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Mabelle O.

Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


Alvarez v. Guingona Facts: HB 8817 entitle! "#n #ct Converting t$e M%nici&alit' o( )antiago into an *n!e&en!ent Com&onent Cit' to be +no,n as t$e Cit' o( )antiago " ,as (ile! in t$e Ho- s%bse.%entl' &asse! b' t$e Ho- an! transmitte! to t$e )enate. # co%nter&art o( HB 8817 )B 1/01 ,as (ile! in t$e )enate an! ,as &asse! as ,ell. 2$e enrolle! bill ,as s%bmitte! to an! signe! b' t$e C$ie( 34ec%tive as -# 77/5. 6$en a &lebiscite on t$e #ct ,as $el! on 7%l' 11 1880 a great ma9orit' o( t$e registere! voters o( )antiago vote! in (avor o( t$e conversion o( )antiago into a cit'. *ss%e: Constit%tionalit' o( -# 77/5. )C: :3) &etition !enie! &res%m&tion o( constit%tionalit' no clear an! %ne.%ivocal breac$ o( t$e Consti. 1. 6ON *nternal -even%e #llotments ;*-#s< m%st be incl%!e! in !etermining t$e average ann%al income (or &%r&oses o( conversion.:3) For a m%nici&alit' to be converte! into an in!e&en!ent com&onent cit' its average ann%al income (or t$e last t,o consec%tive 'ears ;at t$at time base! on 1881 constant &rices< m%st be at least /5M. =etitioners conten! t$at t$e *-#s m%st be !e!%cte! (rom t$e m%nici&alit'>s income beca%se t$e' are not income b%t trans(ers an!?or b%!getar' ai! (rom t$e NG an! t$at t$e' (l%ct%ate !e&en!ing on !i((erent (actors. 2$e co%rt in its !isc%ssion o( ,$at an LG@ is sai! t$at: a. it is a &olitical s%b!ivision o( t$e )tate ,$ic$ is constit%te! b' la, an! &ossesse! o( s%bstantial control over its o,n a((airs. b. *t is an intra sovereign s%b!ivision o( one sovereign nation b%t not inten!e! $o,ever to be an im&eri%m in im&erio c. *t is a%tonomo%s in t$e sense t$at it is given more &o,ers a%t$orit' res&onsibilities an! reso%rces. )ince t$e LG@ is given broa!ene! &o,ers an! increase! res&onsibilities it no, o&erates on a m%c$ ,i!er scale. More e4tensive o&erations in t%rn entail more e4&enses. 2$e vesting o( !%t' res&onsibilit' an! acco%ntabilit' in ever' LG@ is accom&anie! ,it$ a &rovision (or reasonabl' a!e.%ate reso%rces to !isc$arge its &o,ers an! e((ectivel' carr' o%t its (%nctions. #vailment o( s%c$ reso%rces is e((ect%ate! t$ro%g$ t$e vesting in ever' LG %nit o( ;1< t$e rig$t to create an! broa!en its o,n so%rce o( reven%eA ;/< t$e rig$t to be allocate! a 9%st s$are in national ta4es s%c$ s$are being in t$e (orm o( internal reven%e allotments ;*-#s<A an! ;1< t$e rig$t to be given its e.%itable s$are in t$e &rocee!s o( t$e %tiliBation an! !evelo&ment o( t$e national ,ealt$ i( an' ,it$in its territorial bo%n!aries. 2$e co%rt $el! t$at t$e *-#s ,ere &ro&erl' incl%!e! beca%se t$e' are items o( income an! (orm &art o( t$e gross accretion o( t$e (%n!s o( t$e LG@. 2$e *-#s reg%larl' an! a%tomaticall' accr%e to t$e local treas%r' ,it$o%t nee! o( an' (%rt$er action on t$e &art o( t$e LG %nit. 2$e' t$%s constit%te income ,$ic$ t$e LG can invariabl' rel' %&on as t$e so%rce o( m%c$ nee!e! (%n!s. LGC )ec 0C5 ;c<: "t$e average ann%al income s$all incl%!e t$e income accr%ing to t$e general (%n! e4cl%sive o( s&ecial (%n!s trans(ers an! nonDrec%rring income." DOF Or!er 1CD81: #NN@#L *NCOM3: reven%es an! recei&ts realiBe! b' &rovinces cities an! m%nici&alities (rom reg%lar so%rces o( t$e Local General F%n! incl%!ing t$e internal reven%e allotment an! ot$er s$ares &rovi!e! (or in )ecs /80 /85 an! /81 o( t$e Co!e b%t e4cl%sive o( nonDrec%rring recei&ts s%c$ as ot$er national ai!s grants (inancial assistance loan &rocee!s sales o( (i4e! assets an! similar ot$ers. 1. 6ON consi!ering t$at t$e )enate &asse! )B 1/01 its o,n version o( HB 8817 -# 77/5 can be sai! to $ave originate! in t$e Ho-. :3) Bills o( local a&&lication are re.%ire! to originate e4cl%sivel' in t$e Ho-. =etitioners conten! t$at since a bill o( t$e same im&ort ,as &asse! in t$e )enate it cannot be sai! to $ave originate! in t$e Ho-. )%c$ is %ntenable beca%se it cannot be !enie! t$at t$e HB ,as (ile! (irst ;18 #&r 1881<. 2$e )B ,as (ile! 18 Ma'. 2$e HB ,as a&&rove! on t$ir! rea!ing 17 Dec an! ,as transmitte! to t$e )enate /8 7an 1880. 2$e (iling in t$e )enate o( a s%bstit%te bill in antici&ation o( its recei&t o( t$e bill (rom t$e Ho%se !oes not

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


contravene t$e constit%tional re.%irement t$at a bill o( local a&&lication s$o%l! originate in t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives (or as long as t$e )enate !oes not act t$ere%&on %ntil it receives t$e Ho%se bill. 2$e (iling in t$e )enate o( a s%bstit%te bill in antici&ation o( its recei&t o( t$e bill (rom t$e Ho- !oes not contravene t$e constit%tional re.%irement t$at a bill o( local a&&lication s$o%l! originate in t$e Ho- (or as long as t$e )enate !oes not act t$ere%&on %ntil it receives t$e Ho%se bill. 2olentino v. )oF: E,$at t$e Constit%tion sim&l' means is t$at t$e initiative (or (iling reven%e tari(( or ta4 bills bills a%t$oriBing an increase o( t$e &%blic !ebt &rivate bills an! bills o( local a&&lication m%st come (rom t$e Ho- on t$e t$eor' t$at electe! as t$e' are (rom t$e !istricts t$e members o( t$e Ho%se can be e4&ecte! to be more sensitive to t$e local nee!s an! &roblems. On t$e ot$er $an! t$e senators ,$o are electe! at large are e4&ecte! to a&&roac$ t$e same &roblems (rom t$e national &ers&ective. Bot$ vie,s are t$ereb' ma!e to bear on t$e enactment o( s%c$ la,s. Nor !oes t$e Constit%tion &ro$ibit t$e (iling in t$e )enate o( a s%bstit%te bill in antici&ation o( its recei&t o( t$e bill (rom t$e Ho%se so long as action b' t$e )enate as a bo!' is ,it$$el! &en!ing recei&t o( t$e Ho%se bill.F Basco v. PAGCOR Facts: =#GCO- ,as create! %n!er =D 18G8 to enable t$e Government to reg%late an! centraliBe all games o( c$ance a%t$oriBe! b' e4isting (ranc$ise or &ermitte! b' la,. 2o attain its ob9ectives ;centraliBe an! integrate t$e rig$t an! a%t$orit' to o&erate an! con!%ct games o( c$ance generate a!!itional reven%e to (%n! in(rastr%ct%re an! socioDcivic &ro9ect e4&an! to%rism minimiBe evils &revalent in con!%ct an! o&eration o( gambling cl%bs< =#GCO- is given territorial 9%ris!iction all over t$e =$ili&&ines. @n!er its C$arterHs re&ealing cla%se all la,s !ecrees e4ec%tive or!ers r%les an! reg%lations inconsistent t$ere,it$ are accor!ingl' re&eale! amen!e! or mo!i(ie!. *ss%es: 1. 6ON =D 18G8 constit%tes a ,aiver o( t$e rig$t o( t$e Cit' o( Manila to im&ose ta4es an! legal (ees. NO 2$e Cit' o( Manila being a mere Municipal corporation $as no inherent right to impose taxes. 2$%s "t$e C$arter or stat%te m%st &lainl' s$o, an intent to con(er t$at &o,er or t$e m%nici&alit' cannot ass%me it." *ts "&o,er to ta4" t$ere(ore m%st al,a's 'iel! to a legislative act ,$ic$ is s%&erior $aving been &asse! %&on b' t$e state itsel( ,$ic$ $as t$e "in$erent &o,er to ta4" 2$e C$arter o( t$e Cit' o( Manila is s%b9ect to control b' Congress. *t s$o%l! be stresse! t$at "m%nici&al cor&orations are mere creat%res o( Congress" ,$ic$ $as t$e &o,er to "create an! abolis$ m%nici&al cor&orations" !%e to its "general legislative &o,ers." Congress t$ere(ore $as t$e &o,er o( control over LGs. #n! i( Congress can grant t$e Cit' o( Manila t$e &o,er to ta4 certain matters it can also &rovi!e (or e4em&tions or even ta+e bac+ t$e &o,er. 2$e Cit' o( ManilaHs &o,er to im&ose license (ees on gambling $as long been revo+e!. #s earl' as 187C t$e &o,er o( LGs to reg%late gambling t$r% t$e grant o( "(ranc$ise licenses or &ermits" ,as ,it$!ra,n b' =D 771 an! ,as veste! e4cl%sivel' on t$e NG. Onl' t$e NG $as t$e &o,er to iss%e "licenses or &ermits" (or t$e o&eration o( gambling. Necessaril' t$e &o,er to !eman! or collect license (ees ,$ic$ is a conse.%ence o( t$e iss%ance o( "licenses or &ermits" is no longer veste! in t$e Cit' o( Manila. LGs $ave no &o,er to ta4 instr%mentalities o( t$e NG. =#GCO- is a government o,ne! or controlle! cor&oration ,it$ an original c$arter =D 18G8. #ll o( its s$ares o( stoc+s are o,ne! b' t$e NG. *n a!!ition to its cor&orate &o,ers ;)ec. 1 2itle ** =D 18G8< it also e4ercises reg%lator' &o,ers. =#GCO- $as a !%al role to o&erate an! to reg%late gambling casinos. 2$e latter role is governmental ,$ic$ &laces it in t$e categor' o( an agenc' or instr%mentalit' o( t$e Government. Being an instr%mentalit' o( t$e Government =#GCO- s$o%l! be an! act%all' is e4em&t (rom local ta4es. Ot$er,ise its o&eration mig$t be b%r!ene! im&e!e! or s%b9ecte! to control b' a mere LG. 2$e states $ave no &o,er b' ta4ation or ot$er,ise to retar! im&e!e b%r!en or in an' manner control t$e o&eration o( constit%tional la,s enacte! b' Congress to

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


carr' into e4ec%tion t$e &o,ers veste! in t$e (e!eral government.DDI "s%&remac'" o( t$e NG over LGs. Holmes: absence o( &o,er on t$e &art o( t$e )tates to to%c$ in t$at ,a' ;ta4ation< at least t$e instr%mentalities o( t$e @nite! )tates mere creat%res o( t$e )tate can !e(eat National &olicies t$r% e4termination o( ,$at local a%t$orities ma' &erceive to be %n!esirable activities or enter&rise %sing t$e &o,er to ta4 as "a tool (or reg%lation" 6ON t$e Local #%tonom' Cla%se o( t$e Constit%tion ,ill be violate! b' =D 18G8. NO. #rt 4 )ec C Consti: 3ac$ LG %nit s$all $ave t$e &o,er to create its o,n so%rce o( reven%e an! to lev' ta4es (ees an! ot$er c$arges s%b9ect to s%c$ g%i!elines an! limitation as t$e congress ma' &rovi!e consistent ,it$ t$e basic &olic' on local a%tonom'. )%c$ ta4es (ees an! c$arges s$all accr%e e4cl%sivel' to t$e LG. &o,er o( LG to "im&ose ta4es an! (ees" is s%b9ect to "limitations" ,$ic$ Congress ma' &rovi!e b' la,. )ince =D 18G8 remains an "o&erative" la, %ntil "amen!e! re&eale! or revo+e!" ;)ec. 1 #rt. JK*** 1887 Constit%tion< its "e4em&tion cla%se" remains as an e4ce&tion to t$e e4ercise o( t$e &o,er o( LGs to im&ose ta4es an! (ees. *t cannot t$ere(ore be violative b%t rat$er is consistent ,it$ t$e &rinci&le o( local a%tonom'. &rinci&le o( local a%tonom' %n!er t$e 1887 Constit%tion sim&l' means "!ecentraliBation." *t !oes not ma+e LGs sovereign ,it$in t$e state or an "im&eri%m in im&erio." LG: political sub ivision o! a nation or state "hich is constitute b# la" an has substantial control o! local a!!airs. *n a %nitar' s'stem o( government s%c$ as t$e government %n!er t$e =$ili&&ine Constit%tion LGs can onl' be an intra sovereign s%b!ivision o( one sovereign nation it cannot be an im&eri%m in im&erio. LG in s%c$ a s'stem can onl' mean a meas%re o( !ecentraliBation o( t$e (%nction o( government. $ilas v. Cit# o! Manila Facts: Kilas 2rigas an! ag%a!o are cre!itors o( Manila as it e4iste! be(ore t$e cession o( t$e =$ili&&ine *slan!s ;=*< to t$e @) b' t$e treat' o( =aris. #ccor!ing to t$em %n!er its &resent c$arter (rom 1. t$e Government o( t$e =* is t$e same 9%ristic &erson an! liable %&on t$e obligations o( t$e ol! cit'. =* )C: !i((erent entit'. *ss%e: 6ON not,it$stan!ing t$e cession o( t$e =* to t$e @) (ollo,e! b' a reincor&oration o( t$e cit' &resent m%nici&alit' liable (or obligations o( ol! cit'. :3) 2$e cit' as no, incor&orate! $as s%ccee!e! to all o( t$e &ro&ert' rig$ts o( t$e ol! cit' an! to t$e rig$t to en(orce all its ca%ses o( action. 2$ere is i!entit' o( &%r&ose bet,een )& an! #m c$arters an! s%bstantial i!entit' o( m%nici&al &o,ers area an! in$abitants. #rg%ment against liabilit': a'%ntamiento o( Manila ,as a cor&oration entit' create! b' t$e )& government . ,$en t$e sovereignt' o( )& cease! m%nici&alit' cease! as ,ell.DDI analog' to !octrine o( &rinci&al an! agent !eat$ o( &rinci&alL!eat$ o( agent D%al C$aracter o( M%nici&al Cor&orations: 1. Governmental: e4ercises b' !elegation a &art o( t$e sovereignt' o( t$e state /. =rivate?B%siness: mere legal entit' or 9%ristic &erson. )tan!s (or t$e comm%nit' in t$e a!ministration o( local a((airs ,$oll' be'on! t$e s&$ere o( t$e &%blic &%r&oses (or ,$ic$ its governmental &o,ers are con(erre! *n vie, o( t$e !%al c$aracter o( m%nici&al cor&orations t$ere is no &%blic reason (or &res%ming t$eir total !issol%tion as a mere conse.%ence o( militar' occ%&ation or territorial cession. McMinle'>s instr%ction: relin.%is$ment or cessionN cannot in an' res&ect im&air t$e &ro&ert' or rig$ts ,$ic$ b' la, belong to t$e &eace(%l &ossession o( &ro&ert' o( all +in!sN =ro&ert' rig$ts o( m%nici&al cor&orations an! in!ivi!%als ,ere sa(eg%ar!e!. 2$e cession !i! not o&erate as an e4tinction or !issol%tion o( cor&orations. 2$e legal entit' s%rvive! bot$ militar' occ%&ation an! cession. 2$e cor&orate i!entit' an! liabilit' o( t$e cit' ,as not e4ting%is$e!. 2K#: entitle! to &rocee! to 9%!gment. Li asan v. COM%L%C Facts: -# 0785 ;#n #ct Creating t$e M%nici&alit' o( Dianaton in t$e =rovince o( Lanao !el )%r< ,as signe! into la,. Dianaton is com&ose! o( Barrios 2ogaig Ma!al%m Ba'anga Lang+ong

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


)ara+an MatDbo Diga+a&an Magabo 2abangao 2iong+o Colo!an Mabama+a,an Ma&atagan Bongabong #i&ang Dago,an Ba+i+is B%ngab%ng Losain Matimos an! Magolat%ng. *t ,as later (o%n! o%t t$at Barrios 2ogaig Ma!al%m Ba'anga Lang+ong )ara+an MatD bo Diga+a&an Magabo 2abangao 2iong+o Colo!an Mabama+a,an ,ere not ,it$in Lanao !el )%r b%t ,it$in Cotabato. 2$e COM3L3C a!o&te! a resol%tion recogniBing t$e ne, m%nici&alit' (or &%r&oses o( election. Mean,$ile t$e O((ice o( t$e =resi!ent recommen!e! t$at t$e COM3L3C t$at t$e o&eration o( t$e stat%te be s%s&en!e! %ntil clari(ie! b' correcting legislation. 2$is triggere! &etitioner to (ile action. *ss%e: 6ON -# 0785 is %nconstit%tional. :3) 2$e constit%tion re.%ires t$at no bill m%st be enacte! ,$ic$ s$all embrace more t$an one s%b9ect ,$ic$ s$all be e4&resse! in t$e title o( t$e bill. 6$ile t$e Constit%tion !oes not re.%ire Congress to em&lo' in t$e title o( an enactment lang%age o( s%c$ &recision as to mirror (%ll' in!e4 or catalog%e all t$e contents an! t$e min%te !etails t$erein t$e title s$o%l! serve t$e &%r&ose o( t$e constit%tional !eman! t$at it in(orm t$e legislators t$e &ersons intereste! in t$e s%b9ect o( t$e bill an! t$e &%blic o( t$e nat%re sco&e an! conse.%ences o( t$e &ro&ose! la, an! its o&eration. 2est o( t$e s%((icienc' o( a title: ,$et$er or not it is mislea!ingA tec$nical acc%rac' is not essential an! t$e s%b9ect nee! not be state! in e4&ress terms ,$ere it is clearl' in(erable (rom t$e !etails set (ort$. *n t$is case not t$e slig$test intimation is t$ere t$at comm%nities in t$e a!9acent &rovince o( Cotabato are incor&orate! in t$is ne, Lanao !el )%r to,n. 2$e &$rase "in t$e =rovince o( Lanao !el )%r " rea! ,it$o%t s%btlet' or contortion ma+es t$e title mislea!ing !ece&tive. For t$e +no,n (act is t$at t$e legislation $as a t,oD&ronge! &%r&ose combine! in one stat%te: ;1< it creates t$e m%nici&alit' o( Dianaton &%r&orte!l' (rom t,ent'Done barrios in t$e to,ns o( B%tig an! Balabagan bot$ in t$e &rovince o( Lanao !el )%rA an! ;/< it also !ismembers t,o m%nici&alities in Cotabato a &rovince !i((erent (rom Lanao !el )%r. -es&on!ents: c$ange in bo%n!aries merel' inci!ental. )C: NOO 2rans(er o( a siBeable &ortion o( territor' (rom one &rovince to anot$er o( necessit' involves re!%ction o( area &o&%lation an! income o( t$e (irst an! t$e corres&on!ing increase o( t$ose o( t$e ot$er. 2$is is as im&ortant as t$e creation o( a m%nici&alit'. #n! 'et t$e title !i! not re(lect t$is (act. Fel,a case: cannot be consi!ere! b' t$e co%rt in t$is case ,$ile no re(erence to elective o((icials ,ere ma!e s%c$ ,ere inci!ental to t$e creation o( B M= * an! MD#. H%me v. Killage o( Fr%it&ort: #n act to incor&orate t$e village o( Fr%it&ort in t$e Co%nt' o( M%s+egon b%t stat%te incl%!e! Otta,a. Declare! %nconstit%tional (or $aving more t$an one s%b9ect. Contention: Ein t$e Co%nt' o( M%s+egonF a mere s%r&l%sage. )C: t$e co%rt cannot re9ect a &art o( t$e title (or t$e &%r&ose o( saving t$e act. -# 0785 cannot be salvage! ,it$ re(erence to t$e nine remaining to,ns. 6$ile ,$ere a &ortion o( a stat%te is ren!ere! %nconstit%tional an! t$e remain!er vali! t$e &arts ,ill be se&arate! an! t$e constit%tional &ortion %&$el! it is not so ,$en t$e &arts o( t$e stat%te are so m%t%all' !e&en!ent an! connecte! as con!itions consi!erations in!%cements or com&ensations (or eac$ ot$er as to ,arrant a belie( t$at t$e legislat%re inten!e! t$em as a ,$ole an! t$at i( all co%l! not be carrie! into e((ect t$e legislat%re ,o%l! not &ass t$e resi!%e in!e&en!entl' t$en i( some &arts are %nconstit%tional all t$e &rovisions ,$ic$ are t$%s !e&en!ent con!itional or connecte! m%st (all ,it$ t$em. Municipal corporations per!orm t"in !unctions. &irstl#. 'he# serve as an instrumentalit# o! the (tate in carr#ing out the !unctions o! government. (econ l#. 'he# act as an agenc# o! the communit# in the a ministration o! local a!!airs. )t is in the latter character that the# are a separate entit# acting !or their o"n purposes an not a sub ivision o! the (tate. several (actors come to t$e (ore in t$e consi!eration o( ,$et$er a gro%& o( barrios is ca&able o( maintaining itsel( as an in!e&en!ent m%nici&alit'. #mongst t$ese are &o&%lation territor' an! income )&ea+ing o( t$e original twenty-one barrios ,$ic$ com&rise t$e ne, m%nici&alit' t$e e4&lanator' note rea!s: t$e territor' is no, a &rogressive comm%nit'A t$e

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


aggregate &o&%lation is largeA an! t$e collective income is s%((icient to maintain an in!e&en!ent m%nici&alit'. 2$is bill i( enacte! into la, ,ill enable t$e in$abitants concerne! to govern t$emselves an! en9o' t$e blessings o( m%nici&al a%tonom'. Obvio%sl' ,$at ,as in t$e min! o( t$e &ro&onent ,as t$e /1 barrios an! not t$e nine remaining. Republic v. Cit# o! *avao Facts: Davao (ile! an a&&lication (or a Certi(icate o( NonDCoverage ;CNC< (or its &ro&ose! &ro9ect t$e Davao Cit' #rtica )&orts Dome ,it$ t$e 3nvironmental Management B%rea% ;3MB< -egion J*. 2$e 3MB !enie! t$e a&&lication a(ter (in!ing t$at t$e &ro&ose! &ro9ect ,as ,it$in an environmentall' critical area an! r%le! t$at &%rs%ant to )ec / =D 1C8G ;3nvironmental *m&act )tatement )'stem< in relation to )ec 0 =D 11C1 ;=$ili&&ine 3nvironment =olic'< Davao m%st %n!ergo t$e environmental im&act assessment ;3*#< &rocess to sec%re an 3nvironmental Com&liance Certi(icate ;3CC< be(ore it can &rocee! ,it$ t$e constr%ction o( its &ro9ect. Davao (ile! a &etition (or man!am%s an! in9%nction ,it$ t$e -2C o( Davao alleging t$at its &ro&ose! &ro9ect ,as neit$er an environmentall' critical &ro9ect nor ,it$in an environmentall' critical areaA t$%s o%tsi!e t$e sco&e o( t$e 3*) s'stem. Hence it ,as t$e ministerial !%t' o( t$e D3N- t$ro%g$ t$e 3MB to iss%e a CNC in (avor o( res&on!ent %&on s%bmission o( t$e re.%ire! !oc%ments. -2C: (or Davao. LG@s not re.%ire! b' =Ds 1C8G P 1C11 to com&l' ,it$ t$e 3*) la,. Onl' agencies an! instr%mentalities o( t$e NG incl%!ing GOCCs as ,ell as &rivate cor&orations (irms an! entities are man!ate! to go t$ro%g$ t$e 3*# &rocess (or t$eir &ro&ose! &ro9ects ,$ic$ $ave signi(icant e((ect on t$e .%alit' o( t$e environment. #n LG@ not being an agenc' or instr%mentalit' o( t$e NG is !eeme! e4cl%!e! %n!er t$e &rinci&le o( e4&ressio %ni%s est e4cl%sio alteri%s. M-: !enie! *ss%e: 6ON Davao is re.%ire! to com&l' ,it$ t$e 3*) la,. :3). QQDavao alrea!' e4&resse! agreement t$at it m%st sec%re an 3CC (or &ro&ose! &ro9ect $ence moot an! aca!emic b%t t$e )C !eci!e! to still !isc%ss iss%es to e!%cate t$e benc$ an! bar. Davao cannot claim e4em&tion (rom coverage o( =D 1C8G. LG@ a bo!' &olitic an! cor&orate en!o,e! ,it$ &o,ers to be e4ercise! b' it in con(ormit' ,it$ la,. *t &er(orms !%al (%nctions: ;1< Governmental (%nctions are t$ose t$at concern t$e $ealt$ sa(et' an! t$e a!vancement o( t$e &%blic goo! or ,el(are as a((ecting t$e &%blic generall'. LG@ is an agenc' o( t$e NG ;/< =ro&rietar' (%nctions are t$ose t$at see+ to obtain s&ecial cor&orate bene(its or earn &ec%niar' &ro(it an! inten!e! (or &rivate a!vantage an! bene(it. LG@ agent o( t$e comm%nit' in t$e a!ministration o( local a((airs. )ec 1G LGC: !%t' o( t$e LG@s to &romote t$e &eo&le>s rig$t to a balance! ecolog'. #s a bo!' &olitic en!o,e! ,it$ governmental (%nctions an LG@ $as t$e !%t' to ens%re t$e .%alit' o( t$e environment ,$ic$ is t$e ver' same ob9ective o( =D 1C8G. )ec 0 o( =D 1C8G clearl' states t$at Eno &erson &artners$i& or cor&oration s$all %n!erta+e or o&erate an' s%c$ !eclare! environmentall' critical &ro9ect or area ,it$o%t (irst sec%ring an 3CC iss%e! b' t$e =resi!ent or $is !%l' a%t$oriBe! re&resentative.F 2$e CC !e(ines a &erson as eit$er nat%ral or 9%ri!ical. 2$e state an! its &olitical s%b!ivisions LG@s are 9%ri!ical &ersons. @n!o%bte!l' t$ere(ore LG@s are not e4cl%!e! (rom t$e coverage o( =D 1C8G. )tate &olic': ac$ieve a balance bet,een socioDeconomic !evelo&ment an! environmental &rotection ,$ic$ are t$e t,in goals o( s%stainable !evelo&ment. 2$is can onl' be &ossible i( ,e a!o&t a com&re$ensive an! integrate! environmental &rotection &rogram ,$ere all t$e sectors o( t$e comm%nit' are involve! i.e. t$e government an! t$e &rivate sectors. 2$e LG@s as &art o( t$e mac$iner' o( t$e government cannot t$ere(ore be !eeme! as o%tsi!e t$e sco&e o( t$e 3*) s'stem. Qot$er iss%e: Davao m%st be grante! 3CC it $as !%l' &roven t$at t$e !ome ,ill not be constr%cte! in an environmentall' critical area $ence it becomes t$e ministerial !%t' o( t$e D3N- to iss%e t$e CNC. (an +uan v. C(C Facts: 6$en t$e =rovinicial Boar! O((icer &osition ,as le(t vacant -iBal Governor )an 7%an in(orme! Director #bella o( t$e De&artment o( B%!get an! Management t$at a certain )antos $a! ass%me! o((ice as acting =BO an! re.%este! #bella to en!orse )antos> a&&ointment. #bella $o,ever recommen!e! #lma9ose on

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


t$e basis o( a com&arative st%!' o( all MBOs ,$ic$ incl%!e! )an 7%an>s nominees. #ccor!ing to #bella #lma9ose ,as t$e most .%ali(ie! since s$e ,as t$e onl' C=# among t$e conten!ers. DMB @sec Cab%.%it signe! #lma9ose>s a&&ointment &a&ers %&on #bella>s recommen!ation. @na,are o( #lma9ose>s a&&ointment )an 7%an reiterate! $is re.%est (or )antos> a&&ointment in a letter to )ec. Carag%e. DBM -eg. Dir. GalveB ,rote )an 7ose t$at )antos an! $is ot$er recommen!ees !i! not meet t$e minim%m re.%irements %n!er Local B%!get Circ%lar 11 (or t$e &osition o( local b%!get o((icer an! re.%ire! )an 7ose to s%bmit at least t$ree ot$er nominees. #(ter (in!ing o%t abo%t #lma9ose>s a&&ointment )an 7%an ,rote Carag%e &rotesting against t$e sai! a&&ointment on t$e gro%n!s t$at Cab%.%it is not legall' a%t$oriBe! to a&&oint t$e =BOA t$at #lma9ose lac+s t$e re.%ire! t$ree 'ears ,or+ e4&erience as &rovi!e! in LBC 11A an! t$at %n!er 3O 11/ it is t$e Gov. not t$e -D or a Congressman ,$o $as t$e &o,er to recommen! nominees (or t$e &osition o( =BO. DBM t$ro%g$ its Director o( t$e B%rea% o( Legal P Legislative #((airs ;BLL#< #(%r%ng iss%e! a Memoran!%m r%ling t$at t$e )an 7%anHs letterD&rotest is not meritorio%s consi!ering t$at DBM vali!l' e4ercise! its &rerogative in (illingD%& t$e conteste! &osition since none o( t$e $is nominees met t$e &rescribe! re.%irements. )an 7%an t$en move! (or a reconsi!eration o( t$e BLL# r%ling. )%c$ ,as !enie!. He t$en ,rote t$e C)C ,$ic$ iss%e! resol%tions %&$ol!ing #lma9ose>s a&&ointment. *ss%e: 6ON t$e DBM can a&&oint an'one in t$e event t$at t$e Governor recommen!s %n.%ali(ie! &ersons. NO. iss%e is not merel' abo%t vali!it' o( a&&ointment o( =BO b%t involves t$e a&&lication o( a most im&ortant constit%tional &olic' an! &rinci&le local autonom#. 6$ere a la, is ca&able o( t,o inter&retations one in (avor o( centraliBe! &o,er in MalacaRang an! t$e ot$er bene(icial to local a%tonom' t$e scales m%st be ,eig$e! in (avor o( a%tonom'. McMinle'Hs *nstr%ctions: establis$ment o( m%nici&al governments natives a((or!e! t$e o&&ort%nit' to manage t$eir o,n local o((icers to t$e (%llest e4tent o( ,$ic$ t$e' are ca&able an! s%b9ect to t$e least !egree o( s%&ervision an! control 181C Constit%tion: limite! t$e e4ec%tive &o,er over local governments to "general s%&ervision . . . as ma' be &rovi!e! b' la,." Tecson v. Salas: &resi!ential com&etence is not even s%&ervision in general b%t general s%&ervision as ma' be &rovi!e! b' la,. He co%l! not t$%s go be'on! t$e a&&licable stat%tor' &rovisions ,$ic$ bin! an! (etter $is !iscretion on t$e matter. )%&ervision goes no (%rt$er t$an "overseeing or t$e &o,er or a%t$orit' o( an o((icer to see t$at s%bor!inate o((icers &er(orm t$eir !%ties. *( t$e latter (ail or neglect to (%l(ill t$em t$e (ormer ma' ta+e s%c$ action or ste& as &rescribe! b' la, to ma+e t$em &er(orm t$eir !%ties." Control "means t$e &o,er o( an o((icer to alter or mo!i(' or n%lli(' or set asi!e ,$at a s%bor!inate $a! !one in t$e &er(ormance o( t$eir !%ties an! to s%bstit%te t$e 9%!gment o( t$e (ormer (or t$at o( t$e latter." -# //G0 "#n #ct #men!ing t$e La, Governing Local Governments b' *ncreasing 2$eir #%tonom' an! -eorganiBing Local Governments" ,as &asse!. *t ,as (ollo,e! in 18G7 ,$en -e&%blic #ct No. C18C t$e DecentraliBation La, ,as enacte! giving "(%rt$er a%tonomo%s &o,ers to local governments governments." 1871 Constit%tion: t$e state s$all g%arantee an! &romote t$e a%tonom' o( LG@s es&eciall' t$e baranga' to ens%re t$eir (%llest !evelo&ment as sel(Dreliant comm%nities. article on Local Government ,as incor&orate! into t$e Constit%tion. *t calle! (or a LGC !e(ining more res&onsive an! acco%ntable local government str%ct%res. 2$e e4ercise o( greater local a%tonom' is even more mar+e! in t$e &resent Constit%tion. #rticle ** )ection /C on )tate =olicies &rovi!es: )ec. /C. 2$e )tate s$all ens%re t$e a%tonom' o( local governments 2$e 10 sections in #rticle J on Local Government not onl' reiterate earlier !octrines b%t give in greater !etail t$e &rovisions ma+ing local a%tonom' more meaning(%l. 2$%s )ections / an! 1 o( #rticle J &rovi!e:

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


)ec. /. 2$e territorial an! &olitical s%b!ivisions s$all en9o' local a%tonom'. )ec. 1. 2$e Congress s$all enact a LGC ,$ic$ s$all &rovi!e (or a more res&onsive an! acco%ntable local government str%ct%re instit%te! t$ro%g$ a s'stem o( !ecentraliBation ,it$ e((ective mec$anisms o( recall initiative an! re(eren!%m allocate among t$e !i((erent LG@s t$eir &o,ers res&onsibilities an! reso%rces an! &rovi!e (or t$e .%ali(ications election a&&ointment an! removal term salaries &o,ers an! (%nctions an! !%ties o( local o((icials an! all ot$er matters relating to t$e organiBation an! o&eration o( t$e local %nits. 6$en t$e Civil )ervice Commission inter&rete! t$e recommen!ing &o,er o( t$e =rovincial Governor as &%rel' !irector' it ,ent against t$e letter an! s&irit o( t$e constit%tional &rovisions on local a%tonom'. *( t$e DBM )ecretar' 9ealo%sl' $oar!s t$e entiret' o( b%!getar' &o,ers an! ignores t$e rig$t o( local governments to !evelo& sel(Dreliance an! resol%teness in t$e $an!ling o( t$eir o,n (%n!s t$e goal o( meaning(%l local a%tonom' is (r%strate! an! set bac+. 2$e rig$t given b' Local B%!get Circ%lar No. 11 ,$ic$ states: )ec. G.5 S 2$e DBM reserves t$e rig$t to (ill %& an' e4isting vacanc' ,$ere none o( t$e nominees o( t$e local c$ie( e4ec%tive meet t$e &rescribe! re.%irements. is %ltra vires an! is accor!ingl' set asi!e. 2$e DBM ma' a&&oint onl' (rom t$e list o( .%ali(ie! recommen!ees nominate! b' t$e Governor. *( none is .%ali(ie! $e m%st ret%rn t$e list o( nominees to t$e Governor e4&laining ,$' no one meets t$e legal re.%irements an! as+ (or ne, recommen!ees ,$o $ave t$e necessar' eligibilities an! .%ali(ications. 2$e =BO is e4&ecte! to s'nc$roniBe $is ,or+ ,it$ DBM. More im&ortant $o,ever is t$e &ro&er a!ministration o( (iscal a((airs at t$e local level. =rovincial an! m%nici&al b%!gets are &re&are! at t$e local level an! a(ter com&letion are (or,ar!e! to t$e national o((icials (or revie,. 2$e' are &re&are! b' t$e local o((icials ,$o m%st ,or+ ,it$in t$e constraints o( t$ose b%!gets. 2$e' are not (orm%late! in t$e inner sanct%ms o( an allD+no,ing DBM an! %nilaterall' im&ose! on local governments ,$et$er or not t$e' are relevant to local nee!s an! reso%rces. *t is (or t$is reason t$at t$ere s$o%l! be a gen%ine inter&la' a balancing o( vie,&oints an! a $armoniBation o( &ro&osals (rom bot$ t$e local an! national o((icials. *t is (or t$is reason t$at t$e nomination an! a&&ointment &rocess involves a s$aring o( &o,er bet,een t$e t,o levels o( government. *t ma' not be amiss to give b' ,a' o( analog' t$e &roce!%re (ollo,e! in t$e a&&ointments o( 7%stices an! 7%!ges. @n!er #rticle K*** o( t$e Constit%tion nominations (or 9%!icial &ositions are ma!e b' t$e 7%!icial an! Bar Co%ncil. 2$e =resi!ent ma+es t$e a&&ointments (rom t$e list o( nominees s%bmitte! to $er b' t$e Co%ncil. )$e cannot a&&l' t$e DBM &roce!%re re9ect all t$e Co%ncil nominees an! a&&oint anot$er &erson ,$om s$e (eels is better .%ali(ie!. 2$ere can be no reservation o( t$e rig$t to (ill %& a &osition ,it$ a &erson o( t$e a&&ointing &o,erHs &ersonal c$oice. 2$e &%blic res&on!entHs grave ab%se o( !iscretion is aggravate! b' t$e (act t$at Director GalveB re.%ire! t$e =rovincial Governor to s%bmit at least t$ree ot$er names o( nominees better .%ali(ie! t$an $is earlier recommen!ation. *t ,as a meaningless e4ercise. 2$e a&&ointment o( t$e &rivate res&on!ent ,as (ormaliBe! be(ore t$e Governor ,as e4ten!e! t$e co%rtes' o( being in(orme! t$at $is nominee $a! been re9ecte!. 2$e com&lete !isregar! o( t$e local governmentHs &rerogative an! t$e sm%g belie( t$at t$e DBM $as absol%te ,is!om a%t$orit' an! !iscretion are mani(est. *n $is classic ,or+ "=$ili&&ine =olitical La," Dean Kicente G. )inco state! t$at t$e val%e o( local governments as instit%tions o( !emocrac' is meas%re! b' t$e !egree o( a%tonom' t$at t$e' en9o'. Citing 2oc.%eville $e state! t$at "local assemblies o( citiBens constit%te t$e strengt$ o( (ree nations. . . . # &eo&le ma' establis$ a s'stem o( (ree government b%t ,it$o%t t$e s&irit o( m%nici&al instit%tions it cannot $ave t$e s&irit o( libert'." ;)inco =$ili&&ine =olitical La, 3levent$ 3!ition &&. 75CD75G<. O%r national o((icials s$o%l! not onl' com&l' ,it$ t$e constit%tional &rovisions on local a%tonom' b%t s$o%l! also a&&reciate t$e s&irit o( libert' %&on ,$ic$ t$ese &rovisions are base!. Pimentel v. Aguirre Facts: 'an v. COM%L%C Facts: Ganzon v. C(C

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


Facts: Cor illera Broa Coalition v. COA Facts: Limbona v. Mangelin Facts:

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


$im as ,ell as $is re&resentatives an! agents (rom &assing in a%!it an' e4&en!it%re o( &%blic (%n!s in im&lementation o( sai! 3Os an!?or an' !isb%rsement b' sai! m%nici&alities. =elaeB claims t$at -# /175 $a! alrea!' im&lie!l' re&eale! )ec G8. -# /175 )ec 1:Barrios shall not be created or their boundaries altered nor their names changed except under the provisions of this Act or by Act of Congress; All barrios existing at the time of the passage of this Act shall come under the provisions hereof. 6$en -# /175 became e((ective barrios ma' "not be create! or t$eir bo%n!aries altere! nor t$eir names c$ange!" e4ce&t b' #ct o( Congress or o( t$e corres&on!ing &rovincial boar! "%&on &etition o( a ma9orit' o( t$e voters in t$e areas a((ecte!" an! t$e "recommen!ation o( t$e co%ncil o( t$e m%nici&alit' or m%nici&alities in ,$ic$ t$e &ro&ose! barrio is sit%ate!." *))@3: *( t$e =resi!ent %n!er t$is ne, la, cannot even create a barrio can $e create a m%nici&alit' ,$ic$ is com&ose! o( several barrios since barrios are %nits o( m%nici&alitiesT ,O. 2$e stat%tor' !enial o( t$e &resi!ential a%t$orit' to create a ne, barrio im&lies a negation o( t$e bigger &o,er to create m%nici&alities eac$ o( ,$ic$ consists o( several barrios. n delegation of legislative power! 6$ile t$e &o,er to (i4 s%c$ common bo%n!ar' in or!er to avoi! or settle con(licts o( 9%ris!iction bet,een a!9oining m%nici&alities ma' &arta+e o( an a!ministrative nat%re S involving as it !oes t$e a!o&tion o( means an! ,a's to carr' into e((ect t$e la, creating sai! m%nici&alities S t$e a%t$orit' to create m%nici&al cor&orations is essentiall' legislative in nat%re. *n t$e lang%age o( ot$er co%rts it is "strictl' a legislative (%nction" or "solel' an! e4cl%sivel' t$e e4ercise o( legislative &o,er. " M%nici&al cor&orations are &%rel' t$e creat%res o( stat%tes. #lt$o%g$ Congress ma' !elegate to anot$er branc$ o( t$e Government t$e &o,er to (ill in t$e !etails in t$e e4ec%tion en(orcement or a!ministration o( a la, it is essential to (orestall a violation o( t$e &rinci&le o( se&aration o( &o,ers t$at sai! la,: ;a< be com&lete in itsel( S it m%st set (ort$ t$erein t$e &olic' to be e4ec%te! carrie! o%t or im&lemente! b' t$e !elegate S an! ;b< (i4 a stan!ar! S t$e

Pelaez v. Au itor General Facts: =%rs%ant to )ec G8 o( t$e -#C t$e =resi!ent iss%e! 3Os 81D 1/1 1/0 an! 1/GD1/8 ,$ic$ create! 11 &rovinces. =elaeB instit%te! t$e &resent s&ecial civil action (or a ,rit o( &ro$ibition ,it$ &reliminar' in9%nction against t$e #%!itor General to restrain

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


limits o( ,$ic$ are s%((icientl' !eterminate or !eterminable S to ,$ic$ t$e !elegate m%st con(orm in t$e &er(ormance o( $is (%nctions. )ection G8 o( t$e -evise! #!ministrative Co!e !oes not meet t$ese ,ell settle! re.%irements (or a vali! !elegation o( t$e &o,er to (i4 t$e !etails in t$e en(orcement o( a la,. *t !oes not en%nciate an' &olic' to be carrie! o%t or im&lemente! b' t$e =resi!ent. Neit$er !oes it give a stan!ar! s%((icientl' &recise to avoi! t$e evil e((ects above re(erre! to. )c$ec$ter case: N*-# %nconstit%tional. *t s%&&lies no stan!ar!s (or an' tra!e in!%str' or activit'. *t !oes not %n!erta+e to &rescribe r%les o( con!%ct to be a&&lie! to &artic%lar states o( (act !etermine! b' a&&ro&riate a!ministrative &roce!%re. *nstea! o( &rescribing r%les o( con!%ct it a%t$oriBes t$e ma+ing o( co!es to &rescribe t$em. For t$at legislative %n!erta+ing )ec. 1 sets %& no stan!ar!s asi!e (rom t$e statement o( t$e general aims o( re$abilitation correction an! e4&ansion !escribe! in )ec. 1. *n vie, o( t$e sco&e o( t$at broa! !eclaration an! o( t$e nat%re o( t$e (e, restrictions t$at are im&ose! t$e !iscretion o( t$e =resi!ent in a&&roving or &rescribing co!es an! t$%s enacting la,s (or t$e government o( tra!e an! in!%str' t$ro%g$o%t t$e co%ntr' is virt%all' %n(ettere!. 6e t$in+ t$at t$e co!e ma+ing a%t$orit' t$%s con(erre! is an %nconstit%tional !elegation o( legislative &o,er. *( t$e term "%n(air com&etition" is so broa! as to vest in t$e =resi!ent a !iscretion t$at is "virt%all' %n(ettere!." an! conse.%entl' tantamo%nt to a !elegation o( legislative &o,er it is obvio%s t$at "&%blic ,el(are " ,$ic$ $as even a broa!er connotation lea!s to t$e same res%lt. *n (act i( t$e vali!it' o( t$e !elegation o( &o,ers ma!e in )ection G8 ,ere %&$el! t$ere ,o%l! no longer be an' legal im&e!iment to a stat%tor' grant o( a%t$orit' to t$e =resi!ent to !o an't$ing ,$ic$ in $is o&inion ma' be re.%ire! b' &%blic ,el(are or &%blic interest. )%c$ grant o( a%t$orit' ,o%l! be a virt%al ab!ication o( t$e &o,ers o( Congress in (avor o( t$e 34ec%tive an! ,o%l! bring abo%t a total colla&se o( t$e !emocratic s'stem establis$e! b' o%r Constit%tion ,$ic$ it is t$e s&ecial !%t' an! &rivilege o( t$is Co%rt to %&$ol!. the executive orders in "uestion were issued after the legislative bills for the creation of the municipalities involved in this case had failed to pass Congress. # better &roo( o( t$e (act t$at t$e iss%ance o( sai! e4ec%tive or!ers entails t$e e4ercise o( &%rel' legislative (%nctions can $ar!l' be given. n the #resident$s power of control! )ec 15 ;1< #rt. K** Consti: The #resident shall have control of all the executive departments% bureaus% or offices% exercise general supervision over all local governments as may be provided by law% and ta&e care that the laws be faithfully executed. 2$e &o,er o( control %n!er t$is &rovision im&lies t$e rig$t o( t$e =resi!ent to inter(ere in t$e e4ercise o( s%c$ !iscretion as ma' be veste! b' la, in t$e o((icers o( t$e e4ec%tive !e&artments b%rea%s or o((ices o( t$e national government as ,ell as to act in lie% o( s%c$ o((icers. 2$is po"er is enie b# the Constitution to the %xecutive- inso!ar as local governments are concerne . LG@s: (%n!amental la, &ermits $im to ,iel! no more a%t$orit' t$an t$at o( c$ec+ing ,$et$er sai! local governments or t$e o((icers t$ereo( &er(orm t$eir !%ties as &rovi!e! b' stat%tor' enactments. 2$e =resi!ent cannot inter(ere ,it$ local governments so long as t$e same or its o((icers act 6it$in t$e sco&e o( t$eir a%t$orit'. @&on t$e ot$er $an! i( t$e =resi!ent co%l! create a m%nici&alit' $e co%l! in e((ect remove an' o( its o((icials b' creating a ne, m%nici&alit' an! incl%!ing t$erein t$e barrio in ,$ic$ t$e o((icial concerne! resi!es (or $is o((ice ,o%l! t$ereb' become vacant.G 2$%s b' merel' bran!is$ing t$e &o,er to create a ne, m%nici&alit' ;i( $e $a! it< ,it$o%t act%all' creating it $e co%l! com&el local o((icials to s%bmit to $is !ictation t$ereb' in e((ect

