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NP 1 RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
The table below is to record Section IV Notices to Mariners amendments affecting this volume. Subparagraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user when making amendments to this volume.

Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV) 2006 2007 2008 2009

IMPORTANT SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS


This is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users of Admiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows: Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariners Handbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations), Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents.

All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.

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NP 1

AFRICA PILOT VOLUME I


Arquiplago da Madeira Islas Canarias Arquiplago de Cabo Verde West coast of Africa from Cap Spartel to Bakassi Peninsula

FOURTEENTH EDITION 2006

PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE

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E Crown Copyright 2006 To be obtained from Agents for the sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications

Copyright for some of the material in this publication is owned by the authority named under the item and permission for its reproduction must be obtained from the owner.

Previous editions:
First published as Western Coast of Africa . . . . . . . . 2nd Edition as Africa Pilot Volume I . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1849 1856 1873 1880 1890 1899 1907 1920 1930 1939 1953 1967 1982

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PREFACE
The Fourteenth Edition of Africa Pilot Volume I has been compiled by Mr Hemant Vora. The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavours to ensure that this pilot contains all the appropriate information obtained by and assessed by it at the date shown below. Information received or assessed after that date will be included in Admiralty Notics to Mariners where appropriate. If in doubt, see The Mariners Handbook for details of what Admiralty Notics to Mariners are and how to use them. This edition supersedes the Thirteenth Edition (1982) and Supplement No 8 (2002), which are cancelled. Information on currents and climate has been based on data supplied by the Met Office, Exeter. The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted: British Fairplay Ports Guide 2004/2005 Lloyds List Ports of the World 2004/2005 Lloyds Shipping Statistics 2004. Whitakers Almanack 2005 The Statemans Year Book 2005 Cruising Guide to W Africa 1997, RCC Pilotage Foundation. Portuguese Roteiro da Costa de Portugal, Arquiplago da Madeira, 2001. Spanish Derrotero de la Costa W de Africa, 1996. French C4Instructions nautiques, Afrique (cte ouest) 1997. United States Pub.143, Sailing Directions W Coast of Europe and N W Africa, 2003. Pub.123, Sailing Directions S W Coast of Africa, 2001.

Dr D W Williams United Kingdom National Hydrographer

The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Admiralty Way Taunton Somerset TA1 2DN England 16th March 2006

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CONTENTS
Pages Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Explanatory notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x Index chartlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . facing 1 CHAPTER 1 Navigation and regulations Limits of the book (1.1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic and operations (1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charts (1.17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aids to navigation (1.22) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilotage (1.27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio facilities (1.28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulations (1.40) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals (1.56) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distress and rescue (1.58) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 5 7 7

Countries and ports Arquiplago da Madeira (1.75) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Islas Canarias (1.85) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Republic of Cape Verde (1.95) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Kingdom of Morocco (1.105) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Islamic Republic of Mauritania (1.115) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Republic of Sngal (1.125) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Republic of The Gambia (1.135) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Republic of GuineaBissau (1.145) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Republic of Guinea (1.155) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Republic of Sierra Leone (1.165) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Republic of Liberia (1.175) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Republic of Cte dIvoire (1.185) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Republic of Ghana (1.195) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Republic of Togo (1.205) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Republic of Benin (1.215) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Federal Republic of Nigeria (1.225) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Principal ports, harbours and anchorages (1.235) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Port services summary (1.236) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Natural conditions Maritime topography (1.241) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Currents and tidal streams (1.247) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea and swell (1.257) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea water characteristics (1.262) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate and weather (1.266) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate tables (1.291) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.312) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 2 Arquiplago da Madeira and Islas Selvagens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 CHAPTER 3 Islas Canarias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 CHAPTER 4 Arquiplago de Cabo Verde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 CHAPTER 5 Cap Spartel to Punta Durnford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 26 26 32 32 35 49 71

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CONTENTS

CHAPTER 6 Punta Durnford to Dakar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 CHAPTER 7 Dakar to Rio Nunez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 CHAPTER 8 Rio Nunez to Blubarra Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 CHAPTER 9 Blubarra Point to Abidjan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 CHAPTER 10 Abidjan to Tema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 CHAPTER 11 Tema to Forcados River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 CHAPTER 12 Forcados River to Calabar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 DISTANCE TABLE Distance table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 INDEX Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

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EXPLANATORY NOTES
Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 150 gt or more. They amplify charted detail and contain information needed for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended to be read in conjunction with the charts quoted in the text. This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, without the use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published quarterly. Those still in force at the end of the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. CDROM Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements of Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should only be used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy exists between data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be relied upon. Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, it has not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD for this purpose is at the users own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligence of the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of the UKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution. Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CDROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed or commercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt, the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Parties whether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material. References to hydrographic and other publications The Mariners Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume. Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastal passages. Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume. Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotage services, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume. Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments and notices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigational warnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas. The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals as well as international flag signals. Remarks on subject matter Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too small to show all the details clearly. Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Mariners should consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts. Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted where its use is more appropriate. Firing, practice and exercise areas. Submarine exercise areas are mentioned in Sailing Directions. Other firing, practice and exercise areas maybe mentioned with limited details. Signals and buoys used in connection with these areas maybe mentioned if significant for navigation. Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject.

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EXPLANATORY NOTES

Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in brackets following the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned. Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted. Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned. Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the event being described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time which may be kept. Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance for navigation or anchoring. Units and terminology used in this volume Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted. Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000 (North) to 359 Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object. Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel. Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground. Winds are described by the direction from which they blow. Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow. Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile. Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated. Heights of objects refer to the height of the object above the ground and are invariably expressed as ... m in height. Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted in Admiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, an elevation of ... m. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively be expressed as ... m high since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height. Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, these latter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart. Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local time kept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2. Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking. Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal. Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over a large area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may be marked conspic. Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous.

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ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used in the text: AIS ALC ALP AMVER C CALM CBM CDC CVTS DF DG DGPS DW DSC dwt DZ E EEZ ELSBM ENE EPIRB ESE ETA ETD EU feu fm FPSO FPU FSO ft g/cm3 GMDSS GPS GRP grt gt HAT HF HMS hp hPa HSC HW IALA IHO IMO ITCZ JRCC kHz km kn Automatic Identification System Articulated loading column Articulated loading platform Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System degrees Celsius Catenary anchor leg mooring Conventional buoy mooring Certain Dangerous Cargo Cooperative Vessel Traffic System direction finding degaussing Differential Global Positioning System Deep Water Digital Selective Calling deadweight tonnage danger zone east (easterly, eastward, eastern, easternmost) exclusive economic zone Exposed location single buoy mooring east-north-east Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon east-south-east estimated time of arrival estimated time of departure European Union forty foot equivalent unit fathom(s) Floating production storage and offloading vessel Floating production unit Floating storage and offloading vessel foot (feet) gram per cubic centimetre Global Maritime Distress and Safety System Global Positioning System glass reinforced plastic gross register tonnage gross tonnage Highest Astronomical Tide high frequency Her (His) Majestys Ship horse power hectopascal High Speed Craft High Water International Association of Lighthouse Authorities International Hydrographic Organization International Maritime Organization Intertropical Convergence Zone Joint Rescue Coordination Centre kilohertz kilometre(s) knot(s) kW Lanby LASH LAT LF LHG LMT LNG LOA LPG LW m mb MCTS MF MHz MHHW MHLW MHW MHWN MHWS MLHW MLLW MLW MLWN MLWS mm MMSI MRCC MRSC MSI MSL MV MW MY N NATO Navtex NE NNE NNW No nrt NW ODAS PEL PLEM POL PSSA PWC RCC RMS RN RoRo RT kilowatt(s) Large automatic navigation buoy Lighter Aboard Ship Lowest Astronomical Tide low frequency Liquefied Hazardous Gas Local Mean Time Liquefied Natural Gas Length overall Liquefied Petroleum Gas Low Water metre(s) millibar(s) Marine Communications and Traffic Services Centres medium frequency megahertz Mean Higher High Water Mean Higher Low Water Mean High Water Mean High Water Neaps Mean High Water Springs Mean Lower High Water Mean Lower Low Water Mean Low Water Mean Low Water Neaps Mean Low Water Springs millimetre(s) Maritime Mobile Service Identity Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre Marine Safety Information Mean Sea Level Motor Vessel megawatt(s) Motor Yacht north (northerly, northward, northern, northernmost) North Atlantic Treaty Organization Navigational Telex System north-east north-north-east north-north-west number nett register tonnage north-west Ocean Data Acquisition System Port Entry Light Pipe line end manifold Petrol, Oil & Lubricants Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas Personal watercraft Rescue Coordination Centre Royal Mail Ship Royal Navy Rollon, Rolloff radio telephony

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ABBREVIATIONS

S SALM SALS SAR Satnav SBM SE SPM sq SS SSE SSW SW SWATH teu TSS UHF UKC

south (southerly, southward, southern, southernmost) Single anchor leg mooring system Single anchored leg storage system Search and Rescue Satellite navigation Single buoy mooring south-east Single point mooring square Steamship south-south-east south-south-west south-west small waterplane area twin hull ship twenty foot equivalent unit Traffic Separation Scheme ultra high frequency under keel clearance

UKHO ULCC UN UT UTC VDR VHF VLCC VMRS VTC VTMS VTS W WGS WMO WNW WSW WT

United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Ultra Large Crude Carrier United Nations Universal Time Co-ordinated Universal Time Voyage Data Recorder very high frequency Very Large Crude Carrier Vessel Movement Reporting System Vessel Traffic Centre Vessel Traffic Management System Vessel Traffic Services west (westerly, westward, western, westernmost) World Geodetic System World Meteorological Organization west-north-west west-south-west radio (wireless) telegraphy

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GLOSSARY
Portuguese (P), Spanish (S), French (F) and Arabic (A) terms and words found on charts and in the Sailing Directions

Foreign word

Language
P .......... A ......... S, P . . . . . . . S, P . . . . . . . S, P . . . . . . . S, P . . . . . . . S .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... S .......... S .......... S .......... A ......... A ......... A ......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... P .......... S, P . . . . . . . S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S .......... S .......... A ......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... S .......... P .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... F .......... P .......... F .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... S .......... A ......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... S .......... F .......... P .......... S, P . . . . . . .

English meaning
the (fem) white cove, creek, haven cliffs inner, inside customs house outer, outside watering place sharp, pointed neap tide spring tide needle red (masculine) spring the lagoon, pond village hamlet height height yellow yellow mooring, dolphin cliff wide, broad anchorage open bay, roadstead anchorage narrows cove, creek cove, bay stores, marine chandlery archipelago archipelago sand sand extensive area of sand dune reef inner port stream, rivulet shipyard lookout, watchtower lookout, watchtower berth outer port victualling blue

Foreign word

Language
S .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... A ......... A ......... F .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . A ......... P .......... F .......... S .......... S .......... A ......... F .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... S .......... S .......... A ......... S .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S .......... S .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... P .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... F .......... F .......... F .......... F .......... F .......... S .......... P .......... P ......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S .......... S .......... F .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . S, P . . . . . . . S, P . . . . . . . S .......... P ..........

English meaning
precipice, ravine shoal, sandbank battery battery lake wells, well white white mouth, entrance entrance channel buoy wood wide mouth, opening or entrance narrow entrance, gap father, chief mouth of river or strait buoy white arm (of the sea) fog ship fort, castle, tower shoal head shoal head, summit cape quay or wharf narrow cove, fiord creek cove road channel, canal bluff cape chapel chapel narrow channel, slipway narrow channel, passage house castle castle headland, hillock surmounted by ruins cathedral cay hillock hill chain launch trawler castle causeway channel small city, large town citadel summit, crest grey city, town citadel steeple mountain pass hill, hillock hillock, elevation hill cove cone convent mountain range sandy head

a, as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . abiad, abyad, abyadh . . . abra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . acantilados . . . . . . . . . . . adentro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aduana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . afuera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aguada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aguado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aguas muertas . . . . . . . . aguas vivas . . . . . . . . . . . aguja . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ahmar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ain, in . . . . . . . . . . . . . al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . albufera . . . . . . . . . . . . . aldea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aldeia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . altura . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amarelo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amarillo . . . . . . . . . . . . . amarradero . . . . . . . . . . . anak, anaq . . . . . . . . . . . ancho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ancladero . . . . . . . . . . . . ancn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ancoradouro . . . . . . . . . . angostura . . . . . . . . . . . . angra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . apetrachamento . . . . . . . archipel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . archipilago . . . . . . . . . . areia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arenal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arish, arisha . . . . . . . . . . arrecife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arrire port . . . . . . . . . . . arroyo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . astillero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . atalaia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . atalaya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . atraque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . avant port . . . . . . . . . . . . avituallmento . . . . . . . . . azul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

barranco . . . . . . . . . . . . . basse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batterie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beheira, bahra, buhireh . bir, bir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blanc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blanco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boghaz, bghz . . . . . . . boia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boquern . . . . . . . . . . . . boquette . . . . . . . . . . . . . bou, bu (abbrev. ab) . . bouche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . branco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brazo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bruma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . buque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cabeza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cabezo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cabo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cais . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . calanque . . . . . . . . . . . . . caleta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . capela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . capilla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . carreira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . carrera, carreiro . . . . . . . casa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . castelo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . castillo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . castro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . catedral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cayo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cerrito . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cerro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chaloupe . . . . . . . . . . . . . chalutier . . . . . . . . . . . . . chteau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chausse . . . . . . . . . . . . . chenal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cidade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cidadela . . . . . . . . . . . . . cima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cinzento . . . . . . . . . . . . . ciudad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ciudadela . . . . . . . . . . . . clocher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . collado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . concha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . convento . . . . . . . . . . . . . cordillera . . . . . . . . . . . . coroa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

bab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bacia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bahr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baid, bdiya . . . . . . . . . baie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baixa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baixo (adj) . . . . . . . . . . . bajamar (BM) . . . . . . . . bajo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . balad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . balisar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . balise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baliza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barlovento . . . . . . . . . . . barra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A ......... P .......... S .......... A ......... P .......... A ......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S .......... S .......... A ......... P .......... F .......... S .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S, P . . . . . . . F ..........

narrow strait, gate basin bay river, lake bay desert bay shoal shoal low water (LW) shoal, below, under, low town, village, land beacon beacon beacon bank bank windward bar bar

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GLOSSARY

Foreign word

Language
S .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... S .......... S .......... F .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... S, P, F . . . . . P .......... P .......... P .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... F .......... F .......... S, A . . . . . . . S .......... S .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... P .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... P .......... S .......... P .......... P .......... P .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... F .......... F .......... S .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... F .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... S .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... S .......... A ......... A ......... A .........

English meaning
crown, summit current coast coast summit creek cross cave quoin, wedge summit basin basin, dock, backwater inner landing place landing place mouth of a river mole, dock, embankment, levee, dike dock tidal basin wet dock dredger dune dolphin lock of a canal or basin, sluice church definite article (masc) wharf, landing mouth transit bay, bight, cove bay entrance, fairway spur, groyne hermitage hermitage lock (canal or basin) shallow rock, reef awash projecting point spur, arm of mole groyne pier, projecting wharf, mole shipyard east east creek creek strait, narrows strait, narrows starboard hand lake cliff mud stack, steep rocky islet stack, steep rocky islet lighthouse false anchorage fortress outer fort strait walllike cliff fort anchorage narrow passage, sound sentry box, hut, lookout castle hill lake

Foreign word

Language
A ......... A ......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S, P, F . . . . . S .......... S .......... A ......... A ......... A ......... A ......... S .......... S .......... P .......... F .......... P .......... P .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... S .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . A ......... A ......... A ......... A ......... F .......... A ......... A A A A A A A ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... .........

English meaning
island west gulf gulf narrow entrance large, great, big grey group stone, rock sandbank which dries red (feminine) rock horseshoeshaped bay church church island island islet islet small islet or rock island islet small barren islet, skerry isthmus mountain, hill, island mosque south island jetty, pier bay big castle citadel village south mound, hillock port, anchorage definite article (fem) lake lake small lake, marsh lagoon lagoon flat rock flat rock lifeboat rocky ledge rock east eastern mud hillock, knoll ridge definite article (masc) west house quay, mole paps sea monument, tomb, saints tomb tide tide shore, river bank side channel, backwater marsh bay, cove, harbour, anchorage mosque

corona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . corriente . . . . . . . . . . . . . costa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . coto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . crique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cruz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cueva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cuspide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . darse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drsena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dentro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . desembarcadero . . . . . . . desembarcadouro . . . . . . desembocadura . . . . . . . . dique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . doca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . doca de mars . . . . . . . . doca de flutao . . . . . . draga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . duna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . duque de alba . . . . . . . . cluse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eglise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . el . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . embarcadero . . . . . . . . . . embocadura . . . . . . . . . . enfilacin . . . . . . . . . . . . enseada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ensenada . . . . . . . . . . . . . entrada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ermida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ermita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . esclusa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . escollo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . espigo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . espign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . esporo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . estacada . . . . . . . . . . . . . estaleiro . . . . . . . . . . . . . est . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . este . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . esteiro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . estero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . estrecho . . . . . . . . . . . . . estreito . . . . . . . . . . . . . . estribor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . etang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . falaise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fango . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . faralln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . farilho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . faro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . faux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fondeadero . . . . . . . . . . . fortaleza . . . . . . . . . . . . . fora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . freo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . frontn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fuerte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fundeadouro . . . . . . . . . . garganta . . . . . . . . . . . . . garita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gasr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gebel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

gezret, gezira . . . . . . . . gharb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . golfe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . golfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . goulet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gran, grande, grand(e) . . gris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grupo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hajar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . halat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hamr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hassar, hissar . . . . . . . . . herradura . . . . . . . . . . . . iglesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igreja . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilhu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nsua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isleta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . islote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istmo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jabal, jebel, jbel . . . . . . . jam, jmi . . . . . . . . . . . . janub, junub . . . . . . . . . . jazirat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kabir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kalat, kelat, kulat . . . . . . kasba, kasbah . . . . . . . . . kefr, kafr . . . . . . . . . . . . kibli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . km . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kothon, liman . . . . . . . . . la, las . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lago . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lagoa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laguna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lagune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laja . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laje . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lancha de socorro . . . . . lastra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laxe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . leste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . levante . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lodo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lomo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . los . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maghreb, maghrub . . . . . maison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . malecn . . . . . . . . . . . . . mamelles . . . . . . . . . . . . mar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mrabt, marabout . . . . . mar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . margen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marigot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marisma . . . . . . . . . . . . . marsa, mers, mersa . . . . masjid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

S .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... S .......... S .......... P .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... S .......... S .......... S .......... A ......... F .......... S .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . A ......... P .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S .......... A ......... A .........

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Index
GLOSSARY

Foreign word

Language
P .......... A ......... S .......... A ......... S .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... F .......... A ......... A ......... A ......... S .......... F .......... P .......... S .......... P .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... S, P . . . . . . .

English meaning

Foreign word

Language
S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S .......... F .......... S .......... S .......... S .......... S .......... S .......... F .......... P .......... P .......... F .......... P .......... P .......... P .......... P .......... P .......... P .......... S .......... S P F P S P S S S S S S S .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........

English meaning
pilot (official) mountain peak shoal tableland or flat beach high water (HW) town village western point, headland point (of land) promontory, point bridge bridge, pier pier, jetty small port or harbour port, harbour large town village well, deep hole in seabed or river pilot beach peninsula black promontory promontory village small town, village town bridge port, harbour point narrow point quay, wharf castle castle peak ravine, gully, cut, gap breakwater roadstead roadstead ramp, boatslip cape, point reef torrent, stream tug reef, spit inlet, estuary inlet, estuary rivulet shore, river bank brook river river river rock rock rock pebbly, stony rock rocky place rocky patch rock, usually above water shoal, usually rocky and of some extent red breakwater breakers rocky shoal red

forest, wood, thicket east dune, sandhill minaret middle large raised stone southern tableland, plateau middle harbour, bay point coral hummock mole, pier mole, pier mountain mountain mountain mount, mountain knoll headland, bluff, head of breakwater mouillage . . . . . . . . . . . . F . . . . . . . . . . anchorage moulin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F . . . . . . . . . . mill muelle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S . . . . . . . . . . pier, jetty, mole nabi, nebi . . . . . . . . . . . . nahr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . natur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . naufragio . . . . . . . . . . . . naufrgio . . . . . . . . . . . . negro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niebla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o, os . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . occidental . . . . . . . . . . . . occidentale . . . . . . . . . . . oeste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oriental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . orientale . . . . . . . . . . . . . orilla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oued, uad . . . . . . . . . . . . ouest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . palheiros . . . . . . . . . . . . . palo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pan de azcar . . . . . . . . . pantano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parcel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paredo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasaje . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . passe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pedra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pedregal . . . . . . . . . . . . . pea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . penasco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pennsula . . . . . . . . . . . . pen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pequeno . . . . . . . . . . . . . pequeo . . . . . . . . . . . . . pertuis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pescado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . petit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . petn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . picacho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . piedra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pierre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A ......... A ......... A ......... S .......... P .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... F .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S, P . . . . . . . S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S .......... A ......... F .......... P .......... S .......... S .......... S .......... P .......... P .......... S .......... S .......... F .......... P .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... P .......... S .......... F .......... S .......... F .......... S .......... F .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... F .......... tomb river tower wreck wreck black fog black north north definite article (masc) western western west eastern eastern shore, edge, river bank river west fishing village mast, spar sugarloaf swamp, marsh reef, shoal seawall passage, ferry pass channel stone, rock stony or rocky patch rock large rock peninsula rocky mountain small small opening or strait fish small pinnacle rock peak sharp peak peak stone, rock stone

mata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . matla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mdano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mdene, manra, manr medio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . menhir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meridional . . . . . . . . . . . mesa or meseta . . . . . . . milieu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mnat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . minqar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mirjan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mogote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . molhe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . montaa . . . . . . . . . . . . . montanha . . . . . . . . . . . . mont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . monte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . montculo . . . . . . . . . . . . morro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

piloto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . piton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . placer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plateau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . playa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pleamar (PM) . . . . . . . . . poblacin . . . . . . . . . . . . poblado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . poniente . . . . . . . . . . . . . pointe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ponta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pontal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ponte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pontcais . . . . . . . . . . . portinho . . . . . . . . . . . . . porto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . povoa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . povoao . . . . . . . . . . . . pozo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prctico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . praia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . presqule . . . . . . . . . . . . preto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . promontorio . . . . . . . . . . promontrio . . . . . . . . . . puebla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pueblecito . . . . . . . . . . . . pueblo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . puente . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . puerto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . punta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . puntal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qalat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qasr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qornet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quebrada . . . . . . . . . . . . . quebramar . . . . . . . . . . rada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rampa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ras, ras, rs . . . . . . . . . . rcif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . regato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . remolcador . . . . . . . . . . . restinga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . riachuelo . . . . . . . . . . . . . ribera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ribero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rivire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rocha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rocalloso . . . . . . . . . . . . . roche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rochedo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rochel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rocher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rodal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rojo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rompeolas . . . . . . . . . . . . rompientes . . . . . . . . . . . roquerio . . . . . . . . . . . . . rouge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F .......... A ......... A ......... A ......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S .......... F .......... P .......... A ......... F .......... S .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S .......... S .......... S .......... P .......... P .......... S .......... F .......... S .......... P .......... F .......... S .......... F .......... P .......... S .......... P, F . . . . . . . . S .......... S S S S F .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........

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GLOSSARY

Foreign word

Language
A F .......... A ......... A ......... S .......... S .......... P .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S .......... A ......... A ......... A ......... A ......... A .........

English meaning
salt lake, salt lagoon, salt marsh sand small, little canal salt pans saint saint bight, sound northern mountain range mountain ridge rock, reef, rocky shoal east cove, creek, inlet north Lord, master (title of decendants of the prophet and saints) mountain range summit leeward foul south south south anchorage

Foreign word

Language
A ......... A ......... S .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S ..........

English meaning
cape hill holding ground, anchorage bend, turn (in waterway) tower tower rock (usually lying off a larger feature)

sabakat, sabkha, sbcha sebkha, trga sable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saghira, seghir, saghir . . sakije . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . salinas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . san, santo, santa . . . . . . . so, santo, santa . . . . . . . seno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . septentrional . . . . . . . . . . serra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . serriana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shab, shab, shib . . . . . . shark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sharm, sherm . . . . . . . . . shmal, shaml . . . . . . . . sidi, saiyid . . . . . . . . . . .

tarf, taraf . . . . . . . . . . . . tell, tall, tlia . . . . . . . . . tenedero . . . . . . . . . . . . . torno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . torre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . touza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

umm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A . . . . . . . . . mother vado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . valle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . varadero . . . . . . . . . . . . . varadouro . . . . . . . . . . . . verde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viejo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . villa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ville . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . villorio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volcn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S .......... P .......... S .......... S .......... P .......... S, P . . . . . . . F .......... S .......... S, P . . . . . . . P .......... S .......... F .......... S .......... S .......... P .......... ford valley valley slipway landing green green old lookout town, village, villa town, villa town hamlet volcano volcano

sierra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sommet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sotavento . . . . . . . . . . . . sucio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . surgidero . . . . . . . . . . . . .

S .......... F .......... S, P . . . . . . . S .......... F .......... P .......... S .......... S ..........

tallet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A . . . . . . . . . mountain

wd, wadi . . . . . . . . . . . A . . . . . . . . . valley, river bed

ROMANIZATION SYSTEM FOR ARABIC BGN/PCGN 1956 System This system was adopted by the BGN in 1946 and by the PCGN in 1956 and has been applied in the systematic romanization of geographical names in Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen, all of which have been covered by published BGN gazetteers. Uniform results in the romanization of Arabic are difficult to obtain, since vowel points and diacritical marks are generally omitted from both manual and machine writing. It follows that correct identification of the words which appear in any particular name, knowledge of its standard Arabicscript spelling including proper pointing, and recognition of dialectal and idiosyncratic deviations are essential. In order to bring about uniformity in the Romanscript spelling of geographical names in Arabiclanguage areas, the system is based insofar as possible on fully pointed modern standard Arabic. CONSONANT CHARACTERS

Arabic Final Medial Initial Independent

Romanization

Examples and Remarks

xiii

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GLOSSARY

Arabic Final Medial Initial Independent

Romanization

Examples and Remarks

xiv

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Index
GLOSSARY

Arabic Final Medial Initial Independent

Romanization

Examples and Remarks

VOWEL CHARACTERS AND DIACRITICAL MARKS Arabic Romanization Examples and Remarks

xv

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GLOSSARY

Arabic

Romanization

Examples and Remarks

xvi

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GLOSSARY

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NOTES

xviii

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Chapter Index Diagram
NP 45 MED PILOT VOL I

25

20

15

10
3132

NP 67 WEST COAST OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL PILOT


Cabo Spartel

35

35

Rabat 3133 I. de Maderia 3132 Essaouira Cap Rhir

2 5
Safi

Casablanca

30
ISLAS CANARIAS Lanzarote
3134 Tenerife

Anza-Agadir

30

Fuerteventura Gran Canaria C. Tarfaya Layoune 3133

5 C. Bojador
25
NORTH
Ad Dakhla

25

ATLANTIC

Pta.Durnford

OCEAN

Nouadhibou C. Blanc

20

20

6
3135

AFRICA

ARQUIPLAGO DE CABO VERDE


Santo Anto So Nicolau

Nouakchott

3134

4
Bavista Saint-Louis Santiago 366 Dakar

15

15

Banjul 1147 3135

Bissau

Port Kamsar

10

C. Verga

10
Conakry

8
25
Africa Pilot Vol I

Continued on Index 1(b)

20

Longitude 15 West from Greenwich 10

0306

NP 1(a)
xix

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Chapter Index Diagram

15

10

10

1147

Continued on Index 1(a)

AFRICA

10

kr y na Co

10
R.
Nig e

Freetown
R. B

enu

C. St. Ann

Yangisei 3139 Monrovia


Ab id ja Sa ss a
n
a dr

Cape Mount 1147

595 Cotonou
n

3118 Koko

Lagos

a alm C.P

e re Th C.

in Po

ts

15
Africa Pilot Vol I

10

Meridian 0 of Greenwich

3118

xx
Buchanan

Tema Accra Saltpond

C. S. Pau l

Warri Port Harcourt Brass Calabar

Greenville Harper

11

10 9

12

3139

595

NP 2 AFRICA PILOT VOL II

GULF

OF

GUINEA

10

0306

NP 1(b)

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LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION While, in the interests of the safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its hydrographic publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood: (a) that no liability whatsoever can be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and (b) that publication of details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognition of the international validity of the law or regulation.

AFRICA PILOT VOLUME I


CHAPTER 1 NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS COUNTRIES AND PORTS NATURAL CONDITIONS

NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS LIMITS OF THE BOOK


Charts 4104, 4209 1.1 This volume contains Sailing Directions for the coastal waters of the W coast of Africa, lying within the following limits: From Cap Spartel S and E to Bakassi Peninsula thence SW to thence S to thence SW to but excluding Zafiro Terminal (NP2) thence W along the equator to thence NW to thence N to thence E to Cap Spartel
2

Mauritania, and is sufficient to produce mirage. This refraction is likely to cause errors when using a sextant.

Ocean Data Acquisition System Buoys


1

3547N 430N 419N 400N 000

556W 830E 823E 823E 500E


2

2000W 1145N 3600N 3547N 4000W 4000W 556W

The above area includes Arquiplago da Madeira and Islas Selvagens (Chapter 2), Islas Canarias (Chapter 3) and Arquiplago de Cabo Verde (Chapter 4).
1

1.3 Ocean Data Acquisition System buoys may be encountered moored off the coasts of the countries covered by this volume, both offshore and close inshore, including the approaches to major ports. These buoy systems vary considerably in size and may be either moored or freefloating. As far as possible the position of moored systems will be promulgated and those systems considered to be of a more permanent nature are charted. The systems should be given a clearance of at least 1 mile, or 2 miles in the case of vessels towing underwater gear. Wave Recorder buoys, generally of smaller dimensions than ODAS buoys, coloured yellow and exhibiting similar lights, may also be encountered off these coasts. They should be given a berth of at least 5 cables. For further information on ODAS buoys see The Mariners Handbook. No additional information regarding ODAS and Wave Recorder buoys is given elsewhere in the text of this book unless included in Directions.

Piracy and armed robbery


1.4 The security of vessels off the West African coast and at some ports is a serious problem. In recent years many attacks by gangs of thieves, some of whom were armed, have been reported. These have taken place generally in the outer anchorages, but some have been on vessels alongside in harbour and some at sea. In one case a member of the crew was killed.

NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDS Abnormal refraction


1

1.2 Abnormal refraction occurs at times off the West African coast, particularly off the coasts of Morocco and

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Fire hazard. In addition to loss of property and injury to crew members, thieves used naked lights for illumination creating a serious fire risk. Regulations to curb the activities of armed thieves are in force at certain ports and are mentioned later in the text. Masters are advised to take all possible security measures, to maintain strict antipiracy watches day and night, and not to permit unauthorised craft to come alongside. In addition, all suspicious craft and piratical attacks should be reported to IMB Piracy Reporting Centre. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (1) for further information.

Crocodiles may inhabit estuarine and swampy regions in tropical and subtropical areas and may even be seen swimming along coastal stretches. The shock generated by the electric ray is unpleasant in the extreme. These rays are common in sheltered estuarine waters where they spend much of their time partially buried in the bottom.

Marine farms
1

1.7 Marine farms, which may be either floating or submerged, are established at several locations and, where known, are charted. They are usually marked by lightbuoys (special) or lights.

Fishing vessels TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS


1

Routes
1

1.5 Offshore. Information concerning transoceanic passages will be found in Ocean Passages for the World. Traffic separation scheme, adopted by the IMO has been established in the W approaches to Strait of Gibraltar, about 14 miles NW of Cap Spartel (5.19).

1.8 Concentrations of fishing vessels may be met all the year round off the coast of West Africa and in the SW approaches to Strait of Gibraltar (see 5.4).

Exercise areas Firing practice and exercise areas


1

Fishing Dangerous marine animals


1

1.6 Several forms of dangerous marine animals inhabit the waters covered by this volume. Certain invertebrates, several fishes, and one species of sea snake are venomous and potentially lethal. Other forms possessing strong jaws and sharp teeth are capable of inflicting serious wounds. One species, an electric ray, can deliver a powerful electric shock. Still other marine animals contain poisons which, when ingested, may cause serious internal illness. Venomous marine vertebrates are most abundant in tropical coastal waters. Jellyfish, such as the Portuguese manofwar, and lions mane, are occasionally present in large numbers in open sea waters where they drift with the current or the wind. Contact with the tentacles of these jelly fish results in a painful sting, which may occasionally be fatal. Stinging corals, cone shells, and sea urchins lying on the bottom are a threat to collectors, waders and swimmers. Handling or stepping on any of these species may result in painful injuries. Stingrays, some of which attain large size, are usually buried in sandy or other soft bottoms. These kiteshaped fish have their tails armed with one or more spines which can inflict serious injuries on anyone who steps on them. Several kinds of poisonous catfish and scorpion fish also inhabit the tropical waters of this area. Caution should be exercised when handling them since their dorsal and pectoral spines may inject a powerful venom. Woundinflicting animals such as sharks and barracudas are mostly inhabitants of warm waters. They may be present anywhere in the open seas but predominantly frequent river mouths, coral reefs and rocky outcrops. The maneater, bonito, hammerhead, tiger, blue, sand, and several kinds of grey sharks are most likely to attack man. Moray eels, though not likely to attack unless provoked, are particularly abundant in reefs and rocky outcrops of the warm waters of this area.

1.9 Portuguese and Spanish authorities have established several firing practice and naval exercise areas off the coasts of Arquiplago da Madeira and Islas Canarias, respectively. The principal types of practice carried out, and the warning signals used, are similar to those described in Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. Detailed descriptions are not given in the text of the book as warnings of firing practices and exercises are published in the local notices to mariners and are broadcast by coast radio stations. Portuguese stations transmit details of the areas on the 1st day of each month. Spanish stations give 48 hours notice of exercises taking place.

Submarine exercises
1

1.10 Submarines may exercise in the area covered by this volume. Notice of submarine exercises is given only in exceptional circumstances and therefore mariners should keep a good lookout for submarines. The Mariners Handbook and Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners give general information on the characteristics of British submarines and visual signals used to denote their presence; in general, other countries conform to this method of signalling. Because submarine navigation lights are, of necessity, close together and low down, care should be taken not to confuse them with the lights of fishing vessels or other small craft.

Submarine buoys
1

1.11 Spanish submarines are fitted with two indicator buoys, one at each end of the vessel, which can be released from inside the submarine in case of necessity when she is unable to to come to the surface. In Spanish submarines the buoy in the bow is painted red and yellow, exhibits a white light, and has a telephone which can be operated from inside the submarine. The buoy in the stern is painted yellow. The buoys are moored to the submarine by a wire cable not more than 125 m in length. If one of these buoys is sighted in waters of a greater depth than 150 m, it can be concluded that it is adrift.

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Each buoy is fitted with a metal plate carrying the following inscription: SUBMARINO (...) AVISEN A LAS AUTORIDADES CUIDADO NE SE TIRE DE LA BOYA, QUITESE LA TAPA Y SIGANSE LAS INSTRUCCIONES INTERIORES Submarine (name) Inform the authorities Take care Do not pull on the buoy, remove the cover and follow the instructions given inside.
1

Helicopter operations
1.16 Any ship may need to make use of helicopters either as a matter of routine or in an emergency. Embarkation of pilots, delivery of essential stores or changing crew by helicopter are already routine operations for large tankers or bulk carriers off certain ports. These vessels either carry their own company handbook on helicopter operations, or one issued by the International Chamber of Shipping. However, in an emergency any vessel may be called upon to operate with helicopters. For further information see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners and The Mariners Handbook.

CHARTS Marine exploitation Seismic survey operations


1 1

General information
1.17 For the coast of Africa covered by this volume, the only charting authority are the former colonial powers who produce modern large scale charts for the coastal areas. British Admiralty charts are compiled and corrected from them. The primary authoritative charts are those published by the following countries: Portugal for Arquiplago da Madeira, Arquiplago de Cabo Verde, Guinea and GuineaBissau. Spain for Islas Canarias and Morocco. France for Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal, Cte dIvoire, Togo and Benin (formerly Dahomey). Orthography throughout the whole area presents a problem, as every country has changed its form of government and in many cases consequential changes of names have followed. Names on charts may not therefore always be the latest and where applicable the old and new names are given in Sailing Directions. Chart maintenance for most minor ports depends upon data received from local authorities which varies considerably from country to country. Information is often based only on reports from ships. Charts and publications may therefore not be up to date. Mariners are advised to navigate with caution and seek information also from other sources that may be available to them. Knowledge of many of the charted offshore banks and dangers has been built up over the years by many ship reports. Few of these features have been properly surveyed by modern methods. Many areas outside the charted banks have yet to be examined, and it is probable that other significant features remain as yet uncharted. See also article on the use of charts in The Mariners Handbook.

1.12 General information about vessels engaged in seismic surveys and advice on precautions in the vicinity of these vessels is given in The Mariners Handbook. The areas in which seismic survey operations are taking place are promulgated from time to time as radio navigational warnings (1.36) and in local Notices to Mariners.

Oil and gas fields


1

1.13 Offshore oil and gas exploration and production is carried out in coastal and deepwater areas covered by this volume, in particular within Bight of Biafra and along the coasts of Mauritania, Cte dIvoire and Ghana. Production platforms and associated structures, including tanker moorings and storage tankers, generally exhibit Morse (U) lights, aircraft obstruction lights and also sound fog signals. They are sometimes marked by buoys. Unauthorised navigation is prohibited within 500 m of all such structures, including storage tankers which can swing about their moorings. Tankers manoeuvering in the vicinity of platforms should be given a wide berth. For further information see The Mariners Handbook.

Submarine pipelines
1

1.14 Caution. Gas from a damaged oil or gas pipeline could cause an explosion or other serious hazard. Pipelines are not always buried and their presence may effectively reduce the charted depth by as much as 2 m. Where pipelines are close together, only one may be charted. Mariners should not anchor or trawl in the vicinity of a pipeline; they risk prosecution if damage is caused. For further information see The Mariners Handbook.

Admiralty charts
1

Wellheads
1

1.15 Mariners are warned that charted information about the presence of submerged wellheads and other underwater obstructions may be incomplete and therefore special caution must be exercised by vessels when navigating in areas of offshore oil and gas activity. Production wells and suspended wells generally project well above the level of the seabed. For further information see The Mariners Handbook.

1.18 British Admiralty charts covering the area of these Sailing Directions are adequate for use on passage, for entry into the principal ports and harbours, and to reach a required pilot station. Charts are based on the most recent information received from regional charting authorities.

Foreign charts
1

1.19 In certain areas, where the British Admiralty Charts show insufficient detail for navigating close inshore or within inland channels, these Sailing Directions have been written using foreign charts. The text has been written on

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the assumption that mariners wishing to navigate these waters will have provided themselves with suitable charts on which to do so.

Due to their widespread use the term radar reflector is not included in the description of buoys mentioned in the text.

Datums Horizontal
1 1

IALA Maritime Buoyage System


1.25 The IALA Maritime Buoyage System Region A (red to port) is in use throughout the area covered by this volume. For full details of the system see The Mariners Handbook and IALA Maritime Buoyage System.

1.20 In areas covered by modern surveys, British Admiralty charts are referred to WGS84 (World Geodetic System 1984). Elsewhere charts may be undefined. Differences in graduation may be apparent when transferring positions from one chart to another. When in doubt, it is advisable to transfer positions relative to common charted features rather than to geographical coordinates.

BERTHING
1

Vertical
1

1.21 Depths. On recent British Admiralty charts, the chart datum used is LAT. On other charts reference should be made to the title notes on the chart. Drying heights on British Admiralty charts are shown as being above chart datum. Elevations. British Admiralty charts MHWS or MHHW.
1

1.26 Berthing. Care needs to be exercised when berthing. Many harbours are liable to silting and need regular dredging. Accordingly, depths may not be as charted. Mariners should check with port authorities prior to entering harbour. Caution also needs to be taken to clarify details of reported depths alongside as some ports quote depths measured at a set distance off the quay.

PILOTAGE General
1.27 Information on pilotage procedures at individual ports is given in the text at the port concerned. See also Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volumes 6 (2) and (3).

AIDS TO NAVIGATION Lights


1

1.22 Navigational lights are the responsibility of the appropriate national authorities. Major lights are those with a nominal range of 15 miles or more. Light structures only are described in this volume; for further details see Admiralty List of Lights and Fog Signals Volume D.

RADIO FACILITIES Electronic position fixing systems Satellite navigation systems


1

Landmarks
1

1.23 Caution is necessary when evaluating the descriptions given in this volume concerning landmarks, such as trees, many of which date from surveys of 1825 onwards, and the colour and shape of buildings. New buildings may have been erected and old trees or houses destroyed, so that marks, which may at one time have been conspicuous on account of their isolation, shape or colour, may no longer exist or may now be difficult to identify.

1.28 Information concerning satellite navigation systems and other electronic fixing systems are contained in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2. Satellite navigation systems are under the control of the owning nation which can impose selective availability or downgrade the accuracy to levels less than available from terrestrial radio navigational systems. Therefore satellite based systems should only be utilised at the users risk.

Global positioning system


1

Buoyage General
1

1.29 The Navstar GPS, a military satellite navigation system owned and operated by the United States Department of Defense, provides worldwide position fixing. The system is referenced to the datum of the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) and therefore positions obtained must be adjusted, if necessary, to the datum of the chart being used.

1.24 Mariners should not rely on buoys being in their charted positions at all times. Buoys should be regarded as warning markers and not as infallible navigation marks. The position of any buoy may not be as charted due to storm, collision, current, or undersea features such as shoals, reefs, or ledges which tend to render the buoy being easily displaced. In one area covered by this volume, reports (2004) have been received that stolen buoys were being used as water reservoirs. Mariners should always navigate their vessels by visual bearings and radar distances of fixed shore objects, by soundings, or by the use of satellite or radio navigation systems whenever possible, rather than relying on buoys.

Differential GPS
1

1.30 Differential GPS compares the position of a fixed point, referred to as the reference station, with positions obtained from a GPS receiver at that point. The resulting differences are then broadcast as corrections to suitable receivers to overcome the inherent limitations of GPS. For a list of reference stations within the limits of this volume see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.

Global navigation satellite system


1

1.31 The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) is similar to GPS in that it is a spacebased

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navigation system which provides worldwide position fixing. The system is referenced to the Soviet Geocentric Coordinate System 1990 (SGS90) and as for GPS positions must be adjusted, if necessary, to the datum of the chart being used. For full details on the above systems see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.

HYDROLANTS are broadcast by Boston, USA. For full details of the services provided see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (1) and 3 (2).

Navtex
1

Loran C
1

1.32 Loran C is a long range hyperbolic radio navigation system using at least three land based radio transmitters and receivers to allow mariners to determine their position. Skywave coverage is available in the vicinity of Arquiplago da Madeira (2.1) and Islas Canarias (3.1). For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.

1.38 Navtex, which fulfils an integral role in the GMDSS, is an automated direct printing service, broadcast on 518 kHz, for the promulgation of navigational and meteorological warnings to ships. It has been developed to provide a low cost, simple, means of receiving marine safety information onboard ships at sea and in coastal waters. It is available from Las Palmas in Islas Canarias for the area covered by this volume. For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (1).

Radio medical advice Other aids to navigation


1

Racons
1

1.33 Those racons which are pertinent to coastal and inshore navigation are included within the navigational text. See also Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.

1.39 Mariners may obtain medical advice by radio from the International RadioMedical Centre (CIRM) in Rome. For further information, and for details of the coast radio stations see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (1).

REGULATIONS Automatic Identification Systems


1

1.34 Details of AIS are given in The Mariners Handbook.

International regulations Submarine cables and pipelines


1

Maritime radio stations


1

1.35 Maritime radio stations are established in several of the countries covered by this volume. For a list of maritime radio stations which are available within or adjacent to the area covered by this volume, and for details of the services they provide, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (1).

1.40 Mariners are warned that every care should be taken to avoid anchoring or trawling in the vicinity of submarine cables or pipelines on account of the serious consequences which would result from fouling them. See The Mariners Handbook for information on the International Convention for the Protection of Submarine Cables, together with advise on the action to be taken in the event of fouling a cable or pipeline.

Radio navigational warnings Worldwide Navigational Warning Service


1 1

Pollution
1.41 Prevention. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 was adopted by the International Conference on Marine Pollution convened by IMO in 1973. It was modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto and adopted by the International Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention convened by IMO in 1978. The convention, as modified by the protocol, is known as MARPOL 73/78. The Convention consists of six annexes. Annex I (Oil), Annex II (Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk), Annex III (Harmful Substances carried at Sea in Packaged Form) and Annex V (Garbage from Ships) are mandatory; Annex IV (Sewage from Ships) and Annex VI (Air Pollution) are optional. MARPOL 73/78 and Annexes are described in detail in The Mariners Handbook.

1.36 The area covered by this volume lies within the limits of NAV/METAREA II and HYDROLANT long range warning services. NAVAREA II warnings are issued by France, through: a) SafetyNET (Enhanced Group Calling International SafetyNET). Vessels must ensure that their Inmarsat C MES is configured to receive messages from the appropriate NAVAREA/METAREA in order to receive Safety NET broadcast. 1.37 Local radio navigational warnings are broadcast in English from the following stations: Madeira Porto Santo (in Portuguese and English) Islas Canarias Tenerife (in English and Spanish) Puerto de la Luz (Las Palmas) (in English and Spanish) Morocco Casablanca Ghana Takoradi Tema

Traffic separation schemes


1

1.42 See IMO publication Ships Routeing for general provisions on ships routeing. Regulations for IMO adopted schemes are contained in Rule 10 of International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972. All TSS shown on British Admiralty charts are listed in Annual Notice to Mariners No 17; this indicates which schemes are IMOadopted and includes other relevant information.

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European Community regulations Directive 2002/59/EC


1

1.43 General information. This Directive establishes a common vessel traffic monitoring and information system throughout European Community (EC) waters, which in this volume includes the waters of Archiplago da Madeira and Islas Canarias. The principal provisions are described below. They apply in general to all commercial vessels over 300 grt but the rules concerning the notification of carriage of dangerous or polluting goods applies to all vessels regardless of size. Caution. These extracts are for reference purposes only and are not to be regarded as a statement of the applicable law. The full text of the regulations is the sole authoritative statement of the applicable law and it is recommended that it is consulted. The regulations to which the following refers is Directive 2002/59/EC or the appropriate enabling legislation drafted by individual member states, which in the United Kingdom is The Merchant Shipping (Traffic Monitoring and Reporting Requirements) Regulations 2004, a copy of which can be obtained from Her Majestys Stationery Office (www.hmso.gov.uk). 1.44 Ship reports. All vessels bound for a port within the EC must report to the Port Authority at least 24 hours prior arrival, or, if the voyage is less than 24 hours, no later than the time of departure from the previous port. The report shall include the following information: Name, call sign, IMO or MMSI number. Port of destination. ETA and ETD at port of destination. Total number of persons onboard. Upon receipt of a ships report, the Port Authority will notify the national coastguard authority by the quickest means possible. This information will then be pooled in the Europeanwide telematic network called SafeSeaNet. Any amendments to the initial ship report must be notified immediately. Mandatory ship reporting systems. All vessels shall report to the coastguard authority on entering an IMO adopted mandatory ship reporting system, the report being made in the recognised format (See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6). The coastguard authority is to be informed of any changes to the initial report. 1.45 Vessel Traffic System. All vessels are to participate in and comply with VTS systems operated by EC member states and also those systems operated by member states in conjunction with cooperating nonmember states. This includes those systems operated by member states outside their territorial waters but which are operated in accordance with IMO guidelines. Routeing Schemes. All vessels must comply with IMO recommended TSS and Deep Water route regulations. (See IMO publication Ships Routeing Guide). 1.46 Automatic Identification System and Voyage Data Recorder. All vessels are to be equipped with AIS and VDR. The systems shall be in operation at all times. By 2008 individual coastguard stations throughout the EC are required to be able to receive AIS information and to relay it to all other coastguard stations within the EC. 1.47 Notification of dangerous or polluting goods. All vessels leaving an EC port are to report dangerous or

polluting goods as specified within the Directive to the harbour authority. Vessels arriving from outside EC waters must transmit a report to their first EC port or anchorage upon departure from their port of loading. If, at the time of departure, the port of destination in the EC is not known, the report must be forwarded immediately such information becomes known. Where practical, this report is to be made electronically and must include the information described in Annex 1(3) of the Directive. When a harbour authority receives a dangerous or polluting cargo report, it shall retain the report for use in the event of an incident or accident at sea, forwarding it whenever requested by the national coastguard authority. 1.48 Reporting of Incidents and Accidents. Whenever a vessel is involved with one of the following, the coastguard authority of the EC coastal state is to be informed immediately; (a) any incident or accident affecting the safety of the ship; (b) any incident or accident which compromises shipping safety, such as a failure likely to affect a ships manoeuvrability or seaworthiness; (c) any event liable to pollute the waters or shores of the coastal state; (d) The sighting of a slick of polluting material or drifting containers and packages. The owner of a vessel, who has been informed by the master that one of the above has occurred, must inform the coastguard and render any assistance that may be required. 1.49 Measures to be taken in the event of exceptionally bad weather or sea conditions. If, on the advice of the national meteorological office, the coastguard authority deems a threat of pollution or a risk to human life exists due to impending severe weather, the coastguard authority will attempt to inform the master of every vessel about to enter or leave port as to the nature of the weather and the dangers it may cause. Without prejudice to measures taken to give assistance to vessels in distress, the coastguard may take such measures as it considers appropriate to avoid a threat of pollution or a risk to human life. The measures may include: (a) a recommendation or a prohibition on entry or departure from a port; (b) a recommendation limiting, or, if necessary, prohibiting the bunkering of ships in territorial waters. The master is to inform his owners of any measures or recommendations initiated by the coastguard. If, as a result of his professional judgement, the master decides not to act in accordance with measures taken by the coastguard, he shall inform the coastguard of his reasons for not doing so. 1.50 Measures relating to incidents or accidents at sea. The coastguard authority will take measures to ensure the safety of shipping and of persons and to protect the marine and coastal environment. Measures available to EC states include; (a) a restriction on the movement of a ship or an instruction to follow a specific course. (b) a notification to put an end to the threat to the environment or maritime safety; (c) send an evaluation team aboard a ship to assess the degree of risk and to help the master remedy the situation;

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(d) instruct the master to put in at a place of refuge in the event of imminent peril, or, cause the ship to be piloted or towed. The owner of the ship and the owner of the dangerous or polluting goods onboard must cooperate with the coastguard authority when requested to do so. 1.51 Places of refuge. EC states are required to designate places of refuge where a vessel which has undergone an accident or is in distress can receive rapid and effective assistance to avoid environmental pollution.

Prohibited tankers
1

1.55 All single hull tankers carrying heavy fuel, tar, asphaltic bitumen or heavy crude oil, whatever their flag, are forbidden entry to Spanish ports, terminals or anchorage areas.

SIGNALS Storm signals General information


1

Regulation (EC) No 417/2002


1

1.52 This regulation establishes a timetable for the phasing out of all singlehull petroleum tankers of more than 5000 dwt in European waters. Ultimately only doublehull tankers or tankers of equivalent design will be permitted to visit European ports and offshore terminals. The timetable is based upon a vessels date of build, its design and the type of petroleum carried. The schedule for Category 1 and 2 tankers will complete in 2007 and for Category 3 tankers in 2015.

1.56 The International System of Visual Storm Warning Signals (ISVSWS), stipulated in International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) 1974, is described in The Mariners Handbook. Variations or additions from ISVSWS by countries covered by this volume are described below.

Ghana
1

1.57 The following signals may be displayed at Takoradi (453N 145W) and Tema (537N 001E) from signal stations on prominent buildings: By Day 2 black balls (vertical) At Night Significance 2 red lights Expected line squall or (vertical) thunderstorm of slight to moderate intensity accompanied by NE to E winds.

Regulation (EC) 725/2004 Measures to enhance maritime security


1

1.53 In compliance with Regulation 725/2004/EC, subject vessels are required to provide security information, as required by SOLAS XI2 and the ISPS Code, to the appropriate national authority 24 hours prior to arrival.

DISTRESS AND RESCUE National regulations Spain (Islas Canarias) Temporary closing of ports
1 1

General information
1.58 Global Maritime Distress and Safety System is described, and general information concerning Distress and Rescue is given, in Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No. 19 , The Mariner s Handbook and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

1.54 Access to Spanish ports may be prohibited, or subjected to certain regulations, on account of naval manoeuvres, exercises, or other causes, as follows: A warning signal will be shown from a conspicuous position; by day, three balls disposed vertically; at night, three red lights disposed vertically. The same signals will be shown by the watch vessels. Vessels wishing to enter or leave Spanish waters when the foregoing signals are displayed must; by day, display the pilot flag and await the arrival of a watch vessel; at night, burn one or more Bengal lights, also sound a siren or whistle, and await the arrival of a watch vessel. If a watch vessel hails, or fires a gun, a vessel must immediately stop or heave to. Vessels will, if required, submit to a visit from the watch vessel, which will give the following information: a) If a special examination service is established and in what place it is to be found. b) If the port is closed and if so for how long. c) If there are any special directions for the navigation of any part of the port. Necessary instructions will be given to, or the examination made of, vessels leaving the port by the Naval authorities, within the port. Masters of vessels not complying with these regulations do so at their risk and peril, and are liable for any damage they may cause.

Rescue services Arquiplago da Madeira


1

1.59 Arquiplago da Madeira falls within the Lisboa SAR Region where the Portuguese Navy has responsibility for conducting SAR operations. There is an MRSC at Funchal (32 39 N 16 54 W). Further information is given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

Islas Canarias
1

1.60 The MRCC Madrid has overall responsibility for coordinating SAR operations in the region around Islas Canarias; MRCCs are established at Las Palmas (2807N 15 26 W) and on Isla de Tenerife (3.113). Further information is given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

Arquiplago de Cabo Verde


1

1.61 Capitania dos Portos de Barlavento, situated at Praia (14 55 N 23 31 W) is the authority responsible for coordinating SAR operations in the region, assisted by an RCC situated at Ilha do Sal (4.7) and So Vicente Radio. Further information is given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

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Morocco
1

1.62 The Ocean Fisheries Department is responsible for coordinating SAR operations and, within the area covered by this volume, has MRCCs at Agadir (3541N 519W) and Dakhla (2342N 1556W), and MRSCs at Larache (3512N 609W), Casablanca (3337N 736W), Safi (3218N 915W), Essaouira (5.224), Tan Tan (2830N 11 20 W) and Layoune (27 05 N 13 26 W). Further information is given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

in the region and has excellent telephone links with RCCs in developed countries. Further information is given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

Liberia
1

1.69 See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

Cte dIvoire
1

1.70 See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

Mauritania
1

Ghana
1

1.63 See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

Sngal
1

1.64 See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

1.71 The Ministry of Transport and Communications has overall responsibility of SAR in this region assisted by the Ghanian Air Force, Ports and Harbour Authority, Tema and Tema Radio. Further information is given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

The Gambia
1

Togo
1

1.65 See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

1.72 See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

GuineaBissau
1

Benin
1

1.66 See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

Guinea
1

1.67 An MRCC exists at Conakry (931N 1343W) and an MRSC at Port Kamsar (1039N 1437W).

1.73 The Port Authority, Cotonou (6 21 N 2 26 E), is responsible for coordinating SAR operations. Further information is given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

Nigeria
1

Sierra Leone
1

1.68 Sierra Leone Ports Authority, Freetown (8 29 N 1314W) is responsible for coordinating SAR operations

1.74 The National Maritime Authority is responsible for coordinating SAR operations. MRCCs exist at Lagos (626N 324E), Warri (531N 543E), Port Harcourt (446N 700E) and Oron (449N 813E).

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COUNTRIES AND PORTS ARQUIPLAGO DA MADEIRA Description


1 1

Flora
1.82 Owing to the mild climate of the group and its proximity to the European and African continents, the flora is very varied. When discovered, Ilha da Madeira was covered with timber, but the larger trees have all been cleared by fires, and in the lowlying ground cultivated plants have replaced the old vegetation. Today the banana, strawberry, mimosa, palm, guava and pear tree are all to be seen growing side by side. The cultivated area of Ilha da Madeira seldom extends more than 2 miles inland on the S side of the island, and much less on the N side. Little cultivation is attempted above an elevation of 750 m. Bananas, sugar cane, dates and figs are grown up to the 200 m level. Hence up to 550 m are vines, and above this level are fruit trees, vegetables, cereals, pasture and forest.

1.75 Arquiplago da Madeira (3245N 1700W), consisting of Ilha de Porto Santo, Ilha da Madeira and Ilhas Desertas, lie about 520 miles SW of Lisboa (Lisbon). Ilhas Selvagens (3005N 1600W) lie about 160 miles SSE of Ilha da Madeira. The total area of the islands is 813 sq km.

National limits
1

1.76 Territorial sea: 12 miles. Contiguous zone: 24 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

History
1

Fauna
1

1.77 The islands were discovered by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century, at which time they were uninhabited. Since then with the exception of a period of Spanish domination between 1581 and 1640, and also of temporary occupation of Ilha da Madeira by British troops in the early part of the nineteenth century, the group has been under Portuguese Sovereignty.

1.83 Of the fauna, all the animals have been introduced. Over 200 species of birds have been collected, of which about one fifth breed on the island. The lizard is the only reptile. The marine fauna is mainly European.

Industry and trade


1

Government
1

1.78 Arquiplago da Madeira is an autonomous region of Portugal. The Governor resides in Funchal.

1.84 The chief exports are its renowned wine, fruit, vegetables, embroidery and wickerwork. The principal imports are fuel oils, foodstuffs, cereals, staves for wine casks, motor vehicles, machinery, implements and textiles. Tourism is the most important industry.

Population
1

ISLAS CANARIAS General information


1

1.79 In 2001, Arquiplago da Madeira had a population of 245 011.

Language
1

1.80 Portuguese is the official language, but English is much spoken in Funchal.

1.85 Islas Canarias, contained between the parallels of 2730N and 2930N and the meridians of 1325W and 1810W, consist of seven major islands and several smaller ones. The total area of the islands is 7492 sq km.

National limits
1

Physical features
1

1.81 The islands are of volcanic origin. Ilha da Madeira is entirely composed of igneous rocks ejected during successive marine eruptions, but the lavas are of great antiquity. The basalt and trachytes, resting on a conglomeration of volcanic debris, have been eroded by rains to depths several hundred feet below the original surface. The whole of Ilha da Madeira is mountainous but there are few craters in it. The characteristic features of this island are its great elevation, the picturesque outline of its mountains, the depths and grandeur of the ravines, the numerous mountain streams, the abundance and purity of water, the fertility of the soil, the extreme mildness and uniformity of temperature, and the excellence of its climate. It is the equable climate which constitutes the chief recommendation of Ilha da Madeira as a winter resort for invalids. Spring is the least pleasant period on account of the prevalent NE winds.

1.86 Territorial sea: 12 miles. Contiguous zone: 24 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

History
1

1.87 The existence of Islas Canarias was well known in early times and they were inhabited by a fair race, known as the Guanchas, who were akin to the Berbers of Africa. The first permanent settlement was made in the early part of the fifteenth century by a French nobleman who was assisted by the King of Castille in the subjection of the inhabitants under the condition that the islands should belong to Spain. By the end of the fifteenth century, after numerous encounters with the inhabitants, Spanish rule was finally established.

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The Guanchas have now almost completely disappeared owing to mixture with the Spaniards, so that racial characteristics are chiefly Spanish.

banana, orange, cactus and dragon tree. There are a good many varieties of ferns and mosses.

Fauna
1

Government
1

1.88 The islands are divided into two Spanish provinces: Isla de Lanzarote (3.7), Isla de Fuerteventura (3.31) and Isla de Gran Canaria (3.50) forming one province with its capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Isla de Tenerife (3.113), Isla de la Gomera (3.163), Isla de la Palma (3.174) and Isla de Hierro (3.193) forming the other province with Santa Cruz de Tenerife as its capital.

1.93 Amongst the fauna are large goats and a vigorous breed of camel. Over 200 species of birds have been collected, and about half of these breed in the islands. Of those which differ from European species are the blue chaffinch, trumpeter bullfinch, large pigeons, red partridge and the canary. There are numerous lizards, centipedes and scorpions. The marine fauna is more European than African, and there are even several American fish; the cod rivals that of Newfoundland in quality. The eel is the only fresh water fish.

Population
1

Trade and industry


1

1.89 In 2001 the population of each province was as follows: Las Palmas Santa Cruz de Tenerife 887 676. 806 801.

Language
1

1.90 Spanish is spoken throughout the islands.

Physical features
1

1.94 There is a large fishing fleet and an important fish preserving industry consisting of dried, tinned and salted fish. The deep water between the islands and the African continent is reputed to be one of the best fishing grounds in the world. The only mineral worked is pumice which is quarried about the base of Pico de Teide (3.115). The chief exports are bananas, tomatoes and potatoes. The principal imports are fuel oil and diesel oil, wines, textiles and building materials. There is a well developed tourist industry.

1.91 The surface of the islands is formed of lofty domeshaped heights, long slightly articulated ridges and deep volcanic cauldrons. Bleak, level, pumice covered tracts alternate with green hilly spaces and broad troughs covered with artificial terraces. The whole is surrounded by lava slopes and intersected by steep ravines which form the characteristic feature of the islands. There are no permanent streams and most of the islands lack water. The primitive or sedimentary formations occupy a very small space and, in the W islands of the group, the basalts, trachytes and obsidians are generally of great antiquity. The geological features of the islands prove that at one time they formed part of the African continent. Isla de Fuerteventura, Isla de la Gomera and Isla de la Palma consist of metamorphic schists, and Isla de Fuerteventura of lime stone also; the shape and position of the latter island clearly show that at one time it formed part of the Atlas Mountains. Since about the end of the thirteenth century, discharges of lava have been confined to Isla de Lanzarote, Isla de Palma and Isla de Tenerife. The summit of the latter, Pico de Teide (3.115) is an extinct volcano, but eruptions have taken place from the sides of the mountain, the last in 1909. Volcanic activity was detected on the ocean floor off Isla de Tenerife in 1933. The tropics and temperate zones are equally well represented in Islas Canarias and the climate in general is healthy, the heat being tempered by the elevation of the islands and the prevalence of NE winds.

REPUBLIC OF CAPE VERDE General information


1

1.95 Republic of Cape Verde lies about 385 miles W of the African continent between the parallels of 14 and 18N, and the meridians of 2240 and 2630W. Arquiplago de Cabo Verde consists of ten islands and five islets, which can be divided into two groups known locally as: Barlavento (Windward) group Island Sal (4.7) Bavista (4.19) So Nicolau (4.33) Santa Luzia (4.44) So Vicente (4.49) Santo Anto (4.79) Area 216 sq km 620 sq km 388 sq km 227 sq km 779 sq km 269 sq km 991 sq km 476 sq km 67 sq km

Sotavento (Leeward) group Maio (4.89) Santiago (4.94) Fogo (4.117) Brava (4.124)

National limits
1

Flora
1

1.92 The flora includes many trees of European origin, but owing to the variety of climate almost any tree or plant can be cultivated; such as the coffee, date palm, sugar cane,

1.96 Territorial sea: 12 miles. Contiguous zone: 24 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

10

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History
1

Trade and industry


1

1.97 The islands were uninhabited when discovered in 1460 by Diogo Gomes, and the first settlers arrived in 1462. In the latter part of the fifteenth century and the commencement of the sixteenth century, they were colonised by the Portuguese by means of slaves obtained from the neighbouring coast of Africa. The archipelago was administered by Portugal from 1587 and gained independence in 1975. Repeated droughts during the second half of the twentieth century prompted heavy emigration as a result of which the expatriate population is greater than its domestic one.

1.104 Fishing is an important industry with canning facilities at Porto da Praia (4.103) and on Ilha do Sal (4.7). Tourism is also a developing industry in addition to manufacture of paint, beer, soft drinks, rum, flour, cigarettes, canned tuna and shoes. Salt is obtained on the islands of Sal, Boa Vista and Maio. Volcanic rock (Pozzolana) is mined for export. The chief exports are bananas, coffee, refined petroleum, footwear, fish and shellfish. The principal imports are foodstuffs and vehicles.

Government
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1.98 The unicameral National Assembly consists of 72 members elected for a 5 year term by popular vote.

THE KINGDOM OF MOROCCO General information


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Population
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1.99 In 2000 the population, composed of Africans, Mixedrace and Europeans, totalled 434 625.

Language
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1.100 Portuguese is the official language although most Cape Verdeans speak crioulo which is a Creole dialect.
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1.101 The islands of Arquiplago de Cabo Verde are all mountainous and volcanic in origin. They are generally arid except in the valleys where there is luxurious vegetation, especially in the wet season (August to October). Ilha de Fogo contains an active volcano. Earthquakes are rare except in Ilha Brava. The islands appear to belong to an older geological epoch than Arquiplago dos Aores or Islas Canarias. Ilha de Santo Anto and Ilha do Fogo consists of scori and lavas, but in the other islands, granites and syenites are found; fine metamorphic marbles and sedimentary rocks also occur. Ilha do Maio is remarkable for the relative extent of its nonigneous formations. On the whole the climate, which is hot and dry, is healthy except during the wet season.

1.105 The Kingdom of Morocco occupies the NW corner of Africa, and is bounded on the E by Algeria, on the N by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the W by the Atlantic Ocean. The former Spanish territory of Western Sahara, extending SW from 2740N to the border with the Islamic Republic of Mauritania at Cap Blanc (2046N 1703W), was virtually annexed by the Moroccan and Mauritanian Governments in 1976. However, in 1979 Mauritania renounced its claim and the whole is now claimed by Morocco, but disputed by the Algerian backed Polisario Front. A guerrilla war with the Polisario Front, contesting Moroccan sovereignty, ended in 1991 following a UN brokered ceasefire. The sovereignty of Western Sahara remains unresolved as attempts to hold a UNorganized referendum have been repeatedly postponed. The total area, including Western Sahara (252 120 sq km) and the former Spanish province of Ifni, is approximately 713 578 sq km.

National limits
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1.106 Territorial sea: 12 miles. Contiguous zone: 24 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. Fishing rights in the above EEZ are reserved for Moroccan vessels manned by Moroccan inhabitants. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

Flora
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History
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1.102 The flora is tropical, and comprises about 70 species of wild flowers, mosses and ferns peculiar to the islands. trees do not appear to be indigenous. There are a few baobabs and other trees common to the adjacent part of Africa; also dracna, eucalyptus and tamarisks.

Fauna
1

1.103 The aboriginal fauna presents few distinct varieties. There are no wild animals or venomous reptiles, but there is a large lizard, elsewhere unknown, which lives on a vegetable diet. Among birds are the guinea hen, quail and a separate variety of shearwater. Fish, turtle and prawns of different species are very plentiful, but some of these may be poisonous. There are numerous domestic goats, oxen, pigs and asses on the islands.

1.107 The earliest peoples to explore Morocco were the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, who established trading stations on its coast. The Romans followed, but their sway never extended beyond the N part, and on the fall of the Roman Empire, the civilisation and language of Rome died out. Little more is known of Morocco prior to the great wave of Arab conquest in the seventh century. This swept over the country leaving the Arabs in possession of the towns and plains while the Berbers, the original inhabitants, survived in the mountain regions retaining their own language and customs, although they were converted to Islam. The Atlantic coast of Morocco was explored by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century, but they made no settlement. From the Arab conquest to the beginning of the twentieth century, Morocco was ruled by a series of Arab

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dynasties, none of which lasted for long or had a very firm grip on the country. During the nineteenth century both France and Spain began to have territorial ambitions in Morocco which were for a long time thwarted by Britain, who did not want to see a strong power established on the S side of Strait of Gibraltar. With the Entente Cordiale in 1904, Britain withdrew her opposition and in 1912 France established a protectorate over the greater part of the country, while Spain established one over a much smaller area in the N. These protectorates continued, with many small wars and revolts, until 1956 when France and Spain made a joint declaration withdrawing their protectorates and the former Sultan assumed the title of King of Morocco. At the same time, the former international zone of Tangier became Moroccan territory.

and sandstone. The low coastal tract along the Atlantic shore consists wholly of sand and gravel. The soil washed down from the hills bears no trace of volcanic substance.

Flora
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1.112 The flora is essentially European. The cedar and corkoak are probably the most abundant trees. There are also various kinds of fruit trees including the almond. Other trees include the arar, argon, tizra, various conifers and the ironwood tree, the leaves of which provide food for camels.

Fauna
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Government
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1.108 Morocco is governed under a constitution adopted by a referendum in 1972 and which was amended by referendum in 1980. The King is the supreme representative of the people and governs through a Regency Council composed of ministers. There is a single chamber legislature consisting of 306 members, 204 of whom are elected by direct suffrage and the remainder by electoral colleges representing local government, professional bodies, trade unions, chambers of commerce and agricultural interests.

1.113 The Barbary fallow deer, wild boar, Barbary ape, porcupine and wild cat are the most characteristic mammals. Birds and fishes are those of Europe, as are also most of the reptiles and amphibia.

Trade and industry


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1.109 In 2004, the population of Morocco was 29 891 708, and of Western Sahara 356 000.

Language
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1.110 The official language is Arabic, although certain Berber tribes use their own dialect. For business purposes, French is spoken in the S and Spanish and French in the N. English is also spoken.

1.114 Agriculture is the most important industry of Morocco; cereal production being of greatest importance. Stock raising, which includes camels, horses, asses, cattle, sheep and goats, is also important. The fishing industry is well developed, with large fleets and preserving facilities along the coast. Other industries include textiles, food processing, leather and tourism. Morocco has mineral reserves, mainly phosphate rock which is exported in large quantities, together with ironore, coal, manganese, lead, barytine, silver and zinc. Other exports include preserved fish, citrus fruits, leather goods and textiles. The chief imports are petroleum products, vehicles and accessories, building material, textiles, agricultural and other machinery.

ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF MAURITANIA General information


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Physical features
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1.111 The greater part of W Morocco consists of a plateau rising gradually from the coast to the foot of the Atlas Mountains which rise to about 4267 m. Between Cap Spartel (3547N 556W) (5.19) and Rio Sebou (5.33), 95 miles S of the cape, the alluvial coastal plains are edged with sand dunes. A thickly wooded and, in places almost impassable region, much cut up by ravines, lies S of Rio Sebou. Inland the country rises to a series of high tablelands, culminating S of Fez (3408N 452W) in a vast plateau. The region between Rabat (3402N 650W) (5.57) and Cap Rhir (3037N 953W) (5.217) rises in tiers from the coast towards the Atlas Mountains. The land merges into steppe land to the S of Oued Tensift (3112N 948W) (5.214). The principal water courses of Morocco rise on the W side of the Atlas Mountains. The only navigable rivers, and those only for small vessels, are Oued Loukkos (5.25) and Rio Sebou. Very little is known of the geology of Morocco. It is stated that gneiss is the prevalent rock in the main chain of the Atlas Mountains, and that on it rest transition limestone

1.115 The Islamic Republic of Mauritania is bounded on the N by the Kingdom of Morocco and the Western Sahara, on the NE by Algeria, on the E and SE by Mali, and on the S by the Republic of Sngal. The total area of the country is 1 030 700 sq km.

National limits
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1.116 Territorial sea: 12 miles. Contiguous zone: 24 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

History
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1.117 Portendick, a former settlement on the coast, was ceded to the French in 1717. During the nineteenth century, the French explored the territory generally and made numerous treaties with the local chiefs. A French protectorate was proclaimed in 1903, and it became a colony in 1921. Mauritania became an autonomous republic in the French community in 1958, and attained full independence

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in November 1960. There were military coups in 1978 and 1984. In 1976, when the Spanish withdrew from Western Sahara, Mauritania and Morocco divided up the territory between themselves. Mauritania, however, renounced all claims to the territory in 1979 after three years of guerrilla warfare with the separatist Polisario Front.
1

quail, partridge, flamingo, pelican, vulture and numerous sea birds. Fish abound off this coast especially in the N. They include tunny, soles and lobster.

Trade and industry


1.124 There is an arable belt N of Fleuve Sngal where crops are cultivated. About half the population depend on cattle rearing and agriculture for a livelihood. Mauritania has substantial deposits of ironore and gypsum, which are mined for export. Fish processing is a major industry; the coastal waters are amongst the richest fishing grounds in the world. Proven reserves of oil have been discovered (2001) offshore in deepwater tracts; production and exports are due to begin in 2006.

Government
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1.118 The type of government is a republic, with an executive branch of a President (Chief of State) and a Legislative branch, which contains an elected lower house and an upper house the members of which are chosen indirectly by municipal councillors. The supreme court and lower courts are subject to control of the executive branch. Judicial decisions are rendered mainly on the basis of Islamic law for social/family matters and a western style legal code is applied in commercial and some criminal cases. In August 2005 the elected Government, which was blamed by the opposition of fraud and intimidation, was overthrown in a bloodless military coup. The leader of the coup announced that a military council would rule until elections could be held in 2 years time.

REPUBLIC OF SNGAL General information


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Population
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1.119 In 2004 the population was estimated to be 2 998 563.

1.125 The Republic of Sngal is bounded by Mauritania to the N and NE, the boundary being Fleuve Sngal (6.181), Mali to the E, Guinea and GuineaBissau to the S and the Atlantic to the W with The Gambia forming an enclave along that shore. The total area of the country is 196 722 sq km.

Language
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National limits
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1.120 Hassaniya Arabic is the official language, with French, Pular, Wolof and Soninke as secondary.

Physical features
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1.121 The surface of Mauritania consists of a central masiff, surrounded by a series of plains and low plateaux more or less cloaked by parallel rows of sand dunes running NE and SW. The greater part is desert. The sand dunes which border the coast in some places penetrate inland for some distance. Adrar Tmar, the central massif, extends NE and SW from about 2140N to 1925N, and rises to an elevation of about 183 m. It is a group of detached sandstone plateaux bounded on the W and S by sheer cliffs falling steeply to the plain. Water can be found by digging to a depth of 3 m. The only river system is Fleuve Sngal, which forms the boundary between Mauritania and Sngal and is referred to in 1.125. The geology of Mauritania is not well known. The massif consists of archaen rocks, principally micaschists and quartzite, covered by a thick bed of horizontal sandstones. The coastal plains consist mostly of alluvial soil. Though dry, hot and windswept Mauritania is comparatively healthy. There are no mosquitos except in the vicinity of water.

1.126 Territorial sea: 12 miles. Contiguous zone: 24 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

History
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1.127 Sngal was part of the Mali empire in the fourteenth to the fifteenth centuries and was first visited by the Portugeuse in 1445. Although the French established a fort at SaintLouis (6.175) in 1659, effective settlements were not established until the early part of the eighteenth century. Apart from a period of British occupation between 1758 and 1814, the colony was under French rule until independence. The Republic of Sngal became a member state of the French community in 1958, achieved independence as part of the Federation of Mali in June 1960 but seceded to form a Republic in September 1960. Between 1982 and 1989 Sngal joined with The Gambia to form the Confederation of Senegambia.

Government
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Flora
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1.122 The flora includes the palm, gum, acacia, incense tree, gonake and baobab.

Fauna
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1.128 A new constitution was approved by referendum in 2001. The head of state is the president who is elected by popular vote for not more than two five year terms. For the unicameral 120 member National Assembly, 65 members are elected by majority vote and the remaining 55 members elected by a system of partylist proportional representation.

1.123 The fauna are hyenas, jackals and various species of antelope and gazelle. Among the birds are the guinea fowl,

Population
1

1.129 In 2004 the population was estimated to be 10 852 147.

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The inhabitants are composed firstly of moors and Fulas, who are more or less nomadic and pastoral people, secondly of Negro races which occupy the coastal regions. Of the African races the principal are the Oulofs who live about the coast between SaintLouis and The Gambia.

Fishery zone: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

Language
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History
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1.130 French is the official language. The principal local language is Wolof. Fulani, Serer, Mandinka, Jola and Sarakole are also spoken.

Physical features
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1.131 Most of the Republic of Sngal is flat, dry and featureless, and lies less than 100 m above sea level. The dry season is from December to May. There are several large rivers: Fleuve Sngal, 6.181. Rivire Saloum, 7.27. Rivire Casamance 7.122.

1.137 The Gambia was discovered in 1447 by the Portuguese, but they made no settlements. During the seventeenth century, various companies of merchants obtained trading charters and established a settlement on the river. In 1843 the country was created an independent British crown colony. Later further acquisitions of territory were secured, and a protectorate was constituted in 1902. Internal selfgovernment was granted in 1963 and The Gambia became an independent member of the Commonwealth in February 1965. Gambia became a Republic within the Commonwealth in April 1970.

Government Flora
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1.132 The major part of the country is covered by savannah, dotted with bushes, acacia and baobab trees. The tropical forest has been considerably reduced in size over the years and is now confined to the Casamance region. In this region are found the Fromager, a large tree whose wood is used to build pirogues. Coconut palms and mango trees are also found here. Mangroves grow thickly on the banks of the Rivire Saloum and Rivire Casamance.

1.138 Outside Banjul the Republic of The Gambia is divided into four divisions; Western Division, Lower River Division, MacCarthy Island Division and Upper River Division. The Government, headed by a President, is mainly elected by universal adult suffrage.

Population
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Fauna
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1.133 Wildlife is mainly confined to parks and reserves designed for their protection. The country is on the migratory route for a wide variety of avian species. Game fishing is popular off the coast of Dakar; swordfish and marlin may be caught there during the wet season.

1.139 In 2003 the population was estimated to be 1 364 507 of which about one third lived in the capital, Banjul. The principal races who occupy the country are the Mandingo, Fula, Wolof, Jolla and Serahuli. The Mandingo constitute the largest group in every division, see below, and are concentrated largely in the Lower River Division. The Fula are mainly concentrated in the MacCarthy Island Division and Upper River Division. The Wolof live mainly on the uplands of the N bank of River Gambia.

Trade and industry


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1.134 Around 60% of the work force are employed in the agricultural industry. The tourism industry is also growing in importance. The chief exports are fish, groundnuts (raw and processed) and phosphates. The principal imports are foodstuffs, machinery, fuel oils and transport equipment.

Language
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1.140 The official language is English.

Physical features
1

REPUBLIC OF THE GAMBIA General information


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1.135 The Republic of The Gambia lies in the valley of River Gambia, and is entirely surrounded by the Republic of Sngal. The country extends about 300 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean, and varies between a width of 30 miles at the coast to 15 miles farther inland. The total area of the country is 10 689 sq km including 2077 sq km of inland water.

National limits
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1.136 Territorial sea: 12 miles. Contiguous zone: 18 miles.

1.141 The Republic of The Gambia, lying in the valley of River Gambia, is divided into two regions, a plateau in the E and a plain in the W. The plateau attains an elevation of about 50 m and is covered with grass and isolated clumps of trees with stretches of thick forest in places. The plain, which extends W of 1545W is covered with thick high grass, dotted with clumps of trees. Both areas contain isolated hills and over both are scattered towns, villages and farms. It seems probable that the whole surface of the country originally consisted of a bed of laterite composed mainly of silex, iron and alumina, on which in many places a deep layer of alluvial soil is now superimposed. Considerable areas are covered by swamps and marshes, flooded during the wet season (June to October). The climate is pleasant, except in the wet season when it becomes uncomfortably warm. Conditions in the Republic of The Gambia are generally healthy.

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Flora
1

1.142 The flora resembles that of West Africa generally; the mangrove is common. Other trees are mahogany, rosewood, oil palm and the rubber vine. There are many varieties of fern. Cassava and indigo plants are indigenous.

considerable political and military upheaval, including a civil war during 19981999.

Government
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Fauna
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1.143 Wild animals are numerous in the interior. The mammals include the giraffe, antelope lion, hippopotamus and baboon; the three latter are the most destructive to cattle and crops. Among the birds are the eagle, parrot, vulture, and bustard, also numerous species common to Europe. Reptiles include the crocodile, python, tortoise and turtle. The lower reaches of River Gambia abound in fish.

1.148 The Republic of GuineaBissau is administered by a President elected by popular vote for a term of 5 years and a unicameral National Assembly elected by popular vote to serve a maximum of 4 years.

Population
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1.149 In 2005 the population was estimated to be 1 416 027.

Language
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1.150 Portuguese is the official language. Crioulo and other African languages are also spoken.

Trade and industry


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1.144 Around 78% of the workforce are engaged in the agricultural industry. Tourism is a well developed industry. Groundnuts are the chief export, followed by fish and seafood, fruit and vegetables. The main imports are machinery and transport equipment, rice and manufactured goods.

Physical features
1

REPUBLIC OF GUINEABISSAU General information


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1.145 The Republic of GuineaBissau, formerly known as Portuguese Guinea, is bordered on the N by the Republic of Sngal and on the E and S by the Republic of Guinea. The territory includes Arquiplago dos Bijags (7.195). The total area of the country is 36 125 sq km.

National limits
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1.151 The greater part of the country is lowland and only in the SE corner does the elevation exceed 180 m. In the W, the sands and clays, carried down by the rivers from the interior, have covered most of the older rocks and have also collected round various submarine reefs so forming Arquiplago dos Bijags. Further E, the land increases in height, the valleys are deeper and broader, and the country is better drained. In the alluvial districts the soil is often rich and, where well drained, is very fertile. The districts in which laterite is found, are covered by poorer soils. Swamps cover considerable areas near the coast and about the rivers. The principal rivers are the Rio Cacheu and Rio Geba, which are navigable by vessels of moderate draught for a considerable distance. The climate is unhealthy for Europeans and malaria is prevalent. The wet season lasts from June to November.

1.146 Territorial sea: 12 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

Flora
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History
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1.147 GuineaBissau was once the kingdom of Gab, a part of the ancient African empire of Mali, which became independent of the empire in 1546. The territory was discovered in 1446 by Nuno Tristo, one of the explorers sent out by Prince Henry the Navigator. Portuguese Guinea as it became, was administered as part of the Arquiplago de Cabo Verde until 1879 when it became a separate province. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Cacheu (1217N 1610W) (7.159), which was probably founded 1470, was the chief slavetrading centre in the area. On the conclusion of this trade, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, Bissau, founded as a fort in 1765, became the chief commercial centre. Independence was declared in September 1973, by GuineaBissau after a guerrilla war led by the leftwing African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, and accepted by Portugal in September 1974. Between 1974 and 2000 the country has experienced

1.152 Savannahs of tall grasses cover extensive tracts with a few isolated palms, baobabs and other trees. In the forests, which lie behind the mangrovefringed banks of the estuaries, are a great variety of trees such as acacia, palm, date and rain trees; the latter socalled on account of the heavy dew which accumulates on their leaves at night and which is precipitated in the morning.

Fauna
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1.153 The fauna includes numerous species of apes, hippopotamus, wild ox, leopard and crocodile. Birds are numerous, and the estuaries and creeks are well stocked with fish.

Trade and industry


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1.154 GuineaBissau depends mainly on agriculture and fishing. Because of high costs the development of petroleum, phosphate and other mineral resources is not a nearterm prospect although offshore oil prospecting has begun. The chief exports are cashew nuts, fish and seafood, peanuts, palm kernel and timber. The principal imports are manufactured goods, food and fuels.

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REPUBLIC OF GUINEA General information


1

1.155 The Republic of Guinea is bounded on the N by the Republic of GuineaBissau, on the NE by the Republics of Sngal and Mali, on the E by the Republic of Cte dIvoire and to the S by the Republics of Sierra Leone and Liberia. The total area of the country is 245 857 sq km.

National limits
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1.156 Territorial sea: 12 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

a chain of mountains extends along the frontiers of the Republics of Sierra Leone and Liberia. The chief river of this territory is Rio Nunez (7.247). Other rivers are Rivire Compony (7.244), Rio Pongo (8.19) and Rivire Mellacore (8.72); none of these rivers is navigable for any distance from their mouths. The geological formation in the W part of the Republic of Guinea is mostly palaeozoic sandstone. In Fouta Djallon and other regions, ancient volcanic rocks are found. Most of the central and E parts consist of old crystalline schists and gneisses, but in the NE part are schists and quartzites. les de Loos (8.31) are formed entirely of eruptive rocks. The climate is humid and malarious, but inland towards the highlands the climate improves. The wet season is from May to October, and the dry season is from November to April.

Flora History
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1.157 In the sixteenth century the NE part of Guinea was part of the Mali empire. The Portuguese developed ivory and slave trading in the midfifteenth century. In the mideighteenth century the French established a protectorate over the coastal areas. The territory was renamed French Guinea in 1890 and, after the British ceded les de Loos (930N 1347W) (8.31) to the French, in 1904 it became a part of French West Africa. Guinea became an independent republic in October 1958, leaving the French community although economic and cultural cooperation were established in 1963. Republic of Guinea has been badly affected by civil wars in the neighbouring countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Cte dIvoire. In addition to border incursions there has been a steady influx of refugees which has adversely affected the economy.

1.162 The flora comprises palms of various species, the kola tree, timber trees such as mahogany, bamboos, gums and rubber trees.

Fauna
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1.163 Among the fauna are the monkey, antelope, leopard, lion, hippopotamus, bison and elephant. There are numerous species of birds. Snakes and crocodiles abound, the latter more especially in the river estuaries.

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1.158 The Republic of Guinea is administered by a President and a unicameral National Assembly elected by popular vote.

1.164 The mining industry accounts for over 70% of exports. Guinea possesses almost half the worlds bauxite reserves and is the second largest bauxite producer. Fishing is a developing industry. The chief exports are bauxite, iron ore, aluminium and diamonds. The chief imports are manufactured goods, petroleum products, rice and other foodstuffs.

REPUBLIC OF SIERRA LEONE General information


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Population
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1.159 The most important races are Peuls, who predominate, Malinke, Soussou and Kissi. In 2005 the estimated population was 9 467 866.

Language
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1.165 The Republic of Sierra Leone is bordered on the N and E by the Republic of Guinea and on the SE by the Republic of Liberia. The total area of the country is 71 740 sq km.

1.160 Besides French there are eight official languages taught in schools; Fulani, Malink, Susu, Kissi, Kpelle, Loma, Basari and Koniagi.

National limits
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Physical features
1

1.161 The coastal region is a flat strip of lowlying country defined inland by sandstone hills which mark the edge of the plateau leading up to Fouta Djallon. Fouta Djallon is a vast oval plateau, over 1200 m high, which occupies the central part of the territory. The most important West African rivers have their sources in this plateau; among the rivers are River Gambia and River Niger. From the SE end of Fouta Djallon, a succession of great plains or low plateaux extend E to Cte dIvoire. Farther S

1.166 Territorial sea: 12 miles. Contiguous zone: 24 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. Sierra Leone requires prior permission or notification for the entry of foreign warships. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

History
1

1.167 The history of Sierra Leone dates from 1787 when Granville Sharp, acting on a scheme proposed by Dr. Henry Smeatham, purchased a strip of land on the peninsula of Sierra Leone from Chief Naimbana and settled freed slaves on it.

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In 1791, a Royal Charter was granted to the Sierra Leone Company and more freed slaves from Jamaica and Nova Scotia were introduced. In 1800, the peninsula was granted to the Chartered Company by Letters Patent, and a Governor and Council were appointed. In 1807, when Britain outlawed slave trading, a naval station was established at Freetown, and slaves freed by operations of the ships stationed there, were brought to the settlement. Freetown became a colony in 1808, and the jurisdiction of the company was assumed by the Crown. The original territory was gradually increased through treaties made with neighbouring chiefs, and was declared a Protectorate in 1896. Sierra Leone became an independent and sovereign member of the Commonwealth in April 1961. It became a Republic in 1971.

The commencement of the plateau country is clearly defined by an eroded scarp. The highest ground in the Republic of Sierra Leone occurs in two E ranges, Tingi Hills and Loma Mountains, each with bare inselbergs exceeding 1830 m. Practically the whole country is suitable for agriculture and settlement. Up to heights of about 600 m the soil is dominantly lateritic and reasonably fertile. Above this altitude, the terrain tends to be heavily rockstrewn and rather barren. The principal rivers are Sierra Leone River (8.86) and Sherbro River (8.125); both are navigable for some distance. The climate of Sierra Leone is tropical. Malaria is common.

Flora
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Government
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1.168 The head of state is the president who, with the unicameral parliament, is elected by universal adult suffrage.

Population
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1.169 In Freetown, the inhabitants are mostly Sierra Leoneans or Creoles; descendants of the original settlers and of the liberated slaves. They are of many African nationalities, mixed in some cases with European blood. Their language is Krio, a derivative of English though incomprehensible to the untutored. In the territory outside Sierra Leone peninsula, are a number of tribes speaking different languages. Of these the most numerous in the coastal district are the Mende and Sherbro to the SE of the peninsula, and the Temne in the NW. In 2005 the population was estimated to be 6 017 643.

1.172 The vegetation of Sierra Leone consists largely of farm brush containing many palm trees. This has been derived by felling and cultivation from the large tracts of tropical rain forest, which formerly covered the whole territory. High forest still remains on the hills of Sierra Leone peninsula, and in large areas near the border with the Republic of Liberia. Much of the coastline is covered with mangrove and extensive areas of swamp forest occur behind the coast in the S part of the territory. In the drier interior, near the border with Guinea, large tracts of savannah occur.

Fauna
1

1.173 Wild life is not much in evidence but the following species are to be found; monkeys, including chimpanzees, leopard, several species of small antelope, pigmy elephant and pigmy hippopotamus. Game birds include guinea fowl, partridge, snipe, spurwinged goose and duck. Fish stocks, once plentiful both in coastal waters and the lower reaches of the rivers, are threatened by over fishing.

Language
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1.170 English is the official and commercial language. Mende, Temne and Krio are also spoken.

Trade and industry


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Physical features
1

1.171 With the exception of the thickly forested Gabbro Hills of the Sierra Leone peninsula, the W half of the country is a vast gently undulating plain which may be divided into two parts; a coastal belt of marine and deltaic sediments averaging 25 miles in width, and a continental belt extending 60 miles farther inland. Within the coastal belt, the creeks and rivers are tidal, the tidal limit marking the junction with the inland plain. The coastal zone is generally swampy and grass covered with mangroves and other trees bordering the creeks and rivers. The inland belt has a gently undulating thickly bushcovered surface which rises gradually to between 120 m and 150 m in the W. It is broken by several isolated hills and ranges, relics from an earlier plateau. The E half of the Republic of Sierra Leone consists of an elevated plateau lying between 300 m and 600 m above sea level. Other plateaux and remnants of plateaux rise above this general level especially near the E frontier with Guinea.

1.174 The majority of the workforce is engaged in agriculture and cattle rearing. There are palm oil and rice mills and furniture is produced from sawn timber. The main industry is the mining of diamonds, rutile, gold and bauxite. Petroleum refining and small scale manufacturing are the other industries. The chief exports are bauxite, gold, diamonds, coffee and cocoa. The main imports are manufactured goods, foodstuffs, petroleum products and transport machinery.

REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA General information


1

1.175 The Republic of Liberia is bordered by the Republic of Sierra Leone to the W, the Republic of Guinea to the N and the Republic of Cte dIvoire to the E. The total area of the country is 111 370 sq km.

National limits
1

1.176 Territorial sea: 200 miles. Fishing zone: 200 miles.

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See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

Flora
1

History
1

1.177 Liberia was founded in 1817 as a result of the efforts of several American societies to send freed American slaves back to Africa. the settlements were made in 1822, and the Free and independent Republic of Liberia was constituted in 1847. The Republic of Liberia is the oldest independent republic in Africa, and used to have a constitution similar to that of the United States of America.

1.182 Among the flora are oil palm, rubber, coconut and kola nut trees, cotton and coffee. Many valuable timbers such as African mahogany and ebony are found in the forests.

Fauna
1

1.183 The fauna monkeys and The fishing rivers contain

includes the antelope, buffalo, leopard, elephant of a ferocious type. grounds off the coast are rich in fish and the many varieties of fresh water fish.

Trade and industry


1

Government
1

1.178 The administration is headed by a President who is elected by popular vote for a term of 6 years. The bicameral National Assembly consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives, also selected by popular vote.

1.184 The internal conflict has devastated the economy, however, the Republic of Liberia is rich in forestry, gold, diamonds and rubber. The number of merchant vessels registered under the Liberian flag are second only to Panama.

Population
1

REPUBLIC OF CTE DIVOIRE General information


1

1.179 The present day Liberians are the descendants of freed slaves of many African nationalities, some of whom had an admixture of European blood. They live mostly on the coast. The local inhabitants belong in the main to the Mandingos, Gissi, Gola, Kpelle, Greboes and Kru with several smaller tribes. In 2005 the estimated population was 3 482 211.

1.185 The Republic of Cte dIvoire is bordered to the W by the Republics of Liberia and Guinea, to the N by the Republics of Mali and Burkina Faso, and to the E by the Republic of Ghana. Yamoussouko, 250 km NW of Abidjan is the capital of the country, although Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative centre. The total area of the country is 322 460 sq km.

Language
1

1.180 The official language is English.


1

National limits
1.186 Territorial sea: 12 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

Physical features
1

1.181 The Republic of Liberia is a broken mountainous country, the surface of which falls in a SW direction from the W slopes of the divide of River Niger basin to a strip of comparatively level land bordering the Atlantic Ocean. It is traversed by numerous rivers, most of which flow in a general NE to SW direction. The coastal region is fairly well known for a depth of about 40 miles, but the rest of the country is mostly unexplored. From the coast, which is generally low, sandy and narrow, the ground rises slightly and then descends to form marshes and creeks alternating with extensive grassy plains. Throughout this stretch there are patches of comparatively high ground. The country is in general covered by an extremely dense forest, and the mountains are thickly wooded up to their summits, which are reported to attain an altitude of over 1500 m. The principal rivers, none of which are of much value navigationally, are Saint Paul River (8.170) and Cavalla River (9.64), which latter forms the boundary between the Republic of Liberia and the Republic of Cte dIvoire. The prevailing geological formation is said to be a ferruginous sandstone covering a reddish clay, but in several places, especially E of Monrovia (8.174), eruptive rocks have cropped out. The country has a warm and humid climate with a wet season from April to October and a dry season for the rest of the year. Malaria is prevalent.

History
1

1.187 Between 1787 and 1868 various treaties were concluded by the French with the chiefs on the coast of Cte dIvoire, but it was not until 1888 that the territory was explored. A protectorate was declared in 1891 and in 1904 the colony was incorporated in the GovernmentGeneral of French West Africa. The country was proclaimed a Republic within the French Community in December, 1958. Full Independence outside the community was proclaimed in August, 1960. Special agreements with France covering financial and social matters, technical assistance and defence, were made in April 1961.

Government
1

1.188 Under the constitution adopted in 2000, the Head of State is the President, elected by popular vote, who appoints the Prime Minister, the Head of Government. The unicameral National Assembly of 225 members, is also elected by popular vote for a term of 5 years.

Population
1

1.189 There are more than 60 different tribes. The most influential tribe is the Baouls in the centre of the country

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around the city of Bouak, about 300 km NNW of the city of Abidjan. In 2005 the estimated population was 17 298 040.

National limits
1

Language
1

1.190 French is the official language; 60 native dialects, with Dioula the most widely spoken are, also used.

1.196 Territorial sea: 12 miles. Contiguous zone: 24 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

Physical features
1

History
1

1.191 The W part of the coastal region of the Republic of Cte dIvoire is high and rocky, and immediately behind it the country rises gradually to the interior. The E part of the coastal region is low and sandy, and behind the coast are a series of lagoons which extend some distance inland. The N shores of these lagoons are steep, and behind them the country rises to the interior. The rest of the country, with the exception of a mountain region in the centre of the W side, shows no very distinctive features, and the ground rises by a succession of slopes towards the Niger watershed. The most important characteristic, the primeval forest, which once covered about 40% of the surface of the country has been heavily logged. The principal rivers are Cavalla River (9.64), Rivire Sassandra (9.106), Bandama Fleuve (9.107) and Rivire Come (10.38), none of which is of much navigational value. The geology of the Republic of Cte dIvoire is not well known. Three formations have been observed, namely crystalline schists, metamorphosed sedimentary rocks and eocene, and recent formations are found in the E part of the coastal region. The climate of the country varies between that of the equatorial rain forests in the S to the drier savannah belt in the N. The main wet season in the coastal region occurs from May to July inclusive; there is less intense rainy period in October and November.

1.197 The name of Ghana stems from a powerful monarchy which ruled the region of the Middle Niger between the fourth and thirteenth centuries. The Gold Coast first became known through Portuguese navigators in the fifteenth century. English and Dutch traders and companies exploited the district in the seventeenth century, their main object being the slave traffic. The Dutch held settlements on the coast until 1871 when a convention was made transferring them to the English. In 1886 the Gold Coast, as the territory was then called, was constituted as a separate colony and protectorate. Ashanti was annexed by Great Britain in 1901, and in the same year the Northern territories were placed under British protection. The state of Ghana came into existence in March 1957 when the former colony of Gold Coast and the trusteeship territory of Togo (1.205) attained Dominion status. The country was declared a Republic within the Commonwealth in July 1960. Since 1966 Ghana has experienced long periods of military rule interspersed with civilian governments.

Government
1

1.198 Under the constitution of 1992, based on the US model, the President is elected by universal adult suffrage for a fouryear term, renewable once. The unicameral parliament has 230 members, who are elected for a term of four years.

Flora
1

1.192 The flora comprises the oil palm, rubber trees, timber trees, palms producing fibre or cane, and mangroves.

Population
1.199 About 44% of the population are Akan, the next most populous tribe being MoshiDagomba. In 2004 the population was estimated to be 20 757 032.

Fauna
1

1.193 The fauna is similar to that of the Republic of Guinea (1.163).

Language
1

Trade and industry


1

1.194 The majority of the countrys workforce is employed in agricultural and related industries; bananas and pineapples are exported. Cte dIvoire is the worlds largest producer and exporters of cocoa beans. Coffee and palm oil are also exported. Exploitation of offshore oil and gas reserves are also gradually increasing.

1.200 English is the official language. Numerous African languages and dialects are also spoken, principally Twi and Fanti of the Akan group.

Physical features
1

REPUBLIC OF GHANA General information


1

1.195 The Republic of Ghana is bordered on the W by the Republic of Cte dIvoire, on the N by the Republic of Burkina Faso and on the E by the Republic of Togo. The total area of the country is 238 533 sq km.

1.201 The coast generally consists of a low sandy beach varied by small bays and rocky headlands which occur chiefly between River Ankwao (10.41) and Apam Point (10.91). In the extreme W and E, sand spits enclose large lagoons bordered by mangrove forests. The Republic of Ghana is generally lowlying, but a hilly tract crosses the central parts from Kintampo, 240 miles N of Takoradi (10.46) to the vicinity of Accra (10.108) in the SE. The N regions, separated from Ashanti by the upper arm of River Volta (11.25), gradually rises towards the N and attaining an elevation of about 450 m in the NE part of the territory.

