacuum

High Pressure

Pressure Die

Die Casting

Casting

forged forged Al Al
forged
forged Al
Al
Squeeze Squeeze Casting Casting
Squeeze
Squeeze Casting
Casting

Thixocasting

Thixocasting

New Rheocasting

New

Rheocasting

Source: ATZ Sonderausgabe A4 11/2000

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

Casting Casting Processes Processes for for Structural Structural Parts Parts Gravity Casting Gravity Casting Low Pressure
Quality Requirements to to cast Structural Parts low porosity low porosity high ductility high ductility heat

Quality

Quality Requirements

Requirements toto cast

cast Structural

Structural Parts

Parts

Quality Requirements to to cast Structural Parts low porosity low porosity high ductility high ductility heat

low porosity

low

porosity

high ductility

high

ductility

heat treatable

heat

treatable

weldable

weldable

recyclable

recyclable

SAG

SAG -- Thixocasting

Thixocasting

Quality Requirements to to cast Structural Parts low porosity low porosity high ductility high ductility heat

low

low cost

cost

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

Source: ATZ Sonderausgabe A4 11/2000

Quality Requirements to to cast Structural Parts low porosity low porosity high ductility high ductility heat
The The New New Rheocasting Rheocasting -- Process Process melting ladling cooling heating filling casting New
The The New New Rheocasting Rheocasting -- Process Process melting ladling cooling heating filling casting New
The The New New Rheocasting Rheocasting -- Process Process melting ladling cooling heating filling casting New
The
The New
New Rheocasting
Rheocasting -- Process
Process
melting
ladling
cooling
heating
filling
casting
New Rheocasting System

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

The The New New Rheocasting Rheocasting -- Process Process melting ladling cooling heating filling casting New
New Rheocasting New Rheocasting NRC NRC Slurry Slurry maker maker Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

New Rheocasting

New

Rheocasting

New Rheocasting New Rheocasting NRC NRC Slurry Slurry maker maker Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at
NRC NRC Slurry Slurry maker maker
NRC
NRC Slurry
Slurry maker
maker

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

New Rheocasting New Rheocasting NRC NRC Slurry Slurry maker maker Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at
New Rheocasting New Rheocasting NRC NRC Forming Forming Process Process Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

New Rheocasting

New

Rheocasting

New Rheocasting New Rheocasting NRC NRC Forming Forming Process Process Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at
New Rheocasting New Rheocasting NRC NRC Forming Forming Process Process Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

NRC

NRC Forming

Forming Process

Process

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

New Rheocasting New Rheocasting NRC NRC Forming Forming Process Process Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at
Typical NRC Typical NRC Microstructure Microstructure + + 15 15 % % SiC, AlSi7Mg T6 Server:http://www.lkr.at
Typical NRC Typical NRC Microstructure Microstructure + + 15 15 % % SiC, AlSi7Mg T6 Server:http://www.lkr.at

Typical NRC

Typical

NRC Microstructure

Microstructure

Typical NRC Typical NRC Microstructure Microstructure + + 15 15 % % SiC, AlSi7Mg T6 Server:http://www.lkr.at

AlSi7Mg,

AlSi7Mg, T6

T6

Typical NRC Typical NRC Microstructure Microstructure + + 15 15 % % SiC, AlSi7Mg T6 Server:http://www.lkr.at

AlSi7Mg ++ 1515 %% SiC,

AlSi7Mg

SiC, T6

T6

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

Typical NRC Typical NRC Microstructure Microstructure + + 15 15 % % SiC, AlSi7Mg T6 Server:http://www.lkr.at
Typical Mechanical Typical Mechanical Properties Properties T T 5 5 T T 6 6 R R
Typical Mechanical Typical Mechanical Properties Properties T T 5 5 T T 6 6 R R

Typical Mechanical

Typical

Mechanical Properties

Properties

   

TT55

   

TT66

RR mm [[MMPPaa]]

RR pp [[MMPPaa]]

AA55 [[%%]]

 

RR mm [[MMPPaa]]

RR pp [[MMPPaa]]

AA55 [[%%]]

AAllSSii77MMgg

 
  • 227700 88

119900

     
  • 330055 223300

1144

AAllSSii77MMgg ++ 00,,22 SScc

 
  • 332200 223300

44,,55

 

------

------

------

 

------

------

------

   
  • 335555 331155

11,,11

AAllSSii77MMgg ++ 1155%% SSiiCC MMaaggssiimmaall 5599

 
  • 330055 66

220000

   

------

------

------

66008822

------

------

------

   
  • 338855 335555

22,,55

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

Typical Mechanical Typical Mechanical Properties Properties T T 5 5 T T 6 6 R R
of Influence Volume Fraction Solid, V V , , on on the Mechanical Properties A

Influence of

Influence

of Volume

Volume Fraction

Fraction Solid,

Solid, VV ss ,,

onon the

the Mechanical

Mechanical Properties

Properties

 

AAllSSii77MMgg,, TT66,, 1100 mmmm SSttuuffee

VV ss [[%%]]

00

3300

4400

5500

RR mm [[MMPPaa]]

229933

229900

 
  • 229900 330055

RR pp [[MMPPaa]]

