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FUNDAMENTAL OF MAIN TURBINE ( 500 MW KWU,GERMANY DESIGN ) MANUFACTURED AT BHEL,HARIDWAR

MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT TURBINE MAINTENANCE

TURBINE SYSTEM

1
HPT

2
IPT

3
LPT

4 5
GENERATOR

EXCITER

THREE STAGE TURBINE : HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE (HPT) INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE TURBINE (IPT) LOW PRESSURE TURBINE (LPT)

CONDENSER

SEVEN NOS JOURNAL BEARINGS BEARING N0. 2 THRUST CUM JOURNAL BEARING FOUR NOS RIGID COUPLINGS BETWEEN HP-IP TURBINE IP-LP TURBINE LP-GENERATOR GENERATOR - EXCITER

HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE


SINGLE STEAM FLOW OF TWO SHELL (CASING) DESIGN
OUTER CASING IS OF BARREL TYPE AND HAS NEITHER ON AXIAL OR RADIAL FLANGE. DUE TO THE PERFECT SYMMETRIC DESIGN OF THE OUTER CASING AND UNIFORM WALL THICKNESS AT ALL SECTIONS, PREVENTS MASS CONCENTRATIONS WHICH WOULD CAUSED HIHG THERMAL STRESSES AND REMAINS LEAK PROOF DURING QUICK CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE DURING START UP AND SHUT DOWN. THE INNER CASING IS AXIALLY SPLIT IS ALMOST CYLINDRICAL IN SHAPE AS THE JOINTS FLANGES ARE RELIEVED BY HIGHER PRESSURE ACTING FROM THE OUT SIDE. CASING IS MADE OF CREEP RESISTING CHROMIUM-MOLYBDENUM-VANADUIUM (Cr-MoV) STEEL CASTING. THE TURBINE HAS 2 MAIN STOP VALVES (ESV) AND 2 CONTROL VALVES (CV)LOCATED SYMMETRICALLY TO THE RIGHT AND LEFT OF THE CASING. THE VALVES ARE ARRANGED IN PAIRS WITH ONE STOP VALVE AND ONE CONTROL VALVE IN A COMMON BODY. EACH ESV AND CV HAS A DEDICATED HYDRAULIC SERVOMOTOR. THE STEAM LINES FROM ESV & CV ARE CONNECTED TO THE INLET CONNECTIONS OF THE OUTER CASING BY BREECH NUTS.

THE EXHAUST END OF HPT HAS A SINGLE OUT LET CONNECTION FROM BOTTOM.

INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE (IP) TURBINE


THE IP TURBINE IS OF DOUBLE FLOW CONSTRUCTION WITH TWO NOS
HORIZONTALLY SPLIT CASINGS ( INNER & OUTER CASING). THE HOT REHEATED (HRH) STEAM INTERS THE INNER CASING AT THE MID SECTION FROM TOP AND BOTTOM AND EXPENDS IN OPPOSITE SIDE IN TWO BLADE SECTIONS AND COMPENSATE AXIAL THRUST. THE INNER CASING CARRIES THE STATIONARY BLADING. THE IP STOP AND CONTROL VALVES 2 NOS ARE SUPPORTED ON THE FOUNDATION COVER PLATE BELOW EL 17.00 M FLOOR IN FRONT OF TURBINE GEN UNIT. CASING IS MADE OF CREEP RESISTING CHROMIUM-MOLYBDENUM-VANADUIUM (Cr-Mo-V) STEEL CASTING. THE SHAFT IS MADE OF HIGH CREEP RESISTANCE Cr-Mo-V STEEL FORGING.

LOW PRESSURE (LP) TURBINE


LP TURBINE CASING CONSISTS OF DOUBLE FLOW UNIT AND HAS A TRIPLE SHELL WELDED CASING. THE OUTER CASING CONSISTS OF FRONT AND REAR WALLS, TWO LATERAL LONGITUDINAL SUPPORT BEAMS AND THE UPPER DOME AND CONNECTED TO CONDENSER BY WELDING.

THE INNER-INNER & INNER-OUTER CASING CARRIES THE TURBINE GUIDE BLADES AND DIFFUSER.
STEAM ADMITTED TO THE LP TURBINE INNER CASING FROM IP TURBINE FROM BOTH LEFT AND RIGHT SIDE HORIZONTALLY. EXPANSION JOINTS ARE INSTALLED IN THE STEAM PIPING TO PREVENT ANY UNDESIRABLE DEFORMATION OF THE CASINGS DUE TO THERMAL EXPANSION OF THE STEAM PIPING.