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The whole country, especially Ashanti is well wooded. River Volta is dammed at Akosombo and forms the fourth largest manmade lake in the world, being 320 km in length and covering some 8482 sq km. The geological formation of the hilly tract consists of a comparatively narrow belt of altered sediments, such as schists of various kinds and quartzite. The lowlying ground E of it consists of a varied and ancient complex of highly altered and inclined crystalline rocks with later intrusions of volcanic rocks. The W part of Ashanti, and the W and N parts of the N regions are composed mainly of conglomerates, sandstone and volcanic matter; all the principal goldfields occur in this series. The N part of the central regions and the S part of the N region consist of a thick series of nearly flatbedded and much younger conglomerates, sandstones, shales and limestones. In the coastal area the soil is generally rich and deep. Although the climate is hot and moist, it is, however, cooler than most tropical countries situated in the same latitude. Hot nights and intense heat by day are the exception, and insects are comparatively unobtrusive.

History
1

1.207 There is little early history relating to Togo. It formed part of the coast discovered by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century, but they do not seem to have made a settlement on the actual Togo coast. About 1882, German merchants made treaties with the local inhabitants, and two years later a German Protectorate was declared. In 1914 German Togo was overrun by the Allies. It was partitioned into British and French Mandated Territories in 1919 under the League of Nations, becoming British and French Trust Territories under United Nations after the second world war. British Togoland was merged with what soon became independent Ghana after a referendum in 1956. In French Togo partial selfgovernment was granted in 1956 and in 1960 the country became independent.

Government
1

Flora
1

1.202 In the forests, as well as rubber trees, there are numerous species valuable for timber. The oil palm grows abundantly, also the kola tree.

Fauna
1

1.203 Among the fauna are elephant, gazelle, buffalo, wild boar and monkeys. Hippopotamus and crocodile are numerous in River Volta.

1.208 Under the constitution approved in 1992, the President and National Assembly are elected by popular vote for 5 year terms. In 2002 parliament approved an amendment to the constitution lifting the restriction on the number of times that the President may be reelected. The President appoints the Prime Minister, who, as the head of Government, appoints the cabinet in consultation with the President. The National Assembly has 81 members who are elected in two rounds under a first past the post system. The country is divided into five regions each under an inspector appointed by the President which are further subdivided into 31 prefectures and the capital Lom, each administered by a district chief and assisted by an elected district council. The judiciary is modelled on the French systems.

Trade and industry


1

Population
1

1.204 The majority of the workforce is employed in agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining industries. Offshore oil and gas reserves are being explored and exploited. Construction and tourism are also developing industries. Ghana is the second largest exporter of gold and cocoa beans in the world after South Africa and Cte dIvoire, respectively. Manganese, diamonds and bauxite are also exported. The chief imports include consumer goods, foodstuffs and petroleum products.

1.209 In 2005 the estimated population was 5 681 519.

Language
1

1.210 French is the official language. Ewe and Mina, the two major languages in the S and Kabye and Dagomba, the two major languages in the N, are also used.

Physical features
1

REPUBLIC OF TOGO General information


1

1.205 The Republic of Togo extends N from the Atlantic coast between the Republic of Ghana to the W and the Republic of Benin to the E. It is bordered on the N by the republic of Burkina Faso. The total area of the country is 56 785 sq km.

National limits
1

1.206 Territorial sea: 30 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

1.211 The Republic of Togo is traversed from SW to NE by a mountain range which attains an elevation of over 900 m. This range divides the country into two nearly equal triangles; the NW region consists of lowlands drained by rivers and bounded on the N by hills, and the SE region is made up of a lowlying coastal district backed by lagoons in the S and an interior plateau in the N. There are long stretches of forest and brushwood. The rivers, none of which have much navigational value, are divided by the abovementioned mountain range into two groups; River Volta (11.25) with its tributaries forms the W group, Rivire Haho which flows into Lac de Togo (11.63), Rivire Boko which flows into Lagune Wo, and Fleuve Mono (11.9) form the SE group. The lagoons form a waterway from Anecho to Grand Popo in the Republic of Benin. The main geological features of the Republic of Togo are metamorphic and igneous rocks of Archaean age, which form the SE plateau; a younger series of arenaceous (sandy), argillaceous (clayey) and volcanic rocks, which

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form the main central range; and a still younger series of sandstones and shales with lenticular limestones, which form the NW lowlands. The mountain range series contains iron ore in places; the only known rich deposit occurring in the Bassari country which is situated in the N part of the range. Malaria is at its worst in the wet and season and transition periods (midMarch to midJuly). Yellow fever is endemic in certain parts of the country.

Flora
1

covering financial and cultural matters, technical assistance and defence. In October 1963, the army took over the government and in January, 1964 the Second Republic was proclaimed. After several coups and changes of political regime, the countrys name was changed on 30th November, 1975 from Dahomey to The Peoples Republic of Benin. A move to representative government began in 1989 and, after the 1991 free elections, democratic rule was ushered in, marking the first successful transfer of power from dictatorship to a democracy in Africa.

1.212 The flora consists of primeval forest with giant trees immediately behind the coast. Farther N are trees such as the oil palm, kola and baobab, and in the N part there are dwarf trees and shrubs.

Government
1

Fauna
1

1.213 Among the fauna there are numerous monkeys, found in the forest region, and in the N part lions, hyenas, wild boar, hares and large herds of buffalo.

1.218 The President, who is the Head of Government as well as the Head of State, is directly elected by popular vote for a term of 5 years. The President appoints the Cabinet of Ministers. The unicameral National Assembly, of 83 members, is elected by popular vote for a term of 4 years.

Population
1

Trade and industry


1

1.214 Agricultural, fisheries and forestry industries employ about 65% of the labour force. Togo is the fourth largest producer of phosphate in the world. The chief exports are phosphate, cotton, coffee and cocoa. The main imports are manufactured goods, foodstuffs and petroleum products.

1.219 In 2005 the total population was estimated to be 7 460 025.

Language
1

1.220 French is the official language; Fon and Yoruba are the most commonly used tribal languages in the S.

Physical features REPUBLIC OF BENIN General information


1 1

1.215 The Republic of Benin, formerly known as Dahomey, is bordered on the W by the republic of Togo, on the N by the Republics of Burkina Faso and Niger, and on the E by the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The country has a total area of 112 620 sq km.

National limits
1

1.216 Territorial sea: 200 miles. Fishing zone: 200 miles. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

History
1

1.217 Portuguese explorers in the seventeenth century established a trading post at Porto Novo. At that time the territory, now known as the Republic of Benin, was a collection of small states owing allegiance to the Kingdom of Abomey to the N. This kingdom had been pushing S against the Yorubas and other coastal tribes since the sixteenth century. France obtained a footing on the coast in 1851 and made treaties with the King of Porto Novo. France gradually extended her power until, in 1894, the whole Kingdom of Dahomey, as the territory was then called, was annexed. The Republic of Dahomey became an independent republic within the French Community in December, 1958, and full independence was proclaimed in August, 1960. Special agreements with France were signed in 1961,

1.221 The country falls into two well marked regions divided by a transverse watershed in 10N. The country has a flat sandy coast with lagoons and mangrove swamps immediately behind it. The country is flat N of the lagoons, and covered with tropical vegetation for a distance of about 50 miles inland. Beyond this the ground rises gradually to a plateau which attains an elevation of about 300 m in the vicinity of Carnotville, and nearly 500 m in 10N. The country N of the watershed consists mostly of a somewhat featureless plateau attaining an elevation of about 760 m, and sloping down on the N side towards River Niger. The plateau is a mass of granite and gneiss on which isolated isletlike rocks rise steeply. None of the rivers discharge into the sea; those to the N of the watershed being tributaries of River Niger. The principal rivers in the S of the country are: Fleuve Mono (11.9) Rivire de So Oum Fleuve. These rivers discharge into the coastal lagoons which afford a waterway for small vessels between Grand Popo (11.60) and Ouidah (11.66) in the W, and between Cotonou (11.75), Porto Novo and thence to Lagos (11.113) in the Federal Republic of Nigeria, in the E. Malaria is very prevalent on the banks of the rivers and lagoons. Abomey, about 65 miles NW of PortoNovo, stands on a plateau. This town is almost free from mosquitos and is the healthiest part of the S.

Flora
1

1.222 The flora of the Republic of Benin are not well known. Oil palms and coconut palms flourish.

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Fauna
1

1.223 Among the fauna are numerous monkeys in the forest region. In the N part, lions, hyenas, boar and antelope are found.

Between 1966 and 1998 the country was mostly under military rule. A new constitution was adopted in 1999 and, a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed.

Government
1

Trade and industry


1

1.224 Agriculture occupies the majority of the work force and produces cotton, corn, cassava, yams, beans, palm oil and peanuts. Other industries include textiles, food processing, construction materials, cement. Small deposits of gold, iron and chrome have been found. Oil production, on a small scale, started in 1983. The principal exports are cotton, palm products, ground nuts, sheanuts and coffee. The principal imports are gypsum, petroleum products and foodstuffs.

1.228 The President, is the Head of Government as well as the Head of State and, is directly elected by popular vote for no more than two 4 year terms. The bicameral National Assembly, consisting of a 109 seat Senate and a 346 seat House of Representatives, is elected by popular vote to serve a 4 year term.

Population
1

1.229 Nigeria is Africas most populous country and, in 2005, it had an estimated population of 128 771 988.

Language FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA General information


1 1

1.230 English is the official language; Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo or Ibo and Fulani are the other major languages in use.

1.225 The Federal Republic of Nigeria is bordered on the W by the Republic of Benin, to the N by the Republic of Niger, to the NE by the Republic of Chad and to the E by the Republic of Cameroon (see Africa Pilot Volume II). The total area of the country is 923 768 sq km. Abuja, 300 miles N of Port Harcourt (12.126), replaced Lagos as the federal capital and seat of government in December 1991.

Physical features
1

National limits
1

1.226 Territorial sea: 12 miles. EEZ: 200 miles. Nigeria requires prior permission or notification for the entry of foreign warships. See Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 12 for the latest information and The Mariners Handbook.

History
1

1.227 The coast of Nigeria first became known to Europeans towards the end of the fifteenth century as a result of the visits of Portuguese explorers. The port and territories of Lagos were ceded to Britain by King Dosunmu in 1861, and were constituted a separate colony and Protectorate of Lagos in 1886. The Oil Rivers Protectorate, formed in June 1885 became the Niger Coast Protectorate in 1893. Meanwhile the Royal Niger Company had acquired interests in the Niger valley. These interests were surrendered to the Crown in 1899, and the territories were formed into two protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria. In 1906 Lagos and S Nigeria were united into the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria and in 1914 the latter was amalgamated with the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. In October 1954, the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria became a federation under a GovernorGeneral, and in 1960 became a sovereign independent state within the British Commonwealth. In October, 1963, the federation was declared a Republic. The Government then consisted of an elected House of Assembly and a nominated House of Chiefs.

1.231 Along the entire coastline of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a belt, from 10 to 60 miles in width, of dense mangrove forest and swamp. This belt is intersected by the branches of the Niger delta and other rivers which are connected one with another by innumerable creeks. The whole constituting a continuous inland waterway from beyond the W boundary almost to the E boundary of the country. Behind the mangrove belt are tropical forests, once rich in palm oil trees and valuable mahoganies, which are now denuded in many areas due to over logging. Farther inland the forests become thinner and are succeeded by open ground covered with long grass and occasional clumps of trees. In the extreme N where there is very little rainfall and little vegetation, the desert is slowly encroaching. There are few mountains in the S part of the country except along the E boundary, but N and E of the junction of River Niger and Benue River there is a large plateau from 600 to 1800 m high. The country is well watered by rivers, especially in the S. River Niger, one of the main physical features of the country, enters the territory near Ilo (1130N 340E), on the W frontier, and flows in a general SE direction as far as Lokoja (749N 644E) which stands at the junction of River Niger and Benue River. Throughout its course, River Niger has received numerous tributaries and has flowed through alternate wide and narrow gorges. Benue River, the largest tributary has flowed nearly 500 miles before its confluence with the main river. From Lokoja, River Niger turns S and maintains this direction to Aboh, standing at the head of the delta. Here the river splits into a number of channels and empties into Gulf of Guinea through its numerous mouths. During the wet season River Niger is navigable by small power vessels as far as Jebba (911N 449E), and Benue River as far as Yola (914N 1232E). standing about 25 miles within the E frontier of the country. The other rivers which afford communication with the interior are River Ogun, River Oshun and River Ona and River Oni which connect with the lagoon NE of Lagos. Farther along the coast, S and E, are the following rivers, which afford communications with the interior:

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10

11

12

Benin River (11.169) Escravos River (11.172) Forcados River (11.227) Nun River (12.24) Brass River (12.29) Sambreiro River (12.78) Bonny River (12.80) Opobo River (12.159) Qua Iboe River (12.161) Calabar River (12.162). The above mentioned rivers are connected with one another and with the numerous channels of River Niger delta by an immense number of creeks and lagoons which extend beyond the W boundary of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It is possible to travel by launch through these creeks from the Republic of Benin to Eket on Qua Iboe River, and, during part of the wet season, beyond Eket to Calabar and Rio del Rey (4344N 837E) in the Republic of Cameroon. A great deal of trade is carried on by canoes through these creeks. The geological formations in the S Provinces of the Federal republic of Nigeria are alluvium, sand, mud and vegetable matter in the coastal belt. The basal rocks are gneisses, amphibolite, quartz and mica schists, and marble; these are probably of the preCambrian age. Sedimentary rocks are found in the vicinity of Oban Mountains and Udi Highlands which lie in the E part of the provinces. In the central part, on both sides of River Niger, are deposits of freshwater shales, mudstones and sandstones, supposed to be of Eocene age. In the N provinces, the foundation is formed of crystalline rocks, but the underlying granites, gneisses and schists are covered in many places by later sedimentary rocks. Upper cretaceous rocks are found in several places in Benue River valley, and eocene rocks are found in various parts of the provinces. In the NE part the formation is alluvium.

PRINCIPAL PORTS HARBOURS AND ANCHORAGES


1.235 Place and position
1

Remarks Tanker mooring Open anchorage Commercial port

Arquiplago da Madeira Baa do Porto Santo (3302N 1619E) (2.13) Canial (3244N 1643W) (2.33)

Funchal (3238N 1654W) Commercial port, passenger (2.39) terminal, tanker terminal, port of entry Islas Canarias
2

Puerto de La Luz (2808N 1525W) (3.81)

Major commercial port, passenger terminal, tanker terminal, naval base, port of entry Major commercial port, passenger terminal, tanker terminal, port of entry Commercial port, passenger terminal, tanker mooring, port of entry Commercial port, passenger terminal, port of entry Deepdraught tanker berths, port of entry Major commercial port, passenger terminal, naval base, port of entry Industrial port (minerals), port of entry Commercial port, minerals in bulk, port of entry Commercial and fishing port, naval base, port of entry Industrial port (minerals), fishing port, port of entry Industrial port (minerals), tanker berths, port of entry Commercial port, fishing port, port of entry Commercial port, port of entry Commercial port, port of entry Commercial port, tanker berths and moorings, passenger terminal, naval base, port of entry Commercial port, port of entry

Santa Cruz de Tenerife (2829N 1614W) (3.139)

Arquiplago de Cabo Verde


3

Porto Grande (1653N 2500W) (4.57) Porto da Praia (1454N 2331W) (4.103)

Kingdom of Morocco
4

Mohammedia (3343N 724W) (5.63) Casablanca (3337N 736W) (5.103) Jorf Lasfar (3308N 838W) (5.156) Safi (32185N 9150W) (5.183)

Flora
1

1.232 The flora includes the mangroves in the coastal belt and to the N the oil palm. Other trees in the S provinces include rubber, ebony and mahogany.

Anza and Agadir (3026N 938W) (5.233) Layoune (2705N 1326W) (5.309)

Islamic Republic of Mauritania

Fauna
1

1.233 The fauna includes buffalo, antelope, gazelle, leopard, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, lion, hyena and monkey. Among the birds are the curlew, pigeon, snipe, guineafowl, bustard, quail, duck, goose, grouse and teal.

Port Minralier de Cansado (2049N 1702W) (6.46) Nouadhibou (2054N 1703W) (6.64) Nouakchott (1802N 1602W) (6.105) Port de lAmiti (1800N 1602W) (6.123)

Trade and industry


1

Republic of Sngal
7

1.234 The production of oil and gas and its byproducts is the major industry. Other industries include coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and construction materials. The principal export is crude oil. The chief imports are machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods and chemicals.

Dakar (14405N 17255W) (6.188)

Republic of The Gambia Banjul (1327N 1634W) (7.64)

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Place and position Bissau (1151N 1535W) (7.167) Port Kamsar (1039N 1437W) (7.245) Conakry (9310N 13433W) (8.39)

Remarks Commercial port, port of entry Industrial port (minerals), port of entry Commercial port, port of entry
13

Place and position Abo Terminal (542N 429E) (11.185) Ukpokiti Marine Terminal (543N 450E) (11.191) Erha Terminal (521N 420E) (11.197) Escravos Oil and Gas Terminal (530N 458E) (11.203) Forcados Oil Terminal (510N 511E) (12.38) Sea Eagle Terminal (448N 519E) (12.44) Bonga Terminal (433N 437E) (12.50)
14

Remarks Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal

Republic of GuineaBissau
8

Republic of Guinea

Republic of Sierra Leone


9

Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Major petroleum products terminals, port of entry Commercial port, tanker berths Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal

Freetown (829N 1314W) Commercial port, port of (8.84) entry Republic of Liberia Monrovia (621N 1048W) (8.174) SanPdro (444N 637W) (9.75) Commercial port, port of entry Commercial port, port of entry Offshore oil terminal

Republic of Cte dIvoire

Pennington Oil Terminal (415N 536E) (12.55) Brass Terminal (404N 617E) (12.61) Bonny (426N 709E) (12.103) Port Harcourt (446N 700E) (12.126) Okwori Terminal (351N 659E) (12.143)

10

Lion A Terminal (5019N 4482W) (9.112) Baobab Marine Terminal (458N 433W) (9.117) Espoir Terminal (5026N 4271W) (9.122) Port Bout Terminal (5140N 3581W) (9.127) Abidjan (0518N 400W) (9.132)

Offshore oil terminal Offshore oil terminal


15

Offshore oil terminal

Bonny Offshore Terminal (411N 714E) (12.192) Okono Terminal (359N 718E) (12.198)

Commercial port, tanker berths, naval base, port of entry Commercial port, tanker berth, naval base, port of entry Commercial port, tanker berth, naval base, port of entry Commercial port, tanker berth, naval base, port of entry
1 16

Ima Oil Terminal (413N 724E) (12.204) Yoho Terminal (402N 731E) (12.210) Odudu Terminal (401N 748E) (12.216) Qua Iboe Terminal (413N 804E) (12.222) Antan Terminal (413N 820E) (12.228)

Republic of Ghana
11

Takoradi (453N 145W) (10.46) Tema (537N 001E) (10.109)

Republic of Togo Lom (608N 117E) (11.31)

PORT SERVICES SUMMARY Docking facilities


1.236 Ports with docking facilities and, where available, the size of the largest vessel that can be accommodated, are given below. Further detail is given at the reference.

Republic of Benin
12

Cotonou (621N 226E) (11.75) Lagos (626N 324E) (11.113) Warri (531N 543E) (11.240) Port Harcourt (446N 700E) (12.126)

Commercial port, tanker berth, port of entry Commercial port, tanker berths, naval base, port of entry Commercial port, tanker berths, port of entry Commercial port, tanker berths, port of entry
3 2

Federal Republic of Nigeria

Islas Canarias
Puerto de La Luz (3.108). Synchrolift platform for vessels up to 36 000 dwt. Slipways for vessels up to 360 m LOA. Santa Cruz de Tenerife (3.162). Ship lift, capacity 2000 tonnes. Floating dock, capacity 6000 tonnes.

Arquiplago de Cabo Verde


Porto Grande (4.78). Ship lift for vessels up to 2800 tons, 110 m LOA, 18 m beam.

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Kingdom of Morocco
Casablanca (5.131). Dry dock, length 157 m, width 26 m, for vessels up to 10 000 tons. Slipways for vessels up to 700 tons displacement. Agadir and Anza (5.252). Ship lift, capacity 1200 tons.

Islas Canarias Puerto de La Luz (3.109).

Deratting
1

Republic of Sngal
4

Dakar (6.210). Floating dock, capacity 60 000 tons. Dry dock for ships with max 195 m LOA, 23 m beam and 95 draught. Ship lift, capacity 1200 tons.

Republic of The Gambia


Banjul (7.90). Slipway for vessels of up to 500 tons.
2

Republic of Guinea
5

Conakry (8.61). Slipway for vessels of up to 800 tonnes.

Republic of Sierra Leone


Freetown (8.114). Slipway for vessels of up to 550 tonnes.
3

Republic of Cte dIvoire


Abidjan (9.164). Floating dock, capacity 2000 tonnes. Slipways for vessels up to 800 tonnes.

Republic of Ghana
6

Takoradi (10.71). Slipway for vessels up to 500 tons. Tema (10.131). Dry dock, length 274 m, capacity 100 000 dwt.

Federal Republic of Nigeria


Lagos (11.147). Dry dock, 200 m in length, 34 m wide, capable of accepting vessels of up to 25 000 dwt. Floating dock, capacity 4000 tons.

1.238 Deratting and deratting certificates: Puerto de La Luz (3.81) Santa Cruz de Tenerife (3.139) Kenitra (5.40) Mohmeddia (5.63) Casablanca (5.103) Al Jadida (5.148) Jorf Lasfar (5.156) Safi (5.183) AnzaAgadir (5.233) Dakar (6.188) Port Kamsar (7.245) Conakry (8.39) Abidjan (9.132) (small craft only). Takoradi (10.46) Tema (10.109) Cotonou (11.75) Lagos (11.113) Warri (11.240) Port Harcourt (12.126) Calabar (12.167). 1.239 Exemption certificates only: Porto Grande (4.57) Tan Tan (5.277) Layoune (5.309) Bissau (7.167) Monrovia (8.174) Lom (11.31).

Other facilities Compass adjustment


1

Measured distances
1

1.237 Authorised compass adjusters are available at the following locations in the area covered by this pilot:

1.240 No measured distances have been established in the area covered by this volume.

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CHAPTER 1

NATURAL CONDITIONS MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY


1

Volcanic activity
1.244 Pico de Teide (3.115) in Isla de Tenerife, erupted in 1909 and yielded a stream of black lava 3 miles long. In 1933, some volcanic activity occurred on the floor of the ocean off Isla de Tenerife.

Seabed
1

1.241 The continental shelf off the coast of NW Africa is narrow; being mostly less than 40 miles wide, with the shelf edge at depths between 100 and 150 m. It is largely sandcovered with small quantities of silt that increase towards the outer shelf. The continental slope has a gradient of about 2. The shelf narrows to only 5 miles at Cap Vert (1443N 1730W) (6.145). The topography of the slope E of Islas Canarias, is in the form of a continental borderland, although the relief is principally of a volcanic origin. Cape Verde Plateau (18N 20W) is similar but larger, extending about 500 miles W of the African coast. Canary Basin (30N 25W) and Cape Verde Abyssal Plain (23N 24W) lie W of these plateaux and are over 5000 m in depth. The continental shelf off the coast between Cabo Roxo (1220N 1643W) (7.144) and Cape Sierra Leone (830N 1318W) (8.86) has a maximum width of 150 miles and has been built forward by deltas. The W African coast between Cape Palmas (422N 744W) (9.33) and Niger Delta (416N 605E) (11.154) has a narrow mudcovered shelf, with a bulge W of the delta of River Volta (546N 040E) (11.25) about 55 miles wide. The E/W trend of this portion of the African coast is related to the Romanche Fracture Zone (0 1800W) that crosses the MidAtlantic Ridge.

Seismic activity
1

1.245 Although the area covered by this volume is not one of the earths major earthquake areas, the marine area off the coast of NW Africa has experienced earthquakes within the present century. Agadir (3026N 938W) (5.233) was destroyed by earthquake on 29th February/1st March 1960.

Local Magnetic Anomalies


1

1.246 Details of local magnetic anomalies are recorded in the appropriate chapter and are listed in the index under Magnetic anomalies, local. For further information see The Mariners Handbook.

CURRENTS AND TIDAL STREAMS

Currents General
1

Seamounts
Charts 4014, 4104, 4115, 4209 1.242 The following seamounts and banks with depths of less than 100 m lie within the limits of this volume: Ampre Seamount (3503N 1253W), with a least depth of 56 m, was discovered in 1935. Seine Seamount (3352N 1420W), with a least depth of 86 m. Dacia Seamount (3110N 1337W) with a least ascertained depth of 77 m and consists of coralline, sand and broken shells. The bank has a gradual slope W but when examined in 1894 there were no indications of shallow water. Senghor Seamount (1711N 2200W), with a depth of 93 m. Positions of other named seamounts and banks may be found in the index. 1.243 Conception Bank (2958N 1243W), has a depth of 138 m and is steeper on its SW than on its NE side. A depth of 327 m lies about 41 m NW from it. Samples of the sea bed obtained over this bank consisted of sand, hard rock, a type of sandstone and a redochre deposit, probably decomposed volcanic debris, fine fragile pinkish coral and a large and perfect specimen of Silicious sponge; also anemone, minute starfish and barnacles.

1.247 The principal ocean currents in the area covered by this volume consist of the Canary Current which sets SW, parallel with the NW coast of Africa, embracing the Arquiplago da Madeira, Islas Canarias and Arquiplago de Cabo Verde. The W setting North and South Equatorial Currents, and between which, just N of the equator, flows the Egoing Equatorial Countercurrent, which as it sets E across Gulf of Guinea, is called Guinea Current.

Currents diagrams
1

1.248 In the seasonal current diagrams (1.248.1 to 1.248.4), which cover the SE quadrant of the large N Atlantic clockwise gyre of surface water movement, arrows indicating the Predominant Direction, Average Rate and Constancy are shown, which are defined as follows: Predominant Direction. The mean direction within a continuous 90 sector containing the highest proportion of observations from all sectors. Average rate of the highest 50% of all observations in the predominant sector as indicated by the figures in the diagram. it is emphasised that rates above and below those shown may be experienced. Constancy, as indicated by the thickness of the arrows, is a measure of its persistence; e.g. low constancy implies marked variability in rate and, particularly, the direction of the current.

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KEY
14

20 N

CHAPTER 1

27
15 10 5
12

12

Average rate in knots is indicated in figures. Arrows indicate the predominant direction. The constancy of a current is indicated by the thickness of the arrow thus: High constancy >75%
12

15

Moderate constancy 50%-75% Low constancy <50%


14

Probable direction when observation count is low

10
12

12

12

12

5
12

1 - 11/2
12

1 /

0 40 35

12

12

12

12

0 10E

30

25

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15

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Surface currents, MARCH - MAY (1.248.1)

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12 14

KEY /
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures. Arrows indicate the predominant direction. The constancy of a current is indicated by the thickness of the arrow thus: High constancy >75% Moderate constancy 50%-75%

20 N

CHAPTER 1

28
14

15
14

15

Low constancy <50%


14

Probable direction when observation count is low

10

14 12 34

12

10

12 12

34

34

34

12

12

12 34

1 1 - 11/2

1 11/2 - 2

1
12

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0 40 35 30

1 - 11/2

1 - 11/2

34

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25

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15

10

Surface currents, JUNE - AUGUST (1.248.2)

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12 12

KEY
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures. Arrows indicate the predominant direction. The constancy of a current is indicated by the thickness of the arrow thus: High constancy >75%

20 N

CHAPTER 1

29
15
12

14

15

Moderate constancy 50%-75% Low constancy <50% Probable direction when observation count is low

10
12

10
/
14

14

12

12

12 12

14

5
1 - 11/2 1 1
12

34

0 40 35 30

34

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15

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Surface currents, SEPTEMBER - NOVEMBER (1.248.3)

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KEY
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures. Arrows indicate the predominant direction. The constancy of a current is indicated by the thickness of the arrow thus:

20 N

CHAPTER 1

30
15
12 12 14

High constancy >75%

15

Moderate constancy 50%-75%

Low constancy <50% Probable direction when observation count is low

10

12 14 14 12

10
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0 40 35

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30

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15

10

Surface currents, DECEMBER - FEBRUARY (1.248.4)

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CHAPTER 1

Canary Current and North Equatorial Current


1

1.249 Canary Current is closely associated with the NE trade winds and sets in a mainly SW direction at kn or less with a moderate constancy. Canary Current continues SW as far as the Arquiplago de Cabo Verde after which it sets more W and merges with the North Equatorial Current. Near Cap Blanc (2046N 1703W) (6.29), a branch of Canary Current turns to the S and SE as it follows the African coast as far as Sierra Leone and Liberia at about kn. However, the constancy of this current is low and liable to seasonal variations as is explained in 1.253. North Equatorial Current appears W of 25W, and sets W at about kn towards the Caribbean. Between latitudes 8 and 25N it becomes more variable in direction and its rate barely attains kn.

South Equatorial Current


1

1.250 South Equatorial Current, as its name implies, exists mainly to the S of the Equator. Its N limit, however, does extend into the S part of the area covered by this volume, just N of the equator. In the area to the E of 15W, it moves to about 3N in summer but in winter (December to February) to only 1 or 2N. In the open ocean W of 15W, it extends to 4 or 5N and combines with the S edge of North Equatorial Current to the W of about 28W in winter, to the W of 40W in summer. It is a very constant current generally, flowing to the W or WNW at a rate of to 1 kn, occasionally increasing to 1 kn in summer. However to the E of the Greenwich Meridian it usually sets NW or N at or kn.

The current in winter, E of Cape Three Points (445N 205W) (10.23), decreases to kn and becomes less constant. It widens more as it sets towards Bight of Biafra and decreases to kn. 1.252 There have been reports of W sets in Gulf of Guinea although these are rare events. It had been found that a subsurface Wgoing compensatory current exists beneath Guinea Current, usually at depths of around 100 m. On infrequent occasions this current will surface, especially in winter and early spring when the normal Egoing Guinea Current is at its weakest. Also in winter, the occasional NE winds of the harmattan (1.280) may contribute to the reversal of the normal Egoing set. These temporary Wgoing currents, although of short duration can reach 2 kn or more. The boundaries between Equatorial Countercurrent and the adjacent North and South Equatorial Currents are not sharply defined, there being a narrow transition zone of about 1 or 2 degrees of latitude in which the W going sets along the N boundary of South Equatorial Current gradually recurve, through N, to join the Egoing countercurrent. The recurving, through S, of the S edge of North Equatorial Current is more gradual, occurring over about 3 degrees of latitude, before it joins the N side of Equatorial Countercurrent.

Upwelling
1

Equatorial Countercurrent and Guinea Current


1

1.251 Equatorial Countercurrent sets E between North Equatorial Current and South Equatorial Current. It is at its most extensive during summer and can then be detected as far W as 35 to 40W, but in the winter and spring is scarcely discernible W of 25W. Equatorial Countercurrent generally displays a moderate or high degree of constancy and flows at speeds of to kn, being stronger in summer than in winter. During the summer (June to August) the current bifurcates as it approaches the coasts, a small part turning NE into the coastal regions of Sierra Leone and Liberia. This branch again subdivides at the coast, a part turning SE to join the existing SE current, another part turning NW along the coast as far as 15 to 18N, causing a reversal of the normal SE flow. This NW current has a low degree of constancy and the average speed is in the order of kn. It gradually diminishes as the extent and strength of Equatorial Countercurrent decreases during the winter. The main stream of Equatorial Countercurrent, however, continues E to be joined by the SE coastal current of Liberia. It then enters Gulf of Guinea where it becomes known as Guinea Current. Here it is narrower, being confined between the coast to the N and South Equatorial Current to the S. Consequently its speed increases reaching 2 kn during the summer, rising occasionally to 3 kn. In winter, the constancy remains high but, as the N limit of South Equatorial Current retreats to the S, the current widens and therefore decreases to 1 or 1 kn. 31

1.253 The coastal waters of NW Africa, contained within the area of this volume, are liable to be affected by the phenomenon of upwelling. Upwelling occurs when a wind, blowing persistently off or along a shore, tends to carry the warmer coastal waters seawards. This water is mostly replaced by cooler water from underneath. As a result the sea level near the coast usually becomes lower, and this produces a small gradient current component along the coast. The areas most affected are those N of 15N as far as Cabo Bojador (2607N 1430W) (5.296). In this region the NE trades are the most persistent.The small gradient current, referred to above, has the effect of backing the set of the main SWgoing Canary Current so that it tends to flow along the coast instead of slightly off the coast. Upwelling has also been known to occur off the Guinea coast, but the effect on the Guinea Current, which itself flows parallel to the coast is minimal.

Tropical cyclone derived currents


1

1.254 Tropical storms occasionally form over the E North Atlantic Ocean to the W of the NW African coast, during summer and autumn e.g. N of 10N and W of 20W. Generally only slow moving tropical storms produce currents of around 2 kn, and which set in the direction to which the wind is blowing. However, if a tropical storm is located near a coast then higher rates are possible due to the piling up of water against the coastline (see The Mariners Handbook).

Tidal streams
1

1.255 The tidal streams throughout the area covered by this volume are semidiurnal, reversing their direction four times daily. The diurnal inequality is negligibly small so that the two streams running in the same direction during any particular

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day are of the same maximum strength and of the same duration. Off the open coast, away from the entrance to rivers, the tidal streams tend to set N or W on the rising tide, and S or E on the falling tide, parallel to the coast. These tidal streams are only appreciable close inshore and even these are usually weak. More than a few miles from the coast, the water movement is controlled by the currents (1.247) and the tidal streams are negligible. 1.256 Near the entrance to any of the many rivers, a tidal stream setting towards the river mouth will be experienced while the tide is rising, and a tidal stream setting away from the river mouth while the tide is falling there. The effect is appreciable for 10 miles or more from the entrances of the larger rivers, amounting to as much as 1 kn in some cases at 10 miles distance, increasing to 3 or 4 kn at the river bar. In general, the outgoing stream on the falling tide is greater than the ingoing stream on the rising tide during the rainy season because of the great volume of fresh water being discharged; the duration of the outflow is also greater than that of the inflow. Details are given under the appropriate locality where observations of the tidal streams have been made.

this phenomemon can be extremely hazardous for vessels engaged in offshore operations. The phenomenon, is believed to affect installations more than 10 miles from the coast and can have extremely adverse effect on vessels engaged in tandem operations, vessels at anchor or moored to offshore buoys and offshore oil installations by causing failure of moorings, collisions or dragging of anchor. The soliton phenomenon appears as alternate bands of smooth and rippled water at about 200 or 300 m intervals stretching across the ocean surface and can be identified on Xband radar as parallel bands on the screen. The tendency is for solitons to form on the leading edge of the ingoing tide and generally travel from SW to NE, but they may be experienced from any direction. Occasionally solitons may be very localised.

SEA AND SWELL General


1

1.257 For definitions of sea and swell, and the terminology used in describing their characteristics, see The Mariners Handbook.

Radar Image Gulf of Guinea Solitons (1.260)


(Original dated 2006) (Photograph Captain A.Reid FPSO Falcon)

Sea conditions
1

Surf
1

1.258 Sea waves generated by the wind can, at times, be very variable in direction particularly in the N of the area which are affected by midlatitude depressions.

1.261 Along the Gulf of Guinea coast there is an almost permanent swell from between SE and SW. In the open sea the swell is generally low but on approaching the shore it increases in amplitude and produces heavy surf on exposed beaches and shoals.

Swell conditions
1

1.259 Diagrams 1.259.1 and 1.259.2 give swell roses for several areas in January and July. The roses show the percentage of observations recording swell waves for various directions and several ranges of wave heights. In the N and NW of the area in winter, the swell waves are predominantly from between W and NW but become mainly N to NE in the SW and central areas. In the SE of the area low S swells predominate. In summer, swell heights are significantly lower than in winter in the N of the area, but in the S of the area swell heights are generally marginally higher than in winter, and in the SW of the area they are predominantly from SE.

SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICS Salinity


1

1.262 For an explanation of salinity as applied to seawater, see The Mariners Handbook. The unit of measurement is the Practical Salinity unit(s). Bights of Benin and Biafra (300N, 700E) are areas of very low salinity, with values below 34, due to freshwater run off from the numerous rivers in the region. Salinity remains below 35 along the W African coast, but to the N of Cap Vert (1443N 1730W) (6.145), values are between 35 and 365.

Solitons
1

Density
which can give rise to of 3 to 4 kn in opposing of 300 to 400 m, are Mariners are advised that
1

1.260 Solitons (internal waves), extremely rapid current changes directions within the space experienced in Gulf of Guinea.

1.263 For an explanation of density as applied to seawater, see The Mariners Handbook. Sea density is lowest in Bight of Biafra (300N, 700E) where values below 1021 g/cm3 occur.

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<1

<1

<1

<1

30

30

EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0% 10 20 30 40 50%

25

<1

This scale is further subdivided to indicate the f r e q u e n c y o f swe l l o f d i f fe r e n t h e i g h t s ( i n metres) according to the legend:
0.5-2 2.5-3 3.5-6 6.5-8 >8

25

20 N

Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.

20 N

CHAPTER 1

33
15
0 <1 <1

15

10

10

<1

<1

<1

<1

0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 0

0 10E

Swell distribution JANUARY (1.259.1)

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<1

<1 <1

<1

30

30

EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0% 10 20 30 40 50%

25

<1

<1

This scale is further subdivided to indicate the f r e q u e n c y o f swe l l o f d i f fe r e n t h e i g h t s ( i n metres) according to the legend:
0.5-2 2.5-3 3.5-6 6.5-8 >8

25

20 N

Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.

20 N

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34
15
0 <1 <1

15

10

10

<1

<1

<1

<1

0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 0

0 10E

Swell distribution JULY (1.259.2)

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Values remain below 1022 g/cm3 along the W African coast to Cape Palmas (422N 744W) (9.33). Sea density then increases towards the N, reaching 1025 g/cm3 at Cap Vert (1443N 1730W) (6.145) and 1027 g/cm3 at Cap Spartel (3547N 556W) (5.19).

Sea surface temperature


1

1.264 Diagrams 1.264.1 to 1.264.2 show the mean sea surface temperatures for January and July. The lowest temperatures occur off Cap Spartel (3547N 556W) (5.19) in February, and the highest near 5N during March and May. The sea surface isothermals reveal an extensive area of relatively cold water near the African coast between 10 and 30N throughout the year, due to the combined effect of the cold Canary Current and upwelling of cold subsurface water.

In the S of the area, the climate of Gulf of Guinea is characterised by persistent high temperatures and frequent spells of high humidity. The most significant feature in this S area being the long wet season (April to October) and the relatively short dry season (December to February), but with a short drier period during August. The wet season becomes progressively shorter, and with decreasing amounts of rainfall, towards 18N. In the N of the area the highest amounts of rainfall are recorded in winter and the lowest in summer. 1.268 The NE trades, which blow almost continuously N of 20N, push S from August onwards to reach latitudes of about 5N by December and January, before retreating N again in the following 6 months. The NE trades are relatively cool N of 20N, but S of 20N these winds bring hot, dry, dusty air from the interior of the African continent. These hot winds, called harmattan (1.280) are at their greatest extent in January from about 10 to 30N, and the thick dust haze is carried out to sea to reduce visibility. Gales are encountered N of 25N, but they only reach a frequency of about 10% in the N in January and adjacent months. The frequency is down to 1 or 2% by the middle of the year. The frequency also falls off rapidly in lower latitudes, and gales seldom occur over the S half of the area covered by this volume. Tropical storms have penetrated E over the area from the W Atlantic, but they are rare events.

Wind

Variability
1

1.265 Seasonal variations are relatively small over the area S and E of Dakar (1440N 1725W) (6.188). The greatest variation occurs in the coastal strip between Cape Palmas (422N 744W) (9.33), and the Niger Delta (416N 605E) (11.154) where sea surface temperatures fall by 2 to 3 degrees during July to September. Variations from the mean monthly sea surface temperature of about 3C are most likely to occur between 10 and 20N. Changes of up to 10C have been reported over a period of 4 hours which may cause condensation problems in ships. The difference between the mean sea surface temperature and the mean air temperature is normally less than 1C in all parts of the areas covered by this volume. The cold coastal waters between 10 and 30N are, however, regularly about 1C cooler than the overlying air. All the cooler waters mentioned in above are more liable to have patches of fog, especially close inshore. Checks on the water temperature will help in anticipating the fog hazard.

Visibility
1

1.269 Fog is rare over the sea though fog patches do occur nearer the coasts over the colder sea water regions (1.265). Dust, haze, however, is common, especially in the dry season when it can be very thick at times.

Pressure Distribution and variability


1.270 The average pressure distribution at MSC in January and July is shown in the accompanying diagrams 1.270.1 and 1.270.2 and illustrate the typical mean pressure fields. The pressure pattern is dominated by the Aores anticyclone in the N of the area and the low pressure zone or doldrums in the S. The equatorial trough or doldrums moves N and S with the sun through about 10 of latitude, and results in a minimum pressure of 1009/1010 hPa at around 5N in January and of 1013/1014 hPa at around 15N in July and August.

CLIMATE AND WEATHER


1.266 The following information on climate and weather should be read in conjunction with the information contained in The Mariners Handbook, which explains in more detail many aspects of meteorology and climatology of importance to the mariner. Weather reports and forecasts, that cover the area, are regularly broadcast in a number of different languages including English; for details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3.

General information

Variability
1

1.267 Within the area covered by this volume, there is a wide difference in climate, between the more temperate Atlantic weather experienced in the extreme N of the area to the typical tropical monsoon climate of Gulf of Guinea. The N part of the area experiences long settled anticyclonic spells of fair weather interrupted by bursts of less settled weather that are sometimes stormy as depressions and frontal troughs move E across the area, or just N of the area, particularly in winter. 35

General conditions

1.271 Pressure changes are greatest over the N part of the area when active depressions may move E across the area to displace the Aores anticyclone for a time. On some occasions changes of 50 hPa over a 5 day period have been reported over the NW of the area.

Diurnal variations
1

1.272 There is a regular diurnal variation in the extreme N of the area of 1 to 2 hPa but this is usually masked by the E-moving Atlantic depressions or frontal troughs. In the S of the area the diurnal variation is greater, 3 to 4 hPa, and

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16

17
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18

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22

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36
15 10 5

23
15

24
10

25

26
27

27

28

28

>28
0 0 5 10E

0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5

Mean sea surface temperature (C) January (1.264.1)

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21

20

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25

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20 N

24

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CHAPTER 1

37
15 15 10

26

10

>26
26

0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5 0 5

0 10E

Mean sea surface temperature (C) July (1.264.2)

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HIGH
30 30

102 2

25

25

1020
20 N

1018 1016

20 N

CHAPTER 1

38
15

1014

15

10

10

12 10
5 5

I.T.C
0 40 35 30 25 20W

.Z.
1010
0 0 5 10E

15

10

Mean barometric pressure (hPa) - JANUARY (1.270.1)

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HIGH

4 102
30 30

10

22
10 20
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25

18 10

20 N

20 N

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16 10
15

39
10

I.T.C

.Z.
15

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5

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14
5

1014
0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5 0 5 0 10E

Mean barometric pressure (hPa) - JULY (1.270.2)

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noticeable with maxima occurring at 1000 and 2200 and minima at 0400 and 1600.

Winds Average distribution


1

Anticyclones
1

1.273 In the N of the area the dominating feature of the pressure pattern for most of the year is the Aores anticyclone. On average this anticyclone is centred near 32N 15W in January and near 35N 35W in July. In summer a high pressure ridge may extend E to Spain which will result in Emoving depressions being displaced further N.

1.278 Wind roses showing the frequency of wind distribution for the area in January and July are given in diagrams 1.278.1 and 1.278.2.

Open Ocean
1

Depressions
1

1.274 North Atlantic depressions usually move E to the N of 30N but occasionally a depression may take a more S track to affect Islas Canarias. The tracks of these more S depressions can be very erratic but they are generally much less intense than those of a more N latitude. Depressions forming in the vicinity of Islas Canarias usually drift NE towards Gibraltar or E towards the Sahara.

Tropical storms
1

1.275 On rare occasions, tropical storms, with winds of force 10 to 11, may track E towards or S of the Aores. Occasional tropical depressions may form during July to the W of 30W between 10 and 25N. During August and September tropical depressions may form further E in the vicinity of Arquiplago de Cabo Verde between 10 and 20N but they generally move W or NW as they intensify and by the end of October, any tropical depressions that do develop, usually form to the W of 40W (see diagram 1.275.1). For a full description of tropical storms, and the appropriate avoiding action, see The Mariners Handbook.

1.279 In the NW of the area the winds are very variable in direction and are strongest in winter. The NE Trade winds blow almost continuously in central areas. In conjunction with the ITCZ, the NE Trade winds start to push S in August to reach around 3N, to the W of around 15W, by December and January. In February the NE Trade winds start to retreat N to reach around 12N in July and August. The average strength of the winds in central areas is force 2 to 4. To the N of 20N the winds are relatively cool as they blow over colder seas but become hot and dry, and laden with dust, S of 20N, as the air originates from over the African interior. These hot dry NE winds are called harmattan with an average force of 3 to 4 in all seasons. Gales are rare. In the N of the area the hot dry NE winds are generally confined to coastal areas, but in S these hot dry winds may extend some 600 miles to seaward. To the S of around 3N in January, the predominant winds are SE in the SW of the area becoming S between around 5 and 20W and SW to E of around 5W. In July these winds extend N to around 12N. The average strength being around force 3.

Coastal areas
1

Fronts
1

1.276 Frontal systems, associated with North Atlantic Emoving depressions, only affect the N of the area (see The Mariners Handbook for a description of warm and cold fronts). Warm fronts tend to be diffuse with perhaps some light patchy rain or drizzle in winter. Cold fronts are usually much more active, particularly in winter, with moderate to heavy rain, sometimes squally, and often with a sharp wind veer from SW to NW as they track E across N areas. Fronts become increasingly diffuse as the latitude decreases; becoming very weak at 25N and dissipating S of 20N.

Intertropical Convergence Zone


1

1.277 The ITCZ or Intertropical Front (ITF) represents the boundary between the trade winds of the N and S hemispheres. The ITCZ is orientated approximately from WSW to ENE but is not a well defined boundary but rather one of varying width with light variable winds. The weather along the boundaries of the ITCZ is often marked by heavy cumulonimbus cloud and thunderstorms whilst in other parts there may be only isolated thundery cloud. In January the ITCZ usually lies through 3N 15W. In spring the ITCZ moves slowly and erratically N to near 18N 15W in August (see diagrams 1.270.1 and 1.270.2), although its N movement may be less in some years and with a consequent curtailment of the wet season.

1.280 Winds within 20 miles of the coast usually follow the general flow of the monsoon winds but are subject to local variations due to topography, orientation of the coast and land and sea breezes. See the Climate Tables (1.291) for the percentage frequency of winds from various directions and the mean wind at a number of coastal stations within the area, and also The Mariners Handbook for the effect the topography has on the strength and direction of the wind. As a result of topography and exposure to the prevailing winds, local winds can be significantly different to those experienced over the open oceans and even those close by but which may be in the lee of the Trade or monsoon winds. For example at Puerto de la Cruz (28 25 N 1633W), on the N coast of Isla de Tenerife, the winds are predominantly NE by day and SE by night, particularly in winter. The SE winds being due to cold air drainage overnight from the adjacent high ground. On occasions in late summer, hot dry dusty winds known as Simoon or Simoun blow from between S and SE to affect Morocco and Mauritania. Other hot dry dusty winds known as irifi also affect these two countries mainly in spring and autumn and blow from between E and S. These irifi winds may last for several days with temperatures of around 38C and humidity as low as 10%. The harmattan winds usually affect the coast of Mauritania between December and February, and Sngal between November and February. Over the coastal regions of Guinea Bissau and Guinea, harmattan winds are possible during the dry season between December and April, but further S in the coastal areas between Liberia and Nigeria they are usually only felt for a few weeks during January. However, the harmattan season is felt for progressively

40

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15 15 10 10 5 5 0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5 0 5 0 10E

Typical depression/storm tracks 1994 - 2003 (1.275)

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30
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale: 0% 10 20 30 40 50% This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:

30

25

25

4
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.

20 N

20 N

CHAPTER 1

42
15
1 <1 2

15

10

10

11

0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5 0 5

0 10E

Wind distribution JANUARY (1.278.1)

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4 2

30
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale: 0% 10 20 30 40 50% This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:

30

25

<1

<1

25

4
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.

20 N

20 N

CHAPTER 1

43
15
<1 2 2

15

10

10

<1

0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5 0 5

0 10E

Wind distribution JULY (1.278.2)

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longer periods the further N one travels up the Niger valley; by 10N the season extends from November to February.
1

Precipitation General
1.284 Most of the rainfall over the N part of the area occurs in the winter months whilst much heavier rainfall is recorded in the S during summer. Rainfall distribution over the islands shows marked variation with regard to topography, and with the larger rainfall amounts occurring on windward slopes. Monthly totals can differ considerably from year to year depending on the persistence and intensity of the Aores anticyclone. Over Arquiplago da Madeira the rainfall can be very variable with as much as 190 mm being recorded in one 24 hour period and with no rain recorded in some years in November, which is normally the wettest month. Over Arquiplago de Cabo Verde, droughts have lasted for 3 years on some occasions. The wettest region lies between 5 and 12N where there is often torrential rain during the 5 months between June and October. Rainfall amounts of between 250 and 300 mm have been recorded in a 24 hour period. Between 12 and 20N the duration of the monsoon rains is less and rainfall amounts are correspondingly lower. In some areas in the S the rains ease for about 6 weeks in July and August to give drier conditions and to divide the long wet season in two. Over the coastal districts affected by the dry harmattan winds, the E facing coastal region of Ghana, E of Takoradi (453N 145W), rainfall is moderate.

Land and sea breezes


1

1.281 Marked land and sea breezes affect almost all parts of the region, although the land breeze is generally weaker than the sea breeze, and may enhance or reduce the prevailing monsoon wind. The winds frequently start at right angles to the coast then parallel the coastline during the afternoon. At sea breezes, particularly in the SE of the area, may result in winds of force 1 to 2 overnight increasing to around force 4, occasionally 5, at times during the afternoon and early evening.
2

Strong winds
1

1.282 Diagrams 1.282.1 and 1.282.2 show the frequency of winds of force 7 and over in January and July. In the extreme NW of the area in winter the frequency of winds of force 7 or more is around 18% but rapidly decreases to around 3% around Cabo Verde and to % in the SE of the area. In the extreme NW of the area in summer strong winds are reported on less than 1% of occasions but on around 4% of occasions around Islas Canarias. Occasionally squall lines, normally orientated N to S and also known as West African Storms, move W at around 25 kn to the S of about 20N. The associated massive banks of cloud are usually accompanied by heavy rain and often thunder. Gusts of 50 kn have been reported on these squall lines; the wind usually moderates relatively quickly but the rain may persist for several hours. The barometer gives little if any warning of the approach of these squall lines, although a rise in pressure of several hPA quite often occurs with its onset. These squall lines are most frequent at the beginning and end of the wet season (May and November). On relatively rare occasions winds of force 10 to 11 have been reported whenever a tropical storm has moved E into the N of the area. tropical depressions forming further S (see 1.275) generally move W or NW out of the area before intensifying into tropical storms.

Thunderstorms, hail and waterspouts


1

1.285 Thunder is infrequent N of Dakar (1440N 1724W) and with thunder reported on between 5 and 10 days per year but with large variations from year to year. Between Sngal and Liberia thunderstorms are common throughout the wet season, and over much of the region between Dakar and Freetown (829N 1314W) around 10 to 15 thunderstorms are recorded each month during this period. The coast of Nigeria experiences thunderstorms throughout most of the year with around 80 to 100 reported each year. Violent squalls often accompany thunderstorms. hail is relatively rare and is usually restricted to N areas in winter and spring. Waterspouts are occasionally reported near the African coast and may originate from dust devils over land which then drift offshore

Cloud
1

Fog and visibility Open Ocean


1

1.283 Over the NW part of the area the average cloud amounts vary from over 5 oktas in winter and spring to between 3 and 4 oktas in August and September. There are large day to day variations particularly when settled anticyclone conditions are replaced by more disturbed weather associated with North Atlantic depressions and their frontal systems. Cloud amounts decrease towards the African coast as far as 20N. On the Moroccan coast cloud amounts average slightly above 3 oktas throughout the year and on the coast N of Mauritania the average is between 2 and 3 oktas. The average cloud amount increases to the S of Cap Vert (1443N 1730W) to reach a maximum of around 6 oktas off the coast of Liberia. To the S of 20N average cloud amounts are largely determined by the position of the ITCZ, and consequently considerable variations can occur if the migration, both N and S, of the ITCZ is erratic or less than the usual for the time of year.

1.286 The average frequency of occurrence of sea fog (see The Mariners Handbook for a full description of different types of fog) is less than 1%, in any month, over the entire area covered by this volume. However, poor visibility of less than 5 miles is slightly more common. See diagrams 1.286.1 and 1.286.2. In the NW of the area, poor visibility is recorded on around 5% of occasions in winter and 2% of occasions in summer. In the NE of the area the reverse is true with around 4% in winter and 8 to 9% in summer, but increases to around 20% of occasions in coastal areas near 21N in summer. At the same latitude but in the far W of the area the frequency of poor visibility is between 1 and 4% throughout the year. In the SW of the area, poor visibility is recorded on around 8 to 10% of occasions in winter and 4 to 6% of occasions in summer. Finally in the SE of the area, the

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45
15 15 10

10

0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5 0 5

0 10E

Percentage of winds Beaufort force 7 and over - JANUARY (1.282.1)

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20 N

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20 N
CHAPTER 1

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15 15 10 10 5 5 0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5 0 5 0 10E

Percentage of winds Beaufort force 7 and over - JULY (1.282.2)

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>5%

5
30 30

<5%

25

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20 N

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47
15

15

10
10 10

>10%
5 5

10
0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5 0

15
0 5 10E

Percentage frequency of visibility less than 5 miles - January (1.286.1)

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30

30

<3%

25

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20 N

10

>10%
20 N
CHAPTER 1

15

48
15 10 10 5 5

<5%

5
0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5 0 5 0 10E

Percentage frequency of visibility less than 5 miles - July (1.286.2)

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percentage frequencies are around 10 to 15% in winter and 4 to 6% in summer.

Coastal areas
1

1.287 On the Moroccan coast fog is liable to occur over the relatively cold waters of Canary Current and occasionally spreads just inland to affect harbours overnight but usually clears up by midday. These fogs are more likely to occur in summer and autumn than at other times of the year. Along the rest of the coast the visibility is most likely to fall below 5 miles during the dry season with offshore winds, and during tropical rainstorms during the wet season.

usually occur in April and minimum temperatures in August. Also the diurnal range of temperatures tends to be greater during the January dry season, and with this variation increasing further inland away from the coast.

Humidity
1

Air temperature Open Ocean


1

1.288 Mean air temperatures over the open ocean in January vary from around 17C in the NW of the area to 14C in the NE. At around 20N the mean temperatures are around 22C in the W and 19C in the E. In the S of the area mean temperatures are around 26 to 27C in the SW of the area and about 28C in the extreme SE of the area. In July the mean temperatures, in the far N of the area, are around 23C in the NW falling to around 20C at 30N 17W then rising to 22C in the NE. At around 20N the mean temperatures are 25C in the W and 22C in the E. Finally, in the extreme SW the mean air temperatures are around 26 to 27C, and in the SE around 25 to 26C. The mean air temperature in the N of the area tends to be about 1C cooler than the mean sea surface temperature in winter but similar in summer. In the S of the area mean air temperatures and mean sea surface temperatures are usually within 1C of each other in winter but with the mean air temperature being around 1C lower than the mean sea surface temperature in summer.

1.290 Humidity is closely related to air temperature and generally decreases as the temperature increases. During early morning, when air temperature is normally at its lowest, humidity is generally at its highest, and falls to a minimum during the afternoon. Over the island groups, humidity averages around 60 to 80% for most of the time but occasionally falls to less than 30% in Arquiplago da Madeira with dry E winds from the African continent, but more frequently in Islas Canarias. The lowest mean monthly values, N of Dakar, occur in spring when the ITCZ is positioned far to the S. As the ITCZ moves N, in association with the advance of the moist SW winds, then humidities of 90% are possible. The decrease in humidity from early morning to early afternoon is noticeable as far S as Accra (532N 012W) but further S and W the decrease becoming less marked particularly in summer.

CLIMATE INFORMATION
1

Coastal areas
1

1.289 Along the Moroccan coast, maximum temperatures occur in August and minimum in January. The regular sea breezes keep the coastal temperatures close to the seasonal sea surface temperatures, and with the hottest part of the day frequently occurring just before the onset of the of the cooler sea breeze. The SW set of Canary Current near the coast acts as an additional cooling factor. This subtropical pattern extends S to around 18S (see Climate Tables (1.291) for average temperatures at a number of coastal stations within the area). In the S of the area, temperatures are high all year round, but due to the wet season maximum temperatures

1.291 The tables which follow, give data for several coastal stations (Diagram 1.291) that regularly undertake weather observations. Some of these stations have been resited and so the position given is the latest available. It is emphasised that these data are average conditions and refer to the specific location of the observing station and therefore may not be totally representative of the conditions over the open sea or in approaches to ports in their vicinity. The following comments briefly list some of the differences to be expected between conditions over the open sea and the nearest reporting station (see The Mariners Handbook for further details): Wind speeds tend to be higher at sea than on land, although funnelling in narrow inlets can result in an increase in wind strength. Precipitation along mountainous wind facing coasts can be considerably higher than at sea to windward. Similarly precipitation in the lee of high ground is generally less. Air temperature over the sea is less variable than over the land. Topography has a marked effect on local conditions.

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TANGER

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5
1.296

10E 35

CASABLANCA FUNCHAL

1.297

1.292

30
SANTA CRUZ

30
1.293

25

25

NOUADHIBOU

20 N

1.298

20 N

CHAPTER 1

50
1.294
MINDELO ST LOUIS

15

1.295

PRAIA

1.299

DAKAR / YOFF

15

1.300

BANJUL / HALF DIE 1.301 ZIGUINCHOR 1.302

10

CONAKRY / GBESSIA

10
LOKOJA

1.303

LUNGI

1.304

COTONOU

1.309

1.310

5
TABOU

ABIDJAN

1.308

1.306

1.307

ACCRA

LAGOS / IKEJA CALABAR

1.311

1.305

0 40 35 30 25 20W 15 10 5 0 5

0 10E

Location of climate stations (1.291)

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1.292 WMO No 08521 FUNCHAL / S.CATARINA (32 41 N, 16 46 W) Height above MSL 49 m Climatic Table compiled from 20 to 30 years observations, 1970 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1023 1022 1020 1019 1019 1021 1020 1019 1019 1019 1020 1021 1020 _ _

C 19 19 19 20 21 23 25 26 26 24 21 20 22 _ _

C 14 14 14 15 16 18 19 20 20 19 17 15 17 _ _

C 22 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 29 27 25 23 30* _ 37

C 10 11 11 12 13 15 16 16 17 15 13 11 9 _ 3

% 75 75 73 72 74 75 73 73 75 76 75 75 74 _ _

% 69 68 66 65 65 66 65 65 67 68 68 69 67 _ _

Oktas 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 5 4 _ _ 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 _ _

mm 104 88 65 38 18 11 3 4 38 74 100 99 _ 642 _ 9 10 8 4 2 1 0 2 4 7 8 9 _ 64 _ 44 9 4 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 5 2 _ _ 2 1 | 1 | | | | | 1 1 1 1 _ _ 3 2 2 2 1 1 | | 1 1 2 8 10 10 11 8 11 11 13 6 4 4 3 1 1 4 9 12 12 6 16 15 7 15 18 5 13 21 5 4 9 8 15 9 16 9 21 26 25 10 25 27 30 29 29 29 9 9 9 4 10 14 3 11 15 3 11 12 4 10 10 3 14 12 4 16 3 11 3 12 8 7 6 2 2 2 1 1 | | 1 | 1 2 2 1 _ _ 4 4 2 5 3 2 2 1 1 3 3 3 3 _ _ 6 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 5 3 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 9 9 10 9 8 8 10 9 8 8 9 9 9 _ _ 11 11 12 12 11 11 13 12 11 11 11 11 11 _ _ 1 1 1 1 | | 1 | | | | 1 _ 8 _ | 0 | | 0 0 | 0 0 | | | _ 1 _ 1 | |
CHAPTER 1

40 12 45 13 43 11 44 10 45 12 57 13 54 14 46 10 45 10 41 10 34 9

30 26 10 28 29 38 33 32 38 26 30 27 29 9 5 6 9 9

6 17 10 5 13 11 4 13 13 4 13 19 4 13 11 _ _ _ _ _ _

6 10 11 16 9 10 13 12

25 26 11 21 20 13 28 28 _ _ _ _ 9 _ _

3 12 13 11 12 1 _ _ 5 _ _ 8 12 15 _ _ _ _ _ _

45 11 _ _ _ _

20

20 20

30

20

20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder | | 0 | | | 1 1 1 _ 4 _

0600

1200 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

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1.293 WMO No 60020 SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE (28 27 N, 16 15 W) Height above MSL 36 m Climatic Table compiled from 5 to 30 years observations, 1930 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1022 1022 1019 1018 1018 1019 1018 1017 1018 1018 1019 1021 1019 _ _

C 21 21 22 23 24 26 28 29 28 26 24 22 25 _ _

C 16 16 16 17 18 19 21 22 22 20 18 17 18 _ _

C 24 25 27 27 28 30 33 34 32 30 28 25 35* _ 40

C 13 13 13 14 15 17 19 20 19 18 16 14 12 _ 5

% 69 69 67 67 69 70 69 70 72 73 70 72 70 _ _

% 61 61 59 58 58 58 56 58 62 62 61 64 60 _ _

Oktas 4 3 3 3 4 3 1 2 2 3 3 4 3 _ _ 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 2 3 4 4 5 4 _ _

mm 38 35 25 15 3 1 0 1 9 18 39 53 _ 237 _ 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 1 3 6 6 _ 32 _ 17 12 20 17 13 16 6 9 8 9 9 7 4 2 1 | 2 3 3 5 4 8 4 _ _ 1 1 1 0 | 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 1 _ _ 1 2 2 1 2 5 2 2 1 0 1 0 2 _ _ 1 34 18 8 8 25 29 10 10 14 16 30 16 17 16 8 23 23 12 23 21 16 24 28 13 29 30 12 28 33 11 25 33 5 13 4 4 2 11 | 16 | 23 3 18 5 21 3 17 2 2 9 4 1 2 1 0 0 1 2 5 0 1 1 1 1 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 _ _ 5 6 6 7 6 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 6 _ _ | 0 | 0 0 0 0 | | 0 0 | _ 1 _ 0 0 |
CHAPTER 1

3 33 17 11 4 21 32 10 5 18 35 18 3 21 33 14 2 10 29 26 5 7 15 38

6 10 11 7 11 5 3 5 6 8 5 7 5 7 5 3 3 5 4 4 4 4 5 _ _

0 0 | 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ | _ 18 _ _

14 13 15 15 15 12 16 11 16 16 24 16 9 8

8 13 22 24 1 19 30 18 3 26 23 11 1 23 20 16 2 28 29 9

5 10 7

2 10 1 12 1 17 2 17 2 15 _ _ _ _

13 26 24 12 19 22 18

8 10 5 8 _ _

12 22 27 10 13 23 26 _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 _ _

16 11 _ _ _ _

3 21 25 17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

20

20 20

30

56

56 20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0600

1200 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

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1.294 WMO No 08583 MINDELO (16 53 N, 25 00 W) Height above MSL 63 m Climatic Table compiled from 20 to 30 years observations, 1930 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1016 1016 1015 1015 1015 1016 1015 1014 1014 1014 1015 1016 1015 _ _

C 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 29 29 28 27 25 26 _ _

C 20 19 20 20 21 22 23 25 25 24 23 22 22 _ _

C 26 26 27 27 27 28 30 30 31 31 28 28 31* _ 36

C 17 17 16 18 19 20 22 23 24 21 19 20 14 _ 3

% 72 77 74 75 76 78 79 82 82 79 77 75 77 _ _

% 65 67 65 66 68 71 71 74 73 72 67 66 69 _ _

Oktas 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 _ _ 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 _ _

mm 3 3 2 0 0 0 2 16 38 20 11 6 _ 101 _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 2 1 1 _ 11 _ 5 85 7 80 5 87 5 89 5 91 8 84 9 77 11 70 11 71 8 79 7 80 6 82 7 81 _ _ _ _ 3 4 4 3 4 6 3 4 5 5 4 4 4 _ _ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 _ _ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | _ _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 | _ _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 | _ _ 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 5 8 3 2 0 2 9 5 86 5 88 4 91 4 90 4 92 7 88 6 84 7 78 8 77 8 83 6 83 4 85 6 85 _ _ _ _ 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 3 4 5 4 _ _ 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 | _ _ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 | _ _ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 | _ _ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 | _ _ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 _ _ 3 2 1 2 1 1 4 6 5 5 5 4 3 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 11 11 11 13 12 11 7 5 7 9 8 9 9 _ _ 13 15 13 15 16 15 10 9 11 12 11 11 12 _ _ | | 1 1 1 1 | | | | | | _ 5 _ 1 2 1
CHAPTER 1

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 _ 8 _ 30 _ _

2 12 2 0 0 0 1 _ _ 8 7 7 6 6 _ _

20

20 20

30

20

20 20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0900

1500 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

53

Home

Contents

Index

1.295 WMO No 08589 PRAIA (14 54 N, 23 31 W) Height above MSL 35 m Climatic Table compiled from 10 to 30 years observations, 1931 to 1970
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 30 1014 1013 1013 1013 1013 1014 1013 1012 1012 1013 1012 1013 1013 _ _

C 25 25 26 26 27 28 28 29 30 29 28 26 27 _ _

C 20 19 20 20 21 22 23 24 24 24 23 21 22 _ _

C 29 29 31 31 31 32 30 31 32 32 31 29 33* _ 37

C 18 18 18 19 19 20 21 22 22 22 21 19 17 _ 16

% 60 56 53 58 59 62 68 70 72 68 63 63 63 _ _

% 58 54 52 56 58 60 67 70 71 67 62 61 61 _ _

Oktas 4 4 3 2 3 3 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 _ _ 4 4 3 3 3 3 5 6 5 5 5 5 4 _ _

mm 1 2 | | 0 | 8 45 105 58 30 10 _ 261 _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 6 4 1 1 _ 19 _ 27 63 32 62 35 58 30 63 34 59 25 59 5 3 1 1 1 4 1 0 1 0 0 1 7 1 1 2 2 1 3 8 1 0 1 2 2 3 5 8 5 2 0 0 2 _ _ 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 3 2 1 0 0 1 _ _ 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 | _ _ 2 0 2 1 2 5 5 9 9 5 3 1 4 _ _ 26 67 31 60 31 60 25 67 29 63 22 57 15 36 12 30 16 37 22 55 24 63 25 64 23 55 _ _ _ _ 3 4 1 1 1 4 9 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 2 6 2 1 2 3 3 6 9 9 7 4 1 0 4 _ _ 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 3 1 2 0 0 1 _ _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 | _ _ 0 0 1 0 2 4 7 8 9 5 1 0 3 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 15 16 16 14 14 13 10 9 9 11 12 14 13 _ _ 13 15 15 13 14 12 9 8 9 11 10 13 12 _ _ | 0 | 0 0 0 0 0 | | 0 0 _ | _ 0 0 0
CHAPTER 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ 0 _ 16 _ _

17 46 10 16 36 18 45 23 60 24 64 24 67 25 57 _ _ _ _ 7 7 5 6 6 6 _ _

8 13

9 10 7 1 2 1 2 _ _ 6 3 1 1 3 _ _

9 14 14 9 6 6 8 5 _ _ 8 12 2 2 2 3 _ _ 4 3 1 6 _ _

30

30 11

30

10

10 19 16

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0900

1500 0900 1500 Gale Fog

1600

1000

1000

1600

54

Home

Contents

Index

1.296 WMO No 60101 TANGER AIRPORT (35 44 N, 05 54 W) Height above MSL 21 m Climatic Table compiled from 20 years observations, 1983 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1022 1021 1019 1016 1016 1017 1016 1016 1017 1017 1019 1021 1018 _ _

C 17 17 19 20 23 26 29 29 27 24 20 18 22 _ _

C 9 9 11 11 14 17 19 20 18 16 12 10 14 _ _

C 20 22 25 26 30 33 36 36 33 29 25 21 37* _ 44

C 3 4 5 6 8 12 14 15 13 11 6 4 2 _ 0

% 86 86 85 85 86 84 82 84 84 85 85 86 85 _ _

% 70 70 66 66 64 61 58 60 59 64 67 70 64 _ _

Oktas 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 _ _ 5 5 4 5 4 3 2 2 3 4 5 5 4 _ _

mm 4 12 33 4 12 34 4 14 36 3 10 29 3 10 29 4 2 2 7 26 7 29 7 26 9 16 7 14 6 12 6 14 7 14 7 17 8 18 9 18 5 6 5 7 9 9 9 9 5 4 6 5 7 _ _ 6 6 7 9 9 6 4 4 3 4 5 5 6 _ _ 5 11 6 13 5 11 8 15 4 15 2 21 3 21 1 25 3 18 4 11 5 12 4 10 4 15 _ _ _ _ 4 4 9 20 8 24 7 20 17 10 8 5 4 1 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 4 4 2 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 9 10 10 9 8 7 9 7 8 9 9 10 9 _ _ 12 12 14 13 13 13 14 13 13 13 12 12 13 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 _ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 _ 12 _ 20 2 1 1
CHAPTER 1

4 17 15 13 11 3 14 14 20 9

4 13 23 4 10 16 4 11 15 3 9 16

1 10 21 24 11 1 1 1 1 2 7 23 27 12 4 22 33 12 4 21 27 11 4 23 30 14 6 22 23 12

4 13 19 3 12 13 3 13 19 6 11 21 4 8 22

1 10 33 10 16 4 10 38 3 13 34 3 11 35 _ _ 3 10 32 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9 17 9 14 9 18 8 15 _ _ _ _

2 10 21 19 10 4 20 16 13 10 7 25 13 9 7

4 10 22 4 10 19 _ _ _ _ _ _

3 12 19 21 10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ 16 _ _

20

20 20

20

20 20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder 2 1 1 | | 1 2 2 2 _ 16 _ 20

0600

1200 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

55

Home

Contents

Index

1.297 WMO No 60155 CASABLANCA (33 34 N, 07 40 W) Height above MSL 57 m Climatic Table compiled from 20 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1022 1021 1018 1015 1016 1017 1016 1016 1017 1017 1019 1021 1018 _ _

C 18 18 20 20 22 24 26 26 26 24 21 19 22 _ _

C 9 10 11 13 15 18 20 21 19 16 13 11 15 _ _

C 23 24 26 27 28 28 32 31 31 29 27 24 34* _ 39

C 5 6 7 9 11 15 18 17 16 13 8 6 4 _ 3

% 90 91 90 90 89 88 89 90 90 90 89 90 90 _ _

% 70 70 69 70 69 71 72 72 70 68 67 71 70 _ _

Oktas 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 5 5 _ _ 4 5 4 5 5 4 3 3 4 4 4 5 4 _ _

mm 63 58 52 39 20 5 1 0 5 32 72 79 _ 426 _ 8 6 7 5 4 1 0 0 1 5 7 9 _ 53 _ 2 2 4 6 9 16 2 4 6 6 7 8 3 4 6 5 7 7 8 5 51 18 5 45 15 5 39 12 5 36 15 4 31 14 2 18 13 3 11 2 11 9 8 4 6 5 6 8 7 7 6 7 4 5 6 6 _ _ 1 14 2 17 2 20 3 19 4 18 6 22 7 21 7 27 4 30 1 24 2 21 1 13 3 20 _ _ _ _ 14 14 11 21 13 11 33 13 10 33 17 41 10 39 11 44 13 43 13 40 14 34 12 6 5 7 5 5 5 6 6 20 13 9 6 7 4 1 1 1 | 0 | 1 1 4 7 2 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 _ _ 6 7 7 8 9 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 _ _ | | | | | | | | | | | 0 _ 2 _ 3 4 3
CHAPTER 1

3 13 13 11 12 2 1 0 | | 0 | 1 5 2 1 | | | 1 3 8 12 16 7 15 19 4 13 26 1 12 29 1 11 26 1 13 26 2 11 27 7 16 19

2 3 2 4 6 5 3 2 2 _ 39 _ 6 _ _

20 15

15 15 10 8 3 2 2 8 _ _ 7 4 2 1 7 _ _ 6 4 2 3 5 _ _

4 22 11 5 40 14 4 46 15 5 56 15 4 34 13 _ _ _ _ _ _

23 15 10 10 14 31 13 _ _ _ _ 9 8 _ _

3 10 14 10 11 7 20 18 10 2 _ _ 6 _ _ 6

7 12 19 _ _ _ _ _ _

20

20 20

30

20

20 20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0600

1200 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

56

Home

Contents

Index

1.298 WMO No 61415 NOUADHIBOU / MAURITANIA (20 56 N, 17 02 W) Height above MSL 3 m Climatic Table compiled from 7 to 21 years observations, 1960 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 0.1mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1018 1017 1015 1014 1014 1014 1013 1012 1013 1014 1015 1017 1015 _ _

C 25 26 27 27 27 29 28 29 31 30 28 26 28 _ _

C 15 15 16 16 17 18 19 20 21 19 18 15 17 _ _

C 30 32 34 35 34 37 35 36 38 37 34 31 39* _ 42

C 12 12 13 14 15 16 16 18 18 17 15 12 10 _ 6

% 70 75 81 87 87 87 90 88 84 83 78 73 82 _ _

% 50 50 50 52 52 54 65 64 57 54 51 52 54 _ _

Oktas 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 _ _ 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 _ _

mm 2 2 2 1 | | 1 4 8 7 6 2 _ 35 _ 1 1 | 1 | | | 1 2 2 1 1 _ 10 _ 44 35 13 60 25 69 15 84 10 92 91 75 71 78 5 5 5 4 8 7 3 0 0 | | 1 1 | 5 1 | | 0 0 | | 1 1 0 1 1 | _ _ 1 1 2 | | | 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 _ _ 1 1 1 | | | 1 1 2 | | 0 1 _ _ 1 1 2 | | | 2 2 6 4 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 2 3 2 _ _ 23 42 24 30 40 19 40 33 11 60 26 72 19 79 11 65 56 6 8 1 1 1 0 1 3 5 5 4 3 1 | | 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 6 1 1 1 | | 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 _ _ 1 | 2 1 0 | 2 4 7 9 6 6 1 1 1 | 0 | 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 14 15 14 15 16 16 14 13 13 13 12 13 14 _ _ 14 15 15 17 18 18 16 14 14 14 13 12 15 1 2 2 4 4 1 1 1 | 0 1 | _ 3 1 3
CHAPTER 1

2 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 2 _ 23 _ 10 _ _

1 11 3 15 1 1 1 1 1 _ _ 6 5 6 3 5 _ _

2 18 2 20 1 12 | 1 1 1 _ _ 7 4 2 8 _ _

2 10 3 3 3 7 3 _ _ 7 2 2 2 3 _ _

58 16 59 23

82 10 61 22

40 35 13 21 78 27 50 25 _ _ _ _ 8 _ _

43 34 14 71 15 _ _ _ _ 4 _ _

_ 17 _ _ 7

20

20 20

21

20

20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0600

1200 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

57

Home

Contents

Index

1.299 WMO No 61600 SAINT LOUIS (16 03 N, 16 27 W) Height above MSL 4 m Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1014 1013 1012 1011 1011 1012 1013 1012 1012 1012 1013 1014 1012 _ _

C 31 32 33 32 31 31 31 32 34 34 34 32 32 _ _

C 17 18 19 19 20 23 25 26 26 24 21 18 21 _ _

C 36 38 41 42 41 39 36 36 38 40 39 38 43* _ 46

C 13 15 15 16 17 20 22 22 22 20 17 14 12 _ 7

% 63 67 75 84 86 89 90 90 91 86 73 64 80 _ _

% 35 33 36 46 55 66 70 72 70 54 38 34 51 _ _

Oktas 3 3 2 3 3 4 6 6 5 3 3 3 4 _ _ 4 4 3 2 3 4 5 6 5 3 4 4 _ _ _

mm 2 2 | | 1 7 40 94 92 23 | 1 _ 262 _ | 1 0 0 | 2 5 9 9 3 | | _ 29 _ 29 47 18 43 38 11 59 27 76 12 68 27 19 13 19 6 3 1 2 3 4 1 | | 1 1 2 2 7 | 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1 1 1 _ _ | | | | 1 1 2 3 4 1 | 0 1 _ _ 0 0 0 0 2 | | | 1 | 2 2 5 6 6 7 5 7 15 25 44 11 19 29 39 34 31 23 55 17 11 55 12 23 15 13 19 6 | 2 5 3 2 | 3 4 9 7 3 1 1 1 4 5 4 9 | | 1 | 0 1 3 | | | 1 1 1 1 | 1 2 3 2 | 1 | 1 1 3 5 6 5 2 1 2 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 6 7 8 9 8 7 7 5 5 5 5 6 6 _ _ 11 10 11 12 11 10 9 8 8 8 8 10 10 _ _ | | | | | | | | | | | | _ 2 _ | | | | | 0 0 | | | | | _ 2 _ 20 | 1 |
CHAPTER 1

3 11 9 18

6 10

5 21 30 12 7 21 32 19 6 18 22 33 5 12 18 35 2 0 0 2 _ _ 5 0 | 6 29 2 17 1 11

7 27 34 9 32 36

5 10 27 32 7 2 1 | 2 _ _ 9 21 23 3 | | 8 14 1 | 3 0

39 15 38 35

33 20 11 23 30 32

26 43 18 39 19 _ _ _ _ 5 _ _

11 28 44 15 27 17 18 _ _ _ _ _ _ 6 _ _

7 11 15 _ _ _ _ _ _

3 11 14 _ _ _ _ _ _

20

20 20

30/17

20

20 20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder | | 1 3 9 8 2 | | _ 25 _ 20

0600

1200 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

58

Home

Contents

Index

1.300 WMO No 61641 DAKAR / YOFF (14 44 N, 17 30 W) Height above MSL 24 m Climatic Table compiled from 20 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 0.1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1014 1013 1012 1012 1012 1013 1013 1012 1012 1012 1012 1013 1012 _ _

C 25 25 26 25 26 28 30 30 31 31 30 28 28 _ _

C 18 18 18 19 21 23 25 26 25 25 23 21

C 32 34 34 31 30 33 33 34 33 35 36 36 39*

C 16 15 16 16 18 21 22 22 22 22 20 18 14 _ 8

% 78 85 88 90 89 87 84 87 89 87 80 76 85 _ _

% 55 61 64 69 70 72 72 75 76 69 57 52 66 _ _

Oktas 3 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 3 3 _ _ 4 3 3 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 4 4 4 _ _

mm 2 1 | | 2 10 61 165 134 37 1 | _ 413 _ | | 0 | | 2 9 15 13 5 | | _ 44 _ 48 47 60 30 74 16 80 59 24 15 14 17 42 5 3 1 2 3 3 8 2 2 1 | | 1 2 3 5 2 2 4 2 _ _ | 0 0 | | 1 1 2 4 2 | 1 1 _ _ 0 0 1 | | 2 5 6 7 3 | | 2 _ _ 0 | 1 1 2 | | 1 2 6 6 1 1 2 2 9 41 49 55 35 66 27 76 12 63 30 22 19 7 2 4 5 6 4 2 1 | | 2 2 4 3 6 8 3 _ _ 1 1 1 | 1 1 0 | | 1 5 7 | | 0 1 1 0 | | 2 2 4 5 8 1 | 0 | | 1 1 3 4 2 | 0 1 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 9 9 9 9 8 6 6 5 5 6 8 9 7 _ _ 12 12 13 13 11 9 8 8 8 9 11 12 11 _ _ | | | | | | | | | | | | _ 2 _ | | | | | | | | | | | | _ 2 _ 20 | | 0
CHAPTER 1

1 10 5 21

4 23

7 21 29 14 6 27 27 16 9 19 23 21 7 14 18 25 3 | | 3 _ _ 7 15 18 1 | 3 1 8 2

9 17 36

2 11 11 22 28 4 10 13 16 26 6 2 2 2 2 _ _ 2 12 11 19 | | 3 3 _ _ 4 | 1 5 _ _ 5 17 | | 3 1

24 10 46 19 48 40 35 53 44 21 _ _ _ _

55 29 45 48 44 16 _ _ _ _

8 14 10 _ _ _ _ _ _

6 15 _ _ _ _

_ _

_ 40

20

20 20

30/1

20

20 20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder 0 0 1 3 8 8 2 | | _ 22 _ 20

0800

1400 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

59

Home

Contents

Index

1.301 WMO No 61711 BANJUL / HALFDIE (13 27 N, 16 27 W) Height above MSL 2 m Climatic Table compiled from 4 to 30 years observations, 1931 to 1970
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 30 1012 1013 1013 1013 1013 1013 1013 1012 1012 1012 1012 1013 1013 _ _

C 31 32 35 33 31 31 30 29 31 31 31 31 31 _ _

C 15 16 17 19 19 22 23 22 22 21 19 16 19 _ _

C 37 39 40 41 41 38 34 33 35 37 35 35 * _ 41

C 7 10 11 12 14 19 21 20 17 16 12 9 _ 7

% 67 66 76 82 88 91 94 95 95 95 90 77 85 _ _

% 27 26 29 41 49 61 72 78 73 65 47 36 50 _ _

Oktas 4 3 3 2 4 5 6 6 6 5 4 3 4 _ _ 3 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 4 3 3 4 _ _

mm 3 3 | | 10 58 282 500 310 109 18 3 _ 1295 _ 0 0 0 0 0 5 13 19 15 5 | | _ 50 _ 47 52 44 55 52 45 37 7 26 6 16 7 14 6 8 7 9 3 2 1 3 2 5 3 3 5 7 5 8 2 1 2 3 3 3 5 5 5 4 8 0 4

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 8 8 8 6 7 5 6 5 5 6 6 8 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 7 _ _ 0 0 0
CHAPTER 1

5 11 7

9 11 0 0 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 2 _ _

7 12 8 13 7 11 9 13 6 17 5 11

0 0 | | | 1 1 0 0 _ 2 _ 7 _ _ _ _

8 11 6 13

2 13 3 10 4 2 4 4 3 _ _ 7 8 4 6 7 _ _

34 11 13 43 37 9 15 4 18

5 10 16 1 2 3 _ _ 6 3 8 6

37 11 27 37 43 _ _ 8 30 8 17 _ _ _ _

6 11 _ _ _ _

5-9 6-7

10

4-5

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

{ 0800 1500 Gale Fog

0600

1500

0800

1500

60

Home

Contents

Index

1.302 WMO No 61695 ZIGUINCHOR (12 33 N, 16 16 W) Height above MSL 23 m Climatic Table compiled from 20 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 0.1mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1012 1011 1011 1010 1011 1013 1013 1013 1012 1012 1011 1012 1012 _ _

C 34 36 38 38 36 35 32 32 32 33 34 33 34 _ _

C 18 19 20 20 22 24 24 24 23 24 22 19 21 _ _

C 38 40 42 43 41 38 36 35 35 36 37 37 43* _ 46

C 14 15 17 18 19 21 21 21 21 21 18 15 13 _ 10

% 67 73 76 85 90 93 96 98 98 98 91 74 87 _ _

% 36 36 36 43 52 65 75 79 77 71 54 41 55 _ _

Oktas 3 2 2 2 4 5 5 6 6 4 3 3 4 _ _ 3 3 2 2 3 5 6 7 6 5 4 4 4 _ _

mm | | | | 4 100 296 409 319 105 5 1 _ 1239 _ | | 0 | 2 11 21 25 22 12 2 | _ 95 _ 39 22 32 10 32 18 7 6 3 5 4 6 22 3 1 0 1 3 2 2 3 6 1 1 0 | | 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 _ _ | | 1 1 1 2 3 | 1 2 3 5 4 6 1 1 2 2 5 30 24 60 25 51 30 39 33 22 17 10 8 11 8 4 5 3 8 8 8 5 1 2 2 2 6 5 5 | 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 | 2 2 2 4 4 7

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 2 _ _ 6 6 5 4 4 5 4 4 3 3 4 6 5 _ _ 0 | | 0 0 | | | | | | | _ 1 _ | | 0 | 0 0 | | | 0 | 1 _ 2 _ 20 0 0 0
CHAPTER 1

3 12 39 8 18 36

7 10

5 11 27 34 6 17 27 35 6 14 18 49 6 10 7 3 4 2 | 4 _ _ 5 4 6 2 | 7 62 2 61 2 72 5 68 6 60 3 39

6 17 11

5 10 21 23 14 6 15 26 18 16

5 13 13 22 12 20 4 16 15 15 6 13 10 12 4 2 1 2 _ _ 9 2 | 6 _ _ 9 25 7 28

3 13 5 2 | | 1 _ _ 6 5 1 | 4 _ _

9 10 14 7

8 13 12 28 3 1 5 0 8 20 2 6

23 33

33 23 17 _ _ 6 _ _

18 61 12 19 25 _ _ _ _ 5 _ _

7 11 49 _ _ _ _ _ _

7 10 10 16 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

20

20 20

30/22

20

20 20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder 0 1 9 14 16 17 15 1 0 _ 73 _ 20

0600

1200 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

61

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Contents

Index

1.303 WMO No 61832 CONAKRY / GBESSIA (09 34 N, 13 37 W) Height above MSL 26 m Climatic Table compiled from 20 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1011 1011 1010 1010 1011 1013 1013 1013 1012 1012 1011 1011 1011 _ _

C 31 32 32 32 32 30 29 28 29 30 31 31 31 _ _

C 23 23 24 25 25 24 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 _ _

C 35 34 35 34 34 32 31 29 31 32 32 33 37* _ 41

C 21 22 23 22 22 21 21 22 20 22 21 22 19 _ 10

% 83 87 84 84 86 92 94 95 94 92 90 88 89 _ _

% 60 60 60 59 68 77 84 86 82 77 72 64 70 _ _

Oktas 2 2 2 3 5 6 7 7 6 6 4 2 4 _ _ 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 5 4 3 4 _ _

mm 1 1 3 23 136 396 1132 1102 617 295 72 6 _ 3784 _ 0 0 0 2 9 18 28 26 23 16 6 1 _ 129 _ 19 15 15 19 12 15 13 19 6 5 3 4 2 1 | 3 3 4 6 4 6 5 4 1 3 _ _ 1 1 1 2 1 2 5 0 1 1 1 3 7 40 7 50 11 10 11 10 12 7 6 4 5 5 13 11 9 _ _ 5 1 | 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 3 3 2 _ _ 4 19 36 1 10 39 1 2 2 9 3 11 2 1 | 1 2 1 3 5 3 4 4 2 2 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 _ _ 5 6 7 8 7 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 _ _ 0 0 | 0 | 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ | _ 1 | |
CHAPTER 1

6 11 21

5 12 50

4 27 16 14 26 3 17 12 24 31 5 13 14 22 29

3 12 13 40 3 5 6 15 36 7 8 24 9 23 9 29 3 34 5 32 5 33 6 38 8 36 _ _ _ _

0 | | | | | | | 1 _ 3 _ 20 _ _

15 14 10 11 22 17 7 16 15 9 11 14 9 16 17 10 23 20 17 19 16 22 18 12 15 15 12 _ _ _ _ _ _

5 13 33 12 15 13 3 11 35 16 13 13 4 9 28 23 16 10 9 8 9 8

9 10 6 7 1 4 3 6 _ _

7 11 5 2 2 | 2 _ _ 3 2 | | 3 _ _

4 11 37 19 5 12 42 14 2 5 32 15 9

9 17 5 11

6 16 36

3 10 30 14 13 17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

20

20 20

30

20

20 20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0600

1200 1200 0600 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

62

Home

Contents

Index

1.304 WMO No 61856 LUNGI (08 37 N, 13 12 W) Height above MSL 27 m Climatic Table compiled from 10 to 30 years observations, 1931 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1010 1010 1010 1010 1011 1013 1013 1013 1012 1011 1011 1011 1011 _ _

C 31 31 31 31 31 30 29 28 30 31 31 31 30 _ _

C 23 24 24 24 22 22 22 21 23 23 23 23 23 _ _

C 32 34 32 32 32 30 30 29 30 32 32 32 33* _ 37

C 22 23 23 24 23 23 21 21 22 22 22 22 19 _ 17

% 82 80 80 80 82 87 89 89 90 87 84 82 84 _ _

% 70 70 71 72 74 77 81 81 80 76 76 72 75 _ _

Oktas 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 6 6 5 5 _ _ 3 3 3 4 5 6 7 7 6 6 5 4 5 _ _

mm 3 5 8 45 193 348 691 788 500 299 111 22 _ 3013 _ 1 1 2 5 13 20 25 25 23 19 10 4 _ 148 _ 6 18 26 4 11 13 4 8 9 8 2 2 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 _ _ 0 5 9 1 33 1 37 4 35 6 30 3 30 1 40 1 44 0 46 2 36 3 34 1 40 0 37 2 37 _ _ _ _ 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 4 0 0 1 _ _ 3 0 2 1 0 3 0 2 2 7 4 5 2 _ _ 3 1 1 2 3 5 5 3 4 6 4 2 3 _ _ 2 4 1 1 5 6 5 2 26 26 5 47 23 1 46 25 2 45 30 2 37 30 2 37 16 3 41 21 2 35 2 18 2 21 3 16 1 22 2 27 0 24 0 21 2 21 2 26 1 33 2 40 2 25 _ _ _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 3 3 4 _ _ 8 8 8 9 8 6 6 7 6 6 6 7 7 _ _ 0 0 0 | | | 0 0 0 | 0 0 _ | _ | 0 |
CHAPTER 1

1 11 20 3 15 21 2 14 25 1 16 18 1 6 8

4 10

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | _ 1 _ 12 _ _

5 12 13 8 19 13 5 2 7 10 5 4

3 17 12 7 22 13 6 14 10 1 2 0 5 3 4 7 3 6

1 10 42 21 3 10 39 18 1 1 0 3 _ _ 7 29 18 5 30 22 2 25 24 4 37 23 _ _ _ _ _ _

8 12 11 9 15 24 4 21 24 8 19 23 5 13 15 _ _ _ _ _ _

2 11 13 _ _ _ _ _ _

20

14 12

30

10

10 20 18

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0900

1500 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1500

0900

0900

1500

63

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Contents

Index

1.305 WMO No 65592 TABOU (4 25 N, 7 22 W) Height above MSL 21 m Climatic Table compiled from 10 to 22 years observations, 1931 to 1970
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 10 1010 1009 1009 1009 1010 1012 1013 1013 1012 1011 1010 1010 1011 _ _

C 29 30 30 30 29 28 27 26 27 28 29 29 29 _ _

C 23 23 23 24 24 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 _ _

C 31 31 32 32 31 30 29 28 28 29 30 31 33* _ 40

C 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 21 21 19 _ 17

% 96 95 96 96 95 91 89 92 95 95 95 95 94 _ _

% 79 78 78 78 82 84 80 82 88 84 81 79 81 _ _

Oktas 4 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 5 6 _ _ 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 6 5 5 6 _ _

mm 68 42 95 130 401 581 186 96 240 194 210 153 _ 2396 _ 7 5 9 12 21 21 13 16 21 18 16 12 _ 171 _ 6 6 5 4 7 4 2 1 1 2 3 4 4 _ _ 3 3 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 _ _ 4 3 2 3 2 1 1 2 4 2 3 3 2 _ _ 4 9 21 11 14 28

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 3 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 6 4 3 3 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5 7 7
CHAPTER 1

4 17 28 11 10 18 4 19 28 8 13 19

5 13 30 12 14 16 4 20 28 10 10 17 2 29 35 9 5 14 2 11 4 18 1 20 3 22 8 27 7 19 8 19 _ _ _ _

7 7 8 8 8 9 8 6 6 7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1 28 44 10 3 21 43 4 32 33 4 30 27 4 28 22 6 16 35 4 22 31 _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 4 8 3 7 8 _ _

21

22

22

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

{ 0800 1300 Gale Fog

0600

1200

0800

1300

64

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Contents

Index

1.306 WMO No 65578 ABIDJAN (05 15 N, 03 56 W) Height above MSL 8 m Climatic Table compiled from 20 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2003
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 20 1010 1010 1009 1009 1011 1013 1014 1014 1013 1012 1011 1010 1011 _ _

C 31 32 32 32 32 30 28 28 28 30 32 31 31 _ _

C 24 25 26 26 25 24 23 22 23 24 25 25 24 _ _

C 33 34 34 34 33 32 30 29 30 32 33 33 35* _ 40

C 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 21 22 22 23 21 20 _ 17

% 95 94 92 92 92 93 94 96 97 94 91 92 94 _ _

% 72 74 75 75 77 82 82 83 82 78 73 72 77 _ _

Oktas 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 6 6 4 6 _ _ 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 5 _ _

mm 22 47 110 142 309 543 238 36 74 172 168 85 _ 1943 _ 2 3 5 7 13 18 15 6 8 13 13 4 _ 107 _ 8 6 6 8 5 4 4 5 2 1 2 2 2 1 | | | 1 2 2 1 _ _ | 1 1 1 2 4 13 17 5 21 20 7 21 16 9 18 15 8 16 11 9 42 6 37 8 35 9 32 7 30 7 28 3 30 3 38 4 35 6 29 5 35 6 42 6 35 _ _ _ _ 9 3 2 1 2 2 0 0 0 | 1 6 2 _ _ 5 3 1 1 1 1 | | | 1 1 5 1 _ _ 1 | | 1 1 1 | | | | | 1 1 _ _ 1 13 40 21 2 20 47 21 2 23 42 22 4 28 42 16 7 32 37 14 5 26 36 18 3 23 43 21 1 21 49 19 1 19 55 18 2 22 58 14 4 39 41 8 6 2 3 2 2 3 | 1 1 | 1 4 2 _ _ 5 3 5 6 5 8 9 8 6 3 5 8 6 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 _ _ 5 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 5 5 _ _ | 0 | | | | 0 0 | | | | _ 1 _ 2 1 | | | | | 1 1 | | 1 _ 7 _ 20 1 2 6
CHAPTER 1

14 10 10 1 1 | 2 7 12 7 _ _ 4 1 | 1 2 8 7 4 _ _

2 15 19 15 2 12 26 24 1 1 1 9 26 24 4 27 27 7 31 21 8

2 13 20 1 1 _ _

4 15 11 8 21 17 _ _ _ _ _ _

5 19 40 12 3 24 44 17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

20

20 20

20

20

20 20 20

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder 7 8 5 1 | | 3 6 4 _ 44 _ 20

0600

1200 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

65

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Index

1.307 WMO No 65472 ACCRA (5 36 N, 0 10 W) Height above MSL 69 m Climatic Table compiled from 5 to 30 years observations, 1931 to 1960
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 10 1011 1010 1010 1010 1011 1013 1014 1014 1013 1012 1011 1011 1012 _ _

C 32 32 32 32 31 29 27 27 28 30 31 31 30 _ _

C 23 24 24 24 23 23 22 21 22 23 21 23 23 _ _

C 33 34 33 33 33 31 29 29 30 31 32 33 34* _ 36

C 20 21 21 22 21 21 20 20 21 21 21 21 19 _ _

% 84 82 80 79 81 87 86 85 81 81 80 81 82 _ _

% 65 66 67 69 72 78 76 74 73 73 70 65 71 _ _

Oktas 4 4 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 6 5 4 6 _ _ 3 3 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 5 _ _

mm 16 37 73 82 145 193 49 16 40 80 38 18 _ 787 _ 1 2 5 5 9 11 5 3 5 7 3 2 _ 58 _ 2 0 1 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 _ _ 1 0 2 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 _ _ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 _ _ 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 61 12 22 2 58 15 25 1 56 17 23 3 51 20 21 3 46 17 29 5 47 18 28 7 25 2 21 2 17 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ _ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ _ 2 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 _ _ 8 66 18 7 69 22 3 67 27 6 61 27 8 57 25 4 55 35 0 46 53 0 39 59 1 61 38 5 75 16 5 76 17 8 74 16 5 62 30 _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 1 1 5 1 1 1 2 0 1 1 1 1 _ _ 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 _ _ 1 0 1 0 3 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 _ _ 11 12 13 12 11 10 12 13 14 12 12 11 12 _ _ | 0 0 | | | 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ | _ 4 2 1
CHAPTER 1

| 0 1 | 1 1 | 1 3 _ 13 _ 12 _ _

3 18 46 3 31 43 1 16 64 0 0 0 1 _ _

2 66 17 14 1 64 19 15 1 56 26 16 7 55 14 21 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

30

12 14

30/20

5-6

5-6 5-6 23

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0700

1400 0700 1400 Gale Fog

1500

0900

0900

1500

66

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Index

1.308 WMO No 65344 COTONOU (6 21 N, 2 23 E) Height above MSL 9 m Climatic Table compiled from 5 to 22 years observations, 1931 to 1970
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 0.1mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 5 1010 1010 1010 1010 1011 1013 1014 1014 1013 1012 1011 1011 1012 _ _

C 31 32 32 32 31 29 28 28 29 30 31 31 30 _ _

C 24 25 26 25 24 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 _ _

C 32 33 33 34 33 32 30 29 30 31 32 32 34* _ 35

C 20 21 22 22 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 21 19 _ 17

% 93 91 89 90 93 93 91 91 92 94 95 95 92 _ _

% 72 71 71 73 76 81 81 79 79 77 74 71 75 _ _

Oktas 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 5 6 _ _ 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 6 6 6 5 4 6 _ _

mm 22 37 94 129 214 418 161 47 85 169 54 21 _ 1451 _ 2 2 7 9 16 21 12 8 11 13 7 2 _ 110 _ 22 17 6 10 18 5 1 0 0 10 12 22 10 _ _ 6 3 1 3 8 2 0 0 0 0 2 9 3 _ _ 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 _ _ 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 _ _ 0 15 21 14 22 3 34 17 12 14 6 41 12 14 20 2 17 15 17 22 2 10 12 27 22 3 27 27 24 10 2 56 38 2 56 30 3 41 38 1 4 2 8 6 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 1 _ _ 4 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 _ _ 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 _ _ 1 9 52 23 2 1 1 1 3 1 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 _ _ 3 0 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 4 0 0 2 _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 6 9 9 8 6 7 11 12 11 6 5 5 8 _ _ 10 12 11 11 10 14 16 15 14 10 9 8 12 _ _ _ _ 8 2 0
CHAPTER 1

2 22 55 17 5 16 65 5 21 57 9 9

0 1 0 | 1 | 1 1 4 _ 18 _ _ _

4 19 56 15 3 11 61 23 0 3 62 35

0 10 65 24 0 2 70 22

8 10

1 16 21 25 27 1 12 0 8 32 31

1 18 53 18 3 19 67 11 2 32 45 12 2 15 59 18 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

5 16 31 16

2 29 21 17 17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

22

22

22

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0600

1200 0600 1200 Gale Fog

1200

0600

0600

1200

67

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Index

1.309 WMO No 65201 LAGOS / IKEJA (6 35 N, 3 20 E) Height above MSL 38 m Climatic Table compiled from 7 to 18 years observations, 1931 to 1970
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 10 1011 1010 1010 1010 1011 1014 1014 1014 1013 1012 1011 1011 1012 _ _

C 32 33 33 32 31 29 28 28 28 30 31 32 31 _ _

C 22 22 23 23 23 22 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 _ _

C 34 35 35 34 33 32 30 30 30 32 33 33 35* _ 36

C 18 19 20 20 21 20 19 18 20 20 20 19 17 _ 14

% 89 85 84 84 86 89 90 88 88 88 88 89 87 _ _

% 64 61 67 70 75 82 81 78 80 79 75 67 73 _ _

Oktas 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 _ _ 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 6 6 4 6 _ _

mm 27 42 105 125 220 346 188 68 185 198 75 31 _ 1610 _ 1 3 7 8 14 18 13 9 16 15 7 2 _ 113 _ 12 17 11 7 3 4 2 1 1 1 6 10 15 6 _ _ 7 4 3 4 2 0 0 0 2 5 6 4 _ _ 2 0 1 3 2 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 _ _ 1 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 _ _ 0 2 0 7 1 9 5 62 8 56 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 | _ _ 7 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 _ _ 4 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 _ _ 4 8 22 10 3 41 2 13 1 7

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 1 2 3 3 2 2 5 6 4 2 1 1 3 _ _ 3 7 9 7 5 7 11 12 9 5 6 4 7 _ _ 0 0 | 1 1 | 0 0 0 | 0 0 _ 3 _ 20 9 2
CHAPTER 1

6 20 39 17 3 25 48 15 3 24 38 14 5 27 34 4 0 1 0 9

4 14 6 16 4 2

8 10 52 7 4 56 8 57

1 16 1 23 2 20 1 2 5 4

1 1 2 3 5 3 6 8 19 _ 79 _ 18 _ _

9 10

5 17 13 56

9 44 18 5 45 44 1 44 48 4 33 47

0 17 34 12 36 1 19 41 1 1 0 0 2 _ _ 7 31

9 27 12 50 4 2 0 8 10 67 2 11 68 1 9 68 9 55 _ _ _ _

5 11 3 30 3 13 1 37 2 19 _ _ _ _

2 13 33 17 2 12 46 23 2 13 32 12 3 13 38 23 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

8 14 _ _ _ _

16

16/14 14/15

16/17

7-8

7-8 7-8 12

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0800

1400 0800 1600 Gale Fog

1500

0900

0700

1500

68

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Index

1.310 WMO No 65243 LOKOJA (7 48 N, 6 44 E) Height above MSL 44 m Climatic Table compiled from 9 to 18 years observations, 1941 to 1970
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

Calm

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 1010 1010 1009 1009 1011 1013 1013 1013 1012 1012 1011 1011 1011 _ _ 14-15

C 33 35 35 34 32 31 30 30 30 31 33 33 32 _ _

C 21 23 25 25 24 23 23 23 23 23 22 20 23 _ _

C 36 37 38 37 35 33 32 32 32 33 34 34 38* _ 39

C 16 18 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 19 16 15 _ 13

% 73 69 70 71 77 79 79 78 81 80 76 75 76 _ _

% 44 42 49 53 62 67 69 69 71 67 56 45 58 _ _

Oktas 3 4 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 5 3 5 _ _ 3 3 5 5 6 6 6 7 6 5 4 2 5 _ _

mm 4 9 55 80 164 171 175 151 211 130 14 2 _ 1166 _ | 1 3 6 10 10 12 10 14 10 1 | _ 77 _ 2 31 15 17 8 21 4 3 5 2 4 4 4 5 5 2 4 3 4 _ _ 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 _ _ 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 0 1 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Calm

NW

SW

NW

SW

NE

SE

NE

SE

Knots 4 5 6 5 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 _ _ _ _ 0 | | 1 1 | 0 | 1 1 | 0 _ 4 _ 1 1 1
CHAPTER 1

1 16 13 23 11 31 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 9 4 3 0 3 3 4 5 7 7 21 11 46 5 22 14 51 9 18 18 46 6 15 22 43 5 11 23 53 3 17 18 53 6 21 16 44 4 25 17 46 5 25 15 43 8 16

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ 3 _ 15 _ _

2 34 16 19 1 10 _ _ _ _

8 19 15 41 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

16

9-10 9-10

16/15

17-18

12-15 15

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

0800 0800 Gale Fog

1500

0800

0900

1500

69

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Index

1.311 WMO No 65264 CALABAR (4 58 N, 8 21 E) Height above MSL 63 m Climatic Table compiled from 4 to 16 years observations, 1931 to 1970
Temperatures Average pressure at MSL Average humidity Average cloud cover Mean wind speed Number of days with

Precipitation

Wind distribution Percentage of observations from

Mean highest in each month

Mean lowest in each month

Mean daily max.

