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Accounting Information Systems, 12e (Romney/Steinbart) Chapter 22 Systems Design, Implementation, and Operation 1) Developing a general framework for

implementing user requirements and solving problems identified in the analysis phase occurs in which phase of the SDLC? A) conceptual systems design B) implementation and conversion C) operations and maintenance D) physical design Answer: A Page Ref: 641 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 2) Who is responsible for evaluating the design alternatives and selecting the one that best meets the organization's needs? A) design team B) implementation committee C) steering committee D) systems analysts Answer: C Page Ref: 641 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 3) Which of the following lists represent the sequence of elements in developing the conceptual design specifications? A) input, data storage, processing procedures and operations, and output B) input, output, data storage, and processing procedures and operations C) output, data storage, input, and processing procedures and operations D) processing procedures and operations, input, data storage, and output Answer: C Page Ref: 643 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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4) The project team wants to find the most efficient way to collect data in order to prepare a report on sales per store. Which element in design specifications will deal with the decision? A) data collection B) input C) output D) processing procedures Answer: B Page Ref: 643 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 5) One of the purposes of the ________ is to guide physical systems design activities. A) conceptual systems design report B) physical systems design report C) program design D) systems analysis report Answer: A Page Ref: 643 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 6) The decision about how often to produce a certain report is part of which conceptual design specification element? A) data storage B) input C) output D) processing procedures and operations Answer: C Page Ref: 643 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 7) Which of the following is not a reason for preparing the conceptual systems design report? A) It can be used to guide physical systems design activities. B) It communicates how management and user information needs will be met. C) It discusses the design alternatives that were not selected for the project. D) It helps the steering committee assess system feasibility. Answer: C Page Ref: 643 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic

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8) Which consideration below is not considered important to output design? A) format B) location C) medium D) source Answer: D Page Ref: 643 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 9) All of the following reports have pre-specified content and format except A) demand reports. B) scheduled reports. C) special-purpose analysis reports. D) triggered exception reports. Answer: C Page Ref: 644 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 10) For file and database design, it is advantageous to have A) all data in compatible format. B) easy access to the system. C) a printout of the data dictionary. D) copies of necessary reports. Answer: A Page Ref: 644 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 11) Physical input design considerations include A) which transactions to enter. B) layout of source documents. C) types of data input and optimal input methods. D) cost of collecting and storing data. Answer: C Page Ref: 645 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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12) Program design A) spans all five stages of the system development life cycle. B) includes writing computer code. C) includes debugging logic errors. D) is described by all the above. Answer: D Page Ref: 645-646 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 13) Which of the following statements below is correct about modules of computer code created during program design? A) Modules interact with each other directly and also through the control module. B) Modules interact with each other directly. C) Modules interact with only the control module. D) Modules primarily, but not always, interact with the control module. Answer: C Page Ref: 646 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 14) Which of the following statements is true? A) Structured programming divides programs into well-defined segments to reduce complexity. B) Structured programming is used to debug logic errors in programs. C) Structured programming is accomplished by using a flowchart to guide design. D) Structured programming pieces together standard code strings into a completed program. Answer: A Page Ref: 646 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 15) Which of the following is not a consideration in procedures and controls design? A) Are customer data stored in alphabetical order in a master file? B) Are payments made only to legitimate vendors? C) Are data processed and stored accurately? D) Can the system be modified without affecting system availability? Answer: A Page Ref: 648 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Difficult AACSB: Analytic

