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Chapter #11: Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic Big Picture Themes 1.

. Jeffersons election was considered a revolution because he represented the common people for the first time. 2. Troubles in North Africa and between England and France emerged. Jeffersons actions were sluggish. 3. Trying to again avoid war with England or France, Jefferson bumbled around with an embargo. His theory was that the only way to avoid war was to stop interaction between U.S. ships and Europe. The overall effect was to kill U.S. trade and enrage the merchants and businessmen up North. 4. The Louisiana Purchase came as a complete surprise and quickly doubled the size of the U.S. 5. James Madison picked up where Jefferson left off with the embargo in trying to avoid war. But, young western Congressmen wanted war to possibly gain new land, to squelch Indian troubles, and defend the free seas. They declared the War of 1812 with England. IDENTIFICATIONS: Marbury v. Madison Marbury v. Madison case took place when William Marbury, appointed by President Adams during his dying presidency to be a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia, sued James Madison for preventing him from getting into office. It ultimately allowed John Marshall to establish Judicial Review, which allowed Judicial branch to have a final say in whether the law is constitutional or not. Henry Clay Henry Clay advocated nationalism and is majorly known for the American System. He proposed a strong banking system, which would provide easy and abundant credit, and asked for a protective tariff, and urged for a network of roads and canals, especially in the burgeoning Ohio Valley. Essex Junto Essex Junto is a faction or a group of people with a political purpose or agenda. It got its name from being located in Essex County, Massachusetts. They became a radical group when Alexander Hamilton refused to go along with their plan to have New England states secede from the union and supported Aaron Burr instead. Burr Conspiracy Burr Conspiracy was when Aaron Burr, Jeffersons first-term vice president, secreted joined with a group of Federalist extremists to plot the secession of New England and New York. When his plan was revealed by Alexander Hamilton, Burr killed Hamilton in a duel. He fled to trans-Mississippi West and plotted with General James Wilkinson to separate the western part

of the US from the East. However, Burr was betrayed and was tried for treason. Acquitted by Marshall, he fled to Europe where he urged Napoleon to make peace with Britain to invade America.

Impressment Impressment was a forcible enlistment of American sailors by England. Some six thousand bona fide U.S. citizens were impressed by the piratical man stealers of Britain from 1808 to 1811. The impressed people were killed in His Majestys service.

Chesapeake/Leopard Incident Chesapeake/Leopard Incident occurred in 1807 when British frigate overhauled a U.S. frigate named Chesapeake.The British captain bluntly demanded the surrender of four alleged deserters. Though unprepared to fight, the American commander refused the request. The British warship thereupon fired three devastating broadsides at close range, killing three Americans and wounding eighteen. Non-intercourse Act Non-intercourse Act of 1809 was a replacement for the Embargo Act. This measure formally reopened trade with all the nations of the world, except the two most important, Britain and France. It continued to be the policy of the Jeffersonian from 1809 to 1812 until the war of 1812. Macons Bill No. 2 Macons Bill No.2 was a bargaining measure by the Congress that reopened American trade with all the world. It stated that if either Britain or France repealed its commercial restrictions, America would restore its embargo against the nonrepealing nation.

William Henry Harrison and the Battle of Tippecanoe William Henry Harrison was a governor of Indiana Territory who gathered an army and advanced on Tecumsehs headquarters at the junction of the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers. The Prophet attacked Harrisons army and lost. The Battle of Tippecanoe made Harrison a national hero and discredited the Prophet and drove Tecumseh into an alliance with the British. War Hawks War Hawks were young hotheads from the South and West that wanted war with Britain. They detested the manhandling of American sailors and the British Orders in Council that dammed the flow of American trade. Western war hawks also yearned to wipe out a renewed Indian threat to the pioneer settlers who were streaming into the trans-Allegheny wilderness.

Battle of Horseshoe bend Battle of Horseshoe bend was a battle where Andrew Jackson crushed the Southern Indians

Hartford Convention Hartford Convention was a convention issued on by Massachusetts to discuss ther grievances and to seek redress for Britains wrongs. However as the rest of the nation congratulated itself on a glorious victory, New Englands wartime complaints seemed petty at best and treasonous at worst. Treaty of Ghent Treaty of Ghent, signed on Christmas Eve in 1814, was essentially an armistice. Both America and Britain simply agreed to stop fighting and to restore conquered territory. Treaty of Greenville 1795 The treaty that resulted from the Battle of Fallen Timbers, fought against Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy. Abandoned by the British, the Native American Indians soon offered General Anthony Wayne a peace treaty after they were greatly defeated. The treaty made the confederacy give up vast tracts of the Old Northwest, but also gave them a payment of $20,000,an annual annuity of $9,000 the right to hunt on the lands they had ceded, and the recognition of their sovereign status. Battle of New Orleans Battle of New Orleans was fought by Andrew Jackson and British army on January 8, 1815. British army made major blunders causing American troops to win. Battler of New Orleans restored the honor and unleashed a wave of nationalism and self-confidence. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Federalist and Republican Mudslingers Know: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Whispering Campaign 1. What political liabilities existed for Adams and for Jefferson in 1800? For Adams, the Alien and Sedition Acts aroused a host of enemies. Hamiltonian wing of the Federalist Party split openly with President Adams. Also, Adams refused to fight France even after taxing people for the raising of army. Jefferson became the victim of mudslinging. Federalists accused Jefferson of having fathered numerous mulatto children. The Jeffersonian "Revolution of 1800" Know: Aaron Burr 2. Was the 1800 election more or less important than the 1796 election? Explain. Jefferson claimed that 1800 election was more important than the 1796 election, because his election represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. In his eyes, Hamilton and Adams had betrayed the ideals of 1776 and 1787. Jeffersons goal was to restore the republican experiment, to check the growth of government power, and to half the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.