11

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


e4ercising over t$em t$e &o,er o( control !enie! to $im b' t$e Constit%tion. 2$en also t$e &o,er o( control o( t$e =resi!ent over e4ec%tive !e&artments b%rea%s or o((ices im&lies no more t$an t$e a%t$orit' to ass%me !irectl' t$e (%nctions t$ereo( or to inter(ere in t$e e4ercise o( !iscretion b' its o((icials. Mani(estl' s%c$ control !oes not incl%!e t$e a%t$orit' eit$er to abolis$ an e4ec%tive !e&artment or b%rea% or to create a ne, one. #s a conse.%ence t$e allege! &o,er o( t$e =resi!ent to create m%nici&al cor&orations ,o%l! necessaril' connote t$e e4ercise b' $im o( an a%t$orit' even greater t$an t$at o( control ,$ic$ $e $as over t$e e4ec%tive !e&artments b%rea%s or o((ices. *n ot$er ,or!s )ec G8 o( t$e -evise! #!ministrative Co!e !oes not merel' (ail to com&l' ,it$ t$e constit%tional man!ate above .%ote!. *nstea! o( giving t$e =resi!ent less &o,er over local governments t$an t$at veste! in $im over t$e e4ec%tive !e&artments b%rea%s or o((ices it reverses t$e &rocess an! !oes t$e e4act o&&osite b' con(erring %&on $im more &o,er over m%nici&al cor&orations t$an t$at ,$ic$ $e $as over sai! e4ec%tive !e&artments b%rea%s or o((ices. *n s$ort even i( it !i! entail an %n!%e !elegation o( legislative &o,ers as it certainl' !oes sai! )ection G8 as &art o( t$e -evise! #!ministrative Co!e a&&rove! on Marc$ 15 1817 m%st be !eeme! re&eale! b' t$e s%bse.%ent a!o&tion o( t$e Constit%tion in 181C ,$ic$ is %tterl' incom&atible an! inconsistent ,it$ sai! stat%tor' enactment. Municipalit# o! .apalong v. Mo#a Facts: =res. Garcia create! t$e M%nici&alit' o( )anto 2omas (rom &ortions o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( Ma&along. )to. 2omas no, asserts 9%ris!iction over eig$t barrios o( Ma&along. )to. 2omas t$en (ile! a com&laint against Ma&along (or settlement o( t$e m%nici&al bo%n!ar' !is&%te. *ss%e: 6ON )anto 2omas legall' e4ists. NO. #s r%le! in t$e =elaeB case t$e =resi!ent $as no &o,er to create a m%nici&alit'. )ince &rivate res&on!ent $as no legal &ersonalit' it can not be a &art' to an' civil action an! as s%c$ 7%!ge Mo'a s$o%l! $ave !ismisse! t$e case since (%rt$er &rocee!ings ,o%l! be &ointless. 2$e -%les o( Co%rt e4&ressl' &rovi!es t$at onl' "entities a%t$oriBe! b' la, ma' be &arties in a civil action. Alvarez v. Guingona /supra- see p.01 Ca"aling v. COM%L%C Facts: =resi!ent 3stra!a signe! into la, -# 885G ;#ct Creating 2$e Cit' O( )orsogon B' Merging 2$e M%nici&alities O( Bacon #n! )orsogon *n 2$e =rovince O( )orsogon #n! #&&ro&riating F%n!s 2$ere(or<. 2$e COM3L3C con!%cte! a &lebiscite in Bacon an! )orsogon an! s%bmitte! t$e matter (or rati(ication. 2$e =lebiscite Cit' Boar! o( Canvassers ;=CBC< t$en &roclaime! t$e creation o( t$e Cit' o( )orsogon as $aving been rati(ie! an! a&&rove! b' t$e ma9orit' o( t$e votes cast in t$e &lebiscite. Ca,aling invo+ing $is rig$ts as a ta4&a'er (ile! a &etition (or certiorari see+ing t$e ann%lment o( t$e &lebiscite an! c$allenging -# 885G. *ss%es: 1. 6ON t$e creation o( )orsogon Cit' b' merging t,o m%nici&alities violates )ection 0C5;a< LGC ;in relation to )ection 15 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion< ,$ic$ re.%ires t$at onl' "a m%nici&alit' or a cl%ster o( baranga's ma' be converte! into a com&onent cit'" NO. Criteria (or t$e creation o( a cit': )3C2*ON 0C5. -e.%isites (or Creation. S ;a< # m%nici&alit' or a cl%ster o( baranga's ma' be converte! into a com&onent cit' i( it $as an average ann%al income as certi(ie! b' t$e De&artment o( Finance o( at least 2,ent' million ;=/5 555 555.55< (or t$e last t,o ;/< consec%tive 'ears base! on 1881 constant &rices an! i( it $as eit$er o( t$e (ollo,ing re.%isites: ;i< a contig%o%s territor' o( at least one $%n!re! ;155< s.%are +ilometers as certi(ie! b' t$e Lan!s Management B%rea%A or ;ii< a &o&%lation o( not less t$an one $%n!re! (i(t' t$o%san! ;1C5 555< in$abitants as certi(ie! b' t$e National )tatistics O((ice: =rovi!e! 2$at t$e creation t$ereo( s$all not re!%ce t$e lan! area &o&%lation an! income o( t$e original %nit or %nits at t$e time o( sai! creation to less t$an t$e minim%m re.%irements &rescribe! $erein. ;b< 2$e territorial 9%ris!iction o( a ne,l'D

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


create! cit' s$all be &ro&erl' i!enti(ie! b' metes an! bo%n!s. 2$e re.%irement on lan! area s$all not a&&l' ,$ere t$e cit' &ro&ose! to be create! is com&ose! o( one ;1< or more islan!s. 2$e territor' nee! not be contig%o%s i( it com&rises t,o ;/< or more islan!s. ;c< 2$e average ann%al income s$all incl%!e t$e income accr%ing to t$e general (%n! e4cl%sive o( s&eci(ic (%n!s trans(ers an! nonDrec%rring income." =etitionerHs constricte! rea!ing o( )ection 0C5;a< o( t$e Co!e is erroneo%s. 2$e &$rase "# m%nici&alit' or a cl%ster o( baranga's ma' be converte! into a com&onent cit'" is not a criterion b%t sim&l' one o( t$e mo!es b' ,$ic$ a cit' ma' be create!. )ection 15 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion .%ote! earlier an! ,$ic$ &etitioner cite! in s%&&ort o( $is &ost%re allo,s t$e merger o( LG@s to create a &rovince cit' m%nici&alit' or baranga' in accor!ance ,it$ t$e criteria establis$e! b' t$e Co!e. 2$e creation o( an entirel' ne, LG@ t$ro%g$ a !ivision or a merger o( e4isting LG@s is recogniBe! %n!er t$e Constit%tion &rovi!e! t$at s%c$ merger or !ivision s$all com&l' ,it$ t$e re.%irements &rescribe! b' t$e Co!e. 1. 6ON it violates t$e Eone bill one s%b9ectF r%le. NO. =etitioner conten!s t$at -.#. No. 885G act%all' embraces t,o &rinci&al s%b9ects ,$ic$ are: ;1< t$e creation o( t$e Cit' o( )orsogon an! ;/< t$e abolition o( t$e M%nici&alities o( Bacon an! )orsogon. 6$ile t$e title o( t$e #ct s%((icientl' in(orms t$e &%blic abo%t t$e creation o( )orsogon Cit' &etitioner claims t$at no s%c$ in(ormation $as been &rovi!e! on t$e abolition o( t$e M%nici&alities o( Bacon an! )orsogon. Contrar' to &etitionerHs assertion t$ere is onl' one s%b9ect embrace! in t$e title o( t$e la, t$at is t$e creation o( t$e Cit' o( )orsogon. 2$e abolition?cessation o( t$e cor&orate e4istence o( t$e M%nici&alities o( Bacon an! )orsogon !%e to t$eir merger is not a s%b9ect se&arate an! !istinct (rom t$e creation o( )orsogon Cit'. )%c$ abolition?cessation ,as b%t t$e logical nat%ral an! inevitable conse.%ence o( t$e merger. Ot$er,ise &%t it is t$e necessar' means b' ,$ic$ t$e Cit' o( )orsogon ,as create!. Hence t$e title o( t$e la, "#n #ct Creating t$e Cit' o( )orsogon b' Merging t$e M%nici&alities o( Bacon an! )orsogon in t$e =rovince o( )orsogon an! #&&ro&riating F%n!s 2$ere(or " cannot be sai! to e4cl%!e t$e inci!ental e((ect o( abolis$ing t$e t,o m%nici&alities nor can it be consi!ere! to $ave !e&rive! t$e &%blic o( (air in(ormation on t$is conse.%ence. 1. 6ON t$e &lebiscite ,as timel' con!%cte!. :3). 2$e la, ,as (irst &%blis$e! in t$e #%g%st /C /555 iss%e o( 2OD#: a ne,s&a&er o( general circ%lation. 2$en on )e&tember 51 /555 it ,as &%blis$e! in a ne,s&a&er o( local circ%lation in t$e =rovince o( )orsogon. 2$%s t$e &%blication o( t$e la, ,as com&lete! on )e&tember 1 /555 ,$ic$ !ate accor!ing to t$e COM3L3C s$o%l! be t$e rec+oning &oint in !etermining t$e 1/5D!a' &erio! ,it$in ,$ic$ to con!%ct t$e &lebiscite not (rom t$e !ate o( its a&&roval ;#%g%st 1G /555< ,$en t$e la, $a! not 'et been &%blis$e!. 2$e COM3L3C arg%es t$at since &%blication is in!is&ensable (or t$e e((ectivit' o( a la, citing t$e lan!mar+ case o( 2aRa!a vs. 2%vera it co%l! onl' sc$e!%le t$e &lebiscite a(ter t$e #ct too+ e((ect. 2$%s t$e COM3L3C concl%!es t$e December 1G /555 &lebiscite ,as ,ell ,it$in t$e 1/5D!a' &erio! (rom t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e la, on )e&tember 1 /555 t$e &lebiscite s$all be con!%cte! ,it$in 1/5 !a's (rom t$e !ate o( t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e la, not (rom its a&&roval. 6$ile t$e same &rovision allo,s a la, or or!inance to (i4 "anot$er !ate" (or con!%cting a &lebiscite still s%c$ !ate m%st be rec+one! (rom t$e !ate o( t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e la,. Conse.%entl' t$e ,or! "a&&roval" in )ection C0 o( -.#. No. 885G ,$ic$ s$o%l! be rea! toget$er ,it$ )ection GC ;e((ectivit' o( t$e #ct< t$ereo( co%l! onl' mean "e((ectivit'" as %se! an! contem&late! in )ection 15 o( t$e Co!e. 2$is constr%ction is in accor! ,it$ t$e (%n!amental r%le t$at all &rovisions o( t$e la,s relating to t$e same s%b9ect s$o%l! be

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


rea! toget$er an! reconcile! to avoi! inconsistenc' or re&%gnanc' to establis$e! 9%ris&r%!ence Pelaez v. Au itor General /supra- see p.021 Municipalit# o! Can i3a# v. CA Facts: 2$e M%nici&alities o( #licia an! Can!i9a' ,ere in !is&%te over barrio?baranga' =aga$at. 2$e -2C r%le! in (avor o( Can!i9a'. C# : 1. Co%rt re9ecte! t$e bo%n!ar' line being claime! b' &etitioner since it ,o%l! in e((ect &lace "&racticall' all o( Barrio =aga$at . . . &art o( Barrio Cagongcagong an! &ortions o( Barrio =%tlongcam an! La Hacien!a an! all o( Barrio Ma$a'ag an! Barrio !el Monte ,it$in t$e territorial 9%ris!iction o( Can!i9a'." Can!i9a' ,ill not onl' eng%l( t$e entire barrio o( =aga$at b%t also o( t$e barrios o( =%tlongcam Ma$a'ag Del Monte Cagongcagong an! a &art o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( Mabini. Can!i9a' ,ill eat %& a big c$%n+ o( territories (ar e4cee!ing $er territorial 9%ris!iction %n!er t$e la, creating $er. /. 2rial co%rt erre! in rel'ing on 34$. JDCommissioner Ue4$ibit (or &etitionerV beca%se in e((ect it incl%!e! &ortions o( Barrios =%tlongcam an! La Hacien!a ,it$in t$e 9%ris!iction o( Can!i9a' ,$en sai! barrios are %n!is&%te!l' &art o( #licia>s territor' %n!er 3O/GC creating t$e latter" 3. #(ter an e4amination o( t$e res&ective s%rve' &lans o( &etitioner an! res&on!ent s%bmitte! as e4$ibits co%rt: "bot$ &lans are ina!e.%ate inso(ar as i!enti('ing t$e mon%ments o( t$e bo%n!ar' line bet,een Can!i9a' an! t$e M%nici&alit' o( Mabini ;,$ic$ is not a &art' to t$is case< as !eclare! b' t$e =rovincial Boar! o( Bo$ol. Neit$er &lan s$o,s ,$ere LoocD2abasan Lomislis *slan! 2agtang Canlirong mentione! in t$e a(ore.%ote! bo%n!ar' line !eclare! b' t$e =rovincial Boar! o( Bo$ol are act%all' locate!." 2$e res&on!ent Co%rt a(ter ,eig$ing an! consi!ering t$e im&ort o( certain o((icial acts incl%!ing 3O. /GC !ate! )e&tember 1G 1808 ;,$ic$ create! t$e m%nici&alit' o( #licia (rom o%t o( certain barrios o( t$e m%nici&alit' o( Mabini< an! #ct 8G8 o( t$e =$ili&&ine Commission !ate! October 11 1851 ;,$ic$ set (ort$ t$e res&ective com&onent territories o( t$e m%nici&alities o( Mabini an! Can!i9a'< concl%!e! t$at "Barrio B%la,an (rom ,$ere barrio =aga$at originate! is not mentione! as one o( t$e barrios constit%te! as &art o( !e(en!antDa&&ellant M%nici&alit' o( #licia. Neit$er !o t$e' s$o, t$at Barrio =aga$at (orms &art o( &lainti((Da&&ellant M%nici&alit' o( Can!i9a'." 4. C#: t$ere is an e.%i&on!erance o( evi!ence 6$en t$e scale s$all stan! %&on an e.%i&oise an! t$ere is not$ing in t$e evi!ence ,$ic$ s$all incline it to one si!e or t$e ot$er t$e co%rt ,ill (in! (or t$e !e(en!ant. @n!er sai! &rinci&le t$e &lainti(( m%st rel' on t$e strengt$ o( $is evi!ence an! not on t$e ,ea+ness o( !e(en!antHs claim. 3ven i( t$e evi!ence o( t$e &lainti(( ma' be stronger t$an t$at o( t$e !e(en!ant t$ere is no &re&on!erance o( evi!ence on $is si!e i( s%c$ evi!ence is ins%((icient in itsel( to establis$ $is ca%se o( action *ss%es: 1. 6ON t$e C# erre! in its a&&lication o( t$e &rinci&le o( "e.%i&on!erance o( evi!ence" (or $aving base! its r%ling against &etitioner on !oc%mentar' evi!ence ,$ic$ &etitioner claims are voi! /. t$at t$e c$allenge! Decision "!oes not solve t$e &roblem o( bot$ to,ns b%t t$ro,s t$em bac+ again to t$eir controvers'." 6it$ res&ect to t$e (irst an! secon! gro%n!s ,e (in! t$at t$e iss%es o( (act in t$is case $a! been a!e.%atel' &asse! %&on b' res&on!ent Co%rt in its Decision ,$ic$ is ,ellDs%&&orte! b' t$e evi!ence on recor!. 2$e !etermination o( e.%i&on!erance o( evi!ence b' t$e res&on!ent Co%rt involves t$e a&&reciation o( evi!ence b' t$e latter trib%nal ,$ic$ ,ill not be revie,e! b' t$is Co%rt %nless s$o,n to be ,$imsical or ca&ricio%sA $ere t$ere $as been no s%c$ s$o,ing. Neit$er &art' ,as able to ma+e o%t a caseA neit$er si!e co%l! establis$ its ca%se o( action an! &revail ,it$ t$e evi!ence it $a!. #s a conse.%ence t$ereo( t$e co%rts can onl' leave t$em as t$e' are. *n s%c$ cases co%rts $ave no c$oice b%t to !ismiss t$e com&laints?&etitions. 1.#licia>s &%r&orte! lac+ o( 9%ri!ical &ersonalit' as a res%lt o( $aving been create! %n!er a voi! e4ec%tive or!er Can!i9a' commence! its collateral attac+ on t$e 9%ri!ical &ersonalit' o( #licia some t$irt' (ive 'ears a(ter it (irst came into e4istence in 1808. *t a&&ears t$at a(ter &resentation o( its evi!ence Can!i9a' as+e! t$e trial co%rt to bar #licia (rom &resenting its evi!ence on t$e gro%n! t$at it $a! no 9%ri!ical

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


&ersonalit'. Can!i9a' conten!e! t$at 3O /GC iss%e! b' is n%ll an! voi! ab initio inasm%c$ as )ec G8 o( t$e -#C on ,$ic$ sai! 3O ,as base! constit%te! an %n!%e !elegation o( legislative &o,ers to t$e =resi!ent o( t$e =$ili&&ines an! ,as t$ere(ore !eclare! %nconstit%tional &er t$is Co%rtHs r%ling in #elae' vs. Auditor (eneral. )unicipality of San *arciso% +ue'on vs. )ende'% Sr: 3O 1C1 creating t$e m%nici&al !istrict o( )an #n!res ,as iss%e! on /5 #%g%st 18C8 b%t it ,as onl' after almost thirty ,-./ years or on 5C 7%ne 1888 t$at t$e m%nici&alit' o( )an Narciso (inall' !eci!e! to c$allenge t$e legalit' o( t$e e4ec%tive or!er. *n t$e meantime t$e M%nici&al !istrict an! later t$e M%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res began an! contin%e! to e4ercise t$e &o,ers an! a%t$orit' o( a !%l' create! LG@. Granting t$at 3O 1C1 ,as a com&lete n%llit' (or being t$e res%lt o( an %nconstit%tional !elegation o( legislative &o,er t$e &ec%liar circ%mstances obtaining in t$is case $ar!l' co%l! o((er a c$oice ot$er t$an to consi!er t$e M%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res to $ave at least attaine! a stat%s %ni.%el' o( its o,n closel' a&&ro4imating i( not in (act attaining t$at o( a de facto m%nici&al cor&oration. Conventional ,is!om cannot allo, it to be ot$er,ise. Create! in 18C8 b' virt%e o( 3O 1C1 t$e M%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res $a! been in e4istence (or more t$an si4 'ears ,$en on /0 December 18GC #elae' vs. Auditor (eneral ,as &rom%lgate!. 2$e r%ling co%l! $ave so%n!e! t$e call (or a similar !eclaration o( t$e %nconstit%tionalit' o( 3O 1C1 b%t it ,as not to be t$e case. On t$e contrar' certain governmental acts all &ointe! to t$e )tateHs recognition o( t$e contin%e! e4istence o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res: 1. 3O 170 classi(ie! t$e M%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res as a (i(t$ class m%nici&alit' a(ter $aving s%r&asse! t$e income re.%irement. /. @n!er #O 11 t$e M%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res $a! been covere! b' t$e 15t$ M%nici&al Circ%it Co%rt o( )an FranciscoD)an #n!res (or t$e &rovince o( W%eBon. 1. @n!er t$e Or!inance ;a!o&te! on 1C October 188G< a&&ortioning t$e seats o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives a&&en!e! to t$e 1887 Constit%tion t$e M%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res $as been consi!ere! to be one o( t$e t,elve ;1/< m%nici&alities com&osing t$e 2$ir! District o( t$e &rovince o( W%eBon. 0. )ection 00/ ;!< o( t$e LGC to t$e e((ect t$at m%nici&al !istricts "organiBe! &%rs%ant to &resi!ential iss%ances or e4ec%tive or!ers an! ,$ic$ $ave t$eir res&ective sets o( elective m%nici&al o((icials $ol!ing o((ice at t$e time o( t$e e((ectivit' o( ;t$e< Co!e s$all $ence(ort$ be consi!ere! as reg%lar m%nici&alities." No &retension o( %nconstit%tionalit' per se o( )ection 00/ ;!< o( t$e LGC is &ro((ere!. *t is !o%bt(%l ,$et$er s%c$ a &rete4t even i( ma!e ,o%l! s%ccee!. 2$e &o,er to create &olitical s%b!ivisions is a (%nction o( t$e legislat%re. Congress !i! 9%st t$at ,$en it $as incor&orate! )ection 00/ ;!< in t$e Co!e. Curative la,s ,$ic$ in essence are retros&ective an! aime! at giving "vali!it' to acts !one t$at ,o%l! $ave been invali! %n!er e4isting la,s as i( e4isting la,s $ave been com&lie! ,it$ " are vali!l' acce&te! in t$is 9%ris!iction s%b9ect to t$e %s%al .%ali(ication against im&airment o( veste! rig$ts. #ll consi!ere! t$e de 0ure stat%s o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res in t$e &rovince o( W%eBon m%st no, be conce!e!.

#liciaHs sit%ation in t$e instant case is stri+ingl'


similar to t$at o( t$e m%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res. #licia ,as create! b' virt%e o( 3O /GC in 1808 or ten 'ears a$ea! o( t$e m%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res an! t$ere(ore $a! been in e4istence (or all o( si4teen 'ears ,$en #elae' vs. Auditor (eneral ,as &rom%lgate!. #n! vario%s governmental acts t$ro%g$o%t t$e 'ears all in!icate t$e )tateHs recognition an! ac+no,le!gment o( t$e e4istence t$ereo(. For instance %n!er #O 11 aboveDmentione! t$e M%nici&alit' o( #licia ,as covere! b' t$e 7t$

1C

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


M%nici&al Circ%it Co%rt o( #liciaDMabini (or t$e &rovince o( Bo$ol. Li+e,ise %n!er t$e Or!inance a&&en!e! to t$e 1887 Constit%tion t$e M%nici&alit' o( #licia is one o( t,ent' m%nici&alities com&rising t$e 2$ir! District o( Bo$ol. *nasm%c$ as res&on!ent m%nici&alit' o( #licia is similarl' sit%ate! as t$e m%nici&alit' o( )an #n!res it s$o%l! li+e,ise bene(it (rom t$e e((ects o( )ec 00/ ;!< o( t$e LGC an! s$o%l! $ence(ort$ be consi!ere! as a reg%lar de 0ure m%nici&alit'. =olitical %nits !irectl' a((ecte!: resi!ents o( t$e &olitical entit' ,$o ,o%l! be economicall' !islocate! b' t$e se&aration o( a &ortion t$ereo( L %nits ,$ic$ ,o%l! &artici&ate in t$e &lebiscite. 'an v. COM%L%C /supra- see p.51 Miran a v. Aguirre Facts: *n 1880 -# 77/5 converting t$e m%nici&alit' o( )antiago to an in!e&en!ent com&onent cit' ,as signe! into la, an! t$erea(ter rati(ie! in a &lebiscite. Fo%r 'ears later -# 8C/8 ,$ic$ amen!e! -# 77/5 ,as enacte! c$anging t$e stat%s o( )antiago (rom an *CC to a com&onent cit'. =etitioners assail t$e constit%tionalit' o( -# 8C/8 beca%se it !oes not &rovi!e (or s%bmitting t$e la, (or rati(ication b' t$e &eo&le o( )antiago Cit' in a &ro&er &lebiscite. *ss%es: 1. 6ON &etitioners $ave stan!ing. :3). -%le: constit%tionalit' o( la, can be c$allenge! b' one ,$o ,ill s%stain a !irect in9%r' as a res%lt o( its en(orcement Miran!a ,as ma'or ,$en $e (ile! t$e &etition $is rig$ts ,o%l! $ave been greatl' a((ecte!. Ot$er &etitioners are resi!ents an! voters o( )antiago. 1. 6ON &etition involves a &olitical .%estion. NO. =W: concerne! ,it$ iss%es !e&en!ent %&on t$e ,is!om not legalit' o( a &artic%lar meas%re 7%sticiable iss%e: im&lies a given rig$t legall' !eman!able an! en(orceable an act or omission violative o( s%c$ rig$t an! a reme!' grante! an! sanctione! b' la, (or sai! breac$ o( rig$t Case at barL9%sticiable. 6ON &etitioners $ave rig$t to a &lebiscite is a legal .%estion. 6ON la,s &asse! b' Congress com&l' ,it$ t$e re.%irements o( t$e Consti &ose .%estions t$at t$is co%rt alone can !eci!e. 1. 6ON t$e c$ange involve! an' creation !ivision merger abolition or s%bstantial alteration o( bo%n!aries. :3). 6. 7O, a plebiscite is necessar# consi ering the change "as a mere reclassi!ication !rom )CC to CC. 8%(. # close anal'sis o( t$e sai! constit%tional &rovision ,ill reveal t$at t$e creation !ivision merger abolition or s%bstantial alteration o( bo%n!aries o( LG@s involve a common denominator 1 material c$ange in t$e &olitical an! economic rig$ts o( t$e

$ilas v. Cit# o! Manila /supra- see p.41 Pa illa v. COM%L%C Facts: # &lebiscite in t$e matter o( t$e creation o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( 2%la'DNaDL%&a ,as $el! in t$e m%nici&alit' o( Labo &%rs%ant to -# 71CC an! t$e Constit%tion. Onl' /885 (avore! its creation ,$ile 118 vote! against it. 2$e =lebiscite Boar! o( Canvassers !eclare! t$e re9ection an! !isa&&roval o( t$e in!e&en!ent M%nici&alit' o( 2NL. Gov. =a!illa see+s to set asi!e t$e &lebiscite an! &ra's t$at a ne, &lebiscite be %n!erta+en beca%se t$e &revio%s one ,as a com&lete (ail%re an! t$e res%lts obtaine! ,ere invali! an! illegal beca%se t$e &lebiscite s$o%l! $ave been con!%cte! onl' in t$e &olitical %nits a((ecte! i.e. t$e 1/ baranga's com&rising 2NL to t$e e4cl%sion o( t$e remaining areas o( t$e mot$er %nit. *ss%e: 6ON t$e &lebiscite con!%cte! is vali!. :3). =a!illa>s contention t$at t$e 2an r%ling $as been s%&erse!e! b' t$e rati(ication o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion $ence reinstating t$e =are!es r%ling is %ntenable. Ol! la,: E&olitical %nit or %nitsF Ne, la,: E&olitical %nitsF 2$e !eletion o( t$e ,or!s E%nit orF !oes not a((ect t$e 2an r%ling. Concom !ebates: Davi!e as+e! (or !eletion o( E%nit orF beca%se t$e &lebiscite is to be con!%cte! in all %nits a((ecte!.

1G

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


LG@s !irectl' a((ecte! as ,ell as t$e &eo&le t$erein. *t is &recisel' (or t$is reason t$at t$e Constit%tion re.%ires t$e a&&roval o( t$e &eo&le "in t$e &olitical %nits directly a((ecte!." )ec 15 #rt J a!!resse! t$e %n!esirable &ractice in t$e &ast ,$ereb' LG@s ,ere create! abolis$e! merge! or !ivi!e! on t$e basis o( t$e vagaries o( &olitics an! not o( t$e ,el(are o( t$e &eo&le. 2$%s t$e consent o( t$e &eo&le o( t$e LG@ !irectl' a((ecte! ,as re.%ire! to serve as a c$ec+ing mec$anism to an' e4ercise o( legislative &o,er creating !ivi!ing abolis$ing merging or altering t$e bo%n!aries o( LG@s. *t is one instance ,$ere t$e &eo&le in t$eir sovereign ca&acit' !eci!e on a matter t$at a((ects t$em S !irect !emocrac' o( t$e &eo&le as o&&ose! to !emocrac' t$r% &eo&leHs re&resentatives. 2$is &lebiscite re.%irement is also in accor! ,it$ t$e &$iloso&$' o( t$e Constit%tion granting more a%tonom' to LG@s. 2$e c$anges t$at ,ill res%lt (rom t$e !o,ngra!ing o( t$e cit' o( )antiago (rom an in!e&en!ent com&onent cit' to a com&onent cit' are man' an! cannot be c$aracteriBe! as ins%bstantial. 2$e in!e&en!ence o( t$e cit' as a &olitical %nit ,ill be !iminis$e!: X 2$e cit' ma'or ,ill be &lace! %n!er t$e a!ministrative s%&ervision o( t$e &rovincial governor. X 2$e resol%tions an! or!inances o( t$e cit' co%ncil o( )antiago ,ill $ave to be revie,e! b' t$e =rovincial Boar! o( *sabela. X 2a4es t$at ,ill be collecte! b' t$e cit' ,ill no, $ave to be s$are! ,it$ t$e &rovince. 6$en -# 77/5 %&gra!e! t$e stat%s o( )antiago Cit' (rom a m%nici&alit' to an in!e&en!ent com&onent cit' it re.%ire! t$e a&&roval o( its &eo&le t$r% a &lebiscite calle! (or t$e &%r&ose. 2$ere is neit$er r$'me nor reason ,$' t$is &lebiscite s$o%l! not be calle! to !etermine t$e ,ill o( t$e &eo&le o( )antiago Cit' ,$en -# 8C/8 !o,ngra!es t$e stat%s o( t$eir cit'. 2$ere is more reason to cons%lt t$e &eo&le ,$en a la, s%bstantiall' !iminis$es t$eir rig$t. -%le ** #rt G &aragra&$ ;(< ;1< o( t$e *--s o( t$e LGC is in accor! ,it$ t$e Constit%tion ,$en it &rovi!es t$at no creation conversion !ivision merger abolition or s%bstantial alteration o( bo%n!aries o( LG@) s$all ta+e e((ect %nless a&&rove! b' a ma9orit' o( t$e votes cast in a &lebiscite calle! (or t$e &%r&ose in t$e LG@ or LG@s a((ecte!. 2$e &lebiscite s$all be con!%cte! b' t$e Commission on 3lections ;COM3L3C< ,it$in one $%n!re! t,ent' ;1/5< !a's (rom t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e la, or or!inance &rescribing s%c$ action %nless sai! la, or or!inance (i4es anot$er !ate. 2$e r%les cover all conversions ,$et$er %&,ar! or !o,n,ar! in c$aracter so long as t$e' res%lt in a material c$ange in t$e LG@ !irectl' a((ecte! es&eciall' a c$ange in t$e &olitical an! economic rig$ts o( its &eo&le. 'obias v. Abalos Facts: =rior to t$e enactment o( -# 7G7C ;#n #ct Converting t$e M%nici&alit' o( Man!al%'ong into a Hig$l' @rbaniBe! Cit' to be +no,n as t$e Cit' o( Man!al%'ong< t$e m%nici&alities o( Man!al%'ong an! )an 7%an belonge! to onl' one legislative !istrict. =%rs%ant to t$e LGC a &lebiscite ,as $el! ,$ere t$e &eo&le o( Man!al%'ong ,ere as+e! ,$et$er t$e' a&&rove! o( t$e conversion o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( Man!al%'ong into a $ig$l' %rbaniBe! cit'. 2$e t%rno%t at t$e &lebiscite ,as onl' 10.01Y o( t$e voting &o&%lation. Nevert$eless 18 G/1 vote! "'es" ,$ereas 7 811 vote! "no." B' virt%e o( t$ese res%lts -# 7G7C ,as !eeme! rati(ie! an! in e((ect. =etitioners invo+ing t$eir rig$ts as ta4&a'ers an! as resi!ents o( Man!al%'ong come be(ore t$e co%rt to assail t$e constit%tionalit' o( -# 7G7C. *ss%e: 6ON -# 7G7C %nconstit%tional. :3). 1. -# 7G7C contravenes t$e "one s%b9ectDone bill" r%le. )ec. /G;1< Consti: 3ver' bill &asse! b' t$e Congress s$all embrace onl' one s%b9ect ,$ic$ s$all be e4&resse! in t$e title t$ereo(. =etitioners: incl%sion o( t$e assaile! )ection 08 in t$e s%b9ect la, res%lte! in t$e latter embracing t,o &rinci&al s%b9ects: ;1< t$e conversion o(

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


Man!al%'ong into a $ig$l' %rbaniBe! cit'A an! ;/< t$e !ivision o( t$e congressional !istrict o( )an 7%an?Man!al%'ong into t,o se&arate !istricts. t$e stat%tor' conversion o( Man!al%'ong into a $ig$l' %rbaniBe! cit' ,it$ a &o&%lation o( not less t$an t,o $%n!re! (i(t' t$o%san! in!%bitabl' or!ains com&liance ,it$ t$e "one cit'Done re&resentative" &roviso in t$e Constit%tion: 3ac$ cit' ,it$ a &o&%lation o( at least t,o $%n!re! (i(t' t$o%san! or eac$ &rovince s$all $ave at least one re&resentative" ;#rticle K* )ection C;1< Constit%tion<. Hence it is in com&liance ,it$ t$e a(orestate! constit%tional man!ate t$at t$e creation o( a se&arate congressional !istrict (or t$e Cit' o( Man!al%'ong is !ecree! %n!er #rticle K*** )ection 08 o( -..#. No. 7G7C. 2$e creation o( a se&arate congressional !istrict (or Man!al%'ong is not a s%b9ect se&arate an! !istinct (rom t$e s%b9ect o( its conversion into a $ig$l' %rbaniBe! cit' b%t is a nat%ral an! logical conse.%ence o( its conversion into a $ig$l' %rbaniBe! cit'. Keril' t$e title o( -.#. No. 7G7C "#n #ct Converting t$e M%nici&alit' o( Man!al%'ong *nto a Hig$l' @rbaniBe! Cit' o( Man!al%'ong" necessaril' incl%!es an! contem&lates t$e s%b9ect treate! %n!er )ection 08 regar!ing t$e creation o( a se&arate congressional !istrict (or Man!al%'ong. Sumulong v. Comelec! t$e constit%tional re.%irement as no, e4&resse! in #rticle K* )ection /G;1< "s$o%l! be given a &ractical rat$er t$an a tec$nical constr%ction. *t s$o%l! be s%((icient com&liance ,it$ s%c$ re.%irement i( t$e title e4&resses t$e general s%b9ect an! all t$e &rovisions are germane to t$at general s%b9ect." 2idasan v. Comelec! O( co%rse t$e Constit%tion !oes not re.%ire Congress to em&lo' in t$e title o( an enactment lang%age o( s%c$ &recision as to mirror (%ll' in!e4 or catalog%e all t$e contents an! t$e min%te !etails t$erein. *t s%((ices i( t$e title s$o%l! serve t$e &%r&ose o( t$e constit%tional !eman! t$at it in(orm t$e legislators t$e &ersons intereste! in t$e s%b9ect o( t$e bill an! t$e &%blic o( t$e nat%re sco&e an! conse"uences o( t$e &ro&ose! la, an! its o&eration" 1. 6ON t$e !ivision o( )an 7%an an! Man!al%'ong into se&arate congressional !istricts %n!er )ection 08 o( t$e assaile! la, res%lting in an increase in t$e com&osition o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives be'on! t$at &rovi!e! in #rticle K* )ec. C;1< o( t$e Constit%tion. )ec. C;1<. 2$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives s$all be com&ose! o( not more t$an t,o $%n!re! an! (i(t' members %nless ot$er,ise (i4e! b' la, ,$o s$all be electe! (rom legislative !istricts a&&ortione! among t$e &rovinces cities an! t$e Metro&olitan Manila area in accor!ance ,it$ t$e n%mber o( t$eir res&ective in$abitants an! on t$e basis o( a %ni(orm an! &rogressive ratio an! t$ose ,$o as &rovi!e! b' la, s$all be electe! t$ro%g$ a &art' list s'stem o( registere! national regional an! sectoral &arties or organiBations. Limit o( /C5 members is not absol%te. 2$e Constit%tion clearl' &rovi!es t$at t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives s$all be com&ose! o( not more t$an /C5 members "%nless ot$er,ise &rovi!e! b' la,." 2$e inesca&able im&ort o( t$e latter cla%se is t$at t$e &resent com&osition o( Congress ma' be increase! i( Congress itsel( so man!ates t$ro%g$ a legislative enactment. 2$ere(ore t$e increase in congressional re&resentation man!ate! b' -# 7G7C is not %nconstit%tional. 1. 6ON t$e !ivision ,as ma!e &%rs%ant to a cens%s s$o,ing t$at t$e s%b9ect m%nici&alities $ave attaine! t$e minim%m &o&%lation re.%irements. NO. =etitioners: t$ere is no mention in t$e assaile! la, o( an' cens%s to s$o, t$at Man!al%'ong an! )an 7%an $a! eac$ attaine! t$e minim%m re.%irement o( /C5 555 in$abitants to 9%sti(' t$eir se&aration into t,o legislative !istricts. )%c$ !oes not s%((ice to stri+e !o,n t$e vali!it' o( -# 7G7C. 2$e sai! #ct en9o's t$e &res%m&tion o( $aving &asse! t$ro%g$ t$e reg%lar congressional &rocesses incl%!ing !%e consi!eration b' t$e members o( Congress o( t$e minim%m re.%irements (or t$e establis$ment o( se&arate legislative

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!istricts. #t an' rate it is not re.%ire! t$at all la,s emanating (rom t$e legislat%re m%st contain all relevant !ata consi!ere! b' Congress in t$e enactment o( sai! la,s. 6ON )ection 08 $as t$e e((ect o( &reem&ting t$e rig$t o( Congress to rea&&ortion legislative !istricts. NO. )ec. C;0<: 6it$in t$ree 'ears (ollo,ing t$e ret%rn o( ever' cens%s t$e Congress s$all ma+e a rea&&ortionment o( legislative !istricts base! on t$e stan!ar! &rovi!e! in t$is section. =etitioners: )ection 08 o( -# 7G7C &reem&ts t$e rig$t o( Congress to rea&&ortion legislative !istricts arg%ment bor!ers on t$e abs%r! since &etitioners overloo+ t$e glaring (act t$at it ,as Congress itsel( ,$ic$ !ra(te! !eliberate! %&on an! enacte! t$e assaile! la, incl%!ing )ection 08 t$ereo(. Congress cannot &ossibl' &reem&t itsel( on a rig$t ,$ic$ &ertains to itsel(. 6ON t$e &eo&le o( )an 7%an s$o%l! $ave been ma!e to &artici&ate in t$e &lebiscite on -.#. No. 7G7C as t$e same involve! a c$ange in t$eir legislative !istrict. 2$e contention is bere(t o( merit since t$e &rinci&al s%b9ect involve! in t$e &lebiscite ,as t$e conversion o( Man!al%'ong into a $ig$l' %rbaniBe! cit'. 2$e matter o( se&arate !istrict re&resentation ,as onl' ancillar' t$ereto. 2$%s t$e in$abitants o( )an 7%an ,ere &ro&erl' e4cl%!e! (rom t$e sai! &lebiscite as t$e' $a! not$ing to !o ,it$ t$e c$ange o( stat%s o( neig$boring Man!al%'ong. 6ON t$e s%b9ect la, $as res%lte! in "gerr'man!ering " ,$ic$ is t$e &ractice o( creating legislative !istricts to (avor a &artic%lar can!i!ate or &art'. NO. #s correctl' observe! b' t$e )olicitor General it s$o%l! be note! t$at -e&. -onal!o Zamora t$e a%t$or o( t$e assaile! la, is t$e inc%mbent re&resentative o( t$e (ormer )an 7%an?Man!al%'ong !istrict $aving consistentl' ,on in bot$ localities. B' !ivi!ing )an 7%an?Man!al%'ong -e&. ZamoraHs constit%enc' $as in (act been !iminis$e! ,$ic$ !evelo&ment co%l! $ar!l' be consi!ere! as (avorable to $im. Cruz v. Paras Facts: Or!inance 80 ,as &asse! b' t$e M%nici&alit' o( Boca%e. =etitioners are b%siness o,ners ,$o $a! been &revio%sl' iss%e! licenses b' t$e M%nici&al Ma'or o( Boca%e *ss%es: 1. 6ON a m%nici&alit' ma' rel' on its &olice &o,er to 9%sti(' t$e enactment o( t$e assaile! or!inance. NO. =olice &o,er grante! to m%nici&al cor&orations: "General &o,er o( co%ncil to enact or!inances an! ma+e reg%lations.D 2$e m%nici&al co%ncil s$all enact s%c$ or!inances an! ma+e s%c$ reg%lations not re&%gnant to la, as ma' be necessar' to carr' into e((ect an! !isc$arge t$e &o,ers an! !%ties con(erre! %&on it b' la, an! s%c$ as s$all seem necessar' an! &ro&er to &rovi!e (or t$e $ealt$ an! sa(et' &romote t$e &ros&erit' im&rove t$e morals &eace goo! or!er com(ort an! convenience o( t$e m%nici&alit' an! t$e in$abitants t$ereo( an! (or t$e &rotection o( &ro&ert' t$erein." @) v. #ben!an: #n or!inance enacte! b' virt%e o( &olice &o,er is vali! %nless it contravenes t$e (%n!amental la, an act o( t$e legislat%re against &%blic &olic' or is %nreasonable &artial !iscriminating or in !erogation o( a common rig$t. @) v. )alaveria: 2$e general ,el(are cla%se $as t,o branc$es: 1. attac$es itsel( to t$e main tr%n+ o( m%nici&al a%t$orit' an! relates to s%c$ or!inances an! reg%lations as ma' be necessar' to carr' into e((ect an! !isc$arge t$e &o,ers an! !%ties con(erre! %&on t$e m%nici&al co%ncil b' la,. /.*t a%t$oriBes s%c$ or!inances as s$all seem necessar' an! &ro&er to &rovi!e (or t$e $ealt$ an! sa(et' &romote t$e &ros&erit' im&rove t$e morals &eace goo! or!er com(ort an! convenience o( t$e m%nici&alit' an! t$e in$abitants t$ereo( an! (or t$e &rotection o( &ro&ert' t$erein. *t is a general r%le t$at or!inances &asse! b' virt%e o( t$e im&lie! &o,er (o%n! in t$e general ,el(are cla%se m%st be reasonable consonant ,it$ t$e general &o,ers an! &%r&oses o( t$e cor&oration an! not inconsistent ,it$ t$e la,s or &olic' o( t$e )tate. *( nig$t cl%bs ,ere merel' t$en reg%late! an! not &ro$ibite! certainl' t$e assaile! or!inance ,o%l!

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*ela

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


&ass t$e test o( vali!it'. QQreasonableness consonance ,it$ t$e general &o,ers an! &%r&oses o( m%nici&al cor&orations consistenc' ,it$ t$e la,s or &olic' o( t$e )tate. *t is clear t$at in t$e g%ise o( a &olice reg%lation t$ere ,as in t$is instance a clear invasion o( &ersonal or &ro&ert' rig$ts &ersonal in t$e case o( t$ose in!ivi!%als !esiro%s o( &atroniBing t$ose nig$t cl%bs an! &ro&ert' in terms o( t$e investments ma!e an! salaries to be earne! b' t$ose t$erein em&lo'e!. 1. 6ON a m%nici&alit' $as no a%t$orit' to &ro$ibit a la,(%l b%siness occ%&ation or calling. NO. -# 818: t$e m%nici&al or cit' boar! or co%ncil o( eac$ c$artere! cit' s$all $ave t$e &o,er to reg%late b' or!inance t$e establis$ment maintenance an! o&eration o( nig$t cl%bs cabarets !ancing sc$ools &avilions coc+&its bars saloons bo,ling alle's billiar! &ools an! ot$er similar &laces o( am%sement ,it$in its territorial 9%ris!iction: . . . 2$en on Ma' /1 18C0 t$e (irst section ,as amen!e! to incl%!e not merel' "t$e &o,er to reg%late b%t li+e,ise "&ro$ibit . . ." 2$e title $o,ever remaine! t$e same an! t$e e4act ,or!ing ,as (ollo,e!. 2$e &o,er grante! remains t$at o( reg%lation not &ro$ibition. 2$ere is t$%s s%&&ort (or t$e vie, a!vance! b' &etitioners t$at to constr%e -# 818 as allo,ing t$e &ro$ibition o( t$e o&eration o( nig$t cl%bs ,o%l! give rise to a constit%tional .%estion. 2$ere is a ,i!e ga& bet,een t$e e4ercise o( a reg%lator' &o,er "to &rovi!e (or t$e $ealt$ an! sa(et' &romote t$e &ros&erit' im&rove t$e morals " in t$e lang%age o( t$e #!ministrative Co!e s%c$ com&etence e4ten!ing to all "t$e great &%blic nee!s " an! to inter!ict an' calling occ%&ation or enter&rise. *t is clear t$at m%nici&al cor&orations cannot &ro$ibit t$e o&eration o( mig$t cl%bs. 2$e' ma' be reg%late! b%t not &revente! (rom carr'ing on t$eir b%siness. 'echnolog# *evelopers v. CA Facts: 2D receive! a letter (rom acting ma'or Cr%B or!ering t$e (%ll cessation o( t$e o&eration o( its &lant locate! at G%'ong )ta. Maria B%lacan %ntil (%rt$er or!er. 2$e letter li+e,ise re.%este! its &lant manager to bring ,it$ $im to t$e o((ice o( t$e ma'or t$e (ollo,ing: a< B%il!ing &ermitA b< Ma'orHs &ermitA c< -egion ***D =oll%tion o( 3nvironment an! Nat%ral -eso%rces #ntiD=oll%tion =ermit. *n com&liance ,it$ sai! %n!erta+ing &etitioner commence! to sec%re "-egion ***DDe&artment o( 3nvironmental an! Nat%ral -eso%rces #ntiD=oll%tion =ermit " alt$o%g$ among t$e &ermits &revio%sl' sec%re! &rior to t$e o&eration o( &etitionerHs &lant ,as a "2em&orar' =ermit to O&erate #ir =oll%tion *nstallation" iss%e! b' t$e t$en National =oll%tion Control Commission ;no, 3nvironmental Management B%rea%< an! is no, at a stage ,$ere t$e 3nvironmental Management B%rea% is tr'ing to !etermine t$e correct +in! o( antiD&oll%tion !evise to be installe! as &art o( &etitionerHs re.%est (or t$e rene,al o( its &ermit. 2DHs attention $aving been calle! to its lac+ o( ma'orHs &ermit it sent its re&resentatives to t$e o((ice o( t$e ma'or to sec%re t$e same b%t ,ere not entertaine!. On #&ril G 1888 ,it$o%t &revio%s an! reasonable notice %&on &etitioner res&on!ent acting ma'or or!ere! t$e M%nici&alit'Hs station comman!er to &a!loc+ t$e &remises o( &etitionerHs &lant t$%s e((ectivel' ca%sing t$e sto&&age o( its o&eration. -2C: action (or certiorari &ro$ibition man!am%s ,it$ &reliminar' in9%nction. Clos%re or!er ,as iss%e! in grave ab%se o( !iscretion. 7%!ge iss%e! o( t$e ,rit o( &reliminar' man!ator' in9%nction. M-: -2C iss%e! an or!er ;a< setting asi!e t$e or!er ,$ic$ grante! a 6rit o( =reliminar' Man!ator' *n9%nction an! ;b< !issolving t$e ,rit conse.%entl' iss%e!. C#: certiorari an! &ro$ibition ,it$ &reliminar' in9%nction. *n !%e co%rse t$e &etition ,as !enie! (or lac+ o( merit. M-: !enie!. *ss%e: 6ON t$e a&&ellate co%rt committe! a grave ab%se o( !iscretion in ren!ering its .%estion !ecision an! resol%tion. NO. 2$e a%t$orit' o( t$e local e4ec%tive to &rotect t$e comm%nit' (rom &oll%tion is t$e center o( t$is controvers'. 2$e (ollo,ing circ%mstances militate against t$e maintenance o( t$e ,rit o( &reliminar' in9%nction so%g$t b' &etitioner:

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1. No ma'orHs &ermit $a! been sec%re!. 6$ile it is tr%e t$at t$e matter o( !etermining ,$et$er t$ere is a &oll%tion o( t$e environment t$at re.%ires control i( not &ro$ibition o( t$e o&eration o( a b%siness is essentiall' a!!resse! to t$e t$en National =oll%tion Control Commission o( t$e Ministr' o( H%man )ettlements no, t$e 3nvironmental Management B%rea% o( t$e De&artment o( 3nvironment an! Nat%ral -eso%rces it m%st be recogniBe! t$at t$e ma'or o( a to,n $as as m%c$ res&onsibilit' to &rotect its in$abitants (rom &oll%tion an! b' virt%re o( $is &olice &o,er $e ma' !en' t$e a&&lication (or a &ermit to o&erate a b%siness or ot$er,ise close t$e same %nless a&&ro&riate meas%res are ta+en to control an!?or avoi! in9%r' to t$e $ealt$ o( t$e resi!ents o( t$e comm%nit' (rom t$e emissions in t$e o&eration o( t$e b%siness. 2$e #cting Ma'or in a letter o( Febr%ar' 1G 1888 calle! t$e attention o( &etitioner to t$e &oll%tion emitte! b' t$e (%mes o( its &lant ,$ose o((ensive o!or "not onl' &oll%te t$e air in t$e localit' b%t also a((ect t$e $ealt$ o( t$e resi!ents in t$e area " so t$at &etitioner ,as or!ere! to sto& its o&eration %ntil (%rt$er or!ers an! it ,as re.%ire! to bring its &ermits ;see (acts< 2$is action o( t$e #cting Ma'or ,as in res&onse to t$e com&laint o( t$e resi!ents o( Baranga' G%'ong )ta. Maria B%lacan !irecte! to t$e =rovincial Governor t$ro%g$ c$annels. 2$e clos%re or!er o( t$e #cting Ma'or ,as iss%e! onl' a(ter an investigation ,as ma!e b' Marivic G%ina ,$o in $er re&ort o( December 8 1888 observe! t$at t$e (%mes emitte! b' t$e &lant o( &etitioner goes !irectl' to t$e s%rro%n!ing $o%ses an! t$at no &ro&er air &oll%tion !evice $as been installe!. =etitioner (aile! to &ro!%ce a b%il!ing &ermit (rom t$e m%nici&alit' o( )ta. Maria b%t instea! &resente! a b%il!ing &ermit iss%e! b' an o((icial o( Ma+ati on Marc$ G 1887. G. 6$ile &etitioner ,as able to &resent a tem&orar' &ermit to o&erate b' t$e t$en National =oll%tion Control Commission on December 1C 1887 t$e &ermit ,as goo! onl' %& to Ma' /C 1888. =etitioner $a! not e4erte! an' e((ort to e4ten! or vali!ate its &ermit m%c$ less to install an' !evice to control t$e &oll%tion an! &revent an' $aBar! to t$e $ealt$ o( t$e resi!ents o( t$e comm%nit'. 2D: $%ge investment. )C: s%c$ is concomitant ,it$ t$e nee! to &romote investment an! contrib%te to t$e gro,t$ o( t$e econom' is t$e e.%all' essential im&erative o( &rotecting t$e $ealt$ na' t$e ver' lives o( t$e &eo&le (rom t$e !eleterio%s e((ect o( t$e &oll%tion o( t$e environment. Chua 9uat v. CA Facts: Man%el @' an! )ons *nc. re.%este! t$e Cit' 3ngineer an! B%il!ing O((icial o( Manila to con!emn t$e !ila&i!ate! str%ct%res locate! at 1/71 to 1/77 =e!ro Gil )t. an! 1CC1 to 1CC7 =aB )t. =aco Manila all occ%&ie! b' &etitioners. Notices o( con!emnation ,ere iss%e! stating t$at t$e s%b9ect b%il!ings ,ere (o%n! to be in !angero%s con!ition an! t$ere(ore con!emne! s%b9ect to t$e con(irmation o( t$e Ma'or as re.%ire! b' )ection /7G o( t$e Com&ilation o( Or!inances o( t$e Cit' o( Manila. 2$e or!ers ,ere base! on t$e ins&ection re&orts ma!e b' #rc$itect Oscar D. #n!res an! t$e Memoran!%mD-e&orts ma!e b' t$e 3val%ation Committee o( t$e O((ice o( t$e Cit' 3ngineer ,$ic$ all s$o,e! t$at t$e s%b9ect b%il!ings s%((er (rom str%ct%ral !eterioration b' more t$an C5Y an! as m%c$ as 85Y. Civil 3ngineer -om%lo C. Molas a &rivate &ractitioner ins&ecte! t$e abovementione! str%ct%res %&on t$e re.%est o( &etitioners $erein. *n $is eval%ation re&ort $e state! t$at alt$o%g$ t$e b%il!ings are ol! t$e' are still str%ct%rall' so%n! an! $ave a remaining economic li(e o( at least eig$t 'ears. 2$ree mont$s a(ter t$e notices o( con!emnation ,ere iss%e! &etitioners (ormall' &roteste! against sai! notices o( con!emnation on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e b%il!ings are still in goo! &$'sical con!ition an! are str%ct%rall' so%n! base! on t$e abovementione! certi(ication o( Civil 3ngineer -om%lo C. Molas.