TURBINE BLADING
HP TURBINE MOVING AND STATIONARY BLADES :
1. 2. 3. HP TURBINE BLADING CONSISTS OF 17 REACTION STAGES WITH 50 % REACTION. BLADES ARE HAVING THREE MAIN PARTS : AEROFOIL : IT IS THE WORKING PART OF THE BLADE WHERE STEAM EXPANSION TAKES PLACE. ROOT : TI IS THE PORTION OF THE BLADE WHICH IS HELD WITH ROTOR OR CASING SHROUDS : END PORTION OF BLADES ARE HELD TOGETHER THE STATIONARY AND MOVING BLADES OF ALL STAGES ARE PROVIDED WITH INVERTED T-ROOTS. ALL THESE BLADES ARE PROVIDED WITH INTEGRAL SHROUDS WHICH AFTER INSTALLATION FORM A CONTINUOUS SHROUD. THE MOVING AND STATIONARY BLADES ARE INSERTED INTO THE CORRESPONDING GROOVES IN THE SHAFT AND INNER CASING. THE INSERTION SLOT IN THE SHAFT IS CLOSED BY A LOCKING BLADE WHICH IS FIXED BY GRUB SCREWS. SEALING STRIPS ARE CAULKED INTO THE INNER CASING AND THE SHAFT TO REDUCE LEAKAGES LOSSES AT THE BLADE TIPS.

TURBINE BLADING
IP TURBINE MOVING AND STATIONARY BLADES :
IP TURBINE BLADING CONSISTS OF 12 REACTION STAGES PER FLOW WITH 50 %

REACTION.

THE STATIONARY AND MOVING BLADES OF ALL STAGES ARE PROVIDED WITH INVERTED T-ROOTS. ALL THESE BLADES ARE PROVIDED WITH INTEGRAL SHROUDS WHICH AFTER INSTALLATION FORM A CONTINUOUS SHROUD. THE MOVING AND STATIONARY BLADES ARE INSERTED INTO THE CORRESPONDING GROOVES IN THE SHAFT AND INNER CASING. THE INSERTION SLOT IN THE SHAFT IS CLOSED BY A LOCKING BLADE WHICH IS FIXED BY GRUB SCREWS.

SEALING STRIPS ARE CAULKED INTO THE INNER CASING AND THE SHAFT TO REDUCE LEAKAGES LOSSES AT THE BLADE TIPS.

TURBINE BLADING
LP TURBINE MOVING AND STATIONARY BLADES (FIRST 3 STAGES) :
LP TURBINE BLADING CONSISTS OF 12 REACTION STAGES PER FLOW WITH

50 % REACTION.

THE STATIONARY AND MOVING BLADES OF FIRST THREE STAGES ARE PROVIDED WITH INVERTED T-ROOTS. ALL THESE BLADES ARE PROVIDED WITH INTEGRAL SHROUDS WHICH AFTER INSTALLATION FORM A CONTINUOUS SHROUD. FIRST THREE GUIDE BLADES ARE MOUNTED ON INNER-INNER CASING. THE MOVING AND STATIONARY BLADES ARE INSERTED INTO THE CORRESPONDING GROOVES IN THE SHAFT AND INNER CASING. THE INSERTION SLOT IN THE SHAFT IS CLOSED BY A LOCKING BLADE WHICH IS FIXED BY GRUB SCREWS. SEALING STRIPS ARE CAULKED INTO THE INNER CASING AND THE SHAFT TO REDUCE LEAKAGES LOSSES AT THE BLADE TIPS.

TURBINE BLADING
LP TURBINE MOVING AND STATIONARY BLADES (LAST 3 STAGES) :
LAST THREE STAGES OF LP TURBINE ARE ALSO REACTION STAGES. EACH STAGE

IS MADE OF GUIDE AND MOVING BLADES.

THE LAST STATIONARY BLADES ARE MADE BY WELDING INNER RING, BLADES AND OUTER RING TOGETHER TO FORM GUIDE BLADE CARRIERS IN TWO HALVES AND ARE BOLTED TO INNER-OUTER CASING. THE STATIONARY BLADES OF 4TH AND 5TH STAGES ARE MADE OF CAST STEELS AND 6TH STAGE STATIONARY BLADE ARE MADE FROM STEEL SHEETS TO FORM HOLLOW BLADED. SUCTION SLIT ARE PROVIDED IN 6TH STAGE BLADES. THROUGH THESE SLITS WATER PARTICLE ON THE SURFACE OF THESE LAST STAGE GUIDE BLADES ARE DRAWN AWAY TO THE CONDENSER.

THE 4TH STAGE MOVING BLADE IS OF TAPERED TWISTED BLADES HAVING INTEGRAL SHROUDS WITH T-ROOT. THE LAST TWO STAGE MOVING BLADES ARE OF TWISTED DROP FORGED BANANA TYPE CONSTRUCTION HAVOING CURVED FIR-TREE ROOTS WHICH ARE INSERTED IN AXIAL GROOVES IN THE TURBINE SHAFT AND SECURED BY MEANS OF CLAMPING PIECES. LAST TWO STAGE MOVING BLADES ARE NOT HAVING ANY SHROUDS.

