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Physics 1

warm-up session :

Higher tier

Remember, you have learnt all the information on the following slides in your lessons.

This is just to refresh your memory of the essentials

In

solids particles are packed very close together


- they vibrate about fixed positions

In

liquids - particles are close together gases

- they are not fixed in position.

In

- the particles are very far apart - they move around very quickly

Increasing the amount of energy = increased vibrations and more space


Decreasing the amount of energy = less vibrations and less space

Heat transfer
Conduction: Movement of heat (solids) - Metals: good conductors - Gases: poor conductors (good insulators)
Convection: Movement of heat through

fluids (liquids and gases)

Thermal radiation: movement of heat by

infra red waves (though vacuum/space)

Conduction non metals

Explain in terms of particles how heat is transferred through metal Particles vibrate with more energy Energy transferred by collisions with other particles

Conduction metals

Explain in terms of particles how heat is transferred through glass Particles vibrate with more energy Energy transferred by collisions with other particles Free electrons transfer energy faster

Convection liquids and gases

Particles gain energy so move faster Particles move apart and air expands Particles become less dense so particles rise

Explain how heat is transferred by the process of convection in an oven

All hot objects emit infrared radiation the hotter the object, the more infrared radiation given off

infrared does not require particles and can travel through a vacuum

Emitting (give out) and Absorbing (take in) radiation


best emitter
matt black best absorber white worst emitter

silver
worst absorber

Why does shiny aluminium foil help to keep food hot?


Foil (light and shiny) reflects heat back Foil is a poor emitter of heat radiation

- As energy increases evaporation increases - As pressure increases evaporation decreases - The bigger the temperature difference, the faster the rate of cooling - The larger the surface area, the faster the rate of cooling.

Good insulators dont allow heat to travel through them

insulators do not have free electrons


the lower the u value the better a material is at insulating the amount of heat required to heat something by 1C is called

specific heat capacity

Energy forms

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it changes from one form to another

Wasted energy is usually heat and sound and can be calculated


energy efficiency = useful output energy total input energy

Energy is measured in joules (J). Energy efficiency does not have any units.

- It is a number between 0 and 1


which can be converted into a percentage by multiplying by 100.

Sankey diagrams
Filament light bulb 100 J electrical energy (input) 10 J light energy (output)

90 J heat energy (wasted)

The thickness of each arrow is proportional to the amount of energy involved at that stage.

A Sankey diagram uses arrows to represent the output energies.

How long it takes to recover the costs of an appliance


is called

pay back time

If loft insulation costs 200 to install and saves you 50 a year in heating bills the pay back time is 4 years
Ways to make a home energy efficient Energy saving light bulbs Cavity wall insulation Loft insulation Draft excluders Double glazing The double-glazing for a house costs 3,000 but saves 150 per year in fuel costs. What is its payback time?

The cavity wall insulation in a house costs 6000 to install. It has a payback time of 15 years. How much money does the insulation save each year in fuel costs?

Electrical energy is measured in kW/h


Electrical energy = power (kW) x time (h) The longer you use an appliance for the more electrical energy it will

transfer

Electricity costs money


The electricity company charges you for every you use 1 unit = 1 kW/h

unit

cost = number of units x cost per unit

Example: How much would 10 units of electricity cost at a price of 9p per unit?

How does a Power Station Work?


This heats water changing it into high pressure steam The steam is used to drive huge turbines (big fans) The turbines are attached to a generator which spins around making electricity Electrical energy is then fed onto the National grid and out to our home where it powers our TVs etc

Fuels are burnt in the boiler which releases heat energy

Once electricity is made it must be transported around the country

Overland cables
Over ground cables
Cheaper Faults can be easily located and quickly repaired Flexible to adapt to changes in network demand. Prone to short-term interruptions

Underground cables
Not safe from weather Cant transport electricity over water Eyesore Safe from weather Can transport electricity under water Unseen

Under ground cables


Expensive Faults cant be easily located and quickly repaired Not Flexible to adapt to changes in network demand. Installation causes land disturbance

Less disturbance to land than underground installation

More reliable

Advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels and nuclear fuels


Energy resource Fossil fuels (Coal/Oil /Gas) Energy resource Nuclear Advantages Disadvantages - Reliable - Non renewable - Quick start up - Produces greenhouse gas CO2 - Cheap fuel costs - Causes acid rain SO2 Advantages - No production of polluting gases - Reliable - produces a lot of energy Disadvantages - Non renewable - Produces nuclear waste difficult to dispose of safely - Risk of big nuclear accident (eg Chernobyl)

More energy from nuclear energy!