Mean daily min.

Month

No. of days with 1 mm or more

Average fall

| Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE NE SE W W N E S E N S

hPa January February March April May June July August September October November December Means Totals Extreme values No. of years observations 1011 1011 1010 1010 1011 1013 1014 1014 1013 1013 1011 1011 1012 _ _ 14-15

C 31 32 32 31 31 29 28 27 28 29 30 31 30 _ _

C 22 23 23 23 23 23 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 _ _

C 33 35 35 34 33 32 30 30 31 32 32 33 35* _ 37

C 19 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 20 18 _ 17

% 86 84 85 85 86 89 91 91 90 89 88 86 87 _ _

% 62 59 67 72 75 79 84 85 85 79 73 65 74 _ _

Oktas 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 7 7 7 5 7 _ _ 4 4 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 4 6 _ _

mm 39 67 168 249 271 414 379 344 434 349 184 55 _ 2953 _ 3 4 11 13 17 20 21 22 23 20 12 4 _ 170 _ 12 12 8 12 7 13 8 13 9 13 12 5 2 5 7 9 6 3 4 9 3 4 7 7 6 4 3 2 3 5 5 3 4 _ _ 4 14 13 12 16 13 4 19 19 13 8 20 19 9 21 16 8 21 16 8 8 9 9 11 7 12 5 12 7 13 7 12 8 15 7 13 9 13 9 13

Knots 8 12 12 11 11 10 11 10 9 10 9 9 10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | | | | | | | 0 0 | 0 | _ 2 _ 11 7 5
CHAPTER 1

4 5 5 4 3 5 7 10 11 _ 77 _ _ _

7 21 20 11 5 20 24 14 7 20 27 17 6 19 23 17 7 19 20 11

11 12 13 13 8 10 _ _ _ _

7 16 14 12 10 13 5 11 13 14 16 13 7 18 19 12 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9 13 _ _ _ _

16

14-16 9-10

15-16

10

4-6

Mean of highest each year Mean of lowest each year

Highest recorded temperature Lowest recorded temperature

| Rare { All observations

Thunder

{ Gale Fog

0700

1500

0900

1500

70

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CHAPTER 1

1.312

METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALES Fahrenheit to Celsius


Fahrenheit
0 F 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 +0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 733 678 622 567 511 456 400 344 289 233 178 178 122 67 11 +4 4 100 156 211 267 322 378 433 489 739 683 628 572 517 461 406 350 294 239 183 172 117 61 06 +5 0 106 161 217 272 328 383 439 494 744 689 633 578 522 467 411 356 300 244 189 167 111 56 0 +5 6 111 167 222 278 333 389 444 500 750 694 639 583 528 472 417 361 306 250 194 161 106 50 +0 6 61 117 172 228 283 339 394 450 506 1 2 3 4 Degrees Celsius 756 700 644 589 533 478 422 367 311 256 200 156 100 44 +1 1 67 122 178 233 289 344 400 456 511 761 706 650 594 539 483 428 372 317 261 206 150 94 39 +1 7 72 128 183 239 294 350 406 461 517 767 711 656 600 544 489 433 378 322 267 211 144 89 33 +2 2 78 133 189 244 300 356 411 467 522 772 717 661 606 550 494 439 383 328 272 217 139 83 28 +2 8 83 139 194 250 306 361 417 472 528 778 722 667 611 556 500 444 389 333 278 222 133 78 22 +3 3 89 144 200 256 311 367 422 478 533 783 728 672 617 561 506 450 394 339 283 228 128 72 17 +3 9 94 150 206 261 317 372 428 483 539 5 6 7 8 9

Celsius to Fahrenheit
Celsius
0 C 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 +0 10 20 30 40 50 940 760 580 400 220 40 +14 0 320 320 500 680 860 1040 1220 958 778 598 418 238 58 +12 2 302 338 518 698 878 1058 1238 976 796 616 436 256 76 +10 4 284 356 536 716 896 1076 1256 1 2 3 4 Degrees Fahrenheit 994 814 634 454 274 94 +8 6 266 374 554 734 914 1094 1274 1012 832 652 472 292 112 +6 8 248 392 572 752 932 1112 1292 1030 850 670 490 310 130 +5 0 230 410 590 770 950 1130 1310 1048 868 688 508 328 148 +3 2 212 428 608 788 968 1148 1328 1066 886 706 526 346 166 +1 4 194 446 626 806 986 1166 1346 1084 904 724 544 364 184 04 +17 6 464 644 824 1004 1184 1364 1102 922 742 562 382 202 22 +15 8 482 662 842 1022 1202 1382 5 6 7 8 9

HECTOPASCALS TO INCHES
HECTOPASCALS 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050

28

29

INCHES (1) (for small values) millimetres 50 60 40 15 2 inches 25

30

31

MILLIMETRES TO INCHES
0 0 10 05 20 1 30

70 3

80

90 35

100 4

0 0 5 10

500 20 30

(2) (for large values) millimetres 1500 2000 1000 40 50 60 70 inches 80 90

2500 100 110

3000 120

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Chapter 2 - Arquiplago da Madeira and Ilhas Selvagens
10 10

17

50

40

30

20 10

2
1 .1
Ilha do Porto Santo

2.13 Porto Santo


Sa nto
to

2.1

Po r

33

2 .2 9

1689

to d Por

t or oP

to an oS

&

Ba

50

2.3

do

1689

33

50

72
Ilha da Madeira
Canial 1685

40

2.2 8

2.39
Funchal 1685

40

7 2.2

16

55

50

1685

10

10

2.6

30
5

Ilhas Selvagens

2.73

Ilhas Desertas

30

2. 69

30
3133 5

30 16W
55 50

10

Longitude 17 West from Greenwich

40

30

20

0306

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CHAPTER 2 ARQUIPLAGO DA MADEIRA AND ISLAS SELVAGENS


GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1831, 3133
1

Route
2.6 The island may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given in the coastal directions at 2.11.

Scope of the chapter


1

2.1 The chapter is divided into the following sections: Ilha do Porto Santo (2.5). Ilha do Madeira (2.21). Funchal (2.39). Ilhas Desertas (2.69). Ilhas Selvagens (2.73).

Topography
1

Description
1

2.2 Arquiplago da Madeira, consisting of Ilha do Porto Santo, Ilha da Madeira, Ilha Deserta Grande and Ilha Bugio together with several smaller islands lie between 345 and 390 miles from the coast of Morocco. Islas Selvagens (3006N 1557W) (2.73) lie about 135 miles S of Ilha Bugio.

2.7 Ilha do Porto Santo contains many rocky mountains in its NE portion. All the N coast of the island is characterised by high rocky cliffs, generally inaccessible, with rocks above and below water lying along their bases. The central portion of Ilha do Porto Santo, though considerably less elevated than the extremities, is high near the cliffs of the NW coast, where in some places it has an elevation of 244 m, whence it slopes S terminating in a white sandy beach which forms the entire SE coast of the island. The SW extremity is rocky with hills over 275 m high. The salient points of Ilha do Porto Santo are distinguished by the islets lying off them. The island is remarkably destitute of trees.

Exercise areas
1

Hazards
1

2.3 Submarines exercise frequently, both surfaced and dived, in areas best seen on the chart. A good lookout is to be kept for them when passing through the waters described in this chapter. For further details see The Mariners Handbook and Annual Notices to Mariners.

2.8 Exercise areas. See 2.3. Fishing areas. There are local fishing grounds situated 1 and 2 miles N of Ilhu de Cima and mile SE of Ilhu de Fora.

Natural conditions
1

Natural conditions
1

2.4 Magnetic anomalies may occur near the coastline of the islands described in this chapter. Current. The islands lie in the flow of the SWgoing Canary Current (1.249). There is a marked increase in the rate of the SW current between Ilha do Porto Santo and Ilha da Madeira. The current splits at Ilha do Porto Santo and a secondary flow passes N of Ilha do Porto Santo and thence along the N shore of Ilha da Madeira. Thence it turns S and E around the W and S shores of Ilha da Madeira until meeting the main SW flow again off Ponta da Cruz (3238N 1657W). An eddy forms here and extends up to 4 miles offshore.

2.9 Local magnetic anomaly. See 2.4. Currents. See 2.4. Nature of the bottom in the vicinity of the island is mainly fine white sand, rock, coral shells and gravel.

Directions Principal marks


1

2.10 Landmarks: Pico do Facho (elevation 517 m) (3305N 1619W) surmounted by a dipole radio mast (23 m in height), red obstruction lights. Ana Ferreira (elevation 283 m) (3302N 1622W), with a summit shaped like a column. Major light: Ilhu de Cima Light (white square tower and dwelling, 15 m in height ) (33031N 16165W).

Circumnavigation ILHA DO PORTO SANTO


1

General information
Charts 1831, 1689

Description
1

2.5 Ilha do Porto Santo (3304N 1620W) which is oriented in a NE/SW direction, is the NE island of Arquiplago da Madeira and lies 21 miles from Ilha da Madeira.

2.11 From a position N of Focinho do Forte (33062N 16191W), the N point of Ilha do Porto Santo which is fronted by a crescent shaped rock and Baixa dos Barbeiros, a small islet lying 1 cable NNW of the point, the track leads initially E, passing (with positions relative to Focinho do Forte): N of Baixio do Nordeste (2 miles NNE), rocky with a depth of 19 3 m. The sea breaks over it occasionally. Thence the track leads SE, passing: NE of Ilhu de Fora (2 miles ENE), thickly wooded, with a 93 m high peak at its centre, the N of three

73

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CHAPTER 2

islets separated from each other and Ilha do Porto Santo by navigable channels. Thence the track leads S, passing: E of Baixa do Meio (1 miles ENE), the middle islet, 11 m high, which consists of a group of rocks with a few trees on them, thence: E of Ilhu das Cenouras (1 miles E), the inner islet, 108 m high, composed of rocky cliffs covered with trees. Thence the track continues S, passing (with positions relative to Ilhu de Cima Light (33031N 16165W)): E of Ponta do Nordeste (2 miles NNW), a bold promontory formed by three cliffs of which the highest with an elevation of 450 m, lies about 5 cables SW of the point, thence: E of Ponta dos Ferreiros (1 miles NNW), a bold steep point with Baixa do Cotrim, a rock less than 1 m in height, lying 1 cables SE from it. A dangerous underwater rock lies close ENE of Baixa do Cotrim. Thence: E of Ponta do Gal (7 cables WNW), the SE point of Ilha do Porto Santo. Enseada dos Frades is the bight between Ponta dos Ferreiros and Ilhu de Cima. Thence: E of Ilhu de Cima, from which a light (2.10) is exhibited. A shoal with a depth of 145 m over it lies 5 cables SSW and a wreck with a least depth of 13 m over it lies 1 mile SW from the light. The island is bare and steepto except at its NW end and is connected to Ponto do Gal by a rocky ledge through which there is a very narrow boat passage, about midway, with a depth of 45 m. Thence the track leads SW, passing: SE of Porto do Porto Santo S Mole Light (1 miles W), thence: (Directions for Porto do Porto Santo continue at 2.17) 2.12 SE of Ponta da Calheta (5 miles WSW), the S point of Ilha do Porto Santo, thence: SE of a rocky patch (5 miles WSW) with a depth of 74 m over it, thence: SE of Ponta do Ilhu (6 miles SW), the S point of Ilhu de Baixo which is separated from Ponta da Calheta by Boqueiro de Baixo, a channel 2 cables wide which is safe for boats in moderate weather. The island is bordered by high rocky cliffs, and is steepto except at Ponta da Pedra Preta, the N point. From E or W the island presents a somewhat tableshaped summit with a hummock, attaining an elevation of 179 m near its N end. Thence the track leads WNW and N, passing (with positions relative to Ilhu Ferro Light (33 02 1N 16241W)): W of Ilhu Ferro from where a light is exhibited. The island is separated from Ponta da Canaveira by a channel about 1 cables wide and has a coastline of rocky inaccessible cliffs. It is steepto on its W side with depths of 100 m only about 6 cables off. Thence the track leads NNE, passing: WNW of Ponta da Canaveira (4 cables ENE) which is a double point and much lower than the adjacent cliffs which are nearly 270 m high. The coast from Ponta da Canaveira to Focinho do Forte about 6 miles NE is faced by cliffs and fronted by rocky ledges extending up to 2 cables offshore. Thence:

WNW of Ponta do Varadouros (3 miles NNE), thence: WNW of Ilhu da Fonte da Areia (4 miles NNE) (elevation 78 m), a black coloured islet of basaltic structure which is separated from Ilha do Porto Santo by a deep clear channel. Thence the track leads NE, passing: NW of Ilha do Porto Santo N coast Light (4 miles NE), thence: SE of Baixo de Noroeste (8 miles N) with a depth of 8 m; it is steepto and breaks heavily in bad weather. Thence the track leads E to a position N of Focinho do Forte. Useful marks: Ilha do Porto Santo N coast Light (white tower, red bands, 4 m in height) (33056N 16202W) Cement silo (33034N 16184W) TV mast (red, lattice) (33040N 16189W) Fuel tanks (33036N 16191W) Nossa Senhora da Piedade Church (33 03 3N 16199W); a pier extends SSE from the shore 1 cables SE of the church. Airport tower (elevation 107 m) (33 03 4N 16205W) Mast (33036N 16212W) Radio tower (elevation 226 m) (33043N 16218W) red obstruction light. Wind turbine (33033N 16216W) Ilhu Ferro Light (white tower, red lantern with building, 14 m in height) (33021N 16241W).

Porto Santo
Chart 1689 with plan Porto do Porto Santo

General information
1

2.13 Position. Port of Porto Santo (3303N 1619E) is situated about 1 miles W of Ilhu de Cima Light (2.10). Function. It is a small harbour mainly used by the tourist trade. Approach and entry. Baa do Porto Santo is approached between Ilhu de Cima and Ilhu de Baixo (2.12), and the port is entered from W between the heads of two moles which are cable apart. Traffic. In 2004 there were 32 vessel movements totalling 124 436 dwt. Port Authority. Administracao dos Portos da Regiao Autonoma da Madeira, Porto de Abrigo do Porto Santo, 9400 Porto Santo, Madeira, Portugal.

Limiting conditions
1

2.14 Deepest and longest berth: South Mole, see 2.19. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 21 m; mean neap range about 09 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water is 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled. Cruise vessel of 15 065 tons, length 156 m and draught 5.9 m. Local weather and sea state. Prevailing winds are from N. Winds from S quadrant can throw up a high sea into Baa do Porto Santo often making anchorage untenable. Wind and waves from SW are more frequent and of a longer duration than from SE. During summer the occurrence of sudden gusts of wind with variations in intensity and direction is frequent in the

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harbour. E wind flows down the slopes which lie to the N and NE of the harbour impeding manouveres within the port; at nightfall the wind diminishes or ceases to blow.

Arrival information
1

2.15 Notice of ETA should be sent 24 hours prior to arrival to the agent and request for pilot up to 1600 on the day prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Outer anchorages. A large commercial anchorage lies centred about 1 mile SW from the head of South Mole, with depths from 141 to 56 m. There are anchorages for small craft close W and WSW of North Mole. Prohibited anchorage. Anchorage is prohibited in the following areas: Within the harbour entrance; the daily interisland ferry turns around prior to berthing; S of South Mole, due to the presence of the NATO sealine and mooring buoys; In the vicinity of an oil pipeline, extending 5 cables S from the coast 1 miles W of Ponta do Gal, with several oil tanks near its root; Around a submarine outfall extending SW from Vila Baleria (3303N 1620W); Around two submarine outfalls extending SW from Campo de Baixo (3303N 1621W) In the vicinity of a submarine cable, extending seaward from a position 1 miles NE of Ponta da Calheta (3301N 1623W). Submarine pipelines, outfalls and cables, the positions of which can best be seen on the chart are laid in Baa do Porto Santo. Pilotage is available from Funchal. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Tugs are available from Funchal.

Entry. From a position SE of Porto do Porto Santo S Mole Light, the track leads to the harbour, with the chart as the best guide, keeping clear of a wreck, lying 1 miles SE of the light, with a depth of 13 m over it and clear of the Oil Terminal moorings lying S of the South Mole. Useful marks: Cement silo (33034N 16184W) TV mast (red, lattice) (33040N 16189W) Fuel tanks (33036N 16191W) Nossa Senhora da Piedade Church (33 03 3N 16199W).

Oil terminal
1

2.18 An oil pipeline (Nato SeaLine) extends 2 cables SSE from the S side of the South Mole, its seaward extremity being indicated by a lighted buoy (uncharted); four mooring buoys (lit) are situated close N, NNE, NE and SW of this buoy.

Berths
1

2.19 There is a cement quay, with depths alongside of 65 m, and three mooring dolphins projecting from the inner side of the South Mole opposite the entrance. On the inner side of the S section of the South Mole there is a ferry terminal with depths alongside of 62 m. Tankers can also berth on the inner face of South Mole, which is 300 m in length; the oil pipeline headers are situated there.

Port services
1

Harbour
1

2.16 General layout. Commercial berths, including a ferry terminal, lie in the S part of the harbour; the N part is occupied by a marina and small craft moorings. An oil terminal lies S of the harbour.

2.20 Other facilities: hospital at Funchal; no oily waste reception facilities; garbage collection can be arranged. Supplies: Fuel is reported to be available together with limited supplies of fresh water and provisions. Communications: An airport, from where there are daily flights to and from Madeira is situated in the centre of the island NW of Vila Baleria. A passenger ferry operates daily to and from Ilha da Madeira.

ILHA DA MADEIRA General information


Charts 1831, 1685

Route
1

2.21 Ilha da Madeira (3245N 1700W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given in the coastal directions at 2.27.

Topography
1

Porto Santo Harbour from N (2.16)


(Original dated 2006) (Photograph Copyright Granted) 2

Directions for entering harbour


1

(continued from 2.11) 2.17 Landmark: Pico do Facho (3305N 1619W) (2.10). Major light: Ilhu de Cima Light (33031N 16165W) (2.10). 75

2.22 Ilha da Madeira, the most important island of the archipelago, is traversed by a range of mountains running from E to W. Ruivo de Santana (3245N 1656W), the summit of the island attains an elevation of 1862 m and slopes gradually to the sea in a N and NE direction, but on the SW side falls abruptly. A deep sheer remarkable valley runs S from about 2 miles SW of the summit. Ruivo do Paul is the summit, with an elevation of 1643 m, of a high plain in the W part of the island. It may be stated generally that the S coasts have a gradual slope from the mountains in the interior to the sea, the N coasts on the contrary are with few exceptions high and bold and descend precipitously. The country between Ponta da Cruz (3238N 1657W) (2.28) and Ponta do Pargo, 19 miles NW, is cultivated in

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places but about 3 miles inland the mountains attain an elevation of over 1220 m. The coast between Ponta do Pargo (3249N 1716W) and Ponta do Tristo, 5 miles NE, is formed of a coarse, stony beach with high rocky cliffs rising abruptly from it. Above the cliffs the land has a very steep ascent to the ridge of mountains 2 miles E, some peaks of which are over 1220 m. The cliffs are broken by several mountain torrents, waterfalls and deep ravines. There are two extensive landslips, the greater part of which are terraced and laid out in vineyards. Between the vines a few huts can be seen.

Ponta do Pargo Light (white tower, red cupola with dwelling, 14 m in height) (32486N 17156W). Ponta de So Jorge Light (tower and dwelling, 14 m in height) (32499N 16541W).

Ilhu de So Loureno to Funchal


1

Hazards
1

2.23 Exercise areas. See 2.3. Fishing areas. Local fishing grounds off the S and E coasts are charted e.g Pesqueiro da Atalaia (3238N 1648W). Adverse natural conditions. Winds from the N make the N coast of Ilha da Madeira dangerous and there is usually a heavy sea. The anchorages are only frequented by fishing boats.

Traffic regulations
1

2.24 Prohibited area. Garajau Nature Reserve, a specially protected area, extends from the shore to the 50 m contour between Ponta da Oliveira (32382N 16496W) and Lazaretto, 3 miles W. Except for small craft making for the beaches, entry within this area is prohibited. Two mooring buoys (yellow) marked PNM (Madeira National Park) are positioned 2 cables WNW and 11 cables W of Ponta do Garaju (32379N 16507W). Restricted area. An area of coastal waters on the N coast between Ponta de So Jorge and Ponta de Clrigo has been designated a nature reserve. The restricted area is bounded by lines joining the following positions: 32500N 16540W (shore). 32509N 16537W. Thence along the 100 m contour to: 32490N 16501W. 32482N 16511W (shore). Entry into the nature reserve is affected by numerous restrictions and prohibitions. For the latest information mariners are advised to consult the local port authorities.

Natural conditions
1

2.25 Local magnetic anomaly. See 2.4. Currents. See 2.4. Nature of bottom. The nature of the bottom on the portion of the bank which extends from the E end of the island, also on the ridge between the E extremity and the N end of Ilhas Desertas (2.69), is mostly dark grey sand and coral, while near the coast it is rocky. On the portion of the bank extending from the W end of Ilha da Madeira, the bottom is mostly fine dark sand with occasional patches of rock.

Directions Major lights


2.26
1

So Loureno Light (white tower with red dome and white building, 10 m in height) (32 43 6N 16392W). 76

2.27 From a position E of So Loureno Light (32436N 16392W), the track leads SW, clear of a depth of 21 m (sounding doubtful) lying 3 miles ESE, passing (with positions relative to So Loureno Light): SE of Ilhu de So Loureno (Ilhu de Fora ), from where a light (2.26) is exhibited. The islet is the first part of the coast seen when approaching from E, and is bordered by rocky cliffs except at its SE side where it slopes to the sea and offers the easiest landing; on its NW side is a little cove. The islet is covered with a light soil and sand.and is steepto except on its SE side off which there are some dangerous rocky shoals, also steepto. Baixo da Badajeira, the outer danger lying nearly 4 cables SE of the summit of the islet, is a rock awash. A rock, shaped like a sugarloaf, marks the S extremity of Ilhu de So Loureno, and three or four rocks lie close to its SE coast nearly midway between its extreme points. Vessels should not round the islet too closely. Thence: SE of Ponta do Furado (1 miles WNW), a bold basaltic point with an archway, Passagem do Furado, worn through it, thence: SE of Ponta do Buraco (2 miles WNW). Enseada da Abra, a small bay, lies between Ponta do Furado and Ponta do Buraco. Anchoring in this bay is not recommended due to the presence of obstructions and tunny nets. Thence: SE of Ponta das Gaivotas (2 miles WNW), with a small harbour enclosed by two breakwaters open to the W situated 5 cables W. A prominent chapel, Nossa Senhora da Piedade, stands on a remarkable black hill close N of the harbour. Thence: SE of Canial (4 miles W) (2.33). Between Ponta das Gaivotas and Canial the coast is lower than to the E but it rises again and is steep between the town and the N entrance point of the bay where Machico stands. Thence: SE of Machico (5 miles W), a town standing at the head of a small bay and on both banks of Ribeira de Machico, which was the reported landing place of Robert Machin, the discoverer of Ilha da Madeira. At the N limit of the bay is a jetty with a lighted beacon (see below) standing at the head of the jetty extension. A ruined fort stands close NE of the root of the quay. Machico Sa Roque Light is exhibited 3 cables SW of the fort. The red sector (230265) of this light covers the rocks extending up to 2 cables SE from the fort, with a depth of 09 m over Baixa da Cruz, the outermost. Thence: SE of Ponta Queimada (5 miles WSW) a rocky cliff with flat rocks at its base and the S entrance point of the bay, thence: SE of Ponta de Sa Catarina (6 miles WSW) which can be identified by a steep rock 11 m in height lying close to it. Ilha da Madeira airport lies close inland NW of the point. The airport runway extension is built out over the sea on elevated columns to maintain the runway level, the sea area

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beneath having been reclaimed and boarded by an armourstone structure. A quay, with a ruined fort close NE, lies 5 cables WSW and a submarine outfall, extending SE, lies 6 cables WSW of Ponta de Sa Catarina. On the N shore of a bay close SW of Ponta de Sa Catarina, is the town of Santa Cruz (2.32). Thence: SE of Ponta da Pol (8 miles WSW), the S entrance to the above bay, with a factory situated close N of the point. Enseada de Porto Novo, a small shingle bay lies immediately W of the point, and a white building with a prominent chimney stands on the coast. A jetty projects E from the W side of the bay. Thence: SE of Ponta de Atalaia (9 miles WSW) which has a remarkable small pointed peak on the cliff close to it and a submarine outfall leading SE lies close SW of the point, thence: SE of Ponta da Oliveira (10 miles WSW), a rocky steepto point. Thence the track leads WSW, passing (with positions relative to Ponta do Garajau (3238N 1651W)): SSE of Ponta do Garajau, a bold rocky headland faced by perpendicular reddishyellow cliffs. Above the cliffs is a narrow hilly ridge surmounted by a rocky knob and a conspicuous floodlit statue of Christ, about 175 m high, by which the point can be identified. A small shingle beach lies W of the point. Ponta do Garajau being much higher than Ponta da Oliveira, can be seen over it when viewed from NE. (Directions for Funchal continue at 2.62) Useful marks: Molhe S Light (white post, green bands, 6 m in height) (32442N 16426W). Molhe N Light (white post, red bands, 6 m in height) (32442N 16426W). Machico N Quay Light (white column, green bands, 2 m high) (32428N 16453W), located on jetty head extension. Machico Sa Roque Light (white column, red bands, 4 m high) (32426N 16456W).

Funchal to Ponta do Pargo


1

2.28 From a position S of Funchal (2.39), the track leads W, passing (with positions relative to Ponta do Sol (3240N 1706W)): S of Ponta da Cruz (8 miles ESE) composed of high perpendicular cliffs with a semidetached rock surmounted by a cross at its SW extremity. Pico da Cruz (charted as Ponta da Cruz) lies 6 cables NNE of Ponta da Cruz. Thence the track leads WNW, passing: SSW of Ponta do Sul (6 miles ESE) the W entrance point to Cmara de Lobos, a small bay forming an excellent harbour for fishing boats. A light stands cable N of Ponta do Sul and a submarine outfall extends SSW from close W of the light. Thence: SSW of Cabo Giro (4 miles ESE) which rises in a remarkable sheer cliff to an elevation of 575 m; on the high land above this cliff there is a grove of pines standing at an elevation of 634 m. Thence: SSW of Ribeira Brava (2 miles ESE) from where a light is exhibited. A town of the same name through which a river flows stands behind the

point and a sandy beach lies W of the point. Thence: SSW of Ponta do Sol, a rocky bluff; in the ravine close W of the point is the village of the same name. A large marina is lies about 4 cables ENE of the point. Thence the track leads NW, passing: SW of a remarkable blackpointed basaltic rock (1 miles NW), thence: SW of Madalena do Mar (2 miles NW), a village, thence, SW of Calheta (4 miles NW), which has a large yacht marina, with depths of up to 3 m alongside, and from which lights are exhibited, thence: SW of Ponta do Gal (5 miles WNW), formed of flat rocks of black basalt and close E of the point, on the rocks above the cliff, stands a large prominent building resembling a monastery, thence: SW of Jardim do Mar (6 miles WNW) which can be identified by a small village with a chapel standing on the summit of the point. Baixas da Ponta Pequena, with a depth of 38 m over it, lies 7 cables NW of the point and is marked by a lightbuoy (W cardinal). Thence the track leads NNW, passing: WSW of Paul do Mar (7 miles NW), a village standing on the E end of a landslip, from where a light (see below) is exhibited. Two rocks, each with a depth of 5 m over them, lie about 4 cables S of the light and Baixa dos Carrios a line of rocks extends 7 cables WNW of the light. WSW of Ponta da Faj da Ovelha (9 miles NW) with a rock, awash, lying 2 cables W of the point and a chapel standing above the cliffs at an elevation of 495 m, thence: WSW of Ponta do Pargo (11 miles NW), the W extremity of Ilha da Madeira. The point is composed of bold rocky cliffs 295 m high from where a light (2.26) is exhibited. Because of the elevation of the cliffs the light is obscured by clouds from time to time. Rocks and large stones lie scattered about the base of the cliffs and Baixa do Cabeo, with a depth of 167 m over it, lies about 6 cables S of the point. Useful marks: Cmara de Lobos Light (white structure, 2 m in height) (32386N 16583W). Ribeira Brava Light (red structure, elevation 33 m) (32399N 17036W). Lugar de Baixo Light (32405N 17054W) Paul do Mar Light (white post red bands, 13 m in height) (32450N 17132W).

Ponta do Pargo to Ponta de So Jorge


1

2.29 From a position WSW of Ponta do Pargo (3249N 1716W) the track leads N, passing (with positions relative to Porto do Moniz Light (32520N 17096W)): W of Baixa de So Pedro (6 miles WSW), a rocky ridge with a depth of 131 m over it. There is a heavy sea on this ridge with strong W winds. Thence the track leads ENE, passing: NNW of Ponta do Tristo (1 miles W), the N extremity of Ilha da Madeira, a bold bluff 326 m high and fronted on its N side by submerged rocks which extend about 1 cable offshore. A church

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stands 7 cables SW of the point at an elevation of 520 m. Thence: NNW of Baixas do Moniz (1 mile NW), a group of three flat rocks which are steepto and are separated from the coast by a deep passage. The highest rock is 4 m, and they are covered by the red sector (116127) of Porto do Moniz Light (see below). Thence: NNW of Ilhu Mole, from where Porto do Moniz Light is exhibited; the islet is 62 m high and steepto except on its SW side, and of a yellowish colour with a black lava base. Thence the track leads E, passing: N of Ilhu Rama (1 mile SE), 41 m high and of a yellowish colour with a black lava base, the largest of a group of five rocks lying off the mouth of Ribeira da Janela, thence: N of Ponta do Serradinho (3 miles SE), a comparatively low cliff; the village of Seixal extends behind the point and Baixo do Seixal with a depth of 2 m over it lies 1 cables E of the point, thence: N of Banco do Cabeo do Boi (6 miles ESE) on which the sea breaks, one of a number of rocks which fringe the coast in this vicinity, thence: N of Ponta Delgada (9 miles ESE), a comparatively low projection composed of rocky cliffs from which submerged rocks and boulders extend for 1 cables; there is generally a swell in the vicinity of the point and, at times, tremendous rollers and heavy breakers. Thence: N of Baixa do Buraco (10 miles ESE), with a depth of less than 2 m over it, lies 2 cables offshore, thence: N of Ponta de So Jorge (13 miles E), a bold rocky bluff 214 m high, from where a light (2.26) is exhibited. The vertical cliffs which face it are of a reddish colour and afford landing at their bases, but there is no means of ascending them. Baixa de So Jorge, a small rock awash, lies 3 cables E of the point. Arco de So Jorge, 824 m high, is a remarkable sharp peak covered with vegetation and lies 2 miles WSW of Ponta de So Jorge and 8 cables inland. Useful marks: Porto do Moniz Light (tower, 3 m in height) (32520N 17096W).

high peak on the cliff at its extremity. Landing can be effected 3 cables SW of Ponta do Clrigo in Baia do Faial. Thence: NNE of Ilhu do Faial (7 cables SE), a black coneshaped islet 22 m high and steepto, lying 3 cables NE of a point at the E end of Baia do Faial. Ribeira do Faial enters the sea close S of the point. Thence: NNE of Ilhu de Porto da Cruz (2 miles SE), 45 m high, the highest of a group of rocks and islets lying off the NW entrance of Porto da Cruz, a small bay with rocky shores and a point off which shoal water extends about 2 cables. Baixa do Porto da Cruz, rocky, with a depth of 8 m over it lies 7 cables ENE and Baixo dos Porcos with a depth of 49 m over it lies 5 cables SE of Ilhu de Porto da Cruz. Thence: NNE of Espigo Amarelo (4 miles SE), where the cliffs, with rocky bases, steepto and crowned with dense forestry, attain their highest elevation on this stretch of the coast. Numerous rocks above and below water lie at the foot of the cliffs. From afar the silhouette of the lofty peak of Coroa, 737 m high and 6 cables inland, is very remarkable. Thence: NNE of Ilhu do Guincho (11 miles ESE), a high sugarloaf rock with an archway through it. The summit of the islet is inaccessible and white from guano. Thence: NNE of Ponta do Castelo (12 miles ESE), formed of reddish vertical cliffs 163 m high, thence: NNE of Ponta das Poas (10 miles ESE), the E extremity of Ilha da Madeira, situated on Ilhu dos Desembarcadouros. It is a narrow irregular rocky peninsula almost separated at HW from Ponta do Furado (2.27). Ponta das Poas is highest at the edge of the cliffs on its N side whence it slopes S. There is a boat passage, Boqueiro, between Ilhu dos Desembarcadouros and Ilhu de So Loureno, but a swell or strong breeze with an opposing tidal stream, frequently renders the passage unsafe; the tidal stream sometimes attains a rate of 2 kn. Thence: NNE of Ponta de Barlavento (11 miles ESE), the 101 m high N extremity of Ilhu de So Loureno (2.27), from where a light (2.26) is exhibited. Thence the track leads SSE to a position E of So Loureno Light.

Ponta de So Jorge to Ilhu de So Loureno


1

2.30 From a position N of Ponta de So Jorge (3250N 1654W) the track leads ESE, keeping clear of the charted nature reserve (2.24) passing (with positions relative to Ponta do Clerigo (3248N 1651W)): NNE of Ponta de Santana (2 miles NW) which is fringed with rocks. Ilhu da Rocha das Vinhas, 40 m high, lies 3 cables NW of the point. Thence: NNE of Ilhu da Viva (5 cables WNW), a sharp peak of singular form, 528 m high, rising at the edge of the cliff above a mass of black rocks. A rock lying 2 cables NW of Ilhu da Viva and the same distance offshore is awash and steepto. Pedrinha do Daniel, with a depth of 78 m over it, lies 5 cables N of Ilhu da Viva. Thence: NNE of Ponta do Clrigo, which is black, high and narrow with vertical sides. It is remarkable for a

Anchorages and harbours Ilhu de Porto da Cruz


1

2.31 Anchorage can be obtained 4 cables E of Ilhu de Porto da Cruz (3246N 1649W) (2.30) in a depth of 24 m with good holding ground of stiff black sand. This anchorage is recommended in strong SW gales. Chart 1685

Santa Cruz
1

2.32 Anchorage can be obtained about 2 or 4 cables SE of Santa Cruz (3241N 1647W) in depths of 285 or 56 m respectively, noting the submarine outfall pipe extending SE from the E extremity of Santa Cruz.

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Canial
Chart 1685 plan Canial

Port services
1

General information
1

2.33 Position. Port of Canial (3244N 1643W) lies 4 miles W of the E extremity of Ilha da Madeira. Function. The port is being developed to replace Funchal as the main freight handling port for Ilha da Madeira. Traffic. In 2003 the port handled 353 861 tons of cargo. Port Authority. Administracao dos Portos da Regiao Autonoma da Madeira, Avenida Sa Carneiro 3/4/5, 9000 Funchal, Madeira. Email; portosdamadeira@apram.pt Web; www.apram.pt

2.38 Repairs: Large boatyard, drydock, slipway, a travel lift of 300 tons capacity and a syncrolift capable of handling vessels up to 100 m in length are available. Other facilities: medical facilities at Machico. Supplies: from Funchal. Communications: Connected by road to the airport and Funchal.

FUNCHAL General information


Chart 1685 with plan Funchal

Position
1

Limiting conditions
1

2.34 Density of water is 1025 g/cm3.

Harbour
1

2.35 General layout. The harbour is enclosed by a breakwater which extends from its NE extremity ashore, about 4 cables S, SW and WSW and from its SW extremity by a breakwater extending about 1 cable SW. Development plans include the comissioning of a 390 m long bulk freight terminal with a depth of 15 m, a container jetty 420 m in length with a depth of 8 m, RoRo ramp and a 42 750 m2 levelled area.

2.39 The port of Funchal lies between Ponta do Garajau (2.27) and Ponta da Cruz (32378N 16565W) (2.28) about 5 miles W. A tanker terminal is centred 5 cables NW of Ponta da Cruz and a cement terminal at Vitria (3238N 1658W) 7 cables farther NW.

Function
1

2.40 The city of Funchal, named after fennel which grows on the island, is the capital of Ilha da Madeira and the seat of Government. In 2001 it had a population of about 103 962. The port is the main passenger terminal for the islands thriving tourist trade.

Topography
1

Directions for entering harbour


1

2.36 Landmark: Cancela (elevation 159 m) (32446N 16434W) and the wind turbines standing E of the peak. Major light: So Loureno Light (32436N 16392W) (2.26) Approach. An ODAS Lightbuoy is charted in the port approaches, otherwise the chart is sufficient guide. Useful marks: Molhe S Light (32442N 16426W) (2.27) Molhe N Light (32442N 16426W) (2.27) Machico N Quay Light (32428N 16453W) (2.27) Machico Sa Roque Light (32426N 16456W) (2.27).

2.41 Between Ponta do Garajau and Forte de Santiago (32386N 16537W) the coast is formed of a series of rocky cliffs and small stony points. A shingle beach extends for about 6 cables W of Forte de Santiago and fronts the city of Funchal. Between Cais de Cidade, at the W end of the above beach, and Pontinha, an artificial embankment 6 cables WSW lies the inner port. The coast from Pontinha to Ponta da Cruz is formed of high cliffs.

Port limits
1

Berths
1

2.42 Funchal port limits extend 3 miles S of Ponta do Garajau and 3 miles S of the mouth of Ribeira dos Socorridos (32 385N 16579W) about 6 miles W, as shown on the chart.

2.37 There is accomodation for six oceangoing vessels to berth simultaneously and the capacity of the container park is four times greater than at Funchal.
Harbour

Traffic
1

2.43 In 2004 there were 581 vessel moevements totalling 4 813 864 dwt.

Madeira Panoramic view of Funchal from S (2.39)


(Original dated 2006) (Photograph MV Saga Ruby)

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CHAPTER 2

Port Authority
1

Pilotage
1

2.44 Administracao dos Portos da Regiao Autonoma da Madeira, Avenida Sa Carneiro 3/4/5, 9000 Funchal, Madeira. Email; portosdamadeira@apram.pt Web; www.apram.pt

2.53 Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 200 gt and over. The pilot boards, 1 mile SE of the head of the breakwater. The pilot boat has a blue hull with the word Pilotos painted in blue on its white superstructure. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).

Limiting conditions Deepest and longest berth


1 1

Tugs
2.54 Two tugs, each of 1100 hp, are available and use their own lines if towing.

2.45 Berth No 2, see 2.66.

Traffic regulations
2.55 The area within a line drawn from the shore and joining the unlit buoys at the cement terminal (3238N 1658W) (2.66) is to be considered a Navigation Prohibited area. See 2.24 (Prohibited area).

Tidal levels
1

2.46 Mean spring range about 2 m; mean neap range about 09 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2.

Density of water
1

Quarantine
1

2.47 The density of the water is 1025 g/cm3.

2.56 See 2.52.

Maximum size of vessel handled


1

Harbour General layout


1

2.48 Cais de Pontinha: maximum permitted draught 11.0 m. Praia Formosa tanker berth: maximum 50 000 dwt; maximum LOA 2195 m; maximum draught 109 m.

Local weather and sea state


1

2.49 Predominant winds are mainly from N Quadrant. E winds can cause rough seas and SW gales can cause heavy surging in the harbour.

2.57 The harbour, which can accommodate commercial and passenger vessels, fishing and leisure craft with dedicated facilities is enclosed on the W and S by a breakwater 5 cables long and on which stands Forte de Nostra Santa da Conceio. Tanker and cement terminals lie NW of Ponta da Cruz.

Development
1

Arrival information Port radio


1

2.58 It was reported (2005) that Funchal was to be turned solely into a cruise and yachting hub with Canial (2.33) handling freight.

2.50 There is a port and coast radio station. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volumes 1 (1) and 6 (2).

Hazards
1

Notice of ETA
1

2.51 Vessels should send ETA and request for pilots 24 hours prior to arrival through the agent. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).

2.59 Submarine operations. See 2.3. Fishing areas are indicated on the chart, e.g Pesqueiro do MorreFome (3237N 1654W).

Storm signals
1

Outer anchorages
1

2.60 Storm signals are displayed from a mast at the head of the breakwater.

2.52 Anchorage may be obtained, as shown on the chart, as follows: By vessels less than 120 m in length E of the harbour entrance; By vessels carrying dangerous cargo at the Quarantine and dangerous cargo anchorage 8 cables E of Funchal breakwater head; By other vessels S of the breakwater; By fishing and small craft close offshore between Baixas de San Tiago and Cais de Cidade. Prohibited anchorage. There are four zones in which anchorage and fishing are prohibited within Funchal harbour limits: Harbour approach and entrance; Outfall E of the Quarantine anchorage; Submarine cable corridor running S from the bay E of Ponta Gorda (3238N 1656W); and In the vicinity of the tanker terminal.

Natural conditions
1

2.61 Local magnetic anomalies may be encountered off Porto do Funchal. Tidal streams at Funchal run ENE on the rising tide and WSW on the falling tide, turning at about 1 hour before the times of HW and LW at Casablanca (see Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2). The maximum rate is 1 to 1 kn at springs and kn at neaps. Currents. See 2.4. Local weather. During the summer months, NE winds blow freshly up to Ponta do Garajau (2.27) over Ponta das Poas (2.30) and continue on in that direction, leaving Funchal and a large space W of it, in calms, baffling or light airs. However, during the winter, very strong SW winds with thick weather occur at times. Seasonal river levels. The three streams, Ribeira de Joo Gomes, Ribeira de Santa Luzia and Ribeira de So

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Joo, which flow through the city into the bay, are rushing torrents during the wet season and sometimes cause considerable damage. Climate information. See 1.291 and 1.292.

the dolphins. Close inland, the silos of the Madeira National Cement Co. are conspicuous.

Tanker terminal
1

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 2.27)

Landmarks
2.62
1

Church (elevation 600 m) (32401N 16552W) Forte do Pico (3239N 1655W) surmounted by radio mast (elevation 136 m), red obstruction lights. Several hotels and other buildings W of the harbour are conspicuous.
1

2.67 Moorings for oil and gas tankers have been established offshore from Praia Formosa (3238N 1657W), a pebble beach with a rocky islet, Ilhu Praia Formosa, lying close off its W end. The storage depot stands near the middle of Praia Formosa and a submarine pipeline leads from it to a tanker discharge berth 2 cables SW of it. Tankers berth heading 260, with one anchor out forward and secured to a head buoy and three buoys astern. The outer two mooring buoys are light buoys.

2.63 Entry. From a position S of Ponta do Garajau (3238N 1651W) the track leads WNW to the pilot boarding position and thence to the required berth with the chart as the best guide. Useful marks: Forte de Santiago (32386N 16537W) Chimney (Fabrica de S.Filipe) (32386N 16541W) Cais da Pontinha Light (white column, red bands, 6 m in height) (32383N 16542W) Forte de Nostra Santa da Conceio (32382N 16547W) Chimney (32378N 16565W) Praia de Vitria Pier Head Light (white structure, 10 m in height) (32383N 16578W).

Port services
2.68 Repairs are available and there is a dry dock for vessels up to 90 m. Other facilities; hospital; deratting exemption certificates can be issued; no oily waste reception facilities; garbage disposal facilities are available. Supplies; fuel oil, diesel oil and gasoil; fresh water at pier and by road tanker; stores. Communication; international airport 20 km away; frequent visits by passenger vessels. Rescue. Funchal is a designated MRSC. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

ILHAS DESERTAS
Chart 1831

Basins and berths Mooring buoy berths


1 1

General information
2.69 Description. Ilhas Desertas are a group of three islands, the N of which Ilhu Cho (3235N 1633W) (2.70) lies 10 miles SSE of Ilhu de So Loureno (2.27), with Ilha Deserta Grande (2.71) the central island and Ilha Bugio (2.72) the S island. The islands are composed of basaltic and trachytic rock. Prohibited area. A specially protected nature reserve surrounding Ilhas Desertas extends from the shore to the 100 m depth contour. Navigation, fishing and all sporting activity within this area is prohibited. Access to the islands is also prohibited. Tidal streams near Ilhas Desertas attain a rate of 1 to 2 kn at springs, and to 1 kn at neaps. The stream sets NE on the rising tide and SW on the falling tide.

2.64 Two mooring buoys lie between and cable WSW and a third mooring buoy lies about 2 cables SW of the head of Molhe E.

Basins
2.65 A basin protected by a breakwater in a SW/NE alignment, lies in the N part of the harbour. There is a berth for interisland ferries close within the entrance which lies 1 cables E of the casino. Two cables WSW of the above entrance lies another small basin, enclosing a fishing harbour, formed by a jetty extending ENE from the head of the bay. This jetty forms berth No 4.

Alongside berths
1

Ilhu Chao
1

2.66 The breakwater, Cais da Pontinha, which has depths of 11 m alongside its outer part, and from 8 m to 3 m alongside its inner part, provides berthing space on its N side, consisting of berth No 1, which is a RoRo terminal, berth No 2 with a length of 425 m and depth alongside of 110 m and berth No 3 which is a container terminal. From the N side of the fishing harbour (2.65) berth No 5 extends 100 m ENE before turning NE for a further 250 m to form berth No 6 with depths of 65 to 69 m alongside. A facility for discharging cement has been constructed at Vitria (32 38 N 16 58 W) consisting of a pipeline, extending about 1 cable SSW and terminating at a dolphin from where a light (2.63) is exhibited. Another dolphin, also lit, lies close SE of the former. Two unlit buoys are moored close SE and one unlit buoy moored close NW of

2.70 Description. Ilhu Cho (3235N 1633W) is bare, tabletopped and surrounded by high rocky cliffs. The N extremity of Ilhu Cho, a bold bluff 90 m in height, is fringed by rocks extending N about 2 cables offshore with Baixa da Trombeta being farthest N; rocks, some awash, extend 2 cables W. Farilho, a remarkable basaltic column 49 m high, lies close off the N end of the island. The best landing on Ilhu Cho is in a cove situated on the W side of the island, but see 2.69. Rocks extend from the very narrow S extremity of Ilhu Cho, leaving only a boat passage, Boqueiro Norte, between them and the N extremity of Ilha Deserta Grande. Useful mark: Ilhu Cho Light (tower and building, 14 m in height) (32351N 16325W).

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Ilha Deserta Grande


1

2.71 Description. Ilha Deserta Grande (3232N 1631W) is the largest and highest island of the group. From a hill 442 m high a double ridge of hills with an extensive valley between them, extends N to Ponta da Castanheira, the N extremity of the island. The highest point 478 m, stands near the centre of the island. A continuous rocky chain of heights extends S from the summit to Ponta do Tabaqueiro, the S extremity. The general character of the E coast is that of a rugged, broken, irregular line of cliffs, having, in many cases, slopes from them to stony points, which originate in occasional landslips from these cliffs. The W coast consists of high broken cliffs with, here and there, a large fragment fallen at their base. Ponta do Pedregal (3232N 1632W) is the rocky W point of the island. Anchorage can be obtained about 2 miles SSE of Ponta do Pedregal in a depth of 27 m. It should be noted that this anchorage lies close SW of rocky ledges which are awash. Landing. Ponta dos Pargos, on the W side of the island, lies about 5 cables N of Ponta do Pedregal and a cove lies close N of it; landing can be effected at this cove, but see 2.69.

Local magnetic anomalies may be encountered off Ilhas Selvagens.

Ilha Selvagem Grande Description


1

2.74 Ilha Selvagem Grande (3009N 1552W) is of volcanic origin and consists of lava, breccia and basalt, the latter tending to the columnar form in several places. The island is uninhabited except for two wardens and two lighthouse keepers. Shearwaters, which breed on the island, are protected. On approaching the coast, Ilha Selvagem Grande appears at a distance to be completely barren, but on nearer presentation it is seen to be slightly covered with vegetation in places with bushes growing in the deep gully on its E side.

Topography
1

Ilha Bugio
1

2.72 Description. Ilha Bugio (3225N 1629W), 383 m high and separated from Ponta do Tabaqueiro by a deep channel about 1 mile wide in which a shoal depth of 14 m was reported (1986) to lie in midchannel. The island has shores formed of rocky cliffs, surmounted by a very sharp serrated rocky ridge of hills which extend the whole length of the island from Ponta do Cgado, the N extremity, to Ponta da Agulha, the S extremity. Near the centre of Ilha Bugio is a gap which, seen from a distance gives it the appearance of two islands. Useful mark: Ponta da Agulha Light (tower, 8 m in height) (32240N 16276W).

ILHAS SELVAGENS
Chart 3133 plan Ilhas Selvagens

2.75 The island is bordered by steep or perpendicular cliffs 38 m to 122 m high, which are practically sheer to the waters edge except on the S coast where, although higher, they have in most parts a more gradual slope. The upper part of the island is undualting, rising to two principal peaks on the SW and E side 153 m and 136 m in height, respectively. the E peak is marked by three upright stones on its highest point, which resemble human figures when seen from a distance. A cliff summit on the S coast, 106 m in height, rises nearly perpendicularly from the coastline to a sharp rocky point some height above the adjacent cliff edge, and is very prominent whenever visible. The entire N coast of the island is dark in colour, sheer, rocky and inaccessible. The W coast of Ilha Selvagem Grande is mostly fringed by reefs. The S coast is indented by several bays and is mostly fringed by reefs which extend nearly 1 cable offshore in places. The E coast is indented by a bay, the shores of which are fringed with reefs and rocks. Palheiro do Mar, an 11 m high islet with a rock awash over which the sea breaks lying cable SW from it, lies 8 cables WNW of Ponta do Risco, the NW point of Selvagem Grande and Palheiro da Terra, a conical rocky islet, 22 m in height, with a large rock, almost part of the islet, off its W end, lies 4 cables NW from the same point.

General information
1

2.73 Description. Ilhas Selvagens (3005N 1556W), lying about 135 miles S of Ilha Bugio (2.72), are two small but distinct groups of islands and rocks separated by a deep channel 8 miles wide. The N group is composed of Ilha Selvagem Grande (2.74) and two offlying rocky islets, Palheiro de Terra and Palheiro do Mar. The S group consists of two islands, Ilha Selvagem Pequea (2.77) and Ilhu de Fora together with several rocky islets and reefs. Prohibited area. A specially protected nature reserve surrounding Ilhas Selvagens extends from the shore to the 200 m depth contour. Anchoring, fishing and trawling within this area is prohibited. Prohibited landing. The islands are privately owned and are a protected bird sanctuary. Permission to land, which must be obtained through the regional authority in Madeira, is rarely granted.

Anchorages
1

2.76 During NE winds fair anchorage can be obtained in two positions, moderately clear of swell, off the coast of Ilha Selvagem Grande. The E anchorage is in a depth of 22 m about 6 cables SW of Ponta de Leste (30 08 N 15 51 W), the SE extremity of the island. The W anchorage is in a depth of 25 m about 4 cables SW of Ponta de Atalaia, the SW extremity of the island; the point terminates in a prominent black rock which is connected to the point at LW. A reef, which dries 1 m lying close S of Ponta de Atalaia, usually breaks.. Baixa da Joanna, with a depth of 2 m and over which the sea breaks heavily, lies midway between the above anchorages. Small vessels can obtain anchorage in the middle of the entrance to a bay to the ESE of Ponta de Atalaia in a depth of about 13 m; local knowledge is required, see 2.73.

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Useful mark: Selvagem Grande Light (white column, red bands, 10 m in height) (3009N 1552W).

Ilha Selvagem Pequea


1

2.77 Description. Ilha Selvagem Pequea (3002N 1602W), 10 miles SW of Ilha Selvagem Grande, is uninhabited. The island, which has a low rocky coast faced in many parts by steep beaches of pebbles or coarse gravel, is for the most part otherwise sandy, undulating and slightly covered in vegetation. A channel, about 3 cables wide, with depths in the fairway of 11 to 13 m separates Ilha Selvagem Pequea from Ilhu Fora and the islets and reefs N of it. Topography. The average elevation of the island is from 11 m to 14 m, but at its N end lies a hill 49 m high, abrupt and conical, on which a light stands. The hill is prominent and presents much the same regular appearance from all points of view, but on near approach it will be seen that its upper part is covered with grotesquelyshaped volcanic excrescences. On the low ground near the foot of the hill, there is a natural rock pillar, about 3 m in height, standing up from the sand and well defined from S. On the reefs which extend from the island are a number of rocky islets ranging from 15 m to 9 m high. Between the E extremity of the E reef and the island, there are three remarkable straight ridges of lava on the reef between 24 m and 3 m high, resembling crude breakwaters and forming, at LW, a series of bays and inlets sheltered from the prevailing NE weather. The N point of the island lies 1 cable NNW of the summit; a rock, awash, lies close off it and another rock, awash, lies 1 cable N of the point. The W extremity of the W reefs, lies 3 cables W of the summit and on the reefs between the point and Ilha Selvagem Pequea is an islet with a remarkable summit which is the highest of the rocky islets referred to above. Three rocky islets, 2, 4 and 5 m in height, lie about 4 cables between SSW and SSE of the W point of the island; a rock, awash lies close S of the middle islet.

Baixa Comprida lies on the outer end of a shoal tongue extending 9 cables S of the middle islet; a rock, awash, lies at its S end; the sea nearly always breaks on this shoal. Another shoal with depths of 5 m or less and a rock, awash, on its SE side lies midway between Baixa Comprida and Ilha Selvagem Pequea. Anchorage, fairly sheltered can be obtained S of Ilha Selvagem Pequea during NE trade winds weather, about 6 cables SSE of the summit in a depth of about 30 m, see 2.73. Landing is not good on Selvagem Pequea, the best time to land being at LW. During the NE wind period, it is possible to land at almost any point on the S coast of the island, but the best place is probably at the E end. Useful mark: Selvagem Pequea Light (red lantern on column, 1 m high) (3002N 1602W).

Ilhu de Fora
1

2.78 Description. Ilhu de Fora (3002N 1603W) lying about 1 mile W of Ilha Selvagem Pequea (2.77), has like the latter island, a sandy undulating surface with a rocky foreshore. Topography. The average elevation of Ilhu de Fora is from 8 to 11 m, however, at its NW extremity there is a small but quite distinct rocky summit 17 m high, and at its E extremity there is a similar but not so well marked summit of slightly less elevation; both summits rise direct from the coast line. The S extremity of the island is a low sloping point. A chain of rocks, reefs and shoals over which the sea breaks, extends 2 miles N from Ilhu de Fora. The chain is composed of three main groups. Ilhu Alto, 7 m high, is almost attached to Ilhu de Fora being 4 cables N of the NW extremity. Ilhu Comprido, 7 m high, and Ilhu Redondo, 2 m high, lie 4 and 7 cables, respectively, N of Ilhu Alto. Ilhus do Norte, consisting of three small islets, lie 5 cables NNE of Ilhu Redondo. Baixas de Oeste, Baixas do Norte and Baixa de Leste are rocks awash lying within 2 cables W, N and E, respectively, of Ilhus do Norte. Landing can be made on Ilhu de Fora on the E side of the S extremity, but it is not good, see 2.73.

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Chapter 3 - Islas Canarias


18
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15

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80 3.1
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15

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CHAPTER 3 ISLAS CANARIAS


GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3133 sides of Isla de la Palma (3.178), where normal variation increases by 2. Current. The general flow of current in the region of Islas Canarias is SWgoing as described for the Canary Current (1.249). Within the group the various islands may produce some local deflections of the current at the time. Local weather. A belt of calms usually extends 25 miles leeward of Isla de Gran Canaria, 15 miles leeward of Isla de Tenerife and 30 miles leeward of Isla de la Palma; the sea in these calm regions is frequently rough and irregular, and heavy squalls are experienced which give little warning.

Area covered
1

3.1 This chapter describes Islas Canarias, separated from the African continent by a clear channel between the SE extremity (2814N 1357W) of Isla de Fuerteventura (3.31) and Cap Tarfaya (Cabo Yubi) about 54 miles ESE. Isla de Alegranza (2924N 1330W), the NE island of the group, lies about 130 miles ESE of Ilhas Selvagens (2.73). The chapter is arranged as follows: Isla de Lanzarote and islands northward (3.7) Isla de Fuerteventura (3.31) Isla de Gran Canaria (3.50) Puerto de La Luz (3.81) Isla de Tenerife (3.113) Santa Cruz de Tenerife (3.139) Isla de la Gomera (3.163) Isla de la Palma (3.174) Isla de Hierro (3.193).

ISLA DE LANZAROTE AND ISLANDS NORTHWARD General information


Charts 1870. 886

Route
1

Topography
1

3.2 Islas Canarias are generally high and composed of volcanic mountains, so lofty that during a great portion of the year the summits of some are covered with snow. The coasts of the islands are for the most part cliffy, occasionally broken by bays and sandy beaches. These bays, in general, afford little shelter; the best are Puerto de La Luz (3.81) in Isla Gran Canaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (3.139) and Santa Cruz de La Palma (3.182).

3.7 Isla de Lanzarote (29 02 N 13 38 W) and islands northward may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given in the coastal directions at 3.14.

Isla de Alegranza
1

Depths
1

3.3 All the channels between Islas Canarias are clear and safe. For particulars of seamounts in the region see 1.242.

Traffic regulations
1

3.4 Restricted area. The islands of Alegranza (2924N 1331W), Montaa Clara, Graciosa and Roque del Este plus the N extremity of the island of Lanzarote, all lie within a marine reserve, the limits of which are best seen on the chart, in which all fishing and subaquatic activity of any description is subject to authorisation by the Ministry of Fisheries for the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands. Singlehull tankers. See 1.55.

3.8 Description. Isla de Alegranza (2924N 1331W), the N island of the group, is dominated by an extinct volcano which rises to an elevation of 288 m in the SW part of the island. A light is exhibited from Punta Delgada, the E point of the island. In the SE part of the island are three distinct conical peaks. The W side of the island is composed of precipitous cliffs about 200 m high and steepto. The remainder of the coast is lower and fronted by submerged rocks. The island is uninhabited and lies within a marine reserve (3.4). Landing. The best landing place is on a small sandy beach, where a few rocks form a natural breakwater, near a large cavern on the S side of the island. Useful mark: Punta Delgada Light (grey tower and dwelling, 15 m in height) (2924N 1329W).

Isla de Montaa Clara


1

Exercise areas
1

3.5 Military exercises are conducted at various locations around Islas Canarias; they are promulgated by radio navigational warnings.

Natural conditions
1

3.6 Local magnetic anomalies have been observed in an area E of Estrecho de la Bocayana (3.17), where normal variation decreases by 2, and in areas off the E and SW 85

3.9 Description. Isla de Montaa Clara lies 4 miles S of Isla de Alegranza (2924N 1331W) (3.8) and the channel between is deep and clear of dangers except for El Roquete, a rock 40 m in height, lying 4 cables NE of the N extremity of Isla de Montaa Clara. Foul ground extends 5 cables WSW and depths of less than 20 m extend up to 3 cables W and NE, and 8 cables SE from the rock. There is a boat passage between the rock and the island. Montaa Clara rises to an elevation of 255 m in the middle of the island. The NW side of the island is fronted with bold cliffs, and the N side by rocky ledges. The S end of the island is low and shelving, with foul ground extending about 1 cable from its SE and S extremities.

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Isla Graciosa
1

3.10 Description. Isla Graciosa (2915N 1330W) lies between Isla de Montaa Clara (3.9) and the N end of Isla de Lanzarote (3.12). It is of moderate elevation with several peaks; the highest is situated in the central part and attains an elevation of 265 m. The channel between Isla Graciosa and Isla de Montaa Clara has a least known depth of 12 m in midchannel, but it should be noted that this channel has been only partially surveyed. Punta Gorda, the N extremity of the island, lies about 1 mile E of the SE extremity of Isla de Montaa Clara. The N and W sides of the island are fringed with submerged rocks and are difficult of access. Punta Marrajos, the S extremity of Isla Graciosa, lies about 4 miles SSW of Punta de Pedro Barba, the E extremity of the island. The village of Pedro Barba standing at the head of a small bay is situated about 5 cables WSW of the point. Landing can be made at the village of La Sociedad, 2 miles SW of Punta de Pedro Barba, where there is a harbour for small craft enclosed by two breakwaters from where lights are exhibited. Useful marks: Embarcadero Head Light (metal Tshaped tower, 2 m in height) (29136N 13300W) Contradique Head Light (metal Tshaped tower, 2 m in height) (29136N 13301W).

range. The SW part of the island, N of this range, is covered with isolated peaks and craters of extinct volcanoes surrounded by beds of lava and scori The W side of the island is mostly high and cliffy; the coast on the E side is much lower.

Directions Major light


1

3.13 Punta Pechiguera Light (white round tower, 50 m in height) (2851N 1352W).

Punta Fariones to Puerto de Arrecife


1

Roque del Este


1

3.11 Description. Roque del Este (2916N 1320W), 59 m high and lying 7 miles E of Punta de Pedro Barba (3.10), is a barren rock. It is steepto except on its SE side from which submerged rocks extend a short distance. A rock, which dries, lies about 2 cables ENE of Roque del Este with depths of 25 m in between.

Isla de Lanzarote
1

3.12 Description. Isla de Lanzarote is the NE of the larger islands of the group and a popular tourist destination. The soil of volcanic earth is fertile and well cultivated. Water is produced by desalination plants, due to generally low rainfall. The NW and W coasts of Isla de Lanzarote down to Punta Pechiguera (3.15) offer no shelter and should be approached with great caution as they are unsurveyed and largely uninhabited except for a few small fishing villages. Topography. The island is traversed throughout its entire length by a chain of high mountains of which Monte Corona (2911N 1329W), an extinct volcano, is the highest peak in the N part. The W side of the range between Punta Fariones (2914N 1328W) (3.14) and Peas del Chache, the highest peak in the island with an elevation of 669 m, about 8 miles SSW of the point, is composed of perpendicular cliffs close to the coast. For a distance of 10 miles SW of Peas del Chache, a sandy desert extends from the W part of the N coast to the volcanic peaks which occupy the rest of the island. In the S part of Isla de Lanzarote there is a high range near the E coast which culminates in Montaa Blanca with an elevation of 596 m in the NW and Hacha Grande (2853N 1347W), 560 m high, in the SW part of the 86

3.14 From a position E of Punta Fariones (2914N 1328W), a low and rocky point with two remarkable rocks standing on a reef extending a short distance N from the point, the track leads SSW, passing (with positions relative to Arrieta Wharf Head Light (29078N 13275W)): ESE of Punta del Palo (5 miles NNE). The coast between Punta Fariones and Punta del Palo is fringed by foul ground, and a reef extends about 4 cables offshore from midway between the two points; a village, Orzola, stands on the coast at the NW end of the reef. Thence: ESE of Punta Usaje (2 miles NE), a low sandy projection which can be identified by the whiteness of its upper portion with several white buildings standing near the point. A sandstone cape, Punta de Mujeres (not named on chart), from where a light is exhibited, lies 1 mile SW of Punta Usaje. Thence: ESE of Arrieta, a fishing village with a wharf from the head of which a light is exhibited. A fish haven lies about 1 mile E of the village. Thence: ESE of Punta Pasito (2 miles SSE), a rugged point; Rada de Arrieta (3.28) lies between the sandstone cape and Punta Pasito. Cabo de la Paloma lies 5 cables S of the point. Thence: ESE of Punta de Tierra Negra (6 miles S). Cabo Ancones, the SE point of Isla de Lanzarote, lies about 4 cables SSW. Thence the track leads SW, passing: SE of Punta Tope (8 miles S), the S entrance to a small bay at the head of which stands Costa Teguise, a massive tourist development of low white buildings, thence: SE of Punta del Frailillo (10 miles SSW), behind which stands a refinery and oil storage tanks. A stranded wreck lies 1 cables WNW of the point. The coast between Punta Pasito and Punta del Frailillo is fairly uniform, and fringed in places by submerged rocks some of which dry. Thence: SE of Puerto de Arrecife Light (11 miles SSW) standing at the head of the mole. Islote Fermina lies 2 cables NW with Arrecife del Quebrado extending 2 cables W from its W extremity. The three harbours of Puerto de Los Mrmoles, Puerto de Naos and Puerto de Arrecife lie between Punta del Frailillo and Arrecife del Quebrado. Useful marks: Punta de Mujeres Light (white round tower, blue bands, 6 m in height) (29085N 13267W) Arrieta Wharf Head Light (white round tower, blue bands, 7 m in height) (29078N 13275W)

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Puerto de Los Mrmoles Punta Chica Pier Head Light (green round tower, 6 m in height) (28577N 13316W) Puerto de Arrecife Light (green round tower, 6 m in height) (28571N 13330W) exhibited from the head of Muelle de las Bolas.

Punta Pechiguera to Punta Fariones


1

Puerto de Arrecife to Punta Pechiguera


1

3.15 From a position SE of Puerto de Arrecife Light the track leads WSW, passing (with positions relative to Puerto del Carmen Light (28551N 13404W)): SSE of Punta Lima (3 miles ENE), fronted by a reef extending 3 cables E. An obstruction lies in a depth of 15 m 1 mile SW of Punta Lima. Thence: SSE of Punta Tiosa (3 cables ESE) which is rocky and fringed by reefs; Bajo del Burro, awash, lies about 7 cables E of the point. Thence: SSE of Puerto del Carmen from where a light is shown. This is the principal tourist area on the island and the coastline has been heavily developed. Thence: SSE of Puerto Calero (1 miles W), a yacht harbour enclosed by a breakwater from where a light is exhibited, thence: SSE of La Puntilla (3 miles WSW), the N entrance to Bahia de Avila, thence: SSE of Punta Gorda (4 miles WSW), the S entrance to Bahia de Avila in which a marine farm, its corners marked by lightbuoys (special), has been established. An obstruction lies in 15 m of water 1 miles SSW of the point. Thence: SSE of Punta Papagayo (7 miles SW), a comparatively low, dark red bluff with a reef, terminating in a rock awash, extending 1 cable S of it. Thence the track leads W, passing (with positions relative to Punta Pechiguera Light (2851N 1352W)): S of Punta y Torrente del Aguila (3 miles E), on which stands a castle reported (2003) to be difficult to identify on account of surrounding new buildings; a reef with a depth of 3 to 4 m over it fronts the point. A large marina protected by a breakwater, from where a light is exhibited, lies W of the castle. Thence: S of Punta Limones (1 miles E), with Puerto de Playa Blanca, from where a light is exhibited, lying 3 cables NE of the point. The village of Playa Blanca stands 3 cables farther NE. Thence: S of Punta Pechiguera from where a light (3.13) is exhibited. Montaa Roja, stands 1 miles NE of the point, and from a distance has the appearance of a wedgeshaped island. The coast between Punta Limones and Punta Pechiguera is fringed by a reef. Useful marks: Puerto del Carmen. Mole Head Light (green tower, elevation 4 m) (28551N 13404W) Puerto Calero. S Mole Head Light (grey octagonal tower, 4 m in height) (28548N 13424W) Marina Rubicn. Mole Head Light (green metal post, elevation 3 m) (28513N 13490W) Marina Rubicn. Mole Elbow Light (red post, elevation 1 m) (28514N 13490W) Playa Blanca. Mole. Head Light (red round tower) (28515N 13499W). 87

3.16 From a position S of Punta Pechiguera Light the track leads NW and N, passing (with positions relative to Punta Pechiguera Light (2851N 1352W)): W of Punta Gins (2 miles NNW). Thence the track leads NNE, passing: WNW of Punta del Marqus (5 miles NNE), a rocky spur extending 2 cables SW from the coast and the N entrance to a small bay, thence: WNW of Punta del Jurado (8 miles NNE), thence: WNW of Punta de la Ensenada (11 miles NNE). Thence the track leads NE, passing: NW of Punta Gaviota (14 miles NNE). The entrance to a small inlet lies 2 miles further NE and the coast between the inlet and Punta de la Ensenada is high and fringed with rocks. Thence the track leads ENE, passing: NNW of La Isleta (19 miles NE), an islet fronted by cliffs and connected to Isla da Lanzarote by two causeways, thence: NNW of Punta Penedo (22 miles NE). Rada de Penedo lies E of the point but is seldom used as it is exposed to NW winds. Its shores are formed of sandy beaches fringed by rocks over which the sea breaks. The coast from the head of Rada de Penedo to Punta Fariones consists of vertical cliffs which rise close inshore. Thence: NNW of La Punta (29 miles NE), with several saltpans lying E of the point. Thence, keeping in midchannel, the track leads NE to a position N of Punta Fariones (2914N 1328W) (3.14).

Side channels Estrecho de la Bocayna


1

3.17 Description. Estrecho de la Bocayna (28 48 N 1350W), the channel between Isla de Lanzarote and Isla de Fuerteventura, is generally deep but depths are irregular with the least known depth of 21 m about 2 miles SSW of Punta Papagayo (3.15) in the centre of the fairway; the bottom is composed of sand, shells and coral. Magnetic anomaly. A local magnetic anomaly (3.6) exists E of this channel. Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring and fishing are prohibited within a cable corridor crossing the channel, see chart.

Estrecho del Rio


1

3.18 Description. Estrecho del Rio (2913N 1330W), the passage between Isla Graciosa and Isla de Lanzarote, has a width of about 5 cables abreast La Punta (3.16) on the coast of Isla Lanzarote and the nearest point on Isla Graciosa. Depths. A bar, with depths of between 31 and 44 m on its sides, extends across the strait SW of the narrowest part; a depth of 61 m can be carried in midchannel. Tidal streams set with a rate of about 1 kn at springs as follows; Rising tideNEgoing, Falling tideSWgoing. Submarine cable. A submarine power cable extends NW from La Punta to a point on Isla Graciosa. Anchorage. Secure anchorage can be obtained in Estrecho del Rio with shelter from N and SE winds, but very heavy squalls come down the mountains of Isla de

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Lanzarote. The bottom generally consists of sand, with coral and large stones. Anchoring is prohibited in the vicinity of the submarine power cable.

Supplies. Fuel is available if arranged in advance. Fresh water is available; a desalination plant stands in the port area.

Puerto de Naos
1

Minor ports
Chart 886 plan Puertos de Arrecife, Naos and Los Marmoles

Puerto de Arrecife
1

3.19 Position and function. Puerto de Arrecife (2857N 1333W) is situated S of Ciudad de Arrecife and is mainly used by local small craft. Description. The port is formed of two shallow basins. The E basin is bounded on its E side by the reef extending S from Isla del Francs. It is bounded on its S side by Arrecife de Miendaembraso, the SE extremity of which is Punta de la Lagarta. The reef on which Islote de San Gabriel lies forms the W side. Charca de la Estila and Charco de San Gins are two boat harbours at the N end of the E basin. Bridges divide the boat harbours and join Isla del Francs and Arrecife. Charco de San Gins is quayed on its S and W sides. The W basin is bounded on its E side the reef on which lies Islote de San Gabriel. The W side of the basin is bounded by Arrecife del Quebrado. Approach and entry. The E basin is approached from E and entered through Boca de Juan Rejn. The W basin is approached and entered from SW between the reef on which lies Islote Fermina and the head of a mole extending WSW from Arrecife de Miendaembraso. Port Authority. See 3.21. Local knowledge is essential for entering the harbour area as it is surrounded by reefs and shoals. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 22 m; mean neap range about 11 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Current. An outgoing current sets on the head of the mole. Pilotage. See 3.23. Landmark: Hotel (2857N 1333W). Directions. When approaching the E basin, Punta de la Lagarta should be given a berth of at least 5 cables. Useful mark: Puerto de Arrecife Light (28571N 13330W) (3.14). Anchorage may be obtained about 1 cables W of the head of the mole, in depths of 35 m; this anchorage is sheltered from N and NW winds. Anchorage, sheltered from SW winds may be obtained 2 cables E of Boca de Juan Rejn, in depths of 40 m. Fishing vessels anchor S of Arrecife de Miendaembraso, as shown on the chart. Prohibited anchorage. Anchorage is prohibited between the meridians of 13333W and 13345W and the parallel of 28555N and the shore due to the existence of submarine cables. Berths. Muelle de la Pescaderia, which fronts the city, dries. Vessels drawing 5 m and 70 m in length can berth alongside the N face of the mole extending WSW from the E entrance point of W basin. Larger vessels can berth here in fine weather with their sterns overhanging the head of the mole. Repairs There are slips that can accommodate vessels up to 1000 tons and a repair berth, 180 m in length, with depths of 5 m alongside. Other facilities. Medical facilities are available.

3.20 Position and function. The fishing harbour of Puerto de Naos lies within a breakwater extending 6 cables SW from Arrecife de la Raya (2858N 1332W), to Isla del Francs, which is joined to the mainland by reclaimed land. Approach and entry. The port is approached from S and entered through a buoyed channel dredged to 50 m. Local knowledge. Vessels without local knowledge are advised to take a pilot. Depths. Puerto de Naos is a small secure harbour with depths of 1.2 to 54 m. Pilotage. See 3.23, Pilotage. Landmark: Castillo de San Jose (2858N 1332W). Directions. The chart is sufficient guide. Useful mark: Mole Head Light (red round tower, 4 m in height) (2858N 1332W). Anchorage may be obtained about 1 cable SW of the slipway in depths of between 4 to 6 m, bottom white sand and mud. Berths. Muelle Pesquero, a fish quay 3 cable SW of Castillo de San Jos, is about 345 m long and has depths from 28 m to 36 m alongside. Due to congestion yachts are restricted to berthing on the inside of the SE breakwater. Landing can be made on a pier extending WNW from Islote de las Cruces. Repairs. Minor repairs are available. There are slipways on the W side of Islote de las Cruces, capacity 400 tons. Other facilities. See 3.27.

Puerto de Los Marmoles General information


1

3.21 Position. Puerto de Los Marmoles (2858N 1332W) lies on the SE coast of Isla Lanzarote. Function. It is the main commercial and passenger harbour for Isla Lanzarote. Imports include general cargo, oil, and salt. Exports are mainly fish products and fruit. Approach and entry. The harbour is approached and entered from S, between the head of the main breakwater and Arrecife de la Raya, 3 cables WNW. Traffic. In 2004 there were 515 vessel movements totalling 4 147 220 dwt. Port Authority. Autoridad Portuaria de Las Palmas, Muelle de Los Marmoles s/n, 35500 Arrecife, Lanzarote, Spain. Email: arrecife@palmasport.es Website: www.palmasport.es

Limiting conditions
1

3.22 Deepest and longest berth. See 3.26. Tidal levels. See 3.19. Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled: LOA 270 m, draught 84 m, 76 152 grt.

Arrival information
1

3.23 Notice of ETA: 72 hours prior to arrival to agent, thence periodically. Vessels carrying dangerous cargo should notify

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the Port Authoritysee Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Outer anchorages. See 3.19, Anchorage. Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 500 grt and available 24 hours. Pilot boards vessels 2 cables WSW of the head of Muelle de Los Marmoles. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Tugs are available.

Useful marks: Playa Blanca. Mole. Head Light (28 51 5N 13499W) (3.15) Marina Rubicn. Mole. Head Light (green metal post, elevation 3 m) (28513N 13490W).

ISLA DE FUERTEVENTURA General information


Chart 1870

Local weather
1

3.24 Wind. The prevailing wind direction is from NW. During winter months (November to March) the strongest winds blow from NW to NE through N. Wind blowing from SE is most unfavourable but seldom occurs.

Route
1

Directions for entering harbour


1

3.31 Isla de Fuerteventura (2830N 1400W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given in the coastal directions at 3.35.

3.25 The chart is sufficient guide. Useful mark: Pier Head Light (green round tower, 6 m in height) (28578N 13316W).

Topography
1

Berths
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3.26 Muelle de Los Marmoles, 915 m in length, for0ms the E breakwater and its W face is used by passenger vessels. A berth, capable of accomodating ferries with a maximum LOA of 175 m, joins the roots of Muelle de Los Marmoles and Ferry and Container Terminal. Vessels with draughts from 50 to 120 can be accomodated at these berths. Two RoRo ramps are situated between the two moles and a third ramp is situated on the E face of Ferry and Container Terminal.

Port services
1

3.27 Repairs: Minor repairs are available; workshop and slipways with maximum capacity of 400 tons. Other facilities: hospital; no dirty ballast reception facilities; garbage collection can be arranged. Supplies: Fuel and diesel connections on Muelle de Los Marmoles; fresh water can be arranged; provisions available. Communications: Airport 5 km W of Ciudad de Arrecife.

Anchorages and harbours Rada de Arrieta


1

3.28 Anchorage of a temporary nature can be obtained in Rada de Arrieta (2907N 1327W) about 7 cables offshore SE of Arrieta (3.14) in depths of 20 m to 30 m; this anchorage is dangerous with winds from SE and E.

3.32 Isla de Fuerteventura, the second largest island in the archipelago, has several remarkable mountain ranges. The N part of the island consists of a group of extinct volcanic mountains among which Muda, elevation 688 m, lying 11 miles SSW of Punta Gorda (2845N 1353W) is the highest. Pico de la Atalaya, elevation 723 m, lies 11 miles SSW of Muda. Numerous villages are scattered about the hills in this part of the island. Near the centre of the N part of the island, the mountain range divides, following the coast on either side, and again unites SW in a high ridge which falls abruptly to Matas Blancas (2811N 1413W), which is a low sandy neck covered with white hummocks. Isla de Fuerteventura, SW of Matas Blancas, rises to the lofty Peninsula de Jandia which is the highest point of the island; the range is precipitous on its NW side but has a gradual slope on its other sides. The principal peaks of this range are called Orejas de Asno, from their most prominent feature, and Pico de la Zarza, the highest point on the island which rises to an elevation of 806 m. Owing to the high land NE and SW of Matas Blancas, Isla de Fuerteventura has the appearance, when seen from a distance in many directions, of two islands. Isla de Fuerteventura is partially cultivated but is mostly barren, and suffers from a scarcity of water. The coast, though generally high and abrupt, is indented by numerous sandy beaches and shallow coves or bays, called ports by the locals, but, which offer no shelter. Isla de Lobos (2845N 1349W), with an elevation of 107 m at its W point is covered with numerous conical hills. Its coasts are mostly rocky escarpments and fronted by submerged rocks, but there is a sandy beach on the SE side.

Current
1

Punta Gorda
1

3.29 Anchorage can be obtained midway between Punta Gorda (2853N 1345W) and Punta Papagayo about 5 cables offshore in depths of 33 m to 40 m, good holding ground, noting an obstruction centred on position 28513N 13457W.

3.33 Near the S end of Isla de Fuerteventura there is an eddy current setting N. See 3.6.

Directions Major lights


1

Playa Blanca
1

3.30 Good Anchorage can be obtained off Playa Blanca (2852N 1350W) (3.15) in depths of 15 m to 17 m, sand, with good shelter from N winds.

3.34 Punta Gavioto Light (white round tower, 43 m in height) (28302N 13506W). Punta Lantailla Light (square stone tower and dwelling, 12 m in height) (28137N 13568W). Punta de Morro Jable Light (white truncated conical tower, 59 m in height) (28027N 14200W).

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Punta Jandia Light (grey truncated conical tower and dwelling, 19 m in height) (28038N 14303W).

Isla de Lobos to Punta Lantailla


1

3.35 From a position E of Punta Martio Light (28458N 13488W) the track leads S, passing (with positions relative to Punta Gavioto Light (28302N 13506W)): E of Isla de Lobos (14 miles N) (3.32) which is separated from the NE side of Isla de Fuerteventura by El Rio, a narrow channel with a least charted depth of 78 m in the fairway, but with shoaler depths on either side, thence: E of Puerto Ventura (6 miles N) with Montaa de Escanfraga standing about 3 miles W, thence: E of Cabo del Agua (3 miles NNE), the N entrance point to Puerto de las Lajas, a small shallow cove fringed with rocks; the S entrance point lies 1 miles SSW. Thence: E of Punta Gavioto, from where a light (3.34) is exhibited. A shoal with a depth of 47 m over it lies 7 cables NNE of the light. Thence: E of Puerto del Rosario (1 mile SW) (3.39), the main port on Islas de Fuerteventura. The coast between Isla de Lobos and Puerto del Rosario is without remarkable features and fringed with rocks. Thence: E of Punta Gonzalo (3 miles S), the N entrance point to Baha del Matorral which is foul. Between Puerto del Rosario and Baha del Matorral the coast is free from offlying dangers. Thence: E of Punta del Bajo (6 miles S) with Puerto del Castillo situated 5 cables WSW; the entrance to the harbour is foul and local knowledge is essential. Thence: E of Punta del Muellito (8 miles S), the E entrance to a small inlet, thence: E of Punta Merino (11 miles SSW), the S entrance point to a cove with Pozo Negro standing at its head, thence: E of Punta Toneles (13 miles SSW) which has a reef extending a short distance from it, thence: E of Punta Lantailla (17 miles SSW) from where a light (3.34) is exhibited. This light is obscured when bearing less than 228. Useful marks: Punta Martio Light (yellow round tower, white lantern, 6 m in height) (28458N 13488W). Puerto del Castillo, Mole Head Light (white tower, green band, 5 m in height) (28234N 13513W).

SSE of Matas Blancas (10 miles NE) (3.32), thence: SSE of Punta de Morro Jable from where a light (3.34) is exhibited. Thence the track leads W, passing: S of Morro Jable (1 mile W), where there is a boat harbour frequented by interisland ferries. A large tourist development stretches W from Punta de Morro Jable to meet the village of Morro Jable which has substantial facilities. Thence: S of Punta Jandia (9 miles W), the SW point of Isla de Fuerteventura, from where a light (3.34) is exhibited. The point is low and shelving with foul ground extending 7 cables SW from it. Arrecife del Griego, at the outer end of the foul ground, is steepto and breaks; the current forms whirlpools in its vicinity. Punta Jandia should be given a berth of at least 2 miles. The coast between Punta de Morro Jable and Punta Jandia is without remarkable features and consists of low cliffs with small beaches between them. Thence the track leads NW, N and NNE around Punta Jandia, noting El Banquete with a depth of 31 m lying close S of a bank, with a least depth of 20 m, extending 5 miles SSW from the point and passing (with positions relative to Punta Jandia Light (28038N 14303W)): WNW of Punta Pesebre (2 miles NNE) from where a light is exhibited. Bajo Pesebre, with a depth of 46 m over it, lies 4 cables N of the point. The coast between Punta Pesebre and Punta Jandia is fronted by rocks, above and below water. Useful marks: Puerto de Morro Jable Breakwater Head Light (green truncated metal tower, 5 m in height) (28028N 14217W). Punta Pesebre Light (white and grey truncated pyramid tower, 5 m in height) (28 06 5N 14293W).

Punta Pesebre to Isla de Lobos


1

Punta Lantailla to Punta Pesebre


1

3.36 From a position E of Punta Lantailla (2814N 1357W) the track leads WSW, passing (with positions relative to Punta de Morro Jable Light (28027N 14200W)): SSE of Las Playitas (21 miles ENE), a small inlet, thence: SSE of Puerto de Gran Tarajal (19 miles ENE) (3.38), thence: SSE of Ginijinamar (16 miles NE), a fishing village standing at the head of a small inlet, thence: SSE of Punta de la Tiosa (14 miles NE) lying at the E end of a beach with the town of Tarajalejo standing close inland, thence: SSE of Lajita (12 miles NE), a town with several windmills standing nearby, thence:

3.37 From a position WNW of Punta Pesebre (2807N 1429W) the track leads NE, passing (with positions relative to Punta de Tostn Light (28428N 14007W)): SE of Bajo de Amanay (47 miles SW), an extensive bank with a least known depth of 26 m, thence: NW of El Islote (39 miles SSW), a prominent detached rock lying close off the beach, thence: NW of Punta Guadalupe (31 miles SSW), the N point of the sandy isthmus, thence: NW of Punta Amanay (27 miles SSW). A rocky bight with a small hill in its N part lies between Punta Amanay and Punta Guadalupe. Thence: NW of Punta de la Herradura (18 miles SSW); one of a number of ravines which intersect this stretch of the coast lies close S of the point. The coast S of Punta de la Herradura has only been partially surveyed. Thence: NW of Punta del Salvaje (10 miles SSW) with Punta de la Cruz lying 5 cables SSW, thence: NW of Punta de Paso Chico (6 miles S) with Bajo Mateos lying close offshore, thence: NW of Punta de Tostn, the NW point of the island, from where a light is exhibited. The point is very low and fringed by islets and rocks which extend 7 cables N from the point and over which the sea breaks heavily with SW winds. Due to depths of less than 40 m extending NW from Punta de

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Tostn and the steepness of the seas over this bank, deepdraught vessels should give the point a berth of at least 3 miles. Thence the track leads ENE and E, passing: N of Punta Gorda (7 miles ENE), the N extremity of the island. The point is low with foul ground extending about 3 cables N from it. The coast from Punta Gorda to Punta de Tostn, 7 miles WSW, is low, fringed with rocks above and below water, and generally inaccessible. Off Punta Gorda and between it and Isla de Lobos (3.32), there is a confused sea when the swell comes from W. Corralejo, a village with a small harbour from where a light is exhibited, stands 1 miles SE of Punta Gorda. Thence: N of Punta Martio (10 miles ENE), the N extremity of Islas de Lobos, which is fronted by a reef extending 3 cables NNE from the point. A light (3.35) is exhibited from a tower attached to a dwelling, standing on the summit of a hill close to Punta Martio. Thence the track leads SE to a position E of Punta Martio Light (28458N 13488W). Useful marks: Punta Pesebre Light (28065N 14293W) (3.36) Punta Tostn Light (white tower, red bands, 30 m in height) (28428N 14007W). Puerto de Corralejo, Mole Head Light (green round tower, 5 m in height) (28443N 13516W).

Function. It is the best port in Isla de Fuerteventura, and handles mainly containers and passenger vessels. Fruit and tomatoes are exported. Topography. The port is well sheltered from winds from SW, through W, to N. Its shores are rocky except for a small sandy bay close E of the town and a sandy beach about 1 mile S of it. Approach and entry. The port is approached and entered from S. Traffic. In 2004 there were 362 vessel movements totalling 2 801 541 dwt. Port Authority. Autoridad Portuaria de Las Palmas Puerto del Rosario, Avenida Maritima 2, 35600 Puerto del Rosario, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. Email: ptorosario@palmasport.es

Limiting conditions
1

3.40 Deepest and longest berth. See 3.44. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 20 m; mean neap range about 07 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled: LOA 245 m, draught 81 m, size 70 285 grt.

Arrival information
1

Puerto de Gran Tarajal General information


1

3.38 Position and function. Puerto de Gran Tarajal (2812N 1401W) is situated on the SE coast of Isla Fuerteventura. Apart from tomatoes, there is little trade at the port, but interisland ferries call. Approach and entry. The pier may be approached directly from the sea, the harbour is entered from S between the heads of two breakwaters. Useful marks: Mole Head Light (red tower, 7 m in height) (28123N 14012W). Anchorage off the town, although sheltered from winds between NE and NW, is not recommended with winds between E, through S, to W. Berths. A pier 235 m in length extends S from the town. There are two ferry berths on the E and W sides of the pier with depths of 10 m alongside. A short breakwater extends W from the root of the pier. Approximately 460 m farther W, a breakwater extends 143 m SSE from the shore, then about 280 m ENE. Small craft berth within this breakwater and there is a RoRo ramp. Repairs. Travellift of 15 tons capacity is available. Other facilities: Fuel oil; water, provisions.

3.41 Notice of ETA. Send ETA to agents 72, 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival. The pilot should be contacted 2 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained for small vessels about 2 cables E of the pier in depths of between 14 and 18 m with good holding ground of sand and shells. Prohibited anchorage. Anchorage is prohibited in the area S of the harbour, as shown on the chart. Submarine cables are laid E and SE from Punta de Cayado de los Pozos (2829N 1352W) as shown on the chart. Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over 500 grt and available 24 hours. Pilot boards vessel off the harbour entrance. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Tugs are available by prior arrangement.

Harbour
1

3.42 General layout. The harbour is sheltered on its E side by a pier projecting about 620 m S from the town, and on its S side by another pier projecting about 175 m E. Development. Works were in progress (2004) to extend the E pier by about 100 m. Reclamation works were in progress (2005) S of the existing pier projecting E to extend the berthing area for cruise ships. Local weather. Prevailing wind is Nly with SW and SE winds between November and March. SE winds are least favourable but seldom occur.

Directions for entering harbour Puerto del Rosario


1

Chart 1870 plans approaches to and Puerto del Rosario

General information
1

3.39 Position. Puerto del Rosario (2830N 1351W) is situated about midway along the E coast.

(continued from 3.35) 3.43 Major light: Punta Gavioto Light (28302N 13506W) (3.34). Entry. The chart is sufficient guide. Useful mark: Church (28298N 13515W). Storage tanks (28297N 13513W).

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Berths
1

ISLA DE GRAN CANARIA

3.44 The main pier, on the E side of the harbour, offers about 575 m for berthing, of which the N part has depths of from 50 m to 90 m alongside and the S part has depths of 9 m to 11 m alongside. There are two RoRo berths on this pier. The pier on the W side of the harbour has a marina and berths for fishing vessels on its N face.
1

General information
Charts 1869, 1856

Route
3.50 Isla de Gran Canaria (2758N 1536W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given in the coastal directions at 3.55.

Port services
1

3.45 Repairs: limited repairs only; slipways for fishing vessels under 15 tons. Other facilities: local hospital; no dirty ballast reception facilities; garbage collection available. Supplies: Fuel oil is not available; fresh water available; provisions available. Communications: Airport 10 km S of the city.

Description
1

Anchorages and harbours

3.51 Isla de Gran Canaria, lying about 45 miles W of Isla de Fuerteventura (3.32) is the most important, together with Isla de Tenerife (3.114), of Islas Canarias, not only in respect to resources, fisheries and products but also on account of the shelter afforded by Baha de las Palmas (3.81) and Puerto de la Luz. Isla de Gran Canaria is more fertile and better watered than any other of the group, and most of the land capable of irrigation is under cultivation. Walnut, chestnut, oak, and fir trees grow in abundance and the apple, almond and fig trees thrive. Bananas, cochineal, oranges, potatoes and tomatoes are grown extensively.

Chart 886

Topography
1

Isla de Lobos
1

3.46 There is good anchorage about 7 cables S of Isla de Lobos (2845N 1349W) (3.32), in a depth of 11 m, sand, as shown on the chart.

Chart 1870

Punta Jandia
1

3.47 Anchorage can be obtained in a bay close E of Punta Jandia (2804N 1430W) (3.36), but this anchorage is open SE.

Puerto del Tostn


1

3.48 Anchorage can be obtained 1 mile S of Puerto del Tostn (2841N 1401W).

Other anchorages
1

3.49 Anchorage may also be obtained off the following places: Pozo Negro (2819N 1354W); Jacomar (2817N 1354W); Las Playitas (2813N 1359W), noting a fish haven close E; Tarajalejo (2812N 1407W), and; Matas Blancas (2812N 1410W). 92

3.52 Isla de Gran Canaria is very mountainous. Pico de las Nieves (2758N 1534W), lying in the centre of the island, is the highest with an elevation of 1949 m; Roque Nublo, 1699 m high, lying 2 miles W of it, appears from NE as an isolated pillar of rock. The island seen from seaward, appears high in the centre with a broken and serrated slope on either side to the sea, showing here and there secondary peaks and remarkable craters. Numerous streams, which rise in the ravines of the higher peaks, traverse the plateau and flow into the sea. The coast is generally high and bluff, and is free of offlying dangers except off a few points on the E side. The coast between Las Palmas (2807N 1526W) and Punta de Gando, 10 miles SSE, is indented with sandy beaches and fringed with rocks in places. The coast between Punta de Maspalomas (2744N 1534W) and Morro de Colchas, 1 miles W, is low. The coast between Morro de Colchas (27 44 N 1536W) and Punta Taozo, 4 miles WNW, is low with small beaches; inland the land is cultivated. From Punta del Castillete (2749N 1546W) to Cabo Colorado, 10 miles NNW, the coast is steep and free from dangers with sand and pebble beaches at the mouths of ravines. The coast between Cabo Colorado (2758N 1550W) and Punta de la Aldea, 2 miles NNE, is sheer with a few sand and pebble beaches. The coast between Punta de Aldea (2801N 1549W) and Punta de las Nieves, 8 miles NE is generally steep and high. From Punta de las Nieves (2806N 1543W) to Roque Partido (3.57), 2 miles NNE, the coast is sheer and intersected by ravines. The coast of Rada de Baaderos (2809N 1535W) (3.57) is low, intersected by ravines and cultivated land.

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Prohibited anchorage
1

3.53 Anchoring and fishing are prohibited in Bahia del Confital (2809N 1527W), due to submarine cables, as shown on the chart. Anchoring and trawling are prohibited in an area, shown on the charts, which extends 8 miles S and SE from Punta Arinaga due to submarine cables.

Directions Major lights


1

3.54 La Isleta Light (white round tower, yellow band and dwelling, 10 m in height) (2810N 1525W). Maspalomas Light (grey truncated conical tower, 56 m in height) (2744N 1536W). Punta del Castillete Light (4sided tower and building, 20 m in height) (2749N 1546W). Punta Sardina Light (white round tower, red bands, 23 m in height) (2810N 1542W).