3.

If the Federalists had power for such a short time, were they really that important? Explain.

Yes, the Federalists were important even though they had power for such a short time. Although their reign was quick, many Federalist ideas, such as building a national bank, were useful to the development of America. Responsibility Breeds Moderation Know: Pell-mell 4. How revolutionary was the "Revolution of 1800?" Jefferson was forced to change many of the political principles he had so vigorously championed. Although he was inconsistent, his Democratic Republicans and the eviction of the Federalists marked the first party overturn in American history. It was a peaceful change of government that did not involve violence. Jeffersonian Restraint Know: Albert Gallatin 5. "As president, Thomas Jefferson acted more like a Federalist than like a Democratic Republican." Assess. Although Jefferson was a Democratic Republican, he realized that Federalist ideas were somewhat useful. Except the excise tax, he kept almost all Federalist ideas, including funding at par, assuming War debts, construction of Banks, and embracing protective Federalist tariff. In later years, he embraced Federalism to such a degree as to recharter a bigger bank and to boost the protective tariff to higher levels. The "Dead Clutch" of the Judiciary Know: Judiciary Act of 1801, Midnight Judges, John Marshall, Marbury v. Madison, Samuel Chase 6 What was the main purpose of John Marshall as Chief Justice? How can this be seen in the Marbury v. Madison decision? John Marshalls goal was to spread out his Federalist ideas during Jeffersons presidency. In the Marbury v. Madison case, John Marshall established a principle of Judicial Review, which allowed Judicial branch to have a final say in whether the law is constitutional or not. It reassured victory for the independence of the judiciary and for the separation of powers among the three branches. Jefferson, a Reluctant Warrior Know: Barbary States, Shores of Tripoli, Gunboats 7. How did Jefferson deal with the extortion of the Barbary States? War across the Atlantic was not part of the Jeffersonian vision, but neither was paying tribute to a pack of pirate states. The pasha of Tripoli declared war against the United States, because of his small share of protection money. After 4 years of intermittent fighting, Jefferson succeeded in extorting peace treaty from Tripoli in 1805.

The Louisiana Godsend Know: New Orleans, Deposit Privileges, James Monroe and Robert Livingston, Napoleon, Toussaint L'Ouverture 8. Explain two ways that history may have been different if the French had not sold Louisiana to the United States. If Napoleon did not sell Louisiana, United States would have allied with Britain thus leading to another war. Another possibility can be Britain seizing the Louisiana territory with their dominant naval force. Louisiana in the Long View Know: Lewis and Clark, Sacajawea, Zebulun Pike 9. What positive consequences resulted from the Louisiana Purchase? From the Louisiana Purchase, American secured at one bloodless stroke the western half of the richest river valley in the world and further laid the foundations of a future major power. The purchase also contributed to making operational the isolationist principles of Washingtons Farewell Address. By removing virtually the last remnant of significant European power from the North American continent, the United States was not at liberty to disengage almost entirely from the ancient system of Old World rivalries. America: A Nutcracked Neutral Know: Orders in Council, Impressment, Chesapeake 10. In what way did the struggle between France and Britain affect the United States? Britain issued a series of Orders in Council which closed the European ports under French control of foreign shipping, including American. Napoleon struck back, seizing the ships, including American ships. Men hungry Britain exercised impressments of American sailors and forced them to serve under British navy. American refusal to British impressments led to the violence of Chesapeake/Leopard incident. The Hated Embargo Know: Embargo Act, Non-Intercourse Act 11. Who opposed the embargo and why? Citizens opposed the embargo, because it stopped all commerce and trade that citizens depended on for their well-being. This aroused almost dead Federalists. Madisons Gamble Know: James Madison, Macon's Bill No. 2 12. How did Napoleon take advantage of American policy? Macons Bill no.2 stated that if either Britain or France repealed its commercial restrictions, America would restore its embargo against the nonrepealing nation. Napoleon saw his chance. Napoleon declared that he hoped to maneuver the United States into resuming its embargo against the British. President Madison knew better to trust Napoleon, but he gambled anyways. The plan

failed as naval dominant British did not compromise. This forced American embargo against Britain, which was a primary reason for the war of 1812. Tecumseh and the Prophet Know: War Hawks, Henry Clay, Tecumseh, The Prophet, William Henry Harrison 13. What considerations motivated the war hawks to call for war with Great Britain? The war hawks detested the manhandling of American sailors and the British Orders in Council that dammed the flow of American trade, especially western farm products headed for Europe. Western war hawks also yearned to wipe out a renewed Indian threat to the pioneer settlers who were streaming into the trans-Allegheny wilderness. "Mr. Madison's War" Know: War of 1812 14. How and why did New England Federalists oppose the War of 1812? Pro-British Federalists in the Northeast sympathized with Britain and resented the Republicans sympathy with Napoleon, whom they regarded as the Corsican butcher and the anti-Christ of the age. The Federalists also opposed the acquisition of Canada, which would merely add more agrarian states from the wild Northwest. This in turn, would increase the voting strength of the Jeffersonian Republicans.