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64 3

2009 3

ACTA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA

Vol.64, No.3
Mar., 2009

1, 2, 2, 3, 2
(1. 524088
2. 510275
3. 510641)

1956-2003


20 90









[1]
[2-10] [3] [5-8, 10]
Ohmura
( )
[9]
[10-12]





2008-10-06; 2008-12-05
(50839005) (0812073)[Foundation:key Subjects
of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.50839005; Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong
Ocean University, No. 0812073];
(1968-), , , , ,
E-mail: xiep68@gdou.edu.cn

270-277

271

1.1

7
35 (
1) 1956-2003 (R)
(P) (T)
(RS) (RH)
(Epan)


25325 km2
2/3

80%

1

Fig. 1 The map of Dongjiang River Basin

1.2

ETa = P - R W
ETa , P R W
W 0
ETa = P - R
Mann-Kendall [13]

(1)

[14]
A B H(A, B)

(2)
A-B = a + bi + cj
a = S/N b = F/N c = P/N N
A B
S P F
i [-1, 1]
j j -1
a b c
a > c a > b c > a c >
b b
a > c c > a
a b c
A B
A B


(- EX
- 0.5s] (EX - 0.5s EX +
0.5s) [EX + 0.5s +)

EX s


64

272

Tab. 1 The mean ETa and Epan in different periods




1956-1960
60
70
80
90
1956-2003

ET
 (mm)
796.5
775.1
774.9
771.3
757.2
771.8

2000

 (mm)

 (mm)

10.88
10.95
8.10
6.10
6.10
9.80

1594.5
1551.4
1578.2
1483.2
1461.4
1526.2



1800

2.1


(%)

1600


(%)
4.99
5.31
6.08
2.94
2.94
5.78



1400

1200
( 1)
1000
1956-2003
800
771.8 mm 9.80%
600
1526.2 mm
1956
1966
1976
1986
1996
5.78%


2
Fig. 2 The changes of ETa and Epan
1956-1960
80 90 90

2 1956-2003 48
Z -2.9597* -0.6933

2.2
( 3)
1956 1963
1971 1977 1993 1997
(3) ETa Epan
0.27 0.44 0.29

(ETa - Epan) = 0.27 + 0.44i + 0.29j

(3)

1000
 (mm)

2.3

2.3.1
( 4) ETa Epan

ETa Epan
ETa
Epan

5 ETa

900
800
700
600
1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

 (mm)

3
Fig. 3 The change of ETa with Epan change

1800

(b)

(a)

2000

2000

 




1800

 (mm)

1800
mm)

273

1600
1400
1200
1000

1600
1400
1200
1000
800

800

600
1400

600
20.0

20.5

21.0
21.5
( C)

22.0

1600

1800

22.5

2000

2200

2400

 (h)

4 (a) (b)

Fig. 4 The changes of ETa and Epan with the changes of air temperature (a) and sunlight radiation (b)

(a)

2000

 

1600
1400
1200
1000



1800

 (mm)

 (mm)

1800

(b)

2000






1600
1400
1200
1000
800

800

600

600
74

76

78
80
 (%)

82

700

84

1000

1300

1600

1900

2200

2500

 (mm)

5 (a) (b)

Fig. 5 The changes of ETa and Epan with the changes of relative humidity (a) and precipitation (b)

2000





 (mm)

Epan
1800

1600
Epan ET a
1400

1200

1000
( ) ( )
800
( )
600
6 ETa
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
Epan
 (m/s)

6

Fig. 6 The changes of ETa and Epan with wind speed change





(4) ETa Epan
2.3.2

Epan Epan

274

64

ETa

(4)
(ETpan - T) = 0.35 + 0.42i + 0.23j
(ETpan - RS) = 0.67 + 0.29i + 0.04j
=
0.35
+
0.52i
+
0.13j
=
0.17
+
0.65i
+
0.19j
(ETa - T)
(ETa - RS)
(5) Epan
Epan
ETa ETa

(5)
(ETpan - RH) = 0.23 + 0.42i + 0.35j (ETpan - P) = 0.21 + 0.46i + 0.33j
=
0.38
+
0.52i
+
0.10j
=
0.46
+
0.48i
+
0.06j
(ETa - RH)
(ETa - P)
(6) Epan
ETa Epan

(ETpan - U) = 0.56 + 0.35i + 0.08j


(ETa - U) = 0.35 + 0.42i + 0.23j

(6)



Epan ETa ETa


2.3.3
(1) ( )