La Isleta to Punta de Gando


1

3.55 From a position E of La Isleta Light (3.54), the track leads S, passing (with positions relative to Punta Melenara Light (27594N 15220W)): E of El Roque del Palo (10 miles N), from where a light is exhibited, which is steepto and prominent, thence: E of Puerto de la Luz (8 miles NNW) (3.81) outer breakwater from where lights (see below) are exhibited, thence: E of Bajo de la Laja (5 miles NNW), a rocky ledge, thence: E of Punta Marfea (4 miles NW), a sheer steepto point, thence: E of Punta Ginamar (2 miles NNW), which is fringed by a rocky ledge which extends about 3 cables ENE and which terminates in Bajos de Telde, over which the sea always breaks. Thence: E of Punta de la Mareta (1 mile NNW), low and free from dangers with a lightbuoy (special) moored 5 cables SE from it, thence: E of Punta Melenara, from where a light (see below) is exhibited. Roque Melenara lies about 4 cables E of the point and reefs extend about 2 cables N and NW with a conspicuous wreck lying on the reef 1 cables WNW of the rock. Puerto Deportivo de Taliarte, a fishing harbour, is protected by a breakwater extending S from Punta Melenara. Thence: E of Punta de la Salineta (1 mile SSW), surmounted by three oil tanks. The port of La Salineta (3.66) lies close SW of the point. Thence: E of Punta de Silva (1 miles SSW), a dark coloured cliff which is the most prominent feature on this stretch of the coast. A sheersided cove lies to the N and a sandy inlet lies to the S of Punta de Silva, thence: E of Punta Ojos de Garza (2 miles SSW), which is sheer, with Punta el Ambar lying 7 cables SE. A conspicuous wreck lies close W of Punta el Ambar. Thence: E of Roque de Gando (3 miles S), dark in colour, steepto and moderately prominent. Baja de Gando lies 5 cables ESE of Roque de Gando and is

composed of two pinnacle rocks; the shoaler with 02 m over it. It is dangerous as the sea does not always break on it and 2 hours after HW the reef has the appearance of a tiderip. Baja de Gando is steepto but should be given a wide berth. E of Punta de Gando (3 miles S), the S extremity of Pennsula de Gando. The peninsula is sheer with an elevation of 103 m about midway along its S side; its summit being marked by a light. Both Roque de Gando and Baja de Gando are covered by the red sector of Punta Arinaga Light (172212) (3.56) and Pennsula de Gando Light (224260). The peninsula forms part of the military zone where air excercises are conducted. Useful marks: Roque del Palo Light (black post, yellow band, on concrete base, 6 m in height) (28 09 8N 15239W). Dique Reina Sofia, Outer Elbow Light (black post, yellow band, 1 m in height) (28 07 8N 15242W). Dique Reina Sofia, Head Light (white metal framework tower, 8 m in height) (28 07 5N 15242W). Cathedral (28059N 15248W) (3.106). Tower (28046N 15250W). Chimney (red and white bands, about 50 m in height) (28025N 15246W). Punta Melenara Light (white round tower, 17 m in height) (27594N 15220W). Pennsula de Gando Light (27559N 15219W).

Punta de Gando to Cabo Descojonado


1

3.56 From a position E of Punta de Gando (27 56 N 1522W) the track leads SSW, passing (with positions relative to Punta Arinaga Light (27517N 15230W)): ESE of Punta de la Sal (7 cables NNE), thence: ESE of Punta Arinaga, from where a light (see below) is exhibited, backed by Montaa de Arinaga. Roque de Arinaga lies at the outer end of a reef extending SE from the point and the channel between the rock and the coast is only suitable for small boats. Thence the track leads SW, passing: SE of Punta Tenef (5 miles SW), fringed by a rocky shoal with a depth of 68 m over it, lying at the mouth of Barranco de Tirajana (not charted). A breakwater from where a light (see below) is exhibited, is situated S of the point. Thence the track leads WSW, passing (with positions relative to Maspalomas Light (2744N 1536W)): SSE of Punta de Maspalomas (1 miles E), the S point of Isla de Gran Canaria, covered with heaps of whitish sand; silting is liable in its vicinity, thence: SSE of Punta Morro de Colchas, from where Maspalomas light (see below) is exhibited; an artificial reef (charted as an obstruction) lies 3 miles WSW and a dangerous wreck lies 3 miles W from the light, respectively. There are many resorts in the vicinity. Thence the track leads W, passing: S of Punta Taozo (4 miles WNW), a prominent point identified by a cement works standing on its summit. The town of Arguineguin stands close NNE. An industrial port (3.74) extends SE from

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Punta Taozo and a boat harbour lies NW of the point. (Directions for Arguineguin continue at 3.78) Thence the track leads NW, passing (with positions relative to Punta del Castillete Light (2749N 1546W)): SW of Punta de la Hondura (3 miles SE), a high point which can be identified by the building on its summit, thence: SW of Punta del Tauro (2 miles SE), a prominent white cliff, thence: SW of Punta del Castillete from where a light (3.54) is exhibited. Mogn, one of the best known marinas in the Canaries, lies close E of the point. Thence the track leads NNW, passing: WSW of Cabo Descojonado (6 miles NNW), the W extremity of Isla de Gran Canaria, formed of high pyramidshaped cliffs backed by rugged mountainous land, of which Mogarenes, standing 2 miles inland, is the highest peak with an elevation of 891 m. Useful marks: Punta Arinaga Light (white round tower, red bands, 13 m in height) (27517N 15230W). Chimney (124 m in height; red and white obstruction lights) (2748N 1526W). Barranco Tirajana Breakwater Head Light (S cardinal beacon, 4 m in height) (2748N, 1526W). Puerto Cementero Dique. Head Light (white column, red bands, 5 m in height) (27448N 15403W).

Cabo Descojonado to La Isleta


1

3.57 From a position WSW of Cabo Descojonado (2755N 1550W) the track leads N, passing (with positions relative to Punta Sardina Light (2810N 1542W)): W of Punta del Penn Bermeijo (13 miles SSW), which can be identified by a prominent rock on its summit, thence: W of Cabo Colorado (13 miles SSW), high and sheer, can be easily identified by a high mountain with a prominent wide and flat summit standing 7 cables SE, and a reddish rock projecting from the coast 7 cables NE of the cape, thence: W of Punta de la Aldea (11 miles SSW), steepto and distinctive, with Puerto San Nicols lying in the bay S of the headland. Thence the track leads NNE, passing: WNW of Punta de las Arenas (7 miles SSW), a low sandy headland fringed by rocks with Punta de Gondoron, which can be identified by a rock near its summit, lying 7 cables NW, thence: WNW of Puerto de las Nieves (3 miles S), from where a light (see below) is exhibited, standing close E of a point with the village of Agaete standing 7 cables farther E. Roque de las Nieves, a prominent high rock surmounted by a cross, stands close to the shore, 2 cables E of the point, at the NE corner of the port. Thence: WNW of Roque Partido (1 miles S), a tall detached rock, lying close to the coast, thence: WNW of Punta Sardina, from where a light (3.54) is exhibited, and clear of an ODAS Lightbuoy (special) moored 5 miles WNW. Punta Sardina is the NW extremity of Isla de Gran Canaria; a rock, with a depth of 18 m over it, lies 1 cable NW of the point.

Thence the track leads ENE and E, passing: N of Rade de Galdar (2 miles E), with Punta de Galdar (unnamed on chart) forming the W entrance. A shoal, is situated about 600 m W of Punta Galder and another shoal, with a depth of 12 m over it, lies about 200 m S. Puerto de la Caleta, where there is a small pier, is situated at the W end of this roadstead. Thence: N of Punta Guanarteme (3 miles E), the W entrance to Rada de Baaderos, is bold and cliffy. Pico de Galdar, elevation 433 m, stands 1 miles S of the point and its conical summit is an excellent landmark when approaching the coast. Thence: N of Punta del Camello (9 miles E), the E entrance point to Rada de Baaderos; anchorage is not recomended in these roads as the bottom is rocky and the roadstead is open to the prevailing winds. A rocky ledge, with a least depth of 17 m over it, extends 3 cables NE from Punta del Camello. Thence: N of Punta del Confital (14 miles E), the W extremity of La Isleta (3.83), which is steep, rugged and dominated by a hill the S side of which is sheer. Bahia del Confital, where anchoring and fishing are prohibited (see 3.53), is entered between Punta del Camello and Punta del Confital but is exposed to N swell and has a reef at its head; this bay is only suitable for shelter for small craft with local knowledge. The N coast of La Isleta should not be approached within a distance of 2 miles. Thence: N of Punta de la Vieja (15 miles E), the N point of Isla Gran Canaria, which is formed by a small hill of peculiar form and is prominent. Bajo El Becerro, with a least depth of 15 m and over which the sea breaks in a fresh breeze, and Bajo La Vaca, with a least depth of 22 m, lie 2 cables NNW and N, respectively of Punta de la Vieja. A narrow channel suitable for small vessels lies between the shoals and the point. Las Bajas, 6 cables E of Punta de la Vieja, extend about 4 cables N from the NE point of La Isleta; they do not dry, but they can be easily distinguished by the breakers on them. Thence the track leads SE to a position E of La Isleta Light (2810N 1525W). Useful mark: Puerto de las Nieves Agaete. Dique Head Light (red support, 10 m in height) (28059N 15427W).

Anchorages and harbours


Chart 1869

Punta Tenef
1

3.58 Shoal. A steepto shoal, with a depth of 76 m over it, lies about 5 cables S of Punta Tenef (2748N 1526W) (3.56); S and SW of this shoal are patches of 18 m and 13 m respectively. Anchorage can be obtained in the open roadstead 1 mile E of Punta Tenef, sheltered from N winds. This anchorage is frequented by fishing vessels from the African coast. Useful marks: Chimney (2748N 1526W) (3.56). Barranco Tirajana Breakwater Head Light (2748N, 1526W) (3.56). Landing can be effected at a small breakwater in Puerto de Tenef, situated S of Punta Tenef.

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Morro de Colchas
1

Puerto de las Nieves


1

3.59 Depths. A spit with depths of less than 20 m over it, extends 4 miles SW from Morro de Colchas (2744N 1536W) (3.56). Anchorage can be obtained in Baha de Melonera (not named on chart), about 1 mile WNW of Morro de Colchas, in a depth of 12 m. Caution. During August frequent squalls from all directions have been experienced at Baha de Melonera, which lies between Morro Pasitos Blancos (not named on chart) and Morro de Colchas, 1 miles ESE. Squalls blowing off the land have the greatest strength and were accompanied by a sudden rise in temperature of more than 14C. Useful marks: Puerto de Pasitos Blancos. Jetty. Head (red metal post, 3 m in height) (27447N 15373W). Puerto de Pasitos Blancos. Jetty. Spur (red metal post, 3 m in height) (27447N 15372W). Puerto de Pasitos Blancos. Repair Yard. Breakwater. Head (green metal post, 3 m in height) (27448N 15373W).

3.64 Description. Puerto de las Nieves (3.57) lies close E of Punta de las Nieves (2806N 1543W). A pier used by coasters is situated on the S side of the point. Anchorage can be obtained about 2 cables SSW of the pier in a depth of 14 m. Useful mark: Puerto de las Nieves Agaete. Dique Head Light (28059N 15427W) (3.57).

Puerto de Sardina
1

3.65 Description. Rada de Sardina lies close S of Punta Sardina (2810N 1542W) (3.57) and Puerto de Sardina, where there are two small piers, is situated at its head. Anchorage. Good anchorage, sheltered from N and E winds, can be obtained about 2 cables WNW of Puerto de Sardina in a depth of 12 m, sand.

La Salineta
Chart 1856 plan Punta de La Salineta

General information
1

Punta Taozo
1

3.60 Anchorage. Good anchorage can be obtained in Baha de Santa Agueda 3 cables E of Punta Taozo (2745N 1540W) (3.56) in a depth of 10 m, sand. Baha de Santa Agueda, lying between Punta Taozo and Morro Pasitos Blancos, 2 miles E, appears to be free from squalls experienced in Baha de Melonera (3.59), above. Useful mark: Puerto Cementero Dique. Head Light (27448N 15403W) (3.56).

Puerto Rico
1

3.61 Description. Puerto Rico (2747N 1543W) with twin yacht harbours lies at the mouth of Barranco de Puerto Rico, 5 cables ESE of Punta de la Hondura. Punta del Parchel (Punta del Puerto) (2745N 1541W) (not named on chart), a low promontory, lies 2 miles SE of Puerto Rico, and a village stands on the promontory. Anchorage. Good anchorage can be obtained, sheltered from N winds, 3 cables NW of Punta del Parchel in a depth of 14 m.

3.66 Position. La Salineta (2759N 1522W) lies about 9 miles S of Las Palmas (3.81), on the E coast of Isla de Gran Canaria. Function. The port is used for handling liquids in bulk, with principal imports being fuel oil and pyrites and exporting ammonium sulphate and burnt pyrites. Port limits. The N and S port limits are the parallels of latitude passing through Roque Melenara (3.55) and Roque de Gando. Traffic. In 2004 there were 212 vessel movements totalling 1 464 178 dwt. Port Authority. Autoridad Portuaria de Las Palmas, Calle Tomas Quevedo Ramirez s/n, 35008 Las Palmas, Canary Islands. Email: info@palmasport.es Web: www.palmasport.es

Limiting conditions
1

3.67 Tidal levels. See 3.90. Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled: LOA 1494 m; draught 90 m; 11 159 grt.

Arrival information
1

Punta del Castillete


1

3.62 Anchorage. Good well sheltered anchorage can be obtained 3 cables SE of Punta del Castillete (2749N 1546W) (3.56) in a depth of 12 m sand.

Rada de la Aldea
1

3.63 Description. Rada de la Aldea lies between Punta de la Aldea (2801N 1549W) (3.57) and Morro de la Marciega (not named on chart), 8 cables S. Punta del Bufadero lies 3 cables SE of Punta de la Aldea. Anchorage can be obtained in Rada de la Aldea about 2 cables W of Punta del Bufadero in a depth of 15 m in good holding ground and protected from N winds. Roque Colorado, reddish coloured, projects seaward from the coast 1 mile SSW of Morro de la Marciega.

3.68 Notice of ETA. Send ETA 72, 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Outer anchorage. Anchorage can be obtained 2 cables SSE of Punta de la Salineta in depths of 20 m to 25 m, good holding ground, sand. Anchorage can also be obtained at the intersection of the white sectors of direction lights about 1 cable SW of the head of the mole; the N/S direction light being situated 1 cables NNW, and the E/W direction light being situated 3 cables WSW of the head of the mole. Submarine pipelines. Two submerged pipelines, the outer ends of which are indicated by a red spar buoy, extend about 2 cables SSE from the shore 1 cables W of the root of the mole. See 3.72. Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 500 grt and above and available 24 hours, from Las Palmas. Pilot boards vessel off Las Palmas. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).

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Tugs can be ordered from Las Palmas if required.

Harbour
1

Port Authority. Port Authority of Arguineguin, Cementos Especiales de la Islas SA, 35120 Santa Agueda, Arguineguin, Canary Islands.

3.69 General layout. The harbour consists of a mole extending about 180 m SSE from the shore 1 cables SW of Punta de la Salineta and three mooring buoys about 3 cables farther SW. Local weather. See 3.104.

Limiting conditions
1

Directions for entering harbour (continued from 3.55)


1

3.75 Deepest and longest berth. Berth No 1 (3.79). Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled: maximum LOA 180 m; maximum draught 83 m. Local weather. During winter months the SW wind blows at speeds of 8 kn or more often making manoeuvering difficult.

3.70 Landmark: Three oil storage tanks (27587N 15225W). Major light: Punta Melenara Light (white round tower, 17 m in height) (27594N 15220W). Entry: The chart is sufficient guide. Useful mark: Salineta Mole Head Light (column on corner of grey building, 13 m in height) (27584N 15225W).

Arrival information
1

3.76 Notice of ETA. Send ETA to agent 6 hours prior to arrival. Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained about 1 mile SE of the head of the wharf, sand and pebble bottom. Pilotage is compulsory and provided by a private pilot, who boards about 7 cables off the wharf. Tug, from which the pilot boards, is available.

Harbour Berth
1

3.71 Vessels berth at the inner face of the mole, alongside which there are depths ranging from 75 m near the root to 15 m at the head. Loading of ammonium sulphate is by means of a conveyor belt. A mooring buoy is situated close SSW of the root of the mole.

Mooring buoys
1

3.72 Three mooring buoys are situated about 2 cables SSE of Punta de la Hullera (2758N 1523W). There are depths from 16 m to 18 m at these berths.

3.77 General layout. The harbour lies in the W part of Baha de Santa Agueda. Marine farm. A marine farm has been established in Bahia de Santa Agueda, in depths of 8 m, about 700 m NE of the light on the head of the cement wharf. Local weather. The predominant wind between April and October is the Trade Wind. During this period the local wind commences about midday, blowing from E, then veering to SW and blowing at a speed of about 3 kn during the afternoon before calming in the the evenings. Current. The current, during the commencement of both HW and LW, sets SE.

Directions for entering harbour Port services


1

3.73 Repairs: Comprehensive repair facilities at Las Palmas. See 3.108. Other facilities: See 3.109. Supplies: Fuel oil, diesel oil and fresh water are available by barge; provisions are available. Communications: Gando International airport 10 km.

Arguineguin
Chart 1869

(continued from 3.56) 3.78 Landmark: Cement works (27449N 15404W) Major light: Maspalomas Light (2744N 1536W) (3.54) Entry. The port is entered directly from the sea keeping clear of the obstruction and dangerous wreck, charted 3 miles SW and W, respectively, from Maspalomas Light. Useful mark: Puerto Cementero Dique. Head Light (27447N 15403W) (3.56).

Berths General information


1 1

3.74 Position. The industrial port of Arguineguin (2745N 1540W), locally known as Puerto Cementero lies on the SW coast of Isla Gran Canaria. Function. It is a private facility for the handling of cement products, with a production capability of 1 500 000 tons of mortar annually. Port limits are 1 mile from the breakwater. Traffic. In 2004 there were 96 vessel movements totalling 948 695 dwt.

3.79 The facility has two numbered berths. Berth No 1 is the S berth and consists of a wharf 408 m in length, extending ESE from Punta Taozo, with depths alongside of between 50 m and 105 m. Berth No 2, the N berth, is the Bulk Terminal with a berthing face of about 25 m and a depth alongside of 7 m. Vessels using this berth secure to bollards at one end and to a mooring buoy at the other.

Port services
1

3.80 Repairs: Available at Las Palmas (3.108).

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Other facilities: hospital at Las Palmas; no ballast/oily waste reception facilities; no garbage facilities. Supplies: fresh water available at both berths. Communications: Gando International airport 40 km.

main exports include agricultural produce, fish, and cement. The main imports include oil, textiles, foodstuffs, general cargo, fertilisers, grain and edible oils. The port is visited by numerous passenger ships and yachts. The port also handles a large number of containers.

PUERTO DE LA LUZ (LAS PALMAS)


1

Topography
3.83 La Isleta, the peninsula forming the NE extremity of Isla de Gran Canaria, is connected to the island by Istmo de Guanarteme. The peninsula appears as a detached conical islet when seen from E or W, and is of volcanic formation. Its coasts are very steep and sheer, except on the S side where the town of Puerto de La Luz stands.

General information
Chart 1856 plan and approaches to Puerto de La Luz (Las Palmas)

Position
1

3.81 Puerto de La Luz is situated at the head of Baha de Las Palmas, between Punta El Nido (2810N 1524W) and the point on which Las Palmas stands, 4 miles S.

Port limits
1

Function
1

3.84 The port limits are between the parallels of 2806N and 2810N and between the meridians of 1523W and 1526W.

3.82 Puerto de La Luz, usually known as Las Palmas, is a major commercial port and a Spanish Naval base. Las Palmas, the capital of Isla de Gran Canaria and of the E group of islands, had a population of 370 649 in 2001. The

Approach and entry


1

3.85 Puerto de La Luz is approached from E through SE to S and entered through a fairway.

Las Palmas from NNE (3.81)


(Original dated 2003) (Photograph Port of Las Palmas)

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Traffic
1

3.86 In 2004 there were 4904 vessel movements totalling 77 373 104 dwt.

Port Authority
1

3.87 Autoridad Portuaria de Las Palmas, Calle Tomas Quevedo Ramirez s/n, 35008 Las Palmas, Canary Islands. Email: info@palmasport.es Web: www.palmasport.es

Limiting conditions Controlling depth


1

3.88 There are depths in excess of 20 m in much of Puerto Exterior.

Anchorage, for vessels of medium and large tonnage and vessels carrying dangerous cargoes, and Rada Sur Reserved Anchorage for small vessels. Vessels should anchor in accordance with the pilots instructions; the anchorage zones are under radar surveillance by Port Control. When anchoring off Las Palmas it should be borne in mind that depths decrease rapidly at relatively short distances towards the island. The bottom is uneven and rocky and ships should not steam to the anchoring position with too much cable walked out. In view of the depths it is necessary to lower the anchor to the bottom when all way is off the ship. Several ships have lost their anchors when anchoring off Puerto de La Luz. Emergency anchorage is permitted in the S part of Puerto Exterior, under exceptional circumstances, with the pilot on board. Prohibited anchorage. See 3.100.

Deepest and longest berth


1

3.89 Deepest berth; Muelle Len y Castillo Naciente. Longest Berth; Muelle Len y Castillo (3.107).

Submarine cables and pipeline


1

Tidal levels
1

3.90 Mean spring range about 2.1 m; mean neap range about 0.9 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2.

3.98 Submarine cables are laid S of Rada Sur Reserved Anchorage, and can be best seen on the chart. An outfall pipeline extends ESE from close E of the Cathedral (2806N 1525W). Two lightbuoys (special) are moored close N of the pipeline, about and 1 miles ESE of the cathedral, respectively.

Density of water
1

Pilotage and tugs


1

3.91 Density: 1025 g/cm3.

Maximum size of vessel handled


1

3.92 Largest vessel berthed (1994) 555 000 dwt. There are no length or beam restrictions, however, the maximum draught for vessels bunkering or working cargo at Dique Reina Sofia is 22 m.

3.99 Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 500 grt and over and available 24 hours. The pilot boards outside the breakwater. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Tugs, including those equipped for firefighting, are available.

Traffic regulations
1

Arrival information Port operations


1

3.93 Ships are normally berthed with head to wind and, as this prevails from NE, most berth starboard side to the breakwater.

Vessel Traffic Service


1

3.100 Prohibited area. Entry is prohibited in an area, best seen on the chart, between the N part of Rada Norte Reserved Anchorage and Dique Reina Sofia due to the presence of unmarked wrecks and hulks. A prohibited area extends NE from below the Cathedral, as shown on the chart, consisting of an outer area in which fishing is prohibited and an inner area in which anchoring and fishing are prohibited.

3.94 A vessel traffic service is in operation; vessels are to contact Las Palmas Port Control on VHF at least 2 hours before arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).

Regulations concerning entry


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Port radio
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3.95 There are coast and port radio stations. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volumes 1 (1) and 6 (2).

Notice of ETA
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3.96 ETA should be sent to the agent 72, 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).

Outer anchorages
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3.97 There are two designated anchorages, the limits of which are best seen on the chart. Rada Norte Reserved

3.101 Compulsory rules for the organization and control of all maritime traffic operating at Puerto de La Luz and de Las Palmas, with or without the use of Pilotage Services. (1) All vessels heading for Puerto de La Luz and de Las Palmas should make contact with Las Palmas Port Control or Centro de Control, on VHF Ch 16, at least one hour before reaching the entrance channel and reply to the request for information as follows: (a) Vessel information. (b) Cargo details. (c) Approximate ETA off the light at the head of Dique Reina Sofia. (d) Whether transporting dangerous cargo. (e) All further information that may be requested by either the Harbour Authority or by Las Palmas Harbour Master. (2) A vessel when three miles from the head of Dique Reina Sofia will again make contact with Las Palmas Port

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Control or Centro de Control on VHF Ch 12, in order to receive entry instructions. (3) The Captain or Master of any vessel or craft, wishing to move from an authorized berth, whether to another berth or assigned anchorage, or to put to sea, will request prior authorization from Las Palmas Port Control or Centro de Control on VHF Ch 12, at least 30 minutes before commencing the manoeuvre, confirming the exit manoeuvre 10 minutes before commencement of the same. (4) All vessels, whether or not they are exempt from using the Pilotage Service, whenever they are within harbour waters, will maintain permanent listening watch on VHF Ch 12 or 14, in order to receive instructions and coordinate the movement of vessels in transit, and to inform Las Palmas Port Control or Centro de Control of the conclusion of the manoeuvre or when they leave the harbour service zone. (5) Vessels navigating in inner harbour waters will not exceed a speed of seven kts, save for those with dynamic support or of a high speed, which because of their technical conditions merit special treatment. (6) The C.C.S will be responsible for progressively imparting orders to vesels, leading to the arrangement and control of maritime traffic within the service zone of Puerto de La Luz and de Las Palmas.

Rear light (white post on building, 21 m in height) 72 m from front. The alignment (001) of the above lights leads into the inner harbour. Note. It was reported (1985) that the above light structures were difficult to identify by day at a distance greater than 2 cables. Useful marks: Roque del Palo Light (28098N 15239W) (3.55) Dique Reina Sofia, Outer Elbow Light (28078N 15242W) (3.55). Dique Reina Sofia, Head Light (28 07 5N 15242W) (3.55). Cathedral (28059N 15248W), black, prominent against white houses in background. Tower (28046N 15250W).

Berths Alongside berths


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Harbour General layout


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3.102 An artificial harbour, Puerto de La Luz is divided into two areas; Puerto Interior, an inner harbour, and Puerto Exterior or outer harbour which lies between Muelle Len y Castillo and Dique Reina Sofia.

Development
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3.103 Extension of Dique Reina Sofia SSW and expansion of container terminal at Muelle Len y Castillo. Long term expansion calls for the creation of a new basin N of the Dique Reina Sofia for which a new breakwater would be built.

Natural conditions
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3.104 Local weather. Prevailing winds are from NW to NE through N. From November to March, SE and SW winds may be experienced bringing with them squalls with short intervals of calm.

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 3.55)

Major light
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3.105 La Isleta Light (28104N 15250W) (3.54).

Entry
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3.106 Puerto Exterior. Leading lights: Front light (1 m post on building, elevation 14 m) (28093N 15246W). Rear light (post, 10 m in height, on embankment, elevation 30 m) 609 m from front. The alignment (000) of the above lights leads into the outer harbour. Puerto Interior. Leading lights: Front light (white post on building, 19 m in height) (28088N 15251W). 99

3.107 Puerto Exterior. The W face of Dique Reina Sofia consists of five berths, ranging from 120 m to 760 m in length, used by vessels with draughts up to 22 m for bunkering, bulk cargo, repairs and layup. Between the root of Dique Reina Sofia and the container terminal at Muelle de Gran Canaria, 5 cables SW, lies the ship repair yard with extensive facilities (3.108). Muelle de Gran Canaria, 518 m in length with depths alongside of 11 m, at which container and RoRo vessels are handled. Muelle Virgen del Pino, 505 m in length with a depth alongside of 115 m, is also used for handling container and RoRo vessels. Muelle Elder, used for the handling of liquids and solids in bulk, is 435 m in length and accommodates vessels with a maximum draught of 119 m. Muelle Len y Castillo Naciente has a berthing face of 642 m and can accommodate vessels with a maximum draught of 160 m. Puerto Interior. Muelle Len y Castillo, 1829 m in length with depths of 10 m to 16 m alongside, consists of five berths capable of accomodating vessels carrying RoRo, container and grain cargoes. Muelle Primo de Rivera, 248 m long with a depth alongside of 9 m and handling general cargo and grain, lies between the roots of Muelle Len y Castillo and Muelle Grande, 1 cables W. Muelle Grande consist of three berths of from 100 m to 615 m in length with depths of 8 m to 12 m alongside; vessels carrying fish, general and grain cargoes are accomodated there. Pantalan de Cory, a wooden pier, cables W of Muelle Grande, consists of E and W berths 335 m in length with depths alongside of between 3 m and 8 m, for vessels undergoing repairs and layup, and a berth, 50 m long with a depth of 8 m alongside, at its S extremity for the discharge of fish. Muelle Pesquero and Muelle del Refugio are used by fishing vessels. Muelle Sanapu consists of three berths used by RoRo and commercial vessels and pilot boats. Muelle Wilson is mainly used by tugs and barges. Muelle de Santa Catalina is the main cruise terminal; passengers and crew from vessels at anchor are landed here. Muelle del Arsenal lies S of Muelle de Santa Catalina; there are depths of about 7 m alongside its E face which extends about 500 m in a N/S direction. The Naval base is situated on the W side of Muelle del Arsenal. Caution. Several rocky pinnacles with depths of between 49 m to 39 m over them lie W of a lightbuoy (port hand) moored about 1 cable SE from the SE corner of Muelle del Arsenal.

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Port services Repairs


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3.108 All types of repairs can be carried out alongside and afloat. There is a repair wharf 560 m in length with depths of 8 m to 12 m alongside. There is a synchrolift platform, lifting power 9 500 tons, for vessels up to 217 m in length, 30 m beam and 36 000 dwt. Three slipways for vessels up to 360 m in length.

Other facilities
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3.109 Hospitals and clinics; deratting can be carried out, and deratting exemption certificates issued; underwater hull cleaning, surveys, painting and repairs; compass adjusting, gyro and radar repairs; sludge and oily waste reception facilities; garbage disposal facilities. Helicopter and launch service available for crew change and store replenishment.

Supplies
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3.110 Fuel oil, diesel oil, fresh water, stores and provisions are available alongside and at anchor.

Communications
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3.111 Gando international airport 25 km S of Las Palmas.

Rescue
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3.112 Las Palmas is a designated MRCC. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.

ISLA DE TENERIFE General information


Charts 1869, 1858
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Route
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3.113 Isla de Tenerife (2817N 1634W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given in the coastal directions at 3.119. Caution: Off Punta Teno (2821N 1655W) (3.121), the W extremity of the island, the trade wind will usually be encountered but, though violent and squally in the vicinity of this point, it becomes moderate when N of it. During the winter months, vessels approaching from SW are recommended to keep to the E side of the island.

Description
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3.114 Isla de Tenerife, lying 30 miles NW of Isla de Gran Canaria (3.51), is the largest and most remarkable of Islas Canarias. It is traversed centrally nearly the whole of its length by a very high range of mountains, the sides of which slope steeply towards the sea. Forests and brushwood cover parts of the higher ground, and some of the valleys and slopes abound in vegetation. The island, with a population of 806 801 in 2001, is considered exceptionally healthy.

is the most remarkable feature of Islas Canarias. The cone is very small in proportion to the side of the mountain, being only 163 m in height, and the crater at its top is about 37 m deep. Twothirds of the mountain is covered with vegetation. Usually when making Isla de Tenerife from N between the months of April to October, the land can seldom be distinguished beyond a distance of 20 miles. The months of January and February, when the sky is slightly clouded and just before or after rains, are the most favourable months in which Pico de Teide can be seen from extraordinary distances. The coasts are steepto and, excepting a few reefs extending from some of the points, all the dangers are visible and close offshore. The coast, particularly on the W and SW sides, is formed of high cliffs, broken occasionally by the beds of mountainous torrents. Along the E coast there are some small beaches. The coast between Roque Bermejo and Punta de Anaga (2833N 1607W), 1 miles SSE is steep, inaccessible and fringed with rocks. Between Punta del Roquette (2831N 1608W) and Santa Cruz de Tenerife (3.139) 4 miles SW, the coast is steep with small pebble beaches on which landings can be made as they are sheltered from the prevailing winds. The coast between Puerto Caballo (2827N 1616W) (3.160) and Punta Rasca, 35 miles SW, is bold, rocky and clear of offlying dangers. Punta del Camello (2805N 1629W) lies 11 miles ENE of Punta Rasca, and the coast between this point and Punta Montaa Roja, 4 miles farther SW, is low and steep with small pebble beaches. The coast between Punta Montaa Roja (2801N 1633W) and Punta Montaa Amarilla, 5 miles WSW and thence to Punta Rasca 3 miles farther WSW, is low with the land behind rising in a gentle slope but broken in places by small conical hills. The coast between Punta Rasca (2800N 1642W) and Punta Teno, 24 miles NNW, is formed of rugged basalt, in some places worn into columns. It is mostly clear of dangers, the rocks extending only a short distance offshore. Between Punta Rasca and Puerto de Los Gigantes, 16 miles NNW, the land behind the coast rises uniformly to over 1000 m. From N of Puerto de Los Gigantes (2814N 1615W), the coast up to Punta Teno, 6 miles NW, is formed by a remarkable cliff which is intersected by a few ravines. This stretch of coast is barren and inaccessible except for occasional beaches situated at the base of the ravines. The coast ENE of Punta Teno (2821N 1655W) is generally low and foul. From Puerto de la Cruz (2825N 1633W) to Punta del Viento, 9 miles NE, the coast consists of a series of rocky bays formed by low to moderately high cliffs. The shore to NE of Punta del Viento (2831N 1625W) is intersected by ravines, fronted with rocks and difficult to approach. The coast from Punta Tamadiste (28 35 1616W) to the NE end of Islas de Tenerife is formed of low crumbling cliffs, fronted by rocks, and intersected by small beaches at intervals.

Prohibited anchorage
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Topography
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3.115 Pico de Teide (2816N 1638W), the highest peak (3717 m) in Spain, lies at the centre of Isla de Tenerife and

3.116 Anchoring and trawling are prohibited, due to submarine cables, in an area extending ESE from the vicnity of Candelaria (2821N 1622W).

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Marine farm
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3.117 A marine farm is centred 1 mile WSW of Punta del Roquete (28312N 16085W) (3.120), its boundaries defined by lines connecting four lightbuoys (special) as shown on the chart. Mariners are requested to give the farm a wide berth.

Current
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3.118 The current sets W, sometimes strongly, to the S of Isla de Tenerife. On the E coast, it usually sets S, but its direction and strength are influenced by the wind. The average rate is about kn.

Directions Principal marks


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3.119 Landmark: Pico de Teide (2816N 1638W) (3.115). Major lights: Punta de Roque Bermejo Anaga Light (round concrete tower, white top on white building, 12 m in height) (2835N 1608W). Punta de Abona Light (white round tower, red bands, 39 m in height) (2809N 1626W). Punta Rasca Light (white round tower, red bands, 32 m in height) (2800N 1642W). Punta Teno Light (white round tower, red bands, 20 m in height) (2820N 1655W). Punta de Buenavista Light (square white tower, 40 m in height) (2823N 1650W). Puerto de la Cruz Light (square tower, 27 m in height) (2825N 1633W). Punta del Hidalgo Light (masonry tower, 50 m in height) (2835N 1620W).

Roque Bermejo to Punta Honduras


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3.120 From a position E of Punta de Roque Bermejo Anaga Light (3.119) the track leads SW, passing (with positions relative to Punta Roque Manzano (2826N 1617W)): SE of Roque Bermejo (11 miles NE), a reddish rock 15 m in height, lying close off the point of the same name. Abovewater rocks extend 2 cables NE from Roque Bermejo. Thence: SE of Punta de Anaga (11 miles NE), with La Mancha Blanca, a prominent white chalk patch, lying close N. Bajo de La Mancha Blanca, a rocky patch with a least depth of 41 m, lies 5 cables NE of Punta de Anaga and breaks heavily in bad weather; the point should not be rounded within a distance of 2 miles. Thence: SE of Punta de Antequera (10 miles NE), a steep projection with rocks lying off its N side, which from N appears like an island, thence: SE of Punta del Roquete (9 miles NE), with a Naval signal station standing on the hill 1 cables NW of the point, thence: SE of Punta de los Organos (7 miles NE), with Playa de las Teresitas, a beach of black sand enclosed by a breakwater, extending SW from the point and

ending at the town of San Andrs, 7 cables farther SW, thence: (Directions for Santa Cruz de Tenerife continue at 3.158) SE of Punta Roque Manzano surmounted by a group of houses with an archway in the middle which is prominent. Santa Cruz de Tenerife (3.139), fronted by a large port lies N of the point. Thence: SE of Punta Pachona (1 miles SW) with Punta de las Coloradas, which has a conspicuous building (see below) standing on the point, lying about 2 cables SW, thence: SE of Punta de Guadamojete (2 miles SW), which is low and can be identified by small banana plantations surrounded by white walls. Puerto Deportivo Radazul, a yacht harbour, is situated close W of Punta de Guadamojete. Thence: SE of Punta del Socorro (8 miles SSW), a low lying, steepsided prominent headland close N of which stands the town of El Socorro. Thence: SE of Puerto de Gimar (9 miles SSW), a small craft harbour. A rock awash lies about cable ESE of the head of the small jetty. The harbour can be identified by Montaa de Gimar, a conspicuous extinct volcano, conical in shape with an elevation of 275 m, lying 1 mile N of the point. Thence the track continues SW, passing (with positions relative to Punta Montaa Roja (2801N 1633W)): SE of Punta Honduras (12 miles NNE), with Roques de Fasnia lying 1 miles NNE. Useful marks: Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Dique del Este Elbow Light (S Cardinal beacon, 3 m in height) (28289N 16134W). Darsena E. Dique E Head Light (green round tower, truncated conical base and top, 6 m in height) (28289N 16136W). Darsena de Anaga. Dique del Sur Head Light (red cone on red round tower, 5 m in height) (28287N 16141W). Darsena de los Llanos. Elbow Light (E Cardinal beacon, 2 m in height) (28279N 16144W). Dique de los Llanos. Head Light (Green truncated triangle on round tower, 6 m in height) (28273N 16147W). Contradique de los Llanos. Head Light (red post) (28272N 16148W). Puerto Caballo Muelle de la CEPSA Head W corner Light (green metal column, 6 m in height) (28268N 16158W). Building (79 m in height) (28249N 16179W).

Punta Honduras to Punta Teno


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3.121 From a position SE of Punta Honduras (28 12N 1625W) the track leads SW, passing (with positions relative to Punta Montaa Roja (2801N 1633W)): SE of Punta de Abona (9 miles NE), from where a light (3.119) is exhibited. It is the most important feature on this stretch of the coast, and the S entrance point to a small bay at the head of which lies El Poris de Abona, a small village. Thence: SE of Punta del Camello (4 miles NE). A steam generation plant stands on reclaimed land 4 cables N of Punta del Camello and a lightbuoy (special), is moored about 4 cables E. This lightbuoy marks

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the anchorage (3.127) for vessels offloading oil products for the power station. Thence: SE of Punta Montaa Roja, which has an elevation of 170 m, is reddish in colour and is surmounted by a white pillar. From a distance the point appears as a detached conical rock. Medano, a village, lies about 1 mile N of the point at the N end of a circular bay. Reina Sofia Airport lies 2 miles NW and an ODAS Lightbuoy (special) is moored 2 miles SW of the point. Thence the track leads WSW, passing: SSE of Punta Montaa Amarilla (4 miles WSW), with a prominent hotel standing 5 cables WNW, and Montaa La Centinela, surmounted by a cross, lying 4 miles N of the point. Playa de la Tejitas lies between Punta Montaa Roja and Punta Montaa Amarilla. Thence: SSE of Punta Rasca (8 miles W) from where a light (3.119) is exhibited and the S point of Isla de Tenerife. The point is low and backed by Montaa Gorda da Rasca, elevation 150 m, lying about 5 cables N of the point. Thence the track leads WNW and NNW, passing (with positions relative to Punta de San Juan (28 11 N 1649W)): WSW of Punta del Guincho (8 miles SSE), a low point. Los Cristianos, a tourist resort fronted by a passenger port from where ferries operate, lies 1 miles ESE of the point. A light is exhibited from the head of the breakwater fronting Los Cristianos. Puerto Colon, a busy marina situated at the N extreme of the extensive Las Americas tourist development, lies 1 miles N of Punta del Guincho. Thence: WSW of Baja de Adeje (5 miles SE), a group of rocks, some above water, lying on a spit extending 3 cables seaward from a point on the coast, thence: WSW of Punta de San Juan, with the village of the same name standing close E of the point. A sandy beach extends SE from the village and a fishing harbour protected by a high breakwater lies 1 cables SE from the beach. Thence: WSW of Alcala (1 miles NNW), a village, with a spit extending 5 cables seaward lying close SW, thence: WSW of Puerto de Los Gigantes (4 miles NNW), a yacht marina, from where a light is exhibited, fronting a rapidly expanding tourist town. Spectacular sheer cliffs line the coast N of the marina. The town of Tamaimo stands 1 miles NE of the light. Thence: WSW of Punta Teno (11 miles NNW), the W extremity of the island, from where a light (3.119) is exhibited. There is usually a heavy sea in the vicinity of this point. See caution at 3.113. Thence the track leads N to a position NW of Punta Teno. Useful marks: Bell Tower (2806N 1628W). Hotel (2803N 1632W). Airport control tower (28028N 16344W). Los Cristianos Mole Head Light (red tower, 6 m in height) (28027N 16431W). Puerto Colon Dique de Defensa Head Light (green post, 4 m in height) (28 04 6N 16 44 3W), reported (2004) to be difficult to pick out from shore lights.

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Marina de Los Gigantes Light (W cardinal topmark on yellow tripod, black band) (28 14 8N 16503W). Radio mast (28167N 16481W).

Punta Teno to Roque Bermejo


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3.122 From a position NW of Punta Teno (2820N 1655W) the track leads ENE, passing (with positions relative to Puerto de la Cruz Light (2825N 1633W)): NNW of Punta de Buenavista (15 miles W), from where a light is exhibited, fairly low and fronted by rocks and a reef. Montaa de Taco, elevation 320 m, stands 1 miles S of the light. Thence: NNW of El Roque (11 miles WSW), a large round steepto rock lying 2 cables N of the town of Garachico. The passage S of El Roque must not be attempted without local knowledge. Thence: NNW of Punta de la Fajn (6 miles W), thence: NNW of Puerto de la Cruz, from where a light (3.119) is exhibited. Baja de los Realejos, 2 miles W of the light, are two pinnacle rocks with a depth of 37 m over them. Baja Limn, the outermost of several rocks in this vicinity, lie 1 miles E of the light and 2 cables offshore. thence: NNW of Punta del Puerto (6 miles ENE), thence: NNW of Punta del Viento (9 miles NE), high and steep. Baja del Sur, with a depth of 49 m, lies 2 cables SW of the point. Thence: NNW of Punta Hidalgo (15 miles NE), which is low, tree covered and fronted by foul ground. Depths of less than 10 m lie up to 5 cables seaward from it and the point should be given a berth of at least 1 mile. Thence the track leads E, passing (with positions relative to Punta Hidalgo Light (28345N 16197W)): N of Punta Fajana (2 miles E), steepsided and prominent with a sharp pointed rock at its extremity, thence: N of Punta Tamadiste (3 miles E), a high, steep, triangular pillar of rock and the most prominent feature on this stretch of the coast, which is formed of high dark red cliffs, thence: N of Punta Poyata (4 miles E), high, steepsided and fringed with rocks. Baja de las Nieves, with a least depth of 63 m over it lies 7 cables NNE of Punta Poyata. Thence: N of Punta de los Roquetes (8 miles E), reddishblack in colour, with Roque Rapadura, a 10 m high prominent, black, pyramidal rock, lying 8 cables SW of the point and 1 cable offshore. Several abovewater rocks lie 1 mile W of Roque Rapadura; the outermost rock, La Ballena, is whaleshaped and lies 4 cables offshore. Baja de Santa Catalina, with a depth of 74 m over it, lies 8 cables W of La Ballena. Thence: N of Roque de Dentro (9 miles E), yellow and conical and joined to the mainland by a reef, it is the N extremity of Isla de Tenerife, thence: N of Roque de Fuera (9 miles E), 64 m high, dark with two conical summits, it is the N rock of Roques de Anaga, a group of black rocks lying 5 cables N of Roque de Dentro. A channel, 5 cables wide, with depths of between 19 and 23 m, lies between Roque de Fuera and Roque de

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Dentro. Baja de la Palometa, a rock just above water, lies 2 cables W of Roque de Fuera. Thence the track leads SE to a position E of Punta de Roque Bermejo Anaga Light (3.119). Useful marks: Church bell tower (28234N 16403W). Mast (28234N 16337W).
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beach; vessels bringing aviation fuel to the airport are moored to these buoys. An oil pipeline extends from the anchorage NNW to the shore.

Los Cristianos
3.129 Description. Ensenada de Los Cristianos lies between a point 5 cables ESE of Punta del Guincho (28 03 N 1644W) and Charco del Lino (not named on chart) a narrow rocky cove 1 mile farther SE. Anchorage can be obtained in Ensenada de los Cristianos about 5 cables W of Charco del Lino in depths of 20 m, good holding ground of sand. Useful mark: Los Cristianos Mole Head Light (28 02 7N 16431W) (3.121).

Anchorages and harbours General information


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3.123 Local knowledge is required to anchor along the stretch of coast ENE of Punta Teno (2821N 1655W), which is generally not recommended, as it is open to the N. Chart 1858 plan Approaches to Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Punta de Antequera
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Los Gigantes
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3.124 Anchorage. Good anchorage, sheltered from the prevailing winds, can be obtained 3 cables SW of Punta de Antequera (2832N 1607W) (3.120) in a depth of 16 m, sand. This anchorage is much frequented by small fishing vessels and there is a sandy beach at its head where landing is easy.

3.130 Anchorage can be obtained N of Puerto de Los Gigantes, a boat harbour, as marked on the chart, in depths of 25 m. This is one of the best anchorages off Isla de Tenerife, and affords shelter from winds from NNW through N and E to SSE.

Ensenada de Guadamojete
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Punta Teno
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3.125 Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels, sheltered from NW and NE winds, in Ensenada de Guadamojete which lies WSW of Punta de Guadamojete (2824N 1619W) (3.120). Useful marks: Radazul Breakwater Head Light (green post 6 m in height) (28240N 16193W). Radazul Contradique Head Light (red post, 2 m in height) (28240N 16193W). Chart 1869

3.131 Anchorage can be obtained about 5 cables SE of Punta Teno (2821N 1655W) (3.121) but, although the bottom is sand, it is not recommended owing to the violent squalls which blow down the ravines in this vicinity.

Punta de Buen Jess


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Baha de Abona
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3.126 Description. Baha de Abona is entered between Punta de Abona (2809N 1625W) (3.121), and a point 1 mile farther N. Anchorage, sheltered from NW and SW winds can be obtained in Baha de Abona about midway between the entrance points in a depth of 15 m, coarse sand and coral.

3.132 Description. Punta de Buen Jess (not named on chart) lies 1 miles SW of Punta de Buenavista (28 23N 1650W) (3.122), and a small cove with the village of Buen Jess standing at its head, lies SW of the point. Anchorage can be obtained off the village of Buen Jess in depths of 16 m to 33 m, rock; the anchorage is partially sheltered from winds between N and E.

Rada de Garachico
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Punta del Camello


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3.127 Anchorage, marked by a lightbuoy (special), for vessels discharging oil to the power station, lies off Punta del Camello (2805N 1629W) (3.121). An oil pipeline runs from the offloading position to the generation plant and within the anchorage there are three unlit mooring buoys.
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3.133 Anchorage can be obtained in Rada de Garachico E or W of El Roque (2823N 1646W) (3.122) in depths of 22 m to 33 m rock. Anchorage can also be obtained 3 cables N of a point lying 2 miles W of El Roque in depths of 22 m. These anchorages are exposed to winds from W, through N to E and may be bad even in the fine weather season. Landing can be effected in fine weather at a pier built on a reef which extends from Garachico.

Ancn de San Marcos


3.134 Description. Punta Riquer (not named on chart) lies 2 miles WSW of Punta de la Fajn (2824N 1640W) (3.122). Ancn de San Marcos is a small bay lying between Punta Riquer and another point 8 cables WSW. Anchorage for small vessels can be obtained in Ancn de San Marcos in depths of 7 m to 20 m, rock. It is sheltered from all winds except those from W and N; local knowledge is required as the holding ground is poor. On the E side of Ancn de San Marcos there is a small pier, 58 m in length with a depth of 4 m at its head.

Punta Montaa Roja


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3.128 Anchorage for discharging tankers has been established 1 mile W of Punta Montaa Roja. Posts, 6 m in height, painted red and white in bands and with triangular topmarks, form a leading line to the anchorage. The anchorage is marked by three large yellow mooring buoys, of which one is lit, lying off the E end of the

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Punta Jurado
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Approach and entry


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3.135 Anchorage can be obtained 11 cables NE of Punta Jurado (not named on chart), situated 1 miles E of Punta de la Fajn (2824N 1640W) (3.122), in depths of about 40 m.

3.142 The port may be approached from ENE through E to S and each basin is entered between the heads of its breakwaters.

Traffic
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Punta El Guindaste
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3.136 Anchorage. Punta El Guindaste (not named on chart), a low point, lies 4 miles E of Punta de la Fajn (2824N 1640W) (3.122) and anchorage can be obtained off it as follows: 6 cables NE in a depth of 33 m; 7 cables WNW in a depth of 40 m. When approaching these anchorages care must be taken to avoid Baja de los Realejos (3.122).

3.143 In 2004 there were 2622 vessel movements totalling 52 096 988 dwt.

Port Authority
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3.144 Autoridad Portuaria de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Avenida Francisco LaRoche 49, 38001 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Email: atraques@puertosdetenerife.org Website: www.puertosdetenerife.org

Puerto de la Cruz
1

3.137 Anchorage can be obtained in a depth of about 35 m about 4 cables N of the mole at Puerto de la Cruz (2825N 1633W) (3.122), but this anchorage is very close to the coastal bank and is dangerous in winter with NE and NW winds. Although there is sufficient depth alongside the wharf for moderate draught vessels, only lighters use it due to the heavy swell which sets in. Owing to the swell, the poor anchorage and the good road access to Ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife from other towns in the vicinity, Puerto de la Cruz has fallen into disuse. Chart 1858 plan Approaches to Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Limiting conditions Deepest and longest berth


1

3.145 Deepest berth: Puerto Caballo buoy mooring (3.160). Longest berth: Dique del Este (3.159).

Tidal levels
1

3.146 Mean spring range about 20 m; mean neap range about 09 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2.

Density of water
1

3.147 Density: 1025 g/cm3.

Ensenadas de la Haya and de la Tejina


1

Maximum size of vessel handled


1

3.138 Description. Punta Gotera lies 1 miles SW of Punta Hidalgo (2835N 1620W) (3.122) and between them lies Ensenada de la Hoya (not named on chart). Ensenada de Tejina (not named on chart) lies between Punta Gotera and Punta Chavique, 1 miles farther WSW. Anchorage is not recommended in either of these bays owing to the rocky nature of the bottom and the heavy swell that sets into them.

3.148 Vessels up to 240 000 dwt have been moored at the CEPSA floating pipeline terminal. Alongside, Dique del Este, maximum LOA 300 m.

Local weather and sea state


1

SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE General information


Charts 1847, 1858 approaches to Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

3.149 On rare occasions SE gales blow in December and January. They seldom last more than 24 hours, but they cause a heavy sea to set in. Under such conditions the best shelter is to be found in the belt of calms on the NW side of Isla de Gran Canaria until the weather improves (3.6).

Arrival information Port radio


1

Position
1

3.139 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (2829N 1614W) lies on the NE coast of the island of Tenerife.

3.150 There are coast and port radio stations. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volumes 1 (1) and 6 (2).

Notice of ETA
1

Function
1

3.140 It is the capital of the W group of Islas Canarias and in 2001 had a population of 217 415. Principal imports include building materials, cement, clinker, crude oil, petroleum products and foodstuffs. Principal exports include asphalt, refined oils and agricultural products.

3.151 ETA should be sent 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival to the agent. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).

Outer anchorages
1

Topography
1

3.141 Ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife (2828N 1616W) stands on level ground backed by steepsloping mountains. The city contains many modern tall buildings.

3.152 Anchorage may be obtained S and SE of the head of Dique del Sur in depths of about 70 m. The anchorages are open to winds between ENE and SSW, and a swell generally sets in owing to the prevalence of E winds. Vessels awaiting a berth are usually anchored between 5 cables and 1 mile E and ENE of Dique del Este, 3 to 6 cables offshore, in depths between 55 m and 75 m. The holding ground is reported to be good.

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Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring and fishing are prohibited in an area, the limits of which are best seen on the chart, due to the presence of submarine cables which are landed in the vicinity of Castillo de San Juan (28273N 16151W).

Development
1

Submarine cables
1

3.153 See 3.152.

3.156 Reclamation works were in progress (2001) E of Darsena Pesquera. The basin between Darsena del Este and Darsena Pesquera was being reclaimed (2001). Works were in progress (2005) S of the Container Terminal in Darsena del Este.

Natural conditions
1

Pilotage and tugs


1

3.154 Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 500 grt and over and available 24 hours. The pilot boards 1 to 2 miles from the head of Dique del Sur. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Tugs are available.

3.157 Tidal streams set with rates of to 1 kn at springs as follows: Rising tideNEgoing Falling tideSWgoing. Climate information. See 1.291 and 1.293.

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 3.120)

Harbour General layout


1

Entry
1

3.155 Puerto de Santa Cruz de Tenerife consists of the oil terminal at Puerto Caballo and, further NE, four basins; from NE to SW they are Darsena Pesquera, Darsena Este, Darsena de Anaga and Darsena de Los Llanos.

3.158 Darsena de Los Llanos leading lights: Front light (white framework tower, red bands, 5 m in height) (28275N 16149W) Rear light (white framework tower, red bands, 11 m in height) 75 m from front.

Santa Cruz de Tenerife Entrance to Darsena Este. (3.155.1)


(Original dated 2003) (Photograph MV Doulos)

Santa Cruz de Tenerife Entrance to Darsena de Anaga (3.155.2)


(Original dated 2003) (Photograph MV Doulos)

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The alignment (354) of these lights leads N, between the mole heads, into the entrance of Darsena de Los Llanos. Puerto Caballo leading lights: Front light (yellow triangle on yellow post, black diagonal stripes, 5 m in height) (28 27 0N 16160W) Rear light (red and white triangle on white post, red diagonal stripes, 3 m in height) (56 m from front) The alignment (000) of the above lights leads to the vicinity of No 5 mooring buoy berth. Useful marks: Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Dique del Este Elbow Light (28289N 16134W) (3.120). Darsena E. Dique E Head Light (28 28 9N 16136W) (3.120). Darsena de Anaga. Dique del Sur Head Light (28287N 16141W) (3.120). Darsena de los Llanos. Elbow Light (28279N 16144W) (3.120). Dique de los Llanos. Head Light (28 27 3N 16147W) (3.120). Contradique de los Llanos. Head Light (28272N 16148W) (3.120). Castillo de San Juan (28273N 16150W). Puerto Caballo Muelle de la CEPSA Head W corner Light (28268N 16158W) (3.120).

initially 1 cables SSE thence 6 cables SSW. The head of the basin is occupied by a marina. There are berths on the inner side of the mole with depths alongside of 8 m to 12 m. The berths on the W side of the basin have depths of 8 m alongside. A small river flows into the basin on its W side and serves to divide the basin into N and S sections. There are two RoRo berths in the N section on the W side and one RoRo berth and one container berth in the S section. The entrance of the basin is 200 m wide and faces SE.

Alongside berths
1

3.160 Puerto Caballo (2827N 1616W), also known as Puerto Hondura, is the oil terminal on the SW side of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where there is a large refinery and storage facility. The alongside facility consists of the following: A Tjetty, the root of which lies 6 cables WSW of Castillo de San Juan, with a depth of 16 m alongside; A mole about 7 cables in length, extending S from the shore 1 cable WSW of the root of the Tjetty.

Mooring and anchorage


1

Basins and berths

Basins
1

3.159 Darsena Pesquero, the NE basin has wharfage totalling 1783 m and depths of 60 m, and is used by fishing vessels. Darsena del Este, sheltered on its seaward side by Dique del Este, 960 m in length with depths alongside up to 195 m, accommodates container vessels, tankers and bulk carriers. A shipyard with a shiplift installation and slips is situated close W of the container terminal. Barranco de Bufadero flows into the sea between the container terminal and the shipyard; there are numerous houses on the slopes of this ravine. Muelle de El Bufadero, SW of the shipyard, has a RoRo ramp at its NE extremity. An oil berth formed by a Tjetty, with an 80 m long Thead aligned WSW/ENE lies close W of the W entrance to Darsena del Este. Two mooring buoys, exhibiting lights, are positioned, one at each end of the Thead. Darsena de Anaga is the principal basin for passenger vessels and vessels bunkering. It is protected by Dique del Sur, a mole which extends 7 cables NE from its root. There are depths of 12 m alongside the inner face of the mole, N of a slight elbow about 4 cables from the mole head. South of this the depth reduces to 8 m. A short mole extends cable SE from the W shore of Darsena de Anaga and Muelle de Ribera, with depths of 7 m to 10 m alongside, extends along the W shore from its root where there is a RoRo berth. There are two more RoRo berths along the W shore near the midway point and five further RoRo berths at the S end of the basin. Here a central pier used by ferries, extends about 1 cable NNE ending in a short Thead. Darsena de Los Llanos, situated S of Darsena de Anaga, is protected by a mole, Dique de Los Llanos, extending

3.161 A CBM, where tankers with a maximum of 240 000 dwt and 45 m draught can be accommodated for loading or discharging via floating pipelines is established at Puerto Caballo. An ODAS buoy is moored about 1 cable SSW of No 6 mooring buoy. Leading lights are established for the waiting anchorage off the oil jetty: N set (alignment 327). Front light (red and white cross topmark on dolphin No 5, white post, red diagonal stripes, 6 m in height) (28 27 0N 16157W). Rear light (red and white cross topmark, on white post, red diagonal stripes, 7 m in height) (109 m from front). W set (alignment 270) Front light (yellow post, black diagonal stripes, 2 m in height) (28269N 16159W). Rear light (diamond on white post, red diagonal stripes, 10 m in height) (335 m from front). Anchorage can be obtained at the intersection of the above lines in a depth of about 37 m.

Port services
1

3.162 Repairs. A wide range of repairs are available including a ship lift of 2000 tonnes capacity and a floating dock with a 6000 tonnes capacity. Other facilities. Hospitals and clinics; deratting can be carried out and deratting exemption certificates issued; oily waste reception facilities; garbage disposal facilities. Supplies. Fuel and diesel oil; fresh water, stores and provisions can be supplied alongside or afloat. Communications. Reina Sofia airport 56 km. Rescue. Tenerife is a designated MRCC. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.

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ISLA DE LA GOMERA General information


Chart 1869
1

Anchorages and harbours Playa de Santiago


3.166 Description. Playa de Santiago is a town with a fishing industry standing 1 miles W of Punta Gaviota (2802N 1710W). Puerto de Santiago, a harbour with a 215 m long breakwater oriented NE/SW and used mainly by fishing boats, fronts the W part of the town. Anchorage can be obtained, sheltered from winds between W, through N, to NE off the beach which fronts the town. Useful mark: Breakwater Head light (red pillar on red column, 5 m in height) (28014N 17117W).

Route
1

3.163 Isla de la Gomera (2807N 1714W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers described below.

Description
1

3.164 Isla de la Gomera, lying 15 miles W of Isla de Tenerife (3.114), is bordered by rugged perpendicular cliffs with a few sandy beaches and detached rocks. Near the coast the mountains are about 600 m high. The central part of the island is an elevated plateau, above which the summit of the island, Alto Garajonay (20065N 17147W) attains an elevation of 1486 m. The island is fertile owing to the numerous watercourses which descend from the mountains, some of which are cultivated to a considerable height. The coast between Puerto de San Sebastian de la Gomera (3.173) and Playa de Santiago (2802N 1712W), 5 miles SE, is steepto and clear of offlying dangers. The most prominent points on this stretch of the coast are (with positions relative to Punta de San Cristobal Light (28056N 17059W)): Punta de Juan Daza, 1 miles SE; Punta de El Cabrito, 3 miles SE; Punta Gaviota, a low promontory, 5 miles SE. Punta Becerro (2801N 1715W), the S extremity of Isla de la Gomera, lies 2 miles W of Playa de Santiago and at the foot of a mountain. Alajero, a village 2 miles N of the point, stands on the N slopes of this mountain. Punta Falcones (2802N 1716W) lies 1 miles WNW of Punta Becerro. Punta Iguala (28035N 17191W) is prominent and a rock lies close off it. Cala da Negra, a creek, lies between Punta Falcones and Punta Iguala. Punta Calera (2806N 1721W), the W extremity of the island, lies 2 miles NNW of Punta Iguala. Puerto Vueltas, an old fishing harbour where works are in progress to enlarge the harbour, lies between the two points. Valle Gran Rey, a spectacular attraction and a popular tourist resort lies close E of Punta Calera. The coast from Punta Calera to Punta Peligro (2812N 1719W), 6 miles NNE, and thence 3 miles ENE to Punta del Organo is sheer and inaccessible. Numerous rocks lie close offshore and in the vicinity of Punta Peligro, the NW point of the island. Several dangers lie up to 3 cables seaward in this vicinity. Several bays lie between Punta del Organo (2813N 1715W), the N point of the island, and Punta Majona, 8 miles ESE, offering shelter from SE winds. Punta Llana (2807N 1706W), 1 miles SSE of Punta Majona, is low, sandy and fronted by reefs. Punta de San Cristobal (2806N 1706W), the E extremity of Isla de la Gomera, from where a light (3.173) is exhibited, is steepsided.

Punta Becerro
1

3.167 Anchorage can be obtained in a bay, 6 cables ENE of Punta Becerro (2801N 1715W) (3.164), in a depth of 16 m, sand, sheltered from winds between NW and NE.

Baha de Argayal
1

3.168 Description. Baha de Argayal (not named on chart) lies between Punta Iguala (28035N 17191W) (3.164) and a point 1 miles farther NW. Anchorage can be obtained in Baha de Argayal in depths of 5 m to 11 m, sand.

Fondeadero del Valle Gran Rey


1

3.169 Description. Fondeadero del Valle Gran Rey (not named on chart) lies between Punta Calera (2806N 1721W) (3.164) and a point 1 miles SSE. Anchorage. Good anchorage can be obtained in Fondeadero del Valle Gran Rey about 6 cables SE of Punta Calera; this anchorage is sheltered from winds between N and SE, and used by the islands coasters.

Punta Calera
1

3.170 Anchorage can be obtained off a beach, 5 cables N of Punta Calera (2806N 1721W) (3.164), in depths of 9 m to 18 m. This anchorage is protected from winds from N, through E, to S.

Punta del Organo


1

3.171 Anchorage. Good anchorage, sheltered from all winds except N, can be obtained in a bay lying 1 mile SE from Punta del Organo (2813N 1715W) (3.164), in depths of 16 m to 20 m, sand. This is the most important and W of bays on the N coast of Isla de la Gomera, and the town of Vallehermoso lies at the head of a valley extending 1 miles SSW from the head of the bay.

Playa de Hermigua
1

Marine farm
1

3.165 A marine farm, buoyed as an isolated danger, lies about 1 miles SSE of Punta Becerro (3.164) in position 2800N 1714W. 107

3.172 Description. The town of Hermigua stands at the head of a bay lying to the W of Punta Gabina (2811N 1710W); there is a disused jetty on the beach fronting the town. Anchorage can be obtained off Playa de Hermigua (not named on chart) in depths of 20 m, sand, sheltered from winds from E, through S, to W.

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Chart 1858 plan Puerto de San Sebastian de la Gomera

San Sebastian de la Gomera


1

3.173 Position and function. Puerto de San Sebastian de la Gomera (2805N 1706W) lies between La Gila, a narrow rocky promontory 5 cables SW of Punta de San Cristobal, and Los Garaones, a rocky point 5 cables farther SW. It is the main harbour, and the town of the same name standing at the head of the bay is the capital of Isla de la Gomera. Port Authority. Autoridad Portuaria da Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Oficina de la Junta San Sebastian de la Gomera, San Sebastian, Gomera, Canary Islands. Email; gomera@puertosdetenerife.org Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 20 m; mean neap range about 06 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Notice of ETA should be sent 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival to the agent. Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 500 grt and over and is available 24 hours. Pilot boards vessel 12 miles E of the Breakwater head E corner light. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Major light: Punta de San Cristobal Light (white round tower, red band, 15 m in height) (28056N 17059W). Approach and entry. The approach is without hindrance, although a considerable tiderip can build up around Punta de San Cristobal, about 1 mile NE. The port is entered between the head of a breakwater and a lightbuoy (port hand) moored close E of Los Garaones. Useful marks: Breakwater Head E Corner Light (green tower, 7 m in height) (28049N 17064W). Monument (28049N 17070W) (chart 1869). Anchorage may be obtained within the harbour but clear of a ferry which swings on entering and makes a sternboard to its berth. Depths in the entrance are 13 m to 27 m, sand and coral; depths decrease gradually towards the beach. Berths. A breakwater extends about 3 cables SSW from the shore 1 cable W of La Gila and is quayed on its W side with accomodation for three RoRo vessels ranging from 160 m to 200 m in length. There are depths of about 24 m at the head of the breakwater decreasing to about 9 m near the root. Repairs. Minor repairs only. Other facilities. Local hospital. Supplies. Fresh water and provisions are available.

Two mountain ranges rise in the N part of of the island; one of these extends SSW to the coast, the other traverses the island from N to S, forming a narrow ridge terminating at the S extremity in a number of conical mountains which are extinct volcanoes of the eruption of 1677. The main crest in the N culminates in three lofty peaks of which Roque de los Muchachos (2845N 1753W) is the highest. The mountains are usually snow capped and their sides well wooded. The coasts of the island are generally safe to approach within a moderate distance as the few rocks offlying the points are mostly near the coast. The N and NW coasts are formed of high cliffs, the E and SW coasts consist of bluffs with some beaches between them. Isla de la Palma is picturesque and covered with luxuriant vegetation. It is known as The Garden of the Canaries. The coast between Punta Cumplida (2850N 1747W) and Punta Gorda, 2 miles SE, thence to Punta Sancha, 4 miles farther SE, is steep and fringed with rocks. Between Punta Llana, lying 3 cables S of Punta Sancha (2844N 1743W), and Santa Cruz de la Palma, 4 miles SSW, is less steep and free from dangers. The coast between Punta de San Carlos (2840N 1746W) and Punta de Fuencaliente (3.180), 13 miles SSW, is steep with small beaches of shingle at the mouth of several ravines. The coast between Punta Fuencalientes (28 27 N 1751W) and Punta Gorda, 22 miles NNW, is fringed with rocks, and is high and steep except for an area extending from Barranco de las Angustias, 8 miles SSE of Punta Gorda, to Punta de Lava, 3 miles farther SSE; this 3 mile stretch is low and fronted by a sandy beach. The coast between Punta Gorda (2847N 1800W) and El Roque, 6 miles NE and thence to Punta Cumplida, 7 miles farther E, is steep, fringed with rocks and intersected by ravines.

Marine reserve
1

3.176 A marine reserve is designated between the shore from 1 mile NW of Punta Fuencaliente to 1 miles SE of Punta Lava out to the 1000 m contour on the SW coast of Isla de La Palma.

Marine farm
1

ISLA DE LA PALMA General information


Charts 1869, 1858
1

3.177 A marine farm, in the form of floating cages, is positioned at 28389N 17569W and is marked with a lightbuoy (special).

Magnetic anomaly
3.178 A local magnetic anomaly, increasing the variation by 2, exists in areas off the E and SW coasts of Isla de la Palma (3.6).

Route
1

3.174 Isla de la Palma (2842N 1751W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given in the coastal directions at 3.180.

Directions Major lights


3.179 Punta Cumplida Light (conical concrete tower, white top, 34 m in height) (28502N 17466W). Punta Lava Light (white 8sided tower, 48 m in height) (28355N 17555W).

Topography
1

3.175 Isla de la Palma, the NW of Islas Canarias and 46 miles WNW of Isla de Tenerife (3.114), is much higher than the other islands, with the exception of Pico de Teide (3.115).

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Punta de Arenas Blancas Light (white round tower, 38 m in height) (28341N 17456W).

Punta Cumplida to Punta Fuencaliente


1

3.180 From a position E of Punta Cumplida Light (3.179), the track leads SSE, passing (with positions relative to Punta Sancha (2844N 1743W)): ENE of Punta Sancha, which is steep and fringed with rocks. Thence, the track leads S, passing: E of Punta Llana (3 cables S), which forms the E extremity of the island, thence: E of Santa Cruz de la Palma (4 miles SSW) (3.182), the principal harbour of the island, thence: E Punta Las Salinas (6 miles SSW), marked by a lightbuoy (special) moored 3 cables SSE from the point, thence: E of Punta Ganado (7 miles S), which is formed of lava from an old volcanic eruption. The civil airport stands close inland of the point. Thence: E of Punta de Arenas Blancas (10 miles S), from where a light (3.179) is exhibited. Montaa Goteras (elevation 142 m) rises about 1 mile N of Punta de Arenas Blancas. Thence the track leads SSW, passing (with positions relative to Punta Martin (2831N 1748W)): ESE of Roca del Pescador (3 miles NNE), a small abovewater rock lying close inshore and joined to the coast by reefs. Montaa del Azufre (elevation 279 m) lies 2 cables W of Roca del Pescador and there is a distinctive lava stream situated close S of it. Thence: ESE of Punta Fuencaliente (4 miles SSW), the S extremity of the island, from where a light is exhibited (see below). Monte Viento, a prominent hill, stands 1 miles NNE of the point and can be identified by a pillar on its summit. Volcn San Antonio, standing 1 miles NNW of Punta Fuencaliente, is a large truncated cone of volcanic ash with a natural pillar at its summit and is the most prominent feature in the S part of the island. It is visible from E through S, to W. Thence the track leads W to a position SW of Punta Fuencaliente. Useful marks: Espigon NorteSur Head Light (28 40 2N 17457W) (3.186). Radio mast (28373N 17451W). Punta Fuencaliente Light (white round tower, red bands, 24 m in height) (28272N 17506W).

Punta Fuencaliente to Punta Cumplida


1

3.181 From a position SW of Punta Fuencaliente (2827N 1751W) the track leads NNW, passing (with positions relative to Punta Lava Light (28 35 5N 17 55 5W) (3.179)): WSW of Punta Banca (4 miles SSE), with Roques Las Galeras, an abovewater reef, extending 2 cables W from the shore 5 cables SSE of the point, thence: WSW of Punta de Lava, a prominent headland formed of lava from an eruption in 1949, from where a light (3.179) is exhibited. A rocky promontory lies 6 cables SE of Punta de Lava and

Rocas de Becerro lie close off it. Puerto Naos, a fishing village now mainly catering to the tourist trade, lies about 8 cables ESE of the point. Roques los Hermanos, with a rock awash at its outer end, extends 2 cables W from the beach 1 mile N of Punta Lava. Thence: WSW of Barranco de las Angustias (3 miles NNW), a deep ravine and, on its S side, the town of Tazacorte standing on a rocky plateau close to a sandy beach. A harbour, protected by two breakwaters from where lights are exhibited, stands close W of Tazacorte and Montaa Argual (elevation 325 m), the larger of two conical hills, rises immediately above the town. Rocas Gabaseras, three abovewater rocks, lie on a reef which extends 3 cables offshore, 4 cables S of Tazacorte. An artificial reef has been created close N of Rocas Gabaseras. Thence: WSW of Punta de las Llanadas (10 miles NNW), which is fronted by foul ground extending up to 3 cables offshore. La Baja, a rock which dries, lies on a spit which with depths of less than 7 m over it, extends 2 cables W from the shore 3 cables SSE of the point. Thence: WSW of Punta Gorda (12 miles SSE), the W extremity of the island, consisting of sheer cliffs 320 m in height; the coast between Punta Gorda and Punta de las Llanadas is fronted by foul ground extending 2 cables offshore. Thence the track leads NE, passing (with positions relative to Punta del Mudo (2851N 1755W)): NW of Roque del Molino (6 miles SW), a prominent rock, thence: NW of Roca de Santo Domingo (3 miles WSW), 35 m high, lying off a point of the same name. The town of Santo Domingo de Garafia stands about 1 mile E of the point. Thence: NW of Punta del Mudo, the W point of the promontory forming the NW extremity of the island. El Roque, lying close offshore, is the NW point of the promontory. Thence the track leads E, passing: N of Punta de Juan Adalid (1 mile E), and Roca Magdalena, a small islet lying 5 cables SE of the point, thence: N of Punta Gaviota (6 miles E), a small promontory with Roques Topaciegos, a group of abovewater rocks lying 7 cables WSW and 1 cable offshore. Thence: N of Punta Cumplida (7 miles E), the NE extremity of the island, which is dominated by five high hills which are prominent when seen from N. Thence the track leads SE to a position E of Punta Cumplida (2850N 1747W). Useful mark: Tazacorte Breakwater Head Light (red post, 1 m in height) (28383N 17565W).

Santa Cruz de la Palma


Chart 1858 plans of Approaches to Santa Cruz de La Palma and Santa Cruz de La Palma

General information
1

3.182 Position. Santa Cruz de la Palma (2840N 1746W) lies between Punta Santa Catalina and Punta de San Carlos (29396N 17456W), a low rocky point 1 miles S.

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Function. Santa Cruz de la Palma is the capital of Isla de La Palma and its major port with facilities for containers, general cargo, fruit and bulk liquids. Topography. The hills behind the city rise steeply in rugged peaks some distance from the coast. Traffic. In 2004 there were 56 vessel movements totalling 584 341 dwt. Port Authority. Autoridad Portuaria de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Avenida del Puerto, Santa Cruz de la Palma, La Palma, Canary Islands. Email; lapalma@puertosdetenerife.org

Local weather. Prevailing winds are from NNE. Local magnetic anomaly. See 3.178.

Directions for entering harbour


1

Limiting conditions
1

3.183 Deepest and longest berth. Deepest berth; tanker berth; longest berth; A4 (3.187). Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 18 m; mean neap range about 08 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Local weather. A heavy long swell, locally known as Corredera, occurs with winds from NW, and vessels berthed alongside should double their moorings. Although the harbour appears to be protected from this direction, this swell is caused by the sea breaking on the NW coast cliff face of the island, and forming two groups of waves; one running anticlockwise and the other clockwise round the island and meeting off the entrance of the harbour. El Caldereto, a local wind of hurricane force consisting of violent squalls from the W with long spells of calm in between, occurs once or twice a year, usually near the equinoxes, but does not last more than 24 hours. El Caldereto generally occurs after the wind has veered from SW, but remains in the W; an indication that it is about to set in is a dense mass of broken cloud extending from Risco de la Concepcin (3.186) toward Punta Santa Catalina. It is inadvisable to enter or leave the harbour during this weather.

3.186 Landmark. Risco de la Concepcin (elevation 354 m) (28402N 17464W). Approach and entry. Apart from the natural conditions described in 3.183, there are no other hazards or dangers in the approaches to the port which is entered between the head of Espigon NorteSur and a row of four lightbuoys (port hand) which are moored along the 10 m contour, close E of a submerged breakwater. Useful mark: Espigon NorteSur Head Light (green tower, 7 m in height) (28402N 17457W).

Berths
1

3.187 Tankers discharge petroleum products at a berth 225 m in length and a depth alongside of 12 m at the head of Espigon NorteSur which also accommodates passenger vessels and RoRo ferries. Muelle Polivalente, on the W side of the harbour, with a length of 280 m and depth alongside of 8 m, is a container terminal. A fishing harbour contained within a breakwater lies S of Muelle Polivalente.

Port services
1

3.188 Repairs. Basic repairs available. Other facilities: hospital; no oily waste reception; garbage collection can be arranged. Supplies. Fuel and diesel oil can be supplied by road tanker; fresh water and fresh provisions are available. Communications. Airport, 6 km.

Anchorages
Chart 1869

Arrival information
1

Barranco de las Angustias


1

3.184 Notice of ETA should be sent 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival through the agent. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained about 4 cables NNW of Punta de San Carlos, 2 cables offshore, in depths of about 30 m; care being taken to avoid the disused cable described below. Submarine cable. A disused submarine cable leads in an ENE direction off the S end of the submerged breakwater. Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 50 grt and over and available 24 hours. Pilot boards vessel about 1 mile E of Espigon NorteSur Light. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2). Tugs are not available.

3.189 Anchorage can be obtained about 5 cables off the mouth of Barranco de las Angustias (2839N 1757W) (3.181), where there is a small pier, in a depth of 30 m, good holding ground, noting a marine farm (3.177) positioned close NW. This is the best anchorage off the N and W coasts of Isla de la Palma, but it is exposed to W winds and dangerous with winds from NW. Useful mark: Playa Pier Head Light (yellow post, black band) (28390N 17569W).

Punta de las Llanadas


1

Harbour
1

3.190 Anchorage can be obtained about 5 cables S of Punta de las Llanadas (2845N 1800W) (3.181) in depths of about 36 m, noting La Baja (3.181), a rock which dries, lying SSE of the point.

3.185 General layout. The harbour is formed by a mole, Espigon NorteSur to the E, extending 5 cables SW of Punta Santa Catalina and a mole, fish harbour and a submerged breakwater which encloses a swimming area to the W. Development. Between the root of Espigon NorteSur and Muelle de Ribera, the harbour has been dredged to 6 m and works are in progress (2001) to construct a marina sheltered by a mole across the head of the harbour.

Roca de Santo Domingo


1

3.191 Anchorage can be obtained about 2 cables SW of Roca de Santo Domingo (2850N 1758W) (3.181) in a depth of about 15 m; local knowledge is required.

Punta de Juan Adalid


1

3.192 Anchorage can be obtained 1 mile and 2 miles ESE of Punta de Juan Adalid (2851N 1754W) (3.181).

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CHAPTER 3

ISLA DE HIERRO General information


Chart 1869

Roque de Salmor, a prominent islet, lies 3 cables W Punta de Salmor, with a smaller islet 4 cables farther Rocks above and below water lie between Roque Salmor and the point and shoals with a least depth 28 m lie in the vicinity of the outer islet.

of W. de of

Route
1

Marine reserve
1

3.193 Isla de Hierro (2744N 1800W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers described below.

Description
1

3.194 Isla de Hierro, the SW of Islas Canarias lies 33 miles SW of Isla de la Gomera (3.163). The upper part of Isla de Hierro is an elevated plateau with Malpaso (2744N 1802W), the highest point. The plateau slopes steeply to the sea on all sides except to the NE; on the S side the elevation varies between 1200 m and 1400 m. Valverde (2749N 1755W), the capital of the island, stands on a plain in the N part of the island surrounded by high mountains.

3.196 An area of coastal waters, on the SW coast of Hierro has been designated a marine reserve. The restricted area is bounded by lines joining the following positions: 28342N 17538W (shore). 28342N 17573W. thence along the 1000 m contour to: 28282N 17535W. 28282N 17519W (shore). Within the area indicated, fishing or subaquatic activity of any description is subject to authorisation by the Ministry of Fishing.

Major light
1

3.197 Punta de la Orchilla Light (grey octagonal masonry tower, 25 m in height) (2742N 1809W).

Topography
1

Puerto de La Estaca
1

3.195 The coast between Punta Norte (2751N 1755W), the N extremity of the island, and Punta Caleta, 3 miles SE, is steep and free from offlying dangers. Roque Gaviota lies 1 miles NNW of Punta Caleta, which is sheer. The coast between Punta Caleta (2748N, 1753W) and Puerto de la Estaca (3.198), 1 miles SW, is steepto. Roca Anegada, with a least depth of 14 m over it, lies 9 cables SSW of Punta Caleta and 1 cable offshore; the coast W of Roca Anegada is rocky and indented with coves. The coast between Punta Tijimiraque (2746N 1755W) and Punta de Bonanza, 2 miles SSW, and thence to Punta Restinga, 6 miles farther SW, is high, steepto and inaccessible. Between Punta de Bonanza (2744N 1756W) and Punta de Miguel, 2 miles SW, is a wide bay where the coast is composed of boulders and black sand. Punta Restinga (2738N 1759W), the S exteremity of the island, is steepto and inaccessible. A small fishing harbour protected by a 210 m long breakwater lies close W and a depth of 54 m lies 1 cables SW from the point. The coast between Punta Restinga and Punta de la Orchilla, the SW extremity of the island 10 miles WNW, is sheer and steepto. Between Punta de la Orchilla (2743N 1810W), SE of which a light (3.197) is exhibited, and Punta Arenas Blancas, 4 miles NNE, the coast is high. Roque del Guincho lies close offshore from Punta de la Orchilla. Punta de la Dehesa (2745N 1809W) is a wide marshy promontory, with Roques de la Hoya extending about 3 cables N and an abovewater rock lying 3 cables SW of the point. El Golfo, a bight, lies between Punta Arenas Blancas (2746N 1807W) and Punta de Salmor, 7 miles ENE; numerous rocks, above and below water, lie at the foot of the high cliffs forming the coast. The coast between Punta de Salmor (2749N 1759W) and Punta Norte, 4 miles ENE, is high and inaccessible with rocks above and below water lying close to the shore.

3.198 Position and function. Puerto de La Estaca (2747N 1754W) is situated at the N end of a sandy bight lying between Cueva de Diablo and Punta Tijimiraque (3.195), 1 miles SSW. Port Authority. Autoridad Portuaria de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Puerto de La Estaca, La Estaca, Hierro Island, Canary Islands. Email: hierro@puertosdetenerife.org Local knowledge is required to enter the narrow bay in which the port lies. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 20 m; mean neap range about 07 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Anchorage may be obtained at the head of the bight close offshore in a depth of 9 m, but it should be noted that depths increase very rapidly seaward. Directions. Leading lights: Front light (red triangle on white post, red bands, 3 m in height) (27472N 17541W). Rear light (red triangle on white post, red band, 4 m in height) 21 m from front. The alignment (009) leads into the harbour. Useful marks: Puerto de la Estaca. Breakwater Head Light (green truncated pyramidal tower on round base, 7 m in height) (27468N 17541W). Berth. There is a pier 160 m in length with depths of 10 m at its head decreasing to 4 m near its root. Maximum permissible draught is 65 m. Repairs. There is a mobile 6 ton crane. Supplies. Small quantities of provisions are available. Water is scarce and only available to visiting yachts. Communication. Airport, 8 km.

Anchorage Punta Salmor


1

3.199 Anchorage can be obtained SW of Punta Salmor (2749N 1759W) (3.195).

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Chapter 4 - Arquiplago de Cabo Verde
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CHAPTER 4 ARQUIPLAGO DE CABO VERDE

GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 366, 4104

Scope of the chapter


1

4.1 The chapter is divided into the following sections: Arquiplago de Cabo VerdeNorthern Group (4.6). Arquiplago de Cabo VerdeSouthern Group (4.88).

Description
1

4.2 Arquiplago de Cabo Verde, separated from Cap Vert (1443N 1730W) (6.145) by a clear passage about 325 miles wide, consists of ten principal islands and four smaller ones, divided into two groups. The channels between the islands are generally navigable. The sea. both in the passages between the islands and the mainland of Africa, also NE of the group, is frequently much discoloured due probably to the meeting of the currents.

1984 Datum. Many new charts allow direct plotting and are marked accordingly. Other charts require known corrections to be applied before plotting, such corrections being listed on the chart. However, there remain many charts for this area on which the differences cannot, on occasion, be determined. Mariners are warned that these differences may be significant to navigation and are therefore advised to use alternative sources of positioning information, particularly when closing the shore or navigating in the vicinity of dangers.

Natural conditions
1

Caution
1

4.3 Chart 366 should be used with great caution, especially in the vicinity of Ilha do Bavista (1606N 2250W), off which many uncharted dangers may exist.

Navigation
1

4.4 Satellite navigation. Positions obtained from satellite navigation systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) are normally referred to the World Geodetic System

4.5 Magnetic anomalies are reported to exist in the vicinty of the archipelago, especially in the following areas: Off the W side of Ilha do Sal (4.7); Off the E side of Ilha do Bavista (4.19); Near Ilha do Fogo (4.117) and Ilha Brava (4.124). Current. The archipelago lies in the region where the direction for the Canary current (1.249) becomes more W as it passes into the Wgoing North Equatorial current (1.249). The rate of most of the currents in the open ocean in the vicinity of the archipelago does not exceed 1 kn. The E islands, Ilha do Sal, Ilha Boavista and Ilha do Maio, more especially feel the force of the SW set, and several wrecks have been caused by disregarding it. The currents between the islands of the whole group are frequently strong, irregular and influenced by the wind. Visibility. The haze over the whole archipelago is often so thick that the surf is sighted before the land. See details of the harmattan (1.280).

ARQUIPLAGO DE CABO VERDE NORTHERN GROUP GENERAL INFORMATION ILHA DO SAL General information
Chart 366

Area covered
1

Chart 367 plan of Ilha do Sal

4.6 This section describes the N group of islands and principal port comprising of: Ilha do Sal (1645N 2257W), (4.7) Ilha da Bavista, (4.19) Ilha de So Nicolau, (4.33) Ilhu Raso, (4.42) Ilhu Branco, (4.43) Ilha da Santa Luzia, (4.44) Ilha de So Vicente, (4.49) Porto Grande (4.57), and Ilha de Santo Anto (1703N 2513W) (4.79).

Route
1

4.7 Ilha do Sal (1645N 2257W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given in the coastal directions at 4.10.

Topography
1

4.8 Ilha do Sal, the NE island of the archipelago, has in its N part a number of isolated peaks, the highest of which is Monte Grande (4.10).

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The S part of the island is low and terminates in a dangerous, steepto sandy spit which extends a considerable distance offshore. The coast from Ponta Norte (1651N 2256W) to Ponta do Cagarral, 5 miles SSE, is steep and fronted by rocks which extend as much as 5 cables offshore. The coast between Ponta de Parapeita (16 45 N 2254W) and Ponta do Morrinho Vermelho, 5 miles SSE, is, with the exception of Baa da Parda, fringed with rocks; Rifes da Parda (not named on chart), with depths of less than 18 m over them, extend about 2 cables E from the coast 5 cables S of Ponta de Parapeita. Baa da Parda, 5 cables SW of Rifes da Parda, is backed by low land and has a beach of black sand about 1 cable in length. The coast between Ponta do Morrinho Vermelho and Ponta do Leme Velho, 4 miles SSW, forms two bights separated by Ponta da Fragata (1639N 2254W) (not named on chart); the N bight is rocky, the S bight is partly sandy and backed by sand dunes; both bights are fringed with rocks. The coast between Ponta do Leme Velho (1635N 2254W) and Ponta do Sin, 2 miles WSW, consists of Baa de Santa Maria with Porto de Santa Maria (4.18) standing at its head, with white sandy beaches extending on either side. The coast from Ponta do Sin to Ponta do Rife (1639N 2257W) 4 miles NNW, is fronted by a sandy beach for the first 2 miles and thence by rocks for 1 miles NNW. The coast from Ponta Pesqueirona to Ponta da Pambai (16446N 22593W), 3 miles N, is steep and the points between are fringed with rocks. Porto da Palmeira (4.13) lies between Ponta da Pambai and Ponta do Jozinho, 1 mile NNW. The coast between Ponta do Jozinho (16 45 4N 22597W) and Ponta Preta (4 miles N) consists of several low points fringed with rocks. Between Ponta Preta and Ponta Norte, 4 miles ENE, the coast is fringed with rocks.

E of Porto Pedra de Lume (1 mile SW) (4.17), thence: E of Baixa Alta (3 miles S) with a depth of 82 m over it. Another rock with a depth of 16 m over it lies 5 cables W of it. A group of small islets lie close inshore, 1 mile SW of Baixa Alta. Rocks with depths of less than 18 m over them extend up to 3 cables E of the islets. Thence: E of Ponta Morrinho Vermelho (6 miles S), a low point, backed by a white topped conical hill. A rocky patch with a depth of 74 m over it lies 1 miles S of the point. Thence: E of a wreck (8 miles S), with a depth of 25 m over it, thence: E of Ponta do Leme Velho (10 miles S) a low sandy promontory extending SE and fringed with rocks. A depth of 195 m lies 1 miles ENE and a rock with a depth of 131 m over it lies 1 miles SSE of the point. Thence the track alters SW and W, passing (with positions relative to Ponta do Sin Light (16353N 22556W)): S of Porto de Santa Maria (1 mile E) (4.18), thence: S of Ponta do Sin, a low promontory composed of sand dunes. Useful marks: Monte da Rocha Salina (16 470N 22551W), elevation 299 m. Pedra de Lume Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (16452N 22538W). White Pyramid (16421N 22545W). Ponta do Sin Light (grey square tower, 9 m in height) (16353N 22556W).

West coast
1

Natural conditions
1

4.9 Current. The current in the neighbourhood of Ilha do Sal usually sets SW at a rate of about kn, but it is frequently stronger, irregular and influenced by the wind. See 4.5. Visibility. See 4.5. Local magnetic anomaly is reported off the W side of Ilha do Sal.

Directions Landmark
1

4.10 Monte Grande (1649N 2255W), elevation 407 m.

East coast
1

4.11 From a position E of Ponta Norte (1651N 2256W) the track leads S, passing (with positions relative to Ponta do Cagarral (1646N 2253W)): E of Ponta de Casaca (3 miles N), a low point fringed with rocks, with an islet lying close inshore 3 cables WNW of the point, thence: E of Ponta do Cagarral, from which a ledge of rocks, with a depth of 27 m over its outer end, extends 4 cables NE. Monte Cagarral, a conical hill, 173 m high, rises 3 cables WNW of the point. Thence:

4.12 From a position S of Ponta do Sin the track leads NW, passing (with positions relative to Rabo Junco Light (16418N 22595W)): SW of Ponta do Rife (4 miles NNW), a low point with rocks extending 2 cables W and a similar distance offshore for 1 miles SSE. Baa da Mordeira (4.16), with a prohibited anchorage area, lies N of the point. Thence: SW of Ponta Pesqueirona, from where Rabo Junco Light is exhibited. Monte Rabo de Junco, with an elevation of 165 m, lies 3 cables E of Ponta Pesqueirona. Monte Rabo de Junco has two summits separated by a saddle, the S summit being higher. Ilhu do Rabo de Junco, joined to the mainland by a reef, lies 5 cables NW of Ponta Pesqueirona. Thence the track leads N, passing: W of Palmeira (3 miles N), standing at the N end of Baa da Palmeira (4.13), with its tanker facilities, thence: W of Ponta da Bicuda (4 miles N), a low point fringed with rocks, thence: W of an unnamed point (6 miles N), 8 cables ESE of which Morro Leste, a conical hill, rises to 263 m, thence: W of Ponta Preta (8 miles N), the highest point on the NW coast of Ilha do Sal. Thence the track alters NE and ENE, passing: NNW of Ponta Norte (10 miles NNE), low, rocky, fringed by submerged rocks and the N extremity

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of Ilha do Sal. A light is exhibited 4 cables SE of the point. Thence the track leads SE to a position E of Ponta Norte. Useful marks: Rabo Junco Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (16418N 22595W). Ponta Norte (metal tower, 5 m in height) (16510N 22552W).
1

The intersection of both above alignments indicates the anchorage at the entrance to the bay. Useful marks: Airport control tower (16447N 22570W). Church (16453N 22592W). Pier Head Light (lantern on metal mast, 5 m in height) (16452N 22593W).

Berths and port services


4.15 Mooring berth. Tanker Berth is situated at the seaward end of the the oil pipeline and consists of four mooring buoys, the NW and SW of which are also lightbuoys. Tankers secure to these buoys with three lines from each bow and each quarter and the port anchor may also be required. This berth can accommodate vessels up to 183 m in length and 125 m draught from April to November, and up to 175 m length and 115 m draught, from December to March. The berth is affected by periods of heavy swell during winter months. Alongside berth. There is a pier 112 m in length, having depths alongside of from 40 m at its seaward end to 10 m at its inner end. Only one side is available for berthing. A rocky ledge with depths of less than 5 m extends up to cable SW and 1 cables SE of the pier. Anchorage may be obtained by small vessels under the lee of the pier extending from Ponta Joaquim Machado. Landing is possible at the pier. Repairs are not available. Other facilities. Hospital at airport. Supplies are available in very small quantities.

Porto da Palmeira
Chart 367 plan Porto da Palmeira

General information
1

4.13 Position and function. Porto da Palmeira lies in Baa da Palmeira (1645N 2259W). The village of Palmeira stands at the N end of the bay. The port, consisting of a tanker mooring and a pier used by cargo vessels, ferries and fishing vessels, mainly imports aviation fuel. Approach and entry. The port is approached direct from sea and entered between Ponta do Joozinho (16454N 22597W) and Ponta da Pambai (Ponta da Fontona), 9 cables SE. Traffic. In 2004 there were 7 vessel movements totalling 6470 dwt at Porto da Palmeira. Port Authority. Email: portopalmeira@enapor.cv Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 08 m; mean neap range about 04 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Pilotage is available, however, the pilot has to travel from So Vicente 12 hours away by boat. Pilot and Mooring Master board tankers 1 mile W of mooring buoys. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Anchorages and harbours Baa da Mordeira


1

Directions
1

(continued from 4.12) 4.14 Landmark: Oil depot (1645N 2259W). Entry. Leading lights: Front light (elevation 8 m) (16451N 22590W) Rear light (Casa Valente, elevation 13 m) (435 m from front). The alignment (064) of the above lights leads to the Tanker Berth. Alignment marks: Front light (red mast, 7 m in height) (16452N 22590W) Rear light (red mast, 11 m in height) (95 m from front). The above alignment (044) marks the line of the oil pipeline, the seaward end of which is also marked by a white conical buoy (nonIALA). Both above sets of lights are exhibited on request. Leading marks: Front mark (conical stone beacon) (16 44 6N 22591W) Rear mark (conical stone beacon) (500 m from front). The above alignment bears 111. Front mark (conical stone beacon) (16 45 3N 22591W) Rear mark (conical stone beacon) (320 m from front). The above alignment bears 045.

4.16 Baa da Mordeira lies between Ponta do Rife (1639N 2257W) (4.12) and Ponta Pesqueirona, 3 miles NW. Apart from Monte Rabo de Junco (4.12), the shores of the bay are low, alternating with ledges of rock and sand beaches. Anchorage can be obtained in the bay, outside the prohibited area. Care should be taken to ascertain the nature of the bottom before anchoring as there are many foul spots in the bay. This is the best anchorage off Ilha do Sal and affords good shelter except during the wet season when S winds blow in, accompanied by rollers, making it unsafe. Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited in an area, best seen on the chart, extending SE from a red brick building ashore, where submarine cables are landed. Chart 369 plan Porto de Pedra de Lume

Porto de Pedra de Lume


1

4.17 Description. Ponta de Guin, the N entrance point to Porto de Pedra de Lume, lies 7 cables SSW of Ponta do Cagarral. The S entrance point to Porto de Pedra de Lume, Ponta de Parapeita, a low rocky point, lies 1 mile SW of Ponta de Guin. Porto de Pedra de Lume (16 45N 2254W) is situated about 5 cables W of Ponta de Guin, a low rocky point. Coasters in the anchorage load salt, the only product of Ilha do Sal, from salt works farther inland.

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A small harbour, with depths of 06 m to 12 m (2 to 4 ft), is formed by a breakwater extending SW from the shore 4 cables WNW of Ponta de Guin. Depths. A shoal over which the sea breaks and with a depth of 6 m (20 ft) over it lies 3 cables SSW of Ponta de Guin. A shoal with a depth of 2 m (7 ft) lies 4 cables WSW of the point, and a rocky spit, with depths of less than 4 m (13 ft) over it, extends 2 cables S from the shore 5 cables W of the point. Landmark: Church (16459N 22537W). Entry. Leading lights: Front light (truncated pyramid, 3 m in height) (16455N 22543W). Rear light (framework tower on house, 7 m in height) (215 m from front). The alignment (306 ) of the above lights, when exhibited, leads to the anchorage. Useful marks: Cross (16457N 22539W) Anchorage may be obtained 3 cables S of the head of the breakwater in 11 m (6 fm) sand, shell and stones; and at 4 cables S of the head of the breakwater in 12 m, fine sand. Landing can be made close W of the harbour. Repairs. Minor repairs can be effected. A patent slip can accommodate vessels of up to 8 tons. Other facilities. Small hospital at airport, about 7 km away. Supplies . Very small quantities of provisions are available.

ILHA DA BAVISTA General information


Chart 366

Route
1

4.19 Ilha da Bavista (1606N 2249W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the Caution at 4.3 and the dangers given below.

Topography
1

Chart 367 plan Porto de Santa Maria

Porto de Santa Maria


1

4.18 Description. Baa de Santa Maria is entered between Ponta do Sin and Ponta do Leme Velho 2 miles ENE. Ponta de Vera Cruz (16357N 22546W), a rocky point, lies 1 mile NE of Ponta do Sin, and between these points lies Praia da Bancona, a beach of white sand; another beach of white sand also extends E from Ponta de Vera Cruz. Porto de Santa Maria, stands at the head of the bay close NW of Ponta de Vera Cruz and is used by coasters loading salt; it is the principal town of Ilha do Sal. Entry. A steepto rocky spit, on which lies a stranded wreck, extends 2 cables E of Ponta do Sin which together with Ponta do Leme Velho (4.11) should be given a wide berth, otherwise the chart is sufficient guide. Useful marks: Ponta do Sin Light (16353N 22556W) (4.11). Ponta de Vera Cruz Light (white framework tower, 4 m in height) (16357N 22546W). Church (16358N 22547W). Windmotor (16 35 9N 22 54 8W), position approximate. Anchorage may be obtained about 3 cables S of Ponta de Vera Cruz in a depth of 13 m, fine sand and shells. Landing can be effected at a wooden pier 2 cables W of Ponta de Vera Cruz. Repairs A slipway suitable for lighters and vessels up to 8 tons drawing about 1 m lies close E of Ponta de Vera Cruz. A small dock is situated close to the slipway. Supplies of provisions are very limited. Fuel can only be obtained in drums.

4.20 Ilha da Bavista, 21 miles S of Ilha do Sal (4.8), is traversed generally through the centre fron N to S by a mountain range. Monte Caador, 355 m high and Pico Forcado, 369 m high, rise in the E part of the middle of the island; Pico Estncia (1603N 2247W), 390 m, the highest peak in Ilha da Bavista, lies in the SE part of the island. Monte Santo Antnio, 378 m, and Rocha Estncia, 354 m, rise isolated and prominent in the SW part of the island. Ilha da Bavista is of volcanic origin and extinct craters are situated near Monte Caador and Pico Forcado. The coasts of the island are low and consist mainly of long sandy beaches separated by rocky points with detached dangers lying off them. Near the E extremity of the island are extensive salt pans and the principle industry of Ilha da Bavista is the manufacture of salt. The coast between Ponta do Roque (16 05 1N 22405W) and Ponta do Ervato (not named on chart) 3 miles SSW, is rocky with sandy stretches. Foul ground extends about 1 mile SE from Ponta do Ervato. The coast between Ponta do Ervato (1603N 2242W) and Ponta Tarfe, 7 miles SW, consists of a sandy beach interrupted by Ponta Mendronha, 4 miles SW of Ponta do Ervato, which has a reef extending a short distance from it. The coast between Ponta do Sol (1614N 2255W) and a point 1 miles S is high and steep, thence for the next 1 miles to Ponta de Joo Gomes (1611N 2256W) it is low and fronted by foul ground. The coast from Ponta Varandinha (1603N 2258W) to a point 7 cables NW of Ponta Lacaco, 6 miles SE, consists of a sandy beach. Another sandy beach stretches for 4 miles E from Ponta Lacaco.