TURBINE SHAFT SEALS


HP TURBINE SHAFT SEALS : HP TURBINE HAS SHAFT SEALS IN FRONT AND REAR. FRONT SHAFT SEAL IS OF LABYRINTH TYPE WHILE REAR SHAFT SEAL IS SEE THROUGH TYPE. THE FUNCTION OF THESE SHAFT SEALS IS TO SEAL THE INTERIOR OF THE CASING FROM ATMOSPHERE AT THE END OF THE SHAFT ON THE ADMISSION AND EXHAUST SIDES. THE SEALING BETWEEN THE ROTATING AND STATIONARY PARTS OF THE TURBINE IS ACHIEVED BY MEANS OF SEAL STRIPS CAULKED INTO SEAL RINGS OF THE CASING AND INTO THE ROTOR.

THE PRESSURE GRADIENT ACROSS THE SEALS IS REDUCED BY CONVERSION OF PRESSURE ENERGY INTO VELOCITY ENERGY WHICH IS THEN DISSIPATED AS TURBULENCE AS STEAM PASSES THROUGH NUMEROUS COMPARTMENTS ACCORDING TO THE LABYRINTH PRINCIPLE.

TURBINE SHAFT SEALS


IP TURBINE SHAFT SEALS :
IP TURBINE HAS SHAFT SEALS IN FRONT AND REAR. FRONT SHAFT SEAL IS OF LABYRINTH TYPE DUE TO LOW RELATIVE EXPANSION WHILE REAR SHAFT SEAL IS SEE THROUGH TYPE DUE TO GREATER RELATIVE EXPANSION. THE FUNCTION OF THESE SHAFT SEALS IS TO SEAL THE INTERIOR OF THE CASING FROM ATMOSPHERE AT THE END OF THE SHAFT ON THE ADMISSION AND EXHAUST SIDES.

IN THE FRONT, SEAL STRIPS ARE CAULKED ALTERNATIVEY INTO THE SHAFT AND INTO THE SPRING SUPPORTED SEGMENTED RINGS IN THE CASING FORMING A LABYRINTH.
IN THE REAR SEE THROUGH SEALS ARE USED IN WHICH SEAL STRIPS ARE LOCATED OPPOSITE TO EACH EATHER CAULKED INTO THE SHAFT AND INTO SEAL RINGS CENTERED IN THE OUTER CASING

LP TURBINE SHAFT SEALS :


LP TURBINE HAS SHAFT SEALS IN FRONT AND REAR ARRANGED BETWEEN BEARING PEDESTAL AND THE LP TURBINE. BOTH FRONT & REAR SHAFT SEAL IS SEE THROUGH TYPE DUE TO GREATER RELATIVE EXPANSION.

TURBINE BEARING
HP ROTOR IS SUPPORTED ON TWO JOURNAL BEARINGS. JOURNAL BEARING AT THE FRONT AND COMBINED JOURNAL & THRUST BEARING AT THE REAR. IP AND LP ROTORS ARE HAVING JOURNAL BEARINGS EACH AT REAR END.

GENERATOR ROTOR IS SUPPORTED ON TWO JOURNAL BEARINGS AT EACH END.


EXCITER HAVING A JOURNAL BEARING AT REAR END. JOURNAL BEARINGS ARE MANUFACTURED IN TWO HALVES AND USUALLY CONSISTS BEARING BODY FACED WITH ANTI FRICTION TIN BASED BABBIT MATERIAL TO DECREASE THE COEFFICUIENT OF FRICTION. ALL THESE BEARINGS ARE LUBRICATED WITH FORCED LUBRICATION WITH SERVOPRIME 46 OIL AND HAVE A PROVISION OF FOR ADMISSION OF JACKING OIL

TURBINE BARRING GEAR


PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THE BARRING GEAR IS TO ROTATE THE TURBO-GENERATOR ROTOR SLOWLY AND CONTINUOUSLY AT 75-80 RPM DURING START UP AND SHUT DOWN WHEN CHANGES IN ROTOR TEMPERATURE OCCUR. WHEN TURBINE IS SHUT DOWN, COOLING OF ROTOR ELEMENTS ARE TAKES PLACE AT SLOW SPEED TO AVOID DISTORTION OF ROTOR. BARRING GEAR IS USED TO KEEP THE ROTOR REVOLVING UNTIL THE TEMPERATURE CHANGES HAS STOPPED AND ROTOR HAS BECOME COOL. DURING STARTING TURBO-GENERATOR ROTOR IS SLOWLY ROTATED TO HAVE A UNIFORM HEATING OF ROTOR. BARRING GEAR IS A HYDRAULIC OPERATED (LUB OIL) TURBINE MOUNTED ON THE SHAFT LOCATED IN THE FRONT BEARING PEDESTAL. HAND BARRING GEAR ALSO PROVIDED IN BEARING PEDESTAL NO.3 TO ROTATE THE SHAFT BY HAND DURING EMERGENCY WHEN HYDRAULIC OPERATED BARRING GEAR IS NOT AVAILABLE.