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On /G #&ril 1881 Maria Gamboa one o( t$e &etitioners $erein ,as in(orme! o( t$e iss%ance b' t$e Cit' 3ngineer o( t$e !emolition or!er ,it$ res&ect to t$e b%il!ing locate! at 1CGC =aB )t. =aco Manila an! ,as tol! to vacate t$e &remises ,it$in 1C !a's (rom notice. On / Ma' 1881 &etitioners (ile! t$e instant =etition (or =ro$ibition ,it$ =reliminar' *n9%nction an!?or -estraining Or!er against Cit' Ma'or -amon Bagatsing Cit' 3ngineer an! B%il!ing O((icer -om%lo !el -osario an! Man%el @' an! )ons *nc. &ra'ing t$at a restraining or!er or &reliminar' in9%nction be iss%e! en9oining res&on!ents (rom &rocee!ing ,it$ t$e anno%nce! !emolition o( t$e s%b9ect b%il!ings t$is &etition be given !%e co%rse an! a(ter $earing res&on!ents be &ro$ibite! (rom !emolis$ing sai! b%il!ings. 2$e' allege! a grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ o( 9%ris!iction an! t$at t$ere is no ot$er &lain s&ee!' an! a!e.%ate reme!'. 2$e Ma'or con(irme! t$e rest o( t$e con!emnation or!ers iss%e! b' t$e res&on!ent Cit' 3ngineer. Cit' Ma'or an! Cit' 3ngineer: &etition s$o%l! be !ismisse! on t$e (ollo,ing gro%n!s: ;a< t$at it involves .%estions o( (acts ,$ic$ s$o%l! be ventilate! be(ore t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt o( ManilaA ;b< t$e s%b9ect b%il!ings ,ere con!emne! an! or!ere! remove! a(ter it ,as establis$e! t$at t$e' $a! s%((ere! (rom !e(ects or !eterioration t$ereb' &osing &erils to t$e lives an! limbs not onl' o( &etitioners b%t also to t$e &%blic in generalA ;c< t$e &o,er to con!emn b%il!ings an! str%ct%res in t$e Cit' o( Manila (alls ,it$in t$e e4cl%sive !omain o( t$e Cit' 3ngineer &%rs%ant to )ections /7C an! /7G o( its Com&ilation o( Or!inances ;also -evise! Or!inances 1G55<A ;!< t$e &o,er to con!emn an! remove b%il!ings an! str%ct%res is an e4ercise o( t$e &olice &o,er grante! t$e Cit' o( Manila to &romote &%blic sa(et'A an! ;e< a!ministrative !ecisions (alling ,it$in t$e e4ec%tive 9%ris!iction cannot be set asi!e b' co%rts o( 9%stice e4ce&t on &roo( o( grave ab%se o( !iscretion (ra%! or error o( la,. Man%el @' an! )ons *nc: &etition is &remat%re %nreasonable an! !eserves no consi!eration as &etitioners $ave not e4$a%ste! rea!il'Davailable a!ministrative reme!ies an! t$at t$e vali!it' o( t$e .%estione! con!emnation an! !emolition or!ers entails .%estions o( (acts not entertainable in t$is &etition. *t alleges t$at t$e con!emnation or!ers ,ere not imme!iatel' e4ec%tor' as t$e (in!ing o( t$e Cit' 3ngineer?B%il!ing O((icial is still s%b9ect to t$e a&&roval o( t$e Ma'or &er )ection /7G o( t$e Com&ilation o( Or!inances o( t$e Cit' o( Manila. Moreover %n!er )ection C.1 -%le K** o( t$e *m&lementing -%les an! -eg%lations o( =.D. No. 158G t$e o,ner o( a b%il!ing ma' a&&eal to t$e )ecretar' o( =%blic 6or+s an! Comm%nications ,$ose !ecision is (inal t$e (in!ing or !eclaration o( t$e B%il!ing O((icial an! as+ t$at a reD ins&ection or reDinvestigation o( t$e b%il!ing or str%ct%re be ma!eA (or not availing o( t$is reme!' &etitioners (aile! to e4$a%st a!ministrative reme!ies. *ss%e: 6ON t$e ma'or an! cit' engineer committe! grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ o( 9%ris!iction in iss%ing t$e con!emnation or!ers. NO. *t is &atentl' obvio%s t$at &etitioners $ave no vali! grievance (or t$e reme!' o( certiorari %n!er -%le GC o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt to be available to t$em. *t is e4&licitl' clear (rom )ection 1 o( -%le GC o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt t$at (or certiorari to be available: ;a< a trib%nal boar! or o((ice e4ercising 9%!icial (%nction acte! ,it$o%t or in e4cess o( its or $is 9%ris!iction or ,it$ grave ab%se o( !iscretion an! ;b< t$at t$ere is no a&&eal nor an' &lain s&ee!' an! a!e.%ate reme!' in t$e or!inar' co%rse o( la,. =etitioners (aile! to s$o, t$e &resence o( bot$ elements. 2$e &o,er to con!emn b%il!ings an! str%ct%res in t$e Cit' o( Manila (alls ,it$in t$e e4cl%sive 9%ris!iction o( t$e Cit' 3ngineer ,$o is at t$e same time t$e B%il!ing O((icial ;)ec. /5G =.D. 158G<. )ections /7C an! /7G o( t$e Com&ilation o( Or!inances o( t$e Cit' o( Manila ;also -evise! Or!inances 1G55< &rovi!e: ")3C. /7C. Deterioration an! De(ects. #ll b%il!ings or &arts o( b%il!ings ,$ic$ s$o, !e(ects in an' essential &arts s$all be re&aire! an! &%t in sa(e con!ition at once or i( t$e !eterioration be greater t$an (i(t' &er cent%m o( t$e val%e o( t$e b%il!ing as estimate! b' t$e cit' engineer t$e' s$all be remove!. )3C. /7G. Con!emnation =rocee!ings. 6$enever in t$e 9%!gment o( t$e Cit' 3ngineer an' b%il!ing or &ortion o( b%il!ing $as been !amage! b' an' ca%se to s%c$ an e4tent as to be !angero%s (or %se $e ma' con!emn t$e same an! s$all imme!iatel'

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


noti(' t$e o,ner an! t$e Ma'or o( $is action. *( t$e o,ner or $is agent be not ,illing to abi!e b' t$%s or!er o( con!emnation $e ma' ma+e (ormal ob9ection ,it$in t$e &erio! o( seven !a's (ollo,ing s%c$ noti(ication. 2$e Ma'or s$all $ear t$e o,ner or $is agent an! $is e4&erts an! also t$e cit' engineer !eci!ing t$e case on t$e evi!ence &resente!. *( t$e Ma'or con(irms t$e action o( t$e cit' engineer t$e o,ner or $is agent s$all imme!iatel' &rocee! to remove t$e b%il!ing ,it$in (i(teen !a's (rom t$e !ate on ,$ic$ $e ,as noti(ie! o( s%c$ (inal action. )$o%l! t$e o,ner or $is agent not com&l' ,it$ t$e !ecision o( t$e Ma'or t$e b%il!ing s$all be remove! at $is e4&ense an! t$e cit' ,ill &rocee! to recover against $im (or t$e amo%nt e4&en!e!." )ection /1C o( =.D. 158G ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e National B%il!ing Co!e also states t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e B%il!ing O((icial ,it$ res&ect to !angero%s b%il!ings to ,it: "6$en an' b%il!ing or str%ct%re is (o%n! or !eclare! to be !angero%s or r%ino%s t$e B%il!ing o((icial s$all or!er its re&air vacation or !emolition !e&en!ing %&on t$e !egree o( !anger to li(e $ealt$ or sa(et'. 2$is is ,it$o%t &re9%!ice to (%rt$er action t$at ma' be ta+en %n!er t$e &rovisions o( #rticles 08/ an! G80 to 757 o( t$e Civil Co!e o( t$e =$ili&&ines." From t$e abovementione! &rovisions it is %n.%estionable t$at t$e B%il!ing O((icial $as t$e a%t$orit' to or!er t$e con!emnation an! !emolition o( b%il!ings ,$ic$ are (o%n! to be in a !angero%s or r%ino%s con!ition. *t is also clear (rom t$e Com&ilation o( Or!inances o( t$e Cit' o( Manila t$at t$e Ma'or $as t$e &o,er to con(irm or !en' t$e action ta+en b' t$e B%il!ing O((icial ,it$ res&ect to t$e !angero%s or r%ino%s b%il!ings. Cit' 3ngineer an! B%il!ing O((icial -om%lo M. !el -osario can t$ere(ore vali!l' iss%e t$e .%estione! con!emnation an! !emolition or!ers. 2$is is also tr%e ,it$ t$e res&on!ent Ma'or ,$o can a&&rove or !en' t$e con!emnation or!ers as &rovi!e! in )ection /7G o( t$e Com&ilation o( Or!inances o( t$e Cit' o( Manila. *t is a settle! !octrine t$at t$ere is grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ o( 9%ris!iction ",$en t$ere is a ca&ricio%s an! ,$imsical e4ercise o( 9%!gment as is e.%ivalent to lac+ o( 9%ris!iction s%c$ as ,$ere t$e &o,er is e4ercise! in an arbitrar' or !es&otic manner b' reason o( &assion or &ersonal $ostilit' an! it m%st be so &atent an! gross so as to amo%nt to an evasion o( &ositive !%t' or to a virt%al re(%sal to &er(orm t$e !%t' en9oine! or to act at all in contem&lation o( la,." 6e (in! no grave ab%se o( !iscretion on t$e &art o( t$e res&on!ent Cit' 3ngineer beca%se t$e or!ers ,ere ma!e onl' a(ter t$oro%g$ oc%lar ins&ections ,ere con!%cte! b' t$e Cit'Hs B%il!ing *ns&ectors. 2$e res%lts o( t$e ins&ections ,ere set (ort$ in a memoran!%m !ate! 1G November 188/ ,$ere it ,as s$o,n t$at all t$e b%il!ings $a! arc$itect%ral str%ct%ral sanitar' &l%mbing an! electrical !e(ects o( %& to 85Y. 2$e Ma'orHs act o( a&&roving t$e con!emnation or!ers ,as li+e,ise !one in accor!ance ,it$ la,. 2$e &rotest ma!e b' &etitioners ,as s%bmitte! onl' on // Febr%ar' 1881 or t$ree mont$s a(ter t$e notices o( con!emnation ,ere iss%e! an! clearl' be'on! t$e seven !a's &rescribe! %n!er )ection /7G o( t$e Com&ilation o( Or!inances o( t$e Cit' o( Manila. Moreover a&&eal ,as li+e,ise available to &etitioners. 2$e *m&lementing -%les an! -eg%lations &rom%lgate! b' t$e t$en Ministr' o( =%blic 6or+s to im&lement =.D. No. 158G %n!er t$e title #batement?Demolition o( B%il!ings &rovi!e: "C. =roce!%re (or Demolition o( B%il!ings. 2$e (ollo,ing ste&s s$all be observe! in t$e abatement?!emolition o( b%il!ings %n!er t$is -%le: C.1. 2$ere m%st be a (in!ing or !eclaration b' t$e B%il!ing O((icial t$at t$e b%il!ing or str%ct%re is a n%isance r%ino%s or !angero%s . . .C.1. 6it$in t$e (i(teenD!a' &erio! t$e o,ner ma' i( $e so !esires a&&eal to t$e )ecretar' t$e (in!ing or !eclaration o( t$e B%il!ing O((icial an! as+ t$at a reDins&ection or reDinvestigation o( t$e

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b%il!ing or str%ct%re be ma!e . . .C.G. 2$e !ecision o( t$e )ecretar' on t$e a&&eal s$all be (inal." Certiorari ,ill not be t$en beca%se &etitioners (aile! to e4$a%st all t$e a!ministrative reme!ies. 2$is Co%rt $as long %&$el! t$e !octrine o( e4$a%stion o( a!ministrative reme!ies beca%se it rests on t$e ass%m&tion t$at t$e a!ministrative bo!' boar! or o((icer i( given t$e c$ance to correct its?$is mista+e or error ma' amen! its?$is !ecision on a given matter. 6$ere t$e enabling stat%te in!icates a &roce!%re (or a!ministrative revie, an! &rovi!es a s'stem o( a!ministrative a&&eal or reconsi!eration t$e co%rts (or reasons o( la, comit' an! convenience ,ill not entertain a case %nless t$e available a!ministrative reme!ies $ave been resorte! to an! t$e a&&ro&riate a%t$orities $ave been given o&&ort%nit' to act an! correct t$e errors committe! in t$e a!ministrative (or%m. 2$ere are o( co%rse e4ce&tions to t$is r%le b%t none is available to &etitioners. im&lementation t$ereo(. 2$e &rogram ,as sta'e! b' CO# Decision No. 11C8. *ss%es: 1. 6ON - G5 is a vali! e4ercise o( &olice &o,er %n!er t$e general ,el(are cla%se. :3). =olice &o,er is in$erent in t$e state b%t not in m%nici&al cor&orations. Be(ore a m%nici&al cor&oration ma' e4ercise s%c$ &o,er t$ere m%st be a vali! !elegation o( s%c$ &o,er b' t$e legislat%re ,$ic$ is t$e re&ositor' o( t$e in$erent &o,ers o( t$e )tate. # vali! !elegation o( &olice &o,er ma' arise (rom e4&ress !elegation or be in(erre! (rom t$e mere (act o( t$e creation o( t$e m%nici&al cor&orationA an! as a general r%le m%nici&al cor&orations ma' e4ercise &olice &o,ers ,it$in t$e (air intent an! &%r&ose o( t$eir creation ,$ic$ are reasonabl' &ro&er to give e((ect to t$e &o,ers e4&ressl' grante! an! stat%tes con(erring &o,ers on &%blic cor&orations $ave been constr%e! as em&o,ering t$em to !o t$e t$ings essential to t$e en9o'ment o( li(e an! !esirable (or t$e sa(et' o( t$e &eo&le. M%nici&al governments e4ercise t$is &o,er %n!er t$e general ,el(are cla%se: a%t$orit' to "enact s%c$ or!inances an! iss%e s%c$ reg%lations as ma' be necessar' to carr' o%t an! !isc$arge t$e res&onsibilities con(erre! %&on it b' la, an! s%c$ as s$all be necessar' an! &ro&er to &rovi!e (or t$e $ealt$ sa(et' com(ort an! convenience maintain &eace an! or!er im&rove &%blic morals &romote t$e &ros&erit' an! general ,el(are o( t$e m%nici&alit' an! t$e in$abitants t$ereo( an! ins%re t$e &rotection o( &ro&ert' t$erein." )ec 7 o( B= 117: ever' LG@ s$all e4ercise t$e &o,ers e4&ressl' grante! t$ose necessaril' im&lie! t$ere(rom as ,ell as &o,ers necessar' an! &ro&er (or governance s%c$ as to &romote $ealt$ an! sa(et' en$ance &ros&erit' im&rove morals an! maintain &eace an! or!er in t$e LG@ an! &reserve t$e com(ort an! convenience o( t$e in$abitants t$erein."

Bina# v. *omingo Facts: -esol%tion G5 con(irming t$e ongoing b%rial assistance &rogram initiate! b' t$e ma'or>s o((ice. @n!er t$is &rogram bereave! (amilies ,$ose gross (amil' income !oes not e4cee! /+?mont$ ,ill receive a C55&$& cas$ relie( to be ta+en o%t o( %na&&ro&riate! available (%n!s e4isting in t$e m%nici&al treas%r'. 2$e Metro Manila Commission a&&rove! -esol%tion G5. 2$erea(ter t$e m%nici&al secretar' certi(ie! a !isb%rsement o( =055 555 (or t$e im&lementation o( t$e B%rial #ssistance =rogram. - G5 ,as re(erre! to t$e Commission on #%!it (or its e4&ecte! allo,ance in a%!it. Base! on its &reliminar' (in!ings CO# !isa&&rove! - G5 an! !isallo,e! in a%!it t$e !isb%rsement o( (%n!s (or t$e

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


=olice &o,er: &o,er to &rescribe reg%lations to &romote t$e $ealt$ morals &eace e!%cation goo! or!er or sa(et' an! general ,el(are o( t$e &eo&le. *t is t$e most essential insistent an! illimitable o( &o,ersA greatest an! most &o,er(%l attrib%te o( t$e governmentA elastic an! m%st be res&onsive to vario%s social con!itions. CO#: t$ere is no &erce&tible connection or relation bet,een t$e ob9ective so%g$t to be attaine! %n!er - G5 an! t$e allege! &%blic sa(et' general ,el(are. etc. o( t$e in$abitants o( Ma+ati #&&arentl' CO# tries to reD!e(ine t$e sco&e o( &olice &o,er b' circ%mscribing its e4ercise to "&%blic sa(et' general ,el(are etc. o( t$e in$abitants o( Ma+ati ." =olice &o,er o( a m%nici&al cor&oration: broa! an! $as been sai! to be commens%rate ,it$ b%t not to e4cee! t$e !%t' to &rovi!e (or t$e real nee!s o( t$e &eo&le in t$eir $ealt$ sa(et' com(ort an! convenience as consistentl' as ma' be ,it$ &rivate rig$ts. *t e4ten!s to all t$e great &%blic nee!s an! in a broa! sense incl%!es all legislation an! almost ever' (%nction o( t$e m%nici&al government. *t covers a ,i!e sco&e o( s%b9ects an! ,$ile it is es&eciall' occ%&ie! ,it$ ,$atever a((ects t$e &eace sec%rit' $ealt$ morals an! general ,el(are o( t$e comm%nit' it is not limite! t$ereto b%t is broa!ene! to !eal ,it$ con!itions ,$ic$ e4ists so as to bring o%t o( t$em t$e greatest ,el(are o( t$e &eo&le b' &romoting &%blic convenience or general &ros&erit' an! to ever't$ing ,ort$,$ile (or t$e &reservation o( com(ort o( t$e in$abitants o( t$e cor&oration. 2$%s it is !eeme! ina!visable to attem&t to (rame an' !e(inition ,$ic$ s$all absol%tel' in!icate t$e limits o( &olice &o,er. CO# is not att%ne! to t$e c$anging o( t$e times. =%blic &%r&ose is not %nconstit%tional merel' beca%se it inci!entall' bene(its a limite! n%mber o( &ersons. O)G: "t$e !ri(t is to,ar!s social ,el(are legislation geare! to,ar!s state &olicies to &rovi!e a!e.%ate social services ;)ection 8 #rt. ** Constit%tion< t$e &romotion o( t$e general ,el(are ;)ection C *bi!< social 9%stice ;)ection 15 *bi!< as ,ell as $%man !ignit' an! res&ect (or $%man rig$ts. ;)ection 11 *bi!." 2$e care (or t$e &oor is generall' recogniBe! as a &%blic !%t'. 2$e s%&&ort (or t$e &oor $as long been an acce&te! e4ercise o( &olice &o,er in t$e &romotion o( t$e common goo!. 2$ere is no violation o( t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se in classi('ing &a%&ers as s%b9ect o( legislation. =a%&ers ma' be reasonabl' classi(ie!. Di((erent gro%&s ma' receive var'ing treatment. =recio%s to t$e $earts o( o%r legislators !o,n to o%r local co%ncilors is t$e ,el(are o( t$e &a%&ers. 2$%s stat%tes $ave been &asse! giving rig$ts an! bene(its to t$e !isable! emanci&ating t$e tenantD (armer (rom t$e bon!age o( t$e soil $o%sing t$e %rban &oor etc. 2$e resol%tion is a &aragon o( t$e contin%ing &rogram o( o%r government to,ar!s social 9%stice. 2$e B%rial #ssistance =rogram is a relie( o( &a%&erism t$o%g$ not com&lete. 2$e loss o( a member o( a (amil' is a &ain(%l e4&erience an! it is more &ain(%l (or t$e &oor to be (inanciall' b%r!ene! b' s%c$ !eat$. -esol%tion No. G5 vivi(ies t$e ver' ,or!s o( t$e late =resi!ent -amon Magsa'sa' Ht$ose ,$o $ave less in li(e s$o%l! $ave more in la,." 'atel v. Municipalit# o! $irac Facts: Base! on com&laints receive! b' t$e resi!ents o( barrio )ta. 3lena against t$e !ist%rbance ca%se! b' t$e o&eration o( t$e abaca bailing mac$ine insi!e 2atel>s ,are$o%se -esol%tion /81 ,as enacte! b' t$e M%nici&al Co%ncil o( Kirac !eclaring 2atel>s ,are$o%se a &%blic n%isance ,it$in t$e &%rvie, o( #rticle G80 o( t$e Civil Co!e an! !irecting t$e &etitioner to remove an! trans(er sai! ,are$o%se to a more s%itable &lace ,it$in t,o mont$s (rom recei&t o( t$e sai! resol%tion. 2$e m%nici&al o((icials conten! t$at &etitionerHs ,are$o%se ,as constr%cte! in violation o( Or!inance 11 &ro$ibiting t$e constr%ction o( ,are$o%ses near a bloc+ o( $o%ses eit$er in t$e &oblacion or barrios ,it$o%t maintaining t$e necessar' !istance o( /55 meters (rom sai! bloc+ o( $o%ses to avoi! loss o( lives an! &ro&erties b' acci!ental (ire. 2atel conten!s

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t$at sai! or!inance is %nconstit%tional contrar' to t$e !%e &rocess an! e.%al &rotection cla%se o( t$e Constit%tion an! n%ll an! voi! (or not $aving been &asse! in accor!ance ,it$ la,. *ss%e: 1. 6ON Or!inance No. 11 is %nconstit%tional. NO Or!inance 11 ,as &asse! b' t$e M%nici&al Co%ncil o( Kirac in t$e e4ercise o( its &olice &o,er. *t is a settle! &rinci&le o( la, t$at m%nici&al cor&orations are agencies o( t$e )tate (or t$e &romotion an! maintenance o( local sel(Dgovernment an! as s%c$ are en!o,e! ,it$ t$e &olice &o,ers in or!er to e((ectivel' accom&lis$ an! carr' o%t t$e !eclare! ob9ects o( t$eir creation. *ts a%t$orit' emanates (rom t$e general ,el(are cla%se %n!er t$e #!ministrative Co!e ,$ic$ rea!s: 2$e m%nici&al co%ncil s$all enact s%c$ or!inances an! ma+e s%c$ reg%lations not re&%gnant to la, as ma' be necessar' to carr' into e((ect an! !isc$arge t$e &o,ers an! !%ties con(erre! %&on it b' la, an! s%c$ as s$all seem necessar' an! &ro&er to &rovi!e (or t$e $ealt$ an! sa(et' &romote t$e &ros&erit' im&rove t$e morals &eace goo! or!er com(ort an! convenience o( t$e m%nici&alit' an! t$e in$abitants t$ereo( an! (or t$e &rotection o( &ro&ert' t$erein. For an or!inance to be vali! it m%st not onl' be ,it$in t$e cor&orate &o,ers o( t$e m%nici&alit' to enact b%t m%st also be &asse! accor!ing to t$e &roce!%re &rescribe! b' la,. 2$ese &rinci&les re.%ire t$at a m%nici&al or!inance ;1< m%st not contravene t$e Constit%tion or an' stat%te ;/< m%st not be %n(air or o&&ressive ;1< m%st not be &artial or !iscriminator' ;0< m%st not &ro$ibit b%t ma' reg%late tra!e ;C< m%st be general an! consistent ,it$ &%blic &olic' an! ;G< m%st not be %nreasonable. Or!inance 11 meets t$ese criteria. *n s&ite o( its (ract%re! s'nta4 ,$at is reg%late! b' t$e or!inance is t$e constr%ction o( ,are$o%ses ,$erein in(lammable materials are store! ,$ere s%c$ ,are$o%ses are locate! at a !istance o( /55 meters (rom a bloc+ o( $o%ses an! not t$e constr%ction &er se o( a ,are$o%se. 2$e &%r&ose is to avoi! t$e loss o( li(e an! &ro&ert' in case o( (ire ,$ic$ is one o( t$e &rimor!ial obligation o( t$e government. 2$e ob9ections inter&ose! b' t$e &etitioner to t$e vali!it' o( t$e or!inance $ave not been s%bstantiate!. *ts &%r&ose is ,ell ,it$in t$e ob9ectives o( so%n! government. No %n!%e restraint is &lace! %&on t$e &etitioner or (or an'bo!' to engage in tra!e b%t merel' a &ro$ibition (rom storing in(lammable &ro!%cts in t$e ,are$o%se beca%se o( t$e !anger o( (ire to t$e lives an! &ro&erties o( t$e &eo&le resi!ing in t$e vicinit'. #s (ar as &%blic &olic' is concerne! t$ere can be no better &olic' t$an ,$at $as been conceive! b' t$e m%nici&al government. 'amin v. CA Facts: 2$e m%nici&alit' o( D%mingag (ile ! a case (or t$e e9ectment o( Me!ina an! -osellon. #ccor!ing to t$e m%nici&alit' it is t$e o,ner o( a &arcel o( resi!ential lan! locate! at =oblacion D%mingag Zamboanga !el )%r ,it$ an area o( C 880 s.%are meters more or lessA t$at t$e &arcel o( lan! ,as reserve! (or &%blic &laBa %n!er == 1GC an! t$at t$e inc%mbenc' o( t$e late Ma'or *si!oro 3. -eal )r. or in 18C8 t$e m%nici&alit' lease! an #rea o( 1 1C5 s.%are meters to MP- s%b9ect to t$e con!ition t$at t$e' s$o%l! vacate t$e &lace in case it is nee!e! (or &%blic &%r&osesA t$at t$e !e(en!ants religio%sl' &ai! t$e rentals %ntil 18G7. MP$o,ever re(%se! to &a' t$e rentals as ,ell as vacate t$e area. Hence !es&ite t$e national government>s allotment (or t$e constr%ction o( a m%nici&al g'mnasi%m ,it$in t$e &%blic &laBa s%c$ constr%ction ,$ic$ ,as alrea!' starte! co%l! not contin%e beca%se o( t$e &resence o( t$e b%il!ings constr%cte! b' t$e !e(en!ants. #ccor!ing to t$e m%nici&alit' t$e a&&ro&riation (or t$e constr%ction o( t$e g'mnasi%m mig$t be reverte! bac+ to t$e national government ,$ic$ ,o%l! res%lt to "irre&arable !amage in9%r' an! &re9%!ice" to t$e m%nici&alit' an! its &eo&le ,$o are e4&ecte! to !erive bene(it (rom t$e accom&lis$ment o( t$e &ro9ect. -2C: 7%!ge 2amin iss%e! an or!er setting t$e &reliminar' $earing (or t$e iss%ance o( a ,rit o( &reliminar' man!ator' in9%nction an!?or ,rit o( &ossession an! instea! o( (iling an ans,er t$e

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res&on!ents (ile! an M2D alleging t$e lac+ o( 9%ris!iction o( t$e 2C since t$e com&laint is (or illegal !etainer ,$ic$ is ,it$in t$e original 9%ris!iction o( t$e m%nici&al co%rt an! t$e &en!enc' o( a ca!astral case bet,een t$e &arties over t$e o,ners$i& o( t$e same &arcel o( lan!. 2amin !enie! t$e M2D an! grante! t$e m%nici&alit'Hs motion (or a ,rit o( &ossession ",it$ t$e ancillar' ,rit o( !emolition to &lace in &ossession t$e &lainti(( on t$e lan! s%b9ect o( t$is case to t$e en! t$at t$e &%blic constr%ction t$ereon ,ill not be 9eo&ar!iBe!." #ccor!ing to 2amin t$e m%nici&alit' alleges t$at MP- are claiming o,ners$i& over t$e lan! ,$ic$ ,as &revio%sl' rente! to t$em. 2$is action is t$ere(ore an accion !e reivin!icacion a real action ,it$in t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$is co%rt. #s t$e com&laint is (or recover' o( o,ners$i& o( t$e lan! not to en(orce t$e contract t$e )tat%te o( Fra%! !oes not a&&l'. 2$e lan! s%b9ect o( t$is case is covere! b' =D 1GC ,it$!ra,ing t$is lan! (rom sale o( settlement an! reserving t$e same (or sc$ool site &%r&oses %n!er t$e a!ministration o( t$e Director o( =%blic )c$ool an! &%blic &laBa %n!er t$e a!ministration o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( D%mingag t$ere(ore t$e Ca!astral co%rt $as no 9%ris!iction over t$e lan! involve! in t$is case. 'amin 3usti!ie his granting the motion !or a "rit o! possession "ith the ancillar# "rit o! emolition b# appl#ing the rule an eminent omain in analog# in that un er this Rule the complainant is given the right to the "rit o! possession in or er that public construction an pro3ects "ill not be ela#e . #ccor!ing to $im t$e necessit' o( a ,rit o( &ossession is greater in t$e instant case consi!ering t$at t$e &arcel o( lan! is covere! b' a == an! t$e onDgoing constr%ction t$ereon is being en!angere! to be le(t %n(inis$e! on acco%nt o( t$e b%il!ings stan!ing on t$e &arcel o( lan! beca%se t$e a&&ro&riation (or t$e constr%ction mig$t be reverte! bac+ to t$e national treas%r'. MP- (ile! an omnib%s M,it$ motion to set asi!e or!er an! to .%as$ ,rit o( &ossession an! !emolition b%t t$is ,as !enie!. 2$e m%nici&alit' im&lemente! t$e ,rit o( &ossession an! ancillar' ,rit o( !emolition iss%e! b' t$e &etitioner 7%!ge res%lting in t$e !is&ossession o( t$e &rivate res&on!ents (rom t$e &arcel o( lan! an! t$e !emolition o( str%ct%res an! b%il!ings t$ereon o,ne! b' t$e res&on!ents. MP->s ans,er: 2$e &arcel o( lan! $as been o,ne! occ%&ie! an! &ossess b' res&on!ent Kicente Me!ina since 1807 ,$en $e bo%g$t t$e s%b9ect &arcel (rom a )%banan nativeA t$at t$e ot$er res&on!ent Fort%nata -osellon lease! (rom Me!ina a &ortion o( t$e &arcel o( lan!A t$at t$e res&on!ents ,ere never lessees o( t$e &etitioner m%nici&alit'A t$at =roclamation 1GC iss%e! on Marc$ 1C 18G8 recogniBe! "&rivate rig$ts"A an! t$at a case is &en!ing be(ore t$e Ca!astral co%rt bet,een res&on!ent Me!ina an! &etitioner m%nici&alit' as regar!s t$e o,ners$i& o( t$e s%b9ect &arcel o( lan!. Be(ore t$e &etitioner 7%!ge co%l! (%rt$er act on t$e case t$e &rivate res&on!ents (ile! a &etition (or certiorari ,it$ t$e C# .%estioning t$e or!ers o( t$e &etitioner 7%!ge. =etition ,as given !%e co%rse an! a 2-O ,as iss%e! en9oining t$e &etitioner 7%!ge (rom &rocee!ing ,it$ t$e $earing o( t$e case an! (rom en(orcing t$e or!ers. C#: -2C committe! an error ,$en it a&&lie! b' analog' t$e r%le on eminent !omain to 9%sti(' t$e iss%ance o( t$e ,rit o( &ossession an! ,rit o( !emolition. 2$e a&&ellate co%rt &ointe! o%t t$at %n!er t$is r%le: ;i< 2$ere is clear stat%tor' a%t$orit' (or t$e ta+ing o( &ossession b' t$e government an! ;ii< 2$e a%t$orit' is &remise! on t$e government !e&ositing t$e val%e o( t$e lan! to be ta+en. *n t$e case at bar t$ere is neit$er stat%tor' a%t$orit' (or t$e trial co%rtHs action nor bon! given to com&ensate t$e &etitioners (or t$e !e&rivation o( t$eir &ossession an! t$e !estr%ction o( t$eir $o%ses i( it t%rns o%t t$at t$e lan! belongs to t$em. For t$is reason ,e t$in+ t$e trial co%rts or!er is arbitrar' an! voi!. For t$e (act is t$at &etitioners claim o,ners$i& o( t$e lan! in .%estion an! %ntil t$at .%estion is resolve! eit$er in t$e case &en!ing be(ore t$e res&on!ent 9%!ge or in t$e ca!astral &rocee!ing it ,o%l! be %n9%st to !e&rive &etitioners o( its &ossession. *ss%e: 1. 6ON t$e allegations in t$e com&laint constit%te a ca%se o( action (or abatement o( &%blic n%isance %n!er #rticle G80 o( t$e Civil Co!e. #&&l'ing t$ese criteria ,e agree ,it$ t$e &etitioners t$at t$e com&laint alleges (act%al circ%mstances o( a com&laint (or abatement o( &%blic n%isance. #rt. G80 CC # n%isance is an' act omission establis$ment b%siness con!ition o( &ro&ert' or an't$ing else ,$ic$: ;C< Hin!ers or im&airs t$e %se o( &ro&ert'. #rt. G8C CC N%isance is eit$er &%blic or &rivate. # &%blic n%isance a((ects a comm%nit' or neig$bor$oo! or an' consi!erable n%mber o( &ersons alt$o%g$ t$e e4tent o( t$e anno'ance

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!anger or !amage %&on in!ivi!%als ma' be %ne.%al. .. 2$%s t$e com&laint states: t$at &etitioner m%nici&alit' is t$e o,ner o( a &arcel o( lan! covere! b' =resi!ential =roclamation No 1GC ,$ic$ is reserve! (or a &%blic &laBaA t$at t$e &rivate res&on!ents b' virt%e o( a contract o( lease entere! into b' t$e (ormer ma'or occ%&ie! a &ortion o( t$e &arcel o( lan! constr%cting b%il!ings t$ereonA t$at t$e &rivate res&on!ents re(%se! to vacate t$e &remises !es&ite !eman!sA t$at t$e m%nici&alit' is constr%cting a m%nici&al g'mnasi%m in t$e area (inance! b' a&&ro&riations &rovi!e! b' t$e national governmentA an! t$at t$e a&&ro&riations are in !anger o( being reverte! to t$e national treas%r' beca%se t$e constr%ction $a! to be sto&&e! in vie, o( t$e re(%sal o( t$e &rivate res&on!ents to vacate t$e area. 1. 6ON t$e m%nici&alit' is entitle! to a ,rit o( &ossession an! a ,rit o( !emolition even be(ore t$e trial o( t$e case starts. #rticle G88 o( t$e Civil Co!e &rovi!es (or t$e (ollo,ing reme!ies against a &%blic n%isance: ;1< # &rosec%tion %n!er t$e =enal Co!e or an' local or!inanceA or;/< # civil actionA or ;1< #batement ,it$o%t 9%!icial &rocee!ings. 2$e &etitioner m%nici&alit' $a! t$ree reme!ies (rom ,$ic$ to select its ca%se o( action. *t c$ose to (ile a civil action (or t$e recover' o( &ossession o( t$e &arcel o( lan! occ%&ie! b' t$e &rivate res&on!ents. Obvio%sl' &etitioner m%nici&alit' ,as a,are t$at %n!er t$e t$en LGC ;B.=. Blg. 117< t$e )angg%niang Ba'an $as to (irst &ass an or!inance be(ore t$e m%nici&alit' ma' s%mmaril' abate a &%blic n%isance. ;)ec. 108;B< ;ee<. On t$e &remise t$at t$e &arcel o( lan! (orms &art o( a &%blic &laBa t$e &etitioners no, conten! t$at t$e 7%!ge ,as 9%sti(ie! in iss%ing t$e ,rit o( &ossession an! ,rit o( !emolition. # &%blic &laBa is o%tsi!e t$e commerce o( man an! constr%ctions t$ereon can be abate! s%mmaril' b' t$e m%nici&alit' citing a case: 34actl' in &oint is 3s&irit% v. M%nici&al Co%ncil o( =oBorr%bio ;15/ =$il. 8G8D875< ,$ere t$e )%&reme Co%rt !eclare!: 2$ere is absol%tel' no .%estion t$at t$e to,n &laBa cannot be %se! (or t$e constr%ction o( mar+et stalls s&eciall' o( resi!ences an! t$at s%c$ str%ct%res constit%te a n%isance s%b9ect to abatement accor!ing to la,. 2o,n &laBas are &ro&erties o( &%blic !ominion to be !evote! to &%blic %se an! to be ma!e available to t$e &%blic in general. 2$e' are o%tsi!e t$e commerce o( man an! cannot be !is&ose! o( or even lease! b' t$e m%nici&alit' to &rivate &arties. #&&l'ing t$is ,ellDsettle! !octrine ,e r%le t$at &etitioners $a! no rig$t in t$e (irst &lace to occ%&' t$e !is&%te! &remises an! cannot insist in remaining t$ere no, on t$e strengt$ o( t$eir allege! lease contracts. 2$e' s$o%l! $ave realiBe! an! acce&te! t$is earlier consi!ering t$at even be(ore Civil Case No. /505 ,as !eci!e! t$e m%nici&al co%ncil o( )an Fernan!o $a! alrea!' a!o&te! -esol%tion No. /8 series o( 18G0 !eclaring t$is area as t$e &ar+ing &lace an! &%blic &laBa o( t$e m%nici&alit'. *t is t$e !ecision in Civil Case No. /505 an! t$e sai! resol%tion o( t$e m%nici&al co%ncil o( )an Fernan!o t$at res&on!ent Macalino ,as see+ing to en(orce ,$en $e or!ere! t$e !emolition o( t$e stalls constr%cte! in t$e !is&%te! area. #s o((icerDinDc$arge o( t$e o((ice o( t$e ma'or $e $a! t$e !%t' to clear t$e area an! restore it to its inten!e! %se as a &ar+ing &lace an! &%blic &laBa o( t$e m%nici&alit' o( )an Fernan!o con(ormabl' to t$e a(orementione! or!ers (rom t$e co%rt an! t$e co%ncil. *t is t$ere(ore not correct to sa' t$at $e $a! acte! ,it$o%t a%t$orit' or ta+en t$e la, into $is $an!s in iss%ing $is or!er.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


2$e Co%rt observes t$at even ,it$o%t s%c$ investigatiom an! recommen!ation t$e res&on!ent ma'or ,as 9%sti(ie! in or!ering t$e area cleare! on t$e strengt$ alone o( its stat%s as a &%blic &laBa as !eclare! b' t$e 9%!icial an! legislative a%t$orities. . *( t$ere(ore t$e allegations in t$e com&laint are tr%e an! t$at t$e &arcel o( lan! being occ%&ie! b' t$e &rivate res&on!ents is in!ee! a &%blic &laBa t$en t$e ,rit o( &ossession an! ,rit o( !emolition ,o%l! $ave been 9%sti(ie!. *n (act %n!er s%c$ circ%mstances t$ere ,o%l! $ave been no nee! (or a ,rit o( &ossession in (avor o( t$e &etitioner m%nici&alit' since t$e &rivate res&on!entsH occ%&ation over t$e s%b9ect &arcel o( lan! can not be recogniBe! b' an' la,. # ,rit o( !emolition ,o%l! $ave been s%((icient to e9ect t$e &rivate res&on!ents. Ho,ever not onl' !i! t$e m%nici&alit' avoi! t$e %se o( abatement ,it$o%t 9%!icial &rocee!ings b%t t$e stat%s o( t$e s%b9ect &arcel o( lan! $as 'et to be !eci!e!. 6e $ave to consi!er t$e (act t$at =roclamation No. 1GC !ate! Marc$ 1C 18G8 recogniBes &rivate rig$ts ,$ic$ ma' $ave been veste! on ot$er &ersons to ,it: B: 2H3 =-3)*D3N2 OF 2H3 =H*L*==*N3) =-OCL#M#2*ON NO. 1GC -3)3-K*NG FO)CHOOL )*23 =@BL*C =L#Z# #ND =L#:G-O@ND =@-=O)3) C3-2#*N =#-C3L) OF L#ND OF 2H3 =@BL*C DOM#*N )*2@#23D *N 2H3 M@N*C*=#L*2: OF D@M*NG#G =-OK*NC3 OF Z#MBO#NG# D3L )@- *)L#ND OF M*ND#N#O. @&on recommen!ation o( t$e )ecretar' o( #gric%lt%re an! Nat%ral -eso%rces an! &%rs%ant to t$e a%t$orit' veste! in me b' la, * F3-D*N#ND 3. M#-CO) =-3)*D3N2 OF 2H3 =H*L*==*N3) !o $ereb' ,it$!ra, (rom sale or settlement an! %n!er t$e a!ministration o( t$e Director o( =%blic )c$ools a!ministration o( t$e M%nici&al Government o( D%mingag s%b9ect to &rivate rig$ts i( an' t$ere be certain &arcels o( lan! o( t$e &%blic !omain sit%ate! in t$e M%nici&alit' o( D%mingag =rovince o( Zamboanga !el )%r *slan! o( Min!anao [ *t is to be note! t$at even be(ore t$e =roclamation t$e &arcel o( lan! ,as t$e s%b9ect o( ca!astral &rocee!ings be(ore anot$er branc$ o( t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt o( Zamboanga !el )%r. #t t$e time o( t$e (iling o( t$e instant case t$e ca!astral &rocee!ings inten!e! to settle t$e o,ners$i& over t$e .%estione! &ortion o( t$e &arcel o( lan! %n!er =roclamation No. 1GC ,ere still &en!ing. One o( t$e claimants in t$e ca!astral &rocee!ings is &rivate res&on!ent Kicente Me!ina ,$o trace! $is o,ners$i& over t$e s%b9ect &arcel o( lan! as (ar bac+ as 1807 ,$en $e allege!l' bo%g$t t$e same (rom a )%banan native. @n!er t$e ca!astral s'stem t$e government t$ro%g$ t$e Director o( Lan!s initiates t$e &rocee!ings b' (iling a &etition in co%rt a(ter ,$ic$ all o,ners or claimants are com&elle! to act an! &resent t$eir ans,ers ot$er,ise t$e' lose t$eir rig$t to t$eir o,n &ro&ert'. 2$e &%r&ose is to serve t$e &%blic interests b' re.%iring t$at t$e titles to an' lan!s "be settle! an! a!9%!icate!." ;)ection 1 Ca!astral #ct UNo. //C81V Government o( t$e =$ili&&ine *slan!s v. #b%ral 18 =$il. 88G U1818V. *t is a &rocee!ing in rem some,$at a+in to a 9%!icial in.%ir' an! investigation lea!ing to a 9%!icial !ecree. ;Director o( Lan!s v. -oman #rc$bis$o& o( Manila 01 =$il. 1/5 U18/5V< Consi!ering t$ere(ore t$e nat%re an! &%r&ose o( t$e Ca!astral &rocee!ings t$e o%tcome o( sai! &rocee!ings becomes a &re9%!icial .%estion ,$ic$ m%st be a!!resse! in t$e resol%tion o( t$e instant case. 6e a&&l' b' analog' t$e r%ling in t$e case o( W%iambao v. Osorio ;1C8 )C-# G70 U1888V< to ,it: 2$e