Natural conditions
1

4.21 Local magnetic anomaly. A local magnetic anomaly is reported to exist off the E coast of Ilha da Bavista, off Ponta Tarfe (4.25). Current. The channel between Ilha do Sal and Ilha da Bavista is free from danger but the current sets strongly SSW through it and on to Ilha da Bavista. It is better, therefore, when passing through to favour the Ilha do Sal side.

Directions Major light


1

4.22 Morro Negro Light (white square tower on dwelling, 12 m in height) (16062N 22411W).

Other aid to navigation


1

4.23 Racon: Ponta Varandinha Light (16026N 22583W).

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CHAPTER 4

Circumnavigation
1

4.24 From a position N of Ponta Antnia (1614N 2248W), the track leads ESE, passing (with positions relative to Morro Negro Light (4.22)): NNE of Ponta Antnia (10 miles NW), a low, dark and rocky point which is surrounded by foul ground extending up to 5 cables offshore. A rock awash lies 4 cables NE, and there is a shoal with a depth of 54 m over it 3 miles ESE of the point. Thence: NNE of Ponta Rodrigo (6 miles NNW), a low rocky salient fringed with rocks; foul ground extends 7 cables E of the point. A small bay obstructed with rocks lies close W of Ponta Rodrigo and a reef over which the sea breaks lies 1 mile E. Three islets lie from 6 cables to 2 miles SE of the point. Thence the track leads SE, passing: NE of Cabea da Rifona (6 miles NNE), the steepto E extremity of an extensive reef which lies between 1 miles and 3 miles E of Ponta Rodrigo. The sea breaks 1 miles S of Cabea da Rifona on another reef. There are channels between the islets mentioned above and the reefs but local knowledge is necessary to use them. Many vessels have been set on to Cabea da Rifona by the SW current (4.5) and wrecked. In clear weather the dangers show themselves, but in poor visibility it is not advisable to approach the island as the currents about it are sometimes irregular. Thence: NE of Ponta do Rife Baluarte (2 miles N), low, fringed with rocks extending 1 mile offshore and very dangerous to approach. Ilhu do Baluarte, a low rocky islet, lies 9 cables NE of the point. A rock awash lies about 1 mile SE of Ponta do Rife Baluarte. Reefs extend up to 1 miles offshore between Ponta do Rife Baluarte and a point situated 1 mile SSE from it. Thence the track leads S, passing: E of Morro Negro, a prominent conical hill, elevation 154 m, from the summit of which a light (4.22) is exhibited, thence: E of Ponta do Roque (1 mile SSE) a high, steep and dark point with a small islet lying close N and a wreck with 42 m over it lying 8 cables SSE of it. Thence the track alters SSW, passing: ESE of Ponta do Ervato (4 miles SSW) (4.20). Baixo Queen, an extensive reef, over which the sea breaks lies 5 cables offshore, 1 miles SW of Ponta do Ervato. 4.25 Thence the track leads SW, passing: SE of Ponta Tarfe (10 miles SW), the S extremity of the island. It is very low, rocky and dark in colour. A ledge of rocks extends 7 cables S from the point and a small islet capped with guano lies 3 cables ENE in Enseada do Curral Velho. Thence the track alters W, passing (with positions relative to Ponta Varandinha Light (16026N 22583W)): S of Ponta Lacaco (6 miles SE) which is fringed with rocks, thence: Thence the track leads WNW, passing: Clear of Baixo de Joo Valente (17 miles SW), awash, consisting of coral and shell and, which breaks heavily in moderate seas but not when the sea is calm, thence:

SSW of Ponta Varandinha, the W extremity of Ilha da Bavista, from where a light (4.23) is exhibited. The point is low and rocky; a reef, awash, extends 4 cables W from Ponta Varandinha. Thence the track leads NNW and NNE, passing: WNW of Baixo Vauban (2 miles NNW), with rocks awash. A dangerous wreck lies on the reef. Thence: WNW of Ponta do Morro d Areia (2 miles NNE), a low and rocky point dominated by Morro d Areia (elevation 167 m) (not named on chart). A shoal with a depth of 196 m lies 3 miles WNW of Ponta do Morro d Areia. Thence: WNW of Baixa do Brtola (4 miles N), with a depth of 63 m over it. Thence the track continues NNE, passing (with positions relative to Ponta de Sol Light (16138N 22553W)): WNW of Ilhu de Sal Rei (3 miles SSW), a grass covered island, from where a light is exhibited, lying on the outer edge of foul ground extending 1 mile SW from Ponta de Joo Gomes (4.26), thence: WNW of a depth of 194 m (2 miles SW), thence: WNW of Ponta de Sol, from where a light is exhibited. The point is low and fringed by rocky and foul ground extending 6 cables N from it. Thence the track leads E, passing: N of Baixo da Boa Esperana (3 miles E) with a depth of 69 m over it. Another reef with a depth of 56 m over it, lies 2 miles further E. These are the outermost reefs in Baa da Salina, entered between Ponta de Sol and Ponta Antnia, 7 miles E. The bay has a sandy shore but is obstructed with reefs. Thence the track leads to a position N of Ponta Antnia (7 miles E), with a dangerous wreck lying 7 cables WNW. Useful marks: Ponta Varandinha Light (lantern on red structure, 7 m in height) (16026N 22582W). Calheta do Velho Light (lantern on metal mast, 8 m in height) (16104N 22564W). Ponta do Sol Light (metal tower, 7 m in height) (16138N 22553W).

Porto de Sal Rei


Chart 369 plan Porto de Sal Rei

General information
1

4.26 Position and function. Baa de Sal Rei lies between Ponta do Morro dAreia (1606N 2300W) (4.25) and Ponta de Joo Gomes, 5 miles NNE; both these points are low, sandy and fringed with rocks. Porto de Sal Rei lies in the N part of the bay, the shores of which are fronted by a sandy beach. Vila de Sal Rei stands close SE of Ponta Joo Gomes. The town of Rabil stands 1 mile E of a conspicuous tall chimney (see Useful marks). Approach and entry. Through a channel (charted as a boat passage) between Ponta Manuel da Rosa, the NE extremity of Ilhu de Sal Rei, and Ponta de Joo Gomes leads to the breakwater. Traffic. In 2004 there were 57 ship movements totalling 43 283 dwt. Local knowledge is essential for hauling around the SW side of Ilhu de Sal Rei, passing N of Baixona (English Reef). See below.

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4.27 Shoal depths. Baixona (English Reef), with a least depth of 23 m (8 ft) over it, lies 8 cables SW of Ponta do Forte (Ponta do Ilhu), the SE extremity of Ilhu de Sal Rei. This reef only breaks when there is a swell and then heavily. There are depths of 11 m (6 fm) between the reef and Ponta do Forte. Inner Reef is the name applied to a reef extending about 4 cables offshore about 7 cables S of Vila de Sal Rei. This reef is reported to break only in bad weather. Baixo da Chave, on which there is a large drying rock as well as submerged rocks, extends 4 cables W from the shore 8 cables S of Ribeira de Rabil Light. Baixo do Bartola (4.25), lies about 4 miles SW of Calheta do Velho Light. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 10 m; mean neap range about 08 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Useful marks: Calheta do Velho Light (16104N 22564W) (4.25). Customs Pier Light (red framework tower, 6 m in height) (16106N 22555W). Ribeira de Rabil Light (lantern on metal mast, 5 m in height) (16084N 22541W). Chimney (16079N 22547W). 4.28 Anchorage may be obtained, sheltered in the summer from the prevailing NE winds, about 1 miles SE of Calheta de Velho Light in a depth of 14 m to 15 m (7 to 8 fm). The holding ground is not good, being generally rock covered by a thin layer of sand or shells. Anchorage may also be obtained about 11 cables SE of the light in a depth of 14 m, crushed shells. Berth. A mole protected by a rubble breakwater, projects WSW from close S of Ponta de Joo Gomes and offers wharfage totalling 100 m in length with a 155 m wide RoRo ramp in depths of 5 m alongside. Repairs are not available. Other facilities: Small hospital. Supplies are available in limited quantities. Communication: Airstrip 5 km SE of town with domestic flights; interisland ferries.

Baa do Curralinho
1

4.32 Anchorage can be obtained in Baa do Curralinho (1559N 2254W), about 1 miles NW of Ponta Lacaco (4.25), about 3 cables offshore in depths of 12 m to 13 m, fine sand. Care should be taken to avoid a reef over which the sea often breaks extending 3 cables W from the coast about 11 cables NW of Ponta Lacaco.

ILHA DE SO NICOLAU General information


Chart 366

Route
1

4.33 Ilha de So Nicolau (1637N 2417W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given below.

Topography
1

Anchorages and harbours Baa de Porto Ferreira


1

4.29 Baa de Porto Ferreira lies between Ponta do Roque (16051N 22405W) and a point 2 miles N from it. Anchorage for small vessels can be obtained about 2 miles N of Ponta do Roque in a depth of about 8 m, fine sand and chalk; local knowledge is required.

4.34 Ilha de So Nicolau lies 60 miles W of Ilha do Sal (4.8) and is very mountainous; Monte Gordo (1637N 2421W), rising to an elevation of 1304 m in the W part of the island, is the highest point. The long peninsula which forms the E part of the island is composed of a range of mountains about 600 to 700 m high, prominent among them being Monte Bissau, an isolated conical mountain with an elevation of 614 m, rising near the centre of the island, the summit of which is frequently in cloud. The E end of the the peninsula terminates in a low plateau. Ilha de So Nicolau is more cultivated than any other of the group; sugar cane, vegetables and fruit being the chief products. The coast between Ponta do Fidalgo (1629N 2420W) and Ponta Cacimba (1633N 2422W), 4 miles NNW, is unsurveyed. The coast from Ponta do Portinho (1635N 2423W) to Ponta do Barril, 2 miles NW, is free from dangers except very close inshore. Between Ponta Brouco (1638N 2426W) and a point 1 miles NNE, the coast consists of a low cliff with several caves in it. The coast between Ponta Juncalinho (1637N 2408W) and Ponta Leste, 7 miles ESE, is composed chiefly of cliffs with rocks and sand at their bases.

Depths
1

4.35 Caution. From Ponta Leste (1634N 2401W), the E extremity of Ilha de So Nicolau, to Ponta Bodegal (chart 369), 15 miles W, the coast is unsurveyed.

Off Baixo Queen


1

Directions Major light


1

4.30 Anchorage can be found N of Baixo Queen (1601N 2242W) (4.24) in depths greater than 10 m.

4.36 Barril Light (white square tower and dwelling, 9 m in height) (16363N 24256W).

Off Ponta Tarfe


1

South coast
1

4.31 Anchorage can be found about 1 mile NE of Ponta Tarfe (1558N 2248W) (4.25) in depths greater than 10 m.

4.37 From a position E of Ponta Leste Light (1634N 2401W), the track leads SSW, passing (with positions relative to Porto Velho Light (1634N 2417W)):

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ESE of Ponta Leste, the E extremity of Ilha de So Nicolau, which terminates in a cliff with detached rocks fronting its N side, thence: ESE of Ponta Talhada (14 miles E). The coast between Ponta Leste and Ponta Talhada is high and rocky. Thence the track leads WSW, passing: SSE of Ponta Delgado (10 miles E) which is rocky and can be distinguished by chalky patches on the land adjacent to it, thence: SSE of Ponta da Vermelharia (5 miles SSW), the S extremity of a peninsula and of Ilha de So Nicolau, which is cliffy. Foul ground extends a short distance S and depths of less than 100 m extend about 5 miles SW from Ponta da Vermelharia. Thence the track leads W, passing (with positions relative to Barril Light (16363N 24256W)): S of Ponta do Fidalgo (9 miles SE), a rugged and salient point, higher than Ponta da Vermelharia. Thence the track leads NW, passing: SW of Ponta da Papagaio (6 miles SE), thence: SW of Tarrafal (4 miles SE) (4.41), which is the main port for Ilha de So Nicolau, thence: SW of Ponta do Barril, from where a light (4.36) is exhibited. Depths of 150 m and 139 m were reported (1970 and 1986) 4 miles and 6 miles, respectively, W of Ponta do Barril.

Ponta Vermelharia Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (1629N 2419W), position approximate. Tarrafal Mole Head Light (metal mast with lantern, elevation 8 m) (1634N 2422W). Ponta Espechim Light (metal mast with lantern, 5 m in height) (16 41 7N 24 21 W), position approximate.

Anchorages and harbours Baa do Carrial


1

4.39 Baa do Carrial (1633N 2406W) is small but suitable as an anchorage for small craft. The bottom is sandy and the anchorage is sheltered from winds between E and W through N. The village of Carrial, which has stone houses, stands at the head of the bay and is visible from the offing. Chart 369 plan of Porto da Preguia

Porto da Preguia and Porto Velho


1

North coast
1

4.38 Thence the track leads N and NE, passing: NW of Ponta do Galeo (2 miles N), with vertical cliffs formed by landslides. Thence the track leads ENE, passing (with positions relative to Ponta Espechim (1641N 2421W)): NNW of Ponta do Rabil (2 miles WSW), a low dark and rocky point, thence: NNW of Ponta Espechim, the N extremity of Ilha de So Nicolau, which is a rounded, cliffy promontory surmounted by a mountain with a elevation of 676 m. Baixa do Espechim, with a depth of less than 2 m, lies 2 cables N of the point. Thence the track leads ESE, passing: NNE of Ponta de Curral Velho (5 miles SE). Ribeira Brava flows through a ravine from the town of that name and enters the sea 1 mile SW of Ponta de Curral Velho. Thence: NNE of Baixo da Queimada (7 miles ESE), a rocky ledge with depths of less than 2 m over it, extending 4 cables N of the coast, thence: NNE of Ponta Larga (9 miles ESE), the W entrance point to Baa do Salto. A mountain, elevation 619 m, standing 1 miles SW of Ponta Larga has two prominent rocky pinnacles. Thence: NNE of Ponta Juncalinho (12 miles ESE), the E entrance point to Baa do Salto. The shores of the bay are fringed with rocks and a village close to Ponta Juncalinho is difficult to distinguish. Thence the track leads ESE and S to a position E of Ponta Leste Light. Useful marks: Ponta Leste Light (white column, red lantern, 3 m in height) (1634N 2401W). Ponta Delgado Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (1633N 2407W), position approximate.

4.40 Description. Baa de So Jorge, which consists of most of the SE coast, is entered between a point 6 cables ENE of Ponta Vermelharia (16 29 N 24 19 W) and Ponta Delgado, 12 miles ENE. Porto da Preguia lies between Black Point and Ponta Bodegal, 7 cables NE. This was once the principal port of Ilha de So Nicolau, due to the road which connects the port with Vila da Ribeira Brava and passes the airfield. A small jetty about 37 m (120 ft) in length extends from the shore on the E side of of a stony beach. At the head of the jetty stands a small derrick. Useful marks: Porto Velho Light (white cabin, 6 m in height) (1634N 2417W). Ruined fort 2 cables WSW of above light. Anchorage in Porto Velho can be obtained about 400 m offshore SSE of Porto Velho Light in a depth of 27 m (15 fm). Smaller vessels can anchor closer inshore in a depth of 16 m (9 fm). Vessels should avoid anchoring W of these positions as the bottom is rocky.

Porto da Tarrafal
1

4.41 Description. Porto da Tarrafal (1634N 2422W) is the main port of Ilha de So Nicolau. The more exposed Porto da Preguia (4.40) has reverted to being a small fishing village. The substantial breakwater, constructed in a NNW direction and parallel to the shore, offers 137 m of wharfage alongside its inner face, and includes a RoRo ramp. Berth No 1 has a length of 83 m and a depth alongside of 50 m. Berth No 2 has a length of 54 m and a depth alongside of 30 m. Ferries, small cargo boats and fishing vessels use the breakwater and quay berths. Repairs, stores and fuel are available. The interisland ferry calls about once a fortnight. Interisland flights from airfield on road to Vila da Ribeira Brava. Useful mark: Tarrafal Mole Head Light (1634N 2422W) (4.38). Anchorage can be obtained 3 cables NW of Ponta do Tarrafal, the point on which the town stands, in a depth of 20 m. Small vessels can anchor NE off the head of the breakwater, outside of the moorings for the local boats. There is good holding ground in 5 m to 10 m over black sand. Baixa de Telha, a rock which dries, lies 1 cable S of Ponta do Tarrafal.

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Caution. Although the breakwater provides shelter from NW through E to SW, strong NE squalls may funnel down the ravines into the harbour.

ILHU RASO
Chart 369 plan of Santa Luzia, Branco and Razo
4

General information
1

4.42 Ilhu Raso (Ilhu Razo) (16 37 N 24 35 W) lies 8 miles W of Ilha de So Nicolau (4.34) and is uninhabited; the coasts are cliffy and almost inaccessible. Monte da Ribeira de Ladro, the highest point, rises to an elevation of 164 m (538 ft) near the NE coast. Ponta Salina, the N extremity, is low and fringed with rocks, and Ponta da Testa Lisa lies 1 miles SW of it. Ponta Esmargalsinho, the steepto SE extremity of Ilhu Raso, lies 1 miles SSE of Ponta Salina.

ILHU BRANCO
6

Chart 369 plan of Santa Luzia, Branco and Razo

General information
1

4.43 Ilhu Branco (1639N 2441W) lies 3 miles NW of Ilhu Raso (4.42). The depths are irregular between these islands and currents are strong at times and raise a confused sea when running against a fresh wind. The island is uninhabited. Tope da Berta, the highest point on the island attains an elevation of 327 m (1073 ft) about the centre of the island. The coasts of Ilhu Branco are inaccessible except in very fine weather when landing is possible W of Ponta Delgada. Ponta Delgada, the low SE extremity of the island, lies 1 mile SE of Tope da Berta, and a reef extends E from it. Ponta dos Papagaios de Riba, the NW extremity of the island, terminates in a cliff 1 mile NW of Tope da Berta.

Ponta Salina do Creoulo, 6 cables NNW of Ponta Me Grande (1645N 2441W), can be identified by white patches on its face; there are similar patches on the coast to the W of the point. A bay, known to be shallow and rocky, is entered between Ponta do Lizardo (16454N 24423W) and Ponta do Rocha Negra, 2 miles WNW; Ch do Castelo, a sandy beach fringed with rocks, lies at the head of the bay. The coast is steepto between Ponta da Salina and Ponta dos Piquinhos (1648N 2447W), the N extremity of the island. The coast between Ponta dos Piquinhos and Ponta Branca, 1 miles SSW and the W extremity of the island, is fronted by a bank with depths of less than 9 m (5 fm) over it extending up to 3 cables offshore. The coast is sheer and steepto between Ponta Branca and Ponta do gua Ruim (1646N 2447W). The coast between Ponta do gua Ruim and Ponta da Laje, 3 miles SE, forms a shallow bight; for about 1 miles ESE the coast is fringed with rocks, and thence for about 1 miles it is fronted by Praia do Palmo a Tosto, a sandy beach. A ruined village stands about 6 cables N of Ponta da Laje (1644N 2445W), and landing can be effected about 2 cables S of the village. Ilhu Zinho, a small pinnacled islet about 15 m (49 ft) high lies 1 miles NW of Ponta da Laje and about 4 cables offshore. A coastal bank, with depths of less than 55 m (3 fm) over it, extends up to 5 cables offshore between Ponta da Laje and Ponta dos Tarafes. Baixona, a group of rocks with depths of less than 2 m (7 ft) over them, lies 1 miles ESE of Ponta da Laje. The coast between Ponta da Laje and Ponta dos Tarafes (1644N 2442W), is low except at the W end where Monte Espia rises to an elevation of 294 m (964 ft) about 4 cables N of Ponta da Laje. Between Ponta dos Tarafes and Ponta Me Grande, 7 cables NE, the coast is faced with cliffs. Baixinha, a group of rocks with depths of less than 2 m (7 ft) over them, lie 8 cables E of Ponta dos Tarafes.

Depths
1

ILHA DE SANTA LUZIA General information


Chart 369 plan of Santa Luzia, Branco and Razo

Topography
1

4.44 Ilha de Santa Luzia is high in its NW and central parts. Monte Topona (1646N 2445W), the highest point, rises to an elevation of 395 m (1296 ft) in the central part of the island, and Monte gua Doce rises to an elevation of 316 m (1033 ft) from a level plain in the NW part. There are no permanent inhabitants of Ilha de Santa Luzia. Monte Creoulo (not named on chart) (16 45 2N 24417W) 85 m (279 ft) high and with the appearance of another island when seen from a distance from N or S, rises near the E extremity of Ilha de Santa Luzia. The land between Monte Topona and Monte Creoulo is low and, when passing N of the island, Ilhu Branco can be seen over the top of it.

4.45 Caution. The S and E coasts of Ilha de Santa Luzia should not be approached within 1 mile as the depths are irregular and less water than charted has been reported between Ilhu Branco and Ilha de Santa Luzia. The coast between Ponta Me Grande (16 45 N 2441W), the low and rocky E extremity of Ilha de Santa Luzia, and Ponta da Salina, 4 miles NW, is unsurveyed. Rocks, with depths of less than 2 m over them, extend 3 cables offshore between Ponta Me Grande and Ponta do Lizardo, 1 miles NW.

Tidal stream
1

4.46 The tidal stream sets W on the ingoing tide and E on the outgoing tide at a rate of 2 kn at springs.

Anchorage
1

4.47 Anchorage can be obtained about 4 cables SE of Ilhu Zinho (1645N 2446W) (4.44) in a depth of about 15 m (8 fm), sand and pebbles.

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Landing
1

4.48 Landing can be effected on Praia Francisco, 1 miles W of Ponta dos Tarafes (1644N 2442W).

ILHA DE SO VICENTE General information


Charts 366, 367 plan of Approaches to Porto Grande
5

Route
1

4.49 Ilha de So Vicente (1651N 2459W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given in the coastal directions at 4.51.

Topography
1

4.50 Ilha de So Vicente is composed of mountains of volcanic origin, divided into two ranges by a valley extending from the SW part of Porto Grande (4.57) to within 2 miles of the E part of the island. Apart from a little green tamarisk scrub, the island is barren. The climate is reported to be healthy, but water is scarce and there is little cultivation. The coast is generally high and abrupt without offlying dangers.

Directions Major lights


1

4.51 Ponta Machado. Dona Amlia Light (white square tower and dwelling, 14 m in height) (16495N 25055W). Fontes Pereira de Melo Light (white octagonal tower and dwelling, 16 m in height) (17070N 24585W).

Circumnavigation
1

4.52 From a position N of Ponta do Recanto de Pranha (1655N 2455W), the track leads W, passing (with positions relative to Ilhu dos Pssaros Light (16546N 25010W)): N of Ponta do Doca (4 miles E), the W point of a broad, low promontory fringed with rocks and steepto; Ponta do Recanto de Pranha is the N point of the promontory. Thence: N of Ponta Joo de vora (3 miles ENE), a high steepto point. Baa de Salamanza lies between Ponta do Doca and Ponta Joo de vora. At the head of the bay is a steepto sandy beach behind which stands the village and church of Salamanza. Thence the track leads WSW, into Canal de So Vicente (4.55), passing: NNW of Ponta da Coluna (1 miles E), high and steep and with a rock resembling a column at its extremity, thence: NNW of Ponta Joo Ribeiro (7 cables ESE) a cliffy point. Baa do Ninho do Guincho, the shores of

which are cliffy, high and rugged, lies between Ponta da Coluna and Ponta Joo Ribeiro. Thence: NNW of Ilhu dos Pssaros, from where a light (see below) is exhibited. The islet, which is rocky and steepto and appears conical when seen from N or S, can be passed on either side. Thence: NNW of Ponta do Morro Branco (1 miles SSW), a cliffy point and the W entrance point to the port of Porto Grande (4.57). Thence: Clear of a depth of 33 m (2 miles WSW), reported, thence: NNW of Ponta Joo Albacora (2 miles SW) (not named on chart). The coast between Ponta do Morro Branco and Ponta Joo Albacora thence 4 miles farther SW is indented with small bays, fringed with rocks and steep. Thence the track leads SW, passing (with positions relative to Dona Amlia Light (16495N 25055W) (4.51)): NW of Ponta do Leo (2 miles NNE) (not named on chart), a salient dark point and the SW entrance point to Baa de Fateixa. Monte Fateixa (elevation 571 m) lies 7 cables SE of the point. Thence the track leads SSW, passing: WNW of Ponta Machado, the SW point of Ilha de So Vicente, from where Dona Amlia Light is exhibited. Useful mark: Ilhu dos Pssaros. Dom Luis Light (white hexagonal truncated pyramid, red lantern, 5 m in height) (16546N 25010W). 4.53 Thence the track leads S and SE, passing: SW of Ponta dos Flamengos (2 miles ESE), dominated by Monte Flamengos with an elevation of 302 m, thence: SW of Ponta Lombinho (6 miles ESE), the sheer, steepto W end of the promontory. Monte Caralena rises to an elevation of 497 m 4 cables N of the point. The coast between Ponta Lombinho and Ponta dos Flamencos, 4 miles WNW, is steep and fringed with rocks in places. Thence the track leads E and ENE, passing: SSE of Ponta de Saragaa (12 miles E), the SE extremity of Ilha de So Vicente. For a distance of 3 miles WSW of Ponta de Saragaa, the coast is steep and free from dangers, for the next 1 miles it is high and fringed with rocks. Thence for the remaining 2 miles to the promontory it is fronted by a sandy beach. Thence the track leads NE and N, into Canal de Santa Luzia (4.54), passing (with positions relative to Ponta do Calhau (1652N 2452W)): E of Baixa de Viana (1 miles S), a spit of foul ground steepto on all sides extending 5 cables E from a point of the same name, thence: E of Ponta do Calhau, the E point of Ilha de So Vicente, which is sheer, steepto and dominated by Monte Calhau, a dark hill with two summits and a saddle between, rising to an elevation of 140 m about 4 cables SW of the point. Ponta do Calhau is the N entrance point to a bay extending S to Baixa de Viana. At the head of the bay is a sandy beach and a village stands close inland. Thence the track leads NW, passing: NE of Baa de Gatas Light (3 miles NW), standing at the N entrance to Baa de Gatas, a small inlet

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with a depth of 27 m in the entrance. A large bay, with Monte Verde rising to an elevation of 750 m to the SW, lies between Baa de Gatas and Ponta do Calhau. At the SE end of the bay is a steepto sandy beach and at the NW end is a sandy beach with depths of less than 5 m extending up to 5 cables offshore. Thence the track leads to a position NE and N of Ponta do Recanto de Pranha, with Morro Salamanza rising 1 miles SSW to an elevation of 84 m.

PORTO GRANDE General information


Chart 367 plans of Approaches to Porto Grande and Porto Grande

Position
1

4.57 Porto Grande (1653N 2500W) is situated in the NW part of Ilha de So Vicente (4.50). The bay is frequented by sharks.

Side channels
1

Function
4.58 Porto Grande is the largest port in the archipelago and an important bunkering station. The town of Mindelo standing on the E shore of the harbour, is the capital of Ilha de So Vicente and in 1999 had a population of 47 109. The chief imports are fuel and diesel oil, building materials, general cargo. The chief exports are fish, bananas, cloth.

Canal de Santa Luzia


1

4.54 General information. Canal de Santa Luzia (1649N 2450W) separates Ilha de Santa Luzia (4.44) from Ilha de So Vicente, and is 4 miles wide. There are general depths of 20 m to 30 m on the bank joining the two islands which is very steepto on its NE and SW sides. When blowing freshly and with the tidal stream setting to windward, there is an appearance of shoal water in this channel. Tidal streams in Canal de Santa Luzia are strong. The SWgoing stream begins about 2 hours after HW, and the NEgoing stream begins about 3 hours before HW. The greatest rate observed was 3 kn SWgoing at about 4 hours after HW in Canal de Santa Luzia.

Topography
1

4.59 The land behind the NE and E parts of the bay is composed of a series of barren brown ridges dominated by Monte Vigia (elevation 302 m) about 1 miles E of Ponta Joo Ribeiro. The S shore of the bay is low and fringed with rocks.

Canal de So Vicente
1

Approach and entry


1

4.55 General information. Canal de So Vicente (1657N 2504W), which separates Ilha de So Vicente from Ilha de Santo Anto (4.80), is 6 miles wide, deep and clear of dangers. Tidal streams in Canal de So Vicente are strong. The SWgoing stream begins about 2 hours after HW, and the NEgoing stream begins about 3 hours after HW. The greatest rate observed was 2 kn SWgoing at about 6 hours after HW in Canal de So Vicente.

4.60 Porto Grande may be approached from N or S from Canal de So Vicente (4.55) and is entered between Ponta Joo Ribeiro (1654N 2500W) and Ponta do Morro Branco, 2 miles SW.

Traffic
1

4.61 In 2004, there were 662 vessel movements totalling 3 094 857 dwt.

Port Authority Anchorage


1

Baa de San Pedro


1

4.56 Description. Baa de San Pedro lies between Ponta do Guincho (not named on chart), 7 cables NW of Ponta dos Flamengos (16482N 25035W) and Ponta Machado (4.52), 1 miles farther NW. There is a sandy beach at the head of the bay, with the village and church of San Pedro standing at its W end. The control tower and other buildings of San Pedro airfield are situated about 1 miles ENE of Ponta Machado and are visible from the offing. Anchorage can be obtained in the centre of San Pedro bay in a depth of 10 m to 15 m, holding ground is good and the anchorage offers shelter from NW through NE to SE. NE winds may funnel down the wide valley and the swells may work in from the E. A dangerous wreck lies 7 cables SE of Dona Amlia Light.

4.62 Empresa (ENAPOR), Islands. Email: Website:

Nacional de Administracao dos Portos S.A PO Box 82, Mindelo, Sao Vicente, Cape Verde portogrande@enapor.cv www.enapor.cv

Limiting conditions Deepest and longest berth


1

4.63 Deepest berths; Nos 3 and 4. Longest berths; Nos 1 and 2 (4.77).

Tidal levels
1

4.64 Mean spring range about 09 m; mean neap range about 04 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2.

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Density of water
1

4.65 The density of the water is 1025 g/cm3.

Maximum size of vessels handled


1

4.66 Alongside; 24 803 grt, draught 89 m. At Tanker Berth; LOA 235 m, draught 107 m, 53 000 dwt. At anchor; 130 539 grt, draught 22 m.
3

Arrival information Port radio


1

4.67 There are port and coast radio stations. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volumes 1 (1) and 6 (3).

SSW from a position cable E of the root of Ponta do Cais, and a light is exhibited at its head. A quay, backed by the shore, lies 1 cables E of Cais do Melo, extending 1 cables S from the main mole. The S extremity of this quay extends E for cable at which point an additional jetty, Cais de Cabotagem, extends cable S from where a light is exhibited. A ruined pier extends W from the shore 2 cables E of the head of Cais de Cabotagem. There is a small craft anchorage centred on position 16532N 24599W. A fishing port has been built near the SE part of the bay. It consists of an Lshaped wharf fronted by a detached mole from which a light is exhibited at each end; entry to this port is from WSW only.

Notice of ETA
1

Natural conditions
1

4.68 ETA should be sent at least 48 hours prior to arrival to the agent. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Outer anchorages
1

4.69 Anchorage may be obtained, in the bay 5 cables and 13 cables ENE of Ponta do Morro Branco in depths of 22 m and 19 m. The holding ground is good in both positions but with NE winds violent squalls are of frequent occurrence and vessels should be prepared with second anchor in case of parting their cable or dragging. A wreck, depth 18 m, lies in 16529N 25015W. Anchorage may also be obtained in a position 34 cables S of Cabnave light (16540N 25002W).

4.74 Tidal streams. See 4.55. Local weather. NE tradewinds and harmattan (1.280) from E blow between October and June. The wet season is from August to October. The harbour is sheltered from all winds except those from NW which rarely blow. Boat sailing can be dangerous during squalls which blow off the high land. Climate information. See 1.291 and 1.294.

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 4.52)

Landmarks
1

Submarine cables and pipelines


1

4.75 Fortim dElRei (16533N 24599W), a prison. Silos (16524N 25000W). Oil Tanks (16524N 25006W).

4.70 Numerous disused submarine cables lie in an area best seen on the chart; mariners should exercise caution when anchoring in the vicinity. A submarine pipeline leads NW for 5 cables from 16524N 25007W to Tanker Berth (4.77). Another submarine pipeline leads, cable ENE from the above, to a position 2 cables NNW where the end is marked by three can buoys as shown on the chart.

Entry
1

Pilotage and tugs


1

4.71 Pilotage is compulsory for entering the harbour, anchoring and all berthing movements and available 24 hours. The pilot boards about 8 cables SW of Ilhu dos Pssaros Light (4.52). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Tugs are available and compulsory at Tanker Berth.
3

Quarantine
1

4.72 A quarantine anchorage is established about one mile ESE of Ponta do Morro Branco in a depth of 18 m; the same anchorage is used by tankers.

4.76 Leading lights: Gal Front Light (16524N 25007W) Gal Rear Light, 990 m from front. The alignment (146) of the above lights (displayed on request) leads to Tanker Berth. Leading lights: Front Light (building) (16533N 24598W) Rear Light (building) 530 m from front. The intersection of both above alignments (146 and 075) indicates the anchoring position at Tanker Berth (4.77). It was reported (2005) that both above sets of lights were not observed. Caution. A wreck dangerous to navigation lies 2 cables WSW from Cabnave Light (see below). Otherwise the chart is sufficient guide. Useful marks: Cabnave Light (metal mast, 4 m in height) (16540N 25002W). Ponta do Cais. Head Light (white column and gallery, 8 m in height) (16532N 25004W). Cais do Melo. Head Light (white column and gallery, 8 m in height) (16532N 25002W).

Harbour General layout


1

Berths
1

4.73 The harbour consists of a mole, 180 m wide, extending W from the shore to a position 3 cables W of the prison building (4.75). From its W extremity, a jetty, Ponta do Cais, extends 1 cables SW and a light is exhibited at its head. A second jetty, Cais do Melo, extends 1 cables

4.77 Mooring buoys. Tanker Berth is a CBM where tankers, discharging into the oil tanks ashore, are moored to one buoy forward and three buoys astern; the port anchor is also used before mooring operations commence. Alongside berths. Berth No 1, on the seaward side of Ponta do Cais, is exposed to sea and swell and vessels are

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berthed there if weather permits. The remaining berths are as shown on the chart. Berth Nos 1 and 2 are 315 m in length and Berth Nos 3 and 4 have alongside depths of 120 m. Containers are parked N of Berth Nos 5 & 6. Passenger vessels and ferries are usually berthed at Cais de Cabotagem Berths A, B and C.

Directions Major lights


1

Port services
1

4.81 Fontes Pereira de Melo Light (17070N 24585W) (4.51). Ponta Machado. Dona Amlia Light (16 49 5N 25055W) (4.51).

4.78 Repairs can be carried out. A floating crane of 60 tons capacity is available. Cabnave Shipyard, situated in the NE part of the harbour, has facilities for vessels up to 6000 dwt. It is equipped with a ship lift which can accommodate vessels of up to 2800 tons, 110 m in length and 18 m beam. A pier, 110 m long with a depth alongside of 6 m, is available for vessels to undertake repairs afloat. Onave Shipyard, situated about 3 cables S of Cais de Cabotagem, has repair facilities for boats. Other facilities. Hospital in city; deratting exemption certificates can be issued; no oily waste reception facilities. Supplies. Fuel oil, diesel oil and gas oil; fresh water available alongside berths and by barge at anchorage; limited provisions are available. Communications. San Pedro airport 10 km. Harbour regulations. Two members of the marine police will attend each vessel throughout her stay in port. Rescue. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.

Northeast coast
1

ILHA DE SANTO ANTO General information


Charts 366, 367 plan of approaches to Porto Grande
4

Route
1

4.79 Ilha de Santo Anto (1704N 2511W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given below.

Topography
1

4.80 Ilha de Santo Anto, the NW island in the archipelago, is very high and visible from a great distance in clear weather, but the summit is generally in cloud. from a distance, Ilha de Santo Anto has the appearance of a collection of high mountains; the central part of the island is traversed by a range which extends from the E extremity towards the W extremity but turns abruptly S before reaching the latter. At the W end of this range, Tope de Coroa (1702N 2518W), the highest point on the island, rises to an elevation of 1979 m. The island is principally inhabited in the NE part where the coast is intersected by two extensive sandy ravines, and where there are a few villages. The climate is healthy and the soil is the most productive of any in the archipelago. The coasts of Ilha de Santo Anto are clear of dangers and bold, although rocks lie close to them, except in the vicinity of Ponta do Sol (4.82), the N point, and Ponta do Salina (4.83) on the SW coast. The SE coast of Ilha de Santo Anto is steepto, difficult to approach and clear of dangers. The land rises much more gradually to the main mountain range than on the NW side.

4.82 From a position E of Ponta do Calhau (17 05N 2458W) the track leads N, passing (with positions relative to Fontes Pereira de Melo Light, above): E of Ponta do Calhau (1 miles SSE), a low salient point fringed with rocks and the E extremity of Ilha de Santo Anto, thence: E of Ponta da Tumba, 2 cables W from where Fontes Pereira de Melo Light is exhibited. The coast between Ponta do Calhau and Ponta da Tumba is high and steepto. Thence: E of Ilhu Lombo de Boi (2 cables NNE), a rocky and steepsided islet with rocks awash extending 2 cables farther N. Thence the track leads NW, passing: NE of Ponta da Ribeira das Pombas (2 miles WNW), which terminates in two prominent rocks with Baixo das Pombas, a steepto reef, extending 3 cables NE. Thence: NE of Ponta da Saudade (4 miles NW) which is not very prominent, but a reef extends 2 cables NE from it, thence: NE of Ponta do Guerreiro (4 miles NW). A small bay bordered by high cliffs lies between Ponta da Saudade and Ponta do Guerreiro. Thence the track leads WNW, passing (with positions relative to Ponta do Sol Light (17121N 25057W)): NNE of Ponta da Sinagoga (3 miles ESE), on which stand some ruined buildings. A reef with a depth of less than 2 m over it and on which the sea usually breaks, extends 3 cables N of the point. The coast between Ponta da Saudade and Ponta da Sinagoga should be given a berth of at least 5 cables. Thence: N of Ponta do Sol, a low sandy promontory extending some distance N from the heights to the S, and the N extremity of Ilha de Santo Anto. A light is exhibited (see below) from the E end of the promontory and two spits (4.85) extend 4 cables N and 6 cables NW of Ponta do Sol. The coast between Ponta da Sinagoga and Ponta do Sol is high and rocky except at the village of Ribera Grande (1711N 2504W). Useful marks: Ponta do Sol Light (metal mast, 10 m in height) (17121N 25057W).

Northwest, west and southeast coasts


1

4.83 Thence the track leads WSW, passing: NNW of Ponta Ribeira Alta (6 miles WSW). The coast from 1 mile SW of Ponta do Sol to Ponta Ribeira Alta is steep and clear of offlying dangers. The land rises fairly steeply to the mountains forming the main chain. thence: SE of Banco do Noroeste (22 miles W) with a least depth, confirmed in 1992, of 301 m. Another bank

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with a least depth (reported 1965) of 31 m lies 7 miles WSW of Banco do Noroeste. Thence: NNW of Ponta Mangrade (17 miles WSW), the rocky W extremity of the island, from where a light is exhibited. The coast from Ponta Ribeira Alta to Ponta Mangrade, 11 miles SW, continues high. Behind the coast there are numerous small scattered villages on the slopes of the main mountain range. Thence the track leads S and SSE, passing (with positions relative to Ponta Mangrade Light (17032N 25219W)): WSW of Ponta da Salina (7 miles SSE), which has a spit with depths of less than 20 m extending 5 cables W from it, thence: WSW of Ponta da Pea (9 miles SSE), the S extremity of the island, which is low and steepto. Care is necessary when rounding this point as the current somtimes sets towards it. The coast between Ponta da Salina and Ponta da Pea is low. Thence the track leads E, passing (with positions relative to Porto Novo Mole Light (17008N 25040W)): S of Ponta da Pedra Rachada (10 miles SW). The coast between Ponta da Pea and Ponta da Pedra Rachada, 5 miles E, forms a shallow bight at the head of which lies a bay with high cliffs. Thence the track leads ENE, passing: SSE of Ponta do Campanarinho (8 miles SW), which is low rocky and comparatively salient. A small cove with a stony beach lies between this point and a similar point 4 cables NE of it. Thence the track leads NE, passing: SE of Ponta das Casas (5 miles SW), a low point which is fronted by a pebbly beach at the mouth of a ravine. The coast is low from Ponta das Casas to Ponta da Pedra Rachada. Thence: SE of Porto Novo (4.84) from where a light (see below) is exhibited. The coast between Porto Novo and Ponta das Casas, 5 miles SW, is fronted for the first 3 miles by a pebbly beach, thence it is steepto to Ponta das Casas. Thence: SE of Ponta da Espingarda (1 mile ENE), thence: SE of Ponta do Tubaro (4 miles ENE). The coast between Ponta da Espingarda and Ponta do Tubaro is high, steepto and free from dangers. Thence the track leads NNE to a position E of Ponta do Calhau. Useful marks: Ponta Mangrade Light (white column, red lantern, 3 m in height) (17032N 25219W). Tarrafal de Monte Trigo Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (16572N 25190W). Porto Novo Mole Head Light (metal mast, 6 m in height) (17008N 25040W).

town and a bridge, with four arches, spans the river close to its mouth. Morro de Brejo (17018N 25055W) rises to an elevation of 254 m about 1 mile NW of Porto Novo; the hill has a double summit of a reddish brown colour and there are white patches on its S slopes. Traffic. In 2004 there were 15 vessel movements totalling 15 499 dwt. Anchorage may be obtained about 2 cables SSW of the berth in a depth of 13 m, sand, chalk and broken shells. Useful marks: Porto Novo Mole Head Light (17008N 25040W) (4.83). Berth. From position 17011N 25035W a stone block breakwater extends approximately 140 m SSW and from that point approximately 175 m SW. To the W of the breakwater there is a wide cargo apron approximately 30 m wide. The ferry from Porto Grande (4.57) berths to seaward of the elbow and uses the elbow as a RoRo berth. Repairs are not available. Other facilities. Fresh water available. Supplies available subject to prior notice.

Anchorages and harbours


Charts 369 plan of Ponta do Sol, 367 plan Approaches to Porto Grande

Porto da Ponta da Sol


1

4.85 Description. Porto da Ponta do Sol lies between the W end of Ponta do Sol (1712N 2506W) (4.82) and Ponta das Fontainhas, 1 mile SW. Ponta de So Vicentinho lies 3 cables E of Ponta das Fontainhas and both these points are dominated by high land. Vila Maria Pia stands the NW part of the promontory, and is a principal town of Ilha de Santo Anto. However, there are no facilities for repair and no alongside berth. Baixo Amarelo and Baixo do Cavalo, two spits, with depths of less than 20 m over them extend 4 cables N and 6 cables NW of Ponta do Sol. The sea breaks over the outer ends of both spits. A narrow bay is formed by a small breakwater extending SW from a position close SW of Ponta do Sol. There is a depth of 4 m (13 ft) in the entrance, but the quay. on the E side of the breakwater, dries alongside where the bottom is rock. Anchorage sheltered from E and S winds, can be obtained 4 cables SW of Ponta do Sol in a depth of 25 m, fine sand and broken shells. Useful marks (with positions relative to Ponta do Sol Light (17121N 25057W)): Custom House 1 cables W; Hospital 2 cables SW; Prison 2 cables SW. Charts 369 plan of Tarrafal do Monte Trigo, 366

Porto Novo
Chart 367 plan Approaches to Porto Grande

Baa do Tarrafal
1

General information
1

4.84 Description. Porto Novo (1701N 2504W) is situated about 1 mile WSW of Ponta da Espingarda (4.83). A river flows through the middle of town, entering the sea 3 cables W of the root of the breakwater. A pebble beach fronts the

4.86 Description. Baa do Tarrafal (1657N 2519W), is entered 3 miles NNW of Ponta da Pea (4.83) and can be recognised by the mouth of Ribeira do Tarrafal which flows into its head. Porto do Tarrafal do Monte Trigo stands at its mouth; the buildings and green vegetation are visible from the offing. The S part of the bay is fronted by a black sandy

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beach and the N part of a pebbly beach. A waterworks stands on the S side of the mouth of the river and a tunny factory stands about 1 cable S. A pier in not very good condition extends from the shore abreast the tunny factory. Anchorage can be obtained about 1 cables SW of the pier in a depth of 37 m (20 fm) fine sand. This is the best anchorage off the island for small craft; winds from the W seldom blow, but in December and January there is generally a swell which causes surf on the beach. Care is necessary when anchoring as the shore is very steepto, and depths of 200 m (100 fm) are found less than 5 cables offshore.

Chart 366

Baa do Monte Trigo


1

4.87 Description. Baa do Monte Trigo (1700N 2520W) is entered 3 miles SSE of Ponta Mangrade Light (4.83). The shore of the bay is steepto and faced with cliffs. Ribeira de Monte Trigo flows into the sea at the N end of the bay. Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels off the mouth of the river in a depth of 30 m, sand; but, as in Baa do Tarrafal, care must be taken as the shore is very steepto. Useful mark: Ponta Mangrade Light (17032N 25219W) (4.83).

ARQUIPLAGO DE CABO VERDE SOUTHERN GROUP GENERAL INFORMATION


Chart 366 by a point, 1 miles ESE of Ponta Cais; the W bay is foul and Baa do Galeo, the E bay, is fronted by foul ground. Between Ponta Pedrenau and Ponta dos Flamengos (1510N 2306W), 9 miles S, the coast is indented and foul ground extends up to 5 cables offshore. The coast between Ponta dos Flamengos and Ponta da Poa Grande, 5 miles SW, is low and terminates in a sandy beach; foul ground extends up to 5 cables offshore along this stretch of the coast also. The coast between Ponta da Poa Grande and Ponta Preta (chart 369 plan Porto Inglez), 3 miles WNW, is low and fronted by a sandy beach. The S extremity of Ilha do Maio lies 9 cables WSW of Ponta da Poa Grande and the coast in this vicinity is fringed with rocks with foul ground extending 5 cables offshore; a river flows into the sea 6 cables WNW of the S extremity. The coast between Ponta da Areia (Ponta das Salinas), about 1 miles NW of Ponta Preta, and the S entrance point to Baa da Calheta (1514N 2314W) (not named on chart) about 2 miles S, is formed of a sandy beach. The coast from a point 7 cables N of Ponta do Pau Seco (1516N 2314W) to Ponta Cais, 5 miles NE, is formed of two low sandy bays separated by a point. The SW bay has foul ground off its NE point and foul ground also extends from near the middle of the head of the bay. The NE bay is foul.

Area covered
1

4.88 This section describes the S group of islands and principal port comprising of: Ilha do Maio (1515N 2310W), (4.89) Ilha de Santiago (4.94) Porto da Praia (4.103) Ilha do Fogo (4.117) Ilha Brava (1450N 2443W), (4.124) Ilhus Secos (do Rombo) (4.129).

ILHA DO MAIO General information


Chart 366

Route
1

4.89 Ilha do Maio (1513N 2311W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given below.

Topography
1

4.90 The N part of Ilha do Maio, lying 43 miles SSW of Ilha da Boavista (4.20), is low and the NW part is mainly occupied by salt pans which are surrounded by sand dunes. Monte Santo Antonio rises abruptly to an elevation of 252 m, 4 miles SE of Ponta Cais (1520N 2311W), the N extremity of the island. In the central part of the island is a wide valley separating Monte Santo Antonio from several peaks to the S amongst which is Monte Penoso, 436 m high, and the highest point in Ilha do Maio, 7 miles SE of Ponta Cais. The land slopes gradually from these central peaks to the S of the island. The coasts of Ilha do Maio are, in general, low; the E coast being more indented than the W and S coasts. The island, when seen from the SE at a distance of about 15 miles appears as a group of islets. The soil is for the most part dry and sterile. Salt, which is exported out of the archipelago, is the only produce of importance; the works and anchorage being in the SW part of the island (4.93). There are also limeworks and a fish canning industry. The coast between Ponta Cais and Ponta Pedrenau (1519N 2308W), 4 miles ESE, forms two bays separated

Directions Other aid to navigation


1

4.91 Racon: Ponta Cais Light (15200N 23112W).

Circumnavigation
1

4.92 From a position N of Ponta Cais, the track leads ESE, passing (with positions relative to Ponta Cais Light (15200N 23112W)): NNE of Ponta Cais, a rocky promontory surrounded by foul ground extending 3 cables offshore, which should be approached with great caution and not within 4 miles from NE. A light (see below) is exhibited from Ponta Cais. Thence: Baixo do Galeo (2 miles NE) with a depth of less than 2 m and over which the sea breaks, extending 2 miles N from the shore, and a sandy bank with a least ascertained depth of 69 m exists 6 miles N of Baixo do Galeo, thence:

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NNE of Ponta Pedrenau (3 miles ESE). Thence the track leads generally S, passing (with positions relative to Ponta dos Flamengos (15 10 N 2306W)): E of Ponta da Pontona (6 miles N), thence: E of Ponta dos Flamengos, from where a light (see below) (not charted) is exhibited. Thence the track leads generally SW, passing: SE of Ponta da Poa Grande (5 miles SW), a rocky point with a reef, with depths of less than 2 m over it, extending 5 cables S. A dangerous wreck lies about 1 mile SSW and a fish haven marked by a lightbuoy (nonIALA) lies 11 miles S from the point. Thence the track leads W and WNW, passing (with positions relative to Porto do Maio Light (15081N 23133W)): SSW of Maio (4.93) from where a light (see below) is exhibited. Thence the track leads NW, passing: SW of Ponta da Areia (Ponta da Salinas) (1 miles WNW), a low steepto sandy point with foul ground extending 5 cables S and W from it. Thence the track leads N, passing: W of Calheta (5 miles N), a village with prominent white houses and from where a light (see below) (not charted) is exhibited. Calheta lies 1 mile NE of the S entrance point to a bay of the same name with foul ground extending about 8 cables seaward. A reef, with depths of less than 2 m over it, extends 5 cables SW from the S entrance point to the bay. W of Ponta do Pau Seco (7 miles N), a low point and the N entrance point to the bay. Foul ground extends 3 cables seaward from a point about 6 cables N of Ponta do Pau Seco. Thence the track leads NE, passing (with positions relative to Ponta Cais Light (15200N 23112W)): SE of a rocky bank (15 miles WNW), with a depth of 35 m over it, thence: Clear of Baixo Rosa (2 miles NW), position doubtful, with a depth of 165 m over it. Thence the track leads to a position N of Ponta Cais. Useful marks: Ponta Cais Light (lantern on red hexagonal structure, 7 m in height) (15200N 23112W). Ponta dos Flamengos Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (15107N 23053W). Porto do Maio Light (wooden platform on tower of fort, 7 m in height) (15081N 23133W). Calheta Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (15135N 23130W).

The coast between Ponta da Areia and Vila do Maio (Vila do Porto Inglez), 1 mile SE, is fronted by a sandy beach which is steepto except for a rocky spit with depths of less than 10 m (33 ft) over it, which extends 2 cables SW from a position about 8 cables SE of Ponta Areia. The coast S of the town as far as Ponta Preta is formed of cliffs fringed with rocks. A rocky spit with depths of less than 10 m (33 ft) over it, extends 5 cables S from Ponta Preta. Anchorages. Anchorage can be obtained 1 cables SW of the wooden pier in a depth of 12 m (39 ftm). Anchorage can also be obtained 3 cables SW of Forte de So Jos in a depth of 24 m (13 fm). The bottom in all cases consists of chalk and fine sand. When approaching the anchorage caution is necessary as the 20 m (11 fm) line lies about 2 cables offshore. Useful marks: Porto do Maio Light (15081N 23133W) (4.92). The following marks with positions relative to Porto do Maio Light (above): Monte de Lume (5 cables NNE), elevation 45 m (148 ft (charted as 88 ft). Church with two towers (1 cable NE). Berths. A jetty, 145 m wide, extends SW from a position about 5 cables NW of the fort, offering a total of 262 m berthing space with depths alongside ranging from 48 m to 78 m and is used by the the cargo vessel from Ilha de Santiago (4.95). Repairs are not available. Other facilities. There is a small clinic. Supplies are available in limited quantities subject to prior notice. Communication. A small airstrip suitable for light aircraft by day, lies about 3 km from the town.

ILHA DE SANTIAGO General information


Charts 366, 367 plan Approaches to Porto da Praia

Route
1

4.94 Ilha de Santiago (1505N 2338W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given below.

Topography
1

Porto do Maio
Chart 369 plan of Porto Inglez

General information
1

4.93 Description. Porto do Maio (Porto Inglez) is entered between Ponta da Areia (Ponta das Salinas on chart 369) (4.92) and Ponta Preta (15077N 23128W), 1 miles SE, and is only sheltered from the NE. With W winds which occur in the wet season it is dangerous, and vessels in the anchorages, should be in readiness to get under way.

4.95 Ilha de Santiago, about 15 miles W of Ilha do Maio (4.90), is the largest and most populous of the Arquiplago de Cabo Verde; it is also the most frequented, being the seat of Government. The island is also the most important of the archipelago for commerce and agriculture. The island is very mountainous, rising in its central part to Pico da Antnia (1503N 2338W) which is a conical mountain with an elevation of 1392 m and the summit of the range traversing Ilha de Santiago from NNW to SSE. There are numerous valleys which are partially cultivated. The coasts of the island are rocky with detached offlying rocks, especially on the E and SE coasts. Between Ponta Moreia (15 20N 2345W), the N extremity of Ilha de Santiago, and a high steep point 1 miles ESE, are two small bays separated by a point which has a rock, with a depth of less than 2 m, lying 5 cables N off it. The E of the two bays has a sandy beach on which small craft can be beached.

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Ponta da Costa, 3 miles SE of Ponta Moreia, is the NW entrance point of Baa da Angra, a wide bay with a high coastline. Between Ponta da Costa and Ponta de Pedra Badejo (1508N 2332W), 14 miles SE, the coast is indented by numerous valleys extending NE and terminating in beaches of black sand or gravel between cliffs; some of the many bays and coves off this stretch of coastline are fringed by foul ground. The coast between Ponta Coroa (1508N 2331W) and Ponta do Lobo, 9 miles SE, is low and indented. Foul ground extends about 5 cables E from a position about 5 miles NNW of Ponta do Lobo. Porto de So Francisco is a bight entered between Ponta do Lobo and another point 1 miles SW. The coast from Porto de So Francisco to Ponta das Bicudas (1454N 2329W), 4 miles SSW, is steep. Monte do Facho, elevation 140 m lies about midway along this stretch of coast and is prominent. The coast from Ponta Temerosa, 1 miles WSW of Ponta das Bicudas, to Ponta Grande de Cidade, 6 miles W, is fringed with rocks. The coast from Ponta Grande de Cidade to Ponta de Geneanes (1459N 2344W), 7 miles NW, is lower than that farther N and is fringed with rocks extending about 3 cables offshore. A steepto bay, apparently clear of dangers, lies between Ponta de Geneanes and Ponta Covinha, 2 miles NNW. The coast from Ponta Covinha (1502N 2345W) to Porto da Ribeira da Barca, the N of two small bays, 6 miles N, is fringed in places with rocks. The coast from Ponta gua Doce, 2 miles N of Porto da Ribeira da Barca, to Ponta do Atum (1517N 2346W), 6 miles N, is high at first and then becomes low. The coast between Ponta Preta, 1 miles NW of Ponta do Atum, and Ponta Moreia, 3 miles NNE, is indented by three bays, all of which are foul.

Directions
9

Major light
1

4.96 Dona Maria Pia Light (white 8sided tower and dwelling, 21 m in height) (14539N 23311W).

Circumnavigation
1

4.97 From a position E of Ponta do Lobo Light (1459N 2326W), the track leads SSW, passing (with positions relative to Ponta das Bicudas (1454N 2329W)): ESE of Ponta do Lobo (6 miles NNE), the SE extremity of Ilha de Santiago. A light (4.98) is exhibited about 6 cables S of the point. Ponta do Lobo is a low projection and seen from S or N it appears as a long low point; a reef, over which the sea usually breaks, prolongs the point. A shellfish bed lies close S of the point. Thence: ESE of Ponta das Bicudas, a low rocky point. A patch with a depth of 96 m lies 5 cables WSW of Ponta das Bicudas. Thence the track leads W, passing: S of Cais Novo (1 mile W) from the head of which a light (4.98) is exhibited, thence: (Directions for Porto da Praia continue at 4.113)

S of Ponta Temerosa (1 miles WSW), high, cliffy, fringed with rocks and from where a light (4.96) is exhibited. Foul ground with depths of less than 5 m extends for 1 cables S of the W spur of Ponta Temerosa. Thence: S of Ponta Grande da Cidade (8 miles W), a low salient point. Thence the track leads WNW, passing (with positions relative to Ponta Geneanes (1459N 2344W)): SSW of Mosquito Light (3 miles SW) (4.98). Thence the track leads NW, passing: SW of Ponta Geneanes, thence: SW of Ponta Covinha (2 miles NNW), thence: SW of Ponta Janela (5 miles NNW), dark, steep and the W extremity of the island, which can be recognised from N or S by a pillarshaped rock lying close off it. Thence the track leads N, passing (with positions relative to Ponta gua Doce (1511N 2347W)): W of Porto da Ribeira da Barca (2 miles S) (4.102), thence: W of Ponta gua Doce, a prominent and salient point; an abovewater rock lies about 3 cables W of the point. Thence: W of Tarrafal (6 miles N) (4.99), thence: W of Ponta Preta (7 miles N) with a shellfish bed situated close S. A rocky shoal, with a least depth of 5 m over it, lies about 1 cables W of Ponta Preta. Thence the track leads NE, passing: NW of Ponta Moreia (10 miles N), the N extremity of Ilha de Santiago, which is high, sheer and rocky with foul ground surrounding it. A rock with a depth of less than 2 m over it lies about 8 cables E of Ponta Moreia. Thence the track leads ESE, passing (with positions relative to Ponta Coroa (1508N 2331W)): Ponta da Costa (15 miles NW), a high rocky point. Thence the track leads SE, passing: NE of Ponta da Ribeira Brava (9 miles NW), thence: NE of Ponta Coroa, the E entrance point to Porto de Pedra Badejo (4.100). Ponta Coroa is a low point with shallow depths, over which the sea breaks, extending 8 cables NE of it. A rock with a depth of 18 m over it, lies about 5 cables offshore 1 miles SE of Ponta da Coroa. A similar rock lies about 3 cables offshore 2 miles farther SE. Thence: Thence the track leads to a position E of Ponta do Lobo Light. 4.98 Useful marks: Ponta Moreia Light (white 4sided hut and lantern, 4 m in height) (1520N 2345W). Calheta de So Miguel Light (metal tower, 4 m in height) (15113N 23354W). Pedra Badejo Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (15084N 23316W). Porto Rino Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (15039N 23284W). Praia Baixo Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (15039N 23284W). Ponta do Lobo Light (square tower and dwelling, 8 m in height) (1459N 2326W). Cais Novo Light (lantern on round concrete structure, 5 m in height) (14543N 23306W). Radio Mast (14545N 23347W).

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Mosquito Light (grey tower, 7 m in height) (14569N 23418W). Ribeira da Barca Light (grey tower, 3 m in height) (15084N 23460W). Cho Bom Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (15153N 23446W). Ponta Preta Light (4sided tower and dwelling, 6 m in height) (15177N 23467W).

Chart 367 plan Approaches to Porto da Praia

Cidade Velha
1

Anchorages and harbours


Chart 369 plan Baa do Tarrafal

4.101 Description. Cidade Velha stands at the mouth of a ravine 1 mile E of Ponta Grande da Cidade (1455N 2338W) (4.97); a floating shellfish farm is situated 2 miles farther E. Anchorage can be obtained off Cidade Velha in depths of about 22 m; local knowledge is required. Useful mark: Radio Mast (14545N 23347W). Chart 366

Porto da Ribeira da Barca


1

Baa do Tarrafal
1

4.99 Description. Baa do Tarrafal lies between Ponta Preta (1518N 2347W) (4.95) and Ponta do Atum, a rocky point 1 miles SE from which a reef extends 1 cable W. A rocky islet connected to the shore by a sandy isthmus, lies 4 cables ENE of Ponta do Atum. A rock, with a depth of 88 m (29 ft) over it, lies 3 cables WNW of the rocky islet, and three rocks with a least depth of 27 m (9 ft) over them, lie up to 1 cable W of the islet. Ribeira do Fonto flows into the sea over a sandy beach which lies between the rocky islet described above and a small mole extending NE from the shore 1 cables SW from it. A light once exhibited from a truncated tower at the head of the mole is now destroyed and the tower derelict. The mouth of the river can be recognised by the trees and palms growing on both of its banks. The town of Tarrafal, in which there is a prominent blue and white church, stands on top of the cliffs on the S side of the river. It is a popular weekend venue for the residents of the island. Anchorage, with good shelter especially during the wet season (July to September) but open to W winds, can be obtained 1 cables NW of the head of the mole in a depth of 16 m (9 fm), chalk. Useful mark: Ponta Preta Light (15177N 23467W) (4.98). Landing can be effected on the SE side of the mole or the beach. Supplies are available in limited quantities. Chart 369 plan Porto de San Tiago

4.102 Description. The N entrance point of Porto da Ribeira da Barca, the N of two small bays, lies 2 miles S of Ponta da gua Doce (1511N 2347W) (4.97). The village of Ribeira da Barca stands at the head of the bay and a white church stands at its N end. A small concrete pier, suitable for small craft, is situated E of the N entrance point. A directional light (080121) covers the approach to the bay and leads N of two abovewater rocks. Useful mark: Ribeira da Barca Light (15084N 23460W) (4.98).

PORTO DA PRAIA General information


Chart 367 plans of Approaches to Porto da Praia and Porto da Praia

Position
1

4.103 Porto da Praia (1454N 2331W) lies on the S coast of Ilha de Santiago.

Function
1

4.104 Cidade da Praia is the seat of Government for the Arquiplago de Cabo Verde and the capital of Ilha de Santiago. The majority of the population of the archipelago reside in Ilha de Santiago and in 1999 there were an estimated 76 000 persons living in Cidade da Praia. The principal imports are general cargo and building materials and the principal export is bananas.

Porto de Pedra Badejo


1

Topography
1

4.100 Description. Porto de Pedra Badejo (Porto de Santiago) (1508N 2332W), a small but comparatively important cove, is entered between Ponta da Laje and Ponta Coroa (4.97), 1 miles ESE. Ponta de Pedra Badejo, 1 cables SSW of Ponta da Laje, is rocky and salient. A masonry landing place is situated on its W side. Rocks above and below water extend up to 5 cables N off a point situated about 1 miles NW from Ponta de Pedra Badejo. Vila de Pedra Badejo, or Vila de Santiago (Santa Jago), with a church standing in its centre, stands to the W and SW of Ponta de Pedra Badejo, and is separated from the village of Salina, to the S by a river. Both these villages stand on slightly elevated land. The coast between the village of Salina and Ponta Coroa is low and fronted by a sandy beach. Anchorage can be obtained about 1 cables SE of Ponta de Pedra Badejo in a depth of 13 m (7 fm), sand.

4.105 The E shore of the bay is high, cliffy and much indented. The old city stands at the head of the bay on a plateau about 30 m high with steep sides; deep ravines lie E and W of this plateau. The W shore of the bay is sandy from the plateau to abreast Ilhu de Santa Maria, whence cliffs extend to Ponta Temerosa. Ilhu de Santa Maria is flat topped, 14 m high, and connected to the W shore by a reef.

Approach and entry


1

4.106 The port may be approached with the centre of the old city bearing about NNW and entered between Ponta das Bicudas and Ponta Temerosa (1454N 2331W), 1 miles WSW.

Traffic
1

4.107 In 2004, there were 601 vessel movements totalling 1 604 561 dwt.

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Port Authority
1

Directions
(continued from 4.97)

4.108 Enapor do Porto de Praia, CP 87, Praia, Ilha de Santiago, Cape Verde Islands. Email: enapor@cvtelecom.cv

Major light
1

4.113 Dona Maria Pia Light (14539N 23311W) (4.96).

Entry Limiting conditions


1

4.109 Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 11 m; mean neap range about 06 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water is 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled. Gas carriers: Maximum LOA 200 m; minimum LOA 75 m; maximum draught 60 m. Local weather and sea state. The anchorage is safe in the dry season, from December to June inclusive, for vessels of any size, but during the wet season the wind occasionally sets in strongly from S with a heavy swell and short sea. Strong gusts come over the land into Porto da Praia during the dry season when the breeze is fresh. With strong NE winds, little protection is afforded by the NE shore and there is considerable swell.

4.114 The chart is sufficient guide. Useful marks: Cais Novo Light (14543N 23306W) (4.98). Radio mast (14545N 23315W). Radio Mast (14549N 23312W). Church (14550N 23310W). Radio mast (14551N 23310W).

Berths
1

4.115 Cais Novo, the SSW extending berth, with a length of 2170 m, has depths of 90 m alongside. The quay extending NW from the root of Cais Novo is 440 m long with depths alongside ranging from 75 m to 50 m.

Port services
1

Arrival information
1

4.110 Notice of ETA. ETA should be sent to agent and pilots must be contacted 2 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Outer anchorage. Small vessels can anchor about 4 cables SE of the Nmost of the two wooden jetties situated in the W side of the bay. See 4.109, Local weather and sea state. Vessels are recommended not to anchor without the pilots advice. Submarine cable. A submarine cable, best seen on the chart, leads generally SE from a position 2 cables NNW from Dona Maria Pia Light (4.96). Pilotage is compulsory for vessels inwardbound, berthing and shifting and optional for departure. The pilot boards 3 cables E of Dona Maria Pia Light. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Tugs are available.

4.116 Repairs. Minor repairs can be effected. Other facilities. Hospital and clinics in city; no oily waste reception facilities; garbage dsiposal can be arranged. Supplies. Gas oil; fresh water, provisions are available. Communications. Airport 3 km.

ILHA DO FOGO General information


Chart 366

Route
1

4.117 Ilha do Fogo (1457N 2424W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given below.

Topography
1

Harbour
2

General layout
1

4.111 The commercial port consists of an Lshaped wharf, 9 cables W of Ponta Bicudas, offering a total of 690 m wharfage, with the outer side of Cais Novo forming a breakwater. A fishing harbour lies 2 cables NNW of the head of Cais Novo. Two wooden jetties, close to and parallel to each other, extend cable SE from the shore on the W side of the bay, about 2 cables NNW from Ilhu de Santa Maria. Between the island and the jetties a dangerous wreck (not charted) lies in approximate position 14546N 23311W.

Climate information
1

4.112 See 1.291 and 1.295.

4.118 Ilha do Fogo, lying 30 miles W of Ilha de Santiago (4.95), is the loftiest island in Arquiplago de Cabo Verde. The principal peak (1457N 2421W), lying on the E side of a large crater in the middle of the island, is a symmetrical volcanic cone 2829 m high, but is generally obscured by cloud. The most recent eruption in the island was in 1995. Numerous small villages stand on the slopes of the central mountain. Cidade de So Filipe (4.123) is the capital of Ilha do Fogo, and agriculture is the chief economic factor in the island. The coast of Ilha do Fogo is mostly high and rugged, and is clear of offlying dangers. The coast between Porto do Mosterios (15 02 N 2420W) and Ponta Fundo, 4 miles SSE, and thence to Ponta Sogui (1452N 2417W), 6 miles farther S, is fringed with foul ground. The point 1 mile N of Ponta Sogui and the land in its vicinity was much affected by lava flows during former eruptions. Inland of this coast the land rises steeply to the central mountain. The coast between Ponta Sogui and Ponta do Alcatraz (1450N 2419W), 3 miles SW, is fringed with foul ground in places. Between Ponta do Alcatraz and Ponta do Pescadeiro, 3 miles SW, the coast consists mostly of cliffs and the land rises more gradually to the central mountain.

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The coast between Ponta do Pescadeiro (14 49 N 2423W) and Ponta Cagarra, 8 miles WNW, is formed of high cliffs and few distinctive features. The coast between Porto de So Filipe (4.123) and Ponta de Vale de Cavaleiros, 1 miles N, is sheer and fronted by a sandy beach. There is usually a heavy surf on the beach and landing should only be attempted in local boats. From a position 1 miles ENE of Ponta da Outra Banda (1501N 2427W) to Ponta do Fio do Monte Vermelho, the coast is formed of high cliffs, the base being fringed with rocks. The coast is high in the vicinity of Ponta do Fio do Monte Vermelho (1503N 2423W), and then becomes low and fringed with rocks as far as the NW entrance to Porto do Mosterios (4.122).

Natural conditions
1

4.119 Local magnetic anomalies exist in the vicinity of Ilha do Fogo. See 4.5. Currents off the N and NE extremities of Ilha do Fogo are strong and are influenced by the wind. See 4.5.

Thence the track leads E, passing: N of Porto do Mosteiros (4.122), from where a light (see below) is exhibited. Thence the track leads SE, passing: NE of Ponta Fundo (4 miles SSE), a low point covered by lava. Thence the track leads S, passing (with positions relative to Ponta do Alcatraz Light (14502N 24193W)): E of Ponta Sougui (2 miles NE), a low rocky point fringed with foul ground. Thence the track leads SW, passing: SE of Ponta do Alcatraz, from where a light (see below) is exhibited. Thence the track leads WSW to a position S of Ponta Pescadeiro. Useful marks: Porto do Mosterios Light (white truncated pyramid on wall. 3 m in height) (15022N 24200W). Cidade de So Filipe Light (metal tower, 5 m in height) (14535N 24305W). Ponta do Alcatraz Light (white column and white lantern, 3 m in height) (14502N 24193W).

Porto de Vale de Cavaleiros General information


1

Directions Circumnavigation
1

4.120 From a position S of Ponta do Pescadeiro (1449N 2423W), the S extremity of Ilha do Fogo, the track leads W, passing (with positions relative to Cidade de So Filipe Light (14536N 24305W)): S of a rock (7 miles SE) with a depth of about 1 m over it, lying 3 cables offshore 1 miles W of Ponta do Pescadeiro. Thence the track leads NW, passing: SW of Ilhu de Pena (3 miles SE), a small rocky islet lying close offshore, thence: SW of Ponta da Cagarra (9 cables SE), a high rocky point. Thence the track leads N, passing: W of So Filipe (4.123), from where a light is exhibited, thence: W of Ponta de Vale de Cavaleiros (1 miles N), a steep rocky point, dominated by Monte Almada whose regular conical shape rises to an elevation of 327 m. A shoal with depths of less than 2 m over it, lies about 5 cables offshore about 1 miles N of Ponta de Vale de Cavaleiros. Thence the track leads NNE, passing: WNW of Ponta da Gara (5 miles N), a steep cliffy point, fringed with rocks above and below water. Thence the track leads NE, passing (with positions relative to Porto dos Mosterios Light (15 02 2N 24200W)): NW of Ponta da Outra Banda (7 miles WSW) lying at the SW end of a beach of black sand, thence: NW of Ponta do Fio do Monte Vermelho (2 miles WNW), the N extremity of Ilha do Fogo, a high cliff terminating in a platform of low rocks, thence: NW of Baixo das Sete Cabeas (3 miles WNW), a group of abovewater rocks which are steepto at their N end.

4.121 Position and function. Porto de Vale de Cavaleiros is the only port in Ilha do Fogo and is situated close E of Ponta de Vale de Cavaleiros (1455N 2431W) (4.120) and 1 miles N of So Filipe (4.123), to which it is connected by road. It is used by coasters and interisland ferries. Approach and entry. The port may be approached from the open sea and entered from SW, noting a stranded wreck lying on a reef about 5 cables S of the port entrance and 1 cable offshore. The breakwater, which was rebuilt and extended in 2000, after repeated storm damage, is not lit. Traffic. In 2004 there were 104 vessel movements totalling 66 042 dwt. Port Authority. There is an ENAPOR Office in port. Website: www.enapor.cv Depths. This stretch of the coast is very steepto and depths shelve rapidly; the 200 m contour is only about 4 cables from the coast in places. Anchorage may be obtained about 2 cables S of Ponta de Vale de Cavaleiros in a depth of 18 m, fine sand and mud. Useful mark: Cidade de So Filipe Light (14535N 24305W) (4.120). Harbour. The harbour consists of a mole extending S and SSE from Ponta de Vale de Cavaleiros and protected by a rubble breakwater. An inner breakwater projects WSW from the shore in the N part of the harbour protecting a small fishing harbour. There is a total of 105 m wharfage and a 125 m wide RoRo ramp, with depths alongside of 50 m. Other facilities. See 4.123. Supplies. See 4.123. Communication: Airport, 25 km from So Filipe; interisland ferries.

Anchorages Porto do Mosteiros


1

4.122 Description. Porto do Mosteiros (1502N 2420W) is entered between two low rocky points 1 mile apart. The

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town stands on a low rocky promontory at the head of the bay. A beach of black sand stretches W of the town and a similar beach, but with outcrops of rock, extends E of the town. A power station stands on a hill at the SE end of the town, and several buildings in town are prominent. Anchorage, can be obtained about 2 cables N of the light in a depth of 33 m, fine sand, and is used by coasters loading agricultural produce. The anchorage is open to the prevailing winds. Useful marks: Porto do Mosterios Light (15022N 24200W) (4.120). Landing can be effected in calm weather at a quay situated in a small inlet between rocky outcrops close NE of the light; the inlet is only suitable for boats. Chart 369 plan of San Filipe and Encarnao Anchorages

Porto de So Filipe
1

4.123 Description. Porto de So Filipe (14537N 24305W) is open W, but affords some shelter during the wet season (July to November). Cidade de So Filipe, Fogos largest town, stands on top of a cliff bounded on its N and S sides by ravines through which rivers flow. Porto de Nossa Senhora da Encarnao lies about 1 mile SE of Porto de So Filipe. Anchorages. Anchorage can be obtained 3 cables NW of an old fortress from where a light is exhibited, presently in use as a police station, standing at the edge of the cliff at the S end of San Filipe. Anchorage can be obtained, 2 cables SW of the ruined Nossa Senhora da Encarnao church standing on top of the cliffs, in a depth of 16 m (9 fm), fine sand. Caution. It should be noted that from November to May the prevailing weather moves the sand S from the anchorage off Cidade de So Filipe to the anchorage of Porto de Nossa Senhora da Encarnao. The reverse occurs from May to November. Thus the latter anchorage is preferable from November to May, and that off Cidade de So Filipe from May to November. Useful mark: Cidade de So Filipe Light (14536N 24305W) (4.120). Landing can be effected on the beach abreast both the anchorages, where roads lead up the cliffs to Cidade de So Filipe. There is usually a heavy surf on the beaches and landing should only be attempted in local boats. Supplies are available in limited quantities. Other facilities. Small hospital in N part of town. Communication: Airport, 25 km; interisland ferries from Porto de Vale de Cavaleiros (4.121).

elevation of 976 m and rises in the middle of the island; the peaks are usually obscured by clouds. The coasts of Ilha Brava are steep and safe to approach and, although rocky and precipitous, landing can be effected in several places described below. The N extremity of Ilha Brava consists of a cliff which continues high to Ponta da Jalunga (1453N 2441W) (charted as Ponta da Jallinga), a low point from where a light is exhibited, and throughout this part, is steepto and safe to approach. From the S entrance point to Porto da Furna (4.127), the coast trends steep for a distance of 1 miles SSE and continues thus for a further 2 miles S to a point with a reef, over which the sea usually breaks, lying close off it. Porto da Aguada, about 2 miles S of Ponta da Jalunga, lies in a small bay at the head of which a river flows into the sea. Ponta Nh Martinho (1448N 2442W) is the S extremity of Ilha Brava , and a rock, with a depth of less than 2 m over it, lies about 5 cables ENE of the point from where a light is exhibited. The coast, for a distance of 1 miles NE of Ponta Nh Martinho, is high and rugged with several ravines, cut by torrents, crossing it. The coast, for a distance of 3 miles WNW of Ponta Nh Martinho, is steep and apparently free from dangers. The coast from Ponta Pranha (1450N 2445W), the W extremity of Ilha Brava, for a distance of 2 miles N, starts high but becomes lower and fringed with foul ground. The NW coast of Ilha Brava is high with several islets lying close offshore. A rock with a depth of less than 2 m over it, lies 5 cables W of the N extremity.

Magnetic anomaly
1

4.126 A local magnetic anomaly exists in the vicinity of Ilha Brava.

Anchorages and harbour Porto da Furna


1

ILHA BRAVA General information


Chart 366

Route
1

4.124 Ilha Brava (1451N 2443W) may be passed at a prudent distance having regard to the dangers given below.

Topography
1

4.125 Ilha Brava, lying 10 miles WSW of Ilha do Fogo (4.118), has several lofty peaks. The highest peak has an

4.127 Position and function. Porto da Furna (14 53 N 2441W) is the main harbour of Ilha Brava and lies 5 cables SW of Ponta da Jalunga, and is connected by road to the village of Furna and thence to Nova Sintra, the capital of Ilha Brava and Ilhus Secos, a few kilometres away. The harbour is used regularly by interisland ferries. Approach and entry. The bay can be approached from NE through E to SE and entered between two unlit headlands about 1 cables apart. Traffic. In 2004 there were 16 vessel movements totalling 9976 dwt. Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels in the bay with one anchor to seaward and the stern secured to the shore; local knowledge is required. The swell does not enter this bay. Pilotage. Local pilots with a knowledge of the coasts are available. Useful mark: Ponta da Jalunga Light (white column, white lantern, 8 m in height) (1453N 2441W). Harbour. The harbour lies in the N part of the bay and consists of a 30 m long wharf and a small RoRo ramp with alongside depths of 50 m. Repairs. There is a slipway for boats. Other facilities. Medical centre in Nova Sintra. Supplies. Available in limited quantities at Nova Sintra.

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Chart 369 plan Porto da Faj

Porto da Faj de gua


1

4.128 Description. Porto da Faj de gua is entered between Ponta Garbeiro (1452N 2445W) and Ponta do Padre, a low rocky point 8 cables SW. Ilhu Baixo Agudo, a pinnacled islet and Ilhu Detraz de Rocha lie close off Ponta Garbeiro. Baixa do Padre 19 m (62 ft) high, lies close WSW of Ponta do Padre. The village of Faj de gua stands at the mouth of a river of the same name, at the NE corner of the bay. The village is fronted by a sandy beach but the bay generally is fringed with rocks. Anchorage can be obtained by small craft in the NE corner of the bay in depths of 15 m to 16 m (8 to 9 fm), sand. This anchorage is only about cable wide and is frequented during the wet season (June to October). Landing can be effected in fron of the village.

ILHUS SECOS (DO ROMBO)


Chart 366

General information
1

4.129 Ilhus Secos or Ilhus do Rombo, lying about 3 miles N of Ilha Brava (4.125), are a group of six islets. There are clear channels between Ilhus Secos and Ilha Brava and also between them and Ilha do Fogo (4.118), 7 miles E. The islets are volcanic in origin and are uninhabited; they are visited by fishermen.

Ilhu de Cima (1458N 2439W), from the summit of which a light is exhibited, is a rocky islet which rises sharply to an elevation of 77 m at its S end. Rocks above and below water extend up to 5 cables on all sides except at its S extremity. The islet is about 1 miles long in a NE/SW direction. Ilhu do Rei (not named on chart), about 30 m high and covered in guano, lies about 2 cables WNW of Ilhu de Cima. Ilhu do Sapado (not named on chart), 36 m high, lies about 2 cables WSW of Ilhu do Rei, and about midway between Ilhu de Cima and Ilhu de Lus Carneiro to which it is joined by a reef which dries. Ilhu de Lus Carneiro, 32 m high, lies about 1 mile W of the S extremity of Ilhu de Cima. Ilhu do Barrette (not named on chart), which appears as a conical detached rock, is the smallest islet in the group and lies close NW of the W extremity of Ilhu de Lus Carneiro. Ilhu Grande, 96 m high, lies about 2 miles W of Ilhu Cima and 6 cables W of Ilhu do Barrette. Ilhu Grande is the largest in area of the group and extends about 1 miles in a NE/SW direction. The channel between Ilhu Grande and Ilhu do Barrette has depths of 38 m in the middle. It is the only channel between the islets in Ilhus Secos which can be used with safety. Useful mark: Ilhu de Cima Light (white 4sided hut with white lantern, 4 m in height) (1458N 2439W).

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Chapter 5 - Cap Spartel to Punta Durnford


36 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7
C. Spartel

6
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0306

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CHAPTER 5 CAP SPARTEL TO PUNTA DURNFORD

GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 4104

Scope of the chapter


1

continues thus as far as the vicinity of Cap Rhir (3038N 953W) which lies at the W end of Atlas Mountains.

5.1 This chapter covers the Atlantic coast of Morocco from Cap Spartel (3547N 556W) to Punta Durnford (2339N 1601W). See 1.105 for details of disputed sovereignty. For details of the area between Ceuta and Cap Spartel on the N coast of Morocco see West Coasts of Spain and Portugal Pilot. 5.2 The ports and harbours of Larache (5.25), Mehdia (5.33), Kenitra (5.40), Rabat (5.57), Mohmeddia (5.63), Casablanca (5.103), Al Jadida (5.148), Jorf Lasfar (5.156), Safi (5.183), Essaouira (5.224), AnzaAgadir (5.233), Sidi Ifni (5.261), Tan Tan (5.277), Tarfaya (5.308), and Layoune (5.309) are described in this chapter. This chapter is divided into the following sections: Cap Spartel to Casablanca (5.8). Casablanca to Agadir (5.136). Agadir to Cap Tarfaya (Cabo Yubi) (5.253). Cap Tarfaya (Cabo Yubi) to Punta Durnford (5.294).

Fishing
1

5.4 Fishing vessels may be encountered along the entire stretch of coastline described in this chapter.

Natural conditions
1

5.5 Weather. The coast of Morocco offers little shelter being totally exposed to the sea with onshore winds. Between Cap Spartel and Cap Bedouzza allowance should be made for a heavy W swell which usually sets directly onto the coast. Flow. See 1.247.

Piracy
1

Topography
1

5.6 Reports have been received of armed attacks on fishing vessels off this coast and also of a grounded bulk carrier being fired upon from the shore. Mariners should exercise due caution in this area.

5.3 The Atlantic coast of Morocco from Cap Spartel to Cap Nun (Cap Dra) about 500 miles SW, is low and dangerous; it is bordered by low sandhills and the land is mostly barren. The highest part is in the vicinity of Cap Bedouzza, 260 miles SW of Cap Spartel. The uniform sandy beach S of Essaouira (3130N 946W) is backed by dunes and

Stowaways
1

5.7 It is reported that stowaways are a serious problem, mariners are reminded that a thorough search of the vessel is required, prior to departure, especially if the vessel is departing from Morocco.

CAP SPARTEL TO CASABLANCA GENERAL INFORMATION


Charts 3132

CAP SPARTEL TO RIO SEBOU General information


Charts 142, 92, 3132, 856

Area covered
1

5.8 This section describes coastal route, anchorages, ports and harbours from Cap Spartel to Casablanca about 155 miles SSW. It is arranged as follows: Cap Spartel to Rio Sebou (5.10). Rio Sebou to Mohammedia (5.47). Mohammedia (5.63). Mohammedia to Casablanca (5.93). Casablanca (5.103).

Route
1

5.10 From a position W of Cap Spartel (3547N 556W) the route leads SSW for about 95 miles to a position W of Rio Sebou.

Topography
1

Topography
1

5.9 For a general topography of the area see 5.3.

5.11 The coast from Cap Spartel to Asilah (5.23), 20 miles S, is formed of a sandy beach broken by occasional rocky projections, and backed by a line of low hills. The coast between Asilah and Larache (5.25), 20 miles SSW, has much the same appearance as that to the N. About 3 miles

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S of Asilah the coastal hills attain an elevation of over 200 m and extend nearly to Larache. Between Larache and MoulayBousselham (5.20), 20 miles SSW, the coast is about 90 m high. The N half consists of reddish cliffs, and the S half consists of sandhills, partially covered with scrub, gradually decreasing in height, but becoming higher again in the vicinity of MoulayBousselham. The coast from MoulayBousselham to the mouth of the Rio Sebou (5.33), 40 miles SSW is sandy, broken in places by rocks, and backed by sand dunes.

Current
1

5.16 It is necessary to guard against the races which are sometimes produced by the strong current in the vicinity of Cap Spartel.

Directions
(continued from West Coasts of Spain and Portugal Pilot)

Principal marks
1

Depths
1

5.12 The depths off this stretch of coast decrease gradually towards the land, the bottom being sand, gravel, broken shells and occasionally rock. There are, however, some shoals, with depths of 8 m to 9 m over them, which lie nearly 1 mile offshore with greater depths inside them.

Hazards
1

5.13 Fishing vessels. It has been reported (2000) that large concentrations of fishing vessels may be encountered in an area to the SW of the TSS at Banco del Hoyo (see West Coasts of Spain and Portugal Pilot). The area is bounded by latitudes 3530N and 3600N, and by longitudes 610W and 650W. The vessels use drift nets up to 1 mile in length, and may exhibit strobe lights to indicate their positions. Fishing nets. Between Cap Spartel and Rio Sebou tunny fishing nets may be found extending from 1 to 2 miles from the coast. The nets are marked by white or yellow flags carrying the letter M or A at the seaward extremity and centre. At night they are marked by two green lights, disposed vertically, at the middle of the net, and a red light above a green light at the seaward end of the net. These nets should be given a berth of 3 miles.

5.17 Landmarks: Jebel Qebir (35472N 5545W), elevation 327 m and adjacent tower position approximate. Jbilla (35445N 5556W), elevation 135 m, an isolated cone shaped hill. Dehar el Haine (35 40 7N 5 52 7W), a hill, elevation 271 m. Jbel Houch Bak Kreaa (Monte Raven) (35342N 5466W), elevation 671 m. 5.18 Major lights: Cap Spartel Light (yellow square stone tower, 24 m in height) (35476N 5553W). Tanger Bourkhalf Aero Light (control tower, 12 m in height) (35435N 5547W). Port Larache (El Aaraich) Light (N breakwater head) (35122N 6093W). Pointe Nador Light (white 8 sided tower, 44 m in height) (35117N 6101W). Auamara Aero Light (tower, 16 m in height) (35026N 6031W). Mehdia Entrance Rear Leading Light (red octagonal tower, white lantern) (34157N 6397W). Kenitra Aero Light (yellow tower, bulbous top) (34177N 6362W).

Cap Spartel to Larache


1

Traffic regulations
1

5.14 Traffic separation scheme exists in the W approaches to Strait of Gibraltar about 14 miles NW of Cap Spartel. This traffic scheme is IMO adopted and Rule 10 of International Regulations for preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) applies. Prohibited area MaghrebEurope Oil pipeline. A safety and protection zone has been established 1 mile either side of the pipeline for a distance of three miles. The safety zone in which fishing, navigation and anchoring are prohibited is contained within the following positions: 35444N 5567W. 35455N 5582W. 35476N 5588W. 35478N 5578W. 35460N 5571W. 35455N 5563W.

Rescue
5.15 Larache (3512N 609W), is a designated RCC. Kenitra (3416N 635W), is a designated MRSC. 136

5.19 From a position W of Cap Spartel (3547N 556W) the route leads SSW for about 95 miles to a position W of Rio Sebou. Cap Spartel should not be approached within 1 mile. Rocks, above and below water, extend up to 3 cables offshore between Cap Spartel and a position mile SSW. The route passes (with positions relative to Pointe Nador (35117N 6101W)): WNW of a wreck (35 miles NNE), Tanger Boukhalf (Tangier Boukhaf) Aero Light (5.18), which is occasionally exhibited for the use of aircraft, stands 2 miles SE. Thence: Over the Bajeta del Cantillo (31 miles N), consisting of stones and gravel with a least depth 40 m thence: WNW of the mouth of the Ro Mharhar (24 miles NNE), noting a group of radio masts which stand about 4 miles E of the river mouth, thence: WNW of Asilah (18 miles NNE) (5.23) thence: WNW of Ras el Nuida (13 miles NNE), thence: WNW of Bajos de Ras el Nuida (12 miles N), two shoals with least depths of 15 m and 19 m over them, thence: WNW of Bajo el Cenizo (8 miles N), a rocky bank with a least depth of 26 m over it, and on which the sea breaks in heavy weather, thence: WNW of the mouth of Oued Loukkos (1 mile ENE), thence:

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CHAPTER 5

WNW of Larache (El Aaraich) (1 mile ENE), noting the lightbuoy (special), moored 9 cables NNW of Pointe Nador.

Larache to Rio Sebou


1

5.20 The track then continues SSW, passing: WNW of Pointe Nador, on which there is a signal station and lighthouse (5.18), thence: W of the Auamara Aero light (10 miles SE) (5.18), thence: WNW of MoulayBousselham (Moulay Bou Selham), (20 miles SSW), which can be identified by a number of white washed tombs that stand on the N side of the outlet from Ez Zerga, which is a lagoon that lies behind sand dunes between 60 m and 90 m high. Thence: WNW of Roca Negra (Black Rock) (34 miles SSW), a prominent black rock 59 m high, noting the Banco Arlett (Arlett Bank or Rocky Bank), with a depth of 14 m, which lies 1 mile W. A light stands near the rock. Thence: WNW of two conspicuous wrecks (57 miles and 59 miles SSW respectively), thence: WNW of Punta Pacheco (60 miles SSW), which is the N entrance point of the Rio Sebou. The track then leads to the pilot embarkation point (34157N 6414W), at the river mouth. (Directions continue at 5.53)

Closer inshore there is an anchorage about 4 cables NW of the old town in a depth of 11 m. This holding ground is poor, especially with W winds and swell, as the bottom is rock. No other anchorage sites along this part of the coast can be recommended due to poor holding ground. Useful mark: Palacio del Raisuni (3528N 602W) a massive building with numerous windows, which are notable for reflecting a great deal of light during clear weather, standing midway along the seaward side of the old town. Chart 3132

MoulayBousselham
1

5.24 MoulayBousselham (3453N 617W), about 58 miles SSW of Cap Spartel, affords fair anchorage, in good weather, about mile offshore abreast of the outlet (5.20) in depths of about 16 m.

Larache (El Aaraich)


Charts 3132 and 1912 plan of Larache

General information
1

Anchorages and harbours


2

Chart 142

Anse Spartel
1

5.21 Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels about 3 cables offshore in Anse Spartel (35466N 9560W), a shallow sandy bay 1 mile SW of Cap Spartel light structure, in depths of 10 m to 11 m. Heavy squalls blow off the land and a continual swell renders landing difficult.

Playa de Sidi Kacem


1

5.22 Anchorage can also be obtained off Playa de Sidi Kacem (35435N 9570W), about 4 miles S of Cap Spartel, 5 cables offshore. The soundings are fairly regular and the bottom, although composed of rock and sand, is good holding ground. Charts 91, Spanish 4461 (see 1.19)

5.25 Position. Larache (El Aaraich) (3512N 609W) is located on the S entrance to Oued Loukkos and lies 1 mile ENE of Pointe Nador. Function. It is a minor port, with a population of 247 000 in 2001, suitable only for small vessels . Topography. The coast between Punta Negra and the mouth of the Oued Loukkos. 1 miles SSW, consists of a sandy beach backed by dunes. A tree plantation stands on the N side of the entrance. Espignon Rompeolas (Dique Norte) extends W from the N side of the of the mouth of the river. The town extends WSW nearly as far as Pointe Nador where it forms a notable complex from which the mosque and tall building of a flour mill stand out. The coast fronting the town is steep and fringed with reefs. Approach and entry. The port is approached N of Pointe Nador. It is entered close S of Espignon Rompeolas, over the bar, on the alignment of leading lights, which are moved to meet the changes at the bar. Port Authority. Direction du Port de Larache (El Aaraich) Morocco.

Limiting Conditions Asilah


1 1

5.23 Description. Asilah (3528N 602W), 17 miles NNE of Pointe Nador, consists of an old town, with a modern town, fronted by a sandy beach, NE of it. The port, which was recently rebuilt, serves fishing vessels and leisure craft. The depth in the entrance to the harbour is 3 m. The old town is surrounded by a wall surmounted by 4 towers, the N of which is 27 m high. A river flows into the sea 4 cables NNE of the modern town. Local knowledge or the Spanish chart 4461 is required. Shoal. El Hanman (El Anman), consisting of several rocks with a depth of less than 51 m over them, lie 5 cables offshore 1 mile N of the modern town. Anchorage may be obtained with the centre of the old town bearing 165 at a distance of 2 miles off in depths of 22 m, the bottom being mainly coral and gravel.

5.26 Controlling depths over the bar at the entrance to the river are charted at a maximum of 25 m, reducing to 19 m and 12 m further N and S respectively. The accumulation of sand over the bar can further reduce the depth. Deepest and longest berth. Cargo can be worked alongside a quay of 380 m length for vessels with a maximum draft of 3 m. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 23 m; and mean neap range about 0 9 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Abnormal water levels. The bar at the mouth of the Oued Loukkos, situated between Espignon Rompeolas and Punta de la Ciudadela, 1 cables S, is subject to great changes. It has a constant swell on it except during the summer and is unsafe from October to May inclusive. It should only be crossed by small vessels. Density of dock water: 1025 g/cm3.

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Maximum size of vessel handled: Maximum draught is 35 m and maximum LOA is 45 m. Local weather and sea state. The winds are mostly either between SW and NW in winter or between N and NE during summer. The heaviest seas are raised by winds between SW and W. If anchored well offshore, vessels can ride out a moderate gale from seaward.

A red light at night (indicated by letter R in table below): Day Black ball Night R Meaning Caution is necessary on entering. Undecked vessels may not leave Port is closed to all vesels except motor fishing craft R R Port and bar open to all vessels Port is closed to traffic

Two black balls

Arrival information
1

5.27 Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained in depths of about 135 m, over a sandy bottom, with Pointe Nador Lighthouse bearing 196 and the western extremity of Espignon Rompeolas bearing 093. This is the best anchorage and is about mile offshore. Small vessels can anchor closer inshore in good holding ground, if the weather is fine. But if the sea gets rough all vessels should anchor W of the meridian of Pointe Nador and N of the mouth of the Oued Loukkos, so as to keep clear of the breakers seaward of the bar. Anchorage can also be obtained about 9 cables offshore in depths of 19 m and 22 m, WNW of the Espignon Rompeolas with the Pointe Nador light bearing 180 and 160, respectively. There are several patches with depths of 165 m over them surrounded by depths of 255 m on the line of Espignon Rompeolas. These break in heavy weather and should be avoided. Pilotage is compulsory, and is available during daylight only. Pilots can be contacted by VHF and board about 2 miles seaward of the entrance. Tugs. Three 50 hp tugs available and are compulsory. Local knowledge is necessary. Traffic regulations. Entry and departure at night are prohibited without the permission of the Marine Commandant.

Blue flag with letters PC No signals

5.29 Natural Conditions. Oued Loukkos follows a serpentine course and is subject to rather intense currents, which are responsible for clearing away accumulated sand from the dock and channel. The river is navigable by small coasters up to the main bridge, and by smaller craft up to La Isleta (4 miles SE of Larache). During the rainy season the river is prone to flooding and mariners must proceed cautiously when operating shallow draft vessels and anchoring up the river. Caution also needs to be exercised throughout the river passage as uprooted tree trunks and debris of all description may be encountered.

Directions for entering harbour


1

Harbour
1

5.30 Landmarks: Jebel Sarsar (34525N 5500W), elevation 609 m, 25 miles SE is conical shaped with a gradual slope on its S side. Pointe Nador Lighthouse (35 11 7N 6 10 1W) (5.18). Entry. The chart is sufficient guide.

5.28 General layout. The port itself is formed by the mouth of Oued Loukkos. At the root of Espignon Rompeolas, there is a small jetty extending S into the harbour thence SW; a training wall, Dique de Escollera No 3, is situated E of this jetty. On the S side of the harbour an area of reclaimed land, extending E from Punta de la Ciudadela, forms Dique de Escollera No 2, which is a training wall. A continuation of the training wall resumes 1 cable ENE with Dique de Encauzamento which continues on the S side of the river to a point, 4 cables NE, where it connects with the S shore. Lights are exhibited from the E end of Dique de Escollera No 2 and the SW end of Dique de Encauzamiento, forming the entrance to the harbour in which Muelle Pesquero and Muelle Commercial are situated, S and E of Dique de Escollera No 2. Development. It was reported (1999) that work on the extension of the breakwater was in progress close W of the head of Espignon Rompeolas. Traffic signals. There is a signal station on Punta Nador, and another at the lifesaving station on Punta de la Ciudadela, both of which communicate with vessels by the International Code of Signals. The following signals are shown: A black ball or blue flag with letters PC by day.

Berths
1

5.31 Depths mentioned below are reported depths. The port authorities should be contacted for the latest information. Anchorage berths. Vessels up to 35 m draught can anchor 900 m inside the bar and work cargo into 25 to 50 ton lighters. Alongside berths. Small vessels with maximum draft of 30 m can work cargo alongside Muelle Commercial, which extends N to form Muelle Pesquero, used by fishing boats. Inner anchorage can be obtained by smal craft inside the harbour. Local knowledge is necessary.

Port services
1

5.32 Repairs. There is a slipway for vessels, with a capacity of 100 tons. Supplies. Fresh water connections are laid on to Muelle Commercial. Fresh provisions are plentiful. Bunkering service is not available. Communications. The nearest airpot is Tanger Boukhalf.

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Mehdia
Chart 1912 plans entrance to and Rio Sebou.

Local knowledge is required to cross the bar at the entrance to the river.

General information
1

Harbour
1

5.33 Position. Mehdia (34160N 6393W), lies 61 miles SSW of Pointe Nador. Function. It is a minor harbour used by naval vessels, fishing vessels, and tugs. Topography. Rio Sebou follows a serpentine course and is the largest river along this stretch of the coast. Mehdia stands on the lower slope of a hill, 139 m high, on the S side of the entrance to the Rio Sebou. It is easily identifiable by its old fortifications. Approach and entry. Rio Sebou (Oued Sbou) can be approached from the SW through N to NE, and entered across a bar, between the heads of two breakwaters. Punta Pacheco is the N entrance point of the mouth of the river. The river is navigable for a distance of 9 miles to Kenitra (5.51).