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16) The accountant wants to make sure that all cash disbursements are made only to legitimate vendors. Which of the following control considerations will deal with this concern? A) security B) accuracy C) authorization D) validity Answer: D Page Ref: 648 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 17) The sales department wants to make sure that all customer inquiries are answered in real-time. Which of the following controls design considerations will deal with this concern? A) security B) authorization C) accuracy D) audit trail Answer: D Page Ref: 648 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 18) At what point in the systems development life cycle does the company determine how the conceptual AIS design is to be implemented? A) the conceptual design phase B) the implementation and conversion phase C) the physical design phase D) the systems analysis phase Answer: C Page Ref: 648 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 19) What is the most time-consuming activity in the physical design stage of the systems development life cycle (SDLC), or perhaps even in the entire SDLC process? A) controls design B) input design C) output design D) program design Answer: D Page Ref: 645 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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20) Which of the following is a consideration during file and database design? A) form size B) format C) medium D) organization Answer: C Page Ref: 645 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 21) ________ is the process of installing hardware and software and getting the AIS up and running. A) Conceptual design B) Physical design C) Systems analysis D) Systems implementation Answer: D Page Ref: 648 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 22) The first step in program design is to A) determine user needs. B) develop a plan. C) hire program users. D) write program instructions. Answer: A Page Ref: 646 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 23) Flowcharts, record layouts, decision tables, and related items are part of A) determining user needs. B) documenting the program. C) testing the program. D) training program users. Answer: B Page Ref: 647 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic

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24) Effective AIS training involves A) instruction on new hardware and software. B) orientation to new policies and operations. C) planning and scheduling so it occurs before system testing and conversion. D) All of the above are correct. Answer: D Page Ref: 649 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 25) Step-by-step reviews of procedures or program logic early in the system design that focus on inputs, files, outputs, and data flows are called A) acceptance tests. B) operating tests. C) processing of test transactions. D) walk-throughs. Answer: D Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 26) One process used to uncover and eliminate program errors is known as A) black box testing. B) debugging. C) desk checking. D) white box testing. Answer: B Page Ref: 646 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 27) What is used as the basis for management to make a "go/no go" decision regarding whether to proceed from the physical design phase to the implementation and conversion phase of the systems development life cycle? A) conceptual system design report B) physical systems design report C) systems design report D) implementation planning design report Answer: B Page Ref: 648 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic

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28) Who is responsible for identifying such risk factors in an implementation plan? A) implementation team B) steering committee C) systems analysis team D) systems development team Answer: A Page Ref: 648 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 29) Within the implementation planning and conversion phase of the systems development life cycle, analysts must ________ before they can ________. A) complete documentation; test software programs B) install and test software; test software programs C) test software programs; test the system D) test the system; select and train personnel Answer: C Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 30) In which phase of the systems development life cycle would changing tax rates in a software program be accomplished? A) maintenance B) operations C) program design D) implementation Answer: A Page Ref: 652 Objective: Learning Objective 4 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 31) Several types of documentation must be prepared for a new system. The type of documentation that includes the files and databases accessed and file retention requirements is called A) development documentation. B) operations documentation. C) reference documentation. D) user documentation. Answer: B Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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32) What type of system test determines whether a program is operating as designed? A) acceptance test B) debugging C) process test data D) walk-through Answer: C Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 33) What type of system test uses copies of real transaction and file records? A) acceptance test B) debugging C) process test data D) walk-through Answer: A Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 34) In what type of conversion are old and new systems operated simultaneously for a period of time? A) direct conversion B) parallel conversion C) phase-in conversion D) pilot conversion Answer: B Page Ref: 651 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 35) Implementing a new system at a branch location before company-wide adoption is called A) direct conversion. B) parallel conversion. C) phase-in conversion. D) pilot conversion. Answer: D Page Ref: 652 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic

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36) Which of the following activities is not part of data conversion? A) changing data content B) moving file servers C) changing file formats D) moving files to a new storage medium Answer: B Page Ref: 652 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 37) What type of conversion terminates the old system as soon as the new system is ready? A) direct conversion B) parallel conversion C) phase-in conversion D) pilot conversion Answer: A Page Ref: 651 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 38) Which of the following describes a phase-in conversion? A) Both the old and new AIS are operated simultaneously. B) Elements of the old AIS are replaced gradually with elements of the new AIS. C) The new AIS is introduced into a segment, rather than the whole organization. D) The old AIS is terminated as the new AIS is introduced. Answer: B Page Ref: 652 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 39) Which of the following is the final step in the data conversion process? A) data conversion B) testing the system C) documentation of conversion activities D) monitoring of the system after data conversion Answer: C Page Ref: 652 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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40) Which factor is not investigated during the post-implementation review? A) accuracy B) benefits C) completion D) costs Answer: C Page Ref: 652 Objective: Learning Objective 4 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 41) Which of the following is the final activity in the systems development life cycle? A) monitoring of the system B) ongoing maintenance activities C) preparation of the post-implementation review report D) user acceptance of the post-implementation review report Answer: D Page Ref: 653 Objective: Learning Objective 4 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 42) An analyst who asks the question, "Does the system produce actual and complete data?" is investigating what postimplementation factor? A) accuracy B) compatibility C) goals and objectives D) reliability Answer: A Page Ref: 652 Objective: Learning Objective 4 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 43) Which of the following is not one of the ways data may need to be modified during data conversion? A) Resolve data inconsistencies B) Validate new files C) Identify files to be converted D) Remove unnecessary fields from data files Answer: D Page Ref: 652 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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44) Walk-throughs are system tests that involve A) managers observing the operation of the system by "walking through" the IT department. B) processing hypothetical data that are designed to identify errors in the system. C) processing copies of real transactions in order to determine whether or not the system meets requirements. D) a thorough review of the procedures and program logic of the system. Answer: D Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 45) Acceptance tests involve A) managers observing the operation of the system by "walking through" the IT department. B) processing hypothetical data that are designed to identify errors in the system. C) processing copies of real transactions in order to determine whether or not the system meets requirements. D) a thorough review of the procedures and program logic of the system. Answer: C Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 46) Processing test data involves A) managers observing the operation of the system by "walking through" the IT department. B) processing hypothetical data that are designed to identify errors in the system. C) processing copies of real transactions in order to determine whether or not the system meets requirements. D) a thorough review of the procedures and program logic of the system. Answer: B Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 47) Which of the following is not one of the types of documentation that should be prepared for a new system? A) Management B) Operations C) User D) Development Answer: A Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic

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48) Subdividing program code into small, well-defined modules is A) called debugging. B) known as structured programming. C) part of program maintenance. D) done during testing. Answer: B Page Ref: 646 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 49) Performing revisions to existing program code is an example of A) debugging. B) structured programming. C) program maintenance. D) walk through. Answer: C Page Ref: 647 Objective: Learning Objective 4 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 50) Chuck in ITS got a call from Phil in Marketing. "Chuck, you know that inventory report I had you guys prepare for me last year? Well, I need you to run it again and send it over in hard copy. Thanks." This is an example of a A) scheduled report. B) special-purpose analysis report. C) triggered exception report. D) demand report. Answer: D Page Ref: 644 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 51) Phil in Marketing got a call from Chuck in ITS. "Phil, the system just generated a stock-out report. I wanted to give you a heads up. I'm sending it right over." This is an example of a A) scheduled report. B) special-purpose analysis report. C) triggered exception report. D) demand report. Answer: C Page Ref: 644 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic

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52) Chuck in ITS got a call from Phil in Marketing. "Chuck, I need you to do something for me. Query sales data for the first quarter and pull out all of the invoices that include the snow blower discount. I need a count and the total amount of the discount. Thanks." This is an example of a A) scheduled report. B) special-purpose analysis report. C) triggered exception report. D) demand report. Answer: B Page Ref: 644 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 53) Phil in Marketing got a call from Fred at regional headquarters. "Phil, I just got the quarterly sales report for your district. You beat your quota again, you son of a gun!" This is an example of a A) scheduled report. B) special-purpose analysis report. C) triggered exception report. D) demand report. Answer: A Page Ref: 644 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 54) Which of the following is the most costly and least risky method of converting from one system to another? A) Direct B) Parallel C) Pilot D) Phase-in Answer: B Page Ref: 651 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 55) Which of the following is the least costly and most risky method of converting from one system to another? A) Direct B) Parallel C) Pilot D) Phase-in Answer: A Page Ref: 651 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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56) How can accountants help in the systems development life cycle (SDLC) process? Answer: Accountants must first understand the development process, and then realize that they can make a valuable contribution to the development process in several ways. As users, accountants can specify their needs and help explain such needs to the development team. As members of the development team, they can provide valuable input throughout the design and development process. As auditors, they can perform attest functions with a greater working knowledge and enhanced skill sets. Accountants should keep the project on track by evaluating and measuring benefits, monitoring costs, and helping to maintain the timetable. Page Ref: 582, 583, 647 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Reflective Thinking 57) What factors does a steering committee consider when evaluating different system designs? Answer: How well does the design meet organizational and systems objectives? How well does the design meet users' needs? How economically feasible is the design in terms of costs versus benefit? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the design? Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? Page Ref: 641-643 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 58) What are the purposes of a conceptual systems design report? Answer: The purposes of this report are to a) guide physical systems design activities, b) communicate how management and user information needs will be met, and c) help the steering committee assess system feasibility. Page Ref: 643 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 59) Describe at least four considerations during controls design. Answer: Controls design ensures the effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy of the AIS. The important concerns to be addressed are: validity of transactions authorization of input, storage, and output activities accuracy of input and processing activities security access to system numerical control pre-numbering and accounting of all documents audit trail - tracing of transactions from source documents to final output and vice versa availability of the system when needed maintainability so the system can be modified without affecting availability or security integrity Page Ref: 648 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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60) What is systems implementation? How do you plan for it? Answer: Systems implementation is the process of installing hardware and software and getting the AIS in place and in use. Systems planning consists of: Implementation tasks and person(s) responsible for tasks. Setting expected completion dates. Cost estimates and variances. Identify risk factors that decrease likelihood of successful implementation. Strategies for coping with risk factors. Page Ref: 648 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 61) Describe the different types of documentation that should be prepared for a new system. Answer: Development documentation includes system description; copies of output, input and file and database layouts; program flowcharts; test results; and user acceptance forms. Operations documentation includes operating schedules; files and databases accessed; and equipment, security and file retention requirements. User documentation includes procedures manuals and training materials. Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 62) Describe the different methods of testing a system. Answer: Walkthroughs, which involve systematic reviews of procedures or program logic at different phases during the SDLC. In the early stages of the design process, the focus is inputs, outputs, and files. In the later stages, the focus is on program logic and structure. Processing test transactions to determine whether a program operates as designed. Different types of hypothetical transactions are processed to see if the controls catch various types of errors. Acceptance tests, which use real transactions and file records. Users develop the acceptance criteria and make the final acceptance or rejection decision. Page Ref: 650 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Easy AACSB: Analytic 63) Describe the post-implementation review activity. Answer: A post-implementation review ensures that the new AIS meets planned objectives. Any problems uncovered during the review are brought to the attention of the management and the necessary adjustments are made. When review is complete, prepare a report. The acceptance of the postimplementation review report by users concludes the systems development process. Control of the AIS now passes on to the data processing department. Page Ref: 653 Objective: Learning Objective 4 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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64) What output design considerations should be analyzed as part of the physical system design phase? Answer: Two things must be considered regarding system output. First, who will use the output? Why do users need this type of output, and what decisions will be made based on such output? Second, the medium of the output must be addressed. What medium should be used? Should the output be on paper, computer screen, stored as a voice response file, placed on diskette, microfilm, or some possible combinations of these mediums? These are two important considerations that can either "make or break" a system in terms of its successful use. Other considerations are: What format (table, graph, etc)? Should preprinted forms be used? Where should the output be sent? Who should have access to the output? How often should the output be produced? Lengthy output should be preceded by an executive summary and a table of contents. Page Ref: 644 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 65) Describe structured programming. Answer: Structured programming refers to programs that are subdivided into small, well-defined modules with the goal of reducing complexity and enhancing reliability and modifiability. Each module should interact with a control module rather than with each other. Proper structured programming dictates that each module should have only one entry and exit point to facilitate testing and modification. Page Ref: 646 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 66) Describe the conceptual systems design phase and identify the elements of conceptual design specifications? Answer: The conceptual systems design phase involves the development of the general framework for implementing user requirements and solving problems identified in the analysis phase. Conceptual design elements include the following elements: Output specifications to meet users' information needs. Data storage specifications based on reports that need to be produced, the manner in which data are stored (sequential, random, etc.), the type of database to use, and appropriate field sizes. Input specification after output is identified so that the "when, where, and how" of data input are appropriate for the types of output needed. Processing procedures and operations specifications are determined after the sequencing and processes for input and data storage are known. Page Ref: 641 Objective: Learning Objective 1 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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67) What is the objective of output design? What are the output design considerations? What are the various categories of outputs? Answer: Output design: The objective is to determine the nature, format, content, and timing of printed reports, documents, and screen displays. Design considerations: Use who will use, why is it needed, what is needed for use. Medium paper, screen, diskette. Format tables, graphs, narratives. Preprinted e.g., purchase orders, checks. Location where sent. Access by whom and to what. Detail summary, table of contents, headings. Timeliness how often. Categories of output are: Scheduled reports are prespecified and formatted and prepared regularly. Special-purpose analyses are not prespecified or formatted, but are prepared when management requests data to evaluate an issue. Triggered exception reports are prespecified and formatted and prepared in event of abnormal conditions. Demand reports are prespecified and formatted and prepared when requested. Page Ref: 644 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic 68) Describe the approaches to system conversion. Answer: Direct conversion is used when the old system is of no value or is not comparable to the new system. This type of conversion carries a high risk of failure. Parallel conversion protects the company from error, but it is costly and stressful to process transactions twice. Phase-in conversion results in gradual changes over time that also allows resources to be acquired over time. However, creating temporary interfaces is costly and gradual changes take time and come at greater expense. Pilot conversion implements the system in just one part of the organization that allows problems to be corrected before the system is completely adopted. However, the costs of interfaces and running both systems are a disadvantage. Page Ref: 651-652 Objective: Learning Objective 3 Difficulty : Moderate AACSB: Analytic