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


instant controvers' boils !o,n to t$e sole .%estion o( ,$et$er or not t$e a!ministrative case bet,een t$e &rivate &arties involving t$e lot s%b9ect matter o( t$e e9ectment case constit%tes a &re9%!icial .%estion ,$ic$ ,o%l! o&erate as a bar to sai! e9ectment case. # &re9%!icial .%estion is %n!erstoo! in la, to be t$at ,$ic$ arises in a case t$e resol%tion o( ,$ic$ is a logical antece!ent o( t$e iss%e involve! in sai! case an! t$e cogniBance o( ,$ic$ &ertains to anot$er trib%nal. ;Za&anta v. Montesa 0 )C-# C15 U18G/VA =eo&le v. #ragon C5 O.G.. No. 15 08G1< 2$e !octrine o( &re9%!icial .%estion comes as in to &la' generall' in a sit%ation ,$ere civil an! criminal actions are &en!ing an! t$e iss%es involve! in bat$ cases are similar or so closel'Drelate! t$at an iss%e m%st be &reD em&tivel' resolve! in t$e civil case be(ore t$e criminal action can &rocee!. 2$%s t$e e4istence it a &re9%!icial .%estion in a civil case is allege! in t$e criminal case to ca%se t$e s%s&ension o( t$e latter &en!ing (inal !etermination o( t$e (ormer. 2$e essential elements o( a &re9%!icial .%estion as &rovi!e! %n!er )ection C -%le 111 o( t$e -evise! -%les o( Co%rt area: UaV t$e civil action involves an iss%e similar or intimatel' relate! to t$e iss%e in t$e criminal actionA an! UbV t$e resol%tion o( s%c$ iss%e !etermines ,$et$er or not t$e criminal action ma' &rocee!. 2$e actions involve! in t$e case at bar being res&ectivel' civil an! a!ministrative in c$aracter it is obvio%s t$at tec$nicall' t$ere is no &re9%!icial .%estion to s&ea+ o(. 3.%all' a&&arent $o,ever is t$e intimate correlation bet,een sai! t,o U/V &rocee!ings stemming (rom t$e (act t$at t$e rig$t o( &rivate res&on!ents to e9ect &etitioner (rom t$e !is&%te! &ortion !e&en!s &rimaril' on t$e resol%tion o( t$e &en!ing a!ministrative case. For ,$ile it ma' be tr%e t$at &rivate res&on!ents $a! &rior &ossession o( t$e lot in .%estion at t$e time o( t$e instit%tion o( t$e e9ectment case s%c$ rig$t o( &ossession $a! been terminate! or at t$e ver' least s%s&en!e! b' t$e cancellation b' t$e Lan! #%t$orit' o( t$e #greement to )ell e4ec%te! in t$eir (avor. 6$et$er or not &rivate res&on!ents can contin%e to e4ercise t$eir rig$t o( &ossession is b%t a necessar' logical conse.%ence o( t$e iss%e involve! in t$e &en!ing a!ministrative case assailing t$e vali!it' o( t$e cancellation o( t$e #greement to )ell an! t$e s%bse.%ent a,ar! o( t$e !is&%te! &ortion to &etitioner. *( t$e cancellation o( t$e agreement to )ell an! t$e s%bse.%ent a,ar! to &etitioner are voi!e! t$en &rivate res&on!entHs rig$t o( &ossession is lost an! so ,o%l! t$eir rig$t to e9ect &etitioner (rom sai! &ortion. Face! ,it$ t$ese !istinct &ossibilities t$e more &r%!ent co%rse (or t$e trial co%rt to $ave ta+en is to $ol! t$e e9ectment &rocee!ings in abe'ance %ntil a(ter a !etermination o( t$e a!ministrative case. *n!ee! logic an! &ragmatism i( not 9%ris&r%!ence !ictate s%c$ move. 2o allo, t$e &arties to %n!ergo trial not,it$stan!ing t$e &ossibilit' o( &etitionerHs rig$t o( &ossession being %&$el! in t$e &en!ing a!ministrative case is to nee!lessl' re.%ire not onl' t$e &arties b%t t$e co%rt as ,ell to e4&en! time e((ort in ,$at ma' t%rn o%t to be a s$eer e4ercise in (%tilit'. 2$%s 1 #m 7%r /! tells %s: 2$e co%rt in ,$ic$ an action is &en!ing ma' in t$e e4ercise o( a so%n! !iscretion %&on &ro&er a&&lication (or a sta' o( t$at action $ol! t$e action in abe'ance to abi!e t$e o%tcome o( anot$er &en!ing in anot$er co%rt es&eciall' ,$ere t$e &arties an! t$e iss%es are t$e same (or t$ere is &o,er in$erent in ever' co%rt to control t$e

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


!is&osition o( ca%ses an its !oc+ets ,it$ econom' o( time an! e((ort (or itsel( (or co%nsel an! (or litigants. 6$ere t$e rig$ts o( &arties in t$e recor! action cannot be &ro&erl' !etermine! %ntil t$e .%estions raise! in t$e (irst action are settle! t$e secon! action s$o%l! be sta'e!. 6$ile t$is r%le is &ro&erl' a&&licable to instances involving t,o U/V co%rt actions t$e e4istence in t$e instant case o( t$e same consi!erations o( i!entit' o( &arties an! iss%es econom' o( time an! e((ort (or t$e co%rt t$e co%nsels an! t$e &arties as ,ell as t$e nee! to resolve t$e &artiesH rig$t o( &ossession be(ore t$e e9ectment case ma' be &ro&erl' !etermine! 9%sti(ies t$e r%leHs analogo%s a&&lication to t$e case at bar. 2ec$nicall' a &re9%!icial .%estion s$all not rise in t$e instant case since t$e t,o actions involve! are bot$ civil in nat%re. Ho,ever ,e $ave to consi!er t$e (act t$at t$e ca!astral &rocee!ings ,ill %ltimatel' settle t$e real o,ner?s o( t$e !is&%te! &arcel o( lan!. *n case res&on!ent Kicente Me!ina is a!9%!ge! t$e real o,ner o( t$e &arcel o( lan! t$en t$e ,rit o( &ossession an! ,rit o( !emolition ,o%l! necessaril' be n%ll an! voi!. Not onl' t$at. 2$e !emolition o( t$e constr%ctions in t$e &arcel o( lan! ,o%l! &rove tr%l' %n9%st to t$e &rivate res&on!ents. Patalinhug v. CA Facts: 2$e )angg%niang =anl%ngso! o( Davao Cit' enacte! Or!inance 1G1 series o( 188/ ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e "34&an!e! Zoning Or!inance o( Davao Cit' " )ection 8 o( ,$ic$ states: )ec. 8. @)3 -3G@L#2*ON) *N CD/ D*)2-*C2) ;)$a!e! lig$t re! in t$e 34&an!e! Zoning Ma&< #CD/ District s$all be !ominantl' (or commercial an! com&atible in!%strial %ses as &rovi!e! $ere%n!er: 1.1 F%neral =arlors?Memorial Homes ,it$ a!e.%ate o(( street &ar+ing s&ace ;see &ar+ing stan!ar!s o( =.D. 158G< an! &rovi!e! t$at t$e' s$all be establis$e! not less t$an C5 meters (rom an' resi!ential str%ct%res c$%rc$es an! ot$er instit%tional b%il!ings. @&on &rior a&&roval an! certi(ication o( Boning com&liance b' Zoning #!ministrator iss%e! on Febr%ar' 15 1887 B%il!ing =ermit No. 875/C0 in (avor o( &etitioner (or t$e constr%ction o( a (%neral &arlor in t$e name an! st'le o( Metro&olitan F%neral =arlor at Cabag%io #ven%e #g!ao Davao Cit'. 2$erea(ter &etitioner commence! t$e constr%ction o( $is (%neral &arlor. #cting on t$e com&laint o( several resi!ents o( Baranga' #g!ao Davao Cit' t$at t$e constr%ction o( &etitionerHs (%neral &arlor violate! Or!inance No. 1G1 since it ,as allege!l' sit%ate! ,it$in a C5Dmeter ra!i%s (rom t$e *glesia ni Mristo C$a&el an! several resi!ential str%ct%res t$e )angg%niang =anl%ngso! con!%cte! an investigation an! (o%n! t$at "t$e nearest resi!ential str%ct%re o,ne! b' 6il(re! G. 2e&oot is onl' 8 inc$es to t$e so%t$. . . . ." Not,it$stan!ing t$e (in!ings o( t$e )angg%niang =anl%ngso! &etitioner contin%e! to constr%ct $is (%neral &arlor ,$ic$ ,as (inis$e! on November 1 1887. Conse.%entl' &rivate res&on!ents (ile! on )e&tember G 1888 a case (or t$e !eclaration o( n%llit' o( a b%il!ing &ermit ,it$ &reliminar' &ro$ibitor' an! man!ator' in9%nction an!?or restraining or!er ,it$ t$e trial co%rt. *ss%e: 1. 6ON t$e C# erre! in concl%!ing t$at t$e 2e&oot b%il!ing a!9acent to &etitionerHs (%neral &arlor is resi!ential sim&l' beca%se it ,as allege!l' !eclare! as s%c$ (or ta4ation &%r&oses in com&lete !isregar! o( Or!inance 1G1 !eclaring t$e s%b9ect area as !ominantl' (or commercial an! com&atible in!%strial %ses. :3). # ta4 !eclaration is not concl%sive o( t$e nat%re o( t$e &ro&ert' (or Boning &%r&oses. # &ro&ert' ma' $ave been !eclare! b' its o,ner as resi!ential (or real estate ta4ation &%r&oses b%t it ma' ,ell be ,it$in a commercial Bone. # !iscre&anc' ma' t$%s e4ist in t$e !etermination o( t$e nat%re o( &ro&ert' (or real estate ta4ation &%r&oses visDaDvis t$e !etermination o( a &ro&ert' (or Boning &%r&oses. 3ven i( ,e are to e4amine t$e evi!entiar' val%e o( a ta4 !eclaration %n!er t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e a ta4 !eclaration onl' enables t$e assessor to i!enti(' t$e same (or assessment levels. *n (act a ta4 !eclaration !oes not bin! a &rovincial?cit' assessor (or %n!er )ec. // o( t$e -eal

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


3state 2a4 Co!e a&&raisal an! assessment are base! on t$e act%al %se irres&ective o( "an' &revio%s assessment or ta4&a'erHs val%ation t$ereon " ,$ic$ is base! on a ta4&a'erHs !eclaration. *n (act a &iece o( lan! !eclare! b' a ta4&a'er as resi!ential ma' be assesse! b' t$e &rovincial or cit' assessor as commercial beca%se its act%al %se is commercial. 2$e trial co%rtHs !etermination t$at Mr. 2e&ootHs b%il!ing is commercial an! t$ere(ore )ec. 8 is ina&&licable is strengt$ene! b' t$e (act t$at t$e )angg%niang =anl%ngso! $as !eclare! t$e .%estione! area as commercial or CD/. Conse.%entl' even i( 2e&ootHs b%il!ing ,as !eclare! (or ta4ation &%r&oses as resi!ential once a local government $as reclassi(ie! an area as commercial t$at !etermination (or Boning &%r&oses m%st &revail. 6$ile t$e commercial c$aracter o( t$e .%estione! vicinit' $as been !eclare! t$r% t$e or!inance &rivate res&on!ents $ave (aile! to &resent convincing arg%ments to s%bstantiate t$eir claim t$at Cabag%io #ven%e ,$ere t$e (%neral &arlor ,as constr%cte! ,as still a resi!ential Bone. @n.%estionabl' t$e o&eration o( a (%neral &arlor constit%tes a "commercial &%r&ose " as gleane! (rom Or!inance 1G1. 2$e !eclaration o( t$e sai! area as a commercial Bone t$r% a m%nici&al or!inance is an e4ercise o( &olice &o,er to &romote t$e goo! or!er an! general ,el(are o( t$e &eo&le in t$e localit'. Corollar' t$ereto t$e state in or!er to &romote t$e general ,el(are ma' inter(ere ,it$ &ersonal libert' ,it$ &ro&ert' an! ,it$ b%siness an! occ%&ations. =ersons ma' be s%b9ecte! to certain +in!s o( restraints an! b%r!ens in or!er to sec%re t$e general ,el(are o( t$e state an! to t$is (%n!amental aim o( government t$e rig$ts o( t$e in!ivi!%al ma' be s%bor!inate!. 2$e or!inance ,$ic$ reg%lates t$e location o( (%neral $omes $as been a!o&te! as &art o( com&re$ensive Boning &lans (or t$e or!erl' !evelo&ment o( t$e area covere! t$ere%n!er. Greater Balanga *evelopment Corp. v. Municipalit# o! Balanga Facts: 2$is case involves a &arcel o( lan! sit%ate! in Barrio )an 7ose M%nici&alit' o( Balanga =rovince o( Bataan. *t is registere! in t$e name o( &etitioner Greater Balanga Develo&ment Cor&oration. GBDC is a !omestic cor&oration o,ne! an! controlle! b' t$e Camac$o (amil' ,$ic$ !onate! to t$e M%nici&alit' o( Balanga t$e &resent site o( t$e Balanga =%blic Mar+et. 2$e lot in !is&%te lies be$in! t$e Balanga =%blic Mar+et. *n 1887 GBDC con!%cte! a relocation s%rve' o( t$e area. *t !iscovere! t$at certain &ortions o( t$e &ro&ert' $a! been "%nla,(%ll' %s%r&e! an! inva!e!" b' t$e M%nici&alit' o( Balanga ,$ic$ $a! "allo,e!?tolerate!?abette!" t$e constr%ction o( s$anties an! mar+et stalls ,$ile c$arging mar+et (ees an! mar+et entrance (ees (rom t$e occ%&ants an! %sers o( t$e area. GBDC t$en a&&lie! ,it$ t$e O((ice o( t$e Ma'or o( Balanga (or a b%siness &ermit to engage in b%siness in t$e sai! area. On t$e same !a' Ma'or Melanio ). BanBon 7r. iss%e! Ma'orHs =ermit No. /7/8 granting &etitioner t$e &rivilege o( a "real estate !ealer?&rivatel'Do,ne! &%blic mar+et o&erator" %n!er t$e tra!e name o( Balanga =%blic Mar+et. Ho,ever t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Balanga &asse! -esol%tion No. 1/ sD88 ann%lling t$e Ma'orHs &ermit iss%e! to &etitioner an! a!vising t$e Ma'or to revo+e t$e &ermit "to o&erate a &%blic mar+et." =%rs%ant to sai! -esol%tion Ma'or BanBon on Marc$ 7 1888 iss%e! 34ec%tive Or!er No. 1 sD88 revo+ing t$e &ermit inso(ar as it a%t$oriBe! t$e o&eration o( a &%blic mar+et. GBDC (ile! t$e instant &etition ,it$ a &ra'er (or t$e iss%ance o( a ,rit o( &reliminar' man!ator' an! &ro$ibitor' in9%nction or restraining or!er aime! at t$e reinstatement o( t$e Ma'orHs &ermit an! t$e c%rtailment o( t$e m%nici&alit'Hs collection o( mar+et (ees an! mar+et entrance (ees. 2$e Co%rt !i! not iss%e t$e &reliminar' relie(s &ra'e! (or. *ss%e: 6ON t$e Ma'or ma' iss%e !en' or revo+e m%nici&al licenses an! &ermits. -es&on!ent: as t$e local c$ie( e4ec%tive t$e Ma'or ma' iss%e !en' or revo+e m%nici&al licenses an! &ermits. 2$e' conten!e! t$at -esol%tion No. 1/ sD88 o( t$e )angg%niang Ba'an t$e basis o( 34ec%tive Or!er No. 1 sD88 ,as a legitimate e4ercise o( local legislative a%t$orit' an! as s%c$ t$e revocation o( &etitionerHs &ermit ,as not tainte! ,it$ an' grave ab%se o( !iscretion. GBDC asserte! t$at t$e e4ec%tive or!er an! t$e resol%tion in .%estion ,ere .%asiD 9%!icial acts an! not mere e4ercises o( &olice &o,er. *t .%estione! res&on!entsH (ail%re to observe !%e &rocess in revo+ing t$e &ermit an! c$allenge! t$e legalit' o( t$e collection o( t$e mar+et an! entrance (ees b' t$e m%nici&alit'.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


2$e a%t$orit' o( t$e Ma'or to revo+e a &ermit $e iss%e! is &remise! on a violation b' t$e grantee o( an' o( t$e con!itions (or ,$ic$ t$e &ermit $a! been grante!. -es&on!ents claime! t$at &etitioner $a! violate! t$e &rovisions o( )ection 1#D5G;b< o( t$e Balanga -even%e Co!e ,$en it (aile! to in(orm t$e Ma'or t$at t$e lot in controvers' ,as t$e s%b9ect o( a!verse claims (or ,$ic$ a civil case ,as (ile!. )ection 1#D5G;b< o( t$e Balanga -even%e Co!e rea!s: ;b< 2$e a&&lication (or a Ma'orHs &ermit s$all state t$e name resi!ence an! citiBens$i& o( ;sic< t$e a&&licantHs (%ll !escri&tion o( t$e b%siness t$e &artic%lar &lace ,$ere ;sic< t$e same s$all be con!%cte! an! s%c$ ot$er &ertinent in(ormation an! !ate ;sic< as an' ;sic< be re.%ire!. *( t$e a&&licant !eliberatel' ma+es a (alse statement in t$e a&&lication (orm t$e M%nici&al Ma'or ma' revo+e t$e &ermit an! t$e a&&licant ma' be &rosec%te! an! &enaliBe! in accor!ance ,it$ t$e &ertinent &rovisions o( &enal la,s. *n case a &erson !esires to con!%ct t$e same +in! or line o( b%siness in anot$er &lace ,it$in t$e M%nici&alit' in a!!ition to or asi!e (rom t$e establis$ment s&eci(ie! in $is &ermit $e s$all sec%re a se&arate &ermit (or eac$ b%siness an! &a' t$e corres&on!ing (ee im&ose! in t$is article. *( a &erson !esires to engage in more t$an one +in! or line o( b%siness $e s$all &a' t$e (ee im&ose! on eac$ se&arate b%siness not,it$stan!ing t$e (act t$at $e ma' con!%ct or o&erate all !istinct b%siness ;sic< tra!es or occ%&ation in one &lace onl' ;$< -evocation o( =ermit. S 2$e M%nici&al Ma'or ma' revo+e a &ermit in e((ect close t$e establis$ment %&on a violation o( e4isting or!inance reg%lating b%siness establis$ments or an' &rovisions o( t$is article in a!!ition to t$e (ine an! im&risonment t$at t$e' ;sic< ma' be im&ose! b' t$e co%rt (or violation o( t$is article -es&on!ents claim t$at &etitioner ;1< !eliberatel' ma!e a (alse statement in t$e a&&lication (orm ,$en it (aile! to &rovi!e t$e in(ormation t$at t$eir &lace o( b%siness is t$e s%b9ect o( a!verse claimsA an! ;/< (aile! to a&&l' (or t,o se&arate &ermits (or t$e t,o lines o( b%siness it &ro&ose! to engage in. 2$e a&&lication (or Ma'orHs &ermit in t$e case at benc$ re.%ires t$e a&&licant to state ,$at t'&e o( "b%siness" &ro(ession occ%&ation an!?or calling &rivileges" is being a&&lie! (or. =etitioner le(t t$is entr' ban+ in its a&&lication (orm ;-ollo &. 1/0<. *t is onl' in t$e Ma'orHs &ermit itsel( t$at &etitionerHs lines o( b%siness a&&ear ,$ic$ in t$is case are t,o se&arate t'&es one as real estate !ealer an! anot$er as &%blic mar+et o&erator. 2$e &ermit s$o%l! not $ave been iss%e! ,it$o%t t$e re.%ire! in(ormation given in t$e a&&lication (orm itsel(. -evo+ing t$e &ermit $o,ever beca%se o( a (alse statement in t$e a&&lication (orm cannot be 9%sti(ie! %n!er t$e a(orementione! &rovision. 2$ere m%st be &roo( o( ,ill(%l misre&resentation an! !eliberate intent to ma+e a (alse statement. Goo! (ait$ is al,a's &res%me! an! as it $a&&ene! &etitioner !i! not ma+e an' (alse statement in t$e &ertinent entr'. Neit$er ,as &etitionerHs a&&l'ing (or t,o b%sinesses in one &ermit a gro%n! (or revocation. 2$e .%estion o( o,ners$i& over Lot /G1DB $a! alrea!' been settle! ,it$ (inalit' b' t$e )%&reme Co%rt in 1881 in G.-. No. G///1. 3ntr' o( 9%!gment ,as li+e,ise ma!e in t$e same 'ear. 6$en t$e Ma'orHs &ermit ,as revo+e! on Febr%ar' 18 1888 (ive 'ears $a! alrea!' ela&se! since t$e case ,as !eci!e!. =etitioner ,as able to s%rve' t$e lan! an! $ave t$e s%rve' a&&rove! on Marc$ /1 1880 ;-ollo &&. 1CD1G< an! on 7an%ar' 11 1888 &etitioner obtaine! in its name 2C2 No. 1/51C/ ",it$o%t an' memoran!%m o( enc%mbrance or enc%mbrances &ertaining to an' !ecision ren!ere! in an' civil case" Clearl' (or all intents an! &%r&oses &etitioner a&&eare! to be t$e tr%e o,ner o( Lot /G1DBDGD#D1 ,$en res&on!ents revo+e! its &ermit to engage! in b%siness on its o,n lan!. #ss%ming arg%en!o t$at Lot /G1DBDGD#D1 ,as act%all' one o( t$ose a,ar!e! to t$e &lainti((s in Civil Case No. 1851 an! t$e 2rans(er Certi(icate o( 2itle o( &etitioner is s&%rio%s t$is still !oes not 9%sti(' t$e revocation o( t$e Ma'orHs &ermit. # close scr%tin' o( t$e recor!s reveals t$at t$e )angg%niang Ba'an !i! not establis$ or maintain an' &%blic mar+et on t$e s%b9ect lot. 2$e resol%tion merel' mentione! t$e &lan to ac.%ire t$e lot (or e4&ansion o( t$e &%blic mar+et a!9acent t$ereto. @ntil e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings are instit%te! in co%rt t$e lan!o,ner cannot be !e&rive! o( its rig$t over t$e lan!.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


O( co%rse t$e )angg%niang Ba'an $as t$e !%t' in t$e e4ercise o( its &olice &o,ers to reg%late an' b%siness s%b9ect to m%nici&al license (ees an! &rescribe t$e con!itions %n!er ,$ic$ a m%nici&al license alrea!' iss%e! ma' be revo+e! ;B.=. Blg. 117 )ec. 108 U1V UrV<. B%t t$e "an4iet' %ncertaint' restiveness" among t$e stall$ol!ers an! tra!ers cannot be a vali! gro%n! (or revo+ing t$e &ermit o( &etitioner. #(ter all t$e stall$ol!ers an! tra!ers ,ere !oing b%siness on &ro&ert' not belonging to t$e M%nici&al government. *n!ee! t$e claim t$at t$e e4ec%tive or!er an! resol%tion ,ere meas%res "!esigne! to &romote &eace an! or!er an! &rotect t$e general ,el(are o( t$e &eo&le o( Balanga" is too amor&$o%s an! convenient an e4c%se to 9%sti(' res&on!entsH acts ;Killacorta v. Bernar!o 101 )C-# 085 U188GV<. *n vie, o( t$e %n!is&%te! (act t$at t$e res&on!ent M%nici&alit' is not t$e o,ner o( Lot /G1DBDGD#D1 t$en t$ere is no legal basis (or it to im&ose an! collect mar+et (ees an! mar+et entrance (ees. Onl' t$e o,ner $as t$e rig$t to !o so. 'ano v. (ocrates Facts: )angg%niang =anl%ngso! ng =%erto =rincesa Cit' enacte! Or!inance No. 1CD8/ ,$ic$ banne! t$e s$im&ment o( live (is$a an! lobster o%tsi!e =%erto =rincesa Cit' (rom 51 7an 1881D1888. 6$ile t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan =rovincial Government o( =ala,an enacte! -esol%tion No. 11 ,$ic$ &ro$ibite! t$e catc$ing gat$ering &ossessing b%'ing selling an! s$i&ment o( love marine coral !,elling a.%atic organisms (or a &erio! o( C 'ears in an! coming (rom =ala,an ,aters. Or!inance No. / Or!inance =ro$ibiting t$e catc$ing gat$ering &ossessing b%'ing selling an! s$i&ment o( live marine coral !,elling a.%atic organisms ,as also enacte!. 2$e res&on!ents im&lemente! t$e sai! or!inances !e&riving all t$e (is$ermen o( t$e ,$ole &rovince o( =ala,an an! t$e Cit' o( =%erto =rincesa o( t$eir onl' means o( liveli$oo! an! t$e &etitioners #irline )$i&&ers #ssociation o( =ala,an an! ot$er marine merc$ants (rom &er(orming t$eir la,(%l occ%&ation an! tra!e. =etitioners #l(re!o 2ano Bal!omero 2ano 2eocenes Mi!ello #ngel !e Mesa 3%logio 2remoc$a an! Feli&e Ongonion 7r. ,ere c$arge! criminall' on t$e basis o( t$e or!inances. 2$e &etitioners (ile! t$is action claiming t$at (irst t$e Or!inances !e&rive! t$em o( !%e &rocess o( la, t$eir liveli$oo! an! %n!%l' restricte! t$em (rom t$e &ractice o( t$eir tra!e in violation o( )ection / #rticle J** an! )ections / an! 7 o( #rticle J*** o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion. )econ! O((ice Or!er No. /1 containe! no reg%lation nor con!ition %n!er ,$ic$ t$e Ma'or>s &ermit co%l! be grante! or !enie!A in ot$er ,or!s t$e Ma'or $a! t$e absol%te a%t$orit' to !etermine ,$et$er or not to iss%e &ermit. 2$ir! as t$e Or!inance No. / altoget$er &ro$ibite! t$e catc$ing gat$ering &ossession b%'ing selling an! s$i&&ing o( live marine coral !,elling organisms ,it$o%t an' !istinction ,$et$er it ,as ca%g$t or gat$ere! t$ro%g$ la,(%l (is$ing met$o! t$e Or!inance too+ a,a' t$e rig$t o( &etitionersD(is$ermen to earn t$eir liveli$oo! in la,(%l ,a's. Finall' as Or!inance No. / o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan is n%ll an! voi! t$e criminal cases base! t$ereon against &etitioners 2ano an! t$e ot$ers $ave to be !ismisse!. Governor )ocrates an! Members o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan o( =ala,an !e(en!e! t$e vali!it' o( Or!inance No./ as a vali! e4ercise o( t$e =rovincial Government &o,er %n!er t$e general ,el(are cla%se ;)ection 1G o( t$e LGC o( 1881 U$erea(ter LGCV< an! its s&eci(ic &o,er to &rotect t$e environment an! im&ose a&&ro&riate &enalties (or acts ,$ic$ en!anger t$e environment s%c$ as !'namite (is$ing an! ot$er (orms o( !estr%ctive (is$ing %n!er )ection 007 ;a< ;1< ;vi< )ection 0C8 ;a< ;1< ;vi< an! )ection 0G8 ;a< ;1< ;vi< o( t$e LGC. 2$e' claime! t$at in t$e e4ercise o( s%c$ &o,ers t$e =rovince o( =ala,an $a! t$e rig$t an! res&onsibilt' to ins%re t$at t$e remaining coral ree(s ,$ere (is$ !,ells UsicV ,it$in its territor' remain $ealt$' (or t$e (%t%re generation. 2$e Or!inance t$e' (%rt$er asserte! covere! onl' live marine coral !,elling a.%atic organisms ,$ic$ ,ere en%merate! in t$e or!inance an! e4cl%!e! ot$er +in!s o( live marine a.%atic organisms not !,elling in coral ree(sA besi!es t$e &ro$ibition ,as (or onl' (ive ;C< 'ears to &rotect an! &reserve t$e &ristine coral an! allo, t$ose !amage! to regenerate. 2$e' li+e,ise maintaine! t$at t$ere ,as no violation o( !%e &rocess an! e.%al &rotection cla%ses o( t$e Constit%tion. #s to t$e (ormer &%blic $earings ,ere con!%cte! be(ore t$e enactment o( t$e Or!inance ,$ic$ %n!o%bte!l' $a! a la,(%l &%r&ose an! em&lo'e! reasonable meansA ,$ile as to t$e latter a s%bstantial !istinction e4iste! bet,een a (is$erman ,$o catc$es live (is$ ,it$ t$e intention o( selling it live an! a (is$erman ,$o catc$es live (is$ ,it$ no intention at all o( selling it live i.e. t$e (ormer %ses so!i%m c'ani!e ,$ile t$e latter !oes not. F%rt$er t$e Or!inance a&&lie! e.%all' to all t$ose belonging to one class.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


2$ere are act%all' t,o sets o( &etitioners in t$is case. 2$e &rimar' interest o( t$e (irst set o( &etitioners is to &revent t$e &rosec%tion trial an! !etermination o( t$e criminal cases %ntil t$e constit%tionalit' or legalit' o( t$e Or!inances t$e' allege!l' violate! s$all $ave been resolve!. 2$e secon! set o( &etitioners merel' claim t$at t$e' being (is$ermen or marine merc$ants t$e' ,o%l! be a!versel' a((ecte! b' t$e or!inances. 2$e &etitioners claim t$at as s%bsistence or marginal (is$ermen t$e' are entitle! to t$e &rotection o( t$e )tate as ens$rine! in )ection / o( #rticle J** o( t$e Constit%tion. *ss%e: t$eir en9o'ment ma' be g%arantee! not onl' (or t$e &resent generation b%t also (or t$e generations to come. 2$e soDcalle! "&re(erential rig$t" o( s%bsistence or marginal (is$ermen to t$e %se o( marine reso%rces is not at all absol%te. *n accor!ance ,it$ t$e -egalian Doctrine marine reso%rces belong to t$e )tate an! &%rs%ant to t$e (irst &aragra&$ o( )ection / #rticle J** o( t$e Constit%tion t$eir "e4&loration !evelo&ment an! %tiliBation . . . s$all be %n!er t$e (%ll control an! s%&ervision o( t$e )tate." 6$et$er t$e or!inances in .%estion are %nconstit%tionalT NO. Moreover )ection C;c< o( t$e LGC e4&licitl' man!ates t$at t$e general ,el(are &rovisions o( t$e LGC "s$all be liberall' inter&rete! to give more &o,ers to t$e LG@s in accelerating economic !evelo&ment an! %&gra!ing t$e .%alit' o( li(e (or t$e &eo&le o( t$e comm%nit'." 2$e LGC vests m%nici&alities ,it$ t$e &o,er to grant (is$er' &rivileges in m%nici&al ,aters an! im&ose rentals (ees or c$arges t$ere(orA to &enaliBe b' a&&ro&riate or!inances t$e %se o( e4&losives no4io%s or &oisono%s s%bstances electricit' m%roDami an! ot$er !eleterio%s met$o!s o( (is$ingA an! to &rosec%te an' violation o( t$e &rovisions o( a&&licable (is$er' la,s. F%rt$er t$e sangg%niang ba'an t$e sangg%niang &anl%ngso! an! t$e sangg%niang &anlala,igan are !irecte! to enact or!inances (or t$e general ,el(are o( t$e m%nici&alit' an! its in$abitants ,$ic$ s$all incl%!e inter alia or!inances t$at "U&Vrotect t$e environment an! im&ose a&&ro&riate &enalties (or acts ,$ic$ en!anger t$e environment s%c$ as !'namite (is$ing an! ot$er (orms o( !estr%ctive (is$ing . . . an! s%c$ ot$er activities ,$ic$ res%lt in &oll%tion acceleration o( e%tro&$ication o( rivers an! la+es or o( ecological imbalance." Finall' t$e center&iece o( LGC is t$e s'stem o( !ecentraliBation as e4&ressl' man!ate! b' t$e Constit%tion.. *n!is&ensable to !ecentraliBation is !evol%tion an! t$e LGC e4&ressl' &rovi!es t$at "UaVn' &rovision on a &o,er o( a LG@ s$all be liberall' inter&rete! in its (avor an! in case o( !o%bt an' .%estion t$ereon s$all be resolve! in (avor o( !evol%tion o( &o,ers an! o( t$e lo,er LG@. #n' (air an! reasonable !o%bt as to t$e e4istence o( t$e &o,er s$all be inter&rete! in (avor o( t$e LG@ concerne!." Devol%tion re(ers to t$e act b' ,$ic$ t$e National Government con(ers

1.

1. 6$et$er &etitioners are s%bsistence or marginal

(is$ermenT NO. )ince t$e Constit%tion !oes not s&eci(icall' &rovi!e a !e(inition o( t$e terms "s%bsistence" or "marginal" (is$ermen t$e' s$o%l! be constr%e! in t$eir general an! or!inar' sense. # marginal (is$erman is an in!ivi!%al engage! in (is$ing ,$ose margin o( ret%rn or re,ar! in $is $arvest o( (is$ as meas%re! b' e4isting &rice levels is barel' s%((icient to 'iel! a &ro(it or cover t$e cost o( gat$ering t$e (is$ ,$ile a s%bsistence (is$erman is one ,$ose catc$ 'iel!s b%t t$e irre!%cible minim%m (or $is liveli$oo!. )ection 111;&< o( t$e LGC ;-.#. No. 71G5< !e(ines a marginal (armer or (is$erman as "an in!ivi!%al engage! in s%bsistence (arming or (is$ing ,$ic$ s$all be limite! to t$e sale barter or e4c$ange o( agric%lt%ral or marine &ro!%cts &ro!%ce! b' $imsel( an! $is imme!iate (amil'." *t bears re&eating t$at not$ing in t$e recor! s%&&orts a (in!ing t$at an' &etitioner (alls ,it$in t$ese !e(initions. Besi!es )ection / o( #rticle J** aims &rimaril' not to besto, an' rig$t to s%bsistence (is$ermen b%t to la' stress on t$e !%t' o( t$e )tate to &rotect t$e nationHs marine ,ealt$. 6$at t$e &rovision merel' recogniBes is t$at t$e )tate ma' allo, b' la, coo&erative (is$ (arming ,it$ &riorit' to s%bsistence (is$ermen an! (is$,or+ers in rivers la+es ba's an! lagoons. #nent )ection 7 o( #rticle J*** it s&ea+s not onl' o( t$e %se o( comm%nal marine an! (is$ing reso%rces b%t o( t$eir &rotection !evelo&ment an! conservation. #s $erea(ter s$o,n t$e or!inances in .%estion are meant &recisel' to &rotect an! conserve o%r marine reso%rces to t$e en! t$at

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


&o,er an! a%t$orit' %&on t$e vario%s LG@s to &er(orm s&eci(ic (%nctions an! res&onsibilities. *n lig$t t$en o( t$e &rinci&les o( !ecentraliBation an! !evol%tion ens$rine! in t$e LGC an! t$e &o,ers grante! t$erein to LG@s %n!er )ection 1G ;t$e General 6el(are Cla%se< an! %n!er )ections 108 007;a< ;1< ;vi< 0C8 ;a< ;1< ;vi< an! 0G8 ;a< ;1< ;vi< ,$ic$ %n.%estionabl' involve t$e e4ercise o( &olice &o,er t$e vali!it' o( t$e .%estione! Or!inances cannot be !o%bte!. =arent$eticall' ,e ,is$ to a!! t$at t$ese Or!inances (in! (%ll s%&&ort %n!er -.#. No. 7G11 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e )trategic 3nvironmental =lan ;)3=< (or =ala,an #ct a&&rove! on 18 7%ne 188/. 2$is stat%te a!o&ts a "com&re$ensive (rame,or+ (or t$e s%stainable !evelo&ment o( =ala,an com&atible ,it$ &rotecting an! en$ancing t$e nat%ral reso%rces an! en!angere! environment o( t$e &rovince". *t is clear to t$e Co%rt t$at t$e Or!inances $ave t,o &rinci&al ob9ectives or &%r&oses: ;1< to establis$ a "close! season" (or t$e s&ecies o( (is$ or a.%atic animals covere! t$erein (or a &erio! o( (ive 'earsA an! ;/< to &rotect t$e coral in t$e marine ,aters o( t$e Cit' o( =%erto =rincesa an! t$e =rovince o( =ala,an (rom (%rt$er !estr%ction !%e to illegal (is$ing activities. 2$e accom&lis$ment o( t$e (irst ob9ective is ,ell ,it$in t$e !evolve! &o,er to en(orce (is$er' la,s in m%nici&al ,aters s%c$ as =.D. No. 151C ,$ic$ allo,s t$e establis$ment o( "close! seasons." 2$e !evol%tion o( s%c$ &o,er $as been e4&ressl' con(irme! in t$e Memoran!%m o( #greement o( C #&ril 1880 bet,een t$e De&artment o( #gric%lt%re an! t$e De&artment o( *nterior an! Local Government. 2$e realiBation o( t$e secon! ob9ective clearl' (alls ,it$in bot$ t$e general ,el(are cla%se o( t$e LGC an! t$e e4&ress man!ate to cities an! &rovinces to &rotect t$e environment an! im&ose a&&ro&riate &enalties (or acts ,$ic$ en!anger t$e environment. 2$ere(ore it is incorrect to sa' t$at t$e c$allenge! Or!inance o( t$e Cit' o( =%erto =rincesa is invali! or %nen(orceable beca%se it ,as not a&&rove! b' t$e )ecretar' o( t$e D3N-. *( at all t$e a&&roval t$at s$o%l! be so%g$t ,o%l! be t$at o( t$e )ecretar' o( t$e De&artment o( #gric%lt%re. Ho,ever t$e re.%irement o( a&&roval b' t$e )ecretar' o( t$e De&artment o( #gric%lt%re ;not D3N-< o( m%nici&al or!inances a((ecting (is$ing an! (is$eries in m%nici&al ,aters $as been !is&ense! ,it$ in vie, o( t$e (ollo,ing reason: ;1< #s !isc%sse! earlier %n!er t$e general ,el(are cla%se o( t$e LGC LG@s $ave t$e &o,er inter alia to enact or!inances to en$ance t$e rig$t o( t$e &eo&le to a balance! ecolog'. *t li+e,ise s&eci(icall' vests m%nici&alities ,it$ t$e &o,er to grant (is$er' &rivileges in m%nici&al ,aters an! im&ose rentals (ees or c$arges t$ere(orA to &enaliBe b' a&&ro&riate or!inances t$e %se o( e4&losives no4io%s or &oisono%s s%bstances electricit' m%roDami an! ot$er !eleterio%s met$o!s o( (is$ingA an! to &rosec%te an' violation o( t$e &rovisions o( a&&licable (is$er' la,s. Finall' it im&oses %&on t$e sangg%niang ba'an t$e sangg%niang &anl%ngso! an! t$e sangg%niang &anlala,igan t$e !%t' to enact or!inances to "U&Vrotect t$e environment an! im&ose a&&ro&riate &enalties (or acts ,$ic$ en!anger t$e environment s%c$ as !'namite (is$ing an! ot$er (orms o( !estr%ctive (is$ing . . . an! s%c$ ot$er activities ,$ic$ res%lt in &oll%tion acceleration o( e%tro&$ication o( rivers an! la+es or o( ecological imbalance.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests

(angalang v. )AC Facts: )t%!ies ,ere ma!e b' Ma'or :ab%t et al on t$e (easibilit' o( o&ening streets in BelD#ir calc%late! to alleviate tra((ic congestion along t$e &%blic streets a!9acent to BelD#ir. Base! on t$e st%!ies it ,as !eeme! necessar' in t$e interest o( t$e general &%blic to o&en to tra((ic #ma&ola Merce!es Zo!ia 7%&iter Ne&t%ne Orbit an! =aseo !e -o4as streets. #ccor!ing to BelD#ir t$e' o,n t$e streets an! as s%c$ s$o%l! not be !e&rive! o( t$em ,it$o%t 9%st com&ensation. *ss%e: 6ON t$e ma'or acte! arbitraril' in o&ening %& 7%&iter an! Orbit streets. NO.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


2$e o&ening o( 7%&iter ,as ,arrante! b' t$e !eman!s o( t$e common goo! in terms o( tra((ic !econgestion an! &%blic convenience. 2$e same is %&$el! in t$e case o( Orbit street. 2$ere is not merit in B#K#>s claims t$at t$e !emolition o( t$e gates at Orbit an! 7%&iter amo%nts to !e&rivation o( &ro&ert' ,it$o%t !%e &rocess o( la, or e4&ro&riation ,it$o%t 9%st com&ensation. 2$ere is no ta+ing involve! in t$is case. 2$e act o( t$e ma'or is in t$e conce&t o( &olice &o,er. =#)3* v. Drilon: =olice =o,er: state a%t$orit' to enact legislation t$at ma' inter(ere ,it$ &ersonal libert' or &ro&ert' in or!er to &romote t$e general ,el(are. Consists o(: 1. #n im&osition o( restraint %&on libert' or &ro&ert' /. *n or!er to (oster t$e common goo! 2$e &olice &o,er o( t$e state is a &o,er coe4tensive ,it$ sel(D&rotection an! it is not ina&tl' terme! t$e la, o( over,$elming necessit'. *t ma' be sai! to be t$at in$erent an! &lenar' &o,er in t$e state ,$ic$ enables it to &ro$ibit all t$ings $%rt(%l to t$e com(ort sa(et' an! ,el(are o( societ'. Bill o( rig$ts: even libert' itsel( t$e greatest o( all rig$ts is not %nrestricte! license to act accor!ingl' to one>s ,ill. *t is s%b9ect to t$e (ar more overri!ing !eman!s an! re.%irements o( t$e greater n%mber. Ho,ever it ma' not be !one arbitraril' or %nreasonabl'. B%r!en o( s$o,ing t$at it is %n9%sti(ie! lies on aggrieve! &art'. *n t$e case at bar. B#K# $as (aile! to s$o, t$at t$e o&ening ,as %n9%sti(ie! or t$at t$e ma'or acte! %nreasonabl'. #rt. 751: s%mmar' abatement ma' be carrie! o%t b' t$e ma'or $imsel( Cabrera v. CA Facts: 2$e =rovincial Boar! o( Catan!%anes a!o&te! -esol%tion No. 1C8 closing t$e ol! roa! lea!ing to t$e ne, Ca&itol B%il!ing o( t$is &rovince to tra((ic an! giving t$e o,ners o( t$e &ro&erties traverse! b' t$e ne, roa! e.%al area as &er s%rve' b' t$e Hig$,a' District 3ngineerHs o((ice (rom t$e ol! roa! a!9acent to t$e res&ective remaining &ortion o( t$eir &ro&erties. =%rs%ant t$ereto Dee!s o( 34c$ange ,ere e4ec%te! %n!er ,$ic$ t$e =rovince o( Catan!%anes conve'e! to -eme!ios -. Baga!iong Fre!es,in!o F. #lcala 3lena ). Latorre Bal!omero 2olentino 3%logia 2. #le9an!ro #ngeles ). Kargas an! 7%an ). -e'es &ortions o( t$e close! roa! in e4c$ange (or t$eir o,n res&ective &ro&erties on ,$ic$ ,as s%bse.%entl' lai! a ne, concrete roa! lea!ing to t$e Ca&itol B%il!ing. *n 1878 &art o( t$e nort$ern en! o( t$e ol! roa! (ronting t$e &etitionerHs $o%se ,as &lante! to vegetables in 1877 b' 3%logia #le9an!ro. #nselmo =eRa ,$o $a! bo%g$t #ngeles KargasHs s$are also in t$e same &art o( t$e roa! converte! it into a &igger' (arm. Learning abo%t -esol%tion 1C8 t$e &etitioner (ile! on December /8 1878 a com&laint ,it$ t$e Co%rt o( First *nstance o( Catan!%anes (or "-estoration o( =%blic -oa! an!?or #batement o( N%isance #nn%lment o( -esol%tions an! Doc%ments ,it$ Damages." He allege! t$at t$e lan! (ronting $is $o%se ,as a &%blic roa! o,ne! b' t$e =rovince o( Catan!%anes in its governmental ca&acit' an! t$ere(ore be'on! t$e commerce o( man. He conten!e! t$at -esol%tion No. 1C8 an! t$e !ee!s o( e4c$ange ,ere invali! as so too ,as t$e clos%re o( t$e nort$ern &ortion o( t$e sai! roa!. *n a !ecision !ate! November /1 1885 7%!ge Graciano =. Ga'a&a 7r. ,$ile $ol!ing t$at t$e lan! in .%estion ,as not a !eclare! &%blic roa! b%t a mere "&assage,a'" or "s$ortDc%t " nevert$eless s%staine! t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e &rovincial boar! to enact -esol%tion No. 1C8 %n!er e4isting la,. 1 #&&eal ,as ta+en to t$e res&on!ent co%rt / ,$ic$ (o%n! t$at t$e roa! ,as a &%blic roa! an! not a trail b%t 9%st t$e same also %&$el! -esol%tion 1C8. *t !eclare!: =%rs%ant to -e&%blic #ct No. C18C m%nici&al a%t$orities can close s%b9ect to t$e a&&roval or !irection o( t$e =rovincial Boar! t$oro%g$(ares %n!er )ection //0G o( t$e -evise! #!ministrative Co!e. #lt$o%g$ in t$is case t$e roa! ,as not close! b' t$e m%nici&alit' o( Catan!%anes b%t b' t$e &rovincial boar! o( Catan!%anes t$e clos%re nevert$eless is vali! since it ,as or!ere! b' t$e a&&roving a%t$orit' itsel(. Ho,ever ,$ile it co%l! !o so t$e &rovincial government o( Catan!%anes co%l! close t$e roa! onl' i( t$e &ersons &re9%!ice! t$ereb' ,ere in!emni(ie! )ection //0G o( t$e -evise! #!ministrative Co!e being ver' e4&licit on t$is. Be(ore %s no, t$e &etitioner insists t$at )ec. //0G is not a&&licable beca%se -esol%tion No. 1C8 is not an or!er (or t$e clos%re o( t$e roa! in .%estion b%t an a%t$orit' to barter or e4c$ange it ,it$ &rivate &ro&erties. He maintains t$at t$e &%blic roa! ,as o,ne! b' t$e &rovince in its governmental ca&acit' an! ,it$o%t a &rior or!er o( clos%re co%l! not be t$e s%b9ect o( a barter. Control over &%blic roa!s $e insists is ,it$ Congress an! not ,it$ t$e &rovincial boar!.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