5.36 General layout. A quay for fishing vessels and tugs lies NE of the old fort and 5 cables NE on the same side of the river, is a naval quay. Traffic signals, indicating the status of the bar, are displayed from the signal station at the lighthouse on a hill, located 5 cables SW of Mehdia. They are: * International code flag S Red flag over green flag Conditions on the bar are practicable Bar is impassable

* This signal is also displayed by the pilot motorboat. Tidal streams. Off the entrance to the river the streams are N going on a rising tide and S going on a falling tide. Within the river off Mehdia under normal conditions, except during winter rains the streams set: LW + 0200 HW HW + 0115 LW Ingoing stream begins Slack for 1 hour Outgoing stream begins

Limiting conditions
1

5.34 Controlling depth. Charted depths of less than 1 m are to be found over the bar at the entrance to Rio Sebou. Deepest and longest berth is the naval quay located 4 cables NNE of Mehdia, on the SE bank. It is 400 m long with depths of 85 m alongside. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 27 m and mean neap range about 12 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Abnormal water levels. During the winter rains Rio Sebou rises to abnormal levels when its muddy reddish coloured water overflows its high banks and the surrounding country. During the remainder of the year it is subjected to regular tidal influence for a distance of about 50 miles above the mouth. Rollers, which prevail in the winter months, create a heavy surf along the river banks, and may raise the level as much as 1 m above spring tide level. Under such conditions the ingoing stream predominates and the duration of the outgoing stream varies with the violence of the rollers, being shorter when the rollers are violent. Maximum size of vessel handled. Due to the variable depths in the channel across the bar, vessels with a maximum draft of 55 m at HWS and 41 m at HWN are permitted. Maximum permissible length is 115 m during daylight hours; at night this is reduced to 75 m for tankers and to 95 m for other vessels.

Slack for 1 hours A rise of 2 m in the upper reaches of the river causes an outgoing stream with a rate of 3 to 4 kn at Mehdia. This stream overcomes the ingoing stream at neaps, while at springs it causes a more or less prolonged period of slack water on the bar and within the river entrance off Mehdia. Local weather. Prevailing winds are W in winter and E in summer.

Directions for entering harbour


1

5.37 Landmarks: Harbour masters office (34159N 6398W) a large white building, standing 2 cables N of the signal station. Water tower (34 15 4N 6 40 7W) standing at MehdiaPlage. Major light. Mehdia Entrance Rear Leading Light (34157N 6397W) (5.17). Entry. The chart is sufficient guide.

Berths
1

Arrival information
1

5.35 Outer anchorage. The recommended anchorage is centred on position 34156N 06417W. Pilotage is compulsory. On arrival in the road vessels must display the usual signal for a pilot and indicate their draught by The International Code of Signals. Rio Sebou can be entered from 3 hours before to 2 hours after HW during the day and from 2 hours before to 1 hour after HW at night, provided the swell is less than 2 m high. The pilot, who comes out in a motor boat fitted with radio, boards at the river entrance and is reported to be on station 2 hours before HW. If bad weather prevents the pilot from disembarking on departure, he must be disembarked off Mohammedia, Casablanca or Tangiers. Tugs are available and must be employed if the pilot considers it necessary.

5.38 Within the river, off Mehdia, only temporary anchorage can be obtained owing to the strong tidal streams and bad holding ground. The quay to the NW of the town, is used mainly by fishing vessels.

Port services
1

5.39 Other facilities: See Kenitra, 5.40. Communications: Nearest international airport located at Rabat Sal about 40 km away.

Kenitra General information


1

5.40 Position. Kenitra (3416N 635W) (Port Lyautay) lies 59 miles SSW of Pointe Nador. It is situated 17 km up the Rio Sebou, on its S shore. Function. It is the capital of El Gharb district which is one of the richest agricultural districts in Morocco. In 2001 the population was 562 000. Principal imports are cattle,

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provisions and building materials; the principal export is woodpulp. Topography. Between Mehdia and Kenitra there are three sharp bends, known as Torno de las Trois Palmiers, Torno de Ouled Bergel and Torno de LAbattoir. The land is high on the NW side of the river between Punta Pacheco and Torno de las Trois Palmiers, about 3 miles NE, and between Mehdia and Punta au Raisin 1 miles NE. Traffic. In 2004 there were 120 vessels movements totalling 402 562 dwt. Port Authority. Kenitra Port Authority, Travaux Publics, Subdivision Maritime, Kasbah Kenitra, Morocco.

Port services
1

5.46 Repairs: minor repairs; slipway capacity 400 tons; Other facilities: Deratting can be carried out and deratting exemption certificate can be issued. Supplies: Bunkers can be supplied by road tanker. Fresh water is laid onto the quays. Fresh provisions are plentiful. Communication. It is connected with Casablanca, Tangier and Fes by ferry. There is an airport on the W side of the river, 1 miles NNW of Kenitra. Nearest international airport, RabatSal airport, 40 km away.

Limiting conditions
1

RIO SEBOU TO MOHAMMEDIA General Information


Charts 856. 1912, 860, 861.

5.41 Controlling depth See 5.34. Deepest and longest berth. See 5.45. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 23 m, and mean neap range about 13 m. Abnormal water levels. See 5.34. Density of water. 1000 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled. See 5.34.

Route
1

5.47 From a position W of the mouth of Rio Sebou (3416N 641W) the route leads SW for about 47 miles to a position N of Mohammedia.

Topography Arrival information


1

5.42 Port radio. There is a coast and port radio station at Kenitra. See the relevant edition of Admiralty List of Radio Signals. Outer Anchorages. See 5.35. Pilotage. Compulsory. See 5.35. Tugs. Three tugs available. Local knowledge. See 5.35.

Harbour
1

5.43 General layout. Kenitra harbour, is ranged EW along the S bank of the river, opposite to Torno de LAbattoir and Torno de Fouarat. Seaplane area. The EW and NS reaches of the river, which lie to the N and E of the Kenitra airfield, respectively, can be used by seaplanes. Local weather. See 5.36.

5.48 From the mouth of Rio Sebou to Sal (5.57), a town on the N side of Port de Rabat (5.57), and 15 miles SSW, the coast is bordered by conical hills for the N half of its length and by cliffs for the S half. The coast between Port de Rabat and Cap de Mohammedia (Cap de Fdala) (5.81), 34 miles SW, is sandy and interspersed with rocky patches. About 8 miles SW of Rabat two ranges of barren hills run parallel to the coast. The coastal range is about 61 m high and lies about 1 mile inland. The inner range has an elevation of from 61 m to 122 m and lies between 5 and 6 miles inland. These ranges continue SW for about 80 miles nearly to Azemmour (5.146).

Depths
1

5.49 The depths along this stretch of the coast up to SkhiratPlage (3352N 704W), shelve rather steeply, and are free from dangers outside the 10 m line which lies between to 1 mile offshore. From SkhiratPlage to Mohammedia, the shelving is more gradual.

Directions for entering harbour


1

5.44 Major light: Kenitra Airfield Aero Light (34176 N 6362W). Entry. The chart is sufficient guide. Attention is drawn to the following dangers: Unlit mooring buoys are situated along the sides of the river channel, between Torno de Ouled Bergel and Torno de LAbattoir, as shown on the chart. Useful mark: Chimney (34 16 3N 6 35 4W) at Torno de LAbattoir.

Hazards
1

5.50 Fishing nets. Tunny nets, extending up to 7 miles offshore, may be encountered in the vicinty of Cap de Mohammedia (Cap de Fdala). Mariners are warned to keep a good lookout for these nets which are marked as follows: Day White flag with letter M or A R = red light Night R G G G G = green light Marks Seaward end of net Middle of net

Berths
1

5.45 There are 10 berths at a concrete quay, 861 m long with a depth alongside of 35 m at LW, 55 m at HW. Minerals are loaded via four conveyor belts, whilst grain is loaded from a silo. The coaling quay, is situated 5 cables ENE of the end of the main quay. A small Tshaped wharf for tankers is situated 3 cables NE of the coaling quay.

Traffic regulations.
1

5.51 Prohibited areas. RabatMohammedia. (1) An area in which navigation and anchoring is prohibited lies between Rabat and

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Mohammedia. The area extends up to 21 miles to seaward and is some 24 miles in length. The prohibited area is bounded by the following positions: 34022N 6505W 34152N 7095W 34010N 7330W 33473N 7152W (2) Navigation, anchoring or fishing are periodically prohibited in an area bounded by the following positions: 33451N 7186W 33582N 7190W 34042N 7076W 33553N 6586W The majority of the prohibited area (2) is contained within area (1). Skhirat. Entry to the port of Skhirat (3352N 703W) is permanently prohibited (See note on chart 856). MansouriaPointe de Dar Bouazza. Anchoring and navigation are prohibited within 3 miles of the coast between Mansouria (33455N 7180W), 5 miles NE of Cap de Mohammedia (Cap de Fdala), and Pointe de Dar Bouazza (33322N 7494W), 24 miles SW.

Rescue
1

5.52 Mohammedia is a designated MRSC.

The track then leads to the Mohammedia pilot embarkation position (33462N 7230W for vessels bound for the Oil Terminal), or to the pilot embarkation position (33435N 7222W for other vessels), keeping E of the prohibited and restricted areas (5.79). 5.56 Useful marks: Pillar, elevation 65 m, (3413N 641W). Radio mast, elevation 335 m, obstruction lights, (3409N 649W, position approximate). Pillar, elevation 67 m, (3410N 643W). Pillar, elevation 57 m, (3408N 645W). RabatSal Aero Light (control tower) (34027N 6455W). Two Radio Masts (3400N 652W), elevation 135 m. House (3355N 659W) near SidielAbed. Minaret at Sidi Slimane (3347N 707W). Farmhouse (3348N 712W). Farmhouse (3347N 714W), elevation 28 m. House (3346N 716W). House (3345N 718W). Minaret (3345N 718W) at Mansouria. House (3345N 719W) standing on the shore. House (3344N 719W). (Directions for Mohammedia continue at 5.84 and the the coastal passage at 5.98)

Directions
(continued from 5.21)

Rabat General information


1

Principal marks
1

5.53 Landmarks: Radio mast (34092N 6391W), elevation 335 m, red obstruction lights. Cap de Mohammedia (Cap de Fdala) (33435N 7240W), white oil tanks. Major light: Rabat, Fort de la Calette Light (yellow tower, black lantern, 24 m in height) (34021N 6508W).

Passage
1

5.54 From a position W of the mouth of Rio Sebou (3416N 641W), the route leads SW for about 47 miles to a position N of Mohammedia, passing (with positions relative to lot de Skhirat (33527N 7037W)): NW of the mouth of Oued Bou Regreg (15 miles NE), with the towns of Sal and Rabat situated NE and S of the entrance respectively, thence: NW of Tmara (8 miles ENE), noting the minaret (elevation 96 m) standing in the town. A water tower stands about 5 cables WNW of the minaret. Thence: NW of lot de Skhirat, noting the white steelworks at Skhirat (1 miles SE), and a tomb (about 1 miles E) thence: 5.55 NW of lot Sidi Haj Bou Derbala (5: miles SW), a low dark promontory topped by a prominent house, thence: NW of Banc de Bouznica (8 miles W), noting the obstruction at its NE extremity which is marked by a buoy (port hand), and Crte de Mansouria (122 miles WSW), both of which are rocky banks lying 2 to 5 miles offshore with depths of 22 m over them, thence:

5.57 Position. Port de Rabat (3402N 650W) is situated close inside the entrance to Oued Bou Regreg. Function. The port is only used by fishermen and recreational craft and has little commercial value. Rabat is the seat of Government and the residence of the King of Morocco. The town of Sal is situated on the opposite side of the river from Rabat. In 2001 the combined population of the towns was about 1 477 000. Topography. The town of Sal stands on the NE side of the entrance and is surrounded by a wall, flanked by towers at regular intervals. The town of Rabat standing on the S side of the river, has fortifications along both its river and sea faces. Both towns are remarkable for their white walls and minarets. About 9 miles above Rabat the Oued el Akrench joins the Oued Bou Regreg. However, about 6 miles above the river mouth, there is a gorge blocked by islands and drying shoals. A powerboat can ascend the river as far as the gorge at any state of the tide, but to reach Oued el Akrench, it is necessary to leave Rabat 2 hours before HW. Approach and entry. Oued Bou Regreg can be approached from the SW through N to NE and entered between two breakwaters, the heads of which are about 1 cables apart.

Limiting conditions
1

5.58 River bar. A bar, over which the depths vary frequently, extends NNW from Dique basse. The freshets of the river may render the passage across the bar very difficult, even if there is no swell. During winter months the bar is frequently impassable, during summer months this is exceptional.

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Controlling depth, over the bar varies frequently. Deepest and longest berth. Quai de Sal, 82 m in length, with a depth of 4 m alongside is situated on the N bank of the river. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 24 m, mean neap range about 12 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Abnormal water levels. With continuous SW gales and a heavy swell on the coast, the level of water in the river may be considerably higher than the highest spring level, and the surf hinders the passage of boats. The flood stream is then of longer duration, and the shore N of the entrance is swept by the sea. Maximum size of vessel handled. The harbour is accesible to vessels of 60 m in length, drawing from 2 m to 37 m, between 2 hours before and 1 hour after HW.

Major light: Fort de la Calette Light (34021N 6508W) (5.62).

Berths
1

5.61 Alongside depths are reported depths. The port authorities should be contacted for the latest information. There are four quays, three are situated on the S side of the river. Quai de la Douane, 35 m in length and for the use of fishing vessels, is 4 cables SSE of the head of Dique Basse. Quai de Sidi Maklouf lies close E of the S end of the pontoon bridge; it is 30 m long and available for lighters. Quai de la Tour Hassan, lies E of Quai de Sidi Maklouf and 1 cables N of Tour Hassan; it is 220 m long but dries along its entire length. Quai de Sal, situated on the N bank of the river 6 cables above the pontoon bridge, is 82 m long and has an alongside depth of 4 m.

Arrival information
1

Port services
1

5.59 Outer anchorages. Vessels may anchor during summer, NW of the heads of the breakwaters in depths of 9 m to 29 m. In winter, when there is much swell, anchorage must be obtained in depths of more than 29 m as the sea sometimes breaks in depths of 14 m to 20 m. The anchorage is exposed to W winds and swell, but there is a sandy bottom with good holding ground. In bad weather, however, a vessel must put to sea. Pilotage. It is reported that local persons are available to aid vessels wishing to enter. Tugs. A tug is available.

5.62 Repairs. Minor repairs can be carried out. There is a slipway. Hospitals. There are two hospitals in Sal and two hospitals in Rabat. Supplies. Fresh provisions are plentiful. Fresh water is laid on to Quai de la Douane. Communications. RabatSal airport is situated about 5 km ENE of Sal, and Rabat airfield is situated at the S end of that town.

MOHAMMEDIA General information


Charts 861 plan of Mohammedia, 860

Harbour
1

5.60 General layout. The harbour is protected by two breakwaters, the Jete Nord and the Jete Sud. Two training walls, Dique haute and Dique basse, are situated on the E and W side respectively, of Oued Bou Regreg, 2 cables within the entrance. There is a battery at the S end of the W wall, 3 cables ENE of the head of Jete Nord. A signal station stands on the W side of the river entrance, 4 cables SE of of the head of the Jete Sud. Vessels in the roads can communicate with the signal station by day only. A pontoon bridge spans the harbour 2 cables E of Quai de la Douane, and in it there is a gate about 18 m wide. Two road bridges and a railway bridge also span the river SE of Quai de Sal. Traffic signals. A red flag displayed at the masthead at the signal station indicates that entrance is prohibited; at halfmast it indicates that the bar is dangerous for boats and lighters. Tidal streams. Under normal conditions in the river off Rabat, the stream turns about hour after HW and LW. The ingoing stream has a maximum rate of about 2 kn and the outgoing stream between 3 and 4 kn. For details of freshets over the bar see 5.66. Landmarks: Tour Hassan, elevation 74 m, which stands at the NE end of Rabat. Two radio masts, elevation 135 m, stand about 2 miles SW of Tour Hassan. Conspicuous hospital, standing about 2 miles SSW of Tour Hasan.

Position
1

5.63 Port of Mohammedia (3343N 724W).

Function
1

5.64 The port is mainly used by tankers, both large and small, fishing vessels and some general cargo vessels. The population in 2001 was about 210 000.

Topography
1

5.65 Cap de Mohammedia (Cap de Fdala), behind which the port is situated, is formed of a chain of rocks connected to the mainland by masonry embankments. From a distance the cape has the appearance of an island.

Approach and entry


1

5.66 The port can be approached from the SW through N to NE and is entered between the head of Digue Principale and Sidi Mohammed ach Chergui 2 miles ESE.

Traffic
1

5.67 In 2004 there were 598 vessel movements totalling 12 307 908 dwt.

Port authority
1

5.68 Mohammedia Port Authority, ODEP/DEPM, Capitanerie Port Mohammedia, Morocco.

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Limiting conditions Controlling depth


1

Traffic regulations
1

5.69 Although the harbour entrance channel is reported to be dredged to 58 m (1969), a sandbank with a charted depth of 34 m over it lies in the channel, close SW of the head of Jete Nord.

5.79 Prohibited areas. An entry prohibited area, with a radius of 750 m, has been established centred on a wave recorder lightbuoy (special), about 1 mile NNE of the head of Digue Principale (5.81), and an anchoring and fishing prohibited area, the limits of which can best be seen on chart 861, lie in the approaches to this port.

Deepest and longest berth


1

5.70 New tanker terminal, berth B, see 5.88.

Quarantine
1

Abnormal water levels


1

5.71 Although depths of up to 9 m are available at spring tides, these conditions tend to coincide with a heavy swell at the harbour entrance. Vessels have been known to touch bottom with an underkeel clearance of 12 m during a heavy swell; the bottom in the entrance channel being hard rock.

5.80 Pratique should be applied for immediately after berthing. In the event of any suspected diseases on board, it is necessary to advise the Harbour Masters office and agent by radio, fax or telex 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival.

Harbour General layout


1

Density of water
1

5.72 Density of dock water is 1025 g/cm3.

Maximum size of vessel handled


1

5.73 New tanker terminal; 150 000 dwt, maximum draught 18 m, maximum LOA 290 m. Harbour basin; the maximum size of vessel allowed is 130 m in length and 67 m draught (1989).

Arrival information Port operations


1

5.81 The port of Mohammedia, with the town to the S of it, is situated at the W end of Baie de Mohammedia, which lies between Cap de Mohammedia and the mouth of the Oued Nfifkh (33433N 7206W), 2 miles ENE. It consists of a protected harbour and a spur jetty for large tankers. The harbour is enclosed by two breakwaters, Jete Nord and Jete Sud, with an entrance between their heads about 1 cable wide. A breakwater, Digue Principale, extends 1 miles NE from Cap de Mohammedia. Much of the area to the N and E of the Cap de Mohammedia has been reclaimed. A spur 2 cables long, extends ENE from the inner side of the breakwater close to its root. A buoy (special) has been positioned about 1 cables ESE of the spur head.

5.74 Generally berthing of deepdraught vessels during daylight hours only.


1

Development
5.82 Extensive improvements to tanker facilities are planned, involving berth and breakwater extensions.

Notice of ETA
1

5.75 Advance notice of 24 hours must be given to vessels agents.

Currents
1

Outer anchorages
1

5.83 Currents, which set SW at about 2 kn, have been reported in the vicinity of the bay.

5.76 See Prohibited areas 5.51 and 5.79.

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 5.56)

Submarine cables and pipelines


1

5.77 From the vicinity of Jete Nord, four disused submarine pipelines and an underwater cable extend NE, into an anchorage and fishing prohibited area, as indicated on the chart.

Principal marks
1

Pilotage and tugs


1

5.78 Pilotage is compulsory for vessels entering, leaving or shifting berth. The pilot boards E of the harbour entrance. For tankers using the new oil terminal the pilot boards in the vicinity of the approach buoy. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Pilots are available for vessels arriving during the night and wishing to enter the basin when conditions are possible. Vessels transit the port during the hours of darkness. If the pilot is unable to board due to stress of weather, vessels should wait in the offing until conditions improve. Tugs are available.

5.84 Landmarks. The following objects, bearing and distance from Cap de Mohammedia, are conspicuous: Two control towers on the head of the tanker terminal jetty, 7 cables NE; Minaret de Quasbah 1 miles SSE, but this is difficult to identify from the W; A mosque, 2 miles S; A water tower, 2 miles E; Marabout de Ben Chergui, 3 miles ENE. Major lights: 1st Leading Light 130, Rear (white rectangular hut on house, 8 m in height) (33436N 7204W). Harbour Entrance, Leading Light 265, Front (white column, black stripes, 10 m in height) (33428N 7240W). Harbour Entrance, Leading Light 265, Rear (white column, black stripes, 13 m in height) (33428N 7240W).

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Entry
1

5.85 From the outer pilot embarkation point (33462N 7230W), the track leads SE then generally SW either towards the oil terminal, or towards the harbour basin. Leading lights: Front light (black and white chequered pedestal, 3 m in height) (33438N 7207W). Rear light (white rectangular hut on house, 8 m in height) (225 m from front). The alignment (130) of these lights leads through the approach channel. It was reported (1988) that the marks were not conspicuous by day. The track passes (positions given from front light): SW of a buoy (safe water) (3 miles NW), thence: SW of a wreck (2 miles NW) with a depth of 17 m, thence: Clear of a buoy (special) (2 miles NW), thence: NE of a buoy (special) (2 miles NW) marking the centre of an area where entry is prohibited, thence: SW of a wreck (1 miles NW) with a depth of 16 m. The route to the harbour basin continues SE with a direction light (white hut red stripes, 7 m in height) (33416N 7233W) bearing 205, passing: ESE of three buoys (special) (1 miles NW, 1 miles WNW and 1 miles W) to the inner pilot boarding position. 5.86 Leading marks: Front mark. Light (red and white striped turret, 6 m in height) (33428N 7235W). Rear mark. Tower of the Custom House (4 cables from front). The alignment (247) of these marks lead to the entrance to the harbour basin. Leading Lights: Front light (white column black stripes, 10 m in height) (33428N 7240W). Rear light (white column black stripes, 13 m in height) (110 m from front). The alignment (265) of these lights leads into the harbour basin, passing (positions given from front light): S of the head of Jete Nord (4 cables ENE) from which a light (green and white striped turret, 5 m in height) is exhibited, thence: N of the head of Jete Sud (3 cables E) from which a light (red and white striped turret, 6 m in height) is exhibited. Useful marks: Water tower (33415N 7233W) Minaret (33421N 7221W).

Vessels normally berth port side to on Nos 1 and 6 quays. The two jetties for fishing vessels are reported to have depths of between 2 m and 3 m alongside.

Alongside berths
1

5.88 The oil terminal (5.81) has two alongside berths equipped to handle crude oil, naptha and LPG. Berth A; W side of jetty; length 260 m, with dolphins, depth 175 m (1987). Berth B; E side of jetty; length 290 m, with dolphins, depth 185 m (1987).

Port services Repairs


1

5.89 Minor repairs can be carried out by local shipyard, there is a slipway with a capacity of 250 tons. Several mobile cranes and one floating crane of 30 tons are available.

Other facilities
1

5.90 Hospital and medical clinic available; ballast/slop reception facility available; waste oil disposal available; garbage disposal available; lighters available; deratting and deratting exemption certificates renewal.

Supplies
1

5.91 Fuel oil can be supplied by road tanker from Casablanca. Fresh provisions are available. Fresh water is metered and available to vessels in the harbour and at the tanker terminal.

Communications
1

5.92 Nearest International airport is Mohammed V, Casablanca, 40 km away.

MOHAMMEDIA TO CASABLANCA General information


Charts 860 and 861, plan of Rade de Casablanca

Route
1

5.93 From a position in the vicinity of the Mohammedia approach buoy (3461N 7232W) the route leads WSW for about 10 miles to a position N of the Casablanca approach channel.

Topography Basins and berths


1

Basin
1

5.87 The harbour basin comprises of three quays situated at its N and W sides, and two jetties, extending NE, for fishing vessels at its S side. Quay No 6; N side of the harbour; length 60 m; depth 6 m (1984). Quay No 1; N side of the harbour; length 70 m; depth 7 m (1988). Quay No 2; W side of the harbour; length 170 m; depth 63 m (1984).

5.94 The coast between Cap de Mohammedia and Table dOukacha (5.105), about 10 miles SW, is low with a sandy beach and some rocky ledges backed by sand dunes.

Depths
1

5.95 With the exception of a dangerous wreck (33406N 7323W) the coast is free of dangers outside the 10 m line which lies about mile offshore.

Rescue
1

5.96 Casablanca is a designated MRCC.

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Currents
1

5.97 The coastal current sets generally SW at rates of about 05 kn. Mariners should note there is a marked SE set to the current outside Casablanca.

Directions
(continued from 5.56)

Principal marks
1

5.98 Landmarks: Two flares (33416N 725W), 88 m in height. Two chimneys (33411N 7262W) with red and white bands. Marabout Sidi Moumen (33350N 7312W), a tomb standing at an elevation of 115 m. Table d Oukacha (33372N 7338W) Two chimneys (33364N 7342W), 80 m in height, standing behind the power station. Mosque Hassan II (33364N 7380W), minaret, 200 m in height, red obstruction light. Major lights: Oukacha Light (white square tower, red lantern, 20 m in height) (33371N 7339W). Les Roches Noires Light (white round tower, with red lantern, 19 m in height) (33365N 7349W). Pointe del Hank Light (white round masonry tower, 49 m in height) (33367N 7394W).

Other navigational aid


1

5.99 Racon: CA1 Lightbuoy (3401N 7347W). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.

Approach from northeast


1

5.100 From the Mohammedia oil terminal pilot embarkation position (33462N 7230W), the track leads SW for 10 miles passing: NNW of Cap de Mohammedia (Cap de Fdala) (33435N 7240W). Leading lights: Front light (red tower, white bands, 27 m in height) (33 36 5N 7 36 3W) standing on Quai des Phosphates. Rear light (grey grain silo, 46 m in height) (770 m from front) standing on Mle du Commerce. Both lights have daymarks, red rectangle with white stripe, which were reported (1989) to be difficult to distinguish from a distance. The alignment (228) of these lights leads to the pilot embarkation point, passing (with positions relative to Table dOukacha (33 37 2N 7338W): SE of a dangerous wreck (3 miles NNE), position approximate.

W of a dangerous wreck (3 miles NNE), position approximate, thence: E of CA1 Lightbuoy (safe water) (3 miles NNW), thence: E of a dangerous wreck (2 miles NNW), thence: E of a wave recorder lightbuoy (special) (2 miles NNW), thence: To the pilot embarkation position (1 miles NW). 5.102 Useful marks: White beacon (33390N 7294W) standing close to the shore. Water tower (33372N 7280W), standing in the barracks. White house (33372N 7288W), W of the above water tower. Black and white house (33384N 7305W) standing close to the shore. Chimney (33380N 7309W) standing close to the shore. Water tower (33 37 2N 7 33 1W), E of Table dOukacha. Three radio masts (33 36 6N 7 33 9W), approximately 37 m in height, red and white bands. Church spire (33360N 7350W) at Les Roches Noires. The grain silos on Mle du Commerce (5.130). Two pylons (33365N 7392W), close ESE of Pointe dEl Hank. Nouvelle Jete Transversale Light (33 36 8N 7354W). pi Nord Light (33371N 7356W). pi Sud Light (33368N 7363W). Jete Transversale Head, NE corner Light (33367N 7363W). (Directions for Casablanca continue at 5.127 and for the coastal passage at 5.144)

CASABLANCA General information


Chart 861, plan of Rade de Casablanca

Position
1

5.103 The port of Casablanca (3337N 736W).

Function
1

5.104 Casablanca, with a population of 3 380 000 (2001), is a Government Administrative headquarters and the most important port in Morocco.

Topography
1

5.105 The port is situated between Table dOukacha (33372N 7338W) and Pointe dEl Hank, 4 miles W.

Approach from N
1

5.101 From the Mohammedia oil terminal pilot embarkation position (33462N 7230W), the track leads WSW for 10 miles, then S for 4 miles through an approach channel, which is 1 mile wide and situated between the two outer anchorages, passing (with positions relative to Table dOukacha (33372N 7338W): E of a wreck (3 miles N) with a charted depth of 30 m, thence:

Approach and entry


1

5.106 The Port is approached either from the NE or through a charted approach channel and entered between the heads of two breakwaters.

Traffic
1

5.107 In 2004 there were 2917 vessel movements totalling 30 191 905 dwt.

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Port Authority
1

5.108 ODEP, 4 Rue Moussa Ibnou Noussair, Casablanca, Morocco.

Limiting conditions Controlling depth


1 3

5.109 Depths at the harbour entrance are between 10 and 12 m.

Deepest and longest berth


1

5.110 See 5.130.

in the bad weather season, October to April. With a heavy W or NW swell the anchorage becomes dangerous. The holding ground in most places outside the harbour is poor, the bottom nearly everywhere being sand and rock. Anchorage with good holding ground of sand and mud may be obtained about 1 mile N of the head of Jete Moulay Youssef (5.123) in a depth of 24 m. Masters wishing to anchor in either the W or E anchorages, must have prior permission, except for force majeure, requested from the harbour master via VTS, either directly by VHF or other means, or via the pilotage service. All vessels in the anchorage must maintain a listening watch on the VHF working and safety channels.

Tidal levels
1

Submarine cables and outfall


1

5.111 Mean spring range about 27 m; mean neap range about 13 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2.

Density of water
1

5.112 The density of the water is 1025 g/cm3.

5.119 Submarine cables, which are shown the chart, extend N and NW from Pointe dEl Hank. A submarine outfall, which is not charted, extends from a point about 03 miles SE of Pointe dEl Hank and extends from the coast for 2 miles in an 020 direction.

Maximum size of vessel handled


1

Pilotage and tugs


1

5.113 Vessels with draughts up to 120 m are handled.

Local weather and sea state


1

5.114 Fog. It is reported (1998) that frequent dense fog with very low visibilty prevails during winter months. Swell. Occasional Atlantic swell from N or NE is experienced from midOctober to March, but rarely of a magnitude to result in suspension of work in the harbour. However vessels berthing in Casablanca harbour should use extra hawsers as a heavy swell sets into the harbour even in fine weather. Vessels securing stern to should allow a good scope of cable. In the event of bad weather vessels should be ready to leave at short notice. See also 5.125.

Arrival information Port operations


1

5.120 Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 100 gt and is available day and night (under special arrangement between 2400 and 0600 hrs). Pilotage is optional for naval vessels, but is recommended if they are unfamiliar with the port. The compulsory pilotage area is bounded on the E by the meridian of Table de Oukacha, on the N by the parallel of 33377N and on the W by the meridian of the root of Jete Moulay Youssef. Pilots will not normally board outside of this area. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(3). A red flag displayed at the signal station (5.124), indicates that the pilot cannot board the vessel on account of the state of the sea, but that vessels may enter the port at their own risk and the pilot will await them in the lee of Jete Moulay Youssef. At night, should the weather prevent the pilot coming out, no attempt should be made to enter the harbour as it is dangerous. Tugs are available.

5.115 For radio watch in outer anchorage see 5.118.

Traffic regulations
1

Port radio
1

5.116 There are port and coast radio stations. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volumes 1 (1) and 6 (3).

Notice of ETA
1

5.117 ETA should be sent 24 hours in advance or immediately on leaving the previous port, and confirmed 12 hours and 4 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Outer anchorages
1

5.118 Anchorage may be obtained, in designated anchorages, the limits of which are best seen on the chart. The anchorage is partially protected by the promontory of Pointe dEl Hank from winds between S and W, but a swell from the W finds its way into the bay. The swell from the W may set in with very little warning especially

5.121 A Vessel Traffic Service scheme is in operation for the control of shipping. All vessels arriving in Casablanca roads must make VHF contact with the VTS, giving their position, heading and speed. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Prohibited area. The Moroccan Government periodically prohibits all maritime activity, transit and anchoring in an area N and W of Casablanca. The area extends about 3 miles N from the root of Jete Moulay Youssef (5.130) to position 33401N 7370W, thence 7 miles WSW to position 33365N 7450W, thence 3 miles S to the shore in position 33335N 7450W. Prohibited anchorage. Anchorage is prohibited in an area from N of CA1 Lightbuoy to the harbour entrance. This being the approach channel, as shown on the chart. Underwater foundations, with 6 m of water over them, extend NE for 420 m from the head of Jete Moulay Youssef, towards Lightbuoy CA5 (starboard hand, radar reflector, whistle). It is prohibited for vessels to pass between buoy CA5 and the visible head of the Jetty.

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Quarantine
1

5.122 Quarantine is strictly enforced and communication with the shore is not permitted until pratique has been obtained. There is a quarantine hospital.

Front leading light standing on Quai des Phosphates (33365N 7363W) (5.111). Rear leading light standing on Mle du Commerce (33364N 7367W) (5.111). Pointe del Hank Light (33367N 7394W) (5.98).

Harbour General layout


1 1

Entry
5.128 From the pilot embarkation point the route leads SSW and then SW to the harbour entrance, passing (with positions relative to Table dOukacha (33 37 2N 7338W)): SE of CA3 Lightbuoy (starboard hand) (1 miles NW), thence: NW of Table d Oukacha, from which a light (5.98) is exhibited, thence: SE of CA5 Lightbuoy (starboard hand) (1 miles WNW), thence: SE of the head of Jete Moulay Youssef (1 miles WNW), and the obstructions NE (5.121), thence: Between pi Nord (1 miles W), from which a light (white hut green bands, 3 m in height) is exhibited and Nouvelle Jete Transversale (1 miles WSW) from which a light (red column on hut, 4 m in height) is also exhibited. Useful marks: Water tower (33372N 7331W) (5.102), E of Table dOukacha. Three radio masts (33366N 7339W) (5.102). pi Sud, S spur light (green column, white band, 4 m in height) (33368N 7363W). Jete Transversale, Head, NE corner light (red column on hut, 4 m in height) (33367N 7363W). The church spire (5.102) at Les Roches Noires. Two pylons (5.102), close ESE of Pointe dEl Hank.

5.123 The port which is sheltered by two breakwaters, the Jete Moulay Youssef to the NW, and the Nouvelle Jete Transversale to the NE. The entrance to the harbour lies between pi Nord, a spur extending SE from the Jete Moulay Youssef, and the Nouvelle Jete Transversale. The harbour offers about 7 km of quays and covers an area of about 600 hectares.

Traffic signals
1

5.124 A signal station stands at the head of pi Sud on the S side of Jete Moulay Youssef, 8 cables NE of its root. Vessels can communicate by the International Code of signals by day or at night. International traffic signals are shown.
4

Swell signals
1

5.125 The signals (Diagram 5.125) are shown to warn vessels in the harbour when a dangerous swell is expected:

Basin and berths Basin


1

5.129 West Basin for the use of recreational craft is situated 1 cable NW of Mle Tarik.

Alongside berths
Swell signals (5.125)
1

Natural conditions
1

5.126 Local weather. Winds SW and NW during winter; E and NE during summer; Climate information. See 1.291 and 1.297.

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 5.102)
2

Principal marks
1

5.127 Landmarks: Oukacha Light (33371N 7339W) (5.98). Two chimneys (33364N 7342W) (5.98). The grain silos on Mle du Commerce (33364N 7367W) (5.130). Mosque Hassan II (33364N 7380W) (5.98). Major lights: Oukacha Light (33371N 7339W) (5.98). Les Roches Noires Light (33 36 5N 7 34 9W) (5.98).

5.130 Numerous berths with cargo handling equipment of all description are available in the harbour. Jete Moulay Youssef has six berths A to F and P3. Berth P3 or Quai Ptrolier is 120 m long and has an alongside depth of 8 m. Berth F is about 305 m long and can accept vessels with a draught of 11 m. It is for military use and the discharge of dangerous dry cargoes. A yacht basin, naval dockyard and a fishing harbour are situated at the head of the harbour. Mle Tarik, the most W of the jetties on the S side of the harbour, includes Berths T1, T2 and 10 to 13. Berths 10 to 13 are container berths. Berths A1 to A3 lie between Mle Tarik and Mle du Commerce to the E; all three are RoRo berths. Mle du Commerce, on which stand the grain silos, comprises Berths 20 to 24 on the W side, T3 and T4 on the NW side, and Berths 30 to 36 on the E side. Berths 3536 are container berths. Berths R2 and R3 lie between Mle du Commerce and Mle des Argumes to the E. Mle des Argumes comprises berths 40 to 44 on the W side, T5 and T6 on the N side, and Berths 50 to 55 on the E side. Berths R4 and R5 lie between Mle des Argumes and Jete Transversale.

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Mosque Hassan II

Casablanca Harbour pi Sud (5.128)


(Original dated 1997) (Photograph Crown Copyright)

Jete Transversale comprises Berths 60 to 66 on the W side and T7 on the N side. Phosphates in bulk are loaded at the NW part of this jetty. East Container Terminal, which lies 5 cables E of Jete Transversale has a quay about 600 m long on its W side with a reported depth alongside of 12 m. At the S end of the quay there is a RoRo berth.

facilities available; garbage disposal facilities are available; fumigation companies operate in the port.

Supplies
1

Port services Repairs


1

5.133 Fuel oil is available from the wharves or can be supplied by barge; fresh water is laid on to the wharves and also available from water barges; fresh provisions are available.

5.131 A floating crane of 50 tons and a mobile crane of 100 tons are available. There is a naval repair yard and a 350 m long fitting out berth. A dry dock with a length of 157 m and width of 26 m is capable of accepting vessels up to 10 000 tons with draughts up to 60 m. Four chain haulage slipways and a capstan winch for vessels up to 700 tons displacement are also available.

Communications
1

5.134 International airport at Nouasser, Casablanca Mohammed V, which has international connections, 35 km SSE.

Rescue
1

Other facilities
1

5.132 Three hospitals; deratting can be carried out, deratting and deratting exemption certificates issued; no ballast/slop

5.135 A rescue station is maintained on Jete Moulay Youssef. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.

CASABLANCA TO AGADIR GENERAL INFORMATION


Charts 860, 3133. Jorf Lasfar to Safi (5.176). Safi (5.183). Safi to Agadir (5.208). Anza and Agadir (5.233).

Area covered
1

5.136 This section describes coastal route, anchorages, ports and harbours from Casablanca to Agadir about 210 miles SSW. It is arranged as follows: Casablanca to Jorf Lasfar (5.139). Al Jadida (5.148). Jorf Lasfar (5.156).

Topography
1

5.137 For a general topography of the area see 5.3.

Current
1

5.138 See 1.247.

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CASABLANCA TO JORF LASFAR General information


Charts 860, 862 plan of Approaches to Al Jadida and Jorf Lasfar, 3133.

Directions
(continued from 5.102)

Principal marks
1

Route
1

5.139 From a position N of Casablanca (3337N 736W) the route leads 67 miles SW to Jorf Lasfar.

Topography
1

5.140 The coast between Pointe dEl Hank and Pointe dAzemmour, 36 miles WSW, is sandy and interspersed with rocky patches, with breakers extending up to mile offshore. A line of hills 100 to 200 m high stand parallel to this section of the coast. From Pointe dAzemmour to Cap de Mazagan, 12 miles SW, the coast is lined with sand dunes, backed by low hills. The Oued Oum ar Rbi, the longest river in Morocco, flows into the sea 3 miles SW of Pointe dAzemmour. The coast between Cap de Mazagan and Cap Blanc du Nord, 8 miles SW, is backed by a range of barren hills, about 60 m high, which slope gradually to the beach. The hills terminate close N of Cap Blanc du Nord in a low, brown, horizontally streaked rocky cliff. The coast is fronted, between Cap de Mazagan and the N entrance point of Crique de Sidi Bou Zid, 3 miles SW, by a bank which extends mile offshore with depths of less than 10 m over it. The N entrance point of Crique de Sidi Bou Zid is formed of sand dunes about 18 m in height. The coastal bank between the creek and Cap Blanc du Nord extends up to 1 mile offshore with depths of less than 5 m over it; a rock with a charted depth of 06 m, lies on the outer edge of this bank, 1 miles NNE of Cap Blanc du Nord. This stretch of coast should not be approached within a distance of 2 miles, as it is fronted by rocks and the soundings are very irregular. Cap Blanc du Nord probably derives its name from a white cliff, 72 m high, lying immediately S of the headland which is comparatively low; it is named thus to distinguish it from a cape of a similar name lying farther S (6.29). Cap Blanc du Nord is also known as Jorf El Lasfar. Heavy breakers extend up to 7 cables off Cap Blanc du Nord in strong W winds. Between Cap Blanc du Nord and Jorf Lasfar, 2 miles SSE, the coastline consists of cliffs. An area of drying rocks, upon which lies a conspicuous wreck, is situated 1 miles SE of the cape.

5.144 Landmarks: House (Tower) (33339N 7428W). Water tower (33181N 8200W). Minaret at Moulay Abdallah (33120N 8355W) Major lights: Pointe dEl Hank Light (5.98). Anfa (Cazes) Aero Light (metal framework tower, 30 m in height) (33 33 8N 7 40 0W), red obstruction lights. Azemmour Light (white tower 14 m in height) (33206N 8183W). Sidi Bou Wafi Light (white tower, black top, 51 m in height) (33152N 8311W). Cap Blanc du Nord light (white square tower, black top, yellow wall, 17 m in height) (33098N 8376W).

Passage
1

Fog
1

5.141 This stretch of the coast is subject to frequent fog between MayJuly and OctoberNovember. The fog is generally present in the early morning and dissipates during the forenoon.

Traffic regulations
1

5.142 Prohibited area. The Moroccan Government periodically prohibits all maritime activity, transit and anchoring in an area N and W of Pointe dEl Hank. For details see 5.121.

Rescue
1

5.143 Al Jadida (3315N 831W) is a designated MRSC. 149

5.145 From the vicinity of the CA3 Lightbuoy (33379N 7346) (starboard hand, pillar), the track leads WNW, keeping clear of the dangerous wreck in the W anchorage, until N of Pointe dEl Hank, which should not be approached closer than 2 miles. The track then leads WSW, passing (with positions relative to Cap de Mazagan (3316N 831W)): NNW of Cockscomb Rock, (47 miles ENE), surmounted by a small tomb and lying close offshore from Oulad aj Jmal (3335N 742W), thence: Clear of a dangerous wreck, existence doubtful, (43 miles NE), thence: NNW of Hautfond de Dar Bouazza, (41 miles ENE), a shoal with a least depth of 67 m over it, and the mouth of the Oued Merzeg, which flows into the sea 1 miles S of the shoal, thence: NNW of the Pointe de Dar Bouazza, (38 miles ENE), a prominent headland, noting the Crique des Oulad Jerar which lies to the E of it. thence: NNW of three stranded wrecks (35 miles, 31 miles and 27 miles ENE, respectively). These wrecks lie up to miles offshore. In this area there are numerous shoals with less than 5 m water over them and vessels transiting this stretch of the coast should keep at least 1 miles offshore. Thence: 5.146 NNW of Pointe de Azemmour, (12 miles ENE), which is identified by a wooded sandhill at its extremity that appears dark and detached above the neighbouring dunes. It is shaped like a small truncated pyramid. pi de Azemmour, a spit, extends about 2 miles NW of the point. Outside the spit the depths are irregular. In bad weather the sea breaks in a depth of 13 m off the point which should be given a berth of at least 5 miles in passing. Thence: NNW of the mouth of the Oued Oum ar Rbi, (9 miles ENE), and the town of Azemmour standing 2 miles S of it, thence: (Directions continue for Al Jadida at 5.152) NNW of Al Jadida, (6 cables SE), a minor port, noting the stranded wreck which lies mile ENE of the cape, thence:

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NNW of Cap de Mazagan, which is low and rocky, and from which a light (white tower black bands, 10 m in height) is exhibited. A reef and foul ground extending 2 miles ENE from the cape. pi de Mazagan, with a least depth of 6 m over it, lies at the outer part of this foul ground. Depths of less than 5 m extend 1 mile N and NNE of the cape. Cap de Mazagan should be given a berth of at least 5 miles especially in bad weather. 5.147 The track then leads SW, passing: NW of Crique de Sidi Bou Zid (3 miles SW), noting the conspicuous tomb which stands on its shore, thence: NW of the village of Moulay Abdullah surrounded by the ruined walls of Tit, (5 miles SW), which consists mainly of the remains of a number of square towers. Within the village there is a conspicuous minaret, with an elevation of 39 m, and a white tomb standing on each side. Thence: NW of Cap Blanc du Nord (8 miles SW), which can be passed at a distance of 1 miles. The track then leads SSE to a position 3 miles SW of Cap Blanc du Nord. Useful marks: Marabout, elevation 41 m (33189N 8193W). Water Tower (33180N 8200W). Minaret (33172N 8209W). (Directions for Jorf Lasfar continue at 5.172 and for the coastal passage at 5.180)

Local weather and sea state. It is recommended, especially in winter, that vessels be ready to weigh anchor immediately as the scend, caused by the heavy swell, between pi de Mazagan and the coast renders deepdraught vessels liable to touch the ground.

Arrival information
1

5.150 Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained about mile NE of the head of Jete Nord, with Sidi Moussa tomb bearing about 190, in depths of 11 m to 13 m, over indifferent holding ground of rock covered with sand. A heavy swell is raised by W winds at the anchorage, but some protection is afforded by pi de Mazagan. In 1964, HM Surveying Ship Vidal anchored in a depth of 10 m, 5 cables NE of the head of Jete Nord, where the swell was very much reduced, with holding ground of sand over rock. Pilotage is compulsory and should be arranged through the agent giving 24 hours notice. The pilot comes from Safi and boards about 2 miles from the harbour entrance in good weather. In bad weather, which occurs on about 50 days in a year, entry into the harbour may not be possible. Tugs are available, and join the vessel 2 miles from the harbour entrance.

Harbour
1

Al Jadida
Chart 862 plan of Approaches to Al Jadida and Jorf Lasfar, and plan of Al Jadida

5.151 General layout. The harbour is sheltered to the N and E by breakwaters which are 610 m and 600 m in length, respectively. It is accessed through an entrance channel 50 m wide at its narrowest point, and consists of an outer harbour and a rectangular basin at its S end. In 1984 the entrance channel and the outer harbour were dredged to a depth of 3 m and there was a depth of 15 m in the basin.

General information
1

Directions for approaching harbour


1

5.148 Position. Port of Al Jadida 33154N 8301W. Function. Minor port, trading in sulphur, citrus fruit and general cargo, with a population of 294 000 in 2001. Topography. The port is composed of an artificial harbour formed by two breakwaters, Jete Nord and Jete Sud, and is situated about 6 cables SE of Cap de Mazagan. The old (Cit Portugaise) or E part of the town of Al Jadida is built in the form of a square surrounded by walls 11 m in height, the angles of which are semicircular shaped. To the W of the old town is the new town which has several large houses. Approach and entry. The port is approached between pi de Mazagan and the coast, and entered through a dredged channel 9 cables SE of Cap de Mazagan. Port Authority. Capitanerie des Port de Jorf Lasfar et Al Jadida, B.P 407, Al Jadida, Morocco.

Limiting conditions
1

5.149 Controlling depth. A depth of 2 m is charted just SE of the head of Jete Nord, and another charted depth of 24 m lies 06 cables further SE. Deepest and longest berth. Quay at Jete Sud, about 6 m depth and about 75 m long. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 29 m; mean neap range about 14 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water is 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled. Up to 87 m LOA and 2700 dwt.

(continued from 5.146) 5.152 Landmarks: Sidi Moussa (33144N 8292W), a rectangular white tomb surmounted by a cupola. Beacon, painted black and white in bands, standing 1 mile SSW of Sidi Moussa. Minaret (33155N 8305W), with flagstaff, standing on the white tower of a mosque. Tower (33153N 8302W), at the post office. Major light: Sidi Bou Wafi Light (33152N 8311W) (5.144). 5.153 Approach and entry. From a position about 6 miles NNE of Cap de Mazagan the track leads SSE in the white sector of Sidi Mesbah Lighthouse (white square tower, green top, 18 m in height) to meet the leading line into the bay. Vessels approaching from W should not alter course toward the leading line until the conspicous house (below) and Sidi Mesbah Lighthouse bear more than 151. Leading marks: Front. Sidi Moussa ((33144N 8292W) (5.152). Rear. Beacon 1 mile from front mark) (5.152). The alignment of these marks (210) leads into the bay, passing: SE of pi de Mazagan (5.159). Thence course may be altered towards an anchorage or the harbour entrance as required. Useful marks: Sidi Mesbah Lighthouse (white square tower, green top, 18 m in height) (33147N 8263W).

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House (33151N 8265W), NW of Sidi Mesbah Light. House (33148N 8285W), standing on the shore. Windmotor (33142N 8284W). Water tower (33143N 8288W). Water tower (33150N 8305W). Jete Nord Head Light (square concrete tower, green band, 5 m in height) (33156N 8298W). Jete Sud Head Light (white column, red top, 5 m in height) (33156N 8298W). Sidi Daoui Lighthouse (white tower, black bands, 10 m in height) (33160N 8307W), at Cap de Mazagan.

Traffic
1

5.160 In 2004 there were 646 vessel movements totalling 13 007 172 dwt.

Port Authority
1

5.161 Capitanerie des Port de Jorf Lasfar et Al Jadida, B.P. 407, Al Jadida, Morocco.

Limiting conditions
1

Berths
1

5.154 Alongside depths are reported depths. The port authorities should be contacted for the latest information. There is one quay of about 75 m length, with a depth alongside of about 6 m, called the barge quay, capable of accommodating vessels of up to 87 m in length and 2700 dwt. Draught restrictions (depending on tide) of 427 m to 518 m apply.
1

5.162 Controlling depth. A charted depth of 135 m lies 4 cables SW of the light structure at the head of Digue Principale. Deepest and longest berth. Phosphates berth, with a length of 300 m and an alongside depth of 156 m. Density of the water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled: up to 120 000 dwt.

Arrival information Notice of ETA


5.163 Vessels should send ETA at least 72 hours before arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Port services
1

5.155 Repairs. Minor repairs can be carried out on board. A small dry dock is used by fishing vessels and Port Authority vessels. Other facilities. Hospitals and medical clinics are available. Deratting can be carried out and deratting exemption certificates issued. Supplies. Fresh water is available at Jete Sud. Fresh provisions are available. Small quantities of fuel oil can be obtained with prior notice, but bunkering is usually carried out in Casablanca. Communications. Nearest International airport is situated at Casablanca, about 80 km away. A private airfield is situated about 3 km SSW of Cap de Mazagan.

Outer anchorage
1

5.164 Vessels may anchor in a position 1 miles W of the light on Digue Principale head, as indicated on the chart, in depths of about 34 m.

Pilotage
1

JORF LASFAR General information


Chart 862, plan of Jorf Lasfar
1

5.165 Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 100 grt and over, and available day or night. Pilots are provided from Casablanca, on a daily shift basis, and board about 5 cables W of Digue Principale head. Vessels must provide a good lee for the pilot boat which may be hampered by heavy swell; in bad weather the pilot boards inside the breakwater. The pilot boat has a black hull and white superstructure. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Tugs
5.166 Tugs of up to 3000 hp are available, and join vessels just inside the breakwater.

Position
1

5.156 The port of Jorf Lasfar (3308N 838W) is situated 2 miles S of Cap Blanc du Nord.

Customs and Excise


1

5.167 Available 24 hours.

Function
1

5.157 The port has been developed for the export of phosphates and other minerals. Liquid chemicals, gasses and general cargoes are also handled.

Harbour General layout


1

Topography
1

5.158 The port serves an industrial complex and is backed by low cliffs and sand dunes.

Approach and entry


1

5.159 The harbour is approached from N, through W, to SW directly from the sea. The final approach into the breakwater is through a dredged channel 240 m wide, 25 miles SSW from Cap Blanc du Nord.

5.168 Digue Principale extends NW from the shore 1 miles SSE of Cap Blanc du Nord, then turns SW and SSW for a total length of 3100 m. ContreDigue, a mole, extends 1250 m NW from the shore 1 mile SSW of the root of Digue Principale. A modern port is encompassed within the above. Berths capable of accommodating vessels of diverse description are situated within, and are approached through dredged channels.

Development
1

5.169 Further development plans include creating repair and construction facilities for fishing vessels and other vessels

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up to a size of 8000 tons and length 65 m. A container terminal, near the root of Digue Principale, is also proposed.

JORF LASFAR TO SAFI General information


Chart 3133, 862 plan of Approaches to Safi

Hazards
1

5.170 Manoeuvring to pass through the harbour entrance is reported to be difficult at times as 90 to 120 turns are required from the approaches to the port. Heavy swells, prevalent during winter months, outside the harbour, may cause a surge at alongside berths.

Route
1

5.176 From a position W of Jorf Lasfar (3308N 838W) the route leads SW and S for about 63 miles to Safi.

Topography
1

Local weather
1

5.171 Winds NW to SW in winter and E in summer.

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 5.147)

Principal marks
1

5.172 Landmarks: Chimney (grey, red and white bands on top section, red obstruction lights) (33 06 3N 8 38 3W, position approximate). Tower, 64 m in height (33076N 8369W). Major lights: Cap Blanc du Nord Light (white square tower, black top, yellow wall, 17 m in height) (33098N 8376W).

5.177 Between Cap Blanc du Nord and Cap Beddouza, 50 miles SW, the coast is mostly rocky and backed by sand dunes about 15 m high. Behind these dunes are cliffs lying parallel to the coast at a distance inland of about 1 mile at the N end and mile abreast the ruins of Oualidia, 32 miles SW of Cap Blanc du Nord. From Cap Beddouza to Cap Safi, 10 miles S, the coast is formed of white cliffs with a narrow beach of sand at their base. Above the cliffs are hills of varying elevation which rise gradually to Cap Safi. Pointe de la Tour, 2 miles SSE of Cap Safi, consists of high cliffs. Cliffs continue from Pointe de la Tour, along the N shore of Rade de Safi as far as the town of Safi.

Hazards
1

Entry
1

5.173 From a position 3 miles SW of Cap Blanc du Nord the route leads E to the harbour entrance. Useful marks: Direction Light (column) (33089N 8370W) Digue Principale Head Light (round concrete tower, 10 m in height) (33076N 8388W). Digue Principale Epi Head Light(round concrete tower, 10 m in height) (33078N 8386W). ContreDigue Head Light (tower) (33 07 7N 8383W).

5.178 Fishing. From early May to end of December, Sardine fishing vessels operate between 20 miles N of Cap Beddouza and Essaouira (5.224), 66 miles S of the cape, in depths not exceeding 110 m. A good lookout is to be kept for them. Fog, is reported to occur frequently along this stretch of the coast, especially in summer.

Rescue
1

5.179 Safi is a designated MRSC.

Directions
(continued from 5.147)

Berths Alongside berths


1

Principal marks
1

5.174 There are fourteen numbered, and well fendered berths in the port. Vessels generally berth headout. The phosphate berth is located on the NE face of the ContreDigue, with an alongside depth of 156 m. A RoRo berth is situated in the NE part of the harbour.

Port services
1

5.175 Repairs. Very limited, mainly for fishing vessels. Other facilities. Hospitals and private clinics situated at Al Jadida, 20 km away; oily waste and garbage collection facilities available on request. Deratting can be carried out and deratting exemption certificates issued. Supplies. Fuel oil and gas oil available subject to sufficient notice being given and if berth accessible by road tanker; fresh water is laid on to the quays; stores are available. Communications. Nearest international airport is at Casablanca, about 95 km N.

5.180 Landmarks: Tomb and minaret (3231N 916W) at Sidi Bouchta. Marabout (elevation 83 m) (32288N 9133W). White house (32262N 9145W), which stands close to the coast. Large white tomb surmounted by cupola (32226N 9172W) at Sidi ben Krakra, and the conspicuous transformer 4 cables SSW. Tomb (elevation 115 m) (32212N 9170W). Radio masts (32205N 9167W), red and white bands, obstruction lights. BordjNador Tower (32 20 4N 9 16 8W) a conspicuous disused lighthouse with an elevation of 152 m, which is particularly useful when other landmarks are shrouded in fog. Major lights: Cap Beddouza Light (turret on fort 19 m in height, flanked by four towers, two with green and yellow bands) (32326N 9170W). Pointe de la Tour Light (yellow square tower 12 m in height) (32200N 9168W).

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Passage
1

Traffic
1

5.181 From a position W of Digue Principale Head Light (33076N 8388W) the track leads SW passing (with positions relative to Cap Beddouza (3233N 917W)): NW of a dark cliff (45 miles NE),which projects from the coast and gives the appearance of an island from some directions, thence: NW of Sidi bel Khir (30 miles NE), a tomb which stands on a small point, thence: NW of the ruins of Oualidia (17 miles NE), in which stands a minaret, and two passages which lead to a lagoon. The N passage is obstructed by a sandbank and the S passage is mostly blocked by rocks, almost awash, leaving only a narrow channel with a depth of 15 m. Thence: NW of the conspicuous tomb of Sidi bou Seksou (7 miles NE), which stands on the top of some slightly undulating ground, 123 m high, thence: NW of Cap Beddouza, which rises precipitously to an elevation of 60 m; with a singular gap on the ridge of the cape being visible from N and SW. 5.182 The track then leads S, passing at least 3 miles off Cap Beddouza, noting the rocky spit with a least charted depth of 34 m and on which the sea breaks and which extends 1 mile W of the cape. The track then passes: W of Cap Safi (10 miles S), which is recognised by the irregular rocks at its base, thence: W of Pointe de la Tour (12 miles S), which consists of high cliffs and from which a light is exhibited. Thence the track leads ESE to the pilot embarkation position (13 miles S). (Directions for Safi continue at 5.202 and for the coastal passage at 5.213)

5.187 In 2004 there were 514 vessel movements totalling 5 802 430 dwt.

Port Authority
1

5.188 Office du Direction dExploitation du Port, Safi, Morocco.

Limiting conditions Controlling depth


1

5.189 There is a least charted depth of 80 m at the entrance to the harbour.

Deepest and longest berth


1

5.190 Quai du Rive, which lies in between Quai Nord and Quai des Phosphates, has depths alongside of 10 m. Quai du Commerce has a total length of 448 m.

Tidal levels
1

5.191 Mean spring range about 26 m; mean neap range about 13 m. See information in the relevant edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.

Density of water
1

5.192 Density: 1025 g/cm3.

Maximum size of vessel handled


1

5.193 Maximum permissible LOA is 190 m, maximum permissible draught is 1065 m, berthing at high water.

SAFI General information


Chart 862 plan of Approaches to Safi
1

Local weather and sea state


5.194 In strong W winds, the swell causes a scend in the harbour, and extra hawsers should be laid out. It is, however, exceptional for a vessel to have to put to sea.

Position
1

5.183 Port of Safi 32185N 9150W.

Arrival information Port radio


1

Function
1

5.184 It is an important port, originally constructed for the export of phosphates, but now also handling other bulk cargoes, minerals, liquid chemicals and fish. In 2001 the population was 445 000. It is the seat of the Provincial Governor and the nearest port to the town of Marrakesh which stands 95 miles ESE.

5.195 There is a port and coast radio station. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Notice of ETA
1

5.196 Vessels should send their ETA 7 days prior to arrival and confirm 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Topography
1

5.185 The port of Safi lies at the head of Rade de Safi, a large bight situated between Pointe de la Tour and Pointe Rouazzi, 5 miles SSE. The town can be easily identified from a distance by its white walls and buildings. Cliffs appear on either side of the town, those to the N, being higher.

Outer anchorages
1

Approach and entry


1

5.186 The harbour can be approached from the NW through W to SSW. The final approach to the harbour, is from the W.

5.197 Anchorage may be obtained, as indicated on the chart, about 8 cables SW of the head of the Grande Jete, in a depth of about 24 m, the bottom being mud and sand. With a strong W wind this anchorage is untenable. Although entirely open to W winds, rade de Safi affords good anchorages during the summer months when the sea in it is usually fairly smooth. In 1987, it was reported that in adverse weather, the port authorities had no objection to vessels anchoring up to 5 miles or more from the port. Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited within the white sector of the direction light (5.204).

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Pilotage
1

5.198 Pilotage is compulsory for merchant and fishing vessels over 100 tons and optional for naval vessels. The pilot boards 5 cables off the breakwater and is available during daylight hours only; when departing a pilot is available at any time. In bad weather the pilot boards inside the breakwater. The pilot can be contacted by VHF. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Tugs
1

5.199 Tugs are available, ranging from about 1500 hp to about 1800 hp. The tugs join a vessel just inside the breakwater and use ships lines. Two tugs are used on large vessels.

Customs and Excise


1

5.200 Available 24 hours.


2

Harbour
1

5.201 General layout. The harbour, consisting of three basins protected to the S and W by, Grande Jete, a breakwater 1800 m in length. Development. Extension of open space of nearly 12 hectares planned by the port authority.

Leading lights: Front light (red and white mast, 9 m in height) (32185N 9150W). Rear light (red and white tower, 11 m in height) (150 m from front). The alignment (150) leads into the harbour, noting the shoal patch, with a depth of 14 m over it, which lies 1 cable ESE of the head of Grand Jete. A beacon, situated on the breakwater, 1 cable SE of the head, stands close SW of the shoal patch. 5.204 Useful marks: Direction Light (white tower, black bands, 8 m in height) (32190N 9151W). Grande Jete Head Light (white framework tower, green top, 12 m in height) (32190N 9155W). Grande Jete Elbow Light (white and green pedestal, 5 m in height) (32188N 9153W). Grande Jete Spur Light (32187N 9152W). Mle Des Phosphates, Head Light (white concrete hut, red lantern, 5 m in height) (32 18 7N 9151W). Mle Des phosphates, Root Light (yellow square tower, 27 m in height) (32187N 9148W). Jete Transversale Nord Light (grey hut, red top, 4 m in height) (32189N 9152W). Signal Station (32185N 9150W).

Basins
1

5.205 The harbour is divided into three basins; Bassin No 3 lies between Jete Transversale Nord and Mle des Phosphates, which extends W from the shore. Bassin No 2 lies between Mle des Phosphates and Mle Oblique which extends NW from the vicinity of the grain silos. Bassin No 1, the fishing harbour, lies S of Mle Oblique.

Alongside berths
Safi (5.201)
(Original dated prior to 2005) (Photograph Director of Ports and Fisheries, Rabat) 1

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 5.182)

Principal marks
1

5.202 Landmarks: Sidi Bou Zid (white tomb elevation 98 m) (32195N 9154W). Minaret (elevation 51 m) (32191N 9149W). House (elevation 51 m) (32188N 9147W). Grain Silo (elevation 65 m) (32185N 9149W). Water Tower (elevation 85 m) (32182N 9140W). Major lights: Pointe de la Tour Light (32 20 0N 9 16 8W) (5.180).

5.206 Quai Nord, handling phosphoric acid, is situated along the S face of Jete Transversale Nord. Quai du Rive, handling sulphur ore, is situated between the roots of Quai Nord and Mle des Phosphates. Quai des Phosphates, as the name implies, is for loading of bulk phosphates, and situated along the S face of Mle des Phosphates. The berth is equipped with two chute loaders. Quai du Commerce, situated between the roots of Mle des Phosphates and Mle Oblique is used for ore and general cargoes. The Silos Quay, situated on the N face of Mle Oblique, is used for handling cereals. Quai Tableaux, used by coastal vessels, is situated at the head of Mle Oblique.

Port services
1

Entry
1

5.203 From a position 7 cables S of Pointe de la Tour Light (5.180) the route leads for a distance of 1 miles ESE in the white sector of a direction light (5.204) to the harbour entrance where the route alters SSE.

5.207 Repairs. Minor repairs effected; shipyard, equipped with various forklifts and hauling gear, for construction and maintenance of fishing vessels. Other facilities. Hospitals and private clinic in town; deratting can be carried out and deratting exemption certificates issued; garbage collection facilities available; fumigation services available; 9 ton lighters available; a railway system is in operation within the port area.

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Supplies. Limited supply of diesel and gas oil available; fresh water laid on to quays; provisions are available. Communications. Nearest international airport situated at Marrakesh, 150 km away. A local airfield is situated at the S end of the town. Harbour regulations. Pollution of any kind is forbidden.

SAFI TO AGADIR General information


Charts 3133, 863

5.211 S of Cap Rhir, the coast curves SE and is formed of rocky cliffs backed by mountains. Djebel Tazenakht, with an elevation of 1349 m, rises about 15 miles E of Cap Rhir, and forms the W end of Atlas Mountains. Djebel Oulma rises to an elevation of 1184 m, 7 miles SSE of Djebel Tazenakht. Pointe de Bou Irden is situated 9 miles SE of Cap Rhir, and 4 miles futher SE is Pointe Tamrhart, with the discharge of Oued Tamrhart to its S. The river flows through a fertile valley and is the commencement of the Sous territory, a mountainous and thickly populated district. The coast from Oued Tamrhart to Agadir, 6 miles S, is fringed by a rocky beach.

Hazards
1

Route
1

5.208 From a position W of Safi (32185N 9150W) the route leads SW for about 43 miles to Cap Hadid, SSW for about 21 miles to Ras Sim, S for about 45 miles and SE for about 19 miles to Rade dAgadir

5.212 Fishing. From May to November tunny nets, extending nearly 1 miles offshore, are laid out between Cap Rhir and Agadir. The nets are marked as in Diagram 5.212. The coast in the vicinity of these nets should be given a berth of at least 3 miles.
Day Night Meaning

Topography
1

5.209 The coast from Safi to Oued Tensift, 17 miles SW, is faced with cliffs, the most prominent of which are at Djorf el Yhoudi, 7 miles SSW of Safi, and at Djorf el Ghaba, 7 miles further SSW. Between the latter cliffs and the mouth of the Oued Tensift, the coast becomes a sandy beach, fringed with rocks, behind which are dunes. From Oued Tensift to Cap Hadid, 26 miles SW, the coast is formed of sandy beaches with rocks above and below water; it is backed by sand dunes. Jebel Hadid, or Iron Mountains, extending about 20 miles inland between Oued Tensift and Cap Hadid, attain an elevation of 658 m, 7 miles ENE of Cap Hadid. Sidi Yakoub stands on this summit. From Cap Hadid to Essaouira, 12 miles SSW, the coast is composed of a sandy beach fringed with rocks for the N 5 miles, thence to within 2 miles of Essaouira it is a sandy beach. Thence as far as Essaouira it is once again fringed with low rocks. This stretch of coast is backed by sandhills surmounted by dark bushes. 5.210 From Rade dEssaouira to Ras Sim (Cap Sim), 7 miles SW, the coast is formed of sandhills about 20 m high and sloping gradually to the beach. A row of bushes, resembling rocks on the sand, extends nearly to the cape from a position about 1 mile N of it. The coast S of Ras Sim continues sandy for about 4 miles to Oued Tidisi which flows into the sea through a prominent opening in the cliffs. Between the mouth of Oued Tidisi and Cap Tafelney, 14 miles S, the coast consists of cliffs which are the seaward spurs of the Atlas range. This coast is rugged with deep valleys and high plateaux, rising to elevations of 1200 m to 1500 m, behind which are the snow capped peaks of Atlas Mountains (1.111). A range of mountains, between 700 m and 914 m high, lies about 7 or 8 miles inland and the SW end of this range terminates in Cap Tafelney. The coast between Cap Tafelney and Pointe Imesouane. 16 miles S, and thence to Cap Rhir, 13 miles farther S, is mostly steep, the mountains inland rising to an elevation of about 914 m. Several villages, tombs and clumps of trees can be seen along this coast.

Seaward end of net

Middle of net Marks on Fishing nets (5.212)

Fog. This stretch of the coast, which has only been partially surveyed, may be obscured by dawn mist, haze or fog. Refraction and mirage. Great care should be taken in fixing position owing to errors due to refraction and mirage.

Directions
(continued from 5.182)

Major lights
1

5.213 Ras Sim Light (turret on fort flanked by white towers, three black bands, 20 m in height)) (31239N 9499W). Cap Rhir Light (white tower, 41 m in height) (30381N 9531W).

Passage
1

5.214 From a position 5 cables W of Grande Jete Head Light (32190N 9155W), the track leads SW passing (with positions relative to Ras Sim (3124N 954W)): NW of Pointe Rouazzi (60 miles NE), on which a pillar surmounted by an iron mast stands. A prominent factory with numerous chimneys and obstruction lights stands near the coast 2 miles SSE, and there are towers and three chimneys marked by obstruction lights 1 mile farther SSE. Thence: NW of Soueira Kdima (47 miles NE), a locality, in which the ruins of a Portuguese fort and three white modern houses, stand, noting the reef which lies parallel to this part of the coast, 3 cables offshore, extending 8 cables SSW from the fort, thence:

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NW of the mouth of Oued Tensift (46 miles NE), a river of considerable size, but it has a bar at its mouth which dries in the summer, thence: NW of a dangerous obstruction (39 miles NNE), noting the ODAS conical buoy, moored 2 miles SSW of it, thence: ESE of a bank (37 miles NW), with a least depth of 11 m over it, thence: NW of Cap Hadid (20 miles NNE), which is low and fronted by a reef which only covers at spring tides. The reef which has a rock that dries 1 m at its outer end, extends about mile W of the point which should be given a berth of at least 3 miles. 5.215 The track then leads SSW, passing: WNW of Essaouira (8 miles NNE), a minor port, noting the les Purpuraires which lie about 1 mile SW of the town. Thence: WNW of a dangerous wreck (5 miles N), marked by a lightbuoy (pillar; isolated danger), which uncovers at low tide. Thence: WNW of Banc de Mogador (2 miles NNW to 5 miles NNE), which lies parallel to the coast and is composed of coral with a least charted depth of 2 m. Thence: WNW of Ras Sim, noting the stranded wreck which lies about 7 cables NNW of the cape. Ras Sim is a plateau 99 m high, with sandy slopes. The cape is fringed by a reef over which the sea breaks and should not be approached within a distance of 3 miles. Banc de Sim extends about 1 miles W of the cape and is of coral with a least depth of 67 m over it. 5.216 The track then leads S, passing: W of Cap Tafelney (17 miles S), which appears as a detached spur when seen from N, and is dominated by a sugarloaf summit, 212 m high, rising miles E of it. A rock, with depths of 1 m over it, lies about 5 cables SSE, and depths of less than 9 m extend about 3 cables W of Cap Tafelney. In general, the coast should not be approached within a depth of 30 m in the vicinity of Cap Tafelney. Thence: Clear of Banc France (23 miles SSW), with a depth of 30 m over it, thence: W of Pointe Imessouane (32 miles S), which is low and should be given a good berth when approaching from N as shoal water extends 2 cables SSW from it, thence: Clear of Banc dImessouane (34 miles SSW), with a least depth of 46 m over it, thence: W of the mouth of Oued Tamri (40 miles S), noting the tomb which stands on the N side of the mouth of the river, thence: 5.217 W of Cap Rhir (45 miles S), noting the bank of the same name which lies 9 miles WSW of the cape with a depth of 49 m over it. Cap Rhir, which from a distance appears as an abrupt promontory, and slopes gradually from the summit which is about 365 m high. A stranded wreck lies close SW of the cape. Shifts of wind have frequently been reported by vessels rounding the cape. The track then leads SE, passing: SW of Pointe de Bou Irden (50 miles S), noting the prominent monument which stands on the point, thence:

SW of Pointe Tamrhart (53 miles S), noting the mouth of Oued Tamrhart which flows into the sea close S of it. Thence the track leads to the pilot embarkation position, 59 miles S. 5.218 Useful marks: Marabout of Sidi Boudeniane (32103N 9161W), with a conspicuous house 3 cables NE and a conspicuous red house 1 miles SSW, from it. Monument (31583N 9231W). Beacon (31574N 9242W), elevation 93 m. Monument (31547N 9264W). Sidi Yssahak (31544N 9244W), a prominent white tomb. Sidi Abd el Betach (31514N 9316W), a tomb, standing on the coast. Sidi Mamatouaf (31 50 3N 9 32 1W), a tomb, elvation 102 m, and Rocher Gharb which dries 2 m and lies 7 cables NW. Beacon (31499N 9302W). Sidi Salah (31492N 9328W), a tomb, elevation 89 m. Maftah (31480N 9350W), a tomb standing on the coast. Sidi Moulay bou Zergtoun (31390N 9408W), a prominent white tomb standing on a small rocky slope. Tower (31147N 9484W) standing on the coast, with another prominent tower standing on Jebel Amsittene, 9 miles SE of it. The seaward facing slopes of the hills above the port areas of Anza and Agadir bear conspicuously laid out markings in Arabic script. (Directions for Agadir continue at 5.248 and for the coastal passage at 5.258)

Anchorages and harbours Soueira Kedima


1

5.219 Description. The coast abreast of Soueira Kedima (3203N 921W) 16 miles SSW of Safi, is fringed by a reef which lies parallel to the coast, 3 cables offshore. A small pier projects NW from the coast abreast the S end of this reef and forms a small fishing harbour. Landing can be effected in fine weather on the sandy beach N of the pier.

Ras Sim Anchorage


1

5.220 Anchorage. Ras Sim anchorage (31226N 9499W), formed by a bight S of the cape, affords good shelter from winds between NW and N. Anchorage can be obtained about mile SE of Ras Sim in a depth of 9 m, good holding ground or in a depth of 15 m, 3 cables farther S. Directions. To make the anchorage, a vessel, coming from the N and having passed at least 3 miles W of Ras Sim, should approach the coast on a course of 090 passing 3 miles S of Ras Sim Lighthouse. The vessel should not alter course N for the anchorage until the lighthouse is abaft the beam. Coming from S, a vessel should not skirt the coast as foul ground extends about mile offshore.

Cap Tafelney Anchorage


1

5.221 Anchorage can be obtained in the bight S of Cap Tafelney (3106N 951W) with shelter from NNW winds, but not free from swell. To make the anchorage, a vessel

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should give the cape a berth of about 1 mile, and anchor about 1 mile SE of the cape in a depth of 11 m. Caution. The wind springs up about noon in summer, and heavy squalls are liable to come down from the hills in the vicinity of Cap Tafelney.

Baie Imessouane Anchorage


1

5.222 Description. Baie Imessouane lies SE of Pointe Imessouane (3050N 949W) and provides shelter from N and NW winds; the latter raises a surf at the head of the bay. A small fishing harbour has been constructed at Imessouane. The fishermen usually operate in boats 56 m in length and use long lines. Anchorage, excellent in summer, can be obtained in the middle of the N part of the bay over a bottom of fine sand.

December when storms from the SSW occur, lasting till about midMarch. The swell, generally moderate and about 152 m high, is from the NW, for about 300 days of the year and from the SW for for the remaining period. The strong swell, about 35 m high, is from the SW and occurs from January to March. from April to August, the strong N winds only create a choppy sea and the swell remains weak until the end of December.

Arrival information
1

Cap Rhir Anchorage


1

5.223 Anchorage can be obtained about 4 miles ESE of Cap Rhir (3038N 953W) about 2 cables offshore in front of a prominent crevice in the cliff between two grey patches. The sea here is smooth with strong NW winds, but squalls come down from the cliff. Anchorage can also be obtained off a sandy beach 3 miles farther SE; this anchorage is reported to offer better shelter. It is probably the best anchorage off this stretch of the coast, and the only one affording any shelter in very bad weather.

Essaouira
Chart 863 plan Approaches to Essaouira and Essaouira.

General information
1

5.224 Position. The town of Essaouira (3131N 946W). Function. The port of Essaouira, formerly known as Mogador, is an open roadstead anchorage at which cargo is worked using lighters. The principal exports are agricultural products and fish. Bentonite, a rock clay, is imported, and wheat and barley during periods of drought. In 2001 the town had a population of 82 000. Topography. The town stands on a low rocky peninsula fronted by rocky islets. The modern part of the town stands outside the walls of the old part which contains several minarets and a clock tower. le dEssaouira, situated about 1 mile SW of the town of Essaouira is 28 m high at its N end and is fronted except on its E side, by islets and reefs which extend as much as 3 cables on its W side. A disused lazaretto, with a minaret over it, stands at the S end of the island. le Farawn, 25 m high, lies close N of le dEssaouira. Approach and entry. The main entrance to the roadstead is the Passe Nord which lies between the rocks extending SW from the town of Essaouira and le Farawn.

5.226 Port radio. There is a port radio station at Essaouira. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Outer anchorage. Anchorage can be obtained by large vessels outside Rade dEssaouira about 1 mile W of the town in depths of 22 m to 27 m. Before anchoring the nature of the bottom should be ascertained; it is usually sand N of the entrance to the roadstead, and rock S of it. The swell is often uncomfortable here and a vessel should always be ready to weigh. Inner anchorage. Anchorage can be obtained in Rade dEssaouira about 4 cables E of le Farawn in depths of about 75 m over fairly good holding ground of sand and mud. There is a rocky patch, with a depth of 48 m over it, lying about 1 cables E of this berth. Small vessels with a draught of less than 4 m will find good shelter within 1 cable of the E side of le dEssaouira. Caution. The anchorage in the roadstead is very dangerous with a very heavy swell, when rollers come in through Passe Nord whatever the direction of the wind. This is especially the case from December to March with SW winds. With the first sign of more than an ordinary swell, especially with a falling barometer, vessels should proceed to sea, as the breakers which form in the entrance render exit difficult. In winter, a vessel remaining in the roadstead at night should be ready to leave immediately. During strong N winds from April to August, vessels are advised to moor to avoid yawing. Boat traffic with the shore is frequently interrupted by the rollers. Pilotage There are no official pilots, but a Government official will conduct a vessel through the entrance to the anchorage without accepting any responsibility. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Tugs. There is one motor launch and two smaller motor boats which act as tugs for the wooden lighters. Quarantine. Vessels having cases of contagious disease on board are prohibited from entering, and should proceed to Casablanca as the town of Essaouira has no disinfecting facilities.

Harbour
1

Limiting conditions
1

5.225 Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 27 m; mean neap range about 12 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled. The largest vessel which had entered the roadstead had a draught of 8 m. Local weather and sea state. Strong N winds are experienced for about 20 days per year, between April and August. A period of relative calm then follows till

5.227 General layout. The roadstead, Rade dEssaouira, which extends S from the town is sheltered on its SW side by le dEssaouira. A boat harbour, formed by two breakwaters, is situated at the N end of Rade dEssaouira. A small boat harbour, where landing can be effected on a sandy beach, is situated at the NE end of le dEssaouira. Development. It is reported that works are in progress to enable phosphates to be loaded. Traffic signals. A signal station, using the International Code of Signals, is situated in a tower at the N end of the boat harbour.

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Storm signal. The following storm signal is displayed: Two cones, points together, over a ball Dangerous to enter or leave through Passe Nord
1

Berths
5.231 Berthing is available for lighters, into which cargo is worked, and boats in the boat harbour, which is dredged to a depth of 3 m.

Port services Directions for entering harbour


1

5.228 Landmarks: Radio mast (31300N 9447W). The square Bordj, known as the Emperors palace, flanked by four towers and having a central tower (31292N 9463W). Tall minaret (31290N 9460W) in the village of Diabat. Major light: Ras Sim Light (turret on fort flanked by white towers, three black bands, 20 m in height)) (31239N 9499W).

5.232 Repairs: Small repairs can be carried out. There is a slip capable of handling small vessels. Other facilities: Lighters are available to work cargo. Supplies: Fuel oil is not available. Provisions can be obtained. Fresh water can be supplied from a 5 ton barge, and is laid on to the quays in the boat harbour. Rescue. Essaouira is a designated RCC.

ANZA AND AGADIR General information


Chart 863, plans of Approaches to and plan of Anza and Agadir.

Position Approach
1

5.229 It is recommended, when making the port of Essaouira, to approach the coast on the parallel of Jebel Hadid (5.209) and to keep it in sight as the sandhills in the vicinity of Essaouira do not show up well when there is any wind. Soundings should be continuous. In fine weather, the first objects seen will be the craggy summits of Atlas Mountains (5.3), capped with snow and contrasting with the dark mountains near the coast, while to the N, Jebel Hadid appears like a dark island. On nearer approach, a narrow range of sandhills, vegetation on their summits, will be seen. At 9 or 10 miles distance the minarets and white buildings in Essaouira and the low island of le dEssaouira will commence to show up clearly. The S entrance, known as Passe Sud, leads over the shoal ridge which connects le dEssaouira to the mainland and is only suitable for boats. In bad weather, the sea breaks over Passe Sud.

5.233 Anza and Agadir; 3026N 938W.

Function
1

5.234 An important port and tourist centre, it is also the residence of the Governor of the Province. It had an estimated population of 923 000 in 1997. Principal imports are sugar, cement, cereals and building materials. The principal exports are ores, marine and agricultural products.

Topography
1

Entry
1

5.230 Passe Nord lies in the white sector of Sidi Mogdoul Light between the bearings of 124 and 136, and should be approached with the NE extremity of le Farawn in line with the Bordj bearing about 147. When on the leading line bearing 128, course should be altered onto it. The line is difficult to hold with winds from N or S. Leading marks: Front, Sidi Mogdoul Light (white square tower, 15 m in height) (31297N 9460W). Rear, White Obelisk surmounting a white circular tower (12 m in height) (31288N 9447W), which stands on the crest of a dune. The obelisk is difficult to distinguish in the early morning sun in winter, but easily identifiable during sunset. Useful marks: Jetty, Head Light (black and white column on pedestal, 9 m in height) (31305N 9466W). Jetty, Spur Light (white concrete hut, 2 m in height) (31306N 9466W). E Mole, Head Light (white concrete hut, 2 m in height) (31306N 9465W).

5.235 The town and port of Agadir lie at the N end of the roadstead. Port dAnza has been constructed NW of Port dAgadir, with the industrial quarter of Anza situated further NW. The old town of Agadir including the Kasbah, were destroyed by an earthquake in 1960. The Kasbah was restored and is permanently sealed as a memorial to the 25 000 victims. The old town was replaced by a modern resort. The new town of Agadir lies to the E of the port and includes a number of large tourist hotels. The industrial quarter is situated further SE of the new town. A sandy beach, backed by sand dunes extends S from the town for 3 miles to the mouth of the Oued Sous. A breakwater constructed for beach regeneration, about 200 m in length, and running parallel to the beach, lies 13 miles ESE of the Grande Jette light.

Approach and entry


1

5.236 The port can be approached from S through W to NW. The final approach is from the S.

Traffic
1

5.237 In 2004 there were 826 vessel movements totalling 5 665 701 dwt.

Port Authority
1

5.238 ODEP, Travaux Publics, RAPC, Agadir, Morocco.

Limiting conditions
1

5.239 Deepest berth: Grain Berth (5.250).

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Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 27 m; mean neap range about 12 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessl handled: 250 m LOA. Local weather and sea state. MidNovember to midMarch is generally the bad weather season. Prevailing wind is from NW. In summer, sea breezes rapidly raise a temporary swell in the bay. In winter, the large Atlantic depressions raise a heavy swell compelling vessels to put to sea, and cause dangerous rollers inshore.
1

the meridian of 940W, and to the N and S by the parallels of 3025N and 3020N. A lightbuoy (special) is moored at 30225N 9400W, on the W edge of the prohibited area.

Harbour General layout


5.246 Port dAnza, which comprises two basins, the Port de Commerce and the Nouveau Port de Pche, is sheltered by a breakwater which extends SW from the coast for 5 cables then SE for 9 cables. The entrance, which lies between the head of the breakwater and the head of a short breakwater extending SW from the shore, faces SE. Port dAgadir, to the E of Port dAnza, is protected from the W by the Grande Jete and from the SE by Jete SudEst. It comprises Grand Bassin and a fishing basin, and is used only by naval and fishing vessels.

Arrival information Port radio


1

5.240 There are coast and port radio stations at Agadir. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Notice of ETA
1

5.241 Vessels should notify the Port Authority or their agents of their time of arrival in advance. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Development
1

5.247 Land reclamation works were in progress (1999), within Port dAnza, to extend the container and grain jetties. Dredging work was in progress (1999) within the Nouveau Port de Pche.

Outer anchorage
1

5.242 The anchorage area is situated 1 mile WNW of the light on the W breakwater and N of the parallel 3025N, as shown on the chart. This is the S anchorage on the Atlantic coast of Morocco which affords shelter from NE and E winds.
1

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 5.218)

Principal marks
5.248 Landmarks: with positions relative to the lookout tower (30262N 9386W): Chimney (13 miles NW). Water tower (7 cables NW). Group of seven silos (2 cables NNW). Large white grain silo (6 cables SW). Pointe Aghazdis old Lighthouse (2 cables SW). Numerous red and white radio masts, with red obstruction lights (4 cables ENE). Ruins of the Kasbah (1 mile ESE) with its square walls, standing on a conical hill, with three gigantic Arabic inscriptions on its S side. Major light: Inezgane Aero Light (17 m in height) (30228N 9334W).

Submarine pipeline
1

5.243 A suction pipeline 3 cables N of Oued Lahwar, extends 450 m W from the shore in position 30242N 9362W, ending in intakes as shown on the chart.

Pilotage and tugs


1

5.244 Pilotage is compulsory and generally available day and night except for large vessels, or during bad weather, when port movements may be restricted to daylight hours. The pilot may be summoned by three long blasts on the ships whistle or by the usual flag signal. The pilot boards approximately 7 cables S of the head of the Grande Jete. Vessels should pass S of the outer lightbuoy (port hand, pillar) (30245N 9379W), which is moored about 1 cable NE of the pilot embarkation position. Vessels arriving later than 2100 are usually berthed the following morning, except vessels with perishable cargoes or for other special reasons. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Tugs are available.

Entry
1

Traffic regulations
1

5.245 Prohibited area. Anchoring and fishing is prohibited in an area bounded on the E by the coast and on the W by

5.249 The chart is sufficient guide. Useful marks: Port dAgadir, Grande Jete, Head Light (white tower red band, 7 m in height) (30251N 9380W). Port dAgadir, Jete SudEst, Head Light (white post on green and white hut, 5 m in height) (30252N 9378W). Port dAnza, W Breakwater Head Light (white tower, red band, 9 m in height) (30252N 9386W). Port dAnza, E breakwater Head Light (white tower, green band, 9 m in height) (30255N 9385W). Group of seven silos (30264N 9387W).

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Agadir from N (5.246.1)


(Original dated 2001)

(Photograph B. Horton)

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Anza from ENE (5.246.2)


(Original dated 2001)

(Photograph B. Horton)

Basins and berths Port dAnza


1

Port services
1

5.250 Port de Commerce has a grain berth on SW side, a container and RoRo terminal on NW side and a petroleum wharf in the SE corner. The grain berth has an alongside depth of 150 m. Nouveau Port de Pche is situated close E of Port de Commerce, and has reported depths alongside of between 3 m and 5 m.

Port dAgadir
1

5.251 There are nine numbered berths in Port dAgadir, the deepest being Berths 8 and 9, with a dredged depth of 90 m. The old fishing port is in the NW corner of Grand Bassin and there is a marina at the E end of the basin.

5.252 Repairs. Minor repairs can be undertaken. A diver is available. There is a shiplift of 1200 tons capacity, and a slipway, suitable for vessels up to 80 tons. A hauling hold 60 x 65 m is available to receive fishing vessels up to 200 tons. Other facilities. Two hospitals in Agadir; deratting can be carried out and deratting exemption certificates issued. Supplies. Fuel oil and gas oil are available; fresh water is available and is laid onto the quays; fresh provisions and fish are abundant. Communications. Airport; AgadirInezgane, 7 km away with connections to Casablanca and Marrakesh. Rescue. Agadir is a designated MRSC. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.

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AGADIR TO CAP TARFAYA (CABO YUBI) GENERAL INFORMATION


Charts 863, 3133, 1870
1

Visibility
5.257 Due to mist and haze at all times of the year and frequent fog, vessels are recommended to sound when approaching the coast.

Area covered
1

5.253 This section describes coastal route, anchorages, ports and harbours from Agadir to Cap Tarfaya (Cabo Yubi) about 228 miles SW. It is arranged as follows: Agadir to Sidi Ifni (5.255). Sidi Ifni to TanTan (5.268). TanTan to Cap Tarfaya (Cabo Yubi) (5.284).

Directions
(continued from 5.218)

Major lights
1

Topography
1

5.254 For a general topography of the area see 5.3.

5.258 Sidi Ifni Light (yellow square tower on dwelling, 13 m in height) (29228N 10108W). Cap dAglou Light (metal pylon, 20 m in height) (29400N 9580W).

Passage
1

AGADIR TO SIDI IFNI General information


Chart 3133

Route
1

5.255 From SW of the Anza and Agadir outer approach buoy the route leads SSW for about 70 miles to the anchorage off Sidi Ifni.

Topography
1

5.256 About 9 miles S of Agadir the appearance of the coast changes to red sandstone cliffs alternating with sandhills, and the AntiAtlas mountains, covered with snow in the winter, are in the background. From S of the mouth of Oued Massa (3005N 940W) to Sidi Bou Lfdai, 6 miles SSW, high sand dunes replace the red sandstone cliffs for about 6 miles. At Sidi Bou Lfdai the coast changes back to red sandstone cliffs, higher and steeper than those to the N, which continue to the point where the Oued Assa and the Oued Adoudou enter the sea, 11 miles S. S of the mouth of these rivers, the coast changes markedly. Close within the sandy beach are green hills faced by sandstone cliffs about 30 m high. At a considerable distance inland there is a range of mountains about 600 m high, and the country appears wooded, cultivated and well inhabited. There are numerous houses, built of red brick or clay, some of which are large and surrounded by farm buildings. A deep valley extends to the beach about 6 miles S of Oued Adoudou. The sandy beach near the mouth of Oued Sidi Bou Nouar, a further mile to the S, is replaced by greyish blue rocks with small promontories forming coves sheltered from the NW. The coast in the vicinity of Cap dAglou (2943N 957W) changes again to barren hills that form successive ridges, gradually increasing their elevation until they join the high mountains of the interior which are nearly 1220 m high. The coast farther SW is formed of dark red cliffs indented by small coves in which boats may be seen hauled up. From the number of villages to be seen, the coast is probably populous.

5.259 From a position SW of the outer lightbuoy (port hand, pillar) (30245N 9379W), the track leads SSW, passing (with positions relative to Cap dAglou (2943N 957W)): WNW of the mouth of Oued Lahwar (47 miles NNE), noting the dangerous wreck situated about 1 miles SE of it, thence: WNW of the mouth of Oued Sous (43 miles NNE), which is obstructed by a sandbank that partially dries, and accessible only to vessels not exceeding a draught of 15 m, thence: WNW of a wreck which dries (36 miles NNE), thence: WNW of Tifnit, a small village (33 miles NNE), thence: WNW of the mouth of Oued Massa (28 miles NNE), a small river whose entrance is obstructed by a sandbank which dries. A large village stands some distance SE, and Sidi Ouassa, a prominent tomb, stands 1 mile SW of the mouth of the river. A black wall stands 5 miles S of the river mouth and about 2 miles inland. Thence: WNW of Banc de Sidi Ouassa (25 miles NNE), with a least depth of 61 m over it, and lying parallel with and 1 mile from the coast, thence: WNW of Sidi Bou Lfdai (22 miles NE), a tomb surrounded by walls, thence: WNW of the common mouth of Oued Assa and Oued Adoudou (12 miles NE), which can be recognised by two small reddishcoloured forts; the N fort, nearest the mouth is Sidi Moussa. A small building stands on the top of a hill S of the forts. Thence: WNW of Oued Sidi Bou Nouar (5 miles NE), and Oued Sidi Bou el Fedail (4 miles NE), both river mouths being inconspicuous. A mosque, Sidi Bou Nouar, stands near the mouth of the former river. 5.260 The route then continues SSW, passing: WNW of Cap dAglou, which is low, dark, and not very prominent, from where a light (5.258) is exhibited, thence: WNW of Oued Mirhleft (7 miles SW), easily identified by a tomb with a cupola standing near a sandy beach, thence: WNW of Oued Salogmad, or Ro Asif Salguemat (9 miles SW), noting the prominent conical rock which stands in the entrance to the river, and a tomb which stands on its left bank near the beach.

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On the same bank, within the river mouth, there is a white house with a jagged roof, behind which stands the village of Mighlet on the crest of a hill. Thence: WNW of a group of rocky islets 10 m high (12 miles SSW), which lie mile offshore with another group of four rocky islets lying 1 miles further SS, thence: WNW of Punta Sidi BuerReya (16 miles SSW), a prominent salient. Flat rocks, which dry at low water and extend about 3 cables W from the point, form two small bays known as Mers Leguesira, with depths of between 2 m to 4 m and provide slight shelter for local boats, but a heavy sea usually breaks into them. Thence the track leads to the anchorage (25 miles SW), in approximate position 2922N 1013W. Useful marks: Sidi Bou Lfdai (2958N 942W), a tomb. Sidi Moussa (2948N 950W), a reddish coloured fort. Punta Sidi BuerReya (2927N 1007W). Light at Overhead Transporter Head (cylidrical tower, 10 m in height) (29219N 10121W). Light at Jetty Head (29215N 10121W). (Directions continue at 5.271)

which was originally capable of carrying passengers and cargo. This transporter was reported (1995) to be in ruins. Breakwaters have been constructed close S of the ruined transporter. The main breakwater extends 4 cables WNW, then 2 cables SW from the root (292155N 101144W). From the main breakwater, 3 cables from its root, a mole extends 2 cables SSW. A berth 200 m in length, with a depth alongside of 28 m, has been constructed on the E side of the mole. Shoal depths. Bajo Vigia, a spit with depths of less than 8 m over sand and stones, extends about 11 cables WNW from the mouth of Oued Ifni. A detached patch, with a depth of 82 m over it, lies 1 mile W of the river mouth. The sea breaks over these shoals even in calm weather. Currents. The current in the approaches flows S at rates of about kn. It passes outside of the inshore roadstead and occasionally reaches rates of kn.

Sidi Ifni General information


1

5.261 Position. The town of Sidi Ifni (2923N 1011W). Function. A small port, mainly used by fishing vessels. Topography. The town stands on top of cliffs which are 90 m high, on the S side of Oued Ifni, which flows into the sea 4 mile SW of Punta Sidi BuerReya. The coast S of the mouth of Oued Ifni is fronted by white cliffs which are remarkable for their peculiar curve and irregular strata.

Sidi Ifni (5.264)


(Original dated prior to 2005) (Photograph Director of Ports and Fisheries, Rabat)

Limiting conditions
1

5.262 Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 26 m; mean neap range about 12 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Local weather and sea state. Predominant winds are from the NW and SW quadrants, and are mainly responsible for the strong swells.

Arrival information
1

5.263 Outer anchorages. Anchorage can be obtained by large vessels about 2 miles WSW of Sidi Ifni Light in depths of 25 m to 35 m, hard clay. This anchorage is open to winds from S, through N to NE, and vessels should be ready to weigh at immediate notice. Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels in good weather about 5 cables NW of Sidi Ifni Light, in a depth of 10 m, stones. Pilotage The pilot comes from Agadir and embarks in the vicinity of the lightbuoy (red and white; pillar) which is moored 5 cables SW of the head of the main jetty.

Harbour
1

5.265 Landmarks: From a distance the best landmarks (with positions relative to Sidi Ifni Light (5.258)) are: BuIgris (2 miles NE), a coloured and conical hill, 333 m high. BuLaalam (1 miles SE), 299 m high. The valley between BuLaalam and BuIgris is steep. Pan de Azcar (1 miles S), a conical mountain. Four radio masts (2 miles ENE), marked by red obstruction lights. Closer inshore the following are good landmarks: Sidi Ifni tomb standing close N of the mouth of Oued Ifni. Large barracks standing on top of the cliffs N of Sidi Ifni tomb. Church and the old lighthouse (1 cable NE), painted red and white in bands. Hospital ( cable S) with a water tower nearby standing at the S end of town. Four radio masts at the airfield (5 cables SSE). Major light: Sidi Ifni Light (See 5.258).

5.264 General layout. A loading and discharging platform (2922N 1012W) 50 m in length and standing on piles, was connected to the shore by an overhead transporter

Berths
1

5.266 One berth; length 200m, depth alongside 28 m.

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Port services
5.267 Communications: There is regular sea service with Las Palmas (3.81). There is a regular air service from the airfield with Islas Canarias.

ground, is evidently caused by the fine light sand of a reddish tint which is blown off the desert.

Directions
(continued from 5.260)

Principal marks SIDI IFNI TO TAN TAN General information


Chart 3133
1

Route
1

5.268 From the Sidi Ifni anchorage (2922N 1013W) the route leads SW for about 81 miles to a position 1 miles WNW of the head of the breakwater in Tan Tan.

5.271 Landmarks: Cabo Uarsig (2916N 1017W). Cap Nun (2844N 1105W). Major lights: Cap Nun Light (white metal pylon, black bands, 30 m in height) (28408N 11075W). Cap Nachtigal Light (tower, 7 m in height) (28298N 11200W).

Passage
1

Topography
1

5.269 The coast between Sid Ifni and Oued Noun, 19 miles SW is intersected by numerous ravines. There is high land on either side of Oued Noun, and Pico de Fuego, an isolated peak 905 m high, rises about 12 mile NE. A small conical hill is situated on the right bank of the river close to the beach. The mouth of Oued Noun can be identified by the difference in the geological formation of the coast on either side of the river. On the NE side, all the rocky promontories are of a red brick tint with horizontal stratification and, being hollowed out at their bases by the surf, overhang the water. On the SW side there is a stretch of precipitous cliff of a grey slate colour, 3 or 4 miles long, with an absolutely smooth surface and vertical stratification. Between Oued Noun and Oued Bou Issaline, 16 miles SW, the coast is cliffy and intersected by ravines. A mountain range gradually decreases in elevation towards the coast where it terminates in a conical peak 4 miles S of Oued Noun. About 9 miles S of Oued Noun the mountains recede inland, and between them is Jebel Rastarf, a level plateau 40 m high covered with stunted vegetation. The cliff descends gradually to the mouth of Oued Bou Issaline. Between Oued Bou Issaline (2856N 1036W) and Oued Aoreora, 15 miles SW, lies the Playa Blanca, a sandy beach. This beach can be identified by an isolated sugar loaf hillock, which rises a little N of it, and is the last to be seen on this part of the coast, and also by a tabletopped range of mountains running parallel to the beach inland. The coast from the mouth of Oued Aoreora to Cap Nun (Cap Dra), 14 miles SW, is formed of high sandstone cliffs with sandhills in the interior; some rare cacti form the only vegetation. From Oued Dra to Tan Tan, 16 miles SW, the coast is formed of earth escarpments above which are chalky cliffs, which, in the vicinity of Cap Nachtigal are about 46 m high.

