You are on page 1of 4

APES- Unit #3 Study Guide Species Interactions and Community Ecology 1: What makes the Zebra Mussel an invasive

species? Only live in the five Great Lakes 2: Define the following species interactions: * Competition: Both species are harmed * Predation, Parasitism, and Herbivory: one species benefits and the other is harmed * Mutualism: Both species benefit 3: What are some of the resources that species compete for in competition? -Food -water -space -shelter -sunlight -mates 4: Define Competitive Exclusion: One species completely excludes another species from using the resources 5: What must happen for species to co-exist? - A stable point of equilibrium, with stable population sizes - Species adjust to minimize competition by using only part of the available resource 6: What is the difference between fundamental and realized niche? Explain why a species Wouldnt fulfill its fundamental niche? Fundamental niche = when an individual fulfills its entire role by using all the available resources Realized niche = the portion of the fundamental niche that is actually filled The difference is that Realized niche needs competition or other species interactions. 7: Give an example of resource partitioning: One species eats small seeds, another eats large seeds. 8: How does character displacement help with competition? Birds that eat larger seeds need larger bills 9: Explain how predator and prey populations depend on each other: How does Natural Selection strengthen population fitness? Predators survive off of prey so to many predators not enough prey but if you have a lot of prey then your gone have a lot of predators because they will eat and reproduce. Natural selection leads to evolution of adaptations that make predators better hunters. Individuals who are better at catching prey live longer, healthier lives and take better care of their offspring. Predation pressure: prey is at risk of immediate death so they develop elaborate defenses against being eaten

11: Define the following: * Cryptic Coloration: coloring that conceals or disguises an animal's shape *Warning Coloration: conspicuous coloring that warns a predator that an animal is unpalatable or poisonous. * Mimicry: the action or art of imitating someone or something, typically in order to entertain or ridicule. 12: Define Parasitism: the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it 13: What is the idea of coevolution? Hosts and parasites become locked in a duel of escalating adaptations 14: What are some plant adaptations that help to protect plants against herbivory? Chemicals: toxic or distasteful parts Physical: thorns, spines, or irritating hairs 15: Explain how pollination is a form of mutualism: Because bees, bats, birds and others transfer pollen from one flower to another, fertilizing its eggs 16: Define the following: * Allelopathy: certain plants release harmful chemicals * Commensalism: a relationship in which one organism benefits while the other remains unaffected * Facilitation: plants that create shade and leaf litter allow seedlings to grow 17: What is a community of organisms? Draw a trophic level pyramid with the following terms/definitions (examples) below: Autotrophs Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers Tertiary Consumers Omnivores Detritivores

Decomposers 19: How is most energy lost in an ecosystem? By waste heat through respiration 20: Explain why this statement is true: A human vegetarians ecological footprint is smaller than a meat-eaters footprint. Because they depend on natural gown food that doesnt involve killing or a decrease in population 21: What is the difference between a food chain and a food web? A food chain shows you the flow of energy when a food web shows energy flow and feeding relationship. 22: What is a keystone species and what happens to an ecosystem when it gets removed? Keystone species play a giant in role in their ecosystem and if you were to remove them the ecosystem would have substantial ripple effects. 23: What is a trophic cascade? Why is it important? Its the natural flow of the ecosystem basically if you have a die off in wolves and a increase in deer are gone to lead to over grazing 24: Communities of organisms respond to disturbances differently. Explain resistance and resilience. With resistance they stay the same even if they have a disturbance but with resilience the community changes in response to a disturbance but what the disturbance is over t goes back to normal 25: What is an invasive species? How do we control a species that has become invasive? (Name Several ways) Invasive species are non-native species, ways to control them are toxic chemicals, remove them manually, drying them out, stressing them and depriving of oxygen 26: What is happening with ecological restoration in the Florida Everglades? - Depletion caused by flood control practices and irrigation - Populations of wading birds dropped90-95% - It will take 30 years, and billions of dollars 27: Biomes: Name the type of SOILS in the following: *Temperate deciduous forests: Fertile soil *Temperate rainforests: Fertile soil *Tropical rainforests: Very poor, acidic soil *Tropical dry forest: Erosion-prone soil * Desert: Saline soil *Tundra: Permafrost: permanently frozen soil

*Boreal forest (Taiga): Poor and acidic soil 28: How do biomes change with altitude? Explain latitude affect the temperature of a place as well as the amount and intensity of sunlight it receives.