2$e &etitioner alleges t$at t$e clos%re o( t$e roa! $as es&eciall' in9%re! $im an! $is (amil' as t$e' can no longer %se it in going to t$e national roa! lea!ing to t$e ol! ca&itol b%il!ing b%t m%st instea! &ass t$ro%g$ a small &assage,a'. For s%c$ inconvenience $e is entitle! to !amages in accor!ance ,it$ la,. *ss%e: 6ON t$e &rovincial boar! can or!er t$e clos%re o( a roa! an! %se? conve' it (or ot$er &%r&oses. :3). 2$e a%t$orit' o( t$e &rovincial boar! to close t$at roa! an! %se or conve' it (or ot$er &%r&oses is !erive! (rom t$e (ollo,ing &rovisions o( -e&%blic #ct No. C18C in relation to )ection //0G o( t$e -evise! #!ministrative Co!e: -.#. No. C18C )ection 11 ;**< ;a<: **. 2$e (ollo,ing actions b' m%nici&al o((icials or m%nici&al co%ncils as &rovi!e! (or in t$e &ertinent sections o( t$e -evise! #!ministrative Co!e s$all ta+e e((ect ,it$o%t t$e nee! o( a&&roval or !irection (rom an' o((icial o( t$e national government: =rovi!e! 2$at s%c$ actions s$all be s%b9ect to a&&roval or !irection b' t$e =rovincial Boar!: ;a< #%t$orit' to close t$oro%g$(are %n!er )ection //0GA )ec. //0G. #%t$orit' to close t$oro%g$(are. S 6it$ t$e &rior a%t$oriBation o( t$e De&artment Hea! a m%nici&al co%ncil ma' close an' m%nici&al roa! street alle' &ar+ or s.%areA b%t no s%c$ ,a' or &lace a(oresai! or an' &art t$ereo( s$all be close! ,it$o%t in!emni('ing an' &erson &re9%!ice! t$ereb'. =ro&ert' t$%s ,it$!ra,n (rom &%blic servit%!e ma' be %se! or conve'e! (or an' &%r&ose (or ,$ic$ ot$er real &ro&ert' belonging to t$e m%nici&alit' mig$t be la,(%ll' %se! or conve'e!. Ceb% O4'gen an! #cet'lene Co. *nc. v. Bercilles: clos%re o( a cit' street is ,it$in t$e &o,ers o( t$e cit' co%ncil %n!er t$e -evise! C$arter o( Ceb% Cit'. *t s%staine! t$e s%bse.%ent sale o( t$e lan! as being in accor!ance not onl' ,it$ t$e c$arter b%t also ,it$ #rticle 0// o( t$e Civil Co!e ,$ic$ &rovi!es: "=ro&ert' o( &%blic !ominion ,$en no longer inten!e! (or &%blic %se or (or &%blic service s$all (orm &art o( t$e &atrimonial &ro&ert' o( t$e )tate." Favis vs. Cit' o( Bag%io: a&&ellant ma' not c$allenge t$e cit' co%ncilHs act o( ,it$!ra,ing a stri& o( La&%DLa&% )treet at its !ea! en! (rom &%blic %se an! converting t$e remain!er t$ereo( into an alle'. 2$ese are acts ,ell ,it$in t$e ambit o( t$e &o,er to close a cit' street. 2$e cit' co%ncil it ,o%l! seem to %s is t$e a%t$orit' com&etent to !etermine ,$et$er or not a certain &ro&ert' is still necessar' (or &%blic %se. )%c$ &o,er to vacate a street or alle' is !iscretionar'. #n! t$e !iscretion ,ill not or!inaril' be controlle! or inter(ere! ,it$ b' t$e co%rts absent a &lain case o( ab%se or (ra%! or coll%sion. Fait$(%lness to t$e &%blic tr%st ,ill be &res%me!. )o t$e (act t$at some &rivate interests ma' be serve! inci!entall' ,ill not invali!ate t$e vacation or!inance. 6$ile it is tr%e t$at t$e above cases !ealt ,it$ cit' co%ncils an! not t$e &rovincial boar! t$ere is no reason (or not a&&l'ing t$e !octrine anno%nce! t$erein to t$e &rovincial boar! in connection ,it$ t$e clos%re o( &rovincial roa!s. 2$e &rovincial boar! $as a(ter all t$e !%t' o( maintaining s%c$ roa!s (or t$e com(ort an! convenience o( t$e in$abitants o( t$e &rovince. Moreover t$is a%t$orit' is in(erable (rom t$e grant b' t$e national legislat%re o( t$e (%n!s to t$e =rovince o( Catan!%anes (or t$e constr%ction o( &rovincial roa!s. 2$e lo,er co%rt (o%n! t$e &etitionerHs allegation o( in9%r' an! &re9%!ice to be ,it$o%t basis beca%se $e $a! "eas' access an',a' to t$e national roa! (or in (act t$e ve$icles %se! b' t$e Co%rt an! t$e &arties !%ring t$e oc%lar ins&ection easil' &asse! an! %se! it reac$ing be'on! &lainti((Hs $o%se." Ho,ever t$e C# r%le! t$at t$e $e ",as &re9%!ice! b' t$e clos%re o( t$e roa! ,$ic$ (ormerl' (ronte! $is $o%se. He an! $is (amil' ,ere %n!o%bte!l' inconvenience! b' t$e loss o( access to t$eir &lace o( resi!ence (or ,$ic$ ,e believe t$e' s$o%l! be com&ensate!." Favis: 2$e general r%le is t$at one ,$ose &ro&ert' !oes not ab%t on t$e close! section o( a street $as no rig$t to com&ensation (or t$e closing or vacation o( t$e street i( $e still $as reasonable access to t$e general s'stem o( streets. 2$e circ%mstances in some cases ma' be s%c$ as to give a rig$t to !amages to a &ro&ert' o,ner even t$o%g$ $is &ro&ert' !oes not ab%t on t$e close! section. B%t to ,arrant recover' in an' s%c$ case t$e &ro&ert' o,ner m%st s$o, t$at t$e sit%ation is s%c$ t$at $e $as s%staine! s&ecial !amages !i((ering in +in! an! not merel' in !egree (rom t$ose s%staine! b' t$e &%blic generall'. -ic$mon! v. Cit' o( Hinton : 2$e Constit%tion !oes not %n!erta+e to g%arantee to a &ro&ert' o,ner t$e &%blic

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


maintenance o( t$e most convenient ro%te to $is !oor. 2$e la, ,ill not &ermit $im to be c%t o(( (rom t$e &%blic t$oro%g$(ares b%t $e m%st content $imsel( ,it$ s%c$ ro%te (or o%tlet as t$e reg%larl' constit%te! &%blic a%t$orit' ma' !eem most com&atible ,it$ t$e &%blic ,el(are. 6$en $e ac.%ires cit' &ro&ert' $e !oes so in tacit recognition o( t$ese &rinci&les. *( s%bse.%ent to $is ac.%isition t$e cit' a%t$orities aban!on a &ortion o( t$e street to ,$ic$ $is &ro&ert' is not imme!iatel' a!9acent $e ma' s%((er loss beca%se o( t$e inconvenience im&ose! b%t t$e &%blic treas%r' cannot be re.%ire! to recom&ense $im. )%c$ case is !amn%m abs.%e in9%ria. &etitioner is not entitle! to !amages beca%se t$e in9%r' $e $as inc%rre! s%c$ as it is is t$e &rice $e an! ot$ers li+e $im m%st &a' (or t$e ,el(are o( t$e entire comm%nit'. 2$is is not a case ,$ere $is &ro&ert' $as been e4&ro&riate! an! $e is entitle! to 9%st com&ensation. 2$e constr%ction o( t$e ne, roa! ,as %n!erta+en %n!er t$e general ,el(are cla%se. #s t$e trial 9%!ge ac%tel' observe! ,$atever inconvenience t$e &etitioner $as s%((ere! "&ales in signi(icance com&are! to t$e greater convenience t$e ne, roa! ,$ic$ is ,i!e an! concrete straig$t to t$e veterans (o%ntain an! !o,n to t$e &ier $as been giving to t$e &%blic &l%s t$e (act t$at t$e ne, roa! a!!s bea%t' an! color not onl' to t$e to,n o( Kirac b%t also to t$e ,$ole &rovince o( Catan!%anes." For t$e en9o'ment o( t$ose bene(its ever' in!ivi!%al in t$e &rovince incl%!ing t$e &etitioner m%st be &re&are! to give $is s$are *acana# v. Asistio Facts: MMC Or!inance No. 78D5/ ,as enacte! b' t$e Metro&olitan Manila Commission !esignating certain cit' an! m%nici&al streets roa!s an! o&en s&aces as sites (or (lea mar+ets. =%rs%ant t$ereto t$e Caloocan Cit' ma'or o&ene! %& seven ;7< (lea mar+ets in t$at cit'. One o( t$ose streets ,as t$e "Heroes !el H8G" ,$ere t$e &etitioner lives. @&on a&&lication o( ven!ors t$e res&on!ents cit' ma'or an! cit' engineer iss%e! t$em licenses to con!%ct ven!ing activities on sai! street. #ntonio MartineB as O*C cit' ma'or o( Caloocan Cit' ca%se! t$e !emolition o( t$e mar+et stalls on Heroes !el H8G K. GoBon an! GonBales streets. 2o sto& Ma'or MartineBH e((orts stallo,ners (ile! an action (or &ro$ibition against t$e Cit' o( Caloocan t$e O*C Cit' Ma'or an! t$e Cit' 3ngineer an!?or t$eir !e&%ties &ra'ing t$e co%rt to iss%e a ,rit o( &reliminar' in9%nction or!ering t$ese cit' o((icials to !iscontin%e t$e !emolition o( t$eir stalls !%ring t$e &en!enc' o( t$e action.. LC: =* Grante!. B%t &etition ,as later !ismisse!. ;1< Observe! t$at MMC Or!inance No. 78D5/ e4&ressl' &rovi!es t$at t$e %se o( certain streets as (lee mar+ets are s%b9ect to t$e a&&roval o( t$e Metro&olitan Manila Commission. ;/< Fo%n! t$at Heroes !el H8G GoBon an! GonBales streets are o( &%blic !ominion $ence o%tsi!e t$e commerce o( man. 2$is means t$at t$e' cannot be alienate! or lease! or ot$er,ise be t$e s%b9ect matter o( contracts ;M%nici&alit' o( Cavite vs. -o9as<. )%c$ lease i( ever is n%ll an! voi!. 2$is &rinci&le ,as s%&&orte! b' Cit' o( Manila vs. Gerar!o Garcia ,$ic$ state! t$at: \2$e &ro&ert' being a &%blic one t$e Manila Ma'ors !i! not $ave t$e a%t$orit' to give &ermits ,ritten or oral to t$e s.%atters an! t$at t$e &ermits grante! are t$ere(ore consi!ere! n%ll an! voi!. ;1< O&ine! t$at t$e o((icials $ave t$e rig$t to !emolis$ t$e s%b9ect stalls o( t$e &lainti((s more so !%e to )ection 18C &ar. 0 o( Batas =ambansa Blg. 117 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e LGC. Ho,ever s$ortl' a(ter t$e LC !ecision came o%t t$e cit' a!ministration in Caloocan Cit' c$ange! $an!s. Cit' Ma'or #sistio 7r. as s%ccessor o( Ma'or MartineB !i! not &%rs%e t$e latterHs &olic' o( clearing an! cleaning %& t$e cit' streets. *nvo+ing t$e trial co%rtHs !ecision in Civil Case No. CD1/8/1 Dacana' ,rote a letter to Ma'or #sistio 7r. calling $is attention to t$e illegall'Dconstr%cte! stalls on Heroes !el H8G )treet an! as+e! (or t$eir !emolition. Follo,e! %& b%t to no avail. Hence t$is case. *ss%e: 6ON &%blic streets or t$oro%g$(ares ma' be lease! or license! to mar+et stall$ol!ers b' virt%e o( a cit' or!inance or resol%tion o( t$e Metro Manila Commission. NO. 2$ere is no !o%bt t$at t$e !is&%te! areas (rom ,$ic$ t$e &rivate res&on!entsH mar+et stalls are so%g$t to be evicte! are &%blic streets as (o%n! b' t$e trial co%rt in Civil Case No. CD1/8/1. # &%blic street is &ro&ert' (or &%blic %se $ence o%tsi!e t$e commerce o( man. Being o%tsi!e t$e commerce o( man it ma' not be t$e s%b9ect o( lease or ot$er contract. #s t$e stall$ol!ers &a' (ees to t$e Cit' Government (or t$e rig$t to occ%&' &ortions o( t$e &%blic street t$e Cit' Government contrar' to la, $as been leasing &ortions o( t$e streets to t$em. )%c$ leases or licenses are n%ll an! voi! (or being contrar' to la,. 2$e rig$t o( t$e &%blic to %se t$e cit' streets ma' not be bargaine! a,a' t$ro%g$

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


contract. 2$e interests o( a (e, s$o%l! not &revail over t$e goo! o( t$e greater n%mber in t$e comm%nit' ,$ose $ealt$ &eace sa(et' goo! or!er an! general ,el(are t$e res&on!ent cit' o((icials are %n!er legal obligation to &rotect. 2$e 34ec%tive Or!er iss%e! b' #cting Ma'or -obles a%t$oriBing t$e %se o( Heroes !el H8G )treet as a ven!ing area (or stall$ol!ers ,$o ,ere grante! licenses b' t$e cit' government contravenes t$e general la, t$at reserves cit' streets an! roa!s (or &%blic %se. Ma'or -oblesH 34ec%tive Or!er ma' not in(ringe %&on t$e veste! rig$t o( t$e &%blic to %se cit' streets (or t$e &%r&ose t$e' ,ere inten!e! to serve: i.e. as arteries o( travel (or ve$icles an! &e!estrians. Macasiano v. *io:no Facts: =arana.%e &asse! Or!inance No. 8G )eries o( 1885 ,$ic$ a%t$oriBe! t$e clos%re o( 7. Gabriel G.G. Cr%B Ba'ani$an Lt. Garcia 34tension an! O&ena )treets locate! at Baclaran =araRa.%e Metro Manila an! t$e establis$ment o( a (lea mar+et t$ereon. 2$e sai! or!inance ,as a&&rove! b' t$e m%nici&al co%ncil &%rs%ant to MMC Or!inance No. / )eries o( 1878 a%t$oriBing an! reg%lating t$e %se o( certain cit' an!?or m%nici&al streets roa!s an! o&en s&aces ,it$in Metro&olitan Manila as sites (or (lea mar+et an!?or ven!ing areas %n!er certain terms an! con!itions. On 7%l' /5 1885 t$e Metro&olitan Manila #%t$orit' a&&rove! Or!inance No. 8G s. 1885 o( t$e m%nici&al co%ncil o( res&on!ent m%nici&alit' s%b9ect to t$e (ollo,ing con!itions: 1. 2$at t$e a(orename! streets are not %se! (or ve$ic%lar tra((ic an! t$at t$e ma9orit' o( t$e resi!ents !o not o&&ose t$e establis$ment o( t$e (lea mar+et?ven!ing areas t$ereonA /. 2$at t$e /Dmeter mi!!le roa! to be %se! as (lea mar+et?ven!ing area s$all be mar+e! !istinctl' an! t$at t$e / meters on bot$ si!es o( t$e roa! s$all be %se! b' &e!estriansA 1. 2$at t$e time !%ring ,$ic$ t$e ven!ing area is to be %se! s$all be clearl' !esignate!A 0. 2$at t$e %se o( t$e ven!ing areas s$all be tem&orar' an! s$all be close! once t$e reclaime! areas are !evelo&e! an! !onate! b' t$e =%blic 3state #%t$orit'. On 7%ne /5 1885 t$e m%nici&al co%ncil o( =araRa.%e iss%e! a resol%tion a%t$oriBing =araRa.%e Ma'or 6al(ri!o N. Ferrer to enter into contract ,it$ an' service coo&erative (or t$e establis$ment o&eration maintenance an! management o( (lea mar+ets an!?or ven!ing areas. On #%g%st 8 1885 res&on!ent m%nici&alit' an! res&on!ent =alan'ag a service coo&erative entere! into an agreement ,$ereb' t$e latter s$all o&erate maintain an! manage t$e (lea mar+et in t$e a(orementione! streets ,it$ t$e obligation to remit !%es to t$e treas%r' o( t$e m%nici&al government o( =araRa.%e. Conse.%entl' mar+et stalls ,ere &%t %& b' res&on!ent =alan'ag on t$e sai! streets. On )e&tember 11 1885 &etitioner Brig. Gen. Macasiano =N= )%&erinten!ent o( t$e Metro&olitan 2ra((ic Comman! or!ere! t$e !estr%ction an! con(iscation o( stalls along G.G. Cr%B an! 7. Gabriel )t. in Baclaran. 2$ese stalls ,ere later ret%rne! to res&on!ent =alan'ag. On October 1G 1885 &etitioner Brig. General Macasiano ,rote a letter to res&on!ent =alan'ag giving t$e latter ten ;15< !a's to !iscontin%e t$e (lea mar+etA ot$er,ise t$e mar+et stalls s$all be !ismantle!. Hence on October /1 1885 res&on!ents m%nici&alit' an! =alan'ag (ile! ,it$ t$e trial co%rt a 9oint &etition (or &ro$ibition an! man!am%s ,it$ !amages an! &ra'er (or &reliminar' in9%nction to ,$ic$ t$e &etitioner (ile! $is memoran!%m?o&&osition to t$e iss%ance o( t$e ,rit o( &reliminar' in9%nction. On October /0 1885 t$e trial co%rt iss%e! a tem&orar' restraining or!er to en9oin &etitioner (rom en(orcing $is letterDor!er o( October 1G 1885 &en!ing t$e $earing on t$e motion (or ,rit o( &reliminar' in9%nction. On December 17 1885 t$e trial co%rt iss%e! an or!er %&$ol!ing t$e vali!it' o( Or!inance No. 8G s. 1885 o( t$e M%nici&alit'H o( =araRa.%e an! en9oining &etitioner Brig. Gen. Macasiano (rom en(orcing $is letterDor!er against res&on!ent =alan'ag. *ss%e: 6ON t$e or!inance a%t$oriBing t$e (lea mar+ets on &%blic streets is vali! NO. 2$e &ro&ert' o( &rovinces cities an! m%nici&alities is !ivi!e! into &ro&ert' (or &%blic %se an! &atrimonial &ro&ert' ;#rt. 0/1 Civil Co!e<. #s to ,$at consists o( &ro&ert' (or &%blic %se #rticle 0/0 o( Civil Co!e states: #rt. 0/0. =ro&ert' (or &%blic %se in t$e &rovinces cities an! m%nici&alities consists o( t$e &rovincial roa!s cit' streets t$e s.%ares (o%ntains &%blic ,aters &romena!es an! &%blic ,or+s (or &%blic service &ai! (or b' sai! &rovinces cities or m%nici&alities. #ll ot$er &ro&ert' &ossesse! b' an'

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


o( t$em is &atrimonial an! s$all be governe! b' t$is Co!e ,it$o%t &re9%!ice to t$e &rovisions o( s&ecial la,s. 7. Gabriel G.G. Cr%B Ba'ani$an Lt. Garcia 34tension an! O&ena streets are local roa!s %se! (or &%blic service an! are t$ere(ore consi!ere! &%blic &ro&erties o( res&on!ent m%nici&alit'. =ro&erties o( t$e local government ,$ic$ are !evote! to &%blic service are !eeme! &%blic an! are %n!er t$e absol%te control o( Congress. Hence local governments $ave no a%t$orit' ,$atsoever to control or reg%late t$e %se o( &%blic &ro&erties %nless s&eci(ic a%t$orit' is veste! %&on t$em b' Congress. One s%c$ e4am&le o( t$is a%t$orit' given b' Congress to t$e local governments is t$e &o,er to close roa!s as &rovi!e! in )ection 15 C$a&ter ** o( t$e LGC ,$ic$ states: )ec. 15. Clos%re o( roa!s. D # LG@ ma' li+e,ise t$ro%g$ its $ea! acting &%rs%ant to a resol%tion o( its sangg%niang an! in accor!ance ,it$ e4isting la, an! t$e &rovisions o( t$is Co!e close an' baranga' m%nici&al cit' or &rovincial roa! street alle' &ar+ or s.%are. No s%c$ ,a' or &lace or an' &art o( t$ereo( s$all be close ,it$o%t in!emni('ing an' &erson &re9%!ice! t$ereb'. # &ro&ert' t$%s ,it$!ra,n (rom &%blic %se ma' be %se! or conve'e! (or an' &%r&ose (or ,$ic$ ot$er real &ro&ert' belonging to t$e local %nit concerne! mig$t be la,(%ll' %se! or conve'e!. Ho,ever t$e a(orestate! legal &rovision ,$ic$ gives a%t$orit' to LG@s to close roa!s an! ot$er similar &%blic &laces s$o%l! be rea! an! inter&rete! in accor!ance ,it$ basic &rinci&les alrea!' establis$e! b' la,. 2$ese basic &rinci&les $ave t$e e((ect o( limiting s%c$ a%t$orit' o( t$e &rovince cit' or m%nici&alit' to close a &%blic street or t$oro%g$(are. #rticle 0/0 o( t$e Civil Co!e la's !o,n t$e basic &rinci&le t$at &ro&erties o( &%blic !ominion !evote! to &%blic %se an! ma!e available to t$e &%blic in general are o%tsi!e t$e commerce o( man an! cannot be !is&ose! o( or lease! b' t$e LG@ to &rivate &ersons. #si!e (rom t$e re.%irement o( !%e &rocess ,$ic$ s$o%l! be com&lie! ,it$ be(ore closing a roa! street or &ar+ t$e clos%re s$o%l! be (or t$e sole &%r&ose o( ,it$!ra,ing t$e roa! or ot$er &%blic &ro&ert' (rom &%blic %se ,$en circ%mstances s$o, t$at s%c$ &ro&ert' is no longer inten!e! or necessar' (or &%blic %se or &%blic service. 6$en it is alrea!' ,it$!ra,n (rom &%blic %se t$e &ro&ert' t$en becomes &atrimonial &ro&ert' o( t$e LG@ concerne! ;#rticle 0// Civil Co!eA Ceb% O4'gen etc. et al. v. Bercilles et al. G.-. No. LDD05070 #%g%st /8 187C GG )C-# 081<. *t is onl' t$en t$at t$e res&on!ent m%nici&alit' can "%se or conve' t$em (or an' &%r&ose (or ,$ic$ ot$er real &ro&ert' belonging to t$e local %nit concerne! mig$t be la,(%ll' %se! or conve'e!" in accor!ance ,it$ t$e last sentence o( )ection 15 C$a&ter ** o( Blg. 117 +no,n as LGC. *n one case t$e Cit' Co%ncil o( Ceb% t$ro%g$ a resol%tion !eclare! t$e terminal roa! o( M. Borces )treet Mabolo Ceb% Cit' as an aban!one! roa! t$e same not being incl%!e! in t$e Cit' Develo&ment =lan. 2$erea(ter t$e Cit' Co%ncil &asses anot$er resol%tion a%t$oriBing t$e sale o( t$e sai! aban!one! roa! t$ro%g$ &%blic bi!!ing. 6e $el! t$erein t$at t$e Cit' o( Ceb% is em&o,ere! to close a cit' street an! to vacate or ,it$!ra, t$e same (rom &%blic %se. )%c$ ,it$!ra,n &ortion becomes &atrimonial &ro&ert' ,$ic$ can be t$e ob9ect o( an or!inar' contract ;Ceb% O4'gen an! #cet'lene Co. *nc. v. Bercilles et al. G.-. No.LD05070 #%g%st /8 187C GG )C-# 081<. Ho,ever t$ose roa!s an! streets ,$ic$ are available to t$e &%blic in general an! or!inaril' %se! (or ve$ic%lar tra((ic are still consi!ere! &%blic &ro&ert' !evote! to &%blic %se. *n s%c$ case t$e local government $as no &o,er to %se it (or anot$er &%r&ose or to !is&ose o( or lease it to &rivate &ersons. 3ven ass%ming in gratia arg%menti t$at res&on!ent m%nici&alit' $as t$e a%t$orit' to &ass t$e !is&%te! or!inance t$e same cannot be vali!l' im&lemente! beca%se it cannot be consi!ere! a&&rove! b' t$e Metro&olitan Manila #%t$orit' !%e to nonDcom&liance b' res&on!ent m%nici&alit' o( t$e con!itions im&ose! b' t$e (ormer (or t$e a&&roval o( t$e or!inance. -es&on!ent m%nici&alit' $as not s$o,n an' iota o( &roo( t$at it $as com&lie! ,it$ t$e (oregoing con!itions &rece!ent to t$e a&&roval o( t$e or!inance. 2$e allegations o( res&on!ent m%nici&alit' t$at t$e close! streets ,ere not %se! (or ve$ic%lar tra((ic an! t$at t$e ma9orit' o( t$e resi!ents !o not o&&ose t$e establis$ment o( a (lea mar+et on sai! streets are %ns%&&orte! b' an' evi!ence t$at ,ill s$o, t$at t$is (irst con!ition $as been met. Li+e,ise t$e !esignation b' res&on!ents o( a time sc$e!%le !%ring ,$ic$ t$e (lea mar+et s$all o&erate is absent.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


F%rt$er it is o( &%blic notice t$at t$e streets along Baclaran area are congeste! ,it$ &eo&le $o%ses an! tra((ic bro%g$t abo%t b' t$e &roli(eration o( ven!ors occ%&'ing t$e streets. 2o license an! allo, t$e establis$ment o( a (lea mar+et along 7. Gabriel G.G. Cr%B Ba'ani$an Lt. Garcia 34tension an! O&ena streets in Baclaran ,o%l! not $el& in solving t$e &roblem o( congestion. 2$e &o,ers o( a LG@ are not absol%te. 2$e' are s%b9ect to limitations lai! !o,n b' toe Constit%tion an! t$e la,s s%c$ as o%r Civil Co!e. Moreover t$e e4ercise o( s%c$ &o,ers s$o%l! be s%bservient to &aramo%nt consi!erations o( $ealt$ an! ,ellDbeing o( t$e members o( t$e comm%nit'. 3ver' LG@ $as t$e s,orn obligation to enact meas%res t$at ,ill en$ance t$e &%blic $ealt$ sa(et' an! convenience maintain &eace an! or!er an! &romote t$e general &ros&erit' o( t$e in$abitants o( t$e local %nits. Base! on t$is ob9ective t$e local government s$o%l! re(rain (rom acting to,ar!s t$at ,$ic$ mig$t &re9%!ice or a!versel' a((ect t$e general ,el(are. Dacana' case: t$e general &%blic $ave a legal rig$t to !eman! t$e !emolition o( t$e illegall' constr%cte! stalls in &%blic roa!s an! streets an! t$e o((icials o( res&on!ent m%nici&alit' $ave t$e corres&on!ing !%t' arising (rom &%blic o((ice to clear t$e cit' streets an! restore t$em to t$eir s&eci(ic &%blic &%r&ose. 2$e instant case as ,ell as t$e Dacana' case involves an or!inance ,$ic$ is voi! an! illegal (or lac+ o( basis an! a%t$orit' in la,s a&&licable !%ring its time. Ho,ever at t$is &oint 6e (in! it ,ort$' to note t$at Batas =ambansa Blg. 117 +no,n as Local Government Lo!e $as alrea!' been re&eale! b' -e&%blic #ct No. 71G5 +no,n as LGC o( 1881 ,$ic$ too+ e((ect on 7an%ar' 1 188/. )ection C;!< o( t$e ne, Co!e &rovi!es t$at rig$ts an! obligations e4isting on t$e !ate o( e((ectivit' o( t$e ne, Co!e an! arising o%t o( contracts or an' ot$er so%rce o( &restation involving a LG@ s$all be governe! b' t$e original terms an! con!itions o( t$e sai! contracts or t$e la, in (orce at t$e time s%c$ rig$ts ,ere veste!. Pilapil v. CA Facts: 2$e Colomi!as o,n a &arcel o( lan! ,$ic$ $as a roa! rig$t o( ,a' lea!ing to t$e national $ig$,a'. )%c$ roa! en!s at t$e =ila&ils> lan!. #ccor!ing to t$e Colomi!as a camino vecinal lea!ing to t$e national $ig$,a' e4ists ,$ile t$e =ila&ils !en' s%c$ (act. 2$e Colomi!as trie! to im&rove t$e camino (or t$e &%blic>s convenience b%t s%c$ ,as met ,it$ t$reats (rom t$e =ila&ils. 2$e =ila&ils also t$reatene! to (ence o(( t$e camino vecinal. 2$e Colomi!as t$en (ile! a &etition (or in9%nction an! !amages ,it$ a &ra'er (or a ,rit o( =M or &ro$ibitor' in9%nction ,$ic$ so%g$t to &revent t$e =ila&ils (rom $arassing t$em as ,ell as (encing o(( t$e camino vecinal. 2$e =ila&ils also (ile! a case against t$e Colomi!as alleging t$at no s%c$ camino e4ists on t$eir lan!. *n trial t$e M%nici&al =lanning an! Develo&ment Coor!inator o( Liloan testi(ie! t$at accor!ing to t$e Boning ma& o( Liloan t$e camino !oes not traverse b%t r%ns along t$e si!e o( t$e =ila&ils> &ro&ert' *ss%e: 6ON t$e M%nici&alit' o( Liloan $as a%t$orit' to close or aban!on t$e camino vecinal. :3). *t is be'on! !is&%te t$at t$e establis$ment clos%re or aban!onment o( t$e camino vecinal is t$e sole &rerogative o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( Liloan. No &rivate &art' can inter(ere ,it$ s%c$ a rig$t. 2$%s even i( 6e are to agree ,it$ bot$ t$e trial co%rt an! &%blic res&on!ent t$at Longa+it an! =e&ito ,ere telling t$e tr%t$ t$e !ecision o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( Liloan ,it$ res&ect to t$e sai! camino vecinal in sitio Ba$a+ m%st &revail. *t is t$%s &ointless to concentrate on t$e testimonies o( bot$ ,itnesses since t$e same $ave (or all intents an! &%r&oses become irrelevant. 2$e &ro&ert' o( &rovinces cities an! m%nici&alities is !ivi!e! into &ro&ert' (or &%blic %se an! &atrimonial &ro&ert'. 2$e (irst consists o( t$e &rovincial roa!s cit' streets m%nici&al streets s.%ares (o%ntains &%blic ,aters &romena!es an! &%blic ,or+s (or &%blic service &ai! (or b' t$e sai! &rovinces cities or m%nici&alities. 2$e' are governe! b' t$e same &rinci&les as &ro&ert' o( &%blic !ominion o( t$e same c$aracter. 0/ @n!er t$e a&&licable la, in t$is case Batas =ambansa Blg. 117 ;2$e LGC< t$e )angg%niang Ba'an t$e legislative bo!' o( t$e m%nici&alit' 01 $a! t$e &o,er to a!o&t Boning an! s%b!ivision or!inances or reg%lations s%b9ect to t$e &rovisions o( e4isting la,s an! to &rovi!e (or t$e constr%ction im&rovement re&air an! maintenance o( m%nici&al streets aven%es alle's si!e,al+s bri!ges &ar+s an! ot$er &%blic &laces reg%late t$e %se t$ereo( an! &ro$ibit t$e constr%ction or &lacing o( obstacles or encroac$ments on

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


t$em 00 )ection 15 C$a&ter / 2itle One Boo+ * o( sai! Co!e &rovi!e!: 0C )ec. 15. Clos%re o( roa!s. S # LG@ ma' li+e,ise t$ro%g$ its $ea! acting &%rs%ant to a resol%tion o( its )angg%niang an! in accor!ance ,it$ e4isting la, an! t$e &rovisions o( t$is Co!e close an' baranga' m%nici&al cit' or &rovincial roa! street alle' &ar+ or s.%are. No s%c$ ,a' or &lace or an' &art t$ereo( s$all be close! ,it$o%t in!emni('ing an' &erson &re9%!ice! t$ereb'. # &ro&ert' t$%s ,it$!ra,n (rom &%blic %se ma' be %se! or conve'e! (or an' &%r&ose (or ,$ic$ ot$er real &ro&ert' belonging to t$e local %nit concerne! mig$t be la,(%ll' %se! or conve'e!. # camino vecinal is a m%nici&al roa!. *t is also &ro&ert' (or &%blic %se. =%rs%ant t$ere(ore to t$e above &o,ers o( a LG@ t$e M%nici&alit' o( Liloan $a! t$e %nassailable a%t$orit' to ;a< &re&are an! a!o&t a lan! %se ma& ;b< &rom%lgate a Boning or!inance ,$ic$ ma' consi!er among ot$er t$ings t$e m%nici&al roa!s to be constr%cte! maintaine! im&rove! or re&aire! an! ;c< close an' m%nici&al roa!. *n t$e instant case t$e M%nici&alit' o( Liloan t$ro%g$ t$e )angg%niang Ba'an a&&rove! t$e @rban Lan! @se =lanA t$is &lan ,as !%l' signe! b' t$e M%nici&al Ma'or ;34$ibit "1"<. B' !oing so t$e sai! legislative bo!' !etermine! among ot$ers t$e location o( t$e camino vecinal in sitio Ba$a+. 2$e %nreb%tte! testimon' o( 3ngineer 3&i(anio 7or!an s$o,s t$at t$e same ,as a&&rove! b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an. 2$e rel%ctance o( t$e trial co%rt an! &%blic res&on!ent to give !%e ,eig$t to t$e testimon' o( 3ngineer 7or!an stemme! (rom a !o%bt as to $is a%t$orit' to &re&are t$e &lan. 2$ere is also some con(%sion regar!ing t$e &art' ,$o !irecte! $im to !o so. Bot$ co%rts observe! t$at ,$ile on !irect e4amination $e testi(ie! t$at t$e )angg%niang Ba'an instr%cte! $im to &re&are t$e Boning ma& 07 !%ring crossD e4amination $e state! t$at $e &re&are! it %&on t$e Ma'orHs oral or!er. 08 )%c$ inconsistenc' is .%ite trivial an! $ence !i! not a((ect t$e &re&aration an! s%bse.%ent a&&roval o( t$e Boning ma&. *n t$e (irst &lace %n!er t$e a&&licable la, t$e ma'or ,as bot$ a member an! t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e )angg%niang Ba'an. )econ!l' ,$at investe! t$e Boning ma& ,it$ legal e((ect ,as neit$er t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e &erson ,$o or!ere! its &re&aration nor t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e &erson ,$o act%all' &re&are! it b%t its a&&roval b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an. F%rt$ermore ,it$ or ,it$o%t t$e or!er o( t$e Ma'or or )angg%niang Ba'an 3ngineer 7or!an as t$e t$en M%nici&al =lanning an! Develo&ment Coor!inator $a! t$e a%t$orit' to &re&are t$e &lan an! a!mit it to t$e )angg%niang Ba'an (or a&&roval. #mong $is (%nctions %n!er t$e governing la, at t$e time ,as to (orm%late an integrate! economic social &$'sical an! ot$er !evelo&ment ob9ectives an! &olicies (or t$e consi!eration an! a&&roval o( t$e sangg%niang ba'an an! t$e m%nici&al ma'or an! &re&are m%nici&al com&re$ensive &lans an! ot$er !evelo&ment &lanning !oc%ment. C5 2$%s even i( $e $a! not been instr%cte! b' an'one to &re&are t$e ma& $e co%l! nevert$eless on $is o,n initiative an! b' virt%e o( $is (%nctions ma+e one. 2$e trial co%rt an! &%blic res&on!ent t$en (aile! to a&&reciate t$e role an! (%nction o( a M%nici&al =lanning an! Develo&ment Coor!inator. #s (%rt$er !eclare! b' 3ngineer 7or!an t$is camino vecinal in sitio Ba$a+ "&asses t$e si!e o( t$e lan! o( )ocrates =ila&il. 2$is is t$e &ro&ose! roa! lea!ing to t$e national $ig$,a'." 2$e Colomi!as &resente! no reb%ttal ,itness to s$o, t$at b' t$e a&&roval o( t$e Boning ma& b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an t$e' ,ere e((ectivel' !e&rive! o( access to t$e national $ig$,a' (rom t$eir &ro&ert'. O( co%rse t$e' ma' arg%e t$at t$e Boning ma& ,as &re&are! (or an! a&&rove! b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an a(ter t$e (iling o( t$eir &etition in Civil Case No. -D/571/. Be t$at as it ma' t$is &re&aration an! a&&roval clearl' a s%&ervening event ,as relie! %&on intro!%ce! in evi!ence ,it$o%t ob9ection on t$e &art o( t$e Colomi!as an! eval%ate! b' t$e trial co%rt. *n s$ort t$e latter allo,e! t$e iss%e raise! b' t$e s%&ervening event to be trie!. 2$ere ,as not$ing &roce!%rall' ob9ectionable to t$isA on t$e contrar' )ection C -%le 15 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt allo,s it. )ai! section rea!s: )ec. C. #men!ment to con(orm to or a%t$oriBe &resentation o( evi!ence. S 6$en iss%es not raise! b' t$e &lea!ings are trie! b' e4&ress or im&lie! consent o( t$e &arties t$e' s$all be treate! in all res&ects as i( t$e' $a! been raise! in t$e &lea!ings. )%c$ amen!ment o( t$e &lea!ings as ma' be necessar' to ca%se t$em to con(orm to t$e evi!ence an! to raise t$ese iss%es ma' be ma!e %&on motion o( an' &art' at an' time even a(ter 9%!gment b%t (ail%re to amen! !oes not a((ect t$e

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


res%lt o( t$e trial o( t$ese iss%es. *( evi!ence is ob9ecte! to at t$e trial on t$e gro%n! t$at it is not ,it$in t$e iss%es ma!e b' t$e &lea!ings t$e co%rt ma' allo, t$e &lea!ing to be amen!e! an! s$all !o so (reel' ,$en t$e &resentation on t$e merits o( t$e action ,ill be s%bserve! t$ereb' an! t$e ob9ecting &art' (ails to satis(' t$e co%rt t$at t$e a!mission o( s%c$ evi!ence ,o%l! &re9%!ice $im in maintaining $is action or !e(ense %&on t$e merits. 2$e co%rt ma' grant a contin%ance to enable t$e ob9ecting &art' to meet s%c$ evi!ence. )%c$ s%&ervening (act !%l' &rove! to be an o((icial act o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( Liloan bin!s not onl' t$e =ila&ils an! t$e Colomi!as b%t also t$e general &%blic. 2$e solemn !eclarations o( ol! &eo&le li+e )esenan!o Longa+it an! Florentino =e&ito cannot overt%rn t$e !ecision o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( Liloan. MM*A v. Bel;Air Facts: B#K# is t$e registere! o,ner o( Ne&t%ne )treet a roa! insi!e BelD#ir Killage. Ne&t%ne r%ns &arallel to Mala'aan #ven%e a national roa! o&en to t$e general &%blic. Divi!ing t$e t,o ;/< streets is a concrete &erimeter ,all a&&ro4imatel' (i(teen ;1C< (eet $ig$. 2$e ,estern en! o( Ne&t%ne )treet intersects Nicanor Garcia (ormerl' -e&oso )treet a s%b!ivision roa! o&en to &%blic ve$ic%lar tra((ic ,$ile its eastern en! intersects Ma+ati #ven%e a national roa!. Bot$ en!s o( Ne&t%ne )treet are g%ar!e! b' iron gates. On December 15 188C res&on!ent receive! (rom &etitioner t$ro%g$ its C$airman a notice !ate! December // 188C re.%esting res&on!ent to o&en Ne&t%ne )treet to &%blic ve$ic%lar tra((ic starting 7an%ar' / 188G. On t$e same !a' res&on!ent ,as a&&rise! t$at t$e &erimeter ,all se&arating t$e s%b!ivision (rom t$e a!9acent Mala'aan #ven%e ,o%l! be !emolis$e!. On 7an%ar' / 188G res&on!ent instit%te! against &etitioner be(ore t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt Branc$ 11G Ma+ati Cit' Civil Case No. 8GD 551 (or in9%nction. -es&on!ent &ra'e! (or t$e iss%ance o( a tem&orar' restraining or!er an! &reliminar' in9%nction en9oining t$e o&ening o( Ne&t%ne )treet an! &ro$ibiting t$e !emolition o( t$e &erimeter ,all. -2C: iss%e! 2-O a(ter !%e $earing t$e trial co%rt !enie! iss%ance o( a &reliminar' in9%nction. C#: MMD# $as no a%t$orit' to or!er t$e o&ening o( Ne&t%ne )treet a &rivate s%b!ivision roa! an! ca%se t$e !emolition o( its &erimeter ,alls. *t $el! t$at t$e a%t$orit' is lo!ge! in t$e Cit' Co%ncil o( Ma+ati b' or!inance. *ss%e: 6ON t$e MMD# $as t$e man!ate to o&en Ne&t%ne )treet to &%blic tra((ic &%rs%ant to its reg%lator an! &olice &o,ers. MMD#: it $as t$e a%t$orit' to o&en Ne&t%ne )treet to &%blic tra((ic beca%se it is an agent o( t$e state en!o,e! ,it$ &olice &o,er in t$e !eliver' o( basic services in Metro Manila. One o( t$ese basic services is tra((ic management ,$ic$ involves t$e reg%lation o( t$e %se o( t$oro%g$(ares to ins%re t$e sa(et' convenience an! ,el(are o( t$e general &%blic. *t is allege! t$at t$e &olice &o,er o( MMD# ,as a((irme! b' t$is Co%rt in t$e consoli!ate! cases o( )angalang v. *nterme!iate #&&ellate Co%rt. From t$e &remise t$at it $as &olice &o,er it is no, %rge! t$at t$ere is no nee! (or t$e Cit' o( Ma+ati to enact an or!inance o&ening Ne&t%ne street to t$e &%blic. =olice &o,er is an in$erent attrib%te o( sovereignt'. *t $as been !e(ine! as t$e &o,er veste! b' t$e Constit%tion in t$e legislat%re to ma+e or!ain an! establis$ all manner o( ,$olesome an! reasonable la,s stat%tes an! or!inances eit$er ,it$ &enalties or ,it$o%t not re&%gnant to t$e Constit%tion as t$e' s$all 9%!ge to be (or t$e goo! an! ,el(are o( t$e common,ealt$ an! (or t$e s%b9ects o( t$e same. 2$e &o,er is &lenar' an! its sco&e is vast an! &ervasive reac$ing an! 9%sti('ing meas%res (or &%blic $ealt$ &%blic sa(et' &%blic morals an! t$e general ,el(are. *t bears stressing t$at &olice &o,er is lo!ge! &rimaril' in t$e National Legislat%re. *t cannot be e4ercise! b' an' gro%& or bo!' o( in!ivi!%als not &ossessing legislative &o,er. 2$e National Legislat%re $o,ever ma' !elegate t$is &o,er to t$e =resi!ent an! a!ministrative boar!s as ,ell as t$e la,ma+ing bo!ies o( m%nici&al cor&orations or LG@s. Once !elegate! t$e agents can e4ercise onl' s%c$ legislative &o,ers as are con(erre! on t$em b' t$e national la,ma+ing bo!'. # local government is a "&olitical s%b!ivision o( a nation or state ,$ic$ is constit%te! b' la, an! $as s%bstantial control o( local a((airs." 2$e LGC o( 1881 !e(ines a LG@ as a "bo!' &olitic an! cor&orate" one en!o,e! ,it$ &o,ers as a &olitical s%b!ivision o( t$e National Government an! as a cor&orate entit' re&resenting t$e in$abitants o( its territor'.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


LG@s are t$e &rovinces cities m%nici&alities an! baranga's. 2$e' are also t$e territorial an! &olitical s%b!ivisions o( t$e state. O%r Congress !elegate! &olice &o,er to t$e LG@s in t$e LGC o( 1881. LG@s e4ercise &olice &o,er t$ro%g$ t$eir res&ective legislative bo!ies. 2$e legislative bo!' o( t$e &rovincial government is t$e sangg%niang &anlala,igan t$at o( t$e cit' government is t$e sangg%niang &anl%ngso! t$at o( t$e m%nici&al government is t$e sangg%niang ba'an an! t$at o( t$e baranga' is t$e sangg%niang baranga'. 2$e LGC o( 1881 em&o,ers t$e sangg%niang &anlala,igan sangg%niang &anl%ngso! an! sangg%niang ba'an to "enact or!inances a&&rove resol%tions an! a&&ro&riate (%n!s (or t$e general ,el(are o( t$e U&rovince cit' or m%nici&alit' as t$e case ma' beV an! its in$abitants &%rs%ant to )ection 1G o( t$e Co!e an! in t$e &ro&er e4ercise o( t$e cor&orate &o,ers o( t$e U&rovince cit' m%nici&alit'V &rovi!e! %n!er t$e Co!e. 2$e same Co!e gives t$e sangg%niang baranga' t$e &o,er to "enact or!inances as ma' be necessar' to !isc$arge t$e res&onsibilities con(erre! %&on it b' la, or or!inance an! to &romote t$e general ,el(are o( t$e in$abitants t$ereon." Metro&olitan or Metro Manila is a bo!' com&ose! o( several LG@s D i.e. t,elve ;1/< cities an! (ive ;C< m%nici&alities namel' t$e cities o( Caloocan Manila Man!al%'ong Ma+ati =asa' =asig W%eBon M%ntinl%&a Las =inas Mari+ina =arana.%e an! KalenB%ela an! t$e m%nici&alities o( Malabon Navotas =ateros )an 7%an an! 2ag%ig. 6it$ t$e &assage o( -e&%blic #ct ;-. #.< No. 78/0 U/0V in 188C Metro&olitan Manila ,as !eclare! as a "s&ecial !evelo&ment an! a!ministrative region" an! t$e #!ministration o( "metroD,i!e" basic services a((ecting t$e region &lace! %n!er "a !evelo&ment a%t$orit'" re(erre! to as t$e MMD#. "MetroD,i!e services" are t$ose "services ,$ic$ $ave metroD ,i!e im&act an! transcen! local &olitical bo%n!aries or entail $%ge e4&en!it%res s%c$ t$at it ,o%l! not be viable (or sai! services to be &rovi!e! b' t$e in!ivi!%al LG@s com&rising Metro Manila." 2$ere are seven ;7< basic metroD ,i!e services an! t$e sco&e o( t$ese services cover t$e (ollo,ing: ;1< !evelo&ment &lanningA ;/< trans&ort an! tra((ic managementA ;1< soli! ,aste !is&osal an! managementA ;0< (loo! control an! se,erage managementA ;C< %rban rene,al Boning an! lan! %se &lanning an! s$elter servicesA ;G< $ealt$ an! sanitation %rban &rotection an! &oll%tion controlA an! ;7< &%blic sa(et'. 2$e basic service o( trans&ort an! tra((ic management incl%!es t$e (ollo,ing: ";b< 2rans&ort an! tra((ic management ,$ic$ incl%!e t$e (orm%lation coor!ination an! monitoring o( &olicies stan!ar!s &rograms an! &ro9ects to rationaliBe t$e e4isting trans&ort o&erations in(rastr%ct%re re.%irements t$e %se o( t$oro%g$(ares an! &romotion o( sa(e an! convenient movement o( &ersons an! goo!sA &rovision (or t$e mass trans&ort s'stem an! t$e instit%tion o( a s'stem to reg%late roa! %sersA a!ministration an! im&lementation o( all tra((ic en(orcement o&erations tra((ic engineering services an! tra((ic e!%cation &rograms incl%!ing t$e instit%tion o( a single tic+eting s'stem in Metro&olitan ManilaA" 2$e sco&e o( t$e MMD#>s (%nction is limite! to t$e !eliver' o( t$e seven ;7< basic services. One o( t$ese is trans&ort an! tra((ic management ,$ic$ incl%!es t$e (orm%lation an! monitoring o( &olicies stan!ar!s an! &ro9ects to rationaliBe t$e e4isting trans&ort o&erations in(rastr%ct%re re.%irements t$e %se o( t$oro%g$(ares an! &romotion o( t$e sa(e movement o( &ersons an! goo!s. *t also covers t$e mass trans&ort s'stem an! t$e instit%tion o( a s'stem o( roa! reg%lation t$e a!ministration o( all tra((ic en(orcement o&erations tra((ic engineering services an! tra((ic e!%cation &rograms incl%!ing t$e instit%tion o( a single tic+eting s'stem in Metro Manila (or tra((ic violations. @n!er t$is service t$e MMD# is e4&ressl' a%t$oriBe! "to set t$e &olicies concerning tra((ic" an! "coor!inate an! reg%late t$e im&lementation o( all tra((ic management &rograms." *n a!!ition t$e MMD# ma' "install an! a!minister a single tic+eting s'stem " (i4 im&ose an! collect (ines an! &enalties (or all tra((ic violations. *t ,ill be note! t$at t$e &o,ers o( t$e MMD# are limite! to t$e (ollo,ing acts: (orm%lation coor!ination reg%lation im&lementation &re&aration management monitoring setting o( &olicies installation o( a s'stem an! a!ministration. 2$ere is no s'llable in -. #. No. 78/0 t$at grants t$e MMD# &olice &o,er let alone legislative &o,er. 3ven t$e Metro Manila Co%ncil $as not been !elegate! an' legislative &o,er. @nli+e t$e legislative bo!ies o( t$e LG@s