Discoloured water
1

5.270 For some distance both N and S of Cap Nun, as well as to seaward, the water has a brownish red tinge with a thick muddy appearance, so that the track of a vessel is visible for some time. This discoloration of the water, which was at one time erroneously believed to indicate the existence of shoal

5.272 From the anchorage off Sidi Ifni (2922N 1013W), the track leads SW, passing (with positions relative to Cap Nun (2844N 1105W): NW of a wreck which dries (56 miles NE), thence: NW of Cabo Uarsig (52 miles NE), which is abrupt, noting the tomb of Sidi Uarsig situated close N of the coastal escarpment, thence: NW of Oued Noun (Ro Asaca) (43 miles NE), which enters the sea in a small bay between two steep rocky points, the N entrance point of the bay having on it a white mark which from a distance resemble a vessels sails, and noting the prominent square building, with a tower and a flagstaff, which stands on the S side of the mouth of the river, thence: NW of a white monument (32 miles ENE), which stands on high ground about 1 miles inland, thence: NW of the mouth of Oued Bou Issaline (28 miles ENE), close S of which Playa Blanca, a sandy beach commences. 5.273 The track continues SW, passing: NW of Oued Aoreora (12 miles ENE), a small stream which enters the sea at the SW extremity of Playa Blanca, noting the shoal with a depth of 76 m over it, which lies 2 miles N of its mouth, thence: NW of Cap Nun (Cap Dra), a grey tinted sandstone cliff, about 52 m high, but as the cliffs for some distance on either side of it are of similar elevation, it is difficult to distinguish the exact position until very near it. Seen from the N, Cap Nun appears as an abrupt slope, and from the S as three fairly distinct points. At night the cape should not be closed within a depth of 30 m. Thence: NW of Oued Dra, also known as Ro Nun (4 miles SSW), which rises in Atlas Mountains, E of Marrakesh, and has a course of about 550 miles, thence: NW of Cap Nachtigal (20 miles SW), from which a light (5.271) is exhibited. The track then leads to a position 1 miles WNW of the head of the breakwater, situated at Tan Tan. Useful marks: White house and store standing close N of the Cap Nachtigal Lighthouse. (Directions continue at 5.289)

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Anchorages and harbours Oued Noun


1 1

Arrival information
5.279 Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained about 1 miles WNW of the head of the breakwater, in a depth of 15 m, good holding ground, sand. Pilotage is available. The Pilot, who can be contacted on VHF, boards vessels 1 mile WNW of the head of the breakwater. Tugs. There is one tug of 900 hp.

5.274 General information. The depths in Oued Noun (29 08 N 10 25 W), also known as Ro Asaca, are considerable, although it affords no shelter for large vessels with winds from seaward. Landing can be effected in the fine season.

Oued Dra Anchorage


1

Harbour
1

5.275 General information. The holding ground off Oued Dra (2841N 1108W) is good but this coast is dangerous especially from November to March; also the current sets on to it. The sea breaks over the rocky bottom outside the entrance to the river in depths of 7 m to 9 m. The entrance to the river, when well open to view, can be identified by two isolated conical peaks standing close together on the S bank; these peaks in line bear 162. On the N peak which is about 91 m high, are the ruins of an old Spanish fort. The N bank of Oued Dra is steep, the S bank is composed of white sandhills with a gradual slope to the beach. The mouth of the river is about 55 m wide, but it is completely closed by a bar. Inside the bar there is a large basin with depths of 1 m to 12 m, but above this the depths decrease again.

5.280 General layout. A breakwater approximately 1700 m long extends W and then SW from the coast. A mole, Contredigue, extends SE and then SSE for 230 m from a position about 150 m from the head of the breakwater. A mole, Jete Transversale, extends 548 m NW from a position on the coast opposite Contredigue. The entrance of the harbour faces SW, between the heads of Contredigue and Jete Transversale, and is about 100 m wide. Currents near the port flow S.

Uina or Meano
1

5.276 General information. This boat harbour is situated about 2 miles NNE of Cap Nachtigal (2830N 1120W). It is formed by a reef which partially dries, is about 1 mile long and 1 cable wide. It can be entered either through a channel in the reef or betwen the S extremity of the reef and the mainland.

TanTan (5.280)
(Original dated prior to 2005) (Photograph Director of Ports and Fisheries, Rabat)

Tan Tan General information


1

5.277 Position and function. Tan Tan (2830N 1120W) is a fishing port handling fishing vessels up to 200 tons, and coastal vessels of up to 8000 tons. It was reported (2001) that the port had considerable fish processing capabilities. In 2001 the population was 62 000. Approach and entry. The port can be approached from SW through W to NW, the final approach being from SW, and is entered between the heads of the Contredigue and the Jete Transversale. Traffic. In 2004 there were 4 vessel movements totalling 18 488 dwt. Port Authority. ODEP, Tan Tan Port, Morocco.

Directions for entry


1

5.281 It is recommended that vessels enter the harbour during daylight hours. Dangers. A reef over which the sea breaks lies N of the breakwater. A shoal, with a depth of 64 m over it lies mile W of the breakwater; it is marked by a lightbuoy (port hand).

Berths
1

Limiting conditions
1

5.278 Deepest and longest berth. Deepest berth; bulk and general cargo berth with a depth of 80 m alongside. Longest berth; fish and repair quay with a length of 420 m. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 30 m; mean neap range about 12 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Local weather and sea state. Within the harbour, winds from W to N raise a heavy swell.

5.282 Berthing facilities for tankers, refrigerated, bulk and general cargo ships exist in the harbour, in addition to berths for fishing vessels and trawlers. There are reported (2001) to be facilities for berthing 70 deepsea fishing vessels at once.

Port services
1

5.283 Repairs: There are workshops available. Dry dock, capacity 1000 tons, is situated in the harbour. Other facilities: Deratting exemption certificates can be issued. Supplies: Fuel available for fishing vessels only; fresh water is available.

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Communications: Tan Tan is located 25 km from the town of the same name and is connected to Layoune and Agadir by road. Rescue. Tan Tan is a designated MRSC.
1

Directions
(continued from 5.273)

Principal marks
5.289 Landmarks: Casa Mar (27 57 N 12 56 W), a partly ruined building, standing on the SW end of the detached reef, 8 cables SW of Cap Tarfaya. Radio Mast, with red obstruction lights, standing 5 cables ENE of Casa Mar. Major light: Tarfaya Light (masonry tower, 13 m high) (27553N 12563W).

TAN TAN TO CAP TARFAYA (CABO YUBI) General information


Charts 1870, 3133

Route
1

5.284 From a position WNW of Tan Tan (2830N 1120W), the route leads WSW for about 92 miles to a position NW of Cap Tarfaya (Cabo Yubi).

Passage
1

Topography
1

5.285 The coast between Tan Tan and Oued Chebeika, 17 miles SW, consists of a sandy beach, with the coastal features in the vicinity of Oued Chebeika being almost identical to those near Cap Nun (5.273), so that their respective latitudes are the best guide in approaching them. Additionally, the mouth of Oued Chebeika can be recognised by Jebel Tesegdelt, or Casulla del Ro Chibika, a sandy plateau with an elevation of 200 m situated 6 miles S of the river. S of Oued Chebeika up to Cap Tarfaya the coast has much the same aspect as that to the NE. Cliffs, about 40 m high extend as far as Punta del Morro. A sandy beach, surmounted by sandhills extends for 10 miles from Punta del Morro to Puerto Cansado; the NE of these hills is the highest and Mdano Colorado, the S sandhill, is distinctive on account of the red sand of which it is composed. The coast W of Puerto Cansado consists of large sandy tracts terminating at Punta Ajfenir, 10 miles W. From Punta Ajfenir to Cap Tarfaya, 26 miles WSW, the coast consists of dark cliffs about 30 m high, There is no beach at the foot of the cliffs, the sea breaking against and gradually eroding them. Where the cliffs terminate, the country becomes broken up into sandhills, partially covered with bushes. Inland the country consists of a flat desert with occassional undulations covered with scrub. Cap Tarfaya (Cabo Yubi) is low, sandy and fringed with rocks. The cape terminates in a hillock, about 12 m high covered with bushes. Some brown stone buildings of the old town stand to the W of the cape. Breakers extend up to 3 cables from the cape.

Depths
1

5.286 Caution. Numerous wrecks are scattered along the coast, in the region of Cap Tarfaya, within the 30 m contour.

5.290 From a position 1 miles WNW of the Tan Tan breakwater head (2757N 1256W), the track leads WSW passing (with positions relative to Punta del Morro (2807N 1202W)): NNW of Oued SahebelHarcha, also known as Ro Saibajarsa (40 miles ENE), noting the sandy beach of Playa de Tan Tan which extends NW of it up to the fishing port, thence: NNW of Ro Chibika, also known as Oued Chebeika (29 miles ENE), which has a mouth, known as Boca Grande, 1 mile wide, thence: NNW of Ro Boca de Enmedio, or Oued OumelFatima (15 miles ENE), which is about cable wide at its mouth but which dries and is partly covered with bushes, thence: NNW of Ro Boquita del Morro or Oued Ouader (10 miles ENE), which has banks covered with red sand. 5.291 The track continues WSW, passing: NNW of Punta del Morro, thence: NNW of a stranded wreck, charted near the 30 m contour (4 mile W), thence: NNW of Puerto Cansado (10 miles WSW), a small inlet, thence: NNW of Punta Ajfenir, about (20 miles WSW), thence: NNW of another group of stranded wrecks, position approximate, charted near the coast (38 miles WSW). The coast can be approached to a distance of 9 or 10 miles and then skirted until either the hillock on Cap Tarfaya or Casa Mar, which can be distinguished at these distances, has been picked up. Cap Tarfaya only shows up well from NE or SW. The track then leads to a position NW of Cap Tarfaya. Useful marks: Conspicuous mosque (2756N 1250W) standing on the cliffs 4 miles E of Cap Tarfaya. (Directions continue at 5.301)

Marine exploitation
1

5.287 Oil rigs have been reported both N and S of Cap Tarfaya.
1

Anchorages and harbours Oued Chebeika


5.292 Description. Oued Chebeika (2818N 1133W) flows into the sea 15 miles SW of Cap Nachtigal. The banks of the river are about 50 m high and about 1 mile apart, and the water is brackish for 17 miles above the mouth. Anchorage can be obtained off the mouth of this river and also about 3 miles off this coast where there is a

Discoloured water
1

5.288 Discoloured water. The nature of the bottom, in the vicinity of Cap Tarfaya is dark sand, which gives a dark greenish colour to the water.

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regular depth of 37 m, with good holding ground, but only in the fine season.
2

Puerto Cansado
1

5.293 General information. Puerto Cansado (28 04 N 1214W) is a small inlet entered between a sandy beach on the E and a narrow sandy islet on the W. It is hampered

by sandbanks which terminate towards the S end where a small stream flows out through marshy land. There is a bar which is subject to change both in position and depth at the entrance and and the channel is narrow and shallow. At the head of the inlet there is an opening nearly 2 cables wide leading to a small shallow basin which has an old tower and a ruined wall on its shores. The S side of the basin is bordered by cliffs.

CAP TARFAYA TO PUNTA DURNFORD GENERAL INFORMATION


Chart 3134 the sand dunes about mile inland of the beach. Landing cannot be effected on Las Matas de Al as it is fronted by a rocky bank on which there are heavy breakers at all times. Wells, known as Pozos de Hassi Haimmermach, are situated about midway along this stretch of coast. Cabo Bojador, when seen from the N, shows as a mass of red sand with a gentle slope to the sea. Its W extremity, which is very low, forms a small bay with the adjacent cliffs; the E part of these cliffs, about 21 m high is prominent. On this coast shoals of sardines are often seen, which have the appearance of reefs on which the sea is breaking.

Area covered
1

5.294 This section describes coastal route, anchorages, ports and harbours from Cap Tarfaya (2757N 1256W) to Punta Durnford about 312 miles SW. It is arranged as follows: Cap Tarfaya to Cabo Bojador (5.296). Layoune (5.309). Cabo Bojador to Punta Durnford (5.327).

Topography
1

5.295 The coast is barren and without vegetation apart from some sparse driedup bushes. It presents no undulations other than flattened dunes, the summits of which can scarcely be seen at a distance of 3 miles. This vast plateau, the surface of which is levelled by the winds, terminates seaward in cliffs in some places, at others in gradual slopes. The cliffs are composed of horizontal layers of various lightish colours, the lower layers being of a reddish tint. The encroachments of the sea cause enormous blocks of soil to fall to the foot of the cliffs. These blocks appear like immense rocks and the sea breaks against them with great violence, but after a time they are dissolved by the water. There is not a trace of granite on the whole of this coast.

Depths
1

5.298 Caution. Numerous wrecks are scattered along this coast, within the 30 m contour.

Hazards
1

5.299 Marine exploitation. Oil rigs have been reported both N and S of Cap Tarfaya. Fishing areas. Concentrations of fishing vessels may be encountered along this coast. Position fixing. Fog, dense mist or haze may obscure the coast, and great care should be observed in fixing the position of the vessel, especially in the morning, owing to the errors due to refraction and mirage.

Local weather
1

5.300 See 5.299.

CAP TARFAYA TO CABO BOJADOR Directions General information


Chart 1870, 3134 (continued from 5.291)

Major lights
5.301
1

Route
1

5.296 From a position WNW of Cap Tarfaya (27 57 N 1256W) the route leads for about 139 miles to a position WNW of Cabo Bojador (2607N 1430W).

Topography
1

5.297 From Cap Tarfaya, for a distance of about 75 miles SSW, the coast consists, apart from a few patches of cliff, of a sandy beach with small bights off the points of which are detached rocks. Thence the coast, to within 3 miles of Cabo Falso Bojador, is cliffy and intersected by the mouths of streams which are dry except in the rainy season. From Cap Tarfaya to the Ro Saguia el Hamra, 50 miles SSW, the beach and adjacent zones are dotted with trees. The coast from Cabo Falso Bojador (2616N 1424W) to Cabo Bojador, 9 miles SSW, consists of Las Matas de Al, a sandy beach fringed with rocks. Clumps of scrub top

Tarfaya Light (27553N 12563W) (5.289). Layoune, Muelle de Fosbucraa Head, Centre Light (displayed from top of phosphate silo) (27039N 13277W). Cabo Bojador Light (tower, black stripe, 45 m in height) (26074N 14294W).

Passage
1

5.302 Caution. The coast between Cap Tarfaya and Cabo Bojador, about 139 miles SW, should be approached with caution owing to its uniformity and lack of landmarks. From a position WNW of Cap Tarfaya (27 57 N 1256W), the track leads SW passing (with positions relative to the head of the Phosbucraa Jetty at Layoune (2704N 1328W)): WNW of a detached reef (59 miles NNE), which dries 12 m and extends from a position about 3 cables W to 9 cables SW of Cap Tarfaya, and

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lies parallel to the coast and 2 cables offshore. Casa Mar, a partly ruined former fish factory stands on the SW part of this reef. Thence: WNW of Tarfaya (5.308), also known as Villa Bens, a harbour used mainly by fishing vessels (59 miles NNE), thence: WNW of a lightbuoy (safe water) (58 miles NNE), thence: WNW of Punta de Majorero (57 miles NNE), noting the radar conspicuous stranded wreck lying miles SSW of it, thence: WNW of Restinga del Caracol (54 miles NNE), which is fronted by a bank with depths of less than 9 m over it, extending up to mile offshore, thence: WNW of Puerto Cansado del Sur (50 miles NNE), a small sandy bight, noting the spit with depths of less than 9 m over it, which extends 3 miles NNW of it, and the Playa de las Negritas, backed by cliffs, extending S up to Punta Stafford. 5.303 The track continues SW, passing: WNW of Punta Stafford (41 miles NNE), a low sandy point fringed by a reef, noting the two stranded wrecks lying 2 miles NE and 5 miles ENE, and a ruined stone building standing 4 miles NE. Punta Stafford is difficult to distinguish, but the breakers on the reef fronting it are usually distinctive. Thence: WNW of Las Mattilas, a sandy beach (31 miles NNE), fringed with rocks and backed by sand dunes, noting the dangerous wreck, position approximate (31 miles NNE), thence: WNW of Bajo de Tutarrn (22 miles NNE), a rocky shoal with a least depth of 65 m over its S end, on which the sea breaks in heavy weather, noting the charted dangerous wreck lying about 2 miles SW of it, thence: WNW of Mdano de Tutarrn (22 miles NNE), an isolated sand dune, covered with scrub, close south of which is Pozo de Tafraut, a well, of brackish water, with some scrub patches situated to its S. About 5 miles SSW of Mdano de Tutarrn the sandy coast changes to a small low cliff named Las Cuevecillas. Thence: WNW of Punta del Espinilo (6 miles NNE), with no distinctive features, noting the stranded wreck which lies 3 miles NNE of it. Ro Saguia el Hamra, enters the sea 3 miles NNE of Punta del Espinillo and can be recognised by the vegetation close to the beach and a sand dune, crowned with scrub, behind it. Thence: WNW of Layoune (5.309). 5.304 The route then continues SW, passing: WNW of Punta Blanca (6 miles SSW), and the beach Mdano de Santiago situated 3 miles further SSW, thence: WNW of Boca de Santiago or La Escotadura (11 miles SSW), which is a distinctive break in the cliffs, thence: WNW of Mata del Desgarrn (19 miles SSW), which from a distance appears as a black patch. The coast between Mdano de Santiago and Mata del Desgarrn is cliffy and fronted by a beach fringed with rocks. The coast continues steep up to Oasis

Lemsid and a ridge of hills, Las Canequillas, lies parallel to the coast, close inland. Thence: WNW of Boca de Barlovento (28 miles SSW), a deep break in the cliffs, and Boca de Sotavento, another larger break siuated 3 miles farther SW. Thence: WNW of Boca de Jaro (46 miles SW), a break in the cliffs with a black sand and pebble beach which from a distance, appears as a light patch against the line of cliffs. Playa del Cabio begins about 5 miles SW of Boca de Jaro where the cliffs recede inland and decrease in height. The beach is formed of white sand with the 10 m contour about 1 mile offshore, and the long breakers make it dangerous to attempt to land. 5.305 The track continues SW, passing: WNW of El Cabio (54 miles SW), which is very low and fringed with reefs, with the 10 m contour lying just over 1 mile N of it. The sea always breaks on the reefs. The coast S of El Cabio is also low and fringed with reefs for the first five miles. A light (white round tower, black bands, 32 m in height) is exhibited from the point. La Palangana, a small plateau, is situated about 9 miles ESE of El Cabio and Dientes del Cabio, low terraced plateaux, are situated about 6 miles SSE of it. A shoal with a depth of 95 m over it lies 9 miles WSW of El Cabio. Thence: WNW of Los Pajaritos (60 miles SW), which is the name given to the NE part of a sandy cliff with a flat top, about 6 miles long, the SW part of the cliff, which is darker in colour being known as Acantilado Tierra Negra. From here the coast is fronted by Playa de Tigris, which is low and fringed with rocks. Thence: WNW of Cabo Falso Bojador (70 miles SW), which is formed of high sand dunes with small dark patches of scrub, and fringed by a reef. A prominent stranded wreck (1964) lies on the cape, with another stranded wreck lying 2 miles farther SW. A spit with a least depth of 46 m over it extends 3 miles NNE of from Cabo Falso Bojador. Two rocky shoals, with depths of 94 m and 79 m over them, lie about 2 miles WNW and 2 miles W, respectively, of Cabo Falso Bojador. Thence the track leads to a position WNW of Cabo Bojador (2607N 1430W). Useful marks: Oasis Lemsid or Los Arbolitos (2633N 1350W), situated on the slopes above the cliffs and appears as a black patch from the NW. El Cabio Light (white round tower, black bands, 32 m in height) (26255N 14109W) (Directions continue at 5.334)

Harbour and landings Playa de Mdano


1

5.306 Landing can be effected at Playa de Mdano, fronting Mdano de Santiago (2654N 1330W), as this beach is afforded some protection by Arrecife del Mdano which lies close N of it.

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CHAPTER 5

Boca de Sotavento
1

LAYOUNE General information


Chart 863 plan of Approaches to, and plan of Layoune

5.307 Landing can be made in fine weather on a sandy beach in Boca de Sotavento (26370N 13434W).

Tarfaya
1

Position and function


1

5.308 Position and function. Tarfaya (2756N 1256W), is the provincial capital. A small fishing harbour, protected from the NW by a breakwater 1150 m long, and from the SW by another breakwater projecting 270 m NW from Casa Sultana (6 cables S of Casa Mar). There is a quay 240 m long on the SE side of this breakwater. It was reported (1990) that the harbour was heavily silted and closed for commercial operations.

5.309 Layoune (2705N 1326W) is the capital of the region and in 2001 had 176 000 inhabitants. The main function of this port is the export of bulk phosphates. The port is also reported (2001) to have considerable fish processing capabilities, with two freezing plants each handling 200 tonnes a day, a canning factory handling 60 tonnes a day, five fishmeal plants handling a total of 2 000 tonnes a day and three iceplants each producing 50 tonnes a day.

Topography
1

5.310 The coast in the vicinity of the port is fringed with reefs and depths of less than 55 m extend between 5 and 7 cables from the shore.

Approach and entry


1

5.311 The fishing port and Muelle de Fosbucraa can be approached from N through W to S, the final approach to both being from S.

Port Authority
1

Tarfaya (5.308)
(Original dated prior to 2005) (Photograph Director of Ports and Fisheries, Rabat) 2

5.312 Phosbucraa S/A, Av. Hassan II, Layoune 70.001, P.O.B 76 & 101, Morocco. Email: m.rhzouni@ocpgroup.ma Website: www.ocpgroup.ma

Limiting conditions
1

Approach and entry. The harbour is approached from the W and entered between the heads of the two breakwaters. A lightbuoy (safe water; spherical) is moored 1 miles W of the harbour entrance. Landmarks: Casa del Sultn, standing close to the shore with four radio masts around it, 3 cables SW of Cap Tarfaya. Fort with round tower, standing 4 cables inland, 3 cables S of Casa del Sultn. Water tower, standing 4 cables E of the fort. Mosque with white square tower, standing at the S end of town. Casa Sultana, an isolated house, standing about 3 cables S of the town. Anchorage may be obtained about 5 cables WNW of Casa Mar in a depth of 13 m, or farther out in the same direction in a depth of 31 m, coarse yellow sand. Vessels should sight their anchors if remaining more than 2 or 3 days. Landing There is a landing place on the E side of Casa Mar, and at a small pier at the NE end of the detached reef, but both these should be approached with caution. With high tides and W winds, breakers surround the reef making landing impossible. When approaching the S entrance to the channel between the detached reef and the mainland, care should be taken to avoid the S extremity of the reef which extends 1 cable SW of Casa Mar. Other facilities Air and sea connections to Islas Canarias and ports in Morocco.

5.313 Deepest and longest berth. Phosphate loading berth (5.325). Density of the water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled: 230 m LOA; 17 m draught; 70 000 dwt. A maximum height above sea level of 230 m at ship side is permitted for the safe clearance of the ship loaders.

Arrival information Port operations


1

5.314 Due to exposed position of the phosphate jetty berthing operations are suspended if wind force is more than 3 on the Beaufort Scale and/or the swell exceeds 05 m. Mist, prevalent in the mornings, may also cause delays in berthing.

Notice of ETA
1

5.315 ETA should be sent 72, 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival, to Phosboucraa Layoune. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Outer anchorages
1

5.316 Anchorage can be obtained W of the fishing port, in depths of 105 m. Vessels should not anchor N of the parallel of the head of the jetty as the bottom is rocky. Anchorage can also be obtained W of the phosphate berth in depths of about 22 m. It should be noted that there are areas of flat rock in the anchorage.

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Prohibited anchorage area exists in the approach to the fishing port, the limits of which can best be seen on the chart.

Muelle de Fosbucraa Head, Centre Light (displayed from top of phosphate silo) (27 04 0N 13278W).

Submarine pipelines
1

5.317 An oil pipeline extends WNW from the shore in the vicinity of the oil tanks (2705N 1325W). Two pairs of beacons, painted red and white, are situated close to where the oil pipeline is landed.

Entry
1

Pilotage and tugs


1

5.318 Pilotage is compulsory for vessels proceeding to Muelle de Fosbucraa. The pilot, who can be contacted by VHF, boards about 7 cables from the Phosphate Loading Berth. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Tugs are available.

5.323 The chart is sufficient guide. Useful marks: Old Lighthouse (27060N 13251W). White Beacon, 1 cable SW of above. Main Breakwater Light (two cones points down on yellow beacon, yellow top, elevation 6 m) (27053N 13262W). Jetty Spur Light (red mast, elevation 4 m) (27053N 13262W). Outer Breakwater Spur (green mast, elevation 4 m) (27054N 13260W), position approximate. General Cargo Berth, root, light (27 03 7N 13269W).

Harbour General layout


1

Directions for phosphate berth


1

5.319 Fishing port. The fishing port (2706N 1326W) is enclosed by a breakwater extending 8 cables W, thence about 4 cables S from a position 1 cables SW from the root of the old lighthouse. It is entered from S between the heads of two spurs from where lights are exhibited. See 5.320. Muelle de Fosbucraa. A long (1 miles) Theaded pier extends WNW from the shore, 1 miles SSW of the prominent oil tanks. At the Thead, dolphins front and protect the concrete piers and the arched carriages about which the phosphate loading chutes slew. These dolphins, which are independent of the piers and form the phosphate berths, are ranged in a NS direction.

Development
3

5.320 Works were in progress (2005) to further develop the fishing port.

5.324 Phosphate loading berth No 2. The berth is approached, parallel to and about 100130 m off, from the S at speeds of 4 to 5 kn and deliberately overshot. The port anchor is let go and the vessel stopped and allowed to fall back with the current. A heavy buoyant sealine, attached to a mooring buoy positioned opposite the S end of the berth, is hauled in by the vessel at her stern. The pilot vessel which doubles as a mooring boat, takes long (300 m) head and stern lines from the vessel, to dolphins positioned to the N and S of the berth. The vessel is then eased alongside, starboard side to, keeping 3 to 4 m off the breasting dolphins which serve as fenders, by paying out on the anchor cable and sealine, and heaving on the head and stern lines. The vessel is required to maintain position 3 to 4 m off the fenders, which are reported to be bare steel, by controlling her anchor cable and the sealine, in addition to tending her mooring lines, to avoid contact damage, should a swell cause her to surge.

Current
1

5.321 The current sets S at rates of about kn.

Berths Alongside berths


5.325 The fishing port is reported (2001) to have berthing facilities for 100 fishing vessels with berthing dredged to 6 m. In 1996 the N arm of the Thead at Muelle de Fosbucraa, Berth No 1, was reported to be damaged and not in use. Berth No 2, on W side of the S arm of the Thead, is a bulk phosphate terminal, for vessels of 40 000 to 60 000 dwt; depths alongside of 17 m. Two telescopic loading chutes are available, each with a nominal rate of 1400 tons per hour. Berth No 3, E of Berth No 2, is a bulk phosphate terminal for vessels up to 20 000 dwt. The berth was reported (1996) as not in service. A general cargo berth, projects S from Muelle de Fosbucraa, 8 cables from the root; depths alongside the berth were reported to be 65 m. Vessels of up to 8 000 dwt can use the berth. Containers are also handled at the berth. Two mooring buoys are situated about 1 cable W of the berth.

Directions for entering harbour


1

Principal marks
1

5.322 Landmarks: Mdano de Layoune (27067N 13248W), which appears over the horizon as a white hill, 3 miles S of Punta Espinillo. The harbour office (27058N 13251W) and a large building, which stand about 1 mile SSW of Mdano de Layoune, and close NE of the root of the pier. Group of grey oil tanks (2705N 1325W) standing about 9 cables S of the harbour office. Muelle de Fosbucraa head (27040N 13278W), which is radar conspicuous as well as being visually prominent. Major lights: Main Jetty Light (two cones points together on yellow multisided tower, black band, elevation 6 m) (27057N 13262W).

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Port services
1

5.326 Other facilities. Deratting exemption certificates issued; no waste reception facilities; no garbage disposal facilities. Supplies. Fuel oil and fresh water are not available at Muelle de Fosbucraa. Provisions can be supplied by boat. Communications. Layoune airport, 20 km NE. Rescue. Layoune is a designated MRSC. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.

CABO BOJADOR TO PUNTA DURNFORD General information


Chart 3134

Route
1

5.327 From a position NW of Cabo Bojador (26 07 N 1430W) the route leads SW for about 175 miles to a position NW of Punta Durnford.

Topography
1

5.328 Between Cabo Bojador and Punta del Corral, 34 miles SSW, there are no places of importance. The coast between Cabo Bojador and El Rincn del Parchel, 4 miles S, is bordered by cliffs 20 m high, pierced with caves for the first mile, but smoother and precipitous elsewhere. Mancha Blanca a white triangular patch, lies 1 mile S of El Rincn del Parchel, and Pozo Hasi Ausiualet, a well of brackish water, is situated close S of Mancha Blanca. Between Mancha Blanca and El Banquero, a low sandy point 17 miles SSW, the coast is formed of sand dunes fringed with rocks. Los Pilones are three patches in the coastal sand dunes situated 1 mile E, and 1 and 2 miles S of El Banquero; the north and south patches are named Piln del Norte and Piln del Sur, respectively. Mesa de la Gaviota, or Bombarda, are precipitous cliffs 30 m high, extending S from Piln del Sur. Pozo Aufist, a well containing fresh water, is situated about 3 miles S of Los Pilones. The coast between Pozo Aufist and a small point about 2 miles SSW, consists of cliffs between 45 m and 60 m high. Playa de Aftaisat is situated between the above small point and a sandy point about 1 miles farther SSW. Punta del Corral lies about 1 miles S of Playa Aftaisat. Between Punta del Corral and Punta del Estante, 25 miles SSW, the coast is faced with cliffs between 30 m and 60 m high on top of which are stone pillars, 45 m in height, spaced about 2 miles apart; these pillars were erected during a hydrographic survey. Punta Cordero, a rocky point lies 17 miles SSW of Punta del Corral. A small beach lies N of the point on which there is a large black rock, and on top of the cliff behind the beach is another black rock shaped like a tower. From Morro del Ancla, which lies 8 miles S of Punta Estante, to Punta del Plpito, 21 miles S, the coast consists of a continuous cliff, interrupted only at La Teja, a depression 2 miles SSE of Morro del Ancla, and at Valle Buen Jardn, 9 miles farther S, which is bordered by vegetation. From Punta del Plpito the cliffs continue 2 miles S to Bahia de Garnet or Angra de los Ruivos. Punta Leven lies about 20 miles SW of Punta del Plpito, and for 34 miles

SW to Punta Elbow, the coast consists of an unbroken line of moderately high cliffs known as Las Almenas. In 1971, it was reported that the coastline from Punta Leven to a position about 5 miles NE of Punta Elbow was conspicuous on radar. 5.329 Baha de Caballo or Angra de Caballo lies close S of Punta Elbow (2505N 1535W), and is a bay fronted by a sandy beach backed by cliffs. Drinking water can be obtained here. Baha de Caballo is bounded on the N by a lofty cape terminating in an overhanging peak. The coast S of the bay changes in aspect and all uniformity ceases. The cliffs give way to Las Yuncas, a sloping sandy plain covered with sandhills, usually conical in shape, some of which are isolated, others in ranges with spurs towards the sea. A hill of regular shape, consisting of rock and sand, lies about 6 miles S of Baha de Caballo. El Istmo, 9 miles SW of Punta Elbow, is a narrow sandy isthmus joining Peninsula de Ro de Oro, with the mainland. The isthmus is about 2 cables wide and is sometimes covered by the sea. Peninsula de Ro de Oro extends from El Istmo to Punta Durnford, 26 miles SSW, and forms the W side of the Baha de Villa Cisneros. The peninsula is about 9 m high and Baha de Villa Cisneros can be seen over it when viewed from aloft.

Depths
1

5.330 In 1984 a depth of 130 m was reported 70 miles off the coast 81 miles WSW of Cabo Bojador in general depths of 914 m to 1097 m. Lesser depths have been reported about 10 miles to seaward of this area since 1969. Caution. The charting of this coast is reported to be inaccurate, therefore vessels should not approach it too closely, and at night it should be given a wide berth as there are few lights. When proceeding along this coast frequent soundings should be taken.

Hazards
1

5.331 Fishing areas. Concentrations of fishing vessels may be encountered along this coast. Position fixing. Fog, dense mist or haze may obscure the coast, and great care should be observed in fixing the position of the vessel, especially in the morning, owing to the errors due to refraction and mirage.

Rescue
1

5.332 Bojador is a designated RCC.

Tidal streams
1

5.333 Tidal streams are perceptible at a distance of 3 or 4 miles from Cabo Bojador, setting NE around HW and SW around LW.

Directions
(continued from 5.305)

Principal marks
1

5.334 Landmarks: Four white blockhouses (2346N 1555W) standing at equal intervals across the peninsula, 12 miles SW of Roca Cabrn.

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Disused lighthouse (23436N,15573W) standing on the summit of a small hill. Major lights: Cabo Bojador Light (tower, black stripe, 45 m in height) (26074N 14294W). Arciprs Grande Light (white round tower, black bands, 50 m in height) (23435N 15573W).

Passage
1

5.335 From a position NW of Cabo Bojador (26 07 N 1430W), the track leads SW for 170 miles to Punta Durnford, passing (with positions relative to Cabo Pea Grande (2505N 1451W)): NW of Restinga del Navio (64 miles NNE), a reef situated on the S extremity of the cape, which uncovers in places and over which the sea breaks even in calm weather. A dangerous wreck lies at the end of the reef 8 miles SW of Cabo Bojador. Thence: NW of Roca Malvina (44 miles NNE), with a least depth of 31 m over it, noting the stranded wreck which lies about 1 miles SE, thence: NW of Restinga de la Vaca (34 miles NNE), a sandy shoal with depths of less than 9 m over it and on which the sea breaks, and which extends about 1 mile NW from Playa de Aftaisat. From April to June, an abundance of lobsters are to be found here. Thence: NW of Punta del Corral (31 miles NNW) from which a light (5.336) is exhibited, noting the dangerous wreck and the stranded wreck which lie 3 miles and 4 miles N, respectively, thence: NW of Punta del Aguada (23 miles NNE), thence: NW of Punta del Monito (20 miles NNE), with Punta Roqueta situated about 1 miles SSW, thence: NW of Punta Cordero (15 miles N), a rocky point on which the sea breaks heavily and which is prominent from the S. A wreck with a safe clearance of 20 m over it lies 10 miles W of Punta Cordero. Thence: NW of Punta del Estante (7 mile) N, thence: NW of Cabo Pea Grande, a high cliff rising in three terraces to an elevation of 147 m. The cape is higher than any of the hills in the vicinity and is prominent from N and S. A light (5.336) is exhibited from the cape. 5.336 The track continues SW, passing: NW of Morro del Ancla (5 cables SSE), a salient spur, noting the stranded wreck which lies 2 miles SSE, thence: NW of Punta del Plpito (21 miles S), and Baha de Garnet or Angra de los Ruivos about 2 miles farther S, where a sandy beach at the mouth of a river is divided into two by a small hill fronted by a reef, thence: NW of Punta Siete Cabos (28 miles SSW), noting the dangerous wrecks which lie 11 miles W and 13 miles WSW, respectively, from it, thence: NW of Punta Leven (39 miles SSW), which consists of a sandy beach known as Las Canuelas. At the SW end of this beach are two flattopped dunes known as El Camelitto. Piedra Cagada, a black rock, lies N of Punta Leven and a dangerous wreck lies 13 miles WSW from it. Thence:

NW of Punta Elbow (72 miles SW), which is ill defined and difficult to identify. Two dangerous wrecks lie 11 and 17 miles NW from Punta Elbow. Thence: NW of Roca Cabrn, (87 miles SW), which is an enormous mass of sand and rock lying on the sandy coast and resembles an island when seen from a distance. Thence: NW of Arciprs Grande (102 miles SW) from which a light (5.334) is exhibited. Thence the track leads to a position NW of Punta Durnford (107 miles SW) which is low and cliffy, noting the stranded wreck which lies about 2 cables WNW of the point. Useful marks: Cabo BojadorW extremity Light (stone pyramid, 6 m in height) (26075N 14300W) Punta del Corral Light (white round tower, black bands, 11 m in height) (25355N 14414W) Pea Grande Light (white round tower, black bands, 11 m in height) (25050N 14502W) (Directions continue at 6.12)

Anchorages and harbours Cabo Bojador


1

5.337 Anchorage can be obtained about 1 mile SSW of Cabo Bojador (2607N 1430W) in a depth of 11 m, mud and sand. Small vessels can obtain anchorage about 8 cables SSW of the cape in a depth of 8 m, but it should be noted that this position is only about 4 cables from the breakers off the cape. Landing. When the NW swell meets the land breeze, heavy breakers are produced which make the approach to the coast difficult and dangerous. The best landing place is on a beach about 2 cables S of Cabo Bojador (2607N 1430W).

Ensenada de los Corales


1

5.338 Anchorage can be obtained about 1 miles NNW off Punta del Corral Light (25355N 14414W), in Ensenada de los Corales, in a depth of 11 m.

Punta Roqueta
1

5.339 Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels about 7 cables SSW of Punta Roqueta (25225N 14478W) in a depth of 9 m.

Punta Cordero
1

5.340 Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels about 7 cables SSW of Punta Cordero (25203N 14490W) in a depth of about 9 m.

Valle Buen Jardn


1

5.341 Anchorage can be obtained off Valle Buen Jardin (2554N 1450W); this anchorage is frequented by fishing vessels from Islas Canarias.

Baha de Garnet
1

5.342 Anchorage. Good anchorage can be obtained in the whole of Baha de Garnet (2442N 1452W) particularly in depths between 8 m and 20 m, sand, between 2 and 6 cables off the N part of the beach.

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Baha de Caballo
1

5.343 Anchorage can be obtained in Baha de Caballo (2405N 1535W), which lies close S of Punta Elbow, in a depth of 65 m gravel, but the sea is always breaking on this coast. On the parallel of 24N, the nature of the bottom is mostly sand and shells, but nearer the coast the fewer the shells, and the sand in places becomes muddy.

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Chapter 6 - Punta Durnford to Dakar
19 24
6.19 Ad Dakhla
1690 1690

18

17

16

15 24

Pta. Durnford

HA

SA

C. Barbas

22
6.2 7

ST ER nis N te re d

by

RA or oc

23

co

23

6 .1

22

WE

21

1661

(ad

mi

6.64 Port Mineralier de Cansado 1699 anc 6.46 C. Bl 1699

21

1699 Nouadhibou

1690

20
6.86

Banc dArguin

20

Ras Timirist

19
3135 1688

M A U R I TA N I A

19

18

1662 3134
1688 Port de IAm .123

05 6.1 uakchott 1688 3134 18 No

iti

17

17

16

6.14 2

1663

6.175 Saint-Louis
1690

16
1662

15
C. Vert

15
6.188 Dakar 1001
1000

SNGAL

3135

1663

14 19 18
0306

14

Longitude 17 West from Greenwich

15

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CHAPTER 6 PUNTA DURNFORD TO DAKAR


GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3134, 3135, 4104.

Scope of the chapter


1

6.1 This chapter covers the Atlantic coast of Morocco from Punta Durnford (2339N 1601W) to Port de Dakar (14405N 17255W) in Sngal, and includes the coast of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. See 1.105 for details of disputed sovereignty. The ports and harbours of Ad Dakhla (6.19), Port Minralier de Cansado (6.46), Nouadhibou (6.64), Nouakchott (6.105), Port de lAmit (6.123), SaintLouis (6.175) and Dakar (6.188) are described in this chapter. This chapter is divided into the following sections: Punta Durnford to Nouadhibou (6.8). Nouadhibou to Port de lAmiti (6.84). Port de lAmiti to Dakar (6.140).

water. There is not a trace of granite on the whole of this coast as far as Cap Vert (6.145), about 95 miles SW of the mouth of Fleuve Sngal.

Depths
1

6.3 The charting of this coast is reported to be inaccurate, therefore vessels should not approach it too closely, and at night it should be given a wide berth as there are few lights. When proceeding along this coast frequent soundings should be taken.

Fishing
1

6.4 Fishing vessels may be encountered along the entire stretch of coastline described in this chapter.

Topography
1

Flow
1

6.2 The coast of Sahara which extends from Cabo Bojador (2608N 1431W) to the mouth of Fleuve Sngal, about 620 miles SSW, is barren and without vegetation apart from some sparse driedup bushes. It presents no undulations other than flattened dunes, the summits of which can scarcely be seen at a diastance of 3 miles. This vast plateau, the surface of which is levelled by the winds, terminates seaward in cliffs in some places, at others in gradual slopes. The cliffs are composed of horizontal layers of various lightish colours, the lower layers being of a reddish tint. The encroachments of the sea cause enormous blocks of soil to fall to the foot of the cliffs. These blocks appear like immense rocks and the sea breaks against them with great violence, but after a time they are dissolved by the

6.5 See 1.247.

Piracy
1

6.6 Mariners are warned that acts of piracy have taken place in these waters. Generally, these acts have taken place at anchorages or in the approaches to the port. Mariners are advised to keep a constant watch and not to permit any unauthorised craft to come alongside.

Stowaways
1

6.7 It is reported that stowaways are a serious problem. Mariners are reminded that a thorough search of the vessel is required, prior to departure, especially if the vessel is departing the coast.

PUNTA DURNFORD TO NOUADHIBOU GENERAL INFORMATION PUNTA DURNFORD TO CABO BARBAS General information
Chart 3134 Chart 3134

Area covered
1

Route
1

6.8 This section describes the coastal route, anchorages, ports and harbours from Punta Durnford (23 39 N 16 01 W), to Nouadhibou (20 54 N 17 03 W), about 228 miles SSW. It is arranged as follows: Punta Durnford to Cabo Barbas (6.10). Cabo Barbas to Nouadhibou (6.27). Port Minralier de Cansado (6.46) Nouadhibou (6.64).

6.10 From a position NW of Punta Durnford (2339N 1601W), the route leads SW for about 84 miles to a position NW of Cabo Barbas. Mariners are cautioned not to approach the coast from Punta del Pescador (2330N 1559W) to Cabo Barbas (2217N 1741W), 83 miles SSW, at close range as the landmarks are difficult to distinguish.

Topography
1

Topography
1

6.9 For a general topography of the area see 6.2.

6.11 The coast on the E side of Baha de Villa Cisneros (2347N 1550W) is formed of low cliffs decreasing in height to 33 m at Punta del Pescador. From Punta del Pescador to Morro del Ancla Chica, 12 miles SSW, the coast is bordered by flat topped cliffs.

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From Morro del Ancla Chica to Puntillas de las Raimas, 15 miles SSW, the coast is bordered by a sandy beach backed by white sand dunes with sparse vegetation on their summits. Behind this coast are white sandy downs with flat summits. Between Puntillas de las Raimas and Puntilla Negra, 12 miles SSW, lies Baha de Angra de Cintra which can be identified by Los Meanos, two hills with flat tops situated 6 miles ESE of the former point. The S hill has a gorge through it. The bay can also be identified by Las Talaitas (6.13), but the entrance is difficult to distinguish as the entrance points do not stand out well against the land behind them. Baha de Angra de Cintra is uninhabited and the shores consist of low, sparsly vegetated sand dunes with rising ground behind. Fishing vesels from Islas Canarias visit the bay in large numbers. Water may be found by digging in the sand at the foot of Los Meanos. The coast between Puntilla Negra and Cabo Barbas, also known as Punta Gorda, 43 miles SSW, is bordered by sandy beaches backed by sand dunes, the land behind it rising gradually to an extensive sandy plain.

Name Bajo Ahogado

Position 3 miles

Remarks Rock with a depth of 55 m over it Shoal with depth of 55 m over it

Bajo Golfo

del

Medio 6 miles

NW of Puntilla Negra (11 miles SSW), which is dominated by Las Talaitas, three prominent hills close S of the point. A reef extends 1 mile N from Puntilla Negra. Thence:
1

Directions
(continued from 5.336)
1

6.12 From a position NW of Punta Durnford (2339N 1601W) from which a light (6.15) is exhibited, the track leads SW passing (with positions relative to Puntillas de las Raimas Light (23049N 16125W)): NW of Punta Galera (34 miles NNE), from which a light (6.15) is exhibited, noting the wreck marked by eddies with a least depth of 49 m over it, lying 7 cables S and also noting Punta de la Sarga which is low lying and sandy and which extends 1 mile ESE of Punta Galera, thence: NW of a dangerous wreck (37 miles N) charted near the edge of the 30 m contour, thence: NW of Punta del Pescador (28 miles NNE), noting the rocky Punta del Aguaje which fronts it to the NW and Punta de Puerto Rico which is situated 4 cables S. Playa de las Garitas is situated 5 miles S of Punta del Pescador. Bajos de Puerto Rico, a spit with depths of less than 2 m over it, on which the sea breaks, extends 5 miles N from Playa de las Garitas and almost joins El Bajo Grande. El Bajon, a sandy bank with a least depth of 105 m over it, extends about 8 miles S from a position about 10 miles WSW of Punta del Pescador; the S part of the bank with a depth of 13 m over it is known as El Banquete. Thence: 6.13 NW of Morro del Ancla Chica (16 miles NNE), which appears as a distinctive sheared off point from the N, noting the buoy marking a nondangerous wreck moored 13 miles WSW and a stranded wreck lying 3 miles S, thence: NW of Puntillas de las Raimas, which is a long, low, narrow tongue of sand, fringed with abovewater rocks and rocky shoals, which usually break, lying within 2 miles SSW of the point. The following shoals also lie SSW of Puntillas de las Raimas: Name Bajo el Tortugo Position 2 miles Remarks Does not always break

6.14 NW of Morro Gorrei (14 miles SSW), a remarkable red rocky cliff 25 m high, noting Bajo de Barlovento, reefs which dry, extending 8 cables W from it, thence: NW of Morro Falcon (35 miles SSW), 30 m in height, flattopped and resembles a fort, thence: NW of Baha de San Cipriano (2218N 1635W), which is entered between Moro Falcon and Cabo Barbas and has depths of 16 m to 33 m in it, sand and mud. At the head of the bay there is a sandy beach backed by three small sand dunes with steep rugged sides. It is not recommended as an anchorage on account of its exposure to the prevailing N winds and the heavy swell caused by them. Vessels should not enter the bay except in cases of absolute necessity. Thence the track leads to a position NW of Cabo Barbas (2217N 1741W) (54 miles SSW), a high and cliffy cape from which a light (6.15) is exhibited. A depth of 85 m lies 2 miles NE off it. 6.15 Useful marks: Punta Galera Light (white square tower, 6 m in height) (23380N 16001W) Puntillas de las Raimas Light (6sided stone tower, 10 m in height) (23049N 16125W) Cabo Barbas Light (white round tower, black bands, 40 m in height) (22175N 16407W) (Directions continue at 6.36)

Anchorages and harbours


Chart 1690

Ensenada de Puerto Rico


1

6.16 Anchorage and landing. Ensenada de Puerto Rico situated S of Punta del Pescador (2330N 1559W) and of which Punta Puerto Rico forms the N entrance point, is used as an anchorage by fishing vessels and landing can be effected on its fairly steep shelving beach.

Baha de Angra de Cintra


1

6.17 General information. Baha de Angra de Cintra (2300N 1614W), is sheltered from N winds, but offers little protection against the long W swell. In the W approach to the bay, the nature of the bottom is grey sand in the offing and shells near the coast. Dunas de Cintra, about 152 m high, extend about 17 miles SSW from a position 14 miles S of Puntilla Negra, and are a useful landmark for vessels approaching Baha de Angra de Cintra from S. Leading lights. The alignment (090) of the entrance leading lights leads into the bay between Bajo El Tortugo and Bajo Ahogado (6.13):

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Front Light (square masonry tower, 6 m in height) (23023N 16065W). Rear Light 650 m from the front (square masonry tower, 6 m in height) (23023N 16061W). Anchorage can be obtained in the N part of Baha de Angra de Cintra, SE of Puntilla de las Raimas, in depths of about 8 m, sheltered from W and NW winds; local knowledge is required. Anchorage can also be obtained ESE of El Tortugo (6.13) in depths of 9 m; local knowledge is also required.

Baha Gorrei
1

6.18 General information Baha Gorrei (2250N 1620W), of which Morro Gorrei is the N entrance point, is a bay about 3 miles wide. Reefs extend about 1 miles NNW from the S entrance point leaving an entrance to the bay about 1 mile wide between the S edge of Bajo Barlovento and Bajo de Sotavento, the N part of the S reef. Directions. Vessels approaching from N should keep at least 2 miles offshore until Morro Gorrei can be identified, then steer E between the reefs to the anchorage. Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels in the middle of the bay in depths of 6 m to 8 m, mud, sand and weed; local knowledge is required.

known as Bajo Grande and extends S to a position about 1 miles W of Punta del Pescador. Within the bar (6.21) the channel, Canal Principal, rapidly increases in width and depth, and is 1 mile wide between Punta de la Sarga and the S end of Bajo de El Carnero, 1 miles ESE. Canal Principal then extends NE between Bajo de la Galeota Altravesada, 2 miles NE of Punta de la Sarga, and Bajo de Galeota Grande, 1 miles SE of the wharf extending SE from the old port. Within the bay are sandbanks which dry in places. There are unmarked tortuous channels between these banks which should not be attempted without local knowledge.

Limiting conditions
1

Ad Dakhla
Chart 1690 Approach to and plan of Ad Dakhla

6.21 Bar. The bar, composed of sand, extends S from Punta de la Sarga (23377N 15590W). The channel across the bar, which lies about mile SE of the point, is narrow and subject to frequent change owing to the strong tidal streams. Controlling depth. The entrance channel into Baha de Villa Cisneros is marked by lightbuoys. Because of dredging these lightbuoys are moved accordingly, and the depths in the channel may not be as charted. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 19 m; mean neap range about 09 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water: 10001012 g/cm3.

General information
1

Arrival information
1

6.19 Position. Ad Dakhla (2342N 1556W), formerly Villa Cisneros, is situated on the W shore of Baha de Villa Cisneros. Function. It is a port mainly developed for the deepsea fishing fleet and is the nearest to Moroccos richest fishing grounds, especially for cephalopods. It consists of an old port used by naval craft, coastal tankers and small fishing vessels and a new port used mainly by oceangoing fishing vessels. Its facilities are focussed around maintenance and services for the fishing fleet. Topography. The town of Ad Dakhla and the airfield installations stand on the highest part of the peninsula, 2 miles SE of Arciprs Grande and can be seen from a considerable distance. Isla Herne a flat topped rocky island about 20 m high with a pillar on it, can be seen at the head of the bay, about 3 miles SSE of Roca Cabrn. Approach and entry. When approaching, the general uniformity of the coast makes it exceedingly difficult to ascertain the vessels position. The land is also frequently obscured by mist. It is generally clearer in the afternoon than in the morning. Vessels approaching from the N should identify Roca Cabrn, then follow the coast in a depth of about 20 m. Approaching from S, it is very difficult to make a good landfall as there are no good landmarks and it is dangerous to close the coast. Vessels should stay in depths of 25 m to 30 m until Punta Durnford has been identified. In clear weather Punta de El Argub (2338N 1553W) stands out darkly from the neighbouring cliffs. 6.20 Baha de Villa Cisneros is entered between Punta de la Sarga and Punta del Pescador. The entrance is nearly blocked by an extensive sandbank, the N part of which is known as Bajo del Tablero and which lies S of the entrance channel. The S part of the extensive sandbank is

6.22 Notice of ETA. ETA should be sent 48 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Outer anchorages. Anchorage outside the bar can be obtained about mile SW of Punta Galera in a depth of about 13 m; local knowledge is required. Anchorage within the bay can be obtained by small vessels E of the town of Ad Dakhla in a depth of 13 m; the holding ground is good and there is shelter from SW winds, but the tidal streams are strong and local knowledge is required. Anchorage can also be obtained by small vessels in several places at the N end of Baha de Villa Cisneros, and off El Argub (2337N 1553W) and El Puertito, 3 miles SSW; local knowledge is required for these anchorages. Spoil ground. A spoil ground, the limits of which can best be seen on the chart, is situated close NE of Bajo de Galeota Atravesada and marked by small red buoys. Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 50 gt and available during daylight hours only. Vessels requiring a pilot should signal their time of arrival by RT between the hours of 08001300 and 15002000 GMT. Pilot boards the vessel at the anchorage SW of Punta Galera. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Tugs. There is one tug and one launch available to assist. Local knowledge is required for anchoring within and outside of Baha de Villa Cisneros, and for navigation along unmarked channels between banks within the bay. Prohibited area. Anchoring is prohibited in an area, the limits of which can best be seen on the chart, extending from No 1 Lightbuoy to the coast between Punta Galera and Punta de la Sarga.

Harbour
1

6.23 General layout. The harbour consists of an old port and a new port.

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Development. Further development is reported (2001) which will provide for an additional 270 hectare area. Tidal streams. Off the entrance to Baha de Villa Cisneros the tidal streams attain a rate of 2 kn and set as follows; On the rising tide On the falling tide
2

Egoing Wgoing

Supplies: Small quantities of provisions can be obtained. Fish is abundant in Baha de Villa Cisneros. Fresh water is available on the main wharf. Communications: There is an airport at Ad Dakhla; distance 1 km, from the old port. Rescue. Dakhla is a designated MRSC. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information.

At the commencement of the Egoing stream, there are sometimes strong eddies on the bar and inside the bar the tidal stream has a rate of 2 kn. On the bar and over the shoal ground the tidal ground the tidal streams attain a great rate, causing the sea to break.

CABO BARBAS TO NOUADHIBOU General information


Chart 1690, 1699, 3134

Route
1

Directions for entering harbour


1

6.27 From a position NW of Cabo Barbas (2218N 1741W) the route leads S for about 120 miles to a position SSE of Cap Blanc.

6.24 From the pilot boarding position (2338N 1601W) the route leads SE over the bar then NE into Canal Principal. Useful marks: Radio Mast (23424N 15561W), red obstruction light. TV mast (height 69 m) (23420N 15559W), red obstruction light. White Church (23420N 15558W). Ad Dakhla, Muelle Transversal Light (grey truncated conical tower, 5 m in height) (23 41 8N 15553W). New Port Interior Basin Light (red beacon) (23396N 15569W). New Port Breakwater Head Light (E Cardinal beacon) (23395N 15567W). New Port Pier Head Light (green cone on green beacon) (23394N 15569W). Punta Galera Light (2338N 1600W) (6.15).

Topography
1

Berths
1

6.25 The new port consists of a wharf extending 1 mile SE from a position 4 cables SW of Punta de la Enconada (2340N 1557W). Several berths and a basin is formed around the head of the wharf as shown on the chart. There are facilities for handling containers. The old port consists of a concrete jetty, which dries alongside, extending SW from the middle of the town of Ad Dakhla. From close N of the concrete jetty, the wharf extends 4 cables SE. The head of this wharf extends SW with a depth of 5 m on its SE face. Two short spurs extend SW from the wharf, close to the head, forming small basins where small vessels can berth alongside. A total of 600 m of quayage is available with depths alongside of from 6 m to 8 m to accommodate the deepsea fishing fleet.

Port services
1

6.26 Repairs: A 1200 tonne slipway and a covered repair hall are available. Small repairs can be effected. There are two 10ton and one 70ton mobile cranes and one 70ton floating derrick. Other facilities: There is a hospital in Ad Dakhla.

6.28 The coast from Cabo Barbas (2218N 1741W) to Punta Galha, 9 miles SW, is formed of cliffs about 24 m high; there is a depth of 22 m about 1 mile offshore, and at 2 miles there is a depth of 30 m sand, mud and shells. Between Punta Galha and Cap Blanc, the coast is moderately high with a few slight indentations. The nature of the bottom is mostly grey sand and shells; towards the parallel of Cap Blanc the sand becomes darker in colour. For a distance of 26 miles from Punta Galha to Cabo Corveiro, the coast is one continuous stretch of white sand, rising in some places to peaked hills, in others sloping gently to the sea with a few cliffs here and there. The whole stretch is without vegetation other than occasional shrubs which show up darkly against the sand. Though Cabo Corveiro is not well defined it is the most important point for 10 miles along this coast. 6.29 S of Cabo Corveiro (2148N 1659W), the coast consists of white and red sandy slopes of various shapes, terminating either in sandy beaches, on which the sea breaks, or in steep cliffs 20 m to 40 m high. The cliffs are, in many places, worn at their bases by the sea forming caves and islets lying a short distance from the coast. Presqule du Cap Blanc, extending about 25 miles S from latitude 2112N, terminates in a plateau between Pointe de lOpera and Cap Blanc. Baie de lOuest (20 48 N 17 05 W) is the slight indentation in the coast between Pointe de la Gera and Cap Blanc. The shores of this bay, composed of a series of small sandy and rocky bights in which landing is difficult, are low as far as Pointe de lOpera, thence to Cap Blanc it is cliffy. Cap Blanc is composed of friable rock which is gradually being eroded by the sea, consequently its shape is subject to alteration. 6.30 The coast from Pointe Rey (2055N 1701W) to Pointe de lEtoile, 6 miles N is cliffy interspersed by sand and marshy ground. Pointe Flore, close N of Pointe Rey, is surmounted by a double hill. Pointe des Maures, 3 miles N of Pointe Rey, is a rocky promontory. Baie de lEtoile, (2102N 1701W) situated close N of Pointe de lEtoile, is a shallow basin suitable only for boats. From Baie de lEtoile to Baie de lArchimde, which lies at the head of Baie du Lvrier, the coast is bordered by

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sand behind which are abovewater rocks. These rocks are backed by a drying basin which is filled at high water springs. 6.31 The E coast of Baie du Lvrier is low and composed of sandy beaches and mud flats. Behind the E coast of the bay, and separated from it by a shallow sandy basin which fills at springs, are sandhills composed of such fine sand that their shape and position are changed by the wind. The coast from Pointe du Dsert (2104N 1653W), the E entrance point of Baie de lArchimde, lying 8 miles ENE of Pointe de lEtoile, leads SSE for about 9 miles to Pointe des Autruches, with Pointe des Marais and Pointe des Hynes between them. Pointe des Hynes, coverd with grass, is the only distinguishable feature in this area which is otherwise devoid of vegetation. 6.32 The coast from Pointe des Autruches (2056N 1648W) continues SSE for 6 miles to Pointe Minou, and thence to Pointe des Coquilles 4 miles farther SSE. The coast between the latter two points is fronted by patches of drying rocks. Pointe des Coquilles is only 2 m high, and formed of a conglomerate of oyster shells. Baie des Plicans is entered betwen Pointe Jerome, 3 miles SE of Pointe Minou, and Cap SainteAnne. le des Plicans (2043N 1641W) lies near the middle of the bay. Cap SainteAnne (2041N 1641W), also known as Khechem Bella, is a rocky plateau 8 m high and is the only distinguishable feature in the area. Two beacons stand N of the cape, and a remarkable plateau lies about 1 miles E of the cape.

stream is opposed to the wind, vessels swing across the stream and may drag their anchor. In the N approach to Baie du Lvrier, between Cap Dubouchage and Cap Blanc, the tidal streams set as follows: Rising tide Falling tide SEgoing NWgoing 1 kn kn

The NWgoing stream is only perceptible from 1 to 3 hours after HW at Nouadhibou. Tidal streams in Baie du Lvrier set as follows: In the S part: Rising tide Egoing from a position 2 miles E of Cap Blanc, gradually becoming SE then SSE as Cap SainteAnne is approached. NWgoing off Cap SainteAnne, gradually becoming W then S near Cap Blanc.

Falling tide

Both tidal streams in the S part of Baie du Lvrier have a maximum rate of 1 kn. On the E side of Presqule du Cap Blanc, from the cape to Pointe de Cansado, the tidal streams set as follows: Rising tide Falling tide Ngoing Sgoing 2 kn near Cap Blanc 2 kn near Cap Blanc

Depths
1

6.33 Caution. The coastal waters from Cabo Barbas (6.14) to Cap Blanc (6.29) reach 30 m in depth within about 3 miles of the coast, reaching 100 m in depth at a distance of about 22 miles. However numerous shallow patches with less than 20 m have been found between these contours. Others, only slightly deeper, have been reported between the 100 m and 1000 m contours. Most of the depths are not charted as many have been disproved by investigation. In each case a deep scattering layer was observed. Mariners are therefore warned to proceed with caution regarding the depth when navigating in these waters.

The duration of slack water is about 10 minutes. In the central part of Baie du Lvrier, the tidal streams are rotary, turning clockwise. In the N part of Baie du Lvrier the tidal stream sets N on the rising tide and S on the falling tide, the rate decreasing gradually towards the head of the bay. The streams are more perceptible on the W than on the E side of the bay.

Directions
(continued from 6.15)

Major light
1

6.36 Cap Blanc Light (black 8sided tower, white bands, 20 m in height) (20463N 17030W).

Hazards
1

6.34 Fishing vessels. Concentrations of fishing craft have been reported about 20 miles off this coast between the parallels of 2230N and 2045N. Position fixing. Baie du Lvrier has a deep approach with numerous marks for fixing the position of a vessel, but when the NE Trade Wind is strong the air is laden with sand which almost entirely prevents the points from being seen.

Natural conditions
1

6.35 Local magnetic anomaly is reported to exist in the vicinity of Cap Blanc. Tidal streams. The sea in Baie du Lvrier is often uncomfortable even in a light breeze, and when the tidal

Cap Blanc Lt Ho from E (6.36)


(Original dated 1998) (Photograph Crown Copyright)

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Other navigational aid


1

6.37 Racon: O Lightbuoy (safe water) (20402N 17047W).

WNW of El Castillete Alto (27 miles S), a fairly prominent yellow hill, thence:
1

Passage
1

6.38 From a position NW of Cabo Barbas (6.27), the track leads generally SSW passing (with positions relative to Cabo Corveiro (2148N 1659W)): NW of Punta Galha (26 miles NNE), a sandy point terminating in a bare plateau 20 m high, but difficult to distinguish. A reef, on which Islote Piedra Galha and Islote Virginia, see below, lie, extends about 6 miles SSW from Punta Galha. Punta Breca lies 2 miles SSW of Punta Galha and a shallow cove bordered by Playa de Punta Breca is situated between these points. Thence: NW of Islote Piedra Galha (25 miles NNE), also known as Roca del Norte or Piedra de Agal, a steep islet with a flat summit about 20 m high. Seen from N, Punta Galha is liable to be mistaken for it, and at a distance of about 9 miles, the islet looks like a vessel under sail. This islet should be given a berth of at least 3 miles. Thence: NW of Islote Virginia (22 miles NNE), also known as Roca del Sur, which is about 6 m high, flat and difficult to distinguish against the land. It lies about 1 miles offshore. This islet should also be given a berth of at least 3 miles. Thence: 6.39 NW of Baha de Santa Anna (6 miles NNE), a slight indentation in the coast and which has a white sandy shore about 7 miles long. It is bounded on the N by a dark point surmounted by a low cliff. A shoal, which breaks heavily, lies in the centre of the bay about 1 mile offshore. Thence: WNW of Cabo Corveiro, which is the S entrance point for Baha de Santa Anna. It is a rocky cliff terminating in a low dark point on which the sea breaks. At the foot of the cape are some large rocks broken off the cliff. At some distance off the cape, the bottom is mud. Thence: WNW of Ensenada de Vialobos la Vieja (Puerto Nuevo) (2 miles S), a bay, also known as Boca del Bialogo to the fishermen from Islas Canarias who use it. Thence: WNW of Restinga de Puerto Nuevo (5 miles S), which forms the S entrance point of the bay and appears as a dark cliff when seen from N, thence: WNW of Punta del Roquito (12 miles S), a small rock which lies at the foot of a cliff, thence:

6.40 W of Cap Dubouchage (Cabo Dubouchage) (about 57 miles S), a low point with patches of vegetation on it, noting the stranded wreck which lies 5 cables NNE of it. The bight immediately N of Cap Dubouchage has a sandy beach and its N entrance point overhangs the sea. Thence: W of Pointe de la Gera (58 miles S), a small rocky promontory with some buildings on it, noting Faux Cap Blanc which lies midway between Pointe de la Gera and Cap Dubouchage. A dangerous wreck lies 2 cables ESE of the Pointe da la Gera Light (6.42). Thence: W of Pointe del Aguila (59 miles S), noting the rock pillar standing just N of it and Pointe des Langoustes situated 7 cables SSE, thence: W of Pointe de lOpera (62 miles S), noting the dangerous wreck lying 1 mile W and a charted depth of 97 m lying about 6 cables WSW, thence: W of Cap Blanc (63 miles S), which shows as a white plateau the end of which falls vertically, when seen from the SW or E. A ruined beacon stands on the S extremity of Cap Blanc and a similar beacon stands about 3 cables NW of it. A dangerous wreck lies about 8 cables W of Cap Blanc, and Banc du Milan with a least charted depth of 88 m extends from 1 miles to 2 miles WSW of the cape. 6.41 The route then leads SE, to join the charted track, passing (with positions relative to Cap Blanc (2046N 1703W)): SW of two dangerous wrecks, position approximate (4 and 4 miles WSW respectively), thence: SW of Bancs de LEstafette (about 4 miles SW), with a least charted depth of 10 m, thence: NE of Bancs de la Sentinelle (6 miles SW) with a least charted depth of 12 m, thence: SW of Petit Banc (4 miles SSW) with a least charted depth of 12 m, thence: NE of a dangerous wreck, position approximate (about 7 miles SSW), thence: SW of an obstruction (6 miles SSW) with a least charted depth of 13 m. The route then leads to a position SE of the O Lightbuoy (safe water) (6.37). 6.42 Useful marks: Cabo Barbas Light (white round tower, black bands, 40 m in height) (22175N 16407W).
Port Mineralier de Cansado

Cap Blanc from S (6.40)


(Original dated 1998) (Photograph Crown Copyright)

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Las Canteras, a group of seven dark rocks, which show up clearly above the sand and divide the beach of Baha de Santa Ana (6.39) into two portions. Military Post of Nouadhibou (elevation 19 m) (20556N 17027W), a square building, which can be seen over the peninsula. Two Radio Masts (elevation 80 m) (20 55 7N 17024W). Pointe de la Gera Light (white square turret, 6 m in height) (20496N 17058W). Two Radio Masts, standing 1 mile NE of Pointe de la Gera Light. (Directions for Port Minralier de Cansado continue at 6.59, and for the coastal passage at 6.96)

Topography
1

6.48 The coast on the W side of Baie du Lvrier from Cap Blanc to Point Central, 3 miles NNE, consists of white cliffs 10 to 20 m high. The coast from Point Central to Point de Cansado, 2 miles NNE, continues as white cliffs of similar height as those to the S of Point Central. The town of Cansado stands close SW of Pointe de Cansado.

Approach and entry


1

Channel East of Islote Virginia


1

6.43 A passage with a depth of 64 m lies between the S end of the reef extending SSW from Islote Virginia (2209N 1650W), and the mainland.

Anchorages and harbours


Spanish chart 53B (see 1.19)

Islote Piedra Galha


1

6.44 Anchorage can be obtained about 2 miles NE of Islote Piedra Galha (2212N 1650W), in a depth of about 21 m, mud bottom. Vessels drawing less than 6 m can anchor about 1 mile ENE of the same islet over a shingle bottom.

La Gera Grande
1

6.45 Anchorage, can be obtained, as indicated on the chart 6 cables SSW of Pointe de la Gera (2250N 1706W), in a depth of about 12 m with moderate holding ground. This anchorage is much frequented by fishing vessels from Islas Canarias. Landing can be effected in fine weather at a small quay on the E side of Pointe de la Gera. From Gera, where there is a dispensary, there is regular sea communication to Ad Dakhla and Islas Canarias. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 12 m; mean neap range about 04 m. For further information see Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2.

6.49 Vessels approaching from the N should follow the route described at 6.38. Vessels approaching from S should pass W of Banc dArguin (6.90) until about 10 miles SSW of Cap Blanc when the charted track should be followed towards No 2 lightbuoy. In thick weather the approach from S and SW should be to make the land between Cap Dubouchage and Cap Blanc where the coast is steep, as otherwise there is the danger of running onto Banc de la Bayadre (6.60). Having made the coast in these circumstances, they should then proceed as directed above. 6.50 When approaching Baie du Lvrier at night, care should be taken to avoid the fishing boats at anchor and which are frequently unlighted. Baie du Lvrier is entered between Cap Blanc and Cap SainteAnne, 21 miles ESE. It is one of the largest bays on the W coast of Africa. The bay is encumbered by numerous banks and shoals and should be entered with great caution by vessels with a draught of over 6 m, unless proceeding to the anchorage in Baie de Cansado (6.72). Baie du Lvrier is well stocked with fish. The abundance of sardines being so great that shoals of these fish have sometimes been mistaken for dangers.

Traffic
1

6.51 In 2004 there were 90 vessel movements totalling 9 179 540 dwt.

Limiting conditions
1

6.52 Controlling depth. A depth of 10 9 m is charted 4 cables E of the S end of the Ore Berth. Deepest and longest berth. Ore Berth (6.62). Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled. Ore Berth; 150 000 dwt, LOA 310 m, 156 m draught.

PORT MINRALIER DE CANSADO Arrival information General information


Chart 1699 plan of Port Minralier de Cansado.

Notice of ETA
1

Position
1

6.46 Port Minralier de Cansado is situated at Point Central (2049N 1702W).


1

6.53 ETA should be sent 72 and 24 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Outer anchorages
6.54 Anchorage can be obtained, for vessels waiting to enter Baie du Lvrier in position 20443N 17010W, 1 miles NE of No 2 Lightbuoy, in 20 m, good holding ground. Anchorage can be obtained anywhere (see 6.57) in the channel between the E side of the peninsula and Banc du Lvrier; the nature of the bottom is mud in the deepest part of the channel but the sea is heavy when the wind and tidal stream are opposed.

Function
1

6.47 It is mainly a terminal for the export of iron ore, which is mined around Zourate in the N of the country to which it is linked by a railway. An oil berth is situated at Pointe des Mouettes, 9 cables N of Point Central. The town of Cansado is situated about 2 miles N of Point Central.

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Pilotage
1

6.55 Pilotage is compulsory and available during daylight hours only. The pilot can be contacted by VHF and boards in the vicinity of No 2 Lightbuoy. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Tugs
1

6.56 Tugs are available, two tugs required for vessels bound for the Oil Berth. Three mooring boats with mooring staff are also available.

Traffic regulations
1

6.57 Restricted area. Entry and anchoring are restricted within an area of about 1 mile radius from Point Central. Only vessels waiting to berth at the Ore Berth may use this area. Deepdraught vessels, drawing 9 m or more, have right of way between No 2 Lightbuoy and Point Central about 6 miles N. Deepdraught vessels should display a black cylinder by day or three red lights disposed vertically at night (Rule 28 of International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea).

Harbour
1

6.58 General layout. The harbour comprises of an Lshaped jetty at Point Central with four mooring buoys laid around the jetty head, and a Theaded jetty at Pointe des Mouettes. Aiods to navigation. It is reported that the buoys and lights in the approaches to Noaudhibou may be missing or unlit.

SE of Banc de la Bayadre, a narrow ridge with a least charted depth of 72 m, which extends from 1 miles to 3 miles S of Cap Blanc, with another bank, Banc du Cap, lying between it and Cap Blanc. SE of No 2 Lightbuoy (port hand, pillar) (3 miles SSE). The route then leads NNW along the charted track, passing: W of Banc du Goland (about 5 miles SE), with a least depth of 51 m, thence: WSW of No 1 Lightbuoy (starboard hand) (2 miles SE), thence: ENE of No 4 Lightbuoy (port hand) (1 miles SSE), thence: WSW of No 3 Lightbuoy (starboard hand) (7 cables ESE), noting the Banc du Lvrier, with a least charted depth of 32 m, extending NW for 6 miles from it. Thence: ENE of No 6 Lightbuoy (port hand) (4 cables ESE). Thence the route leads NE along the charted track, through Passe du Lvrier which separates the Banc du Lvrier from Presqule du Cap Blanc, passing: SE of M2 Lightbuoy (port hand) (1 miles NNE), thence: SE of M1 Lightbuoy (south cardinal) (about 1 miles NNE). The route then leads generally N to the Ore Berth at Point Central or to the Oil jetty at Pointe des Mouettes.

Useful marks
1

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 6.42)

Landmarks
1

6.59 Flare (obstruction lights, 65 m in height) (20500N 17030W). Water tower (red and white lights) (20 50 7N 17023W).

6.61 Ore Berth S Head Light (20487N 17023W). Ore Berth N Elbow Light (20490N 17023W). Oil Pier S Head Light (20497N 17020W). Water Tower, 3 cables SW of Pointe des Mouettes. Oil Pier N Head Light (20498N 17019W). Light on Dolphin N of Oil Jetty (20 49 9N 17020W). Pointe des Mouettes, Tower (20499N 17023W). Pointe de Cansado Light (red lantern on block house) (20513N 17019W). (Directions continue at 6.79)

Entry
1

Berths Alongside berths


1

6.60 From a position SE of the O Lightbuoy (6.37), the route leads NE along the charted track chart, passing (with positions relative to Cap Blanc (2046N 1703W)): NW of a dangerous wreck (6 miles S), thence: W of Banc Vilmorin (7 miles SE), with a least depth of 38 m, thence:

6.62 The jetty at Point Central extends 2 cables ESE from the shore. The head of the jetty is 20 m in width and 2 cables in length and rests on eight large dolphins. The N part of this jetty is used for loading bulk ore and the S part, which is a light platform resting on three dolphins, as

Port Mineralier de Cansado Jetty at Point Central (6.62.1)


(Original dated 1998) (Photograph Crown Copyright)

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Oil Jetty at Pointe des Mouettes (6.62.2)


(Photograph Crown Copyright) (Original dated 1998)

a tanker berth, which can accommodate tankers up to 140 m in length. Alongside depths 16 m. The jetty at Pointe des Mouettes extends 3 cables SE from the shore. This jetty is used by tankers up to 50 000 dwt with draughts up to 115 m.

Rey (2055N 1701W), a low sandy point 3 miles NNE. The bay is the principal anchorage in Baie du Lvrier. There are several unmarked wrecks in the N part of the bay. Mariners should exercise every caution when entering the bay.

Port services
1

Traffic
1

6.63 Repair facilities are available. Other facilities. Hospital; dirty ballast reception facilities; garbage disposal facilities. Supplies. Fresh water and fuel oil are available in limited quantities. Communications. Airport at Nouadhibou with international connections.

6.68 In 2004 there were 453 vessel movements totalling 5 753 532 dwt.

Port Authority
1

6.69 Port Autonome de Nouadhibou, PO Box 236, Nouadhibou, Mauritania.

NOUADHIBOU
1

Limiting conditions
6.70 Controlling depth. It was reported (1998) that the approach channel and the berth were dredged to 75 m. Deepest berth: Quai de Commerce (6.82). Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 17 m; mean neap range about 07 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled: LOA 160 m, draught 7.2 m. Local weather and sea state. Prevailing winds are NW through N to NE and often laden with sand. Vessels are advised not to remain alongside when the wind is from NE as a choppy sea is raised. From November to January there is a noticeable swell which can hamper commercial operations. This swell is usually from SE and increases in height during midmorning, abating at noon.

General information
Charts 1699 Nouadhibou, 1690 plan Approaches to Nouadhibou.

Position
1

6.64 Nouadhibou (2054N 1703W), formerly Port Etienne, stands between Pointe Chacal and the military post 2 miles NNE.

Function
1

6.65 The port handles general cargo, containers and roro traffic in addition to fishing traffic. In 1992 the population was 83 246.

Arrival information Notice of ETA


1

Topography
1

6.66 The coast is sandy around the Baie de Cansado, except for the mile NW of Pointe de Cansado which continues the cliffs mentioned in 6.48.

6.71 ETA should be sent 72 and 24 hours prior to arrival to the agent. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Outer anchorages Approach and entry


1 1

6.67 For approaches to Baie du Lvrier see 6.49. Baie de Cansado is entered between Pointe de Cansado and Pointe

6.72 Anchorage for coasters can be obtained in the S dredged area, 3 cables SSE of Quai de Commerce, with excellent holding ground of soft mud. It is recommended to veer at least 3 shackles as the wind is usually very strong.

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Pilotage
1

6.73 Pilotage is compulsory and available during daylight hours only. The pilot boards in the vicinity of No 2 Lightbuoy (20435N 17018W). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3) for details. A report (1998) states that due to the missing No 3 buoy the pilot is insisting on passing very close to No 6 buoy on entry and departure. The recommended route as shown on chart 1699 is not followed. M1 and M5 buoys are left close to port, on entry, until regaining the route on the 000 leg.

Three pylons, 7 cables NE of old lighthouse (red obstruction light on N pylon). La Table (20553N 17019W), flat topped hill, elevation 15 m. Military Post (20556N 17026W), square white painted building, 19 m elevation.

Entry
1

Tugs
1

6.74 Tugs, three mooring boats and mooring crew are available.
2

Traffic regulations
1

6.75 Prohibited area. A prohibited anchorage area, which can best be seen on the chart, exists in the approach channel.

Harbour General layout


1

6.76 The harbour comprises of an Lshaped pier which extends SE and S from the shore cable N of Pointe Chacal. There is a dolphin at each end of the pier. Three small spurs extend S from the pier between the root and its head and three mooring buoys lie about 4 cables S of the pier. Areas off the head of the pier have been dredged as indicated on the chart. A quay extends S from the root of the pier to Pointe Chacal. Another quay extends N from the root of the Lshaped pier.

Aids to navigation
1

6.77 It is reported (2002) that the buoys and lights in the approaches to Noaudhibou may be missing or unlit.

Natural conditions
1

6.78 Tidal streams in Baie de Cansado are imperceptible except in Baie de Repos (20547N 17026W) where they sometimes attain a rate of 4 or 5 kn. Climate information. See 1.291 and 1.298.

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 6.61)

Landmarks
1

6.79 Two towers (20525N 17036W), offwhite in colour. Old Lighthouse (20548N 17031W).

6.80 From a position SE of Point Central Ore Berth, the route leads NE, along the charted track, passing (with positions relative to Cap Blanc (2046N 1703W)): SE of M5 Lightbuoy (special) (about 3 miles NNE), thence: SE of Pointe des Mouettes (3 miles NNE), noting the Theaded jetty extending SE from it. Thence: SE of two unlit buoys (port hand) (3 miles and about 4 miles NNE respectively), the former marking a 10 m patch. The route then leads N along the charted track, passing: E of three 10 m patches (4 miles, 4 miles and 4 miles NNE), Thence: E of Pointe de Cansado (5 miles NNE) noting the bank with a least charted depth of 85 m, which lies between it and the charted track. Thence: E of Banc de la Gazelle (6 miles NNE) which extends nearly 2 miles N of Pointe de Cansado into the Baie de Cansado, with depths of less than 5 m. It was reported in 1988 that numerous wrecks lie on the S part of this bank 5 cables N of Pointe de Canasdo. Thence: NE of No 10 Lightbuoy (port hand) (7 miles NNE). 6.81 The route then leads WNW in the buoyed channel, keeping the vessel in the white sector of Pointe Chacal Light, passing (with reference to Pointe Chacal (20538N 17033W)): NNE of Pointe de Cansado (3 miles SSE), thence: SSW of Pointe Rey (about 2 miles ENE), noting the Banc du Poste extending mile S from it. Thence: SSW of No 5 Lightbuoy (starboard hand) (1 miles ESE), noting the stranded wreck, an obstruction with a depth of 59 m and a dangerous wreck lying cable, 1 cables and 3 cables NNW respectively from it, thence: SSW of a dangerous wreck, existence doubtful, (1 miles E), thence: SSW of No 7 Buoy (starboard hand) (1 miles ESE), noting the wreck, which covers and uncovers, lying 3 cables NNW from it, thence: NNE of a dangerous wreck (9 cables ESE), which lies within the white sector of Pointe Chacal Light, and which was reported (1998) to be removed, thence: SSW of a 46 m patch (7 cables E), noting the wreck with a depth of 6 m, which lies cables WSW, thence: NNE of No 12 Lightbuoy (port hand) (6 cables ESE), thence: SSW of a wreck (5 cables ENE), with a depth of 3 m, thence: SSW of Pointe aux Crabes (8 cables NNE), which is the S entrance point to the Baie du Repos. It is a shallow bay with a smooth surface, but the tides

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Nouadibou Quai de Commerce (6.82.1)


(Original dated 1998)

(Photograph Crown Copyright)

run strongly here and it is gradually silting up. Thence: S of No 9 Buoy (starboard hand) (3 cables E). Thence the track leads to the pier ( cable E), noting the obstruction charted close NE of the N dolphin and the dangerous wreck lying 1 cables SSW of the S dolphin. Useful marks: Pointe Chacal Light (white 8sided tower, black stripes, 12 m in height) (20539N 17035W). Jetty Elbow Light (20539N 17032W). Aero Light (white block house, 5 m in height) (20556N 17024W).

small spurs, between the root of the pier and the head, can accommodate vessels up to 20 m length and 46 m draught. Quai de Peche, which extends N from the root of the pier, offers accommodation for fishing vessels. The N section of this quay has depths of between 49 m and 56 m. RoRo operations have taken place at this berth. A pier with a depth of 3 m alongside and at which landing can be effected, is situated 5 cables N of Pointe Chacal and in front of the Societ Industrielle de la Grand Pche building.

Berths
1

Port services
6.83 Repair facilities are available. Two floating docks, capacity 1000 tonnes and 400 tonnes, are available. Other facilities. Medical facilities are available in the town. Dirty ballast reception facility, garbage disposal facilities and fumigation are available. Lighters, with up to 200 tonnes capacity, are available. There are facilities for container and RoRo traffic. Supplies. Fuel oil available in limited quantities at the berths. Fresh water is available. Communications. Airport, 3 km NE of Pointe Chacal, with flights to Dakar, Paris and Las Palmas. Rescue. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for information on rescue.

Alongside berths
1

6.82 The head of the Lshaped pier has two berths. Quai de Commerce, the E berth, with a depth of 80 m alongside, can accommodate vessels with a maximum draught of 7 0 m and maximum length of 160 m. Quai Marine Nationale, the W berth, can accommodate vessels of maximum draught 45 m and maximum length 80 m. These berths are mainly used by general cargo vessels, vessels loading frozen fish and container vessels. Quai de Chalandage, which extends S from the root of the pier to Pointe Chacal, is used by lighters. The three

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CHAPTER 6

a a b

a b c

b c

c (Photograph Crown Copyright)

Nouadibou Quai de Pche (6.82.2)


(Original dated 1998)

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CHAPTER 6

NOUADHIBOU TO PORT DE LAMITI GENERAL INFORMATION


Chart 3134, 3135. S part, lies to the E of the extensive sandbanks which extend 14 miles NW. Several islets with patches of grass on them lie on these sandbanks of which Ile en Nyer, Ile Kji and Ile Chedded lie close N, W and SW, respectively, of Ile et Tidra. The coast between Rs Iouk and Presqule de Tla, 30 miles SSW is flat. Presqule de Serenni lies parallel with and is joined to the coast by a sandy isthmus about midway along this stretch of the coast. Presquile de Tla is about 15 m high and oriented from NE to SW, and large sandbanks which dry at half tide extend seaward from it. The dunes of Mguerint and the fishing village of Techet are found on the W slopes of this peninsula, the fishing village of Rgueba stands at its SW end and Rs Timirist is situated 5 miles SW from it. Baie de SaintJean or DakhletAchel, lying between Presqule de Tla and Rs Timirist, have not yet been surveyed, but the bay is reported to afford shelter to small craft from all winds. The coast between Rs Timirist (1923N 1632W) and Tiouilit, 37 miles SSE, is backed by ranges of sandhills perpendicular to the shore. These hills gradually increase in elevation to Tiouilit where they are about 30 m high. This stretch of the coast, which is used by Moorish fishermen from October to March, is indented by numerous unprotected bights separated, in places, by rocky points. 6.89 Seen from NW or W the coast has the appearance of one continuous dune, and the landmarks are not so distinct when seen from SW. From the latter direction the coast appears as a succession of dunes and cliffs of a white or reddish colour, separated by pools. Between Tiouilit and Mottes dAngel, 12 miles SSE, the dunes are lower and there are no landmarks. Mottes dAngel is a group of dunes among which Dune de Lemsid, a white rounded dune 20 m high, is conspicuous. From Mottes dAngel to Tarfayat el Mansour, 33 miles S, the coast is formed of low grey sand dunes, with some scrub on them. This uniformity is interrupted at Ferrat, about 10 miles SSE of Mottes dAngel, by a low yellow sand dune.

Area covered
1

6.84 This section describes the coastal route, anchorages, ports and harbours from Nouadhibou (2054N 1703W) to Port de lAmiti about 173 miles SSE. It is arranged as follows: Coastal passage (6.86). Nouakchott (6.105). Port de lAmiti (6.123).

Topography
1

6.85 For a general topography of the section see 6.2.

COASTAL PASSAGE General information


Chart 1661

Route
1

6.86 From a position E of No 2 Lightbuoy (20435N 17018W) the route leads SW for about 36 miles, then SSE for 30 miles and SE for 130 miles to a position W of Port de lAmiti.

Topography
1

6.87 The coast between Cap SainteAnne (2041N 1641W) and Cap dArguin, also known as Rs Agdir, 11 miles SE, is formed of sand dunes 5 m to 12 m high. Cap d Arguin is very low but can be identified by a stone tower and a prominent beacon surmounted by a black drum; a sandbank which nearly dries extends SE from the cape. From Cap dArguin (2034N 1632W) to Rs Tafart, 30 miles SSE the coast is uninhabited. The coast from Cap dArguin for a distance of 20 miles SSE, is very low. Inland a rocky tableland and isolated hillocks, up to 56 m in height, can be seen. Rs Alzz (2025N 1621W), 13 miles SE of Cap dArguin, is formed of small yellow sandhills. Baie de Tanodrt, a bay much frequented by fishing vessels from Islas Canarias is entered between a point, 22 miles SE of Cap dArguin, and Rs Tagrt (2010N 16 13 W), a farther 7 miles SE. Tanodrt (20 12 N 1612W), is located at the head of the bay, and is notable for its hangar and for the availablilty of slightly brackish but plentiful spring water. Rs Tafart (2008N 1616W) lies 3 miles SW of Rs Tagrt, and a bay, fronted by numerous sandbanks, lies between it and Rs Iouk (1953N 1619W), a sandy point about 20 m high,situated on the W part of Presqule dIouik. To the E of the peninsula is Baie dAoutil, a drying sandbank. Rs Tagrt is rocky and high and descends to the sea in two distinctive steps. Rs Tafart is also high and Piton de Ourjema lies 5 miles ESE from it. 6.88 Ile Ichekcher, which is low, and Iles Kiouene which are rocky and higher, lie on the NW side of extensive sandbanks between 4 and 7 miles SSW of Rs Tafart. Ile Arel, an islet with patches of grass on it, lies at the NW end of a large drying sandbank W of Rs Iouk. Ile et Tidra, a large island, green in the middle with a dune on its

Banc dArguin
1

6.90 Banc dArguin (2000N 1645W), lying S of Banc Vilmorin (6.60) may be considerd as a continuation of the shoal ground which fronts the E shore of Baie du Lvrier. Banc dArguin extends to Rs Timirist (19 23 N 1632W) (6.88) 79 miles S of Cap SainteAnne. This area is unsurveyed and the W limit of the bank is uncertain. Banc dArguin should not be approached within a depth of 30 m. The utmost vigilance should be observed when passing or approaching Banc dArguin, and sounding should be continuous. The water in the locality is often discoloured, showing brown, green and sometimes reddish. A survey attempted in December, 1921, for the purpose of fixing the the W edge of Banc dArguin, showed the great difficulty of navigating the locality. The soundings are very uneven and the edge of the bank very indented. The tidal streams attain a rate of 1 kn and, in addition, eddies render the steering of a vessel very diffficult.

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6.91 The bottom of the bank is hard with a covering of sand and broken shells. No part of the bank has been seen dry but there is evidently not much water over it as breakers have been observed on various parts of the bank. Breakers are more frequent on the bank S of the parallel of 20N, the depths are more uneven and there is nothing to indicate the approach of shoal water; depths decreasing abruptly from 40 to 7 m. The nature of the bottom seaward of Banc dArguin is mostly sand, especially in depths of about 55 m; within a depth of 40 m, broken shells are mixed with the sand, the proportion of shell increasing as the bank is approached. 6.92 Current and tidal streams. Immediately seaward of Banc dArguin, the currents follow the direction of the edge of the bank at a rate of 1 kn. Tidal streams are only perceptible very close to Banc dArguin, and are only regular in the N part in the neighbourhood of Cap Blanc (6.29). Off the S part of the bank there are eddies, variable in direction, which extend about 40 miles S of Rs Timirist (6.88).

Directions
(continued from 6.42)

Major lights
1

6.96 Cap Blanc Light (Black 20 m in height) (20463N Port de lAmiti Light red top) (17597N

8sided tower, white bands, 17030W). (white column, black bands, 16016W).

Passage
1

Depths
1

6.93 The depths for 7 miles offshore, between Cap SainteAnne (2041N 1641W) also known as Khechem Bella, and Cap dArguin, also known as Rs Agdir, 11 miles SE, are very irregular, varying between 2 and 55 m. The greatest caution should be exercised when navigating these waters and sounding should be continuous, because this locality has been imperfectly surveyed. The coast between Rs Timirist (1923N 1632W) and Tiouilit, 37 miles SE, has only partly been surveyed. Depths of less than 9 m exist up to 8 miles off Rs Timirist reducing to 6 miles off Tiouilit. Breakers extend more than a mile offshore between 6 and 11 miles S of Rs Timirist, and farther out there are depths of not more than 6 or 8 m; the depths are irregular and there are some coral heads. 6.94 Off Dunes de Mahrrt (1907N 1616W) there are depths of less than 10 m extending up to 7 miles offshore, and the holding ground is bad. Vessels are recommended to sound frquently along the whole of this part of the coast which should not be approached within a depth of 10 m unless absolutely necessary. The coastal waters from Ferrat (1829N 1604W) to a point 7 miles S, for a distance of 3 miles offshore, have not been surveyed, and caution should be observed. The edge of the continental shelf lies about 15 miles off Rs Timirist, increasing to 30 miles off Nouakchott. The gradual diminution in the depth as the coast is approached allows for safe navigation, but sounding should be continuous.

Pilotage
1

6.95 There are fishermen at Nouadhibou (6.64) who can pilot small craft from Baie du Lvrier across Banc dArguin to Baie de SaintJean (6.88).

6.97 From a position E of No 2 Lightbuoy (20435N 17018W), the track leads SW passing (with positions relative to Cap Blanc (2046N 1703W)): NW of Banc Vilmorin (7 miles SE), with a least depth of 38 m, thence: NW of a dangerous wreck (6 miles S), thence: SE of O Lightbuoy (6 miles SSW), thence: SE of a dangerous wreck (7 miles SSW), position approximate, thence: NW of two dangerous wrecks (13 miles and 15 miles S), position approximate, thence: NW of two dangerous wrecks (17 miles SSW and 21 miles S), thence: NW of a dangerous wreck (23 miles S), thence: NW of two dangerous wrecks (27 miles SSW and 29 miles S), position approximate, thence: NW of a dangerous wreck (37 miles SW). The track then leads SSE, passing (with positions relative to Rs Timirist (1923N 1632W)): WSW of Basse Garrigues (64 miles NW), with a least depth of 138 m, noting the dangerous wreck, position approximate, lying about 2 miles SE from it. Several shoals lie off the W edge of Banc dArguin, the outermost being a depth of 144 m lying 11 miles SW of Basse Garrigues. 6.98 The track then leads SE, passing: SW of a dangerous wreck (44 miles NW), thence: SW of Rs Timirist, which lies at the S extremity of Banc dArguin and is marshy on its N and W sides. The central ridge of the peninsula is composed of a succession of small dunes lying in an E/W direction and terminating seaward at the white dune of Timirist which is about 7 m high. The peninsula is difficult to identify from S when only the dune shows above the horizon like a white islet. Noumghr (El Memrhar), one of the few permanent villages on the coast, is situated about 2 miles SE of Rs Timirist. The track then leads SSE, passing: WSW of the three dunes of Mahrrt (21 miles SE), 25 m to 39 m high, which are reddish in colour and easily identifiable from S but do not stand out from NW, thence: WSW of El Mhaijrt (27 miles SE), a 15 m high dune with a small, low, black rock on its slope, and which stands out clearly against the white sand, thence: WSW of Piton de Ched Halll (33 miles SE), a conspicuous reddish coneshaped dune, 35 m high; from W it shows detached above the neighbouring dunes. Thence: WSW of Tiouilit (37 miles SE), where the coastal road from Nouakchott ends, thence:

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WSW of Baie de Achma (42 miles SSE) which is fronted by a bank extending up to 4 miles offshore with depths of less than 48 m, thence:
1

Anchorage
1

6.99 WSW of the white dune of Lemsid (50 miles SSE), off which the sea breaks even in calm weather, thence: WSW of the conspicuous stranded wreck of the Montesquieu (60 miles SSE), which lies on the beach 1 mile NW of Ferrat. Further S is a yellow dune 7 m high, behind which water can be obtained from springs. Also near Ferrat is a fishing village which is occupied from October to June. Thence: WSW of Jreida (Coppolani) (69 miles SSE), a military post where there is a large hangar containing a repair shop for vehicles using the coastal road, thence: WSW of a dangerous wreck (75 miles SSE), lying about 6 miles offshore in a depth of 11 m, thence: WSW of Tarfayat el Mansour (81 miles SSE), thence: W of the Port of Nouakchott (85 miles SSE), noting the buoys and the dangerous wrecks and obstructions, in the approaches, which are best seen on the chart. The track then leads to the pilot embarkation position (88 miles SSE) off Port de lAmiti. Useful mark: White House (19215N 16310W), about 1 cables SE of Rs Timirist. (Directions continue for Nouakchott at 6.118 and for the coastal passage at 6.157)

6.102 Anchorage can be obtained about 4 cables off the NE side of le dArguin in a depth of 7 m. It is approached by two passages, one W and the other E of Banc Central. The W passage is long, shallow and impracticable with any breeze, the E passage, between Banc Central and Banc du Sudest is very narrow but deeper. Anchorage can also be obtained S of Baie Consuelo, off the SE point of le dArguin, in a depth of 9 m.

Anchorage and landing


Chart 1688

Baie de Tnt
1

6.103 Anchorage for small vessels can be obtained about 1 miles offshore in Baie de Tnt (1834N 1606W), as marked on the chart, in a depth of about 5 m. The bay is open but is usually calm as it is protected by shoals. The bay is used by fishermen between October and June. Caution. Vessels bound for Baie de Tnt which are uncertain of their positions, should not proceed inshore to depths of less than 10 m. The coast is very low in this vicinity and often not visible until shoal water is reached.

Tarfayat el Mansour
1

6.104 Landing can be effected at Tarfayat el Mansour (1806N 1602W) in fine weather.

NOUAKCHOTT General information


Chart 1688 Approaches to, and plan of Nouakchott.

Position Baie dArguin or Dakhlet Agdir


1

6.105 Port de Nouakchott (1802N 1602W).

Description
1

6.100 Baie dArguin (2034N 1628W), also known as Dakhlet Agdir, of which Cap dArguin, also known as Rs Agdir, forms the W entrance point, is bordered by small, white, bare sandhills. Banc Central, which obstructs the entrance to the bay, renders access to the anchorage, very difficult even for small vessels. Vessels should not attempt to enter the bay without previous examination of the channel, as the charts are insufficient guides; the best time for entering is about 2 hours before HW. le dArguin or Agdir, the largest and SE of three islands occupying the centre of the bay, is a bare plateau composed of several stratified layers of sandstone, with a general slope from N to S; the N part is steep and about 8 m high, the S part is very low and sandy. At the NE end of le dArguin, which is uninhabited, are the remains of an old fort and the ruins of a fish curing establishment. le Marguerite and le de lArdent lie NW of le dArguin, and are bare and very low.

Function
1

6.106 The city of Nouakchott (1805N 1558W) is the capital of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania and the seat of Government. The population of Nouakchott district is about 324,037.

Topography
1

6.107 The city of Nouakchott is situated about 2 miles from the coast. In clear weather the buildings of the city and an old fort can be seen from seaward.

Approach and entry


1

6.108 The port may be approached from N or S through W.

Traffic
1

6.109 In 2004 there were 346 vessel movements totalling 3 919 040 dwt.

Port Authority
1

Tidal streams
1

6.101 Tidal streams are very strong at the entrance to Baie d Arguin, attaining a rate of 3 kn at springs; the flood stream sets strongly towards Banc du Sudest, and the ebb stream towards Banc Central.

6.110 Nouakchott Port Authority, PO Box 5103, Nouakchott, Mauritania.

Limiting conditions
1

6.111 Controlling depth. Depths in the approaches to the wharf are charted as more than 8 m.

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Tidal level. Mean spring range about 14 m; mean neap range about 06 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water: 1025 g/cm3.

Arrival information Outer anchorages


1

Useful marks: Radio mast, 146 m in height (18083N 16004W), red obstruction lights. Radio mast, 60 m in height (18069N 15599W), red obstruction lights. Water tower (elevation 35 m) (18059N 15581W). Cement Wharf Head Light (white tower, black top, 10 m in height) (18022N 16018W).

6.112 Anchorage can be obtained about 1 mile W of the head of the pier in depths of about 8 m and 10 m. The holding ground is good generally but there are patches of hard sand. A heavy swell may be experienced in the anchorage from January to March. A vessels engines should be kept ready for use as bad weather can occur without warning.

Berths Sealine berth


1

Submarine pipeline
1

6.120 Mooring buoys form a seaberth for tankers at the W end of the submarine pipeline, 3 cables NW of the head of the pier, in depths of about 9 m. The positions of the three mooring buoys charted at the W end of the pipeline is doubtful.

6.113 A submarine pipeline, which can best be seen on the chart, lies about 2 cables N of the pier, and joins the offshore tanker berth (6.120) to the shore.

Alongside berths
1

Pilotage and tugs


1

6.114 Pilotage is compulsory and available during daylight hours only. The pilot can be contacted by VHF. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3) for details. Tugs are available.

Harbour General layout


1

6.115 A pier extends 1 cables WNW thence cable NW from the shore, 5 miles SW of the city. Foul ground. A foul area 300 m in diameter, which can best be seen on the chart, lies close W of the head of the pier.

6.121 The first berth is formed of the original barge berth and is composed of a platform 86 m long, with a maximum permissible draught of 5 m alongside. The second berth, formed by an extension of the original berth, length 55 m and maximum permissible draught of 85 m, is situated on the NE face of the of the pier. It is used for the discharge of gas and cement cargoes. The SW face of the outer part of the pier is reported to be not in use; an obstruction is charted off it. It was reported (1986) that there were two mooring buoys close off the NE side of the pier, one on the SW side and two smaller mooring buoys for barges closer inshore.

Port services
1

Aids to navigation
1

6.116 The aids to navigation in this area are reported to be unreliable. They may be missing, unlit or out of position. Vessels should navigate with particular caution.