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69) Write one question that should be asked about each of the controls design considerations. Answer: There are several controls design considerations to be addressed in this phase of the SDLC. Validity, authorization, accuracy, access, numerical control, and providing an audit trail are the major items, which must be taken into account in physical design. Validity would address a question such as, "Are all system interactions valid?" Authorization could be examined by asking, "Are input, processing, storage, and output activities authorized by the appropriate managers?" Accuracy can be analyzed by asking, "Is input verified to ensure accuracy and what controls are in place to ensure that data passed between processing activities is not lost?" When dealing with access issues, the analyst should ask if there is adequate control over accessing data, and ask the important question, "How is a hacker denied access to a data file?" Asking the question, "Are documents pre-numbered to prevent errors or intentional abuse?" can provide insight about numerical controls. Finally, to provide appropriate audit trails, the analyst should ask the question, "Can transaction data be traced from source documents to final output, and vice versa?" It is imperative that controls design be properly implemented in this phase of the SDLC to ensure the success of launching the system and its ongoing use. Also, availability and integrity. Page Ref: 648 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Difficult AACSB: Reflective Thinking 70) Describe the eight basic steps in program design. Answer: Generally speaking, developers use an eight-step method to develop and test software programs. As part of the systems implementation phase of the SDLC, it is important that these steps faithfully are followed by the development team. 1) The team should consult with users and write an agreement about software requirements as a way to determine user needs. 2) Next, a development plan should be created and documented. 3) The overall approach and major processing tasks should be identified on a high level before proceeding to levels of greater detail. At that point the activity of writing program instructions can begin. 4) After program code has been written, the next step is to test the program. This can be achieved in part through debugging and desk checking, along with other types of testing. 5) The next thing to be done is to document the program, since this will explain how the program works and assist analysts in correcting and resolving errors. 6) Training program users is the beginning of the end of the test phase. Program documentation developed in step five will be used at this time. 7) The seventh step is to install and use the system. At this point the program can be used and program maintenance can take place as needed. 8) Use and modify the system. Revise existing programs (called program maintenance). Page Ref: 645-646 Objective: Learning Objective 2 Difficulty : Difficult AACSB: Analytic

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