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


t$ere is no &rovision in -. #. No. 78/0 t$at em&o,ers t$e MMD# or its Co%ncil to "enact or!inances a&&rove resol%tions an! a&&ro&riate (%n!s (or t$e general ,el(are" o( t$e in$abitants o( Metro Manila. 2$e MMD# is as terme! in t$e c$arter itsel( a "!evelo&ment a%t$orit'."*t is an agenc' create! (or t$e &%r&ose o( la'ing !o,n &olicies an! coor!inating ,it$ t$e vario%s national government agencies &eo&le>s organiBations nonDgovernmental organiBations an! t$e &rivate sector (or t$e e((icient an! e4&e!itio%s !eliver' o( basic services in t$e vast metro&olitan area. #ll its (%nctions are a!ministrative in nat%re. Contrar' to &etitioner>s claim t$e t,o )angalang cases !o not a&&l' to t$e case at bar. Firstl' bot$ involve! Boning or!inances &asse! b' t$e m%nici&al co%ncil o( Ma+ati an! t$e MMC. *n t$e instant case t$e basis (or t$e &ro&ose! o&ening o( Ne&t%ne )treet is containe! in t$e notice o( December // 188C sent b' &etitioner to res&on!ent B#K# t$ro%g$ its &resi!ent. 2$e notice !oes not cite an' or!inance or la, eit$er b' t$e )angg%niang =anl%ngso! o( Ma+ati Cit' or b' t$e MMD# as t$e legal basis (or t$e &ro&ose! o&ening o( Ne&t%ne )treet. =etitioner MMD# sim&l' relie! on its a%t$orit' %n!er its c$arter "to rationaliBe t$e %se o( roa!s an!?or t$oro%g$(ares (or t$e sa(e an! convenient movement o( &ersons." -ationaliBing t$e %se o( roa!s an! t$oro%g$(ares is one o( t$e acts t$at (all ,it$in t$e sco&e o( trans&ort an! tra((ic management. B' no stretc$ o( t$e imagination $o,ever can t$is be inter&rete! as an e4&ress or im&lie! grant o( or!inanceDma+ing &o,er m%c$ less &olice &o,er. )econ!l' t$e MMD# is not t$e same entit' as t$e MMC in )angalang. #lt$o%g$ t$e MMC is t$e (orer%nner o( t$e &resent MMD# an e4amination o( =resi!ential Decree ;=. D.< No. 8/0 t$e c$arter o( t$e MMC s$o,s t$at t$e latter &ossesse! greater &o,ers ,$ic$ ,ere not besto,e! on t$e &resent MMD#. 2$e MMC ,as t$e "central government" o( Metro Manila (or t$e &%r&ose o( establis$ing an! a!ministering &rograms &rovi!ing services common to t$e area. #s a "central government" it $a! t$e &o,er to lev' an! collect ta4es an! s&ecial assessments t$e &o,er to c$arge an! collect (eesA t$e &o,er to a&&ro&riate mone' (or its o&eration an! at t$e same time revie, a&&ro&riations (or t$e cit' an! m%nici&al %nits ,it$in its 9%ris!iction. *t ,as besto,e! t$e &o,er to enact or a&&rove or!inances resol%tions an! (i4 &enalties (or violation o( s%c$ or!inances an! resol%tions. *t also $a! t$e &o,er to revie, amen! revise or re&eal all or!inances resol%tions an! acts o( an' o( t$e (o%r ;0< cities an! t$irteen ;11< m%nici&alities com&rising Metro Manila. *t ,as t$e MMC itsel( t$at &ossesse! legislative &o,ers. #ll or!inances resol%tions an! meas%res recommen!e! b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an ,ere s%b9ect to t$e MMC>s a&&roval. Moreover t$e &o,er to im&ose ta4es an! ot$er levies t$e &o,er to a&&ro&riate mone' an! t$e &o,er to &ass or!inances or resol%tions ,it$ &enal sanctions ,ere veste! e4cl%sivel' in t$e MMC. 2$%s Metro&olitan Manila $a! a "central government " i.e. t$e MMC ,$ic$ (%ll' &ossesse! legislative an! &olice &o,ers. 6$atever legislative &o,ers t$e com&onent cities an! m%nici&alities $a! ,ere all s%b9ect to revie, an! a&&roval b' t$e MMC. @n!er t$e 1887 Constit%tion t$e LG@s became &rimaril' res&onsible (or t$e governance o( t$eir res&ective &olitical s%b!ivisions. 2$e MM#>s 9%ris!iction ,as limite! to a!!ressing common &roblems involving basic services t$at transcen!e! local bo%n!aries. *t !i! not $ave legislative &o,er. *ts &o,er ,as merel' to &rovi!e t$e LG@s tec$nical assistance in t$e &re&aration o( local !evelo&ment &lans. #n' semblance o( legislative &o,er it $a! ,as con(ine! to a "revie, Uo(V legislation &ro&ose! b' t$e local legislative assemblies to ens%re consistenc' among local governments an! ,it$ t$e com&re$ensive !evelo&ment &lan o( Metro Manila " an! to "a!vise t$e local governments accor!ingl'." 6$en -.#. No. 78/0 too+ e((ect Metro&olitan Manila became a "s&ecial !evelo&ment an! a!ministrative region" an! t$e MMD# a "s&ecial !evelo&ment a%t$orit'" ,$ose (%nctions ,ere ",it$o%t &re9%!ice to t$e a%tonom' o( t$e a((ecte! LG@s." 2$e c$aracter o( t$e MMD# ,as clearl' !e(ine! in t$e legislative !ebates enacting its c$arter. Clearl' t$e MMD# is not a &olitical %nit o( government. 2$e &o,er !elegate! to t$e MMD# is t$at given to t$e Metro Manila Co%ncil to &rom%lgate a!ministrative r%les an! reg%lations in t$e im&lementation o( t$e MMD#>s (%nctions. 2$ere is no grant o( a%t$orit' to enact or!inances an! reg%lations (or t$e general ,el(are o( t$e in$abitants o( t$e metro&olis. *t is t$%s be'on! !o%bt t$at t$e MMD# is not a LG@ or a &%blic cor&oration en!o,e! ,it$ legislative &o,er.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


*t is not even a "s&ecial metro&olitan &olitical s%b!ivision" as contem&late! in )ection 11 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion. 2$e creation o( a "s&ecial metro&olitan &olitical s%b!ivision" re.%ires t$e a&&roval b' a ma9orit' o( t$e votes cast in a &lebiscite in t$e &olitical %nits !irectl' a((ecte!. -. #. No. 78/0 ,as not s%bmitte! to t$e in$abitants o( Metro Manila in a &lebiscite. 2$e C$airman o( t$e MMD# is not an o((icial electe! b' t$e &eo&le b%t a&&ointe! b' t$e =resi!ent ,it$ t$e ran+ an! &rivileges o( a cabinet member. *n (act &art o( $is (%nction is to &er(orm s%c$ ot$er !%ties as ma' be assigne! to $im b' t$e =resi!ent ,$ereas in LG@s t$e =resi!ent merel' e4ercises s%&ervisor' a%t$orit'. 2$is em&$asiBes t$e a!ministrative c$aracter o( t$e MMD#. Clearl' t$en t$e MMC %n!er =. D. No. 8/0 is not t$e same entit' as t$e MMD# %n!er -. #. No. 78/0. @nli+e t$e MMC t$e MMD# $as no &o,er to enact or!inances (or t$e ,el(are o( t$e comm%nit'. *t is t$e LG@s acting t$ro%g$ t$eir res&ective legislative co%ncils t$at &ossess legislative &o,er an! &olice &o,er. *n t$e case at bar t$e )angg%niang =anl%ngso! o( Ma+ati Cit' !i! not &ass an' or!inance or resol%tion or!ering t$e o&ening o( Ne&t%ne )treet $ence its &ro&ose! o&ening b' &etitioner MMD# is illegal an! t$e res&on!ent C# !i! not err in so r%ling. -2C at =ros&eri!a! #g%san !el )%r. 2$e m%nici&alit' (ile! a Motion to 2a+e or 3nter @&on t$e =ossession o( )%b9ect Matter o( 2$is Case stating t$at it $a! alrea!' !e&osite! ,it$ t$e m%nici&al treas%rer t$e necessar' amo%nt in accor!ance ,it$ )ection / -%le G7 o( t$e -evise! -%les o( Co%rt an! t$at it ,o%l! be in t$e governmentHs best interest (or &%blic res&on!ent to be allo,e! to ta+e &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert'. -2C: grante! res&on!ent m%nici&alit'Hs motion to ta+e &ossession o( t$e lan! $el! t$at t$e )angg%niang =anlala,iganHs (ail%re to !eclare t$e resol%tion invali! leaves it e((ective. *t a!!e! t$at t$e !%t' o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan is merel' to revie, t$e or!inances an! resol%tions &asse! b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an %n!er )ection /58 ;1< o( B.=. Blg. 117 ol! LGC an! t$at t$e e4ercise o( eminent !omain is not one o( t$e t,o acts en%merate! in )ection 18 t$ereo( re.%iring t$e a&&roval o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan. M-: !enie!. C#: t$e &%blic &%r&ose (or t$e e4&ro&riation is clear (rom - 01D88 an! t$at since t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan o( #g%san !el )%r !i! not !eclare - 01D88 invali! e4&ro&riation o( &etitionersH &ro&ert' co%l! &rocee!. M-: !enie!. Mean,$ile t$e M%nici&alit' o( B%na,an $a! erecte! t$ree b%il!ings on t$e s%b9ect &ro&ert': t$e #ssociation o( Baranga' Co%ncils ;#BC< Hall t$e M%nici&al Motor&ool bot$ ,oo!en str%ct%res an! t$e B%na,an M%nici&al G'mnasi%m ,$ic$ is ma!e o( concrete. =et: see+s t$e reversal o( t$e !ecision an! resol%tion o( t$e C# an! a !eclaration t$at - 01D88 o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( B%na,an is n%ll an! voi!. Co%rt iss%e! 2-O en9oining an! restraining &%blic res&on!ent 7%!ge (rom en(orcing $er or!er an! res&on!ent m%nici&alit' (rom %sing an! occ%&'ing all t$e b%il!ings constr%cte! an! (rom (%rt$er constr%cting an' b%il!ing on t$e lan! s%b9ect o( t$is &etition. #cting on &etitionersH Omnib%s Motion (or 3n(orcement o( -estraining Or!er an! (or Contem&t t$e Co%rt iss%e! a -esol%tion citing inc%mbent m%nici&al ma'or #n%ncio C. B%stillo (or contem&t or!ering $im to &a' t$e (ine an! to !emolis$ t$e "bloc+tien!as" ,$ic$ ,ere b%ilt in violation o( t$e restraining or!er. B%stillo &ai! t$e (ine an! mani(este! t$at $e lost in t$e election. 2$e inc%mbent Ma'or Leonar!o Barrios (ile! a Mani(estation Motion to -esolve "@rgent Motion (or *mme!iate Dissol%tion o( t$e 2em&orar' -estraining Or!er" an! Memoran!%m on 7%ne 11 188G (or t$e M%nici&alit' o( B%na,an.

Mo a# v. CA Facts: 2$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( B%na,an in #g%san !el )%r &asse! - 01D88 "#%t$oriBing t$e M%nici&al Ma'or to *nitiate t$e =etition (or 34&ro&riation o( a One ;1< Hectare =ortion o( Lot No. G118D=lsD0 #long t$e National Hig$,a' O,ne! b' =ercival Mo!a' (or t$e )ite o( B%na,an Farmers Center an! Ot$er Government )&orts Facilities." - 01D88 ,as a&&rove! b' t$en M%nici&al Ma'or #n%ncio C. B%stillo an! transmitte! to t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan (or its a&&roval. 2$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan !isa&&rove! sai! -esol%tion an! ret%rne! it ,it$ t$e comment t$at "e4&ro&riation is %nnecessar' consi!ering t$at t$ere are still available lots in B%na,an (or t$e establis$ment o( t$e government center." B%na,an (ile! a &etition (or 3minent Domain against &etitioner =ercival Mo!a' as ,ell as $is &arents be(ore t$e

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


=et: conten! t$at t$e C# erre! in %&$ol!ing t$e legalit' o( t$e con!emnation &rocee!ings initiate! b' t$e m%nici&alit'. #ccor!ing to &etitioners t$e e4&ro&riation ,as &oliticall' motivate! an! - 01D 88 ,as correctl' !isa&&rove! b' t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan t$ere being ot$er m%nici&al &ro&erties available (or t$e &%r&ose. =etitioners also &ra' t$at t$e (ormer Ma'or B%stillo be or!ere! to &a' !amages (or insisting on t$e en(orcement o( a voi! m%nici&al resol%tion. C#: !eclare! t$at t$e )angg%niang =anlala,iganHs reason (or !isa&&roving t$e resol%tion "co%l! be baseless beca%se it (aile! to &oint o%t ,$ic$ an! ,$ere are t$ose available lots.H" -es&on!ent co%rt also concl%!e! t$at since t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan !i! not !eclare t$e m%nici&al boar!Hs resol%tion as invali! e4&ro&riation o( &etitionersH &ro&ert' co%l! &rocee!. *ss%e: 6ON a m%nici&alit' ma' e4&ro&riate &rivate &ro&ert' b' virt%e o( a m%nici&al resol%tion ,$ic$ ,as !isa&&rove! b' t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan. NO. 3minent !omain t$e &o,er ,$ic$ t$e M%nici&alit' o( B%na,an e4ercise! in t$e instant case is a (%n!amental )tate &o,er t$at is inse&arable (rom sovereignt'. *t is governmentHs rig$t to a&&ro&riate in t$e nat%re o( a com&%lsor' sale to t$e )tate &rivate &ro&ert' (or &%blic %se or &%r&ose. *n$erentl' &ossesse! b' t$e national legislat%re t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain ma' be vali!l' !elegate! to local governments ot$er &%blic entities an! &%blic %tilities. For t$e ta+ing o( &rivate &ro&ert' b' t$e government to be vali! t$e ta+ing m%st be (or &%blic %se an! t$ere m%st be 9%st com&ensation. 2$e M%nici&alit' o( B%na,anHs &o,er to e4ercise t$e rig$t o( eminent !omain is not !is&%te! as it is e4&ressl' &rovi!e! (or in Batas =ambansa Blg. 117 t$e LGC 18 in (orce at t$e time e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings ,ere initiate!. )ection 8 o( sai! la, states: # LG@ ma' t$ro%g$ its $ea! an! acting &%rs%ant to a resol%tion o( its sangg%nian e4ercise t$e rig$t o( eminent !omain an! instit%te con!emnation &rocee!ings (or &%blic %se or &%r&ose. 6$at &etitioners .%estion is t$e lac+ o( a%t$orit' o( t$e m%nici&alit' to e4ercise t$is rig$t since t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan !isa&&rove! - 01D88.

)ection 1C1 o( B.=. Blg. 117: )angg%niang =anlala,igan


-evie,. ;1< 6it$in t$irt' !a's a(ter receiving co&ies o( a&&rove! or!inances resol%tions an! e4ec%tive or!ers &rom%lgate! b' t$e m%nici&al ma'or t$e sangg%niang &anlala,igan s$all e4amine t$e !oc%ments or transmit t$em to t$e &rovincial attorne' or i( t$ere be none to t$e &rovincial (iscal ,$o s$all e4amine t$em &rom&tl' an! in(orm t$e sangg%niang &anlala,igan in ,riting o( an' !e(ect or im&ro&riet' ,$ic$ $e ma' !iscover t$erein an! ma+e s%c$ comments or recommen!ations as s$all a&&ear to $im &ro&er. ;/< *( t$e sangg%niang &anlala,igan s$all (in! t$at an' m%nici&al or!inance resol%tion or e4ec%tive or!er is be'on! t$e &o,er con(erre! %&on t$e sangg%niang ba'an or t$e ma'or it s$all !eclare s%c$ or!inance resol%tion or e4ec%tive or!er invali! in ,$ole or in &art entering its actions %&on t$e min%tes an! a!vising t$e &ro&er m%nici&al a%t$orities t$ereo(. 2$e e((ect o( s%c$ an action s$all be to ann%l t$e or!inance resol%tion or e4ec%tive or!er in .%estion in ,$ole or in &art. 2$e action o( t$e sangg%niang &anlala,igan s$all be (inal. 2$e )angg%niang =anlala,iganHs !isa&&roval o( M%nici&al - 01D88 is an in(irm action ,$ic$ !oes not ren!er sai! resol%tion n%ll an! voi!. 2$e la, as e4&resse! in )ection 1C1 o( B.=. Blg. 117 grants t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan t$e &o,er to !eclare a m%nici&al resol%tion invali! on t$e sole gro%n! t$at it is be'on! t$e &o,er o( t$e )angg%niang Ba'an or t$e Ma'or to iss%e. #lt$o%g$ &ertaining to a similar &rovision o( la, b%t !i((erent (act%al milie% t$en obtaining t$e Co%rtHs &rono%ncements in KelaBco v. Blas ,$ere ,e cite! signi(icant earl' 9%ris&r%!ence are a&&licable to t$e case at bar. 2$e onl' gro%n! %&on ,$ic$ a &rovincial boar! ma' !eclare an' m%nici&al resol%tion or!inance or or!er invali! is ,$en s%c$ resol%tion or!inance or or!er is "be'on! t$e &o,ers con(erre! %&on t$e co%ncil or &resi!ent ma+ing t$e same." #bsol%tel' no ot$er gro%n! is recogniBe! b' t$e la,. # strictl' legal .%estion is be(ore t$e &rovincial boar! in its consi!eration o( a m%nici&al resol%tion or!inance or or!er. 2$e &rovincial ;boar!Hs< !isa&&roval o( an' resol%tion or!inance or or!er m%st be &remise! s&eci(icall' %&on t$e (act t$at s%c$ resol%tion or!inance or or!er is o%tsi!e t$e

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


sco&e o( t$e legal &o,ers con(erre! b' la,. *( a &rovincial boar! &asses t$ese limits it %s%r&s t$e legislative (%nction o( t$e m%nici&al co%ncil or &resi!ent. )%c$ $as been t$e consistent co%rse o( e4ec%tive a%t$orit'. )angg%niang =anlala,igan ,as ,it$o%t t$e a%t$orit' to !isa&&rove M%nici&al - 01D88 (or t$e M%nici&alit' o( B%na,an clearl' $as t$e &o,er to e4ercise t$e rig$t o( eminent !omain an! its )angg%niang Ba'an t$e ca&acit' to &rom%lgate sai! resol%tion &%rs%ant to t$e earlierD.%ote! )ection 8 o( B.=. Blg. 117. =er(orce it (ollo,s t$at -esol%tion No. 01D88 is vali! an! bin!ing an! co%l! be %se! as la,(%l a%t$orit' to &etition (or t$e con!emnation o( &etitionersH &ro&ert'. #cc%sation o( &olitical o&&ression: it is allege! t$at =ercival Mo!a' inc%rre! t$e ire o( t$en Ma'or B%stillo ,$en $e re(%se! to s%&&ort t$e latterHs can!i!ac' (or ma'or in &revio%s elections. =etitioners claim t$at t$en inc%mbent Ma'or C. B%stillo %se! t$e e4&ro&riation to retaliate b' e4&ro&riating t$eir lan! even i( t$ere ,ere ot$er &ro&erties belonging to t$e m%nici&alit' an! available (or t$e &%r&ose. )&eci(icall' t$e' allege t$at t$e m%nici&alit' o,ns a vacant sevenD$ectare &ro&ert' a!9acent to &etitionersH lan! evi!ence! b' a s+etc$ &lan. 2$e limitations on t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain are t$at t$e %se m%st be &%blic com&ensation m%st be ma!e an! !%e &rocess o( la, m%st be observe!. 2$e )%&reme Co%rt ta+ing cogniBance o( s%c$ iss%es as t$e a!e.%ac' o( com&ensation necessit' o( t$e ta+ing an! t$e &%blic %se c$aracter or t$e &%r&ose o( t$e ta+ing /1 $as r%le! t$at t$e necessit' o( e4ercising eminent !omain m%st be gen%ine an! o( a &%blic c$aracter. Government ma' not ca&ricio%sl' c$oose ,$at &rivate &ro&ert' s$o%l! be ta+en. #(ter a care(%l st%!' o( t$e recor!s o( t$e case $o,ever ,e (in! no evi!entiar' s%&&ort (or &etitionersH allegations. 2$e %ncerti(ie! &$otoco&' o( t$e s+etc$ &lan !oes not concl%sivel' &rove t$at t$e m%nici&alit' !oes o,n vacant lan! a!9acent to &etitionersH &ro&ert' s%ite! to t$e &%r&ose o( t$e e4&ro&riation. *n t$e .%estione! !ecision res&on!ent a&&ellate co%rt similarl' $el! t$at t$e &lea!ings an! !oc%ments on recor! $ave not &ointe! o%t an' o( res&on!ent m%nici&alit'Hs "ot$er available &ro&erties available (or t$e same &%r&ose." 2$e acc%sations o( &olitical re&risal are li+e,ise %ns%&&orte! b' com&etent evi!ence. Conse.%entl' t$e Co%rt $ol!s t$at &etitionersH !eman! t$at t$e (ormer m%nici&al ma'or be &ersonall' liable (or !amages is ,it$o%t basis. Camarines (ur v. CA Facts: 2$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan o( t$e =rovince o( Cams%r &asse! -esol%tion No. 1/8 )eries o( 1888 a%t$oriBing t$e =rovincial Governor to &%rc$ase or e4&ro&riate &ro&ert' contig%o%s to t$e &rovincial ca&itol site in or!er to establis$ a &ilot (arm (or nonD(oo! an! nonDtra!itional agric%lt%ral cro&s an! a $o%sing &ro9ect (or &rovincial government em&lo'ees. Cams%r (ile! e4&ro&riation cases against t$e )an 7oa.%ins as ,ell as a motion (or t$e iss%ance o( ,rit o( &ossession. 2$e )7s (aile! to a&&ear at t$e $earing o( t$e motion. 2$e' move! to !ismiss t$e com&laints on t$e gro%n! o( ina!e.%ac' o( t$e &rice o((ere! (or t$eir &ro&ert'. -2C: !enie! t$e motion to !ismiss an! a%t$oriBe! t$e Cams%r to ta+e &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' %&on t$e !e&osit ,it$ t$e Cler+ o( Co%rt o( t$e amo%nt o( =C 710.55 t$e amo%nt &rovisionall' (i4e! b' t$e trial co%rt to ans,er (or !amages t$at &rivate res&on!ents ma' s%((er in t$e event t$at t$e e4&ro&riation cases !o not &ros&er. *ss%e! a ,rit o( &ossession. 2$e )an 7oa.%ins (ile! a motion (or relie( (rom t$e or!er an! a motion to a!mit an amen!e! motion to !ismiss. Bot$ motions ,ere !enie!. C#: )7s as+e!: ;a< t$at t$e -es. be !eclare! n%ll an! voi!A ;b< t$at t$e com&laints (or e4&ro&riation be !ismisse!A an! ;c< t$at t$e or!er !en'ing t$e motion to !ismiss an! allo,ing Cams%r to ta+e &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' s%b9ect o( t$e e4&ro&riation an! t$e or!er !en'ing t$e motion to a!mit t$e amen!e! motion to !ismiss be set asi!e. 2$e' also as+e! t$at an or!er be iss%e! to restrain t$e trial co%rt (rom en(orcing t$e ,rit o( &ossession an! t$erea(ter to iss%e a ,rit o( in9%nction. Cams%r: claime! t$at it $as t$e a%t$orit' to initiate t$e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings %n!er )ections 0 an! 7 o( LGC ;B.=. Blg. 117< an! t$at t$e e4&ro&riations are (or a &%blic &%r&ose. )G: %n!er )ection 8 o( t$e LGC ;B.=. Blg. 117< t$ere ,as no nee! (or t$e a&&roval b' t$e O((ice o( t$e =resi!ent o( t$e e4ercise b' t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan o( t$e rig$t o( eminent !omain. 34&resse! t$e vie, t$at t$e =rovince o( Cams%r m%st (irst sec%re t$e a&&roval o( t$e De&artment o( #grarian

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


-e(orm o( t$e &lan to e4&ro&riate t$e lan!s o( &etitioners (or %se as a $o%sing &ro9ect. C#: set asi!e t$e or!er o( t$e trial co%rt allo,ing t$e =rovince o( Cams%r to ta+e &ossession o( &rivate res&on!entsH lan!s an! t$e or!er !en'ing t$e a!mission o( t$e amen!e! motion to !ismiss. *t also or!ere! t$e trial co%rt to s%s&en! t$e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings %ntil a(ter Cams%r s$all $ave s%bmitte! t$e re.%isite a&&roval o( t$e De&artment o( #grarian -e(orm to convert t$e classi(ication o( t$e &ro&ert' o( t$e &rivate res&on!ents (rom agric%lt%ral to nonDagric%lt%ral lan!. Cams%r: its e4ercise o( t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain cannot be restricte! b' t$e &rovisions o( t$e Com&re$ensive #grarian -e(orm La, ;-.#. No. GGC7< &artic%larl' )ection GC t$ereo( ,$ic$ re.%ires t$e a&&roval o( t$e De&artment o( #grarian -e(orm be(ore a &arcel o( lan! can be reclassi(ie! (rom an agric%lt%ral to a nonDagric%lt%ral lan!. C# (ollo,ing t$e recommen!ation o( t$e )olicitor General $el! t$at t$e =rovince o( Cams%r m%st com&l' ,it$ t$e &rovision o( )ection GC o( t$e Com&re$ensive #grarian -e(orm La, an! m%st (irst sec%re t$e a&&roval o( t$e De&artment o( #grarian -e(orm o( t$e &lan to e4&ro&riate t$e lan!s o( t$e )7s *ss%e: 6ON t$e e4&ro&riation o( agric%lt%ral lan!s b' LG@s is s%b9ect to t$e &rior a&&roval o( t$e )ecretar' o( t$e #grarian -e(orm as t$e im&lementator o( t$e agrarian re(orm &rogram. 6$en t$e C# or!ere! t$e s%s&ension o( t$e &rocee!ings %ntil t$e =rovince o( Cams%r s$all $ave obtaine! t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e De&artment o( #grarian -e(orm to c$ange t$e classi(ication o( t$e lan!s so%g$t to be e4&ro&riate! (rom agric%lt%ral to nonDagric%lt%ral %se it ass%me! t$at t$e resol%tion is vali! an! t$at t$e e4&ro&riation is (or a &%blic &%r&ose or &%blic %se. Mo!ernl' t$ere $as been a s$i(t (rom t$e literal to a broa!er inter&retation o( "&%blic &%r&ose" or "&%blic %se" (or ,$ic$ t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain ma' be e4ercise!. 2$e ol! conce&t ,as t$at t$e con!emne! &ro&ert' m%st act%all' be %se! b' t$e general &%blic ;e.g. roa!s bri!ges &%blic &laBas etc.< be(ore t$e ta+ing t$ereo( co%l! satis(' t$e constit%tional re.%irement o( "&%blic %se". @n!er t$e ne, conce&t "&%blic %se" means &%blic a!vantage convenience or bene(it ,$ic$ ten!s to contrib%te to t$e general ,el(are an! t$e &ros&erit' o( t$e ,$ole comm%nit' li+e a resort com&le4 (or to%rists or $o%sing &ro9ect ;Heirs o( 7%anc$o #r!ano v. -e'es 1/C )C-# //5 U1881VA )%m%long v. G%errero 1C0 )C.-# 0G1 U1887V<. 2$e e4&ro&riation o( t$e &ro&ert' a%t$oriBe! b' t$e .%estione! resol%tion is (or a &%blic &%r&ose. 2$e establis$ment o( a &ilot !evelo&ment center ,o%l! in%re to t$e !irect bene(it an! a!vantage o( t$e &eo&le o( t$e =rovince o( Cams%r. Once o&erational t$e center ,o%l! ma+e available to t$e comm%nit' inval%able in(ormation an! tec$nolog' on agric%lt%re (is$er' an! t$e cottage in!%str'. @ltimatel' t$e liveli$oo! o( t$e (armers (is$ermen an! cra(tsmen ,o%l! be en$ance!.. 2$e $o%sing &ro9ect also satis(ies t$e &%blic &%r&ose re.%irement o( t$e Constit%tion. #s $el! in )%m%long v. G%errero 1C0 )C-# 0G1 "Ho%sing is a basic $%man nee!. )$ortage in $o%sing is a matter o( state concern since it !irectl' an! signi(icantl' a((ects &%blic $ealt$ sa(et' t$e environment an! in s%m t$e general ,el(are." 2$e )olicitor General !enigrate! t$e &o,er to e4&ro&riate b' t$e =rovince o( Cams%r b' stressing t$e (act t$at LG@s e4ercise s%c$ &o,er onl' b' !elegation. ;Comment &&. 10D 1CA -ollo &&. 1/8D1/8< Heirs o( 7%anc$o #r!ana v. -e'es: Co%rt sai! t$at t$ere ,as "no nee! %n!er t$e (acts o( t$is &etition to r%le on ,$et$er t$e &%blic &%r&ose is s%&erior or in(erior to anot$er &%r&ose or engage in a balancing o( com&eting &%blic interest " it %&$el! t$e e4&ro&riation a(ter noting t$at &etitioners $a! (aile! to overcome t$e s$o,ing t$at t$e ta+ing o( 8 875 s.%are meters (orme! &art o( t$e resort com&le4. # (air an! reasonable rea!ing o( t$e !ecision is t$at t$is Co%rt vie,e! t$e &o,er o( e4&ro&riation as s%&erior to t$e &o,er to !istrib%te lan!s %n!er t$e lan! re(orm &rogram. *t is tr%e t$at LG@s $ave no in$erent &o,er o( eminent !omain an! can e4ercise it onl' ,$en e4&ressl' a%t$oriBe! b' t$e legislat%re. *t is also tr%e t$at in !elegating t$e &o,er to e4&ro&riate t$e legislat%re ma' retain certain control or im&ose certain restraints on t$e e4ercise t$ereo( b' t$e local governments. 6$ile s%c$ !elegate! &o,er ma' be a limite! a%t$orit' it is com&lete ,it$in its limits. Moreover t$e limitations on t$e e4ercise o( t$e !elegate! &o,er m%st be clearl' e4&resse! eit$er in t$e la, con(erring t$e &o,er or in ot$er legislations.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests -esol%tion No. 1/8 )eries o( 1888 ,as &rom%lgate!
&%rs%ant to )ection 8 o( B.=. Blg. 117 t$e LGC ,$ic$ &rovi!es: # LG@ ma' t$ro%g$ its $ea! an! acting &%rs%ant to a resol%tion o( its sangg%nian e4ercise t$e rig$t o( eminent !omain an! instit%te con!emnation &rocee!ings (or &%blic %se or &%r&ose. )ection 8 o( B.=. Blg. 117 !oes not intimate in t$e least t$at local government %nits m%st (irst sec%re t$e a&&roval o( t$e De&artment o( Lan! -e(orm (or t$e conversion o( lan!s (rom agric%lt%ral to nonDagric%lt%ral %se be(ore t$e' can instit%te t$e necessar' e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings. Li+e,ise t$ere is no &rovision in t$e Com&re$ensive #grarian -e(orm La, ,$ic$ e4&ressl' s%b9ects t$e e4&ro&riation o( agric%lt%ral lan!s b' LG@s to t$e control o( t$e De&artment o( #grarian -e(orm. 2$e closest &rovision o( la, t$at t$e C# co%l! cite to 9%sti(' t$e intervention o( t$e De&artment o( #grarian -e(orm in e4&ro&riation matters is )ection GC o( t$e Com&re$ensive #grarian -e(orm La, ,$ic$ rea!s: )ec. GC. Conversion o( Lan!s. #(ter t$e la&se o( (ive ;C< 'ears (rom its a,ar! ,$en t$e lan! ceases to be economicall' (easible an! so%n! (or agric%lt%ral &%r&oses or t$e localit' $as become %rbaniBe! an! t$e lan! ,ill $ave a greater economic val%e (or resi!ential commercial or in!%strial &%r&oses t$e D#%&on a&&lication o( t$e bene(iciar' or t$e lan!o,ner ,it$ !%e notice to t$e a((ecte! &arties an! s%b9ect to e4isting la,s ma' a%t$oriBe t$e reclassi(ication or conversion o( t$e lan! an! its !is&osition: =rovi!e! 2$at t$e bene(iciar' s$all $ave (%ll' &ai! $is obligation. 2$e o&ening a!verbial &$rase o( t$e &rovision sen!s signals t$at it a&&lies to lan!s &revio%sl' &lace! %n!er t$e agrarian re(orm &rogram as it s&ea+s o( "t$e la&se o( (ive ;C< 'ears (rom its a,ar!." 2$e r%les on conversion o( agric%lt%ral lan!s (o%n! in )ection 0 ;+< an! C ;1< o( 34ec%tive Or!er No. 1/8D# )eries o( 1887 cannot be t$e so%rce o( t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e De&artment o( #grarian -e(orm to !etermine t$e s%itabilit' o( a &arcel o( agric%lt%ral lan! (or t$e &%r&ose to ,$ic$ it ,o%l! be !evote! b' t$e e4&ro&riating a%t$orit'. 6$ile t$ose r%les vest on t$e De&artment o( #grarian -e(orm t$e e4cl%sive a%t$orit' to a&&rove or !isa&&rove conversions o( agric%lt%ral lan!s (or resi!ential commercial or in!%strial %ses s%c$ a%t$orit' is limite! to t$e a&&lications (or reclassi(ication s%bmitte! b' t$e lan! o,ners or tenant bene(iciaries. )tat%tes con(erring t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain to &olitical s%b!ivisions cannot be broa!ene! or constricte! b' im&lication. 2o s%stain t$e C# ,o%l! mean t$at t$e LG@s can no longer e4&ro&riate agric%lt%ral lan!s nee!e! (or t$e constr%ction o( roa!s bri!ges sc$ools $os&itals etc ,it$o%t (irst a&&l'ing (or conversion o( t$e %se o( t$e lan!s ,it$ t$e De&artment o( #grarian -e(orm beca%se all o( t$ese &ro9ects ,o%l! nat%rall' involve a c$ange in t$e lan! %se. *n e((ect it ,o%l! t$en be t$e De&artment o( #grarian -e(orm to scr%tiniBe ,$et$er t$e e4&ro&riation is (or a &%blic &%r&ose or &%blic %se. Or!inaril' it is t$e legislative branc$ o( t$e LG@ t$at s$all !etermine ,$et$er t$e %se o( t$e &ro&ert' so%g$t to be e4&ro&riate! s$all be &%blic t$e same being an e4&ression o( legislative &olic'. 2$e co%rts !e(er to s%c$ legislative !etermination an! ,ill intervene onl' ,$en a &artic%lar %n!erta+ing $as no real or s%bstantial relation to t$e &%blic %se. 2$ere is also an ancient r%le t$at restrictive stat%tes no matter $o, broa! t$eir terms are !o not embrace t$e sovereign %nless t$e sovereign is s&eciall' mentione! as s%b9ect t$ereto. 2$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines as sovereign or its &olitical s%b!ivisions as $ol!ers o( !elegate! sovereign &o,ers cannot be bo%n! b' &rovisions o( la, co%c$e! in general term.

Me#caua#an v. )AC Facts: 2$e =$ili&&ine =i&es an! Merc$an!ising Cor&oration (ile! ,it$ t$e O((ice o( t$e M%nici&al Ma'or o( Me'ca%a'an B%lacan an a&&lication (or a &ermit to (ence a &arcel o( lan!. 2$e (encing o( sai! &ro&ert' ,as allege!l' to enable t$e storage o( t$e res&on!entHs $eav' e.%i&ment an! vario%s (inis$e! &ro!%cts s%c$ as large !iameter steel &i&es &ontoon &i&es (or &orts ,$arves an! $arbors bri!ge com&onents &reDstresse! gir!ers an! &iles large !iameter concrete &i&es an! &arts (or lo, cost $o%sing. *n t$e same 'ear t$e M%nici&al Co%ncil o( Me'ca%a'an $ea!e! b' t$en Ma'or Celso -. Legas&i &asse! -esol%tion No. /C8 )eries o( 187C mani(esting t$e intention to e4&ro&riate t$e res&on!entHs

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


&arcel o( lan!. 2$e )&ecial Committee recommen!e! t$at t$e =rovincial Boar! o( B%lacan !isa&&rove or ann%l t$e resol%tion in .%estion beca%se t$ere ,as no gen%ine necessit' (or t$e M%nici&alit' o( Me'ca%a'an to e4&ro&riate t$e res&on!entHs &ro&ert' (or %se as a &%blic roa!. On t$e basis o( t$is re&ort t$e =rovincial Boar! o( B%lacan &asse! -esol%tion No. /18 )eries o( 187G !isa&&roving an! ann%lling -esol%tion No. /C8 )eries o( 187C o( t$e M%nici&al Co%ncil o( Me'ca%a'an. ==MC t$en reiterate! to t$e O((ice o( t$e Ma'or its &etition (or t$e a&&roval o( t$e &ermit to (ence t$e a(oresai! &arcels o( lan!. 2$e M%nici&al Co%ncil o( Me'ca%a'an no, $ea!e! b' Ma'or #!riano D. DaeB &asse! -esol%tion No. /1 )eries o( 1881 (or t$e &%r&ose o( e4&ro&riating ane, t$e res&on!entHs lan!. 2$e =rovincial Boar! o( B%lacan a&&rove! t$e a(oresai! resol%tion on 7an%ar' /C 1880. 2$erea(ter t$e &etitioner on Febr%ar' 10 1880 (ile! ,it$ t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt o( Malolos B%lacan Branc$ K* a s&ecial civil action (or e4&ro&riation. @&on !e&osit o( t$e amo%nt o( =/0 5/C.55 ,$ic$ is t$e mar+et val%e o( t$e lan! ,it$ t$e =$ili&&ine National Ban+ t$e trial co%rt on Marc$ 1 1880 iss%e! a ,rit o( &ossession in (avor o( t$e &etitioner. On #%g%st /7 1880 t$e trial co%rt iss%e! an or!er !eclaring t$e ta+ing o( t$e &ro&ert' as la,(%l an! a&&ointing t$e =rovincial #ssessor o( B%lacan as co%rt commissioner ,$o s$all $ol! t$e $earing to ascertain t$e 9%st com&ensation (or t$e &ro&ert'. 2$e res&on!ent ,ent to t$e *nterme!iate #&&ellate Co%rt on &etition (or revie,. On 7an%ar' 15 188C t$e a&&ellate co%rt a((irme! t$e trial co%rtHs !ecision. Ho,ever %&on motion (or reconsi!eration b' t$e res&on!ent t$e !ecision ,as reDe4amine! an! reverse!. 2$e a&&ellate co%rt $el! t$at t$ere is no gen%ine necessit' to e4&ro&riate t$e lan! (or %se as a &%blic roa! as t$ere ,ere several ot$er roa!s (or t$e same &%r&ose an! anot$er more a&&ro&riate lot (or t$e &ro&ose! &%blic roa!. 2$e co%rt ta+ing into consi!eration t$e location an! siBe o( t$e lan! also o&ine! t$at t$e lan! is more *!eal (or %se as storage area (or res&on!entHs $eav' e.%i&ment an! (inis$e! &ro!%cts. M-: !enie!. *ss%e: 6ON t$ere is a gen%ine necessit' to e4&ro&riate t$is stri& o( lan! (or %se as a &%blic roa!. NO. 2$e &etitionerHs &%r&ose in e4&ro&riating t$e res&on!entHs &ro&ert' is to convert t$e same into a &%blic roa! ,$ic$ ,o%l! &rovi!e a connecting lin+ bet,een Mal$acan -oa! an! B%lac -oa! in KalenB%ela B%lacan an! t$ereb' ease t$e tra((ic in t$e area o( ve$icles coming (rom Mac#rt$%r Hig$,a'. 2$e recor!s $o,ever reveals t$at t$ere are ot$er connecting lin+s bet,een t$e a(orementione! roa!s. 2$e &etitioner itsel( a!mits t$at t$ere are (o%r s%c$ cross roa!s in e4istence. 2$e res&on!ent co%rt state! t$at ,it$ t$e &ro&ose! roa! t$ere ,o%l! be seven. 2$e )+etc$ =lan clearl' an! concl%sivel' s$o,s t$at &etitioner !oes not nee! t$is stri& o( lan! as a &rivate roa!. 2$e )+etc$ =lan clearl' s$o,s t$at &etitionerHs (actor' site is a!9acent to B%lac -oa! ,$ic$ $as a ,i!t$ o( abo%t seven meters more or less. =etitioner can %se B%lac -oa! in reac$ing Mc#rt$%r Hig$,a' on t$e ,est or in reac$ing t$e Manila Nort$ 34&ress,a' on t$e east (or t$e &%r&ose o( trans&orting its &ro!%cts. =etitioner !oes not nee! to go to Mal$acan -oa! via t$is soDcalle! &rivate roa! be(ore going to Mc#rt$%r Hig$,a' or to t$e Manila Nort$ 34&ress,a'. 6$' s$o%l! &etitioner go (irst to Mal$acan -oa! via t$is so calle! "&rivate roa!" be(ore going to Mc#rt$%r Hig$,a' or to t$e Manila Nort$ 34&ress,a' ,$en ta+ing t$e B%lac -oa! in going to Mc#rt$%r Hig$,a' or to t$e Manila Nort$ 34&ress,a' is more !irect nearer an! more a!vantageo%s. Hence it is be'on! !o%bt t$at &etitioner ac.%ire! t$is stri& o( lan! (or t$e storage o( its $eav' e.%i&ments an! vario%s (inis$e! &ro!%cts an! (or gro,t$ an! e4&ansion an! never to %se it as a &rivate roa!. 2$is is t$e ver' reason ,$' &etitioner (ile! an a&&lication ,it$ t$e O((ice o( t$e M%nici&al Ma'or o( Me'ca%a'an B%lacan to (ence ,it$ $ollo, bloc+s t$is stri& o( lan!. From t$e (oregoing (acts it a&&ears obvio%s to t$is )&ecial Committee t$at t$ere is no gen%ine necessit' (or t$e M%nici&alit' o(H Me'ca%a'an to e4&ro&riate t$e a(oresai! &ro&ert' o( t$e =$ili&&ine =i&es an! Merc$an!ising Cor&oration (or %se as a &%blic roa!. Consi!ering t$at in t$e vicinit' t$ere are ot$er available roa! an! vacant lot o((ere! (or sale sit%ate! similarl' as t$e lot in .%estion an! l'ing *!le %nli+e t$e lot so%g$t to be e4&ro&riate! ,$ic$ ,as (o%n! b' t$e Committee to be ba!l' nee!e! b' t$e com&an' as a site (or its $eav' e.%i&ment a(ter it is (ence! toget$er ,it$ t$e a!9oining vacant lot t$e 9%sti(ication to con!emn t$e same !oes not a&&ear to be ver' im&erative an! necessar' an! ,o%l! onl' ca%se %n9%sti(ie! !amage to

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


t$e (irm. 2$e !esire o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( Me'ca%a'an to b%il! a &%blic roa! to !econgest t$e vol%me o( tra((ic can be (%ll' an! better attaine! b' ac.%iring t$e ot$er available roa!s in t$e vicinit' ma'be at lesser costs ,it$o%t ca%sing $arm to an establis$ment !oing legitimate b%siness t$erein. Or t$e m%nici&alit' ma' see+ to e4&ro&riate a &ortion o( t$e vacant lot also in t$e vicinit' o((ere! (or sale (or a ,i!er &%blic roa! to attain !econgest ;sic< o( tra((ic beca%se as observe! b' t$e Committee t$e lot o( t$e Cor&oration so%g$t to be ta+en ,ill onl' accommo!ate a oneD,a' tra((ic lane an! t$ere(ore ,ill not s%((ice to im&rove an! !econgest t$e (lo, o( tra((ic an! &e!estrians in t$e Mal$acan area. ... *t m%st be note! t$at t$is stri& o( lan! covere! b' 2rans(er Certi(icates o( 2itles Nos. /1C1GC an! 17878 ,ere ac.%ire! b' &etitioner (rom Dr. Killacorta. 2$e lot (or sale an! l'ing *!le ,it$ an area o( 1G 571 s.%are meter ,$ic$ is a!9acent an! on t$e ,estern si!e o( t$e a(oresai! stri& o( lan! an! e4ten!s li+e,ise (rom B%lac -oa! to Mal$acan -oa! belongs also to Dr. Killacorta. 2$is lot (or sale an! l'ing *!le is most *!eal (or %se as a &%blic roa! beca%se it is more t$an t$ree ;1< times ,i!er t$at t$e sai! stri& o( lan!. )ince t$ere is anot$er lot rea!' (or sale an! l'ing *!le a!9acent an! on t$e ,estern si!e o( t$e stri& o( lan! an! e4ten!ing also (rom Mal$acan -oa! to B%lac -oa! an! most *!eal (or a &%blic roa! beca%se it is ver' m%c$ ,i!er t$an t$e lot so%g$t to be e4&ro&riate! it seems t$at it is more 9%st (air an! reasonable i( t$is lot is t$e one to be e4&ro&riate!. 2$e &etitioner ob9ects to t$e a&&ellate co%rtHs (in!ings conten!ing t$at t$e' ,ere base! on (acts obtaining long be(ore t$e &resent action to e4&ro&riate too+ &lace. 6e note $o,ever t$at t$ere is no evi!ence on recor! ,$ic$ s$o,s a c$ange in t$e (act%al circ%mstances o( t$e case. 2$ere is no s$o,ing t$at some o( t$e si4 ot$er available cross roa!s $ave been close! or t$at t$e &rivate roa!s in t$e s%b!ivision ma' not be %se! (or m%nici&al &%r&oses. 6$at is more li+el' is t$at t$ese roa!s $ave alrea!' been t%rne! over to t$e government. 2$e &etitioner alleges t$at s%rel' t$e environmental &rogress !%ring t$e s&an o( seven 'ears bet,een t$e (irst an! secon! attem&ts to e4&ro&riate $as bro%g$t abo%t a c$ange in t$e (acts o( t$e case. 2$is allegation !oes not merit consi!eration absent a s$o,ing o( concrete evi!ence attesting to it. 2$ere is no .%estion $ere as to t$e rig$t o( t$e )tate to ta+e &rivate &ro&ert' (or &%blic %se %&on &a'ment o( 9%st com&ensation. 6$at is .%estione! is t$e e4istence o( a gen%ine necessit' t$ere(or. Cit' o( Manila v. C$inese Comm%nit' o( Manila: t$is Co%rt $el! t$at t$e (o%n!ation o( t$e rig$t to e4ercise t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain is gen%ine necessit' an! t$at necessit' m%st be o( a &%blic c$aracter. Con!emnation o( &rivate &ro&ert' is 9%sti(ie! onl' i( it is (or t$e &%blic goo! an! t$ere is a gen%ine necessit' o( a &%blic c$aracter. Conse.%entl' t$e co%rts $ave t$e &o,er to in.%ire into t$e legalit' o( t$e e4ercise o( t$e rig$t o( eminent !omain an! to !etermine ,$et$er t$ere is a gen%ine necessit' t$er(or. De Mnec$t v. Ba%tista t$is co%rt (%rt$er r%le! t$at t$e government ma' not ca&ricio%sl' c$oose ,$at &rivate &ro&ert' s$o%l! be ta+en. Citing t$e case o( 7.M. 2%ason P Co. *nc. v. Lan! 2en%re #!ministration ;s%&ra< t$e Co%rt $el!: 6it$ !%e recognition t$en o( t$e &o,er o( Congress to !esignate t$e &artic%lar &ro&ert' to be ta+en an! $o, m%c$ t$ereo( ma' be con!emne! in t$e e4ercise o( t$e &o,er o( e4&ro&riation it is still a 9%!icial .%estion ,$et$er in t$e e4ercise o( s%c$ com&etence t$e &art' a!versel' a((ecte! is t$e victim o( &artialit' an! &re9%!ice. 2$at t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se ,ill not allo,. 2$ere is absol%tel' no s$o,ing in t$e &etition ,$' t$e more a&&ro&riate lot (or t$e &ro&ose! roa! ,$ic$ ,as o((ere! (or sale $as not been t$e s%b9ect o( t$e &etitionerHs attem&t to e4&ro&riate ass%ming t$ere is a real nee! (or anot$er connecting roa!.