Natural conditions
1

6.117 Swell. Persistent ground swell from the NW with a range of 08 m to 2 m, may make cargo handling difficult, particularly in NE winds. Current. The current sets S with a rate of knot, occasionally reaching 3 kn, and reverses in direction for only a few days a year. Winds. Prevailing winds are NNWly. During the rainy season, from July to September, winds are from NWSW.

6.122 Repairs. No facilities. Other facilities. There is a hospital in town. Lighters up to 30 ton capacity are available. Supplies. Limited quantities of diesel oil and fresh water available by road tanker; both commodities difficult to obtain. Fish is plentiful. Communications. An airport with international connections is situated close E of Nouakchott. Rescue. Nouakchott is a designated RSC. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.

PORT DE LAMITI General information


Chart 1688 plan Port de lAmiti

Position
1

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 6.99)

6.123 Port de lAmiti (18 00N 16 02 W), or Port of Friendship, is situated 2 miles S of Nouakchott pier.

Function
1

Major light
1

6.118 Port de lAmiti Light (white column, black bands, red top) (17597N 16016W).

6.124 The port, commissioned in 1986, can provide accommodation for vessels up to 15 000 tons.

Approach and entry


1

Entry
1

6.119 The chart is sufficient guide.

6.125 The port can be approached from N or S through W and entered through an approach channel on an alignment of leading marks.

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Caution. It was reported (1999) that shoaling had occurred within the port and in the approach channel and that the dredged areas at the port were no longer maintained.

Hazards
1

Traffic
1

6.126 See 6.109.

Port authority
1

6.127 Port de lAmiti is a subport of Nouakchott. See 6.105.

6.134 Swell. Persistent ground swell from NW, with a range of 0 8 m to 2 m, may make cargo handling difficult, particularly in NE winds, and may be experienced at the anchorage from January to March. Visibility is reported (2003) to be reduced to 300 m when wind blows sand off the desert. Strong wind. It is reported (2003) that strong wind, from any direction causes surging of vessels at their berths.

Currents
1

Limiting conditions
1

6.128 Deepest and longest berth. Berth No 3 (6.138). Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Local weather. Heavy rainfall can be expected between July and September.

6.135 See 6.117.

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 6.99)

Major light
1

Arrival information Outer anchorages


1

6.136 Port de lAmiti Light (17597N 16016W) (6.118).

6.129 Anchorage can be obtained in depths of 12 m to 15 m to the N of the channel, in an area 2 miles W of Port de l Amiti light, centred on 1800N 1604W and 3000 m in diameter.

Entry
1

Pilotage and tugs


1

6.130 Pilotage. Movement of shipping and contact with Pilots in Port de lAmit, is through Port Control Nouakchott (VHF). Pilotage is compulsory and available only during the daytime. The pilot usually boards from a tug, mile W of the breakwater or with prior arrangement by a lightbuoy (starboard hand), in position 17590N 16038W, reported (2003) missing. It is reported that if the wind speed is greater than force four pilotage is suspended. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3) for details. Tugs are available.

6.137 From the pilot embarkation position (1759N 1604W) the track leads ENE (with positions relative to the Port de lAmiti Breakwater Head light (17593N 16024W)): Clear of the Fairway Lightbuoy (safe water, pillar) (1 miles W), which marks the entrance to the approach channel. Leading marks. The alignment (085) of the following lights, leads ENE to the port: Front Light (blue and grey diamond on mast, 14 m in height) (17592N 16016W). Rear Light (blue and grey diamond on mast, 21 m in height) 320 m from front light. Useful marks: Breakwater Head Light (white pylon, 10 m in height) (17593N 16024W). Water Tower (17595N 16015W). Port Control Tower (red and white bands, 10 m in height) (17594N 16023W).

Harbour General layout


1

Berths Alongside berths


1

6.131 The harbour is constructed of a causeway extending 3 cables W from the shore to a mole running WSW for 3 cables. A breakwater extends SSW from the pier for a distance of about 1 cable.

Development
1

6.132 In 1993 works were in progress to construct a breakwater 400 m in length and orientated WNWESE, 900 m S of the pier.
1

6.138 Three berths are situated on the S side of the mole. Berth Nos 1 and 2 have a depth of 98 m and Berth No 3 has a depth of 103 m and a length of 190 m. A military berth is situated on the S side of the causeway, approximately 100 m in length and 10 m wide.

Port services
6.139 Facility. There is a hospital in Nouakchott. Supplies, limited, of diesel oil and fresh water are available by road tanker; both commodities are difficult to obtain. Fish is plentiful. Communications. Airport, with international connections, situated near Nouakchott.

Aids to navigation
1

6.133 The aids to navigation in this area are reported to be unreliable. They may be missing, unlit or out of position. Vessels should navigate with particular caution.

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PORT DE LAMITI TO DAKAR GENERAL INFORMATION


Chart 3135
2

Area covered
1

6.140 This section describes the coastal route, anchorages, ports and harbours from Port de lAmiti (18 00 N 1602W) to Dakar about 215 miles SSW. It is arranged as follows: Nouakchott to Dakar (6.142). Saint Louis (6.175). Dakar (6.188).

Topography
1

6.141 For a general topography of the area see 6.2.

NOUAKCHOTT TO DAKAR General information


Charts 1662, 1663

Route
1

6.142 From a position W of Port de lAmiti (1800N 1602W) the route leads generally SSW for 230 miles to a position W of Dakar.

Topography
1

6.143 The coast from Nouakchott (1802N 1602W) to Marais de Toumbos, about 80 miles SSW is formed of low sand dunes. Tamsak (1726N 1603W) is situated 36 miles S of Nouakchott, and the coast to the S as far as Marais de Toumbos is swampy. From Marais de Toumbos to Marigot des Maringouins (1636N 1627W), 17 miles SSW, the coast is similar to that N of it with low sand dunes. Marigot des Maringouins is an old outlet of Fleuve Sngal; it empties into the sea in the rainy season and is the begining of the delta of that river. Sand dunes, about 20 to 30 m high and covered with dark vegetation, begin about 10 miles S of Marigot des Maringouins. The village of Ndiago (1610N 1630W), with a group of coconut palms, stands 25 miles S of Marigot des Maringouins, and is easy to recognise. The village stands to the N of low marshy islands which together with a narrow long tongue of sand known as Langue de Barbarie, separate Fleuve Sngal from the sea. SaintLouis lies about 9 miles S of Ndiago. 6.144 The first objects seen S of the mouth of Fleuve Sngal (1548N 1632W) are a few villages, thence the coast is formed of low sand dunes thinly covered with bushes. The coast between Lompoul (1525N 1640W) and Mboro (La Lagune de Bono), which is surrounded by trees 21 miles SW, is bordered by small black hillocks covered

with bushes. The village of Kayar (Cayar) stands 19 miles SW of Mboro. The coast SW of Kayar consists of bare yellow sand dunes behind which some trees can be seen, and between Kayar and the village of Cambrne (1446N 1726W) the coast is formed of low sand dunes behind which are shallow lagoons. Butte de Cambrne, 1 mile ESE of the village, is the E end of a plateau, 20 m to 40 m high, which extends W towards Pointe des Almadies. le dYof (1446N 1729W), lies 2 miles W of Cambrne. The coast between le dYof and Pointe des Almadies is low, but S of it sandy hills rise gradually to the foot of Les Mamelles, two conical hills 105 m and 99 m high which rise above Cap Vert, but are also visible from N. Les Mamelles are quite distinct and during the rainy season are covered with stunted vegetation which forms a contrast to the barren coast between them and SaintLouis (6.175). Hence the origin of the name given to Presqule du Cap Vert. 6.145 Cap Vert is the name generally applied to the end of Presqule du Cap Vert which forms the W side of Baie de Gore, and terminates in Pointe des Almadies on the N, Cap Manuel (6.163) on the S, with Cap Vert itself between them. Presqule du Cap Vert is composed of moderately high land rising gradually to Les Mamelles above Cap Vert itself. Cap Vert (1443N 1730W), an old volcano which has been joined to the coast, 2 miles SE of Pointe des Almadies, terminates in a low point on which there are some detached hillocks, which might be mistaken for islets at a distance. The coast from Cap Vert to Cap Manuel (1439N 1726W), 6 miles SE, is formed of reddish cliffs with small sandy beaches in places. From Cap Manuel to Pointe Bernard, 5 cables N, which is at a lower elevation than the cape, the coast is formed of dark basalt cliffs. Anse Bernard lies between the point of the same name and Pointe de Dakar (1440N 1725W), 1 miles NE of Cap Manuel. Its shores consists of red or yellow cliffs, and this coast is dominated by the city of Dakar. 6.146 Baie de Gore, lying between Cap Manuel and Pointe Rouge (14380N 17105W) (7.11), 15 miles E is exposed to S winds but is one of the safest bays on the W coast of Africa. le de Gore (1440N 1724W) lies 2 miles NE of Cap Manuel. The island is volcanic in origin and is composed of black basalt, sand and red or yellow rocks. Point de BelAir (1442N 1725W) lies about 2 miles N of Pointe de Dakar and the port and city of Dakar extend to this point. A spit with depths of less than 5 m extends about mile SE and Banc de BelAir with a depth of 3 m lies about 1 mile E from the point. Anse de Hann, which opens N of Pointe de BelAir is bordered by a white sand beach backed by the fishing village of HannPcheurs which extends about 1 miles NE. The village of Hann stands near the SW end of the beach, surrounded by palm trees, baobabs and shrubs. The village of TiaroyeMer is situated on the beach about 3 miles ENE of Hann. Mbaw refinery, fronted by dunes, is situated 2 miles E of TiaroyeMer. The coastal villages of Mbaw Gou Ndaw

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and Mbaw lie 1 mile ESE and 1 miles ESE respectively from the refinery, separated by Marigot de Mbaw. Banc de la Rsolue with a least depth of 29 m, lies about 1 miles S of Mbaw Gou Ndaw and is composed of sand and broken shells. See 6.153. 6.147 The coast betwen Mbaw Gou Ndaw and Cap des Biches (14432N 17184W), 1 miles ESE, is formed of low sand dunes topped with bushes behind which are trees. Cap des Biches is an ill defined point formed by a hill 13 m high with a steep slope to the sea and marked on the beach by a black patch. A spit with depths of less than 1 m extends about 2 cables S of Cap des Biches. Banc des Biches, a rocky shoal with a depth of 11 m lies 4 cables SSE of Cap des Biches. Rochers SaiSai, which dry, lie on a spit which extends about 5 cables from the shore 1 mile ESE of Cap des Biches. The coast between Cap des Biches and Pointe de Rufisque (14426N 17169W) is formed of dunes about 5 m high, topped with bushes and backed by trees. Pointe de Rufisque lies 1 miles ESE of Cap des Biches and a spit with a depth of 12 m over its outer end extends 2 cables SSW from the point.

Explosives dumping ground


1

6.152 An explosives dumping ground, the limits of which can best be seen on the chart, is situated in a position centred on 1430N 1737W. Trawling in the vicinity is dangerous.

Dangerous area
1

6.153 A dangerous area, which contains wrecks, extends from about 5 cables S of Banc de la Rsolue (1442N 1721W) NE to the coast. This area is marked as follows (with positions relative to Mbaw lightbuoy (14 42 7N 17219W)): Rsolue W Buoy (W cardinal) moored about 1 mile E. Rsolue E Buoy (E cardinal) moored about 2 miles E. Rsolue Lightbuoy (S cardinal) moored about 1 miles ESE.

Natural conditions Depths


1 1

6.148 The edge of the continental shelf lies about 30 miles off Nouakchott, reducing to about 25 miles off the mouth of Fleuve Sngal, 120 miles SSW. It reduces to less than 10 miles off Pointe des Almadies, 98 miles SW of Fleuve Sngal. Several submarine valleys indent this stretch of the coast, the most notable being Canyon de Kayar (Fosse de Cayar), a narrow deep submarine canyon, which extends WNW from the coast abreast Kayar (Cayar) (1455N 1707W), and is useful in determining latitude up to about 15 miles offshore. 6.149 The sea breaks heavily on all the coast from Fleuve Sngal except off Kayar where there is an opening about 1 cable wide, and inside there is a deep channel running parallel to the coast; the bottom is mainly mud. Three yellow conical buoys have been laid along the coast off Kayar as follows, bearings and distances from Kayar; J1 4 miles WSW J2 2 miles W J3 1 miles NW

Traffic regulations
1

6.154 Tidal streams superpose the general movement of the current but they are not of sufficient strength to alter appreciably its direction. The exception to this being between le des Madeleines (1439N 1728W) and the mainland where the outgoing stream has been observed to be setting W at a rate of kn, 3 hours after HW Dakar. With the above exception, the current off the W coast of Presqule du Cap Vert usually attains its maximum rate at the same time as the ingoing stream; the maximum observed rate being 1 kn SE about 1 mile WSW of Cap Manuel. Off the S and E coasts of the peninsula, between le de Gore, 2 miles NE of Cap Manuel, and the mainland, the current attains its maximum rate at the same time as the outgoing stream. In Anse Bernard, where it sets SW, the maximum rate is kn. For the frquency of E sets on the shipping tracks in the vicinity of Cap Vert, see 6.155. 6.155 Currents. The following table gives the percentage frequency of onshore sets, between the parallels of 14N and 18N, and the meridian of 18W and the African coast, from all observations of current made on the shipping tracks through the above regions from 1910 to 1938; sets between 030 and 150, inclusive, being considered to be onshore sets. Month January February March April May % of onshore sets 14 5 8 7 11 26 28 28 25 24 Total No of Observations 72 62 72 61 102 84 90 54 95 86

6.150 Prohibited anchorage and fishing. Anchoring and fishing are prohibited in an area, the limits of which can best be seen on the chart, extending W and S from Cap Manuel (14 39 N 17 26 W), due to the presence of submarine cables.

Submarine cables and pipelines


1

6.151 Numerous submarine cables, which are best seen on the chart, extend W and S from the S end of the Cap Vert peninsula. Submarine pipelines for oil and ammonia exist in the Baie de Gore. For details see 6.209.

June July August September October

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Month November

% of onshore sets 15

Total No of Observations 71

December 12 68 Percentage frequency of onshore sets in the region of Cap Vert 6.156 Onshore sets are thus more frequent from June to October inclusive. The average strength of the E component of these sets is greatest from April to October, with a maximum of 10 miles per day in August. Taking both strength and frequency into account, August is therefore on the average the most unfavourable month as regards onshore sets, while June and July are almost as unfavourable. For additional details of currents, see 1.247. The current off Presqule du Cap Vert has a general Sgoing set, but is deflected close inshore by the coast. The current sets as follows: North of le de NGor Abreast Cap Vert Anse Bernard, close E of Cap Manuel SW SSE SSW

WNW of two stranded wrecks (31 miles and 27 miles N, respectively), thence: WNW of the village of Ndiago (8 miles N) which stands with a group of coconut palms, and is easy to recognise, thence:
1

Directions
(continued from 6.99)

Major lights
1

6.157 Port de lAmiti Light (17597N 16016W) (6.118). Cap Vert Light (white tower and dwelling, 21 m in height) (14435N 17301W). Care must be taken not to confuse this light with Cap Manuel Light. Cap Manuel Light (white square tower on dwelling, red top, 17 m in height) (14390N 17260W).

Passage
1

6.158 From a position W of Port de lAmiti (1800N 1602W), the track leads SSW passing (with positions relative to Guet NDar Light (16016N 16307W)): WNW of three very black sand dunes (118 miles NNE), covered with vegetation. Thence: WNW of Puits de Ouichichi (74 miles NNE), water wells, thence: WNW of a stranded wreck (66 miles NNE), position approximate, thence: WNW of a dangerous wreck (46 miles N), position approximate, lying in a depth of 21 m. Thence:

6.159 WNW of Guet NDar Light (6.165), and the town of SaintLouis, thence: WNW of a dangerous wreck (31 miles SSW), lying in a depth of about 34 m, thence: WNW of a stranded wreck (35 miles SSW), thence: WNW of Dune de Lompoul (38 miles SSW), a yellow sandhill 35 m high, visible 15 miles except in strong trade winds, thence: WNW of a black hillock (61 miles SSW), with a reddish stripe, situated slightly inland. A white buoy, marking a limit between fishing zones is moored 4 miles WNW of the black hillock. Thence: 6.160 The track continues SSW, passing (with positions relative to Cap Manuel Light (14390N 17260W)): WNW of Les Petites Mamelles (27 miles NE), two prominent yellow conical hills 45 m high, thence: WNW of Kayar (Cayar) (24 miles NE), a village, abreast of which there are depths of 18 m about 1 mile offshore. The coast between Kayar and Pointe des Almadies, 25 miles WSW, is dangerous for low powered vessels owing to the strong onshore currents; there is often a heavy surf. Thence: WNW of a stranded wreck (9 miles NNE), thence: WNW of le de Yof (7 miles NNW), which lies on the seaward extremity of a reef extending 3 cables NE from the coast and over which the sea always breaks. The village of Yof stands on the shore of the mainland mile SE of the islet. Thence: WNW of le de Ngor, (8 miles NW), which is 15 m high and joined to the mainland on its SE side by a ledge of rocks forming a basin which is open to the W. Thence: 6.161 WNW of Pointe des Almadies (1445N 1732W) (8 miles NW), 15 m high, noting the old disused lighthouse which stands on the point. It is the W extremity of Africa and of basaltic formation. Thence: WNW of Chause des Almadies (8 miles NW) which extends about 1 mile W of Point Des Almadies and some of the rocks are from 2 m to 3 m high. There are several wrecks showing above water on this reef, the positions of which can best be seen on the chart. Vessels can pass the reef at a distance of 8 cables, making allowance for a probable inset of the current. The sea is always

Chause des Almadies Lighthouse, wreck and reef from SW (6.161)


(Original dated 2005) (Photograph Capt. P. Mosselberger)

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rough in this locality and it breaks heavily on the reef.


1

6.162 The track then leads SSE, passing (with positions relative to Cap Manuel Light (1439N 1726W)): WSW of Cap Vert (6 miles NW), noting Les Mamelles (6.144) from which a light (6.157) is exhibited, thence: WSW of Pointe de Fann (2 miles NW), noting the depth of 8 m, position approximate, 1 mile SW, thence: WSW of le des Madeleines (2 miles W), noting le Lougne lying 2 cables SE from it. Both lie at the outer end of a shoal extending from the shore between Pointe de Fann and Anse des Madeleines; the islands are surrounded by rocks above and below water. Both islands are formed of basaltic rock hollowed out by the sea and are of a darkish colour without vegetation apart from a few bushes in the clefts of the rocks. The other islets are inaccessible rocks over which the sea breaks. le des Madeleine and the spit are covered by a red sector of Cap Manuel auxiliary light bearing between 083 and 128; these lights are obscured by the islands between 096and 102. 6.163 The track then leads ESE, passing: NNE of a depth of 27 m (3 miles SW), existence doubtful, thence: NNE of Banc du Sminole (3 miles SW) with a least charted depth of 21 m, thence: SSW of Cap Manuel, a dark basalt cliff 39 m high which is steep to on its S side, noting the Banc Manuel with a least depth of 7 m extending miles WSW from the cape. Cap Manuel should be passed at a distance of at least mile. The track then leads ENE, passing: SSE of Banc Lequr (3 cables ENE), with a least charted depth of 62 m, thence: SSE of a buoy (port hand) (7 cables ENE), thence: SSE of another buoy (port hand) (1 miles ENE), thence: SSE of the S end of le de Gore (2 miles ENE), which is about 38 m high, nearly vertical and surmounted by a castle. Between the S end of le de Gore and the outer end of the breakwater extending 3 cables SE from Pointe de Dakar (14402N 17253W) lie underwater obstructions and passage is prohibited. 6.164 The track then leads N, passing (with positions relative to the le de Gore Light (14398N 17239W)): W of a wreck (2 miles ESE), with a depth of 18 m over it, thence: E of a depth of 137 m (4 cables NNE), thence: E of the Tacoma Lightbuoy (port hand) (5 cables N), noting the wreck of the same name which lies between it and the island. Another dangerous wreck lies about 2 cables WSW from the lightbuoy. Thence: SW of No 1 Lightbuoy (starboard hand) (1 miles NE) which marks the S approach to the Mbao sealine tanker berth. The track then leads NW, passing: S of a dangerous wreck (2 miles NNE), which is marked by a buoy (isolated danger) close ESE, thence:

NE of No 12 Lightbuoy (isolated danger) (8 cables NNE) which marks a shoal with a depth of 86 m close S from it. Thence the track leads to the pilot embarkation position at 14409N 17235W. 6.165 Useful marks: Guet NDar Light (white metal framework tower, red top, 14 m in height) (16016N 16307W). Gandiole Light (white 8 sided tower, black bands, 26 m in height) (15538N 16306W). Reservoir, 37 m in height (14460N 17245W), close E of Butte de Cambrne. Radio mast (14465N 17247W), red obstruction lights. Tall building (14448N 17294W), near airport terminal. Hotel, white building (17451N 17305W), visible from N and SW, red obstruction lights. Old Lighthouse (14448N 17317W). Chausse des Almadies Light (white tower, black bands, 15 m in height) (14446N 17325W). 6.166 Mast (14425N 17292W), red obstruction light. Cemetry (14405N 17275W), E of Pointe de Fann. Television tower (14406N 17268W), position approximate, red obstruction lights. Radio mast (14401N 17265W). Radio mast (14400N 17264W). Cathedral (14399N 17263W). Radio mast (14393N 17261W). Law Courts building (14391N 17260W). Government building (14398N 17261W). The Palace (14399N 17260W). White monument (14399N 17239W), on le de Gore with a signal mast and pillar (35 m in height) close SE. 6.167 Low, round fort (147402N 17240W), standing on N tip of le de Gore. Round building (14401N 17256W), standing close to the shore. Building (14402N 17256W), standing cable NNW of above. Tower (37 m in height) (14403N 17253W), standing slightly N of Pointe de Dakar. Control tower (24 m in height) (14 40 5N 17253W), standing near the root of Jete Sud. La Grande Mosque, with a conspicuous minaret (82 m in height) (14 40 7N 17 26 5W) red obstruction lights. Jete Sud Head Light (white 8sided tower, red top 9 m in height) (14406N 17252W). 6.168 Jete Nord Head Light (white 8sided tower, black top, 9 m in height) (14407N 17252W). Chimney (60 m in height) (14414N 17262W), red obstruction lights. Three radio masts (14434N 17267W). TV mast (14437N 17266W). Water tower (14445N 17245W). Water tower (14444N 17237W), red obstruction lights. Minaret (14445N 17228W), at the TiaroyeMer mosque. Flare (14445N 17208W) position approximate, at the Mbaw refinery.

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White building (14433N 17179W), at the power station. Radio masts (200 m in height) (14 45 3N 17166W), red obstruction lights. Rufisque Light (black pylon, 12 m in height) (14426N 17169W). (Directions for Dakar continue at 6.204 and for the coastal passage at 7.16)

Cap Vert
1

6.173 Good anchorage can be obtained about 1 miles WNW of Cap Vert Lighthouse (14435N 17301W) in a depth of 22 m grey sand. To the S of the parallel of Cap Vert Light, it is better to anchor farther out as, with a heavy W swell, rollers form at a considerable distance from the coast.

Channel northeast of le des Madeleines


1

le de Gore
1

6.169 The channel between le des Madeleines and the mainland probably has less water than charted. With a W or NW swell, there is a heavy sea in this passage. Landing can be effected on le des Madeleines either in a narrow cove on the N side, or in a creek on the S side; the best landing is in the latter creek on the starboard hand entering where the swell is not very heavy.

6.174 le de Gore (1440N 1724W) is surrounded by large blocks of stone and landing is not possible on its W side. The swell breaks heavily all around the island. There is a boat harbour on the NE side of the island which has three piers, only one of which can be used; there is a depth of 3 m at its head.

SaintLouis
Chart 1690 plan SaintLouis

Anchorages and harbour


Charts 1000, 1662, 1663

General information
1

Anchorages between Nouakchott and Fleuve Sngal


1

6.170 Anchorage can be obtained off the coast between Nouakchott (1802N 1602W) and the mouth of Fleuve Sngal, 135 miles S, in depths of 15 m to 20 m; the bottom is sand except near the river mouth where it is green mud. Heavy breakers occur S of Nouakchott, and it is dangerous to attempt to land except in local surf boats.

Kayar
1

6.171 Anchorage off Kayar (14 55 N 17 07 W) is bad especially with W winds. The bank of soundings is very narrow; the anchorage is about 1 cables outside the breakers in depths of 29 m to 35 m, fine sand. At least 4 shackles of cable should be veered in order to get a holding against the prevailing wind and heavy swell.

le de Ngor
1

6.172 Anchorage can be obtained about 4 cables NW of the W end of le de Ngor (1445N 1731W) in a depth of 22 m, gravel. The anchorage, situated W of the island, is reported to be good when a fresh NE trade wind is blowing. A ledge of rocks which joins the SE side of le de Ngor to the mainland forms a basin which is open W. Owing to the lay of rocks on the W side of this basin, landing can be effected, except with a heavy W swell, on a sandy beach on the S side of the basin in front of the village of Ngor.

6.175 Position. SaintLouis (1602N 1630W) stands on an island lying in the W part of Fleuve Sngal. Function. SaintLouis is the commercial centre for the upper reaches of Fleuve Sngal (6.181), but owing to the difficulty of crossing the bar (6.176), vessels unable to enter use Dakar (6.188) about 100 miles SW. The city had an estimated (1994) population of 132 000. Topography. SaintLouis is connected to the suburb of Sohr, which stands on the E side of Fleuve Sngal, by Faidherbe bridge which opens. The suburbs of NDar Tout and Guet NDar are situated on Langue de Barbarie, and are joined to SaintLouis by two fixed bridges. Government house stands in the centre of SaintLouis. Langue de Barbarie gradually decreases in elevation towards Langue de Barbarie Sud, its S extremity, at the entrance to Fleuve Sngal. The marshy islands, in the vicinity of the entrance, have a fairly thick covering of bushes, and casuarinas cover the N part of Langue de Barbarie. The river can be seen from aloft over Langue de Barbarie. Approach and entry. The river may be approached from N or S through W and is entered over a bar (6.176). The route then leads N for about 13 miles between Langue de Barbarie and the mainland. There are dangerous wrecks which lie in the channel in the following positions: 15503N 16312W 15504N 16312W 16001N 16303W Approaching from N, the mouth of Fleuve Sngal is not easily identified. The heavy surf which prevails on the

le de Gore from N (6.174)


(Original dated 2002) (Photograph HMS Endurance)

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whole coast, and breaks along Langue de Barbarie, prevents the surf on the bar from being distinguished, and vessels keeping at too great a distance from the coast might pass without seeing it. It is essential after passing Rs Timirist (6.88) (1923N 1632W), to approach the land in order to identify SaintLouis. Approaching from S, Fleuve Sngal is more easily identified than from N. When near the river mouth the marks described in 6.178 will be seen. Vessels wishing to cross the bar should, on approaching, display their number, and the pilot flag, then anchor and await the pilot.

Limiting conditions
1

6.176 The bar. The passage over the bar is practicable, except for about 80 days in the year; the best time being during the rainy season between April and December. During the dry season, the entrance to Fleuve Sngal is closed by the sand thrown up, but with the rainy season the bar is washed away and a new passage formed, which has an annual slow movement to the S. The banks of sand forming the bar are very variable both in size and position; they leave a channel between them which is frequently changing in position and depth. In 1982 the entrance to the river was reported to cross the charted position of Langue de Barbarie Sud. No vessel should attempt to cross the bar without a pilot. Faidherbe Bridge (16 01 5N 16 30 2W) has an opening 30 m in width in its W portion to allow the passage of vessels ascending the river (6.181). In the closed position it has a vertical clearance of 24 m. Faidherbe Bridge signals. Vessels requiring the bridge to be opened, should apply to the Captain of the Port before 1600 on the previous day. The hours of opening are from 0640 to 1300. Prior to the bridge being opened, a flag is displayed from a mast near the opening. When the bridge is fully opened, the flag is lowered to halfmast. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 11 m; mean neap range about 05 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Maximum size of vessel handled: length 40 m; draught 2.5 m.

particularly between November and April when a vessel may have to wait several days before the bar is passable. Inner anchorages. Anchorage can be obtained within the river off SaintLouis just below Faidherbe Bridge; it is always advisable to moor at this anchorage. Should a vessel be under way in the river when a thundery squall (referred to locally as a tornado) is expected, she should if possible proceed to an anchorage berth, or anchor immediately until the storm abates; care should be taken to have ample swinging room to the W. It is always prudent, during the rainy season, to select an anchorage with a view to the possibility of squalls which sometimes occur without warning. Submarine cable. A submarine power cable, marked by a beacon on its landing at Langue de Barbarie, crosses the channel in an ENE direction, 1 miles S of Guet NDar Light. Submarine pipeline. A submarine pipeline crosses the channel in an ENE direction from Pointe Sud, mile SE from Guet NDar Light. Pilotage is compulsory and available during daylight only. Requests for a pilot should be made to the port office 48 hours in advance. The pilot station is situated close S of Gandiole Lighthouse (15538N 16306W) where there is also a signal station. The pilotage service comprises a pilot boat, a dugout canoe and a life boat. The bar is sounded from the dugout which will display the following signals: Blue flag Blue flag alternately upright and inclined Bar possible to cross Bar not practicable

The pilot boat and signal station (15536N 16306W) will display the following signals: Blue flag above a red and white flag Blue flag Bar possible to cross Bar not practicable

When permission to enter has been obtained, the pilot will board the vessel. Tug is available. Traffic regulations. This river is closed to foreign vessels.

Harbour
1

Arrival information
1

6.177 Port radio. The port office wil keep radiotelephone watch if given 24 hours notice via Dakar radio. Notice of ETA. Send ETA 48 hours prior to arrival. Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained W of Guet Ndar Light (16016N 16307W), in depths of 13 m to 15 m, mud. Although this anchorage is not dangerous, a vessel rolls heavily at it and tide races, which frequently occur in winter, make riding uneasy. The ground SW of the light is rocky and should be avoided. Anchorage can also be obtained between 1 and 4 miles off the mouth of Fleuve Sngal in depths of 10 m to 16 m, good holding ground of green sand and shells. A heavy swell occurs here at all seasons of the year, but

6.178 General layout. The harbour consists of a quay on the E side of SaintLouis and a jetty for fishing vessels. Traffic signals. See Pilotage (6.275). Tidal streams in the vicinity of the entrance to Fleuve Sngal are very irregular both in direction and rate. Current. It should be noted that the current sets on to the quay at SaintLouis. The season of the highest water is in midOctober when the current attains a rate of 4 kn. Climate table. See 1.291 and 1.299. Useful marks, with positions relative to Guet NDar Light (16016N 16307W): Tower (3 cables N). Two water towers (1 cables and 3 cables NE). Cathedral (3 cables E). Tower (4 cables SE). Stranded wreck (2 miles S). Beacon with topmark (7 miles S).

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Gandiole Light (7 miles S) (6.165). Signal station (Bar) (8 miles S).

Bakel, 403 miles above SaintLouis Sald, 260 miles above SaintLouis Podor, 147 miles above SaintLouis Richard Toll, 80 miles above SaintLouis

1st September 20th September 10th October 22nd October

Berths
1

6.179 The E side of SaintLouis is quayed and has a least depth of 24 m alongside. Vessels which, owing to their draught, are unable to go alongside, anchor fore and aft and are connected to the quay by gangways. A Tshaped jetty is situated 21 miles S of Faidherbe bridge, near the old hydrobase. It is 140 m long with a depth of 2 m alongside and used by fishing boats.

Port services
1

6.180 Repairs: A small slip which can take a vessel up to 50 m in length is available. Other facilities: There is a hospital in SaintLouis. Supplies: Fresh provisions can be obtained. Fresh water is laid onto the quays. During the rainy season, from the begining of August to the end of December, river water can be used for boilers and washing. There are small stocks of diesel fuel and petrol. Communications: There is regular communication by river vessels to Podor (all seasons) and Matam (flood season); ferry to Dakar; airfield near SaintLouis.

Fleuve Sngal above SaintLouis


1

6.181 Water level. Periodic flooding, caused by heavy rain in the rainy season, plays a most important part in the navigability of Fleuve Sngal. Owing to the flooding, apart from exceptional years, the river is navigable, during a portion of the year, as far as Kayes, 472 miles above SaintLouis. In addition to this, flooding allows for cultivation of an extensive area which would otherwise remain sterile. The first rains, which fall early in May, are absorbed by the parched soil and no appreciable flooding occurs before the beginning of June. The river then rises rapidly, filling the numerous creeks or marigots which penetrate the country in various directions. 6.182 After a period during which the water level falls, due to the filling of creeks, the real rise takes place, and all the land bordering the river is flooded over a vast extent. When the flood has reached its maximum, the river banks are submerged and the country has the appearance of an immense lake with only the tops of the trees and some of the more elevated ground showing above the water. The rise varies in extent from year to year. Some years flooding is very considerable, other years the river is not navigable beyond Mafou, standing about 182 miles above SaintLouis, for vessels of 3 m draught. 6.183 The floods spread very slowly; the maximum rise at SaintLouis does not usually occur before the end of October or scarcely a month before the end of the rainy season. From the mean of several years observations, the approximate dates of maximum rise at the undermentioned places are as follows:

SaintLouis 1st November 6.184 When the rains cease, the water level falls very rapidly in the upper Fleuve Sngal, but not so rapidly in the lower Fleuve Sngal, owing to the numerous creeks which empty into it. In the same way, Lac Cayar and Lac de Guiers (1610N 1550W), lying on either side of the river about 80 miles above SaintLouis, affect the level at SaintLouis. Besides this, the surface of the flooded plains have a slight slope towards the sea, and the water, which cannot at once empty into the river by the neighbouring creeks, flows in a straight line W and empties into Fleuve Sngal by the numerous creeks which lie in its course lower down. 6.185 Navigation. A pilot is necessary for vessels proceeding above SaintLouis because navigation is always difficult on account of the numerous narrows and barrages. In an average year, seagoing vessels, of 46 m draught and about 2000 tons, can ascend about 350 miles to Kayes (1428N 1122W) from 20th August to 20th September. From the 1st August to 15th October, Kayes can be reached by river steamers of 3 m draught, and from 14th July to 10th November by launches of 18 m draught. Podor can be reached at all seasons by vessels of 3 m draught. 6.186 During the period of low river, December to June, it is only possible for barges to proceed above Mafou. During the high river season, the outgoing current is reported to attain a rate of about 2 kn at Podor and 4 kn at Kayes. During the low river season, tidal influence is reported to extend to Diould Dabe. The dangers between Kadi, 292 miles above SaintLouis, and Kayes are marked by masonry beacons; those on the starboard hand ascending being surmounted by red cones and displaying green lights, and those on the port hand surmounted by black cylinders and displaying red lights. Sailing Directions for the river above SaintLouis can be consulted at the Captain of the Ports office in SaintLouis and at the Bureau des Affaires Maritimes in Dakar.

Landing
1

6.187 Between Port de lAmiti and Dakar landing should be effected in local surf boats as there are heavy breakers in depths of 5.5 m.

DAKAR General information


Charts 1001 Rade and Port of Dakar, and 1000 Approaches to Dakar.

Position
1

6.188 Port de Dakar, 14405N 17255W.

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a a b

b c

c (Photograph HMS Endurance)

Port Dakar (6.188)


(Original dated 2002)

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Function
1

6.189 It is the capital of the Republic of Sngal and the residence of the President. In 1998 the population was about 1 641 358. The principal exports are ground nuts, edible oil, oil cake, gum, gold, sisal, shea butter, kapok, hides, phosphates, flour and cement. The principal imports are cotton and metal goods, oil fuel and petrol, wine, coal, sugar and corn.

during the rainy season when thundery squalls, which blow from E, quickly raise a choppy sea. A dangerous wreck, the position of which is doubtful, is charted 2 cables N of the NE corner of Jete Nord. Vessels waiting to bunker should anchor about mile E of the head of Jete Sud (6.207) on the line joining that jetty and the N end of le de Gore.

Submarine cables and pipelines


1

Topography
1

6.190 The harbour is situated on the SE portion of the Cap Vert peninsula between Pointe de Dakar and Pointe de BelAir. Baie de Gore lies between Cap Manuel (1439N 1726W) and Pointe Rouge, 15 miles E.

6.197 Submarine cables and pipelines, which are best seen on the chart, exist in the Baie de Gore (6.190).

Pilotage and tugs


1

Approach and entry


1

6.191 The port is approached by passing S and E of le de Gore and N of the No 12 Lightbuoy, and entered through a dredged channel between the heads of two breakwaters.

6.198 Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 1500 m3 and over, and available day and night. The pilot boards about 9 cables NNE of le de Gore. Vessels requiring pilotage for Ziguinchor (7.132) and Rivire Casamance may embark the pilot either at Dakar or at the river entrance (12328N 16 49 9W). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Tugs are available.

Traffic
1

Traffic regulations
1

6.192 In 2004 there were 1426 vessel movements totalling 27 730 774 dwt.

Port Authority
1

6.193 Port Autonome de Dakar, 21 Boulevard de la Libration, PO Box 3195, Dakar, Sngal.
2

Limiting conditions
1

6.194 Controlling depth. The dredged depths in the approach channel is reported (2003) to be less than 11 m. Deepest berth: Wharf Ptrolier (6.208). Longest berth: Quai Maurice Pillot (6.208). Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 12 m; mean neap range about 06 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water: 1025 g/cm3. Maximum size of vessel handled: LOA 330 m; 105 m draught. Local weather. Fog may occur a few days per month, especially in January and February. It generally forms before sunrise and clears during the forenoon.

6.199 Prohibited areas. Passage is prohibited between the S end of le de Gore and Pointe de Dakar due to the presence of underwater obstructions. An entry prohibited area, about cable wide, is charted on the seaward side of Jete Nord (6.207) extending N for about 4 cables, thence NW for about 4 cables to the shore. Anchoring and fishing are prohibited in areas, the limits of which are best seen on the chart. Anchoring is prohibited in the area, indicated on the chart, bounded by Cap Manuel, le de Gore and the entrance to Port de Dakar. Submarine cables run both S and NW from this area. Routeing. Vessels entering the port must pass N, and those leaving must pass S, of No 12 Lightbuoy (14406N 17235W).

Quarantine
1

6.200 Quarantine regulations are strictly enforced and no communication with the shore is permitted until pratique has been granted.

Customs
1

Arrival information Notice of ETA


1

6.195 ETA should be sent 24 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(3).

6.201 Vessels must obtain an outward manifest from the Customs authorities prior to departure from Dakar. Noncompliance may result in heavy fines.

Harbour General layout


1

Outer anchorages
1

6.196 Rade de Dakar is bounded on the S by a line joining Pointe de Dakar (6.145) and le de Gore (6.174), on the W by the breakwaters forming Port de Dakar (6.202) and the coast N as far as Pointe de Bel Air (6.206), and on the N by the shoal ground extending from that point and by Banc de Bel Air. The anchorage in Rade de Dakar has depths decreasing gradually from 18 m in its outer part. The bottom consists principally of sand but in the S part, of sand mixed with shells and gravel. The anchorage is well sheltered, except

6.202 Dakar is a large harbour, with ample room for ship manoeuvres, and is enclosed to the E by the breakwaters, Jete Nord and Jete Sud. It is divided into two zones, North and South, separated by a fishing port. There are over 40 berths with depths up to 12 m. Depths alongside in the various berths can best be seen on the chart, noting that actual depths may be greater than those shown on the chart. Repair works to moles are marked by a red flag by day and a red light at night.

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Natural conditions
1

6.203 Tidal streams. Within the breakwaters there is an anticlockwise water flow which is practically constant. When approaching the quay extending from the N side of the entrance to the dry dock, there is a tendency to set to port, but as soon as the bows are within the head of the quay, the vessel swings to starboard.

Squalls from the S sometimes render Rade de Dakar impracticable for boats. Climate information. See 1.291 and 1.300.

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 6.168)

Principal marks
1

6.204 Landmark: La Grande Mosque (14407N 17265W) (6.167) Major light: Cap Manuel Light (white square tower on dwelling, red top, 17 m in height) (14390N 17260W).

Entry
1

Jete Sud Light (6.203.1)


(Original dated 2002) (Photograph HMS Endurance) 1

Jete Nord Light (6.203.2)


(Original dated 2002) (Photograph HMS Endurance)

Caution. New construction work within the harbour may have altered this flow, but no later details are available. Local weather. Prevailing winds are Nly. In the dry season, from November to May, the Harmattan, a dry, hot wind, is prevalent. In the rainy season from June to November, swells from the S occur off the entrance and are felt in some parts of the harbour.

6.205 From the pilot embarkation position (14 40 9N 17235W) the track leads WSW passing (with positions relative to the N point of le de Gore (14 403N 17240W)): NNW of No 12 Lightbuoy (isolated danger) (5 cables NE) with a depth of 86 m close S, thence: SSE of Banc de BelAir (2 miles N) with a least depth of 30 m, which is composed of rocky pinnacles covered with weed. The passage betweeen this bank and the point should only be used by small vessels. Thence: NNW of the Tacoma Lightbuoy (port hand) (2 cables NE) with the wreck of the Tacoma lying 1 cable SW, thence: 6.206 NNW of le de Gore and a dangerous wreck which lies cable N, thence: SSE of the S part of Pointe de BelAir (2 miles NNW), with the remains of a destroyed pylon about 2 cables S. Pointe de BelAir is rocky and 21 m high and a spit with a least depth of 34 m extends about 5 cables E from the point. A mole extends N from the N part of the point and a buoy (special) lies about 3 cables NNE. The track then leads W passing: S of a dangerous wreck (1 miles NW), position doubtful, thence: N of the Jete Sud head light (6.167) (1 miles WNW), thence: S of the Jete Nord head light (6.168) (1 miles WNW). The track then leads into the harbour. 6.207 Useful marks: le de Gore Light (white square turret, red top, 4 m in height) (14398N 17239W). White monument (14399N 17239W), on le de Gore with a signal mast and pillar (35 m in height) close SE. Low, round fort (17402N 17240W), standing on N tip of le de Gore. Tower (37 m in height) (14403N 17253W), standing slightly N of Pointe de Dakar. Control tower (24 m in height) (14 40 5N 17253W), standing near the root of Jete Sud. Jete Sud Head Light (14406N 17252W) (6.167). Jete Nord Head Light (14 40 7N 17 25 2W) (6.168).

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Basins and berths Alongside berths


1

6.208 Bassin Est, Bassin Mdian and Bassin Ouest, with Mles 3, 2, and 1, are situated on the S side of the harbour. There are 17 berths on Mles 1, 2 and 3 with depths of 85 to 10 m alongside. Three berths are assigned for RoRo vessels, twelve for multipurpose vessels, including passenger vessels, and two berths for tugs and small craft. The area is primarily allocated to general cargo, transit cargo and passenger traffic. The SW part of Bassin Ouest is the old fishing harbour. A floating dock is moored on the W side of the jetty extending NNE from Bassin Ouest. A naval dockyard and a dry dock are situated between Bassin Ouest and Bassin des Torpilleurs which is the naval port. Grand wharf extends NE from close N of the dry dock. Quai des Rparations, a repair berth aligned NW/SE, lies N of Bassin des Torpilleurs, and Petit wharf, a short jetty, projects cable NE from its S end. A stranded wreck lies alongside the quay, in position 14409N 17260W. A ship lift is situated between the quay and the root of Mle 10. Mle 10, Mle de Pche, extends E into the centre of the harbour from close N of the naval port. Bassin de la Pche lies between its W face and Quai de la Pche. The fishing port comprises of berths 101 to 109 for a variety of fishing vessels. On the N side of the harbour are Darse NordOuest and Bassin des Arachides, with Mles 4, 5 and 6. Mle 4 comprises of berths 41 to 45, which are used for general cargo, containers and cereals. Quai Maurice Pillot, on the E side of Mle 4, has a length of 460 m. Mle 5, which divides the Bassin des Arachides, comprises of berths 51 and 52 at which phosphates are loaded. Mle 6, which lies between Bassin des Arachides and Bassin des Charbons, is the container terminal with berths 61 to 64. Berths 718 and 728 lie between Mles 6 and 8. On the NE side of the harbour are Mle 8, Bassin Ptrolier and Wharf Ptrolier. Mle 8 comprises of berths 81 to 85 and is used for general cargo. Berth 819, lies between Mle 8 and Wharf Ptrolier, to the N of Bassin Ptrolier. Wharf Ptrolier comprises of berths 92N and 92S on its W side and berths 91N and 91S on its E side. Depths alongside are reported (1996) to be 120 m. Berth 910 lies between the roots of Wharf Ptrolier and Jete Nord. Two petroleum berths, designated 01 and 02, are situated on the W side of Jete Nord.

accommodate tankers up to 260 m in length, 39 m breadth and 13 m draught. A submerged pipeline, which extends 2 miles SW thence mile S connects vessels berthing here to the Mbaw refinery The pipeline is marked by the Mbaw Lightbuoy (port hand), which is moored 1 miles NNE of the outer end of this pipeline. Tankers connecting to the seaward end of the pipeline moor heading 170 using two anchors and the stern secured to mooring buoys, the positions of which are marked by lightbuoys. Tankers may not berth here at night but may unberth at any time. Anchorage is prohibited within mile centred on the outer end of the pipeline. Another submerged pipeline extends mile SW about mile E of the first one. It terminates at the Ammonia sealine berth (14435N 17211W). Four mooring buoys are situated N and S of the berth. A third sealine berth lies about 11 cables NE of the Mbao sealine berth, for import and export of acid cargoes.

Port services Repairs


1

6.210 Repairs of all kinds can be effected. Among other equipment there are: a 235 m long floating dock with a 60 000 ton capacity; a dry dock capable of accomodating ships of length 195 m, 23 m width, and 9.5 m draught; a 63 m long and 15 m wide ship lift of 1200 tons capacity; three slipways.

Other facilities
1

6.211 Various clinics and hospitals are situated in the city; deratting can be carried out, deratting and deratting exemption certificates issued; oily waste reception facilities; garbage disposal facilities.

Supplies
1

6.212 Fuel oil can be supplied alongside specific berths or from a barge. Fresh water is laid on to quays or can be supplied by water boats. Stores are available and provisions are plentiful.

Communications
1

6.213 DakarYof international airport is located 15 km away.

Harbour regulations
1

6.214 Deballasting within the port is only permitted with the consent of the Harbour Master.

Rescue Offshore berths


1

6.209 The Mbao sealine berth (14415N 17222W) can

6.215 Dakar is a designated RCC. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.

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NOTES

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Chapter 7 - Dakar to Rio Nunez


15 18 17
1663

16

15

14

15

C. Vert 1000

6.188 Dakar
1001

SNGAL
0 7.1
607 607

7.55 Kaolack
1664
9 nc 60 I. A ur ta ys h n t r Ku Ca ac GAMBIA M
09 h. 6

14
1663
loum R. Sa 7

14

.60
608

609

C. St. Mary

TH

Banjul 7.64

608

7.1 1 0

13

13
SNGAL

3532
a nc e R. Casam

7.132 Ziguinchor 3532

C. Roxo

Cacheu 7.159 G U I N E A - B I S S AU
7 .1

611

12
1664

1724

12

1726

39
P. de Cai

7.167 Bissau
b R. Ge
1724 a

7.217 Bolama
1727

19 7.

11

Bijagos Is.

11
GUINE
7.227
1727 612

7.245 Port Kamsar

1562 C. Verga

1560

10
0306

611

10 Longitude 17 West from Greenwich 16 15 14

18

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CHAPTER 7 DAKAR TO RIO NUNEZ


GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 4104

Scope of the chapter


1

7.1 This chapter covers the coast of Africa from Dakar (14405N 17255W) to Rio Nunez (1040N 1438W) in Republic of Guinea and includes the coasts of Republic of The Gambia and Republic of GuineaBissau. The ports and harbours of Kaolack (7.55), Banjul (7.64), Ziguinchor(7.132), Cacheu (7.159), Bissau (7.167), Bolama (7.217) and Port Kamsar (7.245) are described in this chapter. This chapter is divided into the following sections: Dakar to River Gambia (7.9). River Gambia to Rio Nunez (7.109).

A vessel proceeding to or from Rivire Saloum (7.27) or River Gambia (7.91), should pass not less than 8 miles W of Pointe des Oiseaux (1342N 1638W).

Fishing
1

7.4 Fishing vessels may be encountered along the entire stretch of coastline described in this chapter.

Flow
1

7.5 See 1.247.

Piracy
1

Topography
1

7.2 The coast described in this chapter is generally low and wooded, fronted by sandy beaches, mangroves or shoals. Several important rivers, which are described in this chapter, intersect the coast.
1

7.6 Acts of piracy continue to occur in these waters. The authorities have received numerous reports of vessels having been attacked by gangs of thieves, generally at outer anchorages, but sometimes at sea or whilst alongside. Mariners are advised to keep a constant watch and not to permit any unauthorised craft to come alongside.

Aids to navigation
7.7 The aids to navigation described in this chapter are unreliable. The lights may be extinguished and the buoys and beacons may be missing, unlit, or out of position.

Depths
1

7.3 The coast between Cap Vert (6.145) and Cabo Roxo (12 20 N 16 43 W) should not be approached in deepdraught vessels to less than 30 m, especially in hazy weather, as shoals with depths of less than 5 m extend up to 6 miles offshore.

Stowaways
1

7.8 It is reported that stowaways are a serious problem. A thorough search of the vessel is required, prior to departure, especially if the vessel is departing the coast.

DAKAR TO RIVER GAMBIA GENERAL INFORMATION


Charts 3135

Topography
1

Area covered
1

7.9 This section describes the coastal routes, anchorages, harbours, ports and rivers from Dakar (6.188) to Banjul (7.64) and is arranged as follows: Dakar to Rivire Saloum (7.10). Rivire Saloum (7.27). Rivire Saloum to River Gambia (7.60). Banjul (7.64). River Gambia (7.91).

DAKAR TO RIVIRE SALOUM General information


Chart 1663.

Route
1

7.10 From a position E of Dakar (6.188) the route leads generally SSE for about 61 miles to a position W of the mouth of Rivire Saloum (1350N 1650W).

7.11 The coast between Rufisque (1443N 1716W) and Pointe Rouge, 7 miles SE, is low and formed of a narrow sand and shingle beach behind which are shallow lagoons. The villages of BargnyGouddou and BargnyGuedj, in which there is a mosque, stand on the NW part of this stretch of the coast, and the fishing villages of Bargny Minam, Dogante, Siendou and Yen Tod (1439N 1711W) stand on the SE part. All the above villages are visible from seaward, and there is a prominent ruined building at the NW end of Siendou. The land in the vicinity of Pointe Rouge (14380N 17105W) is fairly high and terminates in cliffs intersected by ravines which are mostly wooded. Pointe Rouge is dominated by the village of Yen in which there is a mosque surrounded by trees. From Pointe Rouge to Cap de Naze, 7 miles SSE, is formed of sandy beaches alternating with low cliffs behind which are clumps of trees and bushes. 7.12 The village of Nditach (1438N 1710W) stands 4 cables SE of Pointe Rouge, with Cap Rouge, a remarkable red cliff, close SSE of the village.

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CHAPTER 7

The village of Niangol stands at the S end of this cliff and a conspicuous tree (1960) stands on the slopes of a hill which attains an elevation of 58 m, 3 cables NE of Niangol. The village of ToubabGuillao stands 2 miles SSE of Pointe Rouge and a prominent hill, 69 m high and covered with baobab trees, lies 1 miles E of the village. The village of Ndayane, which is the best landmark on this stretch of the coast, stands 3 miles SSE of ToubabGuillao. The coast between Cap de Naze (7.18) and Pointe Gombaru (7.18), 2 miles SSE is formed of a beach backed by bushes and isolated baobab trees. Rocks fringe the coast for about 3 cables SSE to Rivire Somone (7.18). Between the mouth of Rivire Somone and the village of Mbour (7.18), 8 miles SE the coast is low and covered with vegetation and large trees. This coast is fringed with rocks alternating with sandy beaches. 7.13 Along this coast several villages can be seen amongst the trees, and are situated (with positions relative to the mouth of Rivire Somone (14295N 17054W)): Somone Ngaparou Sali (Portudal) mile SE 2 miles SE 5 miles SE

Point de Sangomar is low, narrow, sandy and sparsely covered with vegetation and has extended further S, than previously charted, by Banc du Nord on which the sea breaks.

Depths
1

7.15 The coast S of Pointe Gombaru (1430N 1705W), 10 miles SE of Pointe Rouge, is fronted by extensive shoals which should not be approached within a depth of 16 m as they have not been properly surveyed.

Directions
(continued from 6.168)

Major light
1

7.16 Cap Manuel Light (14390N 17260W) (6.204).

Passage
1

The coast from Mbour to Pointe Sarne, 7 miles SSE, and thence to Pointe Gaskel (7.19), 7 miles further SSE, is flat and monotonous with few landmarks. From Mbour to Rivire Balling, 1 miles SE, the coast is fringed with rocks and the entrance to the river itself is obstructed by a drying reef. The village of Nianine (1421N 1656W), standing 2 miles SSE of the mouth of Rivire Balling, can be recognised by an ancient residence near its S end. The village of Sarne stands mile E of Pointe Sarne (7.19). The village of Mbodine stands about 3 miles SE of Sarne. A lagoon runs parallel with and close inland of the coast between Sarne and a position about 4 miles SE where the entrance to the lagoon is blocked by a drying sandbank. 7.14 Ngazobil, standing 1 mile N of Pointe Gaskel, is a religious and agricultural establishment which can be recognised at a considerable distance by a large white building with a red roof. The coast between Ngazobil and Pointe Gaskel is fringed with rocks. The village of Joal (7.20) stands 2 miles SE of Pointe Gaskel and on a peninsula which extends SE parallel with the coast. Several marigots, or branch channels, enter the sea through a delta, 2 miles wide, which lies close SE of Joal. The coast SSE of le de Tine Dine (7.20) is flat and regular for a distance of about 13 miles. The villages of Ngalou Sam Sam, Ngalou Sessne and PalmarinFakao stand 6, 6 and 8 miles respectively SSE of le de Tine Dine. Some prominent reddish coloured sand dunes lie about 2 miles S of PalmarinFakao. The coast between these sand dunes and Pointe de Sangomar, 10 miles S, was a low narrow peninsula, but has been breached by Rivire Saloum at a point 5 miles S of PalmarinFakao. The breach is about 2 miles wide, and to the S of the breach the old peninsula continues as a lightly wooded, narrow tongue of sand, about 5 miles long, which ends at Pointe de Sangomar.

7.17 From a position N of Jete Sud Light (6.167), the track leads E passing (with positions relative to the N point of le de Gore (14403N 17240W)): N of le de Gore and the dangerous wreck which lies cable N, thence: N of the Tacoma Lightbuoy (2 cables NE) with the wreck of the Tacoma lying 1 cable SW, thence: S of the No 12 Lightbuoy (isolated danger) (5 cables NE), thence: W of Banc de Rufisque (5 miles E), a flat rocky patch with a least depth of 8 m over it, thence: W of Banc de Bargny (8 miles E) with a least depth of 73 m over it, which extends 1 miles SW from the shore abreast BargnyGouddou (7.11). The track then leads SSE passing (with positions relative to Joal Lighthouse (1409N 1650W)): ENE of le de Gore (45 miles NW), thence: WSW of a wreck (42 miles NW), with a depth of 18 m over it, thence: WSW of a dangerous wreck (40 miles NW), and clear of the charted obstructions in its vicinity, thence: WSW of Pointe Rouge (34 miles NW), an ill defined point of a reddish colour, thence: WSW of Popenguine (29 miles NW) (7.24), a village standing on the slopes of a hill above the cliffs, thence: 7.18 WSW of Cap de Naze (28 miles NW), a light coloured cliff, 71 m high, on top of which are some ruins. The cape, is the highest point on the coast for 135 miles S as far as Cabo Roxo (7.144). Thence: WSW of Pointe Gombaru (25 miles NW), a low point from which drying rocks extend about 1 cables offshore. A rocky shoal, with a depth of 44 m, lies 4 cables NW of the point. The mouth of Rivire Somone (25 miles NW), which is almost blocked by a sandbank, lies close SE of the point. Marigot de Somone lies close within the mouth of the river. Thence: WSW of Mbour (7.26) (17 miles NNW) an important village. Banc Lbouda, a rocky spit on which there are drying rocks, extends 8 cables SW from the N part of Mbour. Wassaname, another rocky spit with a depth of 1 m over its outer end, extends about 6 cables WSW of the S part of Mbour. Thence: WSW of a wreck (17 miles NW) with a depth of 35 m over it, thence:

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7.19 WSW of Pointe Sarne (9 miles NW), which is low and difficult to identify. Banc de Mbour, with depths of less than 5 m, extends about 5 miles offshore from Nianine (7.13), increasing to about 6 miles off from Pointe Sarne and Pointe Gaskel; depths of between 2 m to 3 m lie within the outer edge of this bank. A Lightbuoy (west cardinal) is moored 7 miles W of Pointe Sarne. Thence: Clear of a dangerous wreck (12 miles W), thence: WSW of Pointe Gaskel (Pointe Senti) (2 miles NW) noting Banc de Guque with a least depth of 28 m, lying 2 miles WSW. 7.20 The track then leads SE passing: SW of Joal Light (7.21), and the village of Joal to its NW, both of which stand on a peninsula. Fadioute village and church stand on an island mile E of Joal Light, and the mangrove covered le de Tine Dine lies in the middle of the delta. Drying sandbanks extend mile off the delta. Thence: SW of three very shoal patches; Banc de Milieu, 06 m (2 miles W); Banc de Joal, 16 m (2 miles WSW); Banc de Faguque, 12 m (3 miles SW). These patches lie on the extensive coastal bank, with depths of less than 4 m, extending about 4 miles offshore between Pointe Gaskil and the delta SE of Joal. Thence: SW of the villages of Ngalou SamSam (7 miles SSE), Ngalou Sessne (7 miles SSE) and PalmarinFakao (9 miles SSE) which show up well, especially in the evening, thence: SW of two stranded wrecks (13 miles SSW and 16 miles S). The track then leads to the Saloum Fairway Lightbuoy (safe water, pillar) (1350N 1650W) (19 miles S). 7.21 Useful marks: Jete Sud Head Light (white 8sided tower, red top 9 m in height) (14406N 17253W). Jete Nord Head Light (white 8sided tower, black top, 9 m in height) (14407N 17253W). La Grande Mosque (14407N 17265W) (6.167). White monument on le de Gore (14 39 9N 17239W) (6.166). Rufisque Light (14426N 17169W) (6.168). Grey belfry and red tiled mission roof at Popenguine (1434N 1707W). Joal Light (white pylon, red bands, 14 m in height) (14093N 16500W). Mission at Fadioute (1409N 1649W). Mission at Palmarin (1401N 1646W). Minarets at Dionouar (13535N 16431W). Beacon surmounting ruined customs house (1351N 1646W). Beacon at Pointe de Sangomar (1350N 1645W). (Directions continue at 7.63)

Anchorages, harbour and landing


Chart 1000

Rufisque
1

7.23 Anchorage. Good anchorage can be obtained in Rade de Rufisque, S of Pointe de Rufisque (14426N 17169W) (6.147), in depths of 6 m to 13 m, but this anchorage is dangerous from July to November because of the sea that rises with the winds that blow from SSE to SW. General information. The town of Rufisque, which once was an important commercial centre of the surrounding district, mainly for the export of ground nuts, has lost its importance as these goods are now sent by road to Dakar. Five ruined piers project from the beach in front of the town. Fresh provisions can be obtained. An airfield is situated NE of Rufisque.

Popenguine
1

7.24 Landing may be effected near some rocks on the beach fronting Popenguine (1434N 1707W). Caution. The sea breaks heavily all along the coast between Pointe Rouge (7.11) and Cap de Naze (7.18).

Sali
1

7.25 Anchorage can be obtained about 3 miles SW of Sali (1427N 1701W) in a depth of 10 m; smaller vessels can anchor closer inshore in a depth of 8 m. Landing can be effected close W of Sali (1427N 1701W) in a creek about mile wide, formed by a break in the reef which fronts the beach. This creek, which is used as an anchorage by small craft, has a depth of 5 m in its entrance, decreasing gradually to the shore over a bottom of sand and mud. Landing is always difficult and sometimes impossible during the wet season (July to November).

Mbour
1

7.26 Landing. A landing stage projects from the middle of the shore fronting Mbour (1425N 1658W). Ground nuts are loaded into lighters at this landing stage and are then taken out to vessels in the anchorage.

RIVIRE SALOUM General information


Chart 607

Description
1

Channel east of Banc de Mbour


1

7.22 The channel between Banc de Mbour (14 17 N 1700W) and the coast is sometimes used by coasters, but it is inadvisable for those without local knowledge, to approach the bank within a depth of 16 m, or within 2 miles of its outer edge.

7.27 Rivire Saloum is entered between Pointe de Sangomar (13 49 N 16 45 W) and Pointe Jackonsa (13 46 5N 16415W), 5 miles SE. The entrance to Rivire Saloum is obstructed by shifting sandbanks, and should not be attempted without a pilot. Within the bar, the river deepens and vessels not more than 105 m in length and subject to the depth on the bar, can reach Kaolack (7.55), a town situated about 66 miles from the coast. However, reports (2006) state that the S entrance is very narrow and shallow and the river is entered through a breach, close S of Djifre, 2 miles wide and fronted by a bar lying mile offshore.

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Rivire Saloum is connected by creeks with Rivire Diomboss (7.39), Rivire Bandiala (7.42) and River Gambia (7.91), farther S.

Topography
1

7.28 Saloum Lightbuoy (1350N 1650W) (safe water; pillar) is moored as a landfall buoy 4 miles W of Pointe de Sangomar. No 1 Buoy (starboard hand) and No 2 Buoy (port hand), moored 4 miles SE of Saloum Lightbuoy, mark the entrance to the channel. le de Sable lies on the S side of the channel, 2 miles S of Pointe de Sangomar, and three training walls lie on the edge of the bank E and NE of le de Sable. A stranded wreck lies 1 miles NW of le de Sable. A shoal, with a least depth of 23 m over it, extends about 1 miles diagonally across the channel between positions 6 cables NW and 1 miles SW of Pointe de Boubo (13514N 16444W), leaving narrow channels between it and the river banks on either side. The buoyed channel lies between the E side of this shoal and Pointe de Boubo. The ruined customs house surmounted by a Beacon (7.21), standing amongst some trees, N of Pointe de Sangomar can be seen from the river. The channel N of Pointe de Boubo lies very close to the W bank, the E bank having mudbanks extending from it to midriver in places. The W bank of Rivire Saloum for about 4 miles above Point de Sangomar, is lightly wooded and the E bank is covered with mangroves. 7.29 The village of Niodior stands on the E bank of the river, 7 cables E of Pointe de Boubo, and the village of Dionouar stands 2 miles NNE of the same point. le de Naniara is situated between Pointe de Boubo and Niodior. lot de Bitch lies in the E part of the river, 2 miles SE of Djifre, and Marigot de Gokhor, the entrance to which is obstructed by a bar, extends E from close S of the islet. Marigot de Gokhor divides into two branches about 2 miles within its entrance; Marigot de Falia, the N branch, forming the E shore of le de Guisanor, reconnects with Rivire Saloum 5 miles NNE, and Marigot de Diandoufou, the S branch, leads into Rivire Diomboss (7.39), 6 miles SE. From the reddish sand dunes (7.14), 2 miles N of Djifre (1356N 1646W), the W bank of Rivire Saloum is fronted by a mud flat for about 3 miles to Pointe Fafanda, the SW entrance point of Marigot de Ndangane. The channel lies towards the E bank, the NW shore of le de Guisanor which is bordered with mangroves. A bank, with a least depth of 35 m over it, lies in mid river abreast the entrance to Marigot de Ndangane. The buoyed channel leads SE of this bank. 7.30 les du Diable (1359N 1639W) are three mangrove covered islands lying about 4 miles ESE of the entrance to Marigot de Ndangane. A spit with depths of less than 5 m over it extends about 1 mile NW from the W island. The channel in the reach of the river between Marigot de Ndangane and Marigot de Guirnda, situated on the S bank 6 miles ESE, lies near the N bank and leads between the two W islands of les du Diable. The passage S of les du Diable is obstructed by fish traps and suitable only for small craft.

Marigot de Sangako (1400N 1635W), which has a narrow entrance, leads off the SE bank of Rivire Saloum 2 miles ENE of les du Diable. This creek is of importance as it forms a waterway for craft of not more than 50 m in length and drawing not more than 27 m, to Rivire Diomboss (7.39) and River Gambia (7.92) without the necessity of crossing the bar of Rivire Saloum. Navigation through the creek is difficult and a pilot/local knowledge is essential. The channel in Rivire Saloum NE of the entrance to Marigot de Sangako, leads between le Ndar, to the NW and Banc Fambine to the SE. On the NW bank of Rivire Saloum, at a distance of 1 and 2 miles, respectively from le Ndar, are the entrances to Marigot de Fayako and Marigot de Faoye with mud banks which dry. The entrance to Marigot de Guifoda lies on the NW bank of Rivire Saloum 5 miles NE of Marigot de Faoye. The channel between these two entrances leads near the NW bank, NW of Banc de Tiar, which dries in patches and extends from the SE bank to within 2 cables of the NW bank. 7.31 The fairway off the entrance to Marigot de Guifoda lies in midriver until it reaches Foundiougne (7.44) where it tends towards the S bank. A patch with a depth of 14 m over it, lies near the middle of the river 1 miles NE of the entrance to Marigot de Guifoda. On the N bank, opposite Foundiougne, Rivire Saloum receives Rivire de Silif which is much frequented by local vessels. A depth of 5 m can be carried for a distance of 12 miles to the village of Silif. Rivire Saloum bends sharply N 1 miles above Foundiougne, and 1 mile farther N it divides into two branches. Marigot de Fatick, the N branch which becomes Rivire Sine farther N, leads to Fatick (1420N 1624W), about 20 miles up river. This branch is navigable for vessels with a maximum draught of 3 m and a maximum length of 90 m as far as Nonane, 12 miles up river, but navigation is difficult owing to sharp bends. Vessels secure to the heads of small piers where there are depths of 3 m to 5 m. Fatick, which can be reached by boats, is an important centre of the groundnut trade. The E branch, which is Rivire Saloum, is sinuous and bordered by mangroves. The curves in some places are very sharp; Vlor Bend, or Coude de Vlor, about 20 miles above the abovementioned division, being a curve of about 130. The more difficult parts of the channel are marked by buoys or beacons.

Depth over bar


1

7.32 The channel across the bar is situated between the S end of Banc du Nord and the NW end of a bank which dries in places extending 3 miles WNW from Pointe Jackonsa. In the 10 years to 2002 the depth over the bar varied between 25 m and 4 m.

Pilotage
1

7.33 Pilotage is compulsory in Rivire Saloum for all vessels over 150 tons. Pilots are embarked or disembarked at Saloum Lightbuoy (1350N 1650W) or at the entrance to the buoyed channel (7.28) across the bar. Pilotage over the bar (7.32) and to Kaolack is only carried out by day. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

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Buoyage
1

1070

7.34 The bar is subject to frequent change and the buoyage is altered accordingly. The channel over the bar, and as far up the river as Foundiougne conforms to IALA Maritime Buoyage System (Region A) and is marked as follows: N and W sides S and E sides Even numbered and lettered buoys (red spar; red rectangular topmarks) Odd numbered and lettered buoys (green conical; green triangular topmarks)

1060

1050

g/cm3
1040

1030
S EA

PR IL

1s tJ UL Y

CT OB ER

Traffic regulations
1

1020
UA RY 1s tA 1s tJ AN 1s tJ AN UA RY

7.35 Readiness to anchor. Vessels navigating Rivire Saloum must be ready to anchor fore and aft. Speed limits in Rivire Saloum are: 8 kn 6 kn When passing the wharves at Foundiougne (7.44). From Vlor Bend (7.31) to Kaolack (7.55), which includes passing Lyndiane (7.49).

Variations in density in Rivire Saloum (7.37)

Directions
1

Overtaking is forbidden on bends, and between Ben Rne, 3 miles below Kaolack, and that town. Traffic instructions, to avoid risk of collision, particularly on Vlor Bend and between Lyndiane and Kaolack, are transmitted by RT from Kaolack. Communications. Vessels entering the Saloum access channel must constantly monitor frequency 2182 kHz. Night navigation. It is prohibited to cross the bar at night.

Submarine cable
1

7.38 The recommended period for crossing the bar is 2 hours before to 1 hour after HW, but those vessels with a draught not exceeding 3 m may cross 3 hours before HW. Care should be exercised in allowing for the combined effect of wind and tidal stream. If the sea breaks heavily on the bar as a result of strong E winds at spring tides, the height of the waves may amount to 1 m. Useful marks: Church at Foundiougne (14075N 16280W). Oil tanks at Lyndiane (1410N 1610W). Chimney at Kaolack (1408N 1605W). Clock tower at Kaolack (1408N 1604W).

7.36 See 7.45.

Rivire Diomboss Description


7.39 Rivire Diomboss is entered between Pointe Jackonsa (7.27) and Pointe de Oiseaux (13425N 16383W), 5 miles SE. The entrance to Rivire Diomboss is divided into two channels by le de Poutake (1348N 1638W), a mangrove covered island 3 miles ENE of Pointe Jackonsa. Rivire Diomboss is, like Rivire Saloum, merely an arm of the sea, and they are connected to each other by numerous creeks of which Marigot de Sangako (7.30), is the only navigable one. Marigot de Sangako becomes Marigot de Labor, as it joins the N bank of Rivire Diomboss about 3 miles above le de Poutake. Marigot NGuilor Guionie, the continuation of Rivire Diomboss, also connects with Rivire Saloum between Foundiougne and Kaolack, but it is impossible to cross the banks at the junction of the two rivers.

Natural conditions
1

7.37 Tidal streams set as follows: Off Pointe Sangomar: Until HW + 1 hours Until LW + 2 hours Ingoing up to 1 kn. Outgoing up to 1 kn.

Slack water lasts about 50 minutes. In the entrance channel: Until HW + 1 hours Ingoing, maximum rate 2 kn. Direction SE.

At Foundiougne and Kaolack the streams have a rate of less than 1 kn. Off Djifre: Until LW + 1 hour Outgoing up to 2 kn

Slack water lasts about 30 minutes. The tide turns 1 hours after LW. Local weather. The wind greatly influences the depth on the bar; a W wind usually increasing the depth. It is very difficult to cross the bar during a thundery squall or rain storm. Salinity. The salinity of the water in Rivire Saloum is greater than that found at sea. The salinity increases with the distance travelled up river, reaching a maximum at Kaolack. See Diagram 7.37.

Topography
1

7.40 The land in the vicinity of the mouth of Rivire Diomboss is low and fronted by extensive shoal areas rendering access difficult. These extensive shoals dry over large areas and the sea breaks heavily on them in any breeze. They extend about 4 miles W of Pointe Jackonsa and nearly 7 miles W and WSW of Pointe des Oiseaux. In several places they have depths of less than 15 m on their outer edges.

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Banc de lle des Oiseaux, which dries, lies 5 miles WSW of Pointe des Oiseaux (13425N 16383W). le de Diamanio and le des Oiseaux (1339N 1640W) lie on the abovementioned shoals S and SSW, respectively, of Pointe des Oiseaux. These extensive shoals and banks are especially dangerous to approach during the harmattan season (August to December) (1.280), because when estimating distances from the coast, the haze makes the land appear farther off than it really is. Soundings are no guide, as in many places the edge of the bank rises abruptly from a flat of about 8 m to less than 1 m; as at the SW edge of Banc de lle des Oiseaux.

Arrival information
1

7.46 Anchorage off Foundiogne is indicated on the chart, E of the mouth of Rivire de Silif, in depths of 4 m to 7 m, good holding ground. Vessels should avoid anchoring on the route of the ferry and between the beacons marking the position of the submarine cable. Submarine cable. A submarine cable crosses the river in the vicinity of the ferry (7.44) route. Its landing place on each side is marked by beacons (special). Pilotage See 7.33.

Berths
1

Tidal streams
1

7.41 Due allowance should be made for the tidal streams which are strong in this vicinity. Tidal streams off the mouth of Rivire Diomboss are as follows: At LW At tide At HW At tide At LW WSW NE ENE kn 2 kn 1 kn
1

7.47 Vessels can berth alongside a new jetty 60 m in length and 12 m wide situated to the W of the port. Vessels may also berth, NE of the above jetty, at the head of a Tshaped pier, 50 m in length, with its root situated near a shrimp farm.

Port services
7.48 Other facilities. There is a hospital at Kaolack. Supplies. Fresh fish and meat are available. Petrol can be pumped on board. Ice can be supplied from a depot with a capacity of 50 m3 subject to 24 hours notice. Communications. The town is connected by road to Kaolack (7.55).

No information, but probably SW at about 2 kn WSW kn

Lyndiane Rivire Bandiala Description


1

General information
1

7.42 The mouth of Rivire Bandiala (1339N 1635W) lies 5 miles SSE of Pointe des Oiseaux, and the channel across the bar at its mouth is subject to frequent change and is unmarked. Rivire Bandiala joins Rivire Diomboss 3 miles E of the the S end of Marigot de Labor, and affords a waterway for vessels between Rivire Saloum and River Gambia via Marigot de Sangako (7.39); local knowledge is required.

7.49 Position. Lyndiane (1410N 1610W), is situated 3 miles above Vlor Bend (7.31) and 8 miles below Kaolack (7.55), on Rivire Saloum. Function. The port has an oil refinery and also handles groundnuts. Traffic. In 2004 there was a single vessel movement totalling 1559 dwt.

Limiting conditions
1

Topography
1

7.43 The land on both sides of the river is cultivated and there are several villages. Missira (1341N 1630W) stands on the SE bank about 5 miles and Toubakouta (13 47 N 16 29 W) stands on the NE bank about 10 miles from the mouth of Rivire Bandiala. The mouth of Karenti Bolon, 3 miles SE of of the mouth of Rivire Bandiala, is obstructed by sandbanks.

7.50 Deepest and longest berth. Berth No 3 (7.53). Density of water. See Salinity (7.37). Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels of 81 m in length and 2900 dwt have been handled here.

Arrival information
1

Foundiougne General information


1

7.44 Position. Foundiougne (1408N 1628W) stands on the S bank of Rivire Saloum. Function. A minor port where groundnuts are loaded. Topography. Foundiougne stands on the S bank of Rivire Saloum. Five piers, which are partly ruined, front the town. A ferry crosses the river to the N bank where a road leads to the town of Fatick (7.31), 13 miles NNE.

Limiting conditions
7.45 Density of water. See Salinity (7.37).
3

7.51 Notice of ETA. Send ETA 96, 48 and 12 hours prior to arrival. Outer anchorages. Anchorage may only be obtained with the assistance of a pilot. Pilotage is compulsory and available during daylight hours only. Pilot boards vessel at Dakar. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Tugs are available from Dakar. Traffic regulations: Night time entry is forbidden. To berth, vessels must manoeuvre with care at slow speed and pass as far as possible from the prohibited Berth Nos 7 and 4. Vessels must keep clear of a red buoy marked with the number 98 positioned 10 m SE of Berth No 7. Regulations concerning entry: Vessels are required to turn at the pit downstream, and berth with the bow facing down river.

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Berthing of vessels is only authorised at the berths indicated by white numbers on a black background. Red boards indicate the wharves where berthing is prohibited. Quarantine regulations are strictly enforced and no communication with the shore is permitted until the vessel has been granted pratique.

Arrival information
7.57 Notice of ETA. Send ETA 96, 48 and 12 hours prior to arrival. Anchorage is indicated on the chart in depths of about 4 m between the quay at Kaolack and the salt jetty at Diorhane. Pilotage. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). Tugs are not available.

Harbour
1

7.52 General layout. The port consists of three timber constructed wharves, six warehouses for storage of groundnuts, capacity 22 800 tons, and three storage tanks.

Berths
1

Berths
1

7.58 A quay about 630 m in length, with a depth alongside of 4 m fronts the town. A pier on the S bank, at Diorhane (1407N 1604W), farther up river, is used for loading salt.

7.53 Berth No 1 is used for tankers and berth Nos 2 and 3 are used for general cargoes. Berth No 3, length 26 m; depth alongside 5 m. Berth Nos 4 to 7 are not used.

Port services
1

Port services
1

7.54 Repairs. not available. Other facilities. hospital in Kaolack, 15 km away; fumigation is available. Supplies. Fresh water is available; bunkering is not available. Communications. Nearest airport at Kaolack, about 25 km away.
1

7.59 Repairs. Small repairs can be effected. Other facilities. There is a hospital in Kaolack. Supplies. Fuel oil and petrol are available in limited quantities. Fresh water and provisions are available. Communications. There is an airport at Kaolack, distance 5 km.

RIVIRE SALOUM TO RIVER GAMBIA General information


Charts 607,608, 1664

Route
7.60 From Saloum Fairway Lightbuoy (safe water, pillar) (1350N 1650W) the route leads SSW for about 17 miles to River Gambia Fairway No 1 Lightbuoy (safe water, pillar) (13329N 16546W).

Kaolack General information


1

Topography
1

7.55 Position. Kaolack (14 08 N 16 04 W), is situated 222 miles up Rivire Saloum from the Sangomar Bar. Function. It is the most important port on the Rivire Saloum and the capital of the province of SineSaloum. The principal exports are groundnuts and salt. Topography. Kaolack stands on the N bank of the Rivire Saloum. The S bank opposite the town is fronted by an extensive mudflat backed by salt pans Approach and entry. Rivire Saloum is only 90 m wide abreast of Kaolack and vessels are recommended to turn above the town and secure alongside head down river with an anchor laid out in midriver. In winter vessels should also let go a stern anchor. Traffic. In 2004 there were 4 vessel movements totalling 10 021 dwt.

7.61 The coastline from Pointe de Sangomar to Banjul is low, fronted by extensive shoals, banks and flats, and is intersected by creeks and rivers.

Depths
1

Limiting conditions
1

7.62 A vessel proceeding to or from Rivire Saloum (7.27) or River Gambia, should pass not less than 8 miles W of Pointe des Oiseaux (7.40). In the W portion of the estuary of River Gambia, the depths, though shallow, are comparatively even, but the E portion is obstructed by banks and shoals which are described in Directions (7.85). The shoals vary in position and their depth is often different from that charted. Soundings should be frequently verified and the depth should not be decreased to less than 15 m until near Fairway No 1 Lightbuoy.

7.56 Bridge. A bridge, Pont Noirot, crosses the river about 1 mile above Kaolack, above which the river is only navigable by small boats. Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 07 m; mean neap range about 03 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water. See Salinity (7.37). Maximum size of vessel handled. Maximum length 105 m; Maximum draught subject to the depth over the bar.

Directions
(continued from 7.21)
1

7.63 From Saloum Fairway Lightbuoy (safe water, pillar) (1350N 1650W), the track leads SSW passing (with positions relative to Buniada Point (1335N 1633W)): WNW of Pointe de Sangomar (about 17 miles NW) (7.14), thence: WNW of Pointe Jackonsa (15 miles NW) with Banc de lOuest lying 2 miles WSW from it, thence:

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WNW of Pointe des Oiseaux (9 miles NW) (7.40) with the outer edge of Banc de lle des Oiseaux, which dries, extending 5 miles WSW, and le des Oiseaux lying 4 miles SSW, thence: WNW of Buniada Point, which is low and fronted by extensive flats, thence: WNW of Horseshoe Bank (10 miles W), which has depths of less than 6 m, thence: WNW of No 3 Lightbuoy (safe water, pillar) (11 miles W). The track then leads to the Fairway No 1 Lightbuoy (safe water, pillar) (21 miles W). (Directions for Banjul continue at 7.83 and for the coastal passage at 7.117)

Traffic
1

7.69 In 2004 there were 122 vessel movements totalling 1 439 221 dwt.

Port Authority
1

7.70 The Gambia Ports Authority, PO Box 617, Liberation Avenue, Banjul, Gambia.

Limiting conditions
1

BANJUL General information


Chart 608
2

Position
1

7.64 The city of Banjul (1327N 1634W).

7.71 Depths. In the W portion of the estuary the depths, though shallow, are comparatively even, but the E portion is encumbered by banks and shoals. For further information see 7.86. Deepest and longest berth. New Banjul Jetty (7.89). Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 14 m; mean neap range about 07 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 2. Density of water: 1024 g/cm3. Maximum size of veseel handled. Vessels with a maximum length of 300 m are permitted into the port; unlimited at anchorage.

Function
1

7.65 Banjul is the capital of the Republic of The Gambia.

Arrival information Notice of ETA


1

Topography
1

7.66 The estuary of River Gambia lies E of the meridian of Bijol Islands (1323N 1650W) (7.117) and S of the parallel of les des Oiseaux (1339N 1640W). The E shore of the estuary, S of Buniada Point (1335N 1633W) (7.63) is a low and featureless expanse of mangroves with occasional tall trees in the background. Bald Cape (1323N 1648W), situated at the W extremity of the S shore of the estuary, is bare and marked by red patches; although low, it is the highest land in the vicinity. The coast from Bald Cape to Cape Saint Mary, 10 miles NE, becomes gradually lower and reddish cliffs can be seen against a general green outline. Behind the coast are several villages. Cape Saint Mary (7.86) is only just above sea level, but the land about mile SW of it is about 18 m high and composed of red cliffs surmounted by coconut trees. Behind and above the cliffs are a number of buildings which, in the afternoon light, are prominent. See Useful marks 7.88. Oyster Creek, which enters the sea about mile W of Toll point, is crossed by Denton Bridge a short distance within the entrance. Oyster Creek connects with River Gambia S of Banjul thus forming Saint Mary Island. The city of Banjul stands on the E end of Saint Mary Island, opposite Barra Point (1329N 1633W), and is only a few feet above HW.

7.72 ETA should be sent 48 and 12 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).

Outer anchorages
1

7.73 Anchorage can be obtained, anywhere in the estuary where depths permit. Anchorage can be obtained off Banjul, 2 to 5 cables off Government Wharf (7.89), in depths between 22 m and 27 m, sand and mud. A great many anchors have been lost in the harbour thus making parts of the anchorage foul, particularly near the shore. Cutter Roads (13 32 5N 16 33 1W) afford good anchorage out of the main strength of the tidal streams in depths between 5 m and 8 m. This anchorage is used by sailing craft when awaiting a favourable wind or tide and can be entered direct from Main Channel or from the S by a narrow inshore channel, close N of Barra Point, with a depth of 54 m in it.

Submarine cable
1

7.74 A submarine cable, which can be best seen on the chart, crosses the harbour entrance between Banjul Point and 5 cables SE of Barra Point.

Pilotage and tugs


1

Port limits
1

7.67 The port limits are defined by No 5 Lightbuoy (13315N 16352W).

Approach and entry


1

7.68 Banjul is approached and entered from N through Main Channel.

7.75 Pilotage is compulsory, from No 5 Lightbuoy and available during daylight only. Pilot normally boards from the harbour tug near No 5 Lightbuoy, but will board inwards of the No 1 Fairway Lightbuoy on request. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3). A report (2004) states that the pilot no longer boards near No 5 Lightbuoy, but instead boards inbound vessels after they have anchored about 7 cables off New Banjul Jetty. Tugs are available.

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Local knowledge
1

Natural conditions
1

7.76 Local knowledge is required for navigation above Banjul.

Traffic regulations
1

7.77 Anchorage is prohibited in areas, best seen on the chart, off Government Wharf, New Banjul Jetty and Banjul Wharf. Sound signals. No sound signals shall be made on any vessel within the limits of the port of Banjul except in pursuance of any regulations. Towing. Power vessels when towing craft (other than their own boats) in River Gambia, whether alongside or astern, shall carry, in addition to the usual navigation lights, a bright white light below the masthead light, such additional light to be not less than 18 m below the masthead light in a vertical direction.

Quarantine
1

7.78 Health. No vessel arriving from an infected place shall enter the port of Banjul between the hours of 1800 and 0600, except with the special permission of the Health Officer.

Customs
1

7.79 Arrival and departure. Vessels arriving or departing should wait or anchor in that part of the port area up to 500 m off Government Wharf for examination or clearance by customs officers. Vessels proceeding direct to the wharf, and those leaving that have been cleared at the wharf, need not wait or anchor.

Harbour General layout


1

7.82 Tidal streams. See tables of tidal streams on chart 608 and 7.108. The tidal streams are affected by the meteorological conditions in the estuary and also by the rainfall in the upper river (7.105). The tidal stream outside the river entrance sets on to Saint Mary Shoal (1330N 1636W) and Middle Ground between 3 and 6 hours after HW Freetown. On both ingoing and outgoing streams, there are strong sets across African Knoll and Middle Ground. The outgoing stream stirs up large patches of discoloured water throughout the channel. Current. In the outer approaches to River Gambia, the influence of the North Equatorial current is experienced (1.249). Vessels approaching the estuary from N should shape course for Fairway No 1 Lightbuoy (7.85), allowing for the current according to the season of the year (1.248). In the river and its entrance, the current is dependent on the level of the river as affected by the the rainfall in the upper part of the river. The strongest current occurs in September, and decreases in rate as the level of the river falls to its average level in December and January. At those positions in the river and its entrance where observations were taken from July to September, the current has been included in the tables of tidal streams on chart 608; in December and January the current component was found to be negligble. When the river level is high, the combination of the current and outgoing tidal stream causes considerable swirls off Banjul, and vessels ride uneasily at anchor. It is advisable, on account of the strength of the tidal streams, to enter and leave River Gambia at slack water. Local weather. There are two different seasons; the dry season which lasts from November to May, during which precipitation is very light and the humidity is moderate; the wet season from July to October, when the SW monsoon is likely to set in with considerable rain and increased humidity. Predominant winds are Wly. Climate information. See 1.291 and 1.301.

7.80 The harbour consists of several jetties and piers, some of which are ruined, situated between Banjul Point and Half Die at the S end of the town.
1

Directions for entering harbour


(continued from 7.63)

Major light
7.83 Cape Saint Mary (Fajara) Light (metal framework tower on water tower, elevation 43 m) (13284N 16418W).

Hazards
1

7.81 Fishing areas. Large concentrations of fishing canoes, fishing stakes and poles may be encountered in the channel. Difficult tidal streams. When in the vicinity of African Knoll (1334N 1637W), great care must be taken to allow for the tidal streams which set strongly across the knoll and Middle Ground, and also sweep strongly past Banjul. Aids to navigation. It was reported (1995) that navigation aids are unreliable in this area, they may be missing, unlit or out of position. The report stated that No 1 Fairway Buoy was out of position by approximately 29 miles ENE from the charted position and that all fairway buoys were unlit.

Other aids to navigation


1

7.84 Racons: Barra Point Light (13292N 16330W). Cape Saint Mary (Fajara) Light (7.83). Banjul Point Light (7.88). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.

Entry
1

7.85 From Fairway No 1 Lightbuoy (safe water, pillar) (13329N 16546W) the track leads ESE, passing (with

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positions relative to Cape Saint Mary (13 29 3N 16401W): NNE of a dangerous wreck (13 miles WNW), and clear of another wreck lying in a depth of more than 9 m, 3 cables N of the former, thence: NNE of a dangerous wreck (11 miles W), position approximate, thence: Clear of No 2 Lightbuoy (safe water, pillar) (13318N 16492W) (9 miles WNW). The track then alters ENE, passing: NNW of Kolli Point (4 miles SW), and a reef, which dries 12 m, lying 4 cables NW from it, thence: NNW of Kotu Point (3 miles WSW), fronted by a rocky bank which extends 6 cables NW with depths of less than 2 m over it, thence: NNW of Cape Saint Mary (2 miles WSW) from which a light (7.84) is exhibited and a racon transmits, thence: Clear of No 3 Lightbuoy (safe water, pillar) (6 miles NW). 7.86 The track then alters E. Leading beacons: Front beacon (orange) (13341N 16330W). Rear beacon (orange) (8 cables from front beacon). The alignment (092) of these beacons leads through the approach channel, passing: S of Horeshoe Bank (7 miles NNW), with depths of less than 6 m, which is an extension of the coastal bank and here extends some 4 miles SW of les des Oiseaux (7.40). Strong eddies form over this bank. Thence: N of Cape Saint Mary, with a spit extending about 7 cables NW from it. A rock with a depth of 18 m over it, lies close within the extremity of this spit. Thence: N of Stopintime Bank (4 miles NNE) with depths less than 5 m, thence: N of African Knoll (5 miles NNE) with depths less than 10 m, marked on its NE side by No 4 Lightbuoy (starboard hand). The track then alters SSE into the Main Channel, passing: ENE of Middle Ground (5 miles NE), a bank with depths of less than 5 m, thence: ENE of Schooner Gap (3 miles NE), a narrow channel with depths just over 5 m, lying between Stopintime Bank and the NW extremity of Saint Mary Shoal. WSW of Cutter Roads (7 miles ENE), which lie in the bay between Buniada Point (7.63) and Barra Point (7.87). ENE of No 5 Lightbuoy (starboard hand) (5 miles ENE), thence: ENE of Canoe Grounds (2 miles ENE) which is an extensive flat, with depths of less than 5 m, extending from Cape Saint Mary to Saint Mary Shoal, thence: 7.87 ENE of Saint Mary Shoal (4 miles E), which lies on the E part of the large area of shoal ground fronting the S shore of the estuary between Cape Saint Mary and Banjul. The shoal extends 5 miles NW from Banjul Point with depths of less than 5 m and, in places, dries. Thence: ENE of Toll Point (1328N 1637W) (3 miles ESE), which is low and sandy, thence:

WSW of Barra Point (7 miles E), which can be identified by the ruined fort which stands on it. A light (7.88) is exhibited and a racon (7.84) transmits from a metal framework tower standing on the W side of the fort. A jetty for the use of ferries extends SW from the coast about 2 cables SE of Barra Point. The track then alters S, passing: W of Kang Point (3 miles ESE), thence: E of Banjul Point (6 miles ESE), a sandy point which forms the SW entrance point of River Gambia. A light (7.88) is exhibited and a racon transmits from a metal framework tower about 1 cable S of the point. The track then leads SSW to New Banjul Jetty (7.89), noting the obstruction with a depth of 134 m over it lying 4 cables ESE from it, or to Banjul Wharf (7.89). 7.88 Useful marks: Water tower (43 m in height) (13284N 16418W). Old White Fort (13290N 16405W). Chimney (24 m in height) (13281N 16375W). Tanks (13279N 16363W). Radio mast (25 m in height) (13278N 16358W), red obstruction light. Ten radio masts (13275N 16348W), two of which are prominent and marked by red obstruction lights. Hospital (13274N 16347W), with a red roof and a flagstaff. State House (13273N 16346W), painted grey and with a flagstaff. White Building (13273N 16344N), standing at Banjul Point. Banjul Point Light (metal framework tower, 27 m elevation) (13272N 16344W). Radio Tower (46 m in height) (13272N 16344W), red obstruction lights. Lattice floodlight tower (28 m in height) (13267N 16344W), at New Banjul Jetty. Lattice floodlight tower (13266N 16345W), at Banjul Wharf. Barra Point Light (metal framework tower, elevation 18 m) (13292N 16330W). Flagstaff (13291N 16328W) at Barra.

Berths Alongside berths


1

7.89 New Banjul Jetty (13267N 16344W) has a Thead 300 m long; the outer berth can accommodate vessels with draughts (reported 2004) between 12 m and 14 m. The jetty, situated 2 cables NE of Dockyard Point (13265N 16345W), is aligned NE/SW, with mooring dolphins off each end. It has a RoRo ramp at its N extremity, and is also used by container vessels and tankers loading groundnut oil. The inner berth, at this jetty, is designed for lighter vessels, and has a depth (reported 2004) of 70 m. Banjul Wharf lies 1 cable SW of the New Banjul Jetty. It is Lshaped, 120 m in length, the outer berth with depths alongside (reported 2004) of 95 m to 120 m and the inner berth with a depth alongside of 80 m. Mooring dolphins stand off each end of the wharf. It has accomodation for RoRo vessels as well as tankers and other vessels;

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New Banjul Jetty (7.89)


(Original dated 2003) (Photograph MV Doulos) 2

A passenger and vehicle ferry plies between the ferry pier situated 1 cable NW of the New Banjul Jetty and Barra Point, where a terminal extends 264 m SW, SE of the ruined fort. Several mooring buoys, the positions of which can best be seen on the chart, lie SW of Dockyard Point. The New Public Pier, situated 2 cables W of Dockyard Point, is mainly used by fishing vessels. Government Wharf, which lies between New Banjul Jetty and Banjul Point, is silted up and no longer in use.

on MacCarthys Island (7.99), 156 miles up river from the entrance. Owing to changes in depths, also to obstructions in River Gambia after the wet season, no directions are given. River Gambia, above Banjul was reported (1999) unmarked by buoys or other navigational aids. Vessels anchoring in River Gambia should select as wide a place as possible, and a light anchor is recommended owing to the softness of the mud bottom.

Port services
1

Description
1

7.90 Repairs can be undertaken. A slipway, capable of accomodating vessels up to 500 tons, is available at the Marine dockyard. Other facilities: hospital in Banjul. Garbage disposal and fumigation are available on request. Ballast/slop reception are available on request. Supplies. Fuel oil and diesel oil are available. Fresh water is available at either jetty. Provisions are available. Communications. Yundum international airport is situated about 22 km SW from Banjul. Rescue. Banjul is a designated MRSC. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.

RIVER GAMBIA General information


Charts 608, 609.
4

General remarks
1

7.91 River Gambia, known by the Fulas as Dimma, rises in Fouta Jalon highlands (1115N 1220W) in the Republic of Guinea. The river flows NW then W for about 700 miles to its entrance at Banjul (1327N 1634W). At Albadarr, standing about 17 miles above Banjul, the river is about 3 miles wide and its width gradually diminishes until it is less than mile wide at Georgetown 215

7.92 Banjul to Lamin Point. Close S of Saint Mary Island (7.66), is the entrance to Daranka Bolon; Lmin Bolon is the S continuation of this creek. Mandna Point (13216N 16344W), lying 5 miles S of Dockyard Point (7.89), forms the N entrance point of Mandna Bolon. Jaleh Cassa Bolon, whose entrance lies 8 miles SE of Mandna Point, has depths of less than 5 m at its entrance but over 5 m close within the entrance. Within a mile of the entrance, Jaleh Cassa Bolon branches into the Faraba Bolon, leading W with depths under 5 m in it, and the Bulok Bolon, leading E with depths over 5 m. Brefet Bolon (1316N 1623W) and Pima Bolon are two creeks with depths of less than 2 m at their common mouth, lying 3 miles E of Jaleh Cassa Bolon. Seven Foot Bank, 2 miles S of Barra Point (7.87), has depths of less than 5 m and extends 4 miles S. The bank was reported (1999) to be unmarked. The Backway, a channel from 2 to 4 cables wide and with a least depth of 49 m in it, lies between Seven Foot Bank and Bugnadu Flats, the coastal bank E of it. Dog Island Point (1322N 1631W), 8 miles SSE of Barra Point, is low and sandy with dense trees close to the HW line and rising ground behind it. Dog Island, lying close W of the point, has trees on its W end and bushes on its E end. An area of foul ground extends 1 mile S from Dog Island and was reported (1999) unmarked.

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7.93 Lamin Point to Bintang Creek. Lmin Point (1320N 1625W), 6 miles ESE of Dog Island Point, is low and dark with a large clearing mile NW of it. Rocks which dry between 06 and 03 m extend up to 1 mile WNW of the point. Landing can be effected NW of Lamin Point, clear of these rocks. Another rock, which dries 09 m, is situated 8 cables E of Lamin Point. Albadarr (Albreda), a village 1 miles ENE of Lamin Point, can be recognised by a conspicuous white house standing at the E end of the village. There is also a pier. James Island (1319N 1622W) lies on a shoal 3 miles ESE of Lamin Point. The ruins of an old fort, surrounded by trees up to 15 m high stand on the island. Sika Point lies 4 miles E of Albadarr and the village of Sika stands 1 miles NW of the point. The entrance to Sami Creek lies on the N bank of the river, 1 mile NE of Sika Point, and Jurunka Point (1322N 1616W) lies 2 miles farther NE. Bintang Point (1319N 1613W) lies on the S bank of the river, 8 miles E of James Island. Bintang Creek is entered between Bintang Point and Thistle Point, 4 cables NE. The creek is navigable as far as Kalagi, where a low bridge has been built. Kalagi is situated a couple of miles before Sandeng (1316N 1548W). The entrance channel to Bintang Creek lies between two banks, which nearly dry, extending mile from both entrance points. The periodic rains cause the channel to shift and no vessel should attempt to enter without local knowledge. At LW and with the sun in a favourable position, the banks on either side of the entrance show up distinctly. The N bank should not be approached until well in the creek whence keeping in midchannel, the deepest water will generally be found. Above Kansala (1315N 1606W), Bintang Creek is narrow and tortuous, in certain places as far as Sandeng (1316N 1548W). Between Kansala and Bundali (13 15N 1554W), 18 miles above Kansala, there is no sign of habitation. Bintang Creek at Bundali is about 64 m wide. Tidal streams at Kansala turn about 1 hour after HW and LW, and have a maximum rate of about 2 kn. Anchorage can be obtained between Albadarr and James Island in depths of 58 m to 73 m, but care should be taken to avoid the 43 m shoal extending SW from Albadarr. Anchorage can be obtained off the N bank at Kansala, keeping clear of the shoal ground which extends from the village. There is a landing pier at Kansala. 7.94 Bintang Creek to Devils Point. On the N bank of River Gambia, the mouth of Jurunka Creek (1325N 1613W), 4 miles NE of Jurunka Point (7.93), is fronted by a bank which extends over mile from it. Near the N side of the entrance there is a depth of 46 m, and the creek is navigable for vessels drawing up to 3 m for a considerable distance. Suara Point (13 28 N 16 09 W), 8 miles NE of Jurunka Point, is the W entrance point of an estuary formed by the mouths of Tambana Creek, running NW, and Suara Creek running NE. Suara Creek gives access to Kerewan village, 2 miles NE of the entrance, which is the headquarters of the Divisional Commissioner of the Lower River Division. The creek extends about 16 miles to Kutang with a general

breadth of cable for a distance of 10 miles to NJien Creek on the left bank. Above this there are shoal patches with depths of 18 m over them and the creek gradually narrows to a width of about 18 m. On the S bank of River Gambia, between Bintang Creek and Muta Point (1326N 1609W), 8 miles NE, are the entrances to Jannakunda Creek and Butain Creek, both are very small. Muta Point, on which the village of Kemoto stands, is bordered by foul ground on its W side and a sandy spit extends from its E side. There is a wooden pier at Muta Point, 12 m in length, with a depth of 4 m alongside. Continuing on the S bank of Rive