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INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW
SECOND EDITION

Ronald L. Panton
Mechanical Engineering Department University of Texas Austin

A WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PUBLICATION

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.


New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto Singapore

CONTENTS

Preface Preface to the First Edition


1. Continuum Mechanics 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

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1 3 4 6 8 12 14 16 18 18 19 20 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 30 31 31 33 34 36 37 39
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The Continuum Assumption Fundamental Concepts, Definitions, and Laws Space and Time Density, Velocity, and Internal Energy The Interface between Phases Conclusions Problems

'hermlodynamics 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12
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Systems, Properties, and Processes The Independent Variables Temperature and Entropy Fundamental Equations of Thermodynamics Euler's Equation for Homogeneous Functions The Gibbs-Duhem Equation Intensive Forms of Basic Equations Dimensions of Temperature and Entropy Working Equations The Ideal Gas The Incompressible Substance Conclusion Problems

3.

ector' Calculus and Index Notation

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Index Notation Rules Definition of Vectors and Tensors Special Symbols and Isotropic Tensors Direction Cosines and the Law of Cosines

CONTENTS

3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 *3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14

Algebra with Vectors Symmetric and Antisymmetric Tensors Algebra with Tensors Vector Cross-Product Alternative Definitions of Vectors and Tensors Principal Axes and Values Derivative Operations on Vector Fields Integral Formulas of Gauss and Stokes Leibnitz's Theorem Conclusion Problems

41 42 45 47 48 50 52 55 58 60 60 63 63 67 69 70 75 77 79 81 82 84 84 87 87 91 93 94 96 97 99 105 106 110 111 112 113 115 118 122

4. Kinematics of Local Fluid Motion 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 *4.6 *4.7 4.8 *4.9 4.10 Lagrangian Viewpoint Eulerian Viewpoint Substantial Derivative Decomposition of Motion Elementary Motions in a Linear Shear Flow Proof of Vorticity Characteristics Rate-of-Strain Characteristics Rate of Expansion Streamline Coordinates Conclusion Problems

5. Basic Laws 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 *5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 *5.12 5.13 5.14 *5.15 *5.16 Continuity Equation Momentum Equation Surface Forces Stress-Tensor Derivation Interpretation of the Stress-Tensor Components Pressure and Viscous Stress Tensor Differential Momentum Equation Angular-Momentum Equation and Symmetry of Ttj Energy Equation Mechanical-and Thermal-Energy Equations Energy Equation with Temperature as Dependent Variable Second Law of Thermodynamics Integral Form of the Continuity Equation Integral Form of the Momentum Equation Momentum Equation for a Deformable Particle of Variable Mass Other Laws in Integral Form: Energy Equation

CONTENTS

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5.17 Jump Equations at Interfaces 5.18 Conclusion Problems 6. Newtonian Fluids and the Navier-Stokes Equations 6.1 6.2 6.3 *6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Newton's Viscosity Law Molecular Model of Viscous Effects Non-Newtonian Liquids The No-Slip Condition Fourier's Heat-Conduction Law Navier-Stokes Equations Conclusion Problems

123 125 125 129 129 133 137 140 143 145 146 146 148 148 154 158 160 161 164 166 172 172 175 175 178 181 185 189 192 194 198 199 203 209 209 212 212 216 218

7. Some Incompressible-Flow Patterns 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Pressure-Driven Flow in a Slot Mechanical Energy and Bernoulli Equations Plane Couette Flow Pressure-Driven Flow in a Slot with a Moving Wall Double Falling Film on a Wall Rotary Viscous Coupling; Outer Solution The Rayleigh Problem Conclusion Problems

8. Dimensional Analysis 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 *8.6 *8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 Measurement and Dimensions Variables and Functions The Pi Theorem Pump or Blower Analysis Number of Primary Dimensions Proof of Bridgman's Equation Proof of the Pi Theorem Dynamic Similarity Similarity with Geometric Distortion Nondimensional Formulation of Physical Problems Conclusion Problems

9. Compressible Flow 9.1 9.2 9.3 Compressible Couette Flow: Adiabatic Wall Flow with Power-Law Transport Properties Compressible Waves