TURBINE FIXED POINTS


DESIGN OF SUPPORTS FOR THE TURBINE ON THE FOUNDATION HAS TO ALLOW FOR THE EXPANSION OF THE TURBINE DURING THERMAL CYCLING. THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS ARE THE FIXED POINTS FOR THE TURBINE : THE HP, IP, LP TURBINE BEARING PEDESTALS THE FRONT HORN SUPPORT OF HP AND IP TURBINE CASING. THE LONGITUDINAL BEAMS OF THE LP TURBINE. ROTOR AT THRUST BEARING IN BEARING PEDESTAL NO. 3

BEARING PEDESTALS
FRONT BEARING PEDESTAL :
THE FRONT BEARING PEDESTAL IS LOCATED AT THE TURBINE SIDE END OF THE TURBOGENERATOR UNIT. ITS FUNCTION IS TO GIVE SUPPORT HP TURBINE CASING AND BEAR THE TURBINE ROTOR. IT HOUSES THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS: JOURNAL BEARING NO.1 HYDRAULIC BARRING GEAR MAIN OIL PUMP WITH HYDRAULIC SPEED TRANSDUCER ELECTRICAL SPEED TRANSDUCER OVER SPEED TRIP DEVICE SHAFT AND BEARING VIBRATION PICK UP.

HP-IP BEARING PEDESTAL :


THE BEARING PEDESTAL IS LOCATED BETWEEN HP AND IP TURBINE. ITS FUNCTION IS TO SUPPORT THE HP AND IP TURBINE CASING AND BEAR THE HP & IP ROTOR. IT HOUSES THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS : COMBINED JOURNAL AND THRUST BEARING NO.2 SHAFT AND BEARING VIBRATION PICK UP THRUST BEARING SHIFT PROBES.

BEARING PEDESTALS
IP-LP BEARING PEDESTAL :
THE BEARING PEDESTAL IS LOCATED BETWEEN IP AND LP TURBINE. ITS FUNCTION IS TO SUPPORT THE IP AND LP TURBINE CASING AND BEAR THE IP & LP ROTOR. IT HOUSES THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS : JOURNAL BEARING NO.3 SHAFT AND BEARING VIBRATION PICK UP HAND BARRING GEAR.

LP-GEN BEARING PEDESTAL :


THE BEARING PEDESTAL IS LOCATED BETWEEN LP AND GENERATOR. ITS FUNCTION IS TO SUPPORT THE LP TURBINE CASING AND BEAR THE LP ROTOR. IT HOUSES THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS : JOURNAL BEARING NO.4 SHAFT AND BEARING VIBRATION PICK UP

CONDENSER
CONDENSER IS A SURFACE TYPE CONDENSER WITH TWO PASS ARRANGEMENT. COOLING WATER IS PUMPED INTO EACH OF CONDENSER PASS BY VERTICAL CW PUMPS THROUGH THE INLET PIPE. WATER ENTERS THE INLET CHAMBER OF FRONT WATER BOX AT THE BOTTOM PASSES HORIZONTALLY THROUGH THE TITANIUM TUBES TO THE WATER BOX AT THE OTHER END, TAKES A TURN PASSES THROUGH THE UPPER CLUSTER OF THE TUBES AND REACHES THE OUT LET CHAMBER AT THE TOP IN THE FRONT WATER BOX AND LEAVES THE CONDENSER THROUGH OUTLET PIPE.
STEAM EXHAUSTED FROM THE LP TURBINE WASHING THE OUTSIDE OF THE CONDENSER TUBES LOSSES ITS LATENT HEAT TO THE COOLING WATER AND CONVERTED INTO WATER IN THE STEAM SIDE OF THE CONDENSER. THIS CONDENSATE COLLECTS IN THE HOT WELL, WELDED TO THE BOTTOM OF THE CONDENSER.

CONDENSER DESIGN DATA :


COOLING WATER FLOW : 54300 M3/Hr.
COOLING WATER SURFACE AREA : 35603 M2 NO. OF COOLING TUBES : 24398 NOS ( CONDENSING ZONE:22688 NOS AND AIR COOLING ZONE :1710 NOS) TUBE MATERIAL : TITANIUM SB-338 GRADE-II MAIN TUBE PLATE : MS WITH TITANIUM CLADED. WATER BOX : MS WITH FRE LINING ( GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY LINING) OF 3MM THICKNESS.