(-, EX-0.5s] (EX -0.5s,
EX +0.5s) [EX +0.5s, +) -1 0 1
18 15 15 12 23 13
(1 -1)
(0 *) 1956-2003
( 2) (1 -1) (-1 0)
(0 0) (1 1)
48 (0 -1) 1996
(-1 -1) 1999 2002

2 1956-2003
Tab. 2 The climatic patterns classified according to sunlight radiation and
precipitation

(2) ETa Epan (1-1) 1956 1958 1963 1967 1969 1971 1977 1991 2003
(10)
1962 1965 1966 1974 1980 1986

(1 *) (11)
(0 *) (-1 *) (0-1) 1996
1964 1972 1976 1979 1987 1988 1989 1990
ETa Epan F (00)
(01)
1957 1960 1968 1983 1992 1993
1.23 18.91*
(-1-1) 1999 2002
ETa 0.05 (-10) 1970 1978 1982 1984 1985 1994 1995 1998 2000
( ) (-11) 1959 1961 1973 1981 1975 1997 2001

275

3 ETa Epan
Tab. 3 The significance of difference of ET a and Epan in different climatic patterns

(1, *)
(0, *)
(-1, *)
(*, -1)
(*, 0)
(*, 1)



762.5
802.7
769.6
744.7
771.8
810.4


a
a
a
b
ab
a



1609.2
1503.6
1464.0
1646.2
1505.8
1474.0


a
b
b
a
b
b


(1, -1)
(1, 0)
(0, 0)
(0, 1)
(-1, 0)
(-1, 1)



744.7
789.1
782.3
829.9
750.8
793.7


a
a
a
a
a
a



1646.2
1553.6
1512.3
1491.8
1468.1
1458.6

 0.05
 



#$ a %&


a
b
bc
bc
c
c
!"

Epan Epan ( 3) (1 *) Epan


(0 *) (-1 *) Epan
Epan Epan
(* -1) (* 0) (* 1) ETa Epan F 2.61*
20.08* ETa Epan
3 (* -1) ETa (* 0) (* 1)
(* 1) ETa (* 0) (* -1) Epan (* 0) (*
1) (* 0) (* 1) Epan
ETa Epan
Epan
(1 -1) (1 0) (0 0) (0 1) (-1 0) (-1 1) ETa Epan
F 1.29 10.08* ETa Epan Epan
( 3) (1 -1) Epan (1 0)
Epan (0 0) (0 1) (0 0) (0 1) (-1 0) (-1
1) Epan Epan
Epan

3 3
6

ETa (0 *) (1 *) (-1 *)
ETa (0 1)
(1 0) (0 0) (-1 1) ETa (1 -1) (-1 0) ETa

ETa Epan

276

64

3.1


(1) 1956-2003 80 90

(2)




(3)




(4)



3.2

[2-10]
[8, 10]


[12]


50 [10]



(References)
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Comparison of Actual Evapotranspiration and Pan Evaporation


XIE Ping1, 2, CHEN Xiaohong2, WANG Zhaoli3, XIE Yiwen2
(1. Agricultural College of Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, Guangdong, China;
2. Department of Water Resources and Environment, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
3. School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China)

Abstract: Based on the climate and hydrological data of Dongjiang River Basin covering the
period 1956-2003, the changes of actual evapotranspiration and pan evaporation and their
relationship with climatic factors are analyzed to reveal the similarity and dissimilarity. The
results show that there is a decreasing trend in both actual evapotranspiration and pan
evaporation, with an insignificant decrease in the former while a significant decrease in the
latter. Both of the minimum values of evaporation occur in the 1990s. There is an uncertain
and weak negative correlation between actual evapotranspiration and pan evaporation. There is
an uncertain relationship between air temperature and actual evapotranspiration and pan
evaporation. Wind speed presents a positive correlation with pan evaporation, but an uncertain
correlation with actual evapotranspiration. The change of rainfall results in the opposite
changes with the two kinds of evapotranspiration, if one increases, the other one decreases.
Sunlight radiation causes the opposite changes in trendline analysis and set pair analysis.
Through climate patterns analysis, pan evaporation increases with radiation, and actual
evapotranspiration increases first and then decreases. The pan evaporation is much more
significant than the other climate patterns that the sunlight is more than normal, and the
precipitation is less than normal. The actual evapotranspiration is much more than other
climate patterns in climate patterns that the sunlight is at the medium level, and the
precipitation is more than normal.
Key words: actual evapotranspiration; pan evaporation; climate factors; Dongjiang River
Basin