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CONTENTS

9.4

Conclusion Problems

226 226 228 228 230 231 236 239 242 243 246 250 252 253 254

10. Incompressible Flow Characterization Incompressible Flow as a Low Mach Number Flow with Adiabatic Walls 10.3 Nondimensional Problem Statement 10.4 Characteristics of Incompressible Flow 10.5 Splitting the Pressure into Kinetic and Hydrostatic Parts *10.6 Mathematical Aspects of the Limit Process M2 >0 *10.7 Invariance of Incompressible-Flow Equations under Unsteady Motion *10.8 Low-Mach-Number Flows with Constant-Temperature Walls *10.9 The Energy-Equation Paradox 10.10 Conclusion Problems 11. Some Solutions of the Navier-Stokes Equations 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 *11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 Pressure-Driven Flow in Tubes of Various Cross Sections: An Elliptical Tube Flow in a Rectangular Tube A Channel with Longitudinal Ribs Stokes Oscillating Plate Wall Under an Oscillating Free Stream Transient for Stokes Oscillating Plate Flow in a Slot with an Oscillating Pressure Gradient Decay of Line Vortices (Oseen Vortex) Plane Stagnation-Point Flow (Hiemenz Flow) Burgers Vortex Complete Solution for the Rotary Coupling von Karman Viscous "Pump" Conclusion Problems 10.1 10.2

12. Streamfunctions and the Velocity Potential 12.1 12.2 12.3 *12.4 Streamlines Streamfunction for Plane Flows Flow in a Slot with Porous Walls Streamlines and Streamsurfaces for a ThreeDimensional Flow

CONTENTS

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12.5 12.6 12.7

Velocity Potential and Unsteady Bernoulli Equation Flow Caused by a Sphere with Variable Radius Conclusion Problems

317 319 321 322 324 324 326 328 330 331 333 335 338 339 341 342 344 346 352 356 357 359 360 363 364 376 378 384 400 400 402 402 405 409 413 416 421

13. Vorticity Dynamics 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 Vorticity Kinematic Results Concerning Vorticity Vorticity Equation Vorticity Diffusion Vorticity Intensification by Straining Vortex Lines Hill's Spherical Vortex Production of Vorticity at a Stationary Wall Production of Vorticity at a Translating Wall Helmholtz's Laws for Inviscid Flow Kelvin's Theorem Inviscid Motion of Point Vortices Reconnection of Vortex Lines Development of Typical Vorticity Distributions Vortex Breakdown Conclusion Problems

14. Flows at Moderate Reynolds Numbers 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 Some Unusual Flow Patterns Entrance Flows Entrance Flow into a Cascade of Plates: Computer Solution by the Streamfunction-Vorticity Method Entrance Flow into a Cascade of Plates: Pressure Solution Entrance Flow into a Cascade of Plates: Results Flow Around a Circular Cylinder Conclusion Problems

15. Asymptotic Analysis Methods 15.1 Oscillation of a Gas Bubble in a Liquid 15.2 Order Symbols, Gauge Functions, and Asymptotic Expansions 15.3 Inviscid Flow over, a Wavy Wall *15.4 Nonuniform Expansions: Friedrich's Problem *15.5 The Matching Process 15.6 Composite Expansions: Accuracy

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CONTENTS

15.7 15.8 15.9

Characteristics of Overlap Regions Lagerstrom's Problems Conclusion Problems

424 430 434 435 437 437 439 443 447 458 459 460 460 461 463 466 469 469 471 472 476 479 482 489 492 494 497 500 502 506 512 514 522 525 528 530 536 542 542

16. Characteristics of High Reynolds Number Flow 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 Physical Motivation Inviscid Main Flows: Euler Equations Pressure Changes in Steady Flows: Bernoulli Equations Boundary Layers Conclusion Problems

17. Kinematic Decomposition of Flow Fields *17.1 *17.2 *17.3 *17.4 *17.5 General Approach Helmholtz's Decomposition Line Vortex and Vortex Sheet Complex-Lamellar Decomposition Conclusion Problems

18. Ideal Flows in a Plane 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.9 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 *18.16 *18.17 *18.18 18.19 Problem Formulation for Plane Ideal Flows Simple Plane Flows Line Source and Line Vortex Flow over a Nose or a Cliff Doublets Cylinder in a Stream Cylinder with Circulation in a Uniform Stream Lift and Drag on Two-Dimensional Shapes Magnus Effect Conformal Transformations Joukowski Transformation, Airfoil Geometry Kutta Condition Flow over a Joukowski Airfoil: Airfoil Lift A Numerical Method for Airfoils Actual Airfoils Schwarz-Christoffel Transformation Diffuser or Contraction Flow Gravity Waves in Liquids Conclusion ' Problems