,apocor v. +ocson Facts: 2$e N=C (ile! (or t$e ac.%isition o( a rig$tDo(D,a' easement over &ortions o( t$e &arcels o( lan! !escribe! in t$e com&laints (or its NegrosD=ana' *nterconnection =ro9ect &artic%larl' t$e Bacolo!D 2omonton 2ransmission Line. =rovisional val%es ,ere (i4e! on t$e basis o( t$e mar+et val%e an! t$e !ail' o&&ort%nit' &ro(it &etitioner ma' !erive. -es&on!ents so%g$t a reDeval%ation. 7%!ge increase! val%e ,it$o%t $earing an! !irecting t$e !e(en!ants to mani(est ,it$in t,ent'D(o%r ;/0< $o%rs ,$et$er or not t$e' are acce&ting

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


an! ,it$!ra,ing t$e amo%nts re&resenting t$e &rovisional val%es !e&osite! b' t$e &lainti(( (or eac$ o( t$em as "(inal an! (%ll satis(action o( t$e val%e o( t$eir res&ective &ro&ert' ;sic<A " 7%!ge !eclare! t$e &rovisional val%es as t$e (inal val%es an! !irecting t$e release o( t$e amo%nts !e&osite! in (%ll satis(action t$ereo( to t$e !e(en!ants even i( not all o( t$em ma!e t$e mani(estationA an! s%s&en!e! t$e iss%ance o( t$e ,rit o( &ossession %ntil a(ter t$e s%s&en!ing t$e amo%nts s$all $ave been release! to an! receive! b' !e(en!ants. *ss%e: 6ON 7%!ge 7ocson committe! grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ o( 9%ris!iction. :3). M%nici&alit' o( BiRan vs. Hon. 7ose Mar Garcia et al: t$ere are t,o ;/< stages in ever' action o( e4&ro&riation: 2$e (irst is concerne! ,it$ t$e !etermination o( t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e &lainti(( to e4ercise t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain an! t$e &ro&riet' o( its e4ercise in t$e conte4t o( t$e (acts involve! in t$e s%it. *t en!s ,it$ an or!er i( not o( !ismissal o( t$e action "o( con!emnation !eclaring t$at t$e &lainti(( $as a la,(%l rig$t to ta+e t$e &ro&ert' so%g$t to be con!emne! (or t$e &%blic %se or &%r&ose !escribe! in t$e com&laint %&on t$e &a'ment o( 9%st com&ensation to be !etermine! as o( t$e !ate o( t$e (iling o( t$e com&laint." #n or!er o( !ismissal i( t$is be or!aine! ,o%l! be a (inal one o( co%rse since it (inall' !is&oses o( t$e action an! leaves not$ing more to be !one b' t$e Co%rt on t$e merits. )o too ,o%l! an or!er o( con!emnation be a (inal one (or t$erea(ter as t$e -%les e4&ressl' state in t$e &rocee!ings be(ore t$e 2rial Co%rt "no ob9ection to t$e e4ercise o( t$e rig$t o( con!emnation ;or t$e &ro&riet' t$ereo(< s$all be (ile! or $ear!." 2$e secon! &$ase o( t$e eminent !omain action is concerne! ,it$ t$e !etermination b' t$e Co%rt o( t$e "9%st com&ensation (or t$e &ro&ert' so%g$t to be ta+en." 2$is is !one b' t$e Co%rt ,it$ t$e assistance o( not more t$an t$ree ;1< commissioners. 2$e or!er (i4ing t$e 9%st com&ensation on t$e basis o( t$e evi!ence be(ore an! (in!ings o( t$e commissioners ,o%l! be (inal too. *t ,o%l! (inall' !is&ose o( t$e secon! stage o( t$e s%it an! leave not$ing more to be !one b' t$e Co%rt regar!ing t$e iss%e. . . . Ho,ever %&on t$e (iling o( t$e com&laint or at an' time t$erea(ter t$e &etitioner $as t$e rig$t to ta+e or enter %&on t$e &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' involve! %&on com&liance ,it$ =.D. No. 0/ ,$ic$ re.%ires t$e &etitioner a(ter !%e notice to t$e !e(en!ant to !e&osit ,it$ t$e =$ili&&ine National Ban+ in its main o((ice or an' o( its branc$es or agencies "an amo%nt e.%ivalent to t$e assesse! val%e o( t$e &ro&ert' (or &%r&oses o( ta4ation." 2$is assesse! val%e is t$at in!icate! in t$e ta4 !eclaration. =.D. No. 0/ re&eale! t$e "&rovisions o( -%le G7 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt an! o( an' ot$er e4isting la, contrar' to or inconsistent" ,it$ it. #ccor!ingl' it re&eale! )ection / o( -%le G7 inso(ar as t$e !etermination o( t$e &rovisional val%e t$e (orm o( &a'ment an! t$e agenc' ,it$ ,$ic$ t$e !e&osit s$all be ma!e are concerne!. )ai! section rea!s in (%ll as (ollo,s: )ec. /. 3ntr' o( &lainti(( %&on !e&ositing val%e ,it$ National or =rovisional 2reas%rer. S @&on t$e (iling o( t$e com&laint or at an' time t$erea(ter t$e &lainti(( s$all $ave t$e rig$t to ta+e or enter %&on t$e &ossession o( t$e real or &ersonal &ro&ert' involve! i( $e !e&osits ,it$ t$e National or =rovincial 2reas%rer its val%e as &rovisionall' an! &rom&tl' ascertaine! an! (i4e! b' t$e co%rt $aving 9%ris!iction o( t$e &rocee!ings to be $el! b' s%c$ treas%rer s%b9ect to t$e or!ers an! (inal !is&osition o( t$e co%rt. )%c$ !e&osit s$all be in mone' %nless in lie% t$ereo( t$e co%rt a%t$oriBes t$e !e&osit o( a certi(icate o( !e&osit o( a !e&ositor' o( t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines &a'able on !eman! to t$e National or =rovincial 2reas%rer as t$e case ma' be in t$e amo%nt !irecte! b' t$e co%rt to be !e&osite!. #(ter s%c$ !e&osit is ma!e t$e co%rt s$all or!er t$e s$eri(( or ot$er &ro&er o((icer to (ort$,it$ &lace t$e &lainti(( in &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' involve!. *t ,ill be note! t$at %n!er t$e a(ore.%ote! section t$e co%rt $as t$e !iscretion to !etermine t$e &rovisional val%e ,$ic$ m%st be !e&osite! b' t$e &lainti(( to enable it "to ta+e or enter %&on t$e &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert'." Notice to t$e &arties is not in!is&ensable. *n inter&reting a similar &rovision o( #ct No. 1C8/ t$is Co%rt in t$e 181C case o( Manila -ailroa! Com&an' et al. vs. =are!es et al. 0C $el!: 2$e stat%te !irects t$at at t$e ver' o%tset ",$en con!emnation &rocee!ings are bro%g$t b' an' rail,a' cor&oration" t$e amo%nt o( t$e !e&osit is to be "&rovisionall' an! &rom&tl' ascertaine! an! (i4e! b' t$e co%rt." *t is ver' clear t$at it ,as not t$e intention o( t$e

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


legislator t$at be(ore t$e or!er (i4ing t$e amo%nt o( t$e !e&osit co%l! la,(%ll' be entere! t$e co%rt s$o%l! (inall' an! !e(initel' !etermine ,$o are t$e tr%e o,ners o( t$e lan!A an! a(ter !oing so give t$em a $earing as to its val%e an! assess t$e tr%e val%e o( t$e lan! accor!ingl'. *n e((ect t$at ,o%l! amo%nt to a !enial o( t$e rig$t o( &ossession o( t$e lan!s involve! %ntil t$e concl%sion o( t$e &rocee!ings ,$en t$ere ,o%l! no nee! (or t$e (iling o( t$e !e&osit. O( co%rse t$ere is not$ing in t$e stat%te ,$ic$ !enies t$e rig$t o( t$e 9%!ge to $ear all &ersons claiming an interest in t$e lan! an! co%rts s$o%l! or!inaril' give all s%c$ &ersons an o&&ort%nit' to be $ear! i( t$at be &racticable an! ,ill ca%se no !ela' in t$e &rom&t an! &rovisional ascertainment o( t$e val%e o( t$e lan!. B%t t$e sco&e an! e4tent o( t$e in.%ir' is le(t ,$oll' in t$e !iscretion o( t$e co%rt an! a (ail%re to $ear t$e o,ners an! claimants o( t$e lan! ,$o ma' or ma' not be +no,n at t$e time o( t$e entr' o( t$e or!er in no ,ise e((ects t$e vali!it' o( t$e or!er. . . . =.D. No. 0/ $o,ever e((ectivel' removes t$e !iscretion o( t$e co%rt in !etermining t$e &rovisional val%e. 6$at is to be !e&osite! is an amo%nt e.%ivalent to t$e assesse! val%e (or ta4ation &%r&ose. No $earing is re.%ire! (or t$at &%r&ose. #ll t$at is nee!e! is notice to t$e o,ner o( t$e &ro&ert' so%g$t to be con!emne!. Clearl' t$ere(ore res&on!ent 7%!ge eit$er !eliberatel' !isregar!e! =.D. No. 0/ or ,as totall' %na,are o( its e4istence an! t$e cases a&&l'ing t$e same. *n an' event &etitioner !e&osite! t$e &rovisional val%e (i4e! b' t$e co%rt. #s a matter o( rig$t it ,as entitle! to be &lace! in &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' involve! in t$e com&laints at once &%rs%ant to bot$ )ection / o( -%le G7 an! =.D. No. 0/. -es&on!ent Co%rt $a! t$e corres&on!ing !%t' to or!er t$e s$eri(( or an' ot$er &ro&er o((icer to (ort$,it$ &lace t$e &etitioner in s%c$ &ossession. *nstea! o( com&l'ing ,it$ t$e clear man!ate o( t$e la, res&on!ent 7%!ge c$ose to ignore an! overloo+ it. Moreover %&on se&arate motions (or reconsi!eration (ile! b' t$e !e(en!ants in Civil Cases Nos. C818 an! C818 $e iss%e! a ne, Or!er increasing t$e &rovisional val%es o( t$e &ro&erties involve! t$erein. No $earing ,as $el! on t$e motions. #s a matter o( (act as t$e recor!s s$o, t$e motion (or reconsi!eration (ile! b' !e(en!ants 7es%s GonBaga et al. in Civil Case No. C818 is !ate! 11 7%l' 1885 ,$ile t$e Or!er granting bot$ motions ,as iss%e! t$e ne4t !a' 1/ 7%l' 1885. 2$e motion (or reconsi!eration in Civil Case No. C818 !oes not even contain a notice o( $earing. *t is t$en a mere scra& o( &a&erA it &resents no .%estion ,$ic$ merits t$e attention an! consi!eration o( t$e co%rt. *t is not even a mere motion (or it !oes not com&l' ,it$ t$e r%les more &artic%larl' )ections 0 an! C -%le 1C o( t$e -%les o( Co%rtA t$e Cler+ o( Co%rt t$en $a! no rig$t to receive it. C5 2$ere ,as moreover a m%c$ stronger reason ,$' t$e res&on!ent Co%rt s$o%l! not $ave iss%e! t$e 1/ 7%l' 1885 Or!er increasing t$e &rovisional val%es o( t$e GonBaga lots in Civil Cases Nos. C818 an! C818. #(ter $aving (i4e! t$ese &rovisional val%es albeit erroneo%sl' an! %&on !e&osit b' &etitioner o( t$e sai! amo%nts res&on!ent 7%!ge lost as ,as $el! in Manila -ailroa! Com&an' vs. =are!es "&lenar' control over t$e or!er (i4ing t$e amo%nt o( t$e !e&osit an! $as no &o,er to ann%l amen! or mo!i(' it in matters o( s%bstance &en!ing t$e co%rse o( t$e con!emnation &rocee!ings." 2$e reason (or t$is is t$at a contrar' r%ling ,o%l! !e(eat t$e ver' &%r&ose o( t$e la, ,$ic$ is to &rovi!e a s&ee!' an! s%mmar' &roce!%re ,$ereb' t$e &eaceable &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' s%b9ect o( t$e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings "ma' be sec%re! ,it$o%t t$e !ela's inci!ent to &rolonge! an! ve4atio%s litigation to%c$ing t$e o,ners$i& an! val%e o( s%c$ lan!s ,$ic$ s$o%l! not be &ermitte! to !ela' t$e &rogress o( t$e ,or+." Com&o%n!ing t$e above error an! t$e ca&ricio%sness ,it$ ,$ic$ it ,as committe! is res&on!ent 7%!geHs re(%sal to &lace t$e &etitioner in &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' or iss%e t$e ,rit o( &ossession !es&ite t$e (act t$at t$e latter $a! li+e,ise !e&osite! t$e a!!itional amo%nt calle! (or b' t$e 1/ 7%l' 1885 Or!er. *nstea! res&on!ent 7%!ge iss%e! t$e 1G 7%l' 1885 Or!er !irecting t$e !e(en!ants to state in ,riting ,it$in t,ent'D(o%r ;/0< $o%rs ,$et$er or not t$e' ,o%l! acce&t an! ,it$!ra, t$e amo%nts !e&osite! b' t$e &etitioner (or eac$ o( t$em " as (inal an! (%ll satis(action o( t$e val%e o( t$eir res&ective &ro&ert' ;sic< a((ecte! b' t$e e4&ro&riation" an! stating at t$e same time t$at t$e ,rit ,ill be iss%e! a(ter s%c$ mani(estation an! acce&tance an! recei&t o( t$e amo%nts. 2$e above Or!er $as absol%tel' no legal basis even as it also %n9%stl' o&&ressivel' an!

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


ca&ricio%sl' com&els t$e &etitioner to acce&t t$e res&on!ent 7%!geHs !etermination o( t$e &rovisional val%e as t$e 9%st com&ensation a(ter t$e !e(en!ants s$all $ave mani(este! t$eir con(ormit' t$ereto. He t$%s s%bor!inate! $is o,n 9%!gment to t$at o( t$e !e(en!antsH beca%se $e ma!e t$e latter t$e (inal a%t$orit' to !etermine s%c$ 9%st com&ensation. 2$is Co%rt r%le! in 34&ort =rocessing Zone #%t$orit' vs. D%la' et al. C/ t$at t$e !etermination o( 9%st com&ensation in eminent !omain cases is a 9%!icial (%nctionA accor!ingl' 6e !eclare! as %nconstit%tional an! voi! (or being inter alia im&ermissible encroac$ment on 9%!icial &rerogatives ,$ic$ ten!s to ren!er t$e Co%rt in%tile in a matter ,$ic$ %n!er t$e Constit%tion is reserve! to it (or (inal !etermination t$e met$o! o( ascertaining 9%st com&ensation &rescribe! in =.D. Nos. 7G 0G0 780 an! 1C11 to ,it: t$e mar+et val%e as !eclare! b' t$e o,ner or a!ministrator or s%c$ mar+et val%e as !etermine! b' t$e assessor ,$ic$ever is lo,er in t$e (irst t$ree ;1< !ecrees an! t$e val%e !eclare! b' t$e o,ner or a!ministrator or an'one $aving legal interest in t$e &ro&ert' or t$e val%e as !etermine! b' t$e assessor &%rs%ant to t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e ,$ic$ever is lo,er &rior to t$e recommen!ation or !ecision o( t$e a&&ro&riate Government o((ice to ac.%ire t$e &ro&ert' in t$e last mentione! !ecree. *( t$e legislat%re or t$e e4ec%tive !e&artment cannot even im&ose %&on t$e co%rt $o, 9%st com&ensation s$o%l! be !etermine! it ,o%l! be (ar more ob9ectionable an! im&ermissible (or res&on!ent 7%!ge to grant t$e !e(en!ants in an eminent !omain case s%c$ &o,er an! a%t$orit'. 6it$o%t &er$a&s inten!ing it to be so t$ere is not onl' a clear case o( ab!ication o( 9%!icial &rerogative b%t also a com&lete !isregar! b' res&on!ent 7%!ge o( t$e &rovisions o( -%le G7 as to t$e &roce!%re to be (ollo,e! a(ter t$e &etitioner $as !e&osite! t$e &rovisional val%e o( t$e &ro&ert'. *t m%st be recalle! t$at t$ree ;1< sets o( !e(en!ants (ile! motions to !ismiss &%rs%ant to )ection 1 -%le G7 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rtA )ection 0 o( t$e same r%le &rovi!es t$at t$e co%rt m%st r%le on t$em an! in t$e event t$at it overr%les t$e motions or ,$en an' &art' (ails to &resent a !e(ense as re.%ire! in )ection 1 it s$o%l! enter an or!er o( con!emnation !eclaring t$at t$e &etitioner $as a la,(%l rig$t to ta+e t$e &ro&ert' so%g$t to be con!emne!. #s ma' be gleane! (rom t$e /C 7%ne 1885 Or!er t$e res&on!ent 7%!ge (o%n! t$at t$e &etitioner $as t$at rig$t an! t$at "t$ere ,ill be a ;sic< &aramo%nt &%blic interest to be serve! b' t$e e4&ro&riation o( t$e !e(en!antsH &ro&erties." #ccor!ingl' consi!ering t$at t$e &arties s%bmitte! neit$er a com&romise agreement as to t$e 9%st com&ensation nor a sti&%lation to !is&ense ,it$ t$e a&&ointment o( commissioners an! to leave t$e !etermination o( 9%st com&ensation to t$e co%rt on t$e basis o( certain criteria res&on!ent 7%!ge ,as !%t' bo%n! to set in motion )ection C o( -%le G7A sai! section !irects t$e co%rt to a&&oint not more t$an t$ree ;1< com&etent an! !isintereste! &ersons as commissioners to ascertain an! re&ort to it regar!ing t$e 9%st com&ensation (or t$e &ro&ert' so%g$t to be ta+en. )%c$ commissioners s$all &er(orm t$eir !%ties in t$e manner &rovi!e! (or in )ection GA %&on t$e (iling o( t$eir re&ort t$e co%rt ma' a(ter a &erio! o( ten ;15< !a's ,$ic$ it m%st grant to t$e &arties in or!er t$at t$e latter ma' (ile t$eir ob9ections to s%c$ re&ort an! a(ter $earing &%rs%ant to )ection 8 acce&t an! ren!er 9%!gment in accor!ance t$ere,it$ or (or ca%se s$o,n recommit t$e same to t$e commissioners (or (%rt$er re&ort o( (acts. 2$e co%rt ma' also set asi!e t$e re&ort an! a&&oint ne, commissioners or it ma' acce&t t$e re&ort in &art an! re9ect it in &artA an! it ma' ma+e s%c$ or!er or ren!er s%c$ 9%!gment as s$all sec%re to t$e &etitioner t$e &ro&ert' essential to t$e e4ercise o( its rig$t o( con!emnation an! to t$e !e(en!ant 9%st com&ensation (or t$e &ro&ert' so ta+en. Not satis(ie! ,it$ t$e (oregoing violations o( la, an! insisting %&on $is o,n &roce!%re res&on!ent 7%!ge !eclare! in $is Or!er o( 18 7%l' 1885 t$at t$e &rovisional amo%nts $e (i4e! later increase! ,it$ res&ect to t$e &ro&erties o( t$e GonBagas s$all be consi!ere! as t$e (%ll &a'ment o( t$e val%e o( t$e &ro&erties a(ter t$e !e(en!ants in Civil Cases Nos. C818 C818 C805 C80/ an! C801 s$all $ave (ile! t$eir mani(estationsA $e also r%le! t$at t$e ,rit o( &ossession ,ill be iss%e! onl' a(ter t$e latter s$all $ave receive! t$e sai! amo%nts. 2$is Or!er an! t$e recor!s be(ore t$is Co%rt !o not !isclose t$at t$e !e(en!ants in Civil Cases Nos. C801 an! C800 (ile! an' mani(estationA 'et in t$e Or!er res&on!ent 7%!ge ,$imsicall' an! arbitraril' consi!ere! t$e soDcalle! &rovisional val%es (i4e! t$erein as

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


t$e (inal val%es. B' s%c$ Or!er t$e case ,as in (act terminate! an! t$e ,rit o( e4ec%tion t$en became a mere inci!ent o( an e4ec%tion o( a 9%!gment. 2$e rig$t o( t$e &etitioner to ta+e or enter into &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' %&on t$e (iling o( t$e com&laint grante! b' )ection / o( -%le G7 an! =.D. No. 0/ ,as totall' negate! !es&ite com&liance ,it$ t$e !e&osit re.%irement %n!er t$e latter la,. Cit' Government o( 2ole!o Cit' vs. Fernan!os et al: !oes not a&&l' to t$e instant &etition beca%se at t$e &reDtrial con(erence $el! t$erein t$e &etitioner s%bmitte! to t$e !iscretion o( t$e co%rt as to t$e correct val%ation &rivate res&on!ents state! t$at t$e' $ave no ob9ections an! are in con(ormit' ,it$ t$e &rice o( =15.55 &er s.%are meter as reasonable com&ensation (or t$eir lan! an! t$e Cit' #ssessor in(orme! t$e co%rt o( t$e c%rrent mar+et an! a&&raisal val%es o( t$e &ro&erties in t$e area an! t$e (actors to be consi!ere! in t$e !etermination o( s%c$. 2$e &arties &resente! t$eir !oc%mentar' e4$ibits. *n e((ect t$ere(ore t$e &arties t$emselves agree! to s%bmit to a 9%!icial !etermination on t$e matter o( 9%st com&ensation an! t$at 9%!gment be ren!ere! base! t$ereon. *n t$e instant case no &reDtrial ,as con!%cte!A t$e &rocee!ings ,ere still at t$at state ,$ere t$e &rovisional val%e ,as 'et to be !etermine!A an! t$e &arties ma!e no agreement on 9%st com&ensation. <uezon Cit# v. %ricta Facts: WC &asse! an Or!inance reg%lating t$e establis$ment maintenance an! o&eration o( &rivate memorial t'&e cemeter' or b%rial gro%n! ,it$in t$e 9%ris!iction o( WC. )ection 8 o( t$e Or!inance &rovi!es t$at at least GY o( t$e total area o( a memorial &ar+ cemeter' s$all be set asi!e (or c$arit' b%rial o( !ecease! &ersons ,$o are &a%&ers P $ave been resi!ents o( WC (or at least C 'ears &rior to t$eir !eat$. )even 'ears a(ter t$e enactment o( t$e Or!inance t$e WC Co%ncil &asse! a resol%tion re.%esting t$e Cit' 3ngineer to sto& an' (%rt$er selling o( memorial &ar+s in WC ,$ere t$e o,ners $ave (aile! to !onate t$e re.%ire! GY cemeter' s&ace. 2$e Cit' 3ngineer noti(ie! Himla'ang =ili&ino *nc. t$at t$e Or!inance ,o%l! be en(orce! so Himla'an (ile! a &etition ,it$ t$e CF* see+ing to ann%l )ec 8 o( t$e Or!inance. CF* !eclare! )ec 8 n%ll an! voi!. M-: !enie! *ss%e: 6ON t$e or!inance is a%t$oriBe! %n!er WC C$arter an! a vali! e4ercise o( &olice &o,er. NO. -estatement o( certain basic &rinci&les: Occ%&'ing t$e (ore(ront in t$e bill o( rig$ts is t$e &rovision ,$ic$ states t$at Hno &erson s$all be !e&rive! o( li(e libert' or &ro&ert' ,it$o%t !%e &rocess o( la,H ;#rt. *ll )ection 1 s%b&aragra&$ 1 Constit%tion<. On t$e ot$er $an! t$ere are t$ree in$erent &o,ers o( government b' ,$ic$ t$e state inter(eres ,it$ t$e &ro&ert' rig$ts namel'D. ;1< &olice &o,er ;/< eminent !omain ;1< ta4ation. 2$ese are sai! to e4ist in!e&en!entl' o( t$e Constit%tion as necessar' attrib%tes o( sovereignt'. =olice &o,er is !e(ine! b' Fre%n! as Ht$e &o,er o( &romoting t$e &%blic ,el(are b' restraining an! reg%lating t$e %se o( libert' an! &ro&ert'H ;W%ote! in =olitical La, b' 2ana!a an! Carreon KD11 &. C5<. *t is %s%all' e4erte! in or!er to merel' reg%late t$e %se an! en9o'ment o( &ro&ert' o( t$e o,ner. *( $e is !e&rive! o( $is &ro&ert' o%trig$t it is not ta+en (or &%blic %se b%t rat$er to !estro' in or!er to &romote t$e general ,el(are. *n &olice &o,er t$e o,ner !oes not recover (rom t$e government (or in9%r' s%staine! in conse.%ence t$ereo( ;1/ C.7. G/1<. *t $as been sai! t$at &olice &o,er is t$e most essential o( government &o,ers at times t$e most insistent an! al,a's one o( t$e least limitable o( t$e &o,ers o( government ;-%b' vs. =rovincial Boar! 18 =$iL GG5A *c$ong vs. Hernan!eB 1 788C Ma' 11 18C7<. 2$is &o,er embraces t$e ,$ole s'stem o( &%blic reg%lation ;@.). vs. Lins%'a Fan 15 =$iL 150<. 2$e )%&reme Co%rt $as sai! t$at &olice &o,er is so (arDreac$ing in sco&e t$at it $as almost become im&ossible to limit its s,ee&. #s it !erives its e4istence (rom t$e ver' e4istence o( t$e state itsel( it !oes not nee! to be e4&resse! or !e(ine! in its sco&e. Being coe4tensive ,it$ sel(D&reservation an! s%rvival itsel( it is t$e most &ositive an! active o( all governmental &rocesses t$e most essential insistent an! illimitable 3s&eciall' it is so %n!er t$e mo!ern !emocratic (rame,or+ ,$ere t$e !eman!s o( societ' an! nations $ave m%lti&lie! to almost %nimaginable &ro&ortions. 2$e (iel! an! sco&e o( &olice &o,er $ave become almost bo%n!less 9%st as t$e (iel!s o( &%blic interest an! &%blic ,el(are $ave become almost all embracing an! $ave transcen!e! $%man

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


(oresig$t. )ince t$e Co%rts cannot (oresee t$e nee!s an! !eman!s o( &%blic interest an! ,el(are t$e' cannot !elimit be(ore$an! t$e e4tent or sco&e o( t$e &olice &o,er b' ,$ic$ an! t$ro%g$ ,$ic$ t$e state see+s to attain or ac$ieve &%blic interest an! ,el(are. ;*c$ong vs. Hernan!eB LD788C Ma' 11 18C7<. 2$e &olice &o,er being t$e most active &o,er o( t$e government an! t$e !%e &rocess cla%se being t$e broa!est station on governmental &o,er t$e con(lict bet,een t$is &o,er o( government an! t$e !%e &rocess cla%se o( t$e Constit%tion is o(tentimes inevitable. *t ,ill be seen (rom t$e (oregoing a%t$orities t$at &olice &o,er is %s%all' e4ercise! in t$e (orm o( mere reg%lation or restriction in t$e %se o( libert' or &ro&ert' (or t$e &romotion o( t$e general ,el(are. *t !oes not involve t$e ta+ing or con(iscation o( &ro&ert' ,it$ t$e e4ce&tion o( a (e, cases ,$ere t$ere is a necessit' to con(iscate &rivate &ro&ert' in or!er to !estro' it (or t$e &%r&ose o( &rotecting t$e &eace an! or!er an! o( &romoting t$e general ,el(are as (or instance t$e con(iscation o( an illegall' &ossesse! article s%c$ as o&i%m an! (irearms. *t seems to t$e co%rt t$at )ection 8 o( Or!inance No. G118 )eries o( 18G0 o( W%eBon Cit' is not a mere &olice reg%lation b%t an o%trig$t con(iscation. *t !e&rives a &erson o( $is &rivate &ro&ert' ,it$o%t !%e &rocess o( la, na' even ,it$o%t com&ensation. 2$ere is no reasonable relation bet,een t$e setting asi!e o( at least si4 ;G< &ercent o( t$e total area o( an &rivate cemeteries (or c$arit' b%rial gro%n!s o( !ecease! &a%&ers an! t$e &romotion o( $ealt$ morals goo! or!er sa(et' or t$e general ,el(are o( t$e &eo&le. 2$e or!inance is act%all' a ta+ing ,it$o%t com&ensation o( a certain area (rom a &rivate cemeter' to bene(it &a%&ers ,$o are c$arges o( t$e m%nici&al cor&oration. *nstea! o( b%il!ing or maintaining a &%blic cemeter' (or t$is &%r&ose t$e cit' &asses t$e b%r!en to &rivate cemeteries. 2$e e4&ro&riation ,it$o%t com&ensation o( a &ortion o( &rivate cemeteries is not covere! b' )ection 1/;t< o( -e&%blic #ct C17 t$e -evise! C$arter o( W%eBon Cit' ,$ic$ em&o,ers t$e cit' co%ncil to &ro$ibit t$e b%rial o( t$e !ea! ,it$in t$e center o( &o&%lation o( t$e cit' an! to &rovi!e (or t$eir b%rial in a &ro&er &lace s%b9ect to t$e &rovisions o( general la, reg%lating b%rial gro%n!s an! cemeteries. 6$en t$e LGC Batas =ambansa Blg. 117 &rovi!es in )ection 177 ;.< t$at a )angg%niang &anl%ngso! ma' "&rovi!e (or t$e b%rial o( t$e !ea! in s%c$ &lace an! in s%c$ manner as &rescribe! b' la, or or!inance" it sim&l' a%t$oriBes t$e cit' to &rovi!e its o,n cit' o,ne! lan! or to b%' or e4&ro&riate &rivate &ro&erties to constr%ct &%blic cemeteries. 2$is $as been t$e la, an! &ractise in t$e &ast. *t contin%es to t$e &resent. 34&ro&riation $o,ever re.%ires &a'ment o( 9%st com&ensation. 2$e .%estione! or!inance is !i((erent (rom la,s an! reg%lations re.%iring o,ners o( s%b!ivisions to set asi!e certain areas (or streets &ar+s &la'gro%n!s an! ot$er &%blic (acilities (rom t$e lan! t$e' sell to b%'ers o( s%b!ivision lots. 2$e necessities o( &%blic sa(et' $ealt$ an! convenience are ver' clear (rom sai! re.%irements ,$ic$ are inten!e! to ins%re t$e !evelo&ment o( comm%nities ,it$ sal%brio%s an! ,$olesome environments. 2$e bene(iciaries o( t$e reg%lation in t%rn are ma!e to &a' b' t$e s%b!ivision !evelo&er ,$en in!ivi!%al lots are sol! to $omeD o,ners. #s a matter o( (act t$e &etitioners rel' solel' on t$e general ,el(are cla%se or on im&lie! &o,ers o( t$e m%nici&al cor&oration not on an' e4&ress &rovision o( la, as stat%tor' basis o( t$eir e4ercise o( &o,er. 2$e cla%se $as al,a's receive! broa! an! liberal inter&retation b%t ,e cannot stretc$ it to cover t$is &artic%lar ta+ing. Moreover t$e .%estione! or!inance ,as &asse! a(ter Himla'ang =ili&ino *nc. $a! incor&orate!. receive! necessar' licenses an! &ermits an! commence! o&erating. 2$e se.%estration o( si4 &ercent o( t$e cemeter' cannot even be consi!ere! as $aving been im&lie!l' ac+no,le!ge! b' t$e &rivate res&on!ent ,$en it acce&te! t$e &ermits to commence o&erations. Cit# o! Manila v. Arellano College Facts: )ection 1 o( -e&%blic #ct No. /G7 a%t$oriBes cities an! m%nici&alities to contract loans (rom t$e -econstr%ction Finance Cor&oration t$e =$ili&&ine National Ban+ an!?or ot$er entit' or &erson at t$e rate o( interest not e4cee!ing eig$t &er cent ann%m (or t$e &%r&ose o( &%rc$asing or e4&ro&riating $omesites ,it$in t$eir res&ective territorial 9%ris!iction an! reselling t$em at cost to

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


resi!ents o( t$e sai! cities an! m%nici&alities. 2$e co%rt belo, r%le! t$at t$is &rovision em&o,ers cities to &%rc$ase b%t not to e4&ro&riate lan!s (or t$e &%r&ose o( s%b!ivision an! resale an! so !ismisse! t$e &resent action ,$ic$ see+s to con!emn (or t$e &%r&ose 9%st state! several &arcels o( lan! $aving a combine! area o( 7 /75 s.%are meters an! sit%ate! on Legar!a )treet Cit' o( Manila. *ss%e: 6ON #ct /G7 em&o,ers cities to e4&ro&riate as ,ell as to &%rc$ase lan!s (or $omesites. :3). 2$e ,or! "e4&ro&riating " ta+en singl' or ,it$ t$e te4t is s%sce&tible o( onl' meaning. B%t t$is &o,er to e4&ro&riate is necessaril' s%b9ect to t$e limitations an! con!itions note! in t$e !ecisions above cite!. ;)ee belo,.< 2$e National Government ma' not con(er its instr%mentalities a%t$orit' ,$ic$ itsel( ma' not e4ercise. G%i!o vs. -%ral =rogress #!ministration: e4tent o( t$e =$ili&&ine GovernmentHs &o,er to con!emn &rivate &ro&ert' (or resale: *t $as been tr%l' sai! t$at t$e assertion o( t$e rig$t on t$e &art o( t$e legislat%re to ta+e t$e &ro&ert' o( one citiBen an! trans(er it to anot$er even (or a (%ll com&ensation ,$en t$e &%blic interest is not &romote! t$ereb' is claiming a !es&otic &o,er an! one inconsistent ,it$ ever' 9%st &rinci&le an! (%n!amental ma4im o( a (ree government. *n a broa! sense e4&ro&riation o( large estates tr%sts in &er&et%it' an! lan! t$at embraces a ,$ole to,n or large section o( a to,n or cit' bears !irect relation to t$e &%blic ,el(are. 2$e siBe o( t$e lan! e4&ro&riate! t$e large n%mber o( &eo&le bene(ite! an! t$e e4tent o( social an! economic re(orm sec%re! b' t$e con!emnation clot$es t$e e4&ro&riation ,it$ &%blic interest an! &%blic %se. 2$e e4&ro&riation in s%c$ cases ten!s to abolis$ economic slaver' (e%!alistic &ractices en!less con(licts bet,een lan!lor!s an! tenants an! ot$er evils inimical to comm%nit' &ros&erit' an! contentment an! &%blic &eace an! or!er. #lt$o%g$ co%rts are not in agreement as to t$e tests to a&&lie! in !etermining ,$et$er t$e %se is &%blic or not some go so (ar in t$e !irection o( a liberal constr%ction as to $ol! t$at &%blic %se is s'non'mo%s ,it$ &%blic bene(it &%blic %tilit' or &%blic a!vantage an! to a%t$oriBe t$e e4ercise o( t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain to &romote s%c$ &%blic bene(it etc. es&eciall' ,$ere t$e interest involve! are o( consi!erable magnit%!e. *n some instances sl%msites $ave been ac.%ire! b' con!emnation. 2$e $ig$est co%rt o( Ne, :or+ )tate $as r%le! t$at sl%m clearance an! erection o( $o%ses (or lo,D income (amilies ,ere &%blic &%r&ose (or ,$ic$ Ne, :or+ Cit' Ho%sing a%t$orities co%l! e4ercise t$e &o,er o( con!emnation. an! t$is !ecision ,as (ollo,e! b' similar ones in ot$er states. 2$e %n!erl'ing reasons (or t$ese !ecisions are t$at t$e !estr%ction o( congeste! areas an! %nsanitar' !,ellings !iminis$e! t$e &otentialities o( e&i!emics crime an! ,aste &revents t$e s&rea! o( crime an! !iseases to %na((ecte! areas en$ances t$e &$'sical an! moral val%e o( t$e s%rro%n!ing comm%nities an! &romote t$e sa(et' an! ,el(are o( t$e &%blic in general. 2$e con!emnation o( a small &ro&ert' in be$al( o( 15 /5 or C5 &ersons an! t$eir (amilies !oes not ins%re to t$e bene(it o( t$e &%blic to a !egree s%((icient to give t$e %se &%blic c$aracter. 2$e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings at bar $ave been instit%te! (or t$e economic relie( o( a (e, (amilies !evoi! o( an' consi!eration o( &%blic &eace an! or!er or ot$er &%blic a!vantage. No (i4e! line o( !emarcation bet,een ,$at ta+ing is (or &%blic %se an! ,$at is not can ma!eA eac$ case $as to be 9%!ge! accor!ing to its &ec%liar circ%mstances. *t s%((ices to sa' (or t$e &%r&ose o( t$is !ecision t$at t$e case %n!er consi!eration is (ar ,anting in t$ose elements ,$ic$ ma+e (or &%blic convenience or &%blic %se. *( %&$el! t$is case ,o%l! o&en t$e gates to more o&&ressive e4&ro&riations. *( t$is e4&ro&riation be constit%tional ,e see no reason ,$' a 15D 1CD or /CD$ectare (arm lan! mig$t not be e4&ro&riate! an! s%b!ivi!e! an! sol! to t$ose ,$o ,ant to o,n a &ortion o( it. to ma+e t$e analog' closer ,e (in! no reason ,$' t$e -%ral =rogress #!ministration co%l! not ta+e b' con!emnation an %rban lot containing an! area o( 1 555 or / 555 s.%are meters (or s%b!ivision into tin' lots (or resale to its occ%&ations or t$ose ,$o ,ant to b%il! t$ereon. Kie,e! (rom anot$er angle t$e case at bar is ,ea+er (or t$e con!emnor. *n t$e (irst &lace t$e lan! t$at is t$e s%b9ect o( t$e &resent e4&ro&riation is onl' oneDt$ir! o( t$e lan! so%g$t to be ta+en in t$e G%i!o case an! abo%t t,oDt$ir!s o( t$at involve! in t$e Bor9a con!emnation &rocee!ing. *n

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


t$e secon! &lace t$e #rellano CollegesH lan! is sit%ate! in a $ig$l' commercial section o( t$e cit' an! is occ%&ie! b' &ersons ,$o are not bona (i!e tenants. Lastl' t$is lan! ,as bro%g$t b' t$e !e(en!ant (or a %niversit' site to ta+e t$e &lace o( rente! b%il!ings t$at are %ns%itable (or sc$ools o( $ig$er learning. 2o a%t$oriBe t$e con!emnation o( an' &artic%lar lan! b' a grantee o( t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain a necessit' m%st e4ist (or t$e ta+ing t$ereo( (or t$e &ro&ose! %ses an! &%r&oses. *n Cit' o( Manila vs. Manila C$inese Comm%nit' t$is Co%rt citing #merican !ecision lai! !one t$is r%le: 2$e ver' (o%n!ation o( t$e rig$t to e4ercise eminent !omain is a gen%ine necessit' an! t$at necessit' m%st be o( a &%blic c$aracter. 2$e ascertainment o( t$e necessit' m%st &rece!e or accom&an' an! not (ollo, t$e ta+ing o( t$e lan!. ")o great is t$e regar! o( t$e la, (or &rivate &ro&ert' t$at it ,ill not a%t$oriBe t$e least violation o( it even (or t$e &%blic goo! %nless t$ere e4ist a ver' great necessit' t$ereo(." Necessit' ,it$in t$e r%le t$at t$e &artic%lar &ro&ert' to be e4&ro&riate! m%st be necessar' !oes not mean an absol%te b%t onl' a reasonable or &ractical necessit' s%c$ as ,o%l! combine t$e greatest bene(it to t$e &%blic ,it$ t$e least inconvenience an! e4&ense to t$e con!emning &art' an! &ro&ert' o,ner consistent ,it$ s%c$ bene(its. B%t meas%re! even b' t$is stan!ar! an! (orgetting (or a moment t$e &rivate c$aracter o( t$e inten!e! %se necessit' (or t$e con!emnation $as not been s$o,n. 2$e lan! in .%estion $as cost t$e o,ner =105 555. 2$e &eo&le (or ,$ose bene(it t$e con!emnation is being %n!erta+en are so &oor t$e' co%l! ill a((or! to meet t$is $ig$ &rice %nless t$e' inten! to borro, t$e mone' ,it$ a vie, to !is&osing o( t$e &ro&ert' later (or a &ro(its. C$ea&er lan!s not !e!icate! to a &%r&ose so ,ort$' as a sc$ool an! more s%ite! to t$e occ%&antsH nee!s an! means i( reall' t$e' onl' ,ant to o,n t$eir o,n $omes are &lent' else,$ere. On t$e ot$er $an! t$e !e(en!ant not onl' $as investe! a consi!erable amo%nt (or its &ro&ert' b%t $a! t$e &lans (or constr%ction rea!' an! ,o%l! $ave com&lete! t$e &ro9ect a long time ago $a! it not been sto&&e! b' t$e cit' a%t$orities. #n! again ,$ile a $an!(%l o( &eo&le stan! to &ro(its b' t$e e4&ro&riation t$e !evelo&ment o( a %niversit' t$at $as a &resent enrollment o( 8 555 st%!ents ,o%l! be sacri(ice!. #n' goo! t$at ,o%l! accr%e to t$e &%blic (rom &rovi!ing $omes to a (e, (amilies (a!es into insigni(icance in com&arison ,it$ t$e &re&aration o( a 'o%ng men an! 'o%ng ,omen (or %se(%l citiBens$i& an! (or service to t$e government an! t$e comm%nit' a tas+ ,$ic$ t$e government alone is not in a &osition to %n!erta+e. #s t$e -%ral =rogress #!ministration t$e national agenc' lan!s (or resale as $omesites an! to ,$ic$ t$e &etition to &%rc$ase t$e lan! in .%estion on be$al( o( t$e occ%&ants ,as re(erre! b' t$e =resi!ent t%rning !o,n t$e occ%&ants re.%est a(ter &ro&er investigation commente! t$at "t$e necessit' o( t$e #rellano La, College to ac.%ire a &ermanent site o( its o,n is im&erative not onl' beca%se !enial o( t$e same ,o%l! $am&er t$e ob9ectives o( t$at e!%cational instit%tion b%t it ,o%l! li+e,ise be ta+ing a &ro&ert' inten!e! alrea!' (or &%blic bene(it." 2$e Ma'or o( t$e Cit' o( Manila $imsel( con(esse! t$at $e believes t$e &lainti(( is entitle! to +ee& t$is lan!.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests

Cit# o! Manila v. Chinese Communit# o! Manila Facts: 2$e Cit' o( Manila allege! t$at (or t$e &%r&ose o( constr%cting t$e e4tension o( -iBal #ven%e Manila it is necessar' (or it to ac.%ire o,ners$i& o( certain &arcels o( lan! sit%ate! in Binon!o some o( ,$ic$ ,ere o,ne! an! %se! b' t$e C$inese Comm%nit' o( Manila (or cemeter' &%r&oses. 2$e C$inese Comm%nit' o( Manila !enie! t$at it ,as necessar' or e4&e!ient t$at t$e sai! &arcels be e4&ro&riate! (or street &%r&osesA t$at i( t$e constr%ction o( t$e street or roa! s$o%l! be consi!ere! a &%blic necessit' ot$er ro%tes ,ere available ,$ic$ ,o%l! (%ll' satis(' t$e &lainti((Hs &%r&oses at m%c$ less e4&ense an! ,it$o%t !ist%rbing t$e resting &laces o( t$e !ea!A t$at it $a! a 2orrens title (or t$e lan!s in .%estionA t$at t$e lan!s in .%estion $a! been %se! b' t$e !e(en!ant (or cemeter' &%r&osesA t$at a great n%mber o( C$inese ,ere b%rie! in sai! cemeter'A t$at i( sai! e4&ro&riation be carrie! into e((ect it ,o%l! !ist%rb t$e resting &laces o( t$e !ea! ,o%l! re.%ire t$e e4&en!it%re o( a large s%m o( mone' in t$e trans(er or removal o( t$e bo!ies to some ot$er &lace or site an! in t$e &%rc$ase o( s%c$ ne, sites ,o%l! involve t$e !estr%ction o( e4isting mon%ments an! t$e erection o( ne, mon%ments in t$eir stea! an! ,o%l! create irre&arable loss an! in9%r' to t$e !e(en!ant an! to all t$ose &ersons o,ning an! intereste! in t$e graves an! mon%ments ,$ic$ ,o%l! $ave to be !estro'e!A t$at t$e &lainti(( ,as ,it$o%t rig$t or a%t$orit' to e4&ro&riate sai! cemeter' or an' &art or &ortion t$ereo( (or street &%r&osesA an! t$at t$e e4&ro&riation in (act ,as not necessar' as a &%blic im&rovement. 2$e t$eor' o( t$e &lainti(( is t$at once it $as establis$e! t$e (act %n!er t$e la, t$at it $as a%t$orit' to e4&ro&riate lan! it ma' e4&ro&riate an' lan! it ma' !esireA t$at t$e onl' (%nction o( t$e co%rt in s%c$ &rocee!ings is to ascertain t$e val%e o( t$e lan! in .%estionA t$at neit$er t$e co%rt nor t$e o,ners o( t$e lan! can in.%ire into t$e a!visible &%r&ose o( &%r&ose o( t$e e4&ro&riation or as+ an' .%estions concerning t$e necessities t$ere(orA t$at t$e co%rts are mere a&&raisers o( t$e lan! involve! in e4&ro&riation

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


&rocee!ings an! ,$en t$e val%e o( t$e lan! is (i4e! b' t$e met$o! a!o&te! b' t$e la, to ren!er a 9%!gment in (avor o( t$e !e(en!ant (or its val%e. cannot a%t$oriBe t$e ta+ing o( &rivate &ro&ert' against t$e ,ill o( t$e o,ner not,it$stan!ing com&ensation ma' be re.%ire!." B%t as long as t$ere is a constit%tional or stat%tor' &rovision !en'ing t$e rig$t to ta+e lan! (or an' %se ot$er t$an a &%blic %se it occ%rs to %s t$at t$e .%estion ,$et$er an' &artic%lar %se is a &%blic one or not is %ltimatel' at least a 9%!icial .%estion. 2$e legislative ma' it is tr%e in e((ect !eclare certain %ses to be &%blic an! %n!er t$e o&eration o( t$e ,ellD+no,n r%le t$at a stat%te ,ill not be !eclare! to be %nconstit%tional e4ce&t in a case (ree or com&arativel' (ree (rom !o%bt t$e co%rts ,ill certainl' s%stain t$e action o( t$e legislat%re %nless it a&&ears t$at t$e &artic%lar %se is clearl' not o( a &%blic nat%re. #rticle 108 o( t$e Civil Co!e &rovi!es t$at: "No one ma' be !e&rive! o( $is &ro&ert' %nless it be b' com&etent a%t$orit' (or some &%r&ose o( &roven &%blic %tilit' an! a(ter &a'ment o( t$e &ro&er com&ensation. @nless t$is re.%isite ;&roven &%blic %tilit' an! &a'ment< $as been com&lie! ,it$ it s$all be t$e !%t' o( t$e co%rts to &rotect t$e o,ner o( s%c$ &ro&ert' in its &ossession or to restore its &ossession to $im as t$e case ma' be." 2$e ver' (o%n!ation o( t$e rig$t to e4ercise eminent !omain is a gen%ine necessit' an! t$at necessit' m%st be o( a &%blic c$aracter. 2$e ascertainment o( t$e necessit' m%st &rece!e or accom&an' an! not (ollo, t$e ta+ing o( t$e lan!. 2$e necessit' (or con(erring t$e a%t$orit' %&on a m%nici&al cor&oration to e4ercise t$e rig$t o( eminent !omain is a!mitte!l' ,it$in t$e &o,er o( t$e legislat%re. B%t ,$et$er or not t$e m%nici&al cor&oration or entit' is e4ercising t$e rig$t in a &artic%lar case %n!er t$e con!itions im&ose! b' t$e general a%t$orit' is a .%estion ,$ic$ t$e co%rts $ave t$e rig$t to in.%ire into. 2$e Cit' o( Manila can onl' e4&ro&riate &rivate &ro&ert'. *t is a ,ell +no,n (act t$at cemeteries ma' be &%blic or &rivate. 2$e (ormer is a cemeter' %se! b' t$e general comm%nit' or neig$bor$oo! or c$%rc$ ,$ile t$e latter is %se! onl' b' a (amil' or a small &ortion o( t$e comm%nit' or neig$bor$oo!. 6$ere a cemeter' is o&en to &%blic it is a &%blic %se an! no &art o( t$e gro%n! can be ta+en (or ot$er &%blic %ses %n!er a general a%t$orit'. 2$e cemeter' in

*ss%e: 6ON t$e co%rts ma' in.%ire into an! $ear &roo( %&on t$e necessit' o( t$e e4&ro&riationT :3). *t cannot be !enie! i( t$e legislat%re %n!er &ro&er a%t$orit' s$o%l! grant t$e e4&ro&riation o( a certain or &artic%lar &arcel o( lan! (or some s&eci(ie! &%blic &%r&ose t$at t$e co%rts ,o%l! be ,it$o%t 9%ris!iction to in.%ire into t$e &%r&ose o( t$at legislation. *( %&on t$e ot$er $an! $o,ever t$e legislat%re s$o%l! grant general a%t$orit' to a m%nici&al cor&oration to e4&ro&riate &rivate lan! (or &%blic &%r&oses t$e co%rts $ave am&le a%t$orit' in t$is 9%ris!iction %n!er t$e &rovisions above .%ote! to ma+e in.%ir' an! to $ear &roo( %&on an iss%e &ro&erl' &resente! concerning ,$et$er or not t$e lan!s ,ere &rivate an! ,$et$er t$e &%r&ose ,as in (act &%blic. 2$e rig$t o( e4&ro&riation is not an in$erent &o,er in a m%nici&al cor&oration an! be(ore it can e4ercise t$e rig$t some la, m%st e4ist con(erring t$e &o,er %&on it. 6$en t$e co%rts come to !etermine t$e .%estion t$e' m%st not onl' (in! ;a< t$at a la, or a%t$orit' e4ists (or t$e e4ercise o( t$e rig$t o( eminent !omain b%t ;b< also t$at t$e rig$t or a%t$orit' is being e4ercise! in accor!ance ,it$ t$e la,. *n t$e &resent case t$ere are t,o con!itions im&ose! %&on t$e a%t$orit' conce!e! to t$e Cit' o( Manila : First t$e lan! m%st be &rivateA an! secon! t$e &%r&ose m%st be &%blic. 2$e legislative !e&artment o( t$e government ,as rarel' %n!erta+es to !esignate t$e &recise &ro&ert' ,$ic$ s$o%l! be ta+en (or &%blic %se. *t $as generall' li+e in t$e &resent case merel' con(erre! general a%t$orit' to ta+e lan! (or &%blic %se ,$en a necessit' e4ists t$ere(or. 6e believe t$at it can be con(i!entl' asserte! t$at %n!er s%c$ stat%te t$e allegation o( t$e necessit' (or t$e a&&ro&riation is an iss%able allegation ,$ic$ it is com&etent (or t$e co%rts to !eci!e. "*t is erroneo%s to s%&&ose t$at t$e legislat%re is be'on! t$e control o( t$e co%rts in e4ercising t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain eit$er as to t$e nat%re o( t$e %se or t$e necessit' to t$e %se o( an' &artic%lar &ro&ert'. For i( t$e %se be not &%blic or no necessit' (or t$e ta+ing e4ists t$e legislat%re

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


.%estion seems to $ave been establis$e! %n!er governmental a%t$orit' b' t$e )&anis$ GovernorDGeneral. 2$e cemeter' in .%estion ma' be %se! b' t$e general comm%nit' o( C$inese ,$ic$ (act in t$e general acce&tation o( t$e !e(inition o( a &%blic cemeter' ,o%l! ma+e t$e cemeter' in .%estion &%blic &ro&ert'. *( t$at is tr%e t$en o( co%rse t$e &etition o( t$e &lainti(( m%st be !enie! (or t$e reason t$at t$e cit' o( Manila $as no a%t$orit' or rig$t %n!er t$e la, to e4&ro&riate &%blic &ro&ert'. 3ven granting t$at a necessit' e4ists (or t$e o&ening o( t$e street in .%estion t$e recor! contains no &roo( o( t$e necessit' o( o&ening t$e same t$ro%g$ t$e cemeter'. 2$e recor! s$o,s t$at a!9oining an! a!9acent lan!s $ave been o((ere! to t$e cit' (ree o( c$arge ,$ic$ ,ill ans,er ever' &%r&ose o( t$e &lainti((. Camarines (ur v. CA /supra- see p. =01 Municipalit# o! Parana>ue v. $.M. Realt# Corporation Facts: =%rs%ant to )angg%niang Ba'an -esol%tion No. 81D8C )eries o( 1881 t$e M%nici&alit' o( =araRa.%e (ile! a Com&laint (or e4&ro&riation against K.M. -ealt' Cor&oration over t,o &arcels o( lan!. #llege!l' t$e com&laint ,as (ile! "(or t$e &%r&ose o( alleviating t$e living con!itions o( t$e %n!er&rivilege! b' &rovi!ing $omes (or t$e $omeless t$ro%g$ a socialiBe! $o%sing &ro9ect." =arent$eticall' it ,as also (or t$is state! &%r&ose t$at &etitioner &%rs%ant to its )angg%niang Ba'an -esol%tion No. C77 )eries o( 1881 &revio%sl' ma!e an o((er to enter into a negotiate! sale o( t$e &ro&ert' ,it$ &rivate res&on!ent ,$ic$ t$e latter !i! not acce&t. -2C: gave !%e co%rse to &etition an! a%t$oriBe! &etitioner to ta+e &ossession o( t$e s%b9ect &ro&ert' %&on !e&osit ,it$ its cler+ o( co%rt o( an amo%nt e.%ivalent to 1C &ercent o( its (air mar+et val%e base! on its c%rrent ta4 !eclaration. KM allege! t$at ;a< t$e com&laint (aile! to state a ca%se o( action beca%se it ,as (ile! &%rs%ant to a resol%tion an! not to an or!inance as re.%ire! b' t$e LGC an! ;b< t$e ca%se o( action i( an' ,as barre! b' a &rior 9%!gment or res 9%!icata. Case !ismisse! M- !enie!. C#: a((irme!. *ss%es: 1. 6ON a resol%tion !%l' a&&rove! b' t$e m%nici&al co%ncil $as t$e same (orce an! e((ect o( an or!inance. NO =.%e: a resol%tion a&&rove! b' t$e m%nici&al co%ncil (or t$e &%r&ose o( initiating an e4&ro&riation case "s%bstantiall' com&lies ,it$ t$e re.%irements o( t$e la," beca%se t$e terms "or!inance" an! "resol%tion" are s'non'mo%s (or "t$e &%r&ose o( besto,ing a%t$orit' UonV t$e LG@ t$ro%g$ its c$ie( e4ec%tive to initiate t$e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings in co%rt in t$e e4ercise o( t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain." #rticle 1G -%le K* o( t$e -%les an! -eg%lations *m&lementing t$e LGC: "*( t$e LG@ (ails to ac.%ire a &rivate &ro&ert' (or &%blic %se &%r&ose or ,el(are t$ro%g$ &%rc$ase t$e LG@ ma' e4&ro&riate sai! &ro&ert' t$ro%g$ a resol%tion o( t$e )angg%nian a%t$oriBing its c$ie( e4ec%tive to initiate e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings." 2$e Co%rt !isagrees. 2$e &o,er o( eminent !omain is lo!ge! in t$e legislative branc$ o( government ,$ic$ ma' !elegate t$e e4ercise t$ereo( to LG@s ot$er &%blic entities an! &%blic %tilities. #n LG@ ma' t$ere(ore e4ercise t$e &o,er to e4&ro&riate &rivate &ro&ert' onl' ,$en a%t$oriBe! b' Congress an! s%b9ect to t$e latterHs control an! restraints im&ose! "t$ro%g$ t$e la, con(erring t$e &o,er or in ot$er legislations." *n t$is case )ection 18 o( -# 71G5 ,$ic$ !elegates to LG@s t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain also la's !o,n t$e &arameters (or its e4ercise. *t &rovi!es as (ollo,s: )ec. 18. 3minent Domain. # LG@ ma' t$ro%g$ its c$ie( e4ec%tive an! acting &%rs%ant to an or!inance e4ercise t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain (or &%blic %se or &%r&ose or ,el(are (or t$e bene(it o( t$e &oor an! t$e lan!less %&on &a'ment o( 9%st com&ensation &%rs%ant to t$e &rovisions o( t$e Constit%tion an! &ertinent la,s: =rovi!e! $o,ever 2$at t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain ma' not be e4ercise! %nless a vali! an! !e(inite o((er $as been &revio%sl' ma!e to t$e o,ner an! s%c$ o((er ,as not acce&te!: =rovi!e! (%rt$er 2$at t$e LG@ ma' imme!iatel' ta+e &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' %&on t$e (iling o( t$e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings an! %&on ma+ing a !e&osit ,it$ t$e &ro&er co%rt o( at least (i(teen &ercent ;1CY< o( t$e (air mar+et val%e o( t$e &ro&ert' base! on t$e c%rrent ta4 !eclaration o( t$e &ro&ert' to be e4&ro&riate!: =rovi!e! (inall' 2$at t$e amo%nt to be &ai! (or t$e e4&ro&riate! &ro&ert' s$all be !etermine! b' t$e &ro&er co%rt base! on

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


t$e (air mar+et val%e at t$e time o( t$e ta+ing o( t$e &ro&ert'. 3ssential re.%isites (or t$e e4ercise t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain: ;1< #n or!inance is enacte! b' t$e local legislative co%ncil a%t$oriBing t$e local c$ie( e4ec%tive in be$al( o( t$e LG@ to e4ercise t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain or &%rs%e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings over a &artic%lar &rivate &ro&ert'. ;/< 2$e &o,er o( eminent !omain is e4ercise! (or &%blic %se &%r&ose or ,el(are or (or t$e bene(it o( t$e &oor an! t$e lan!less. ;1< 2$ere is &a'ment o( 9%st com&ensation as re.%ire! %n!er )ection 8 #rticle *** o( t$e Constit%tion an! ot$er &ertinent la,s. ;0< # vali! an! !e(inite o((er $as been &revio%sl' ma!e to t$e o,ner o( t$e &ro&ert' so%g$t to be e4&ro&riate! b%t sai! o((er ,as not acce&te!. *n t$e case at bar t$e local c$ie( e4ec%tive so%g$t to e4ercise t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain &%rs%ant to a resol%tion o( t$e m%nici&al co%ncil. 2$%s t$ere ,as no com&liance ,it$ t$e (irst re.%isite t$at t$e ma'or be a%t$oriBe! t$ro%g$ an or!inance. =.%e cites Camarines )%r vs. C# to s$o, t$at a resol%tion ma' s%((ice to s%&&ort t$e e4ercise o( eminent !omain b' an LG@. 2$is case $o,ever is not in &oint beca%se t$e a&&licable la, at t$at time ,as B= 117 t$e &revio%s LGC ,$ic$ $a! &rovi!e! t$at a mere resol%tion ,o%l! enable an LG@ to e4ercise eminent !omain. *n contrast -# 71G5 11 t$e &resent LGC ,$ic$ ,as alrea!' in (orce ,$en t$e Com&laint (or e4&ro&riation ,as (ile! e4&licitl' re.%ire! an or!inance (or t$is &%r&ose. # m%nici&al or!inance is !i((erent (rom a resol%tion. #n or!inance is a la, b%t a resol%tion is merel' a !eclaration o( t$e sentiment or o&inion o( a la,ma+ing bo!' on a s&eci(ic matter. #n or!inance &ossesses a general an! &ermanent c$aracter b%t a resol%tion is tem&orar' in nat%re. #!!itionall' t$e t,o are enacte! !i((erentl' S a t$ir! rea!ing is necessar' (or an or!inance b%t not (or a resol%tion %nless !eci!e! ot$er,ise b' a ma9orit' o( all t$e )angg%nian members. *( Congress inten!e! to allo, LG@s to e4ercise eminent !omain t$ro%g$ a mere resol%tion it ,o%l! $ave sim&l' a!o&te! t$e lang%age o( t$e &revio%s LGC. B%t Congress !i! not. *n a clear !ivergence (rom t$e &revio%s LGC )ection 18 o( -# 71G5 categoricall' re.%ires t$at t$e local c$ie( e4ec%tive act &%rs%ant to an or!inance. *n!ee! "UlVegislative intent is !etermine! &rinci&all' (rom t$e lang%age o( a stat%te. 6$ere t$e lang%age o( a stat%te is clear an! %nambig%o%s t$e la, is a&&lie! accor!ing to its e4&ress terms an! inter&retation ,o%l! be resorte! to onl' ,$ere a literal inter&retation ,o%l! be resorte! to onl' ,$ere a literal inter&retation ,o%l! be eit$er im&ossible or abs%r! or ,o%l! lea! to an in9%stice." *n t$e instant case t$ere is no reason to !e&art (rom t$is r%le since t$e la, re.%iring an or!inance is not at all im&ossible abs%r! or %n9%st. Moreover t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain necessaril' involves a !erogation o( a (%n!amental or &rivate rig$t o( t$e &eo&le. #ccor!ingl' t$e mani(est c$ange in t$e legislative lang%age S (rom "resol%tion" %n!er B= 117 to "or!inance" %n!er -# 71G5 S !eman!s a strict constr%ction. "No s&ecies o( &ro&ert' is $el! b' in!ivi!%als ,it$ greater tenacit' an! is g%ar!e! b' t$e Constit%tion an! la,s more se!%lo%sl' t$an t$e rig$t to t$e (ree$ol! o( in$abitants. 6$en t$e legislat%re inter(eres ,it$ t$at rig$t an! (or greater &%blic &%r&oses a&&ro&riates t$e lan! o( an in!ivi!%al ,it$o%t $is consent t$e &lain meaning o( t$e la, s$o%l! not be enlarge! b' !o%bt(%l inter&retation." =.%e relies on #rticle 1G -%le K* o( t$e *m&lementing -%les ,$ic$ re.%ires onl' a resol%tion to a%t$oriBe an LG@ to e4ercise eminent !omain. 2$is is clearl' mis&lace! beca%se )ection 18 o( -# 71G5 t$e la, itsel( s%rel' &revails over sai! r%le ,$ic$ merel' see+s to im&lement it. *t is a4iomatic t$at t$e clear letter o( t$e la, is controlling an! cannot be amen!e! b' a mere a!ministrative r%le iss%e! (or its im&lementation. Besi!es ,$at t$e !iscre&anc' seems to in!icate is a mere oversig$t in t$e ,or!ing o( t$e im&lementing r%les since #rticle 1/ -%le K* t$ereo( also re.%ires t$at in e4ercising t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain t$e c$ie( e4ec%tive o( t$e LG@ act &%rs%ant to an or!inance. *n t$is r%ling t$e Co%rt !oes not !iminis$ t$e &olic' embo!ie! in )ection / #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion ,$ic$ &rovi!es t$at "territorial an! &olitical s%b!ivisions s$all en9o' local a%tonom'." *t merel' %&$ol!s t$e la, as ,or!e! in -# 71G5. 6e stress t$at an LG@ is create! b' la, an! all its &o,ers an! rig$ts are so%rce! t$ere(rom. *t $as t$ere(ore no &o,er to amen! or act be'on! t$e a%t$orit' given an! t$e limitations im&ose! on it b' la,. )trictl' s&ea+ing t$e

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


&o,er o( eminent !omain !elegate! to an LG@ is in realit' not eminent b%t "in(erior" !omain since it m%st con(orm to t$e limits im&ose! b' t$e !elegation an! t$%s &arta+es onl' o( a s$are in eminent !omain. 18 *n!ee! "t$e national legislat%re is still t$e &rinci&al o( t$e LG@s ,$ic$ cannot !e(' its ,ill or mo!i(' or violate it." 6ON t$e com&laint states a ca%se o( action. NO. *n its Brie( (ile! be(ore -es&on!ent Co%rt &etitioner arg%es t$at its )angg%niang Ba'an &asse! an or!inance on October 11 1880 ,$ic$ reiterate! its -esol%tion No. 81D1C )eries o( 1881 an! rati(ie! all t$e acts o( its ma'or regar!ing t$e s%b9ect e4&ro&riation. 2$is arg%ment is bere(t o( merit. *n t$e (irst &lace &etitioner merel' allege! t$e e4istence o( s%c$ an or!inance b%t it !i! not &resent an' certi(ie! tr%e co&' t$ereo(. *n t$e secon! &lace &etitioner !i! not raise t$is &oint be(ore t$is Co%rt. *n (act it ,as mentione! b' &rivate res&on!ent an! onl' in &assing. *n an' event t$is allegation !oes not c%re t$e in$erent !e(ect o( &etitionerHs Com&laint (or e4&ro&riation (ile! on )e&tember /1 1881. *t is $ornboo+ !octrine t$at in a motion to !ismiss base! on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e com&laint (ails to state a ca%se o( action t$e .%estion s%bmitte! be(ore t$e co%rt (or !etermination is t$e s%((icienc' o( t$e allegations in t$e com&laint itsel(. 6$et$er t$ose allegations are tr%e or not is besi!e t$e &oint (or t$eir tr%t$ is $'&ot$eticall' a!mitte! b' t$e motion. 2$e iss%e rat$er is: a!mitting t$em to be tr%e ma' t$e co%rt ren!er a vali! 9%!gment in accor!ance ,it$ t$e &ra'er o( t$e com&laintT 2$e (act t$at t$ere is no ca%se o( action is evi!ent (rom t$e (ace o( t$e Com&laint (or e4&ro&riation ,$ic$ ,as base! on a mere resol%tion. 2$e absence o( an or!inance a%t$oriBing t$e same is e.%ivalent to lac+ o( ca%se o( action. Conse.%entl' t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals committe! no reversible error in a((irming t$e trial co%rtHs Decision ,$ic$ !ismisse! t$e e4&ro&riation s%it. 6ON t$e &rinci&le o( res 9%!icata as a gro%n! (or !ismissal o( case is not a&&licable ,$en &%blic interest is &rimaril' involve!. :3). 3minent Domain Not Barre! b' -es 7%!icata. #s correctl' (o%n! b' t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals an! t$e trial co%rt all t$e re.%isites (or t$e a&&lication o( res 9%!icata are &resent in t$is case. 2$ere is a &revio%s (inal 9%!gment on t$e merits in a &rior e4&ro&riation case involving i!entical interests s%b9ect matter an! ca%se o( action ,$ic$ $as been ren!ere! b' a co%rt $aving 9%ris!iction over it. Ho,ever -7 ,$ic$ (in!s a&&lication in generall' all cases an! &rocee!ings cannot bar t$e rig$t o( t$e )tate or its agent to e4&ro&riate &rivate &ro&ert'. 2$e ver' nat%re o( eminent !omain as an in$erent &o,er o( t$e )tate !ictates t$at t$e rig$t to e4ercise t$e &o,er be absol%te an! %n(ettere! even b' a &rior 9%!gment or res 9%!icata. 2$e sco&e o( eminent !omain is &lenar' an! li+e &olice &o,er can "reac$ ever' (orm o( &ro&ert' ,$ic$ t$e )tate mig$t nee! (or &%blic %se." "#ll se&arate interests o( in!ivi!%als in &ro&ert' are $el! o( t$e government %n!er t$is tacit agreement or im&lie! reservation. Not,it$stan!ing t$e grant to in!ivi!%als t$e eminent !omain t$e $ig$est an! most e4act i!ea o( &ro&ert' remains in t$e government or in t$e aggregate bo!' o( t$e &eo&le in t$eir sovereign ca&acit'A an! t$e' $ave t$e rig$t to res%me t$e &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' ,$enever t$e &%blic interest re.%ires it." 2$%s t$e )tate or its a%t$oriBe! agent cannot be (orever barre! (rom e4ercising sai! rig$t b' reason alone o( &revio%s nonDcom&liance ,it$ an' legal re.%irement. 6$ile t$e &rinci&le o( res 9%!icata !oes not !enigrate t$e rig$t o( t$e )tate to e4ercise eminent !omain it !oes a&&l' to s&eci(ic iss%es !eci!e! in a &revio%s case. For e4am&le a (inal 9%!gment !ismissing an e4&ro&riation s%it on t$e gro%n! t$at t$ere ,as no &rior o((er &recl%!es anot$er s%it raising t$e same iss%eA it cannot $o,ever bar t$e )tate or its agent (rom t$erea(ter com&l'ing ,it$ t$is re.%irement as &rescribe! b' la, an! s%bse.%entl' e4ercising its &o,er o( eminent !omain over t$e same &ro&ert'. B' t$e same to+en o%r r%ling t$at &etitioner cannot e4ercise its !elegate! &o,er o( eminent !omain t$ro%g$ a mere resol%tion ,ill not bar it (rom reinstit%ting similar &rocee!ings once t$e sai! legal re.%irement an! (or t$at matter all ot$ers are &ro&erl' com&lie! ,it$. =arent$eticall' an! b' &arit' o( reasoning t$e same is also tr%e o( t$e &rinci&le o( "la, o( t$e case." *n -e&%blic vs. De Mnec$t t$e Co%rt r%le! t$at t$e &o,er o( t$e )tate or its agent to e4ercise eminent !omain is not !iminis$e! b' t$e mere (act t$at a &rior (inal 9%!gment over t$e &ro&ert' to be e4&ro&riate! $as become t$e la, o( t$e case as to t$e

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&arties. 2$e )tate or its a%t$oriBe! agent ma' still s%bse.%entl' e4ercise its rig$t to e4&ro&riate t$e same &ro&ert' once all legal re.%irements are com&lie! ,it$. 2o r%le ot$er,ise ,ill not onl' im&ro&erl' !iminis$ t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain b%t also clearl' !e(eat social 9%stice. Cit# o! Cebu v. (pouses *e amo Facts: 2$e Cit' o( Ceb% (ile! in Civil Case No. C3BD10G1/ a com&laint (or eminent !omain against res&on!ents s&o%ses #&olonio an! Blasa De!amo (or a &%blic &%r&ose i.e. (or t$e constr%ction o( a &%blic roa! ,$ic$ s$all serve as an access?relie( roa! o( Goror!o #ven%e to e4ten! to t$e General Ma4il%m #ven%e an! t$e bac+ o( Magellan *nternational Hotel -oa!s in Ceb% Cit'. 2$e lots are t$e most s%itable site (or t$e &%r&ose. 2$e total area so%g$t to be e4&ro&riate! is 1 G/0 s.%are meters ,it$ an assesse! val%e o( =1 78G.055. =etitioner !e&osite! ,it$ t$e =$ili&&ine National Ban+ t$e amo%nt o( =C1 1CG re&resenting 1CY o( t$e (air mar+et val%e o( t$e &ro&ert' to enable t$e &etitioner to ta+e imme!iate &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' &%rs%ant to )ection 18 o( -.#. No. 71G5. 2$e De!amos (ile! a motion to !ismiss t$e com&laint beca%se t$e &%r&ose (or ,$ic$ t$eir &ro&ert' ,as to be e4&ro&riate! ,as not (or a &%blic &%r&ose b%t (or bene(it o( a single &rivate entit' t$e Ceb% Hol!ings *nc. Ceb% co%l! sim&l' b%' !irectl' (rom t$em t$e &ro&ert' at its (air mar+et val%e i( it ,ante! to 9%st li+e ,$at it !i! ,it$ t$e neig$boring lots. Besi!es t$e &rice o((ere! ,as ver' lo, in lig$t o( t$e consi!eration o( =/5 555 &er s.%are meter more or less ,$ic$ &etitioner &ai! to t$e neig$boring lots. Finall' t$e De!amos allege! t$at t$e' $ave no ot$er lan! in Ceb% Cit'. Ceb% (ile! a motion (or t$e iss%ance o( a ,rit o( &ossession &%rs%ant to )ection 18 o( -.#. No. 71G5. 2$e motion ,as grante! b' t$e trial co%rt. 2$e &arties e4ec%te! an! s%bmitte! to t$e trial co%rt an #greement ,$erein t$e' !eclare! t$at t$e' $ave &artiall' settle! t$e case an! in consi!eration t$ereo( t$e' agree!: 1. 2$at t$e )3COND =#-2: $ereb' con(orms to t$e intention to UsicV t$e F*-)2 =#-2: in e4&ro&riating t$eir &arcels o( lan! in t$e aboveDcite! case as (or &%blic &%r&ose an! (or t$e bene(it o( t$e general &%blicA /. 2$at t$e )3COND =#-2: agrees to &art ,it$ t$e o,ners$i& o( t$e s%b9ect &arcels o( lan! in (avor o( t$e F*-)2 =#-2: &rovi!e! t$e latter ,ill &a' 9%st com&ensation (or t$e same in t$e amo%nt !etermine! b' t$e co%rt a(ter !%e notice an! $earingA 1. 2$at in t$e meantime t$e )3COND =#-2: agrees to receive t$e amo%nt o( ON3 M*LL*ON )3K3N H@ND-3D 3*GH2: )*J 2HO@)#ND FO@- H@ND-3D =3)O) ;1 78G 055.55< as &rovisional &a'ment (or t$e s%b9ect &arcels o( lan! ,it$o%t &re9%!ice to t$e (inal val%ation as ma'be !etermine! b' t$e co%rtA 0. 2$at t$e F*-)2 =#-2: in t$e lig$t o( t$e iss%ance o( t$e 6rit o( =ossession Or!er !ate! )e&tember /1 1880 iss%e! b' t$e Honorable Co%rt agree! to ta+e &ossession over t$at &ortion o( t$e lot so%g$t to be e4&ro&riate! ,$ere t$e $o%se o( t$e )3COND =#-2: ,as locate! onl' a(ter (i(teen ;1C< !a's %&on t$e recei&t o( t$e )3COND =#-2: o( t$e amo%nt o( =1 78G 055.55A C. 2$at t$e )3COND =#-2: %&on recei&t o( t$e a(oresai! &rovisional amo%nt s$all t%rn over to t$e F*-)2 =#-2: t$e title o( t$e lot an! ,it$in t$e la&se o( t$e (i(teen ;1C< !a's grace &erio! ,ill vol%ntaril' !emolis$ t$eir $o%se an! t$e ot$er str%ct%re t$at ma' be locate! t$ereon at t$eir o,n e4&enseA G. 2$at t$e F*-)2 =#-2: an! t$e )3COND =#-2: 9ointl' &etition t$e Honorable Co%rt to ren!er 9%!gment in sai! Civil Case No. C3BD10G1/ in accor!ance ,it$ t$is #G-33M3N2A 7. 2$at t$e 9%!gment so%g$t to be ren!ere! %n!er t$is agreement s$all be (ollo,e! b' a s%&&lemental 9%!gment (i4ing t$e 9%st com&ensation (or t$e &ro&ert' o( t$e )3COND =#-2: a(ter t$e Commissioners a&&ointe! b' t$is Honorable Co%rt to !etermine t$e same s$all $ave ren!ere! t$eir re&ort an! a&&rove! b' t$e co%rt. =%rs%ant to sai! agreement t$e trial co%rt a&&ointe! t$ree commissioners to !etermine t$e 9%st com&ensation o( t$e lots so%g$t to be e4&ro&riate!. 2$e commissioners ,ere =alermo M. L%go ,$o ,as nominate! b' &etitioner an! ,$o ,as !esignate! as C$airmanA #l(re!o Cisneros ,$o ,as nominate! b' res&on!entsA an! Herbert 3. B%ot ,$o ,as !esignate! b' t$e trial co%rt. 2$e &arties agree! to t$eir a&&ointment. 2$erea(ter t$e commissioners s%bmitte! t$eir re&ort ,$ic$ containe! t$eir res&ective assessments o( an! recommen!ation as to t$e val%ation o( t$e &ro&ert'. On t$e basis o( t$e commissionersH re&ort an! a(ter !%e !eliberation t$ereon t$e trial co%rt ren!ere! its !ecision or!ering Ceb% to &a' t$e De!amos =/0 8GC.815.55 re&resenting t$e com&ensation mentione! in t$e Com&laint. =etitioner (ile! a motion (or reconsi!eration on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e commissionersH re&ort ,as inacc%rate since it incl%!e! an area ,$ic$ ,as not s%b9ect to e4&ro&riation. More s&eci(icall' it conten!e! t$at Lot No. 1C/8 contains 781 s.%are meters b%t t$e act%al area to be e4&ro&riate!

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is onl' 078 s.%are meters. 2$e remaining 11C s.%are meters is t$e s%b9ect o( a se&arate e4&ro&riation &rocee!ing in Civil Case No. C3BD8108 t$en &en!ing be(ore Branc$ 8 o( t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt o( Ceb% Cit'. 2$e commissioners s%bmitte! an amen!e! assessment (or t$e 078 s.%are meters o( Lot No. 1C/8 an! (i4e! it at =1/ 8/0.15 &er s.%are meter or in t$e amo%nt o( =/5 8/G 118.C5. 2$e assessment ,as a&&rove! as t$e 9%st com&ensation t$ereo( b' t$e trial co%rt in its Or!er o( /7 December 188G. #ccor!ingl' t$e !is&ositive &ortion o( t$e !ecision ,as amen!e! to re(lect t$e ne, val%ation. =etitioner elevate! t$e case to t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals ,$ic$ !oc+ete! t$e case as C#DG.-. CK No. C8/50. =etitioner allege! t$at t$e lo,er co%rt erre! in (i4ing t$e amo%nt o( 9%st com&ensation at =/5 8/G 118.C5. 2$e 9%st com&ensation s$o%l! be base! on t$e &revailing mar+et &rice o( t$e &ro&ert' at t$e commencement o( t$e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings. C# #((irme! -2C. *ss%e: 6ON 9%st com&ensation s$o%l! be !etermine! as o( t$e !ate o( t$e (iling o( t$e com&laint. *t asserts t$at it s$o%l! be ,$ic$ in t$is case s$o%l! be 17 )e&tember 1881 an! not at t$e time t$e &ro&ert' ,as act%all' ta+en in 1880 &%rs%ant to t$e !ecision in N=C vs. C# De!amos: Co%rt o( #&&eals !i! not err in a((irming t$e !ecision o( t$e trial co%rt beca%se ;1< t$e trial co%rt !eci!e! t$e case on t$e basis o( t$e agreement o( t$e &arties t$at 9%st com&ensation s$all be (i4e! b' commissioners a&&ointe! b' t$e co%rtA ;/< &etitioner !i! not inter&ose an' serio%s ob9ection to t$e commissionersH re&ort o( 1/ #%g%st 188G (i4ing t$e 9%st com&ensation o( t$e 1 G/0Ds.%are meter lot at =/5 8/G 118.C5A $ence it ,as esto&&e! (rom attac+ing t$e re&ort on ,$ic$ t$e !ecision ,as base!A an! ;1< t$e !etermine! 9%st com&ensation (i4e! is even lo,er t$an t$e act%al val%e o( t$e &ro&ert' at t$e time o( t$e act%al ta+ing in 1880. 3minent !omain is a (%n!amental )tate &o,er t$at is inse&arable (rom sovereignt'. *t is t$e GovernmentHs rig$t to a&&ro&riate in t$e nat%re o( a com&%lsor' sale to t$e )tate &rivate &ro&ert' (or &%blic %se or &%r&ose.8 Ho,ever t$e Government m%st &a' t$e o,ner t$ereo( 9%st com&ensation as consi!eration t$ere(or. *n t$e case at bar t$e a&&licable la, as to t$e &oint o( rec+oning (or t$e !etermination o( 9%st com&ensation is )ection 18 o( -.#. No. 71G5 ,$ic$ e4&ressl' &rovi!es t$at 9%st com&ensation s$all be !etermine! as o( t$e time o( act%al ta+ing. 2$e )ection rea!s as (ollo,s: )3C2*ON 18. 3minent Domain. X # local government %nit ma' t$ro%g$ its c$ie( e4ec%tive an! acting &%rs%ant to an or!inance e4ercise t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain (or &%blic %se or &%r&ose or ,el(are (or t$e bene(it o( t$e &oor an! t$e lan!less %&on &a'ment o( 9%st com&ensation &%rs%ant to t$e &rovisions o( t$e Constit%tion an! &ertinent la,s: =rovi!e! $o,ever 2$at t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain ma' not be e4ercise! %nless a vali! an! !e(inite o((er $as been &revio%sl' ma!e to t$e o,ner an! s%c$ o((er ,as not acce&te!: =rovi!e! (%rt$er 2$at t$e local government %nit ma' imme!iatel' ta+e &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' %&on t$e (iling o( t$e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings an! %&on ma+ing a !e&osit ,it$ t$e &ro&er co%rt o( at least (i(teen &ercent ;1CY< o( t$e (air mar+et val%e o( t$e &ro&ert' base! on t$e c%rrent ta4 !eclaration o( t$e &ro&ert' to be e4&ro&riate!: =rovi!e! (inall' 2$at t$e amo%nt to be &ai! (or t$e e4&ro&riate! &ro&ert' s$all be !etermine! b' t$e &ro&er co%rt base! on t$e (air mar+et val%e at t$e time o( t$e ta+ing o( t$e &ro&ert'. N=C -%ling misrea!O 6e !i! not categoricall' r%le in t$at case t$at 9%st com&ensation s$o%l! be !etermine! as o( t$e (iling o( t$e com&laint. 6e e4&licitl' state! t$erein t$at alt$o%g$ t$e general r%le in !etermining 9%st com&ensation in eminent !omain is t$e val%e o( t$e &ro&ert' as o( t$e !ate o( t$e (iling o( t$e com&laint t$e r%le "a!mits o( an e4ce&tion: ,$ere t$is Co%rt (i4e! t$e val%e o( t$e &ro&ert' as o( t$e !ate it ,as ta+en an! not at t$e !ate o( t$e commencement o( t$e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings." #lso t$e trial co%rt (ollo,e! t$e t$en governing &roce!%ral la, on t$e matter ,$ic$ ,as )ection C o( -%le G7 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt ,$ic$ &rovi!e! as (ollo,s: )3C. C. #scertainment o( com&ensation. X @&on t$e entr' o( t$e or!er o( con!emnation t$e co%rt s$all a&&oint not more t$an t$ree ;1< com&etent an! !isintereste! &ersons as commissioners to ascertain an! re&ort to t$e co%rt t$e 9%st com&ensation (or t$e &ro&ert' so%g$t to be ta+en. 2$e or!er o( a&&ointment s$all !esignate t$e time an! &lace o( t$e (irst session o( t$e $earing to be $el! b' t$e commissioners an! s&eci(' t$e time ,it$in ,$ic$ t$eir re&ort is to be (ile! ,it$ t$e co%rt.

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More t$an an't$ing else t$e &arties b' a solemn !oc%ment (reel' an! vol%ntaril' agree! %&on b' t$em agree! to be bo%n! b' t$e re&ort o( t$e commission an! a&&rove! b' t$e trial co%rt. 2$e agreement is a contract bet,een t$e &arties. *t $as t$e (orce o( la, bet,een t$em an! s$o%l! be com&lie! ,it$ in goo! (ait$. #rticle 11C8 an! 111C o( t$e Civil Co!e e4&licitl' &rovi!es: #rt. 11C8. Obligations arising (rom contracts $ave t$e (orce o( la, bet,een t$e contracting &arties an! s$o%l! be com&lie! ,it$ in goo! (ait$. #rt. 111C. Contracts are &er(ecte! b' mere consent an! (rom t$at moment t$e &arties are bo%n! not onl' to t$e (%l(illment o( ,$at $as been e4&ressl' sti&%late! b%t also to all t$e conse.%ences ,$ic$ accor!ing to t$eir nat%re ma' be in +ee&ing ,it$ goo! (ait$ %sage an! la,. F%rt$ermore !%ring t$e $earing on // November 188G &etitioner !i! not inter&ose a serio%s ob9ection. *t is t$ere(ore too late (or &etitioner to .%estion t$e val%ation no, ,it$o%t violating t$e &rinci&le o( e.%itable esto&&el. 3sto&&el in &ais arises ,$en one b' $is acts re&resentations or a!missions or b' $is o,n silence ,$en $e o%g$t to s&ea+ o%t intentionall' or t$ro%g$ c%l&able negligence in!%ces anot$er to believe certain (acts to e4ist an! s%c$ ot$er rig$t(%ll' relies an! acts on s%c$ belie( so t$at $e ,ill be &re9%!ice! i( t$e (ormer is &ermitte! to !en' t$e e4istence o( s%c$ (acts. -ecor!s s$o, t$at &etitioner consente! to con(orm ,it$ t$e val%ation recommen!e! b' t$e commissioners. *t cannot !etract (rom its agreement no, an! assail correctness o( t$e commissionersH assessment. Finall' ,$ile )ection 0 -%le G7 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt &rovi!es t$at 9%st com&ensation s$all be !etermine! at t$e time o( t$e (iling o( t$e com&laint (or e4&ro&riation s%c$ la, cannot &revail over -.#. 71G5 ,$ic$ is a s%bstantive la,. 9agono# Mar:et $en ors Ass?n v. Municipalit# o! 9agono# Facts: On October 1 188G t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Hagono' B%lacan enacte! an or!inance Ma%t%san Blg. /8 ,$ic$ increase! t$e stall rentals o( t$e mar+et ven!ors in Hagono'. #rticle 1 &rovi!e! t$at it s$all ta+e e((ect %&on a&&roval. 2$e s%b9ect or!inance ,as &oste! (rom November 0D/C 188G. *n t$e last ,ee+ o( November 1887 t$e &etitioner>s members ,ere &ersonall' given co&ies o( t$e a&&rove! Or!inance an! ,ere in(orme! t$at it s$all be en(orce! in 7an%ar' 1888. On December 8 1887 t$e &etitioner>s =resi!ent (ile! an a&&eal ,it$ t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice assailing t$e constit%tionalit' o( t$e ta4 or!inance. =etitioner claime! it ,as %na,are o( t$e &osting o( t$e or!inance. -es&on!ent o&&ose! t$e a&&eal. *t conten!e! t$at t$e or!inance too+ e((ect on October G 188G an! t$at t$e or!inance as a&&rove! ,as &oste! as re.%ire! b' la,. Hence it ,as &ointe! o%t t$at &etitioner>s a&&eal ma!e over a 'ear later ,as alrea!' timeDbarre!. 2$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice !ismisse! t$e a&&eal on t$e gro%n! t$at it ,as (ile! o%t o( time i.e. be'on! 15 !a's (rom t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e Or!inance on October 1 188G as &rescribe! %n!er )ection 187 o( t$e 1881 LGC. Citing t$e case o( 2aRa!a vs. 2%vera t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice $el! t$at t$e !ate o( e((ectivit' o( t$e s%b9ect or!inance retroacte! to t$e !ate o( its a&&roval in October 188G a(ter t$e re.%ire! &%blication or &osting $as been com&lie! ,it$ &%rs%ant to )ection 1 o( sai! or!inance. #(ter its motion (or reconsi!eration ,as !enie! &etitioner a&&eale! to t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals. =etitioner !i! not assail t$e (in!ing o( t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice t$at t$eir a&&eal ,as (ile! be'on! t$e reglementar' &erio!. *nstea! it %rge! t$at t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice s$o%l! $ave overloo+e! t$is Emere tec$nicalit'F an! r%le! on its &etition on t$e merits. @n(ort%natel' its &etition (or revie, ,as !ismisse! b' t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals (or being (ormall' !e(icient as it ,as not accom&anie! b' certi(ie! tr%e co&ies o( t$e assaile! -esol%tions o( t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice. @n!a%nte! t$e &etitioner move! (or reconsi!eration b%t it ,as !enie!. *ss%es: 1. 6ON t$e C# ,as correct in !ismissing t$e &etition (or revie, (or &etitioner>s (ail%re to attac$ certi(ie! tr%e co&ies o( t$e assaile! -esol%tions o( t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice. :3). *n its Motion (or -econsi!eration be(ore t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals t$e &etitioner satis(actoril' e4&laine! t$e circ%mstances relative to its (ail%re to attac$ to its a&&eal certi(ie! tr%e co&ies o( t$e assaile! -esol%tions o( t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice t$%s: !%ring t$e &re&aration o( t$e &etition on October /1 1888 it ,as raining ver' $ar! !%e to ;t<'&$oon ELoleng.F 6$en t$e &etition ,as com&lete! co&' ,as serve! on t$e De&artment o( 7%stice at abo%t ;sic< &ast 0:55 &.m. o( October /1 1888 ,it$ ;t$e< instr%ction to $ave

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t$e -esol%tions o( t$e De&artment o( 7%stice be stam&e! as Ecerti(ie! tr%e co&ies. Ho,ever !%e to ba! ,eat$er t$e &erson in c$arge ;at t$e De&artment o( 7%stice< ,as no longer available to certi(' to ;sic< t$e -esol%tions. E2$e (ollo,ing !a' October // 1888 ,as !eclare! a nonD ,or+ing $oli!a' beca%se o( ;t<'&$oon ELoleng.F 2$%s &etitioner ,as again %nable to $ave t$e -esol%tions o( t$e De&artment o( 7%stice stam&e! Ecerti(ie! tr%e co&ies.F *n t$e morning o( October /1 1888 !%e to time constraint;s< $erein co%nsel serve! a co&' b' &ersonal service on ;r<es&on!ent>s la,'er at ;sic< Malolos B%lacan !es&ite t$e (loo!e! roa!s an! $eav' rains. Ho,ever as t$e $erein co%nsel ,ent bac+ to Manila ;o((icial b%siness in< government o((ices ,ere s%s&en!e! in t$e a(ternoon an! t$e &ersonnel o( t$e De&artment o( 7%stice tas+e! ,it$ iss%ing or stam&ing Ecerti(ie! tr%e co&iesF o( t$eir -esol%tions ,ere no longer available. E2o avoi! being timeD barre! in t$e (iling o( t$e ;&<etition t$e same ,as (ile! ,it$ t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals Eas is.F C# erre! in !ismissing &etitioner>s a&&eal on t$e gro%n! t$at it ,as (ormall' !e(icient. *t is clear (rom t$e recor!s t$at t$e &etitioner e4erte! !%e !iligence to get t$e co&ies o( its a&&eale! -esol%tions certi(ie! b' t$e De&artment o( 7%stice b%t (aile! to !o so on acco%nt o( t'&$oon ELoleng.F @n!er t$e circ%mstances res&on!ent a&&ellate co%rt s$o%l! $ave tem&ere! its strict a&&lication o( &roce!%ral r%les in vie, o( t$e (ort%ito%s event consi!ering t$at litigation is not a game o( tec$nicalities /. 6ON t$e a&&eal ,as timeDbarre!. :3). 2$e a&&licable la, is )ection 187 o( t$e 1881 LGC ,$ic$ &rovi!es: E)3C. 187. =roce!%re (or #&&roval an! 3((ectivit' o( 2a4 Or!inances an! -even%e Meas%resA Man!ator' =%blic Hearings. D 2$e &roce!%re (or t$e a&&roval o( local ta4 or!inances an! reven%e meas%res s$all be in accor!ance ,it$ t$e &rovisions o( t$is Co!e: =rovi!e! 2$at &%blic $earings s$all be con!%cte! (or t$e &%r&ose &rior to t$e enactment t$ereo(: =rovi!e! (%rt$er 2$at an' .%estion on t$e constit%tionalit' or legalit' o( ta4 or!inances or reven%e meas%res ma' be raise! on a&&eal ,it$in t$irt' ;15< !a's (rom t$e e((ectivit' t$ereo( to t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice ,$o s$all ren!er a !ecision ,it$in si4t' ;G5< !a's (rom t$e recei&t o( t$e a&&eal: =rovi!e! $o,ever 2$at s%c$ a&&eal s$all not $ave t$e e((ect o( s%s&en!ing t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e or!inance an! accr%al an! &a'ment o( t$e ta4 (ee or c$arge levie! t$erein: =rovi!e! (inall' 2$at ,it$in t$irt' ;15< !a's a(ter recei&t o( t$e !ecision or t$e la&se o( t$e si4t'D!a' &erio! ,it$o%t t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice acting %&on t$e a&&eal t$e aggrieve! &art' ma' (ile a&&ro&riate &rocee!ings. 2$e a(orecite! la, re.%ires t$at an a&&eal o( a ta4 or!inance or reven%e meas%re s$o%l! be ma!e to t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice ,it$in t$irt' ;15< !a's (rom e((ectivit' o( t$e or!inance an! even !%ring its &en!enc' t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e assaile! or!inance s$all not be s%s&en!e!. *n t$e case at bar M%nici&al Or!inance No. /8 too+ e((ect in October 188G. =etitioner (ile! its a&&eal onl' in December 1887 more t$an a 'ear a(ter t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e or!inance in 188G. Clearl' t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice correctl' !ismisse! it (or being timeDbarre!. #t t$is &oint it is a&ro&os to state t$at t$e time(rame (i4e! b' la, (or &arties to avail o( t$eir legal reme!ies be(ore com&etent co%rts is not a Emere tec$nicalit'F t$at can be easil' br%s$e! asi!e. 2$e &erio!s state! in )ection 187 o( t$e LGC are man!ator'. Or!inance No. /8 is a reven%e meas%re a!o&te! b' t$e m%nici&alit' o( Hagono' to (i4 an! collect &%blic mar+et stall rentals. Being its li(ebloo! collection o( reven%es b' t$e government is o( &aramo%nt im&ortance. 2$e (%n!s (or t$e o&eration o( its agencies an! &rovision o( basic services to its in$abitants are largel' !erive! (rom its reven%es an! collections. 2$%s it is essential t$at t$e vali!it' o( reven%e meas%res is not le(t %ncertain (or a consi!erable lengt$ o( time. Hence t$e la, &rovi!e! a time limit (or an aggrieve! &art' to assail t$e legalit' o( reven%e meas%res an! ta4 or!inances. /. 6ON t$e &erio! to a&&eal s$o%l! be co%nte! not (rom t$e time t$e or!inance too+ e((ect in 188G b%t (rom t$e time its

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members ,ere &ersonall' given co&ies o( t$e a&&rove! or!inance in November 1887. NO =etitioner insists t$at it ,as %na,are o( t$e a&&roval an! e((ectivit' o( t$e s%b9ect or!inance in 188G on t,o ;/< gro%n!s: (irst no &%blic $earing ,as con!%cte! &rior to t$e &assage o( t$e or!inance an! secon! t$e a&&rove! or!inance ,as not &oste!. =etitioner>s bol! assertion t$at t$ere ,as no &%blic $earing con!%cte! &rior to t$e &assage o( Ma%t%san Blg. /8 is belie! b' its o,n evi!ence. *n &etitioner>s t,o ;/< comm%nications ,it$ t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice it en%merate! t$e vario%s ob9ections raise! b' its members be(ore t$e &assage o( t$e or!inance in several meetings calle! b' t$e )angg%nian (or t$e &%r&ose. 2$ese s$o, be'on! !o%bt t$at &etitioner ,as a,are o( t$e &ro&ose! increase an! in (act &artici&ate! in t$e &%blic $earings t$ere(or. 2$e res&on!ent m%nici&alit' li+e,ise s%bmitte! t$e Min%tes an! -e&ort o( t$e &%blic $earings con!%cte! b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an>s Committee on #&&ro&riations an! Mar+et on Febr%ar' G 7%l' 1C an! #%g%st 18 all in 188G (or t$e &ro&ose! increase in t$e stall rentals. =etitioner cannot gri&e t$at t$ere ,as &racticall' no &%blic $earing con!%cte! as its ob9ections to t$e &ro&ose! meas%re ,ere not consi!ere! b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an. 2o be s%re &%blic $earings are con!%cte! b' legislative bo!ies to allo, intereste! &arties to ventilate t$eir vie,s on a &ro&ose! la, or or!inance. 2$ese vie,s $o,ever are not bin!ing on t$e legislative bo!' an! it is not com&elle! b' la, to a!o&t t$e same. )angg%nian members are electe! b' t$e &eo&le to ma+e la,s t$at ,ill &romote t$e general interest o( t$eir constit%ents. 2$e' are man!ate! to %se t$eir !iscretion an! best 9%!gment in serving t$e &eo&le. =arties ,$o &artici&ate in &%blic $earings to give t$eir o&inions on a &ro&ose! or!inance s$o%l! not e4&ect t$at t$eir vie,s ,o%l! be &atroniBe! b' t$eir la,ma+ers. On t$e iss%e o( &%blication or &osting )ection 188 o( t$e LGC &rovi!es: E)ection 188. =%blication o( 2a4 Or!inance an! -even%e Meas%res. 6it$in ten ;15< !a