More energy is released from each kilogram of

than from each kilogram of

uranium undergoing fission fossil fuel that we burn

Renewable Energy Resources


Wind Solar

Renewable Energy Resources

Geothermal

Hydroelectric

Wave

Consider the following: Renewable (replaced faster than its used) Cost to build Cost to run once built Availability and reliability Efficiency (how much energy is generated) Impact on environment (burning/ greenhouse gases/CO2/SO2/acid rain etc); Damage to habitats Impact on community (noise/visual pollution)

Advantages and disadvantages of energy resources

The National Grid and Transformers

Power station

Step up transformer

Step down transformer

Homes

Step up transformers increase the voltage This reduces the current This reduces the amount of energy loss The voltage is then stepped down (decreased) before it reaches our homes (230V) to make it safe

Transverse waves
source moves up and down

coils vibrate up and down

direction of wave

Longitudinal waves

direction of wave

The

frequency is the number of waves passing


any point each second.

frequency = number of waves past a point / time


frequency is measured in hertz (Hz)
amplitude

Wavelength

wavelength

Waves
amplitude

Describe how the wavelength and frequency of sound waves change as sound moves away?

NEAR

Wavelength increases Frequency decreases

FAR

Calculating wave speed


Wave speed = frequency x wavelength (metres) (Hertz) metres)

Electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic radiation: electric and magnetic disturbances Travel as waves moving energy from place to place The electromagnetic spectrum is continuous Waves grouped into types of wavelength and frequency Reflected, absorbed or transmitted differently by different

substances

Waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum

Electromagnetic spectrum
- waves can be used in communication
Frequency Lowest Wave Radio waves Microwaves Infra red Visible light Ultraviolet X-rays Highest Gamma rays Uses Television and radio transmission Mobile phones Optical fibre communication Photography Detecting forged banknotes and tanning Medical images of bones Killing cancer cells Shortest Wavelength Longest

All waves will

reflect off different surfaces.

Remember: - angle of incidence = angle of reflection - use a ruler - join rays - arrows show direction of light

Refraction occurs when a wave travels through


a different medium (solid, liquid, gas, vacuum)

The wave changes speed due to the higher density of the medium

Diffraction is when waves pass through a gap


in a barrier. Curved waves come out the other side

Diffraction produces a greater curved wave when the wave length is of a similar size to the gap

Describe the Big bang theory


Single initial point

Massive explosion

All matter starts from a single initial point A massive explosion sends matter outwards Causing universe to expand

What is red shift?

wavelength of light increases light moves to red end of the spectrum

How is red shift evidence for the Big Bang theory?

shows stars are moving away

stars are moving faster


universe is expanding

cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is other evidence for the


Big Bang it is thought to be the heat left over from the original Big Bang explosion

Some scientific terms...


Reliable Valid Repeating tests, checking results, having a bigger sample Keep everything the same except the independent & dependent variables Precision Range Interval Claims Smaller scale division on equipment From the smallest to biggest What the values go up by You decide if it is true or false by looking at

evidence, independent organisations avoid bias

What is the questions asking you to do?


Describe a graph Refer to the pattern e.g. as...increasesincreases etc Explain Evaluate Compare Calculate Suggest a reason Describe & give a reason because. For & against What is the same & what is different Show calculations & give units This should be scientific

Things to think about when evaluating a situation...


Economical aspect - money Environmental pollution/ greenhouse gases/ global warming/ acid rain/ carbon dioxide/ habitat destruction Health risks body rejection/damage Availability/accessibility Ethical suffering/human rights Religious

Some final tips...


Read the whole Q 33% of the Qs can be answered from information given to you in text, diagrams, graphs & tables Follow instructions tick a box tick two boxes use info from the table Dont write it the concentration increases NOT it increases

And remember...
1 mark per minute you have 60 minutes to answer 60 marks Use bullet points for short questions e.g. 3 marks should mean 3 bullet points Write in good English for the 6 mark question Check your answers read over your answers at the end

Good luck