221100

221100

 
  • 221100 223300

AA [[%%]]

99,,99

1100,,55

1133,,88

1144,,00

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

of Influence Volume Fraction Solid, V V , , on on the Mechanical Properties A
of Influence the Fraction of Recycling Scrap, V V , , on on the Mechanical

Influence of

Influence

of the

the Fraction

Fraction of

of Recycling

Recycling Scrap,

Scrap, VV RR ,,

onon the

the Mechanical

Mechanical Properties

Properties

   

AAllSSii77MMgg;; VV ss == 5500%%

 

VV RR [[%%]]

00

2200

4400

6600

RR mm [[MMPPaa]]

 
  • 330055 229955

 
  • 330055 229955

   
  • 223300 222255

 
  • 223355 223300

RR pp [[MMPPaa]] AA [[%%]]

1144,,00

1122,,00

1133,,55

1122,,55

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

of Influence the Fraction of Recycling Scrap, V V , , on on the Mechanical
NRC NRC -- Welding Welding Trials Trials
NRC
NRC -- Welding
Welding Trials
Trials
NRC NRC -- Welding Welding Trials Trials Sample Positions - - Trial LKR Part AlSi7Mg AlSi7Mg

Sample Positions

LKR -- Trial

LKR

Trial Part

Part

AlSi7Mg

AlSi7Mg

Laser

Laser- Hybrid

Hybrid Welding

Welding

Filler Material

Filler

Material AlSi5

AlSi5

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

NRC NRC -- Welding Welding Trials Trials Sample Positions - - Trial LKR Part AlSi7Mg AlSi7Mg
and Microstructure Properties after NRC - - Welding Werkstoffkennwerte von Laser-Hybrid geschweißten NRC-Querlenkerproben, Werkstoff A356
and Microstructure Properties after NRC - - Welding Werkstoffkennwerte von Laser-Hybrid geschweißten NRC-Querlenkerproben, Werkstoff A356

Microstructure and

Microstructure

and Properties

Properties after

after NRC

NRC -- Welding

Welding

and Microstructure Properties after NRC - - Welding Werkstoffkennwerte von Laser-Hybrid geschweißten NRC-Querlenkerproben, Werkstoff A356

Werkstoffkennwerte von Laser-Hybrid geschweißten NRC-Querlenkerproben, Werkstoff A356

300 15,0 Rm Rp0,2 250 12,5 A5 223 224 220 214 212 210 200 10,0 153
300
15,0
Rm
Rp0,2
250
12,5
A5
223
224
220 214
212
210
200
10,0
153
155
148
150
144
148
150
7,5
100
5,0
50
2,5
2,2
2,2
1,5
1,6
1,8
1,6
0
0,0
Festigkeitswerte Rm; Rp0,2 [N/mm²]
Bruchdehnung A5 [%]

123456

Proben

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

and Microstructure Properties after NRC - - Welding Werkstoffkennwerte von Laser-Hybrid geschweißten NRC-Querlenkerproben, Werkstoff A356
Accumulated Energy Accumulated Energy Consumption Consumption (KEA) (KEA) = = KEA KEA + + KEA +

Accumulated Energy

Accumulated

Energy Consumption

Consumption (KEA)

(KEA)

 

KEA == KEA

KEA

KEA HH ++ KEA

KEA NN ++ KEA

KEA EE

Squeeze Casting

Squeeze

Casting

New Rheocasting

New

Rheocasting

Thixocasting

Thixocasting

KEA

KEA

11

1,02

1,02

1,95

1,95

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

Accumulated Energy Accumulated Energy Consumption Consumption (KEA) (KEA) = = KEA KEA + + KEA +
Cost Comparison Cost Comparison for for Thixocasting Thixocasting and and NRC NRC 100% 80% 60% 40%
Cost Comparison Cost Comparison for for Thixocasting Thixocasting and and NRC NRC 100% 80% 60% 40%

Cost Comparison

Cost

Comparison for

for Thixocasting

Thixocasting and

and NRC

NRC

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Part Cost
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Part Cost

Thixocasting

New Rheocasting (Primary Alloy)

New Rheocasting (Secondary Alloy)

1 Shift 3 Shift
1
Shift
3
Shift

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

Cost Comparison Cost Comparison for for Thixocasting Thixocasting and and NRC NRC 100% 80% 60% 40%
Summary Summary • • Various Various new new cars cars show show high high Al Al

Summary

Summary

Various

Various new

new cars

cars show

show high

high Al

Al--content

content inin body

body and

and suspension

suspension

Weight

Weight Saving

Saving 3030 -- 50%

50% compared

compared toto Steel

Steel or

or Cast

Cast Iron

Iron

Modern

Modern Casting

Casting Technologies

Technologies allow

allow complex

complex shapes

shapes

NRC

NRC isis aa new

new Process

Process for

for Structural

Structural Parts

Parts

Recycling

Recycling laws

laws are

are inin favor

favor of

of Al

Al and

and NRC

NRC

Source: Auto Forum 1/2001

Summary Summary • • Various Various new new cars cars show show high high Al Al

Server:http://www.lkr.at E-Mail: office.lkr@arcs.ac.at

Summary Summary • • Various Various new new cars cars show show high high Al Al