CONTENTS

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19. Axisymmetric and Three-Dimensional Ideal Flows 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9 19.10 *19.11 *19.12 *19.13 19.14 General Equations and Characteristics of ThreeDimensional Ideal Flows Swirling Flow Turned into an Annulus Flow over a Weir Point Source Rankine Nose Shape Experiments on the Nose Drag of Slender Shapes Flow from a Doublet Flow over a Sphere Kinetic Energy Wake Drag of Bodies Induced Drag: Drag Due to Lift Lifting-Line Theory Added Mass of Accelerating Bodies Conclusion Problems

546 546 548 550 552 554 556 559 561 564 565 567 572 573 579 579 581 581 587 589 591 593 599 609 612 616 619 622 625 628 632 634 638 641 645 650 653 657 657

20. Boundary Layers 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 *20.7 20.8 20.9 20.10 20.11 20.12 20.13 20.14 20.15 *20.16 *20.17 *20.18 *20.19 *20.20 20.21 Blasius Flow over a Flat Plate Displacement Thickness von Karman Momentum Integral von Karman-Pohlhausen Approximate Method Falkner-Skan Similarity Solutions Arbitrary Two-Dimensional Layers: Crank-Nicolson Difference Method Vertical Velocity Joukowski-Airfoil Boundary Layer Boundary Layer on a Bridge Piling Plane Boundary-Layer Separation Axisymmetric Boundary Layers Jets Far Wake of Nonlifting Bodies Free Shear Layers Unsteady and Erupting Boundary Layers Entrance Flow into a Cascade Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers Boundary Layer with a Constant Transverse Pressure Gradient Howarth's Stagnation Point Three-Dimensional Separation Conclusion Problems '

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CONTENTS

21. Low Reynolds Number Flows 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 *21.6 21.7 21.8 21.9 *21.10 21.11 21.12 *21.13 *21.14 *21.15 *21.16 21.17 General Relations for Re0: Stokes Equations Global Equations for Stokes Flow Flow in Tubes and Channels with Varying Cross Sections Reynolds Equations for Lubrication Theory Slipper-Pad Bearing Squeeze Film Lubrication; Viscous Adhesion Plane Corner Flows: Mpffatt Vortices Axisymmetric Flow: Cones, Orifices, and Tubes Flow over a Sphere Nonuniformity of Stokes Flow on Infinite Domains Asymptotic Analysis of Flow over a Sphere Stokes Flow Near a Circular Cylinder Oseen's Equations Bubble or Droplet in an Infinite Fluid Stokes Flow over Particles of Arbitrary Shape Interference Effects Conclusion Problems

660 661 664 666 669 672 675 676 682 686 690 691 693 695 696 700 702 703 704 706 707 709 714 717 718 720 723 727 730 732 732 734 737 739 741 744 745 745 746

22. Introduction to Stability and Transition 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.9 22.10 22.11 22.12 22.13 22.14 22.15 Linear Stability and Normal Modes as Perturbations Kelvin-Helmholtz Inviscid Shear-Layer Instability Stability Problem for Nearly Parallel Viscous Flows Orr-Sommerfeld Equation Inviscid Stability of Nearly Parallel Flows Viscous Stability of Nearly Parallel Flows Experiments on Blasius Boundary Layers Transition; Secondary Instability; Bypass Spatially Developing Open Flows Transition in Free Shear Flows Poiseuille and Plane Couette Flows Inviscid Instability of Flows with Curved Streamlines Taylor Instability of Couette Flow Stability of Regions of Concentrated Vorticity Some Other Instabilities: Taylor; Curved Pipe; Capillary Jets; Gortler 22.16 Conclusion

23. Introduction to Turbulent Flows 23.1 23.2 Types of Turbulent Flows Characteristics of Turbulent Flows

CONTENTS

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23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 *23.8 *23.9 23.10 23.11 23.12 23.13 23.14

Reynolds Decomposition Reynolds Stress Free Turbulence: Plane Shear Layers Free Turbulence: The Turbulent Jet Bifurcating and Blooming Jets Correlations of Fluctuations Mean and Turbulent Kinetic Energy Energy Cascade: Kolmogorov Scales; Taylor Microscale Wall Turbulence; Channel Flow Wall Layers; Experiments and Empirical Correlation Turbulent Structures Conclusion
Properties of Fluids Differential Operations in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates Basic Equations in Rectangular, Cylindrical, and Spherical Coordinates Streamfunction Relations in Rectangular, Cylindrical, and Spherical Coordinates

749 751 754 759 762 763 765 768 773 783 788 792
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Appendix A Appendix B

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Appendix C

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Appendix D

805 809 812 815 818 819 831

Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G

Computer Code for Runge-Kutta Integration Computer Code for Entrance Flow into a Cascade Computer Code for Boundary-Layer Analysis

Supplemental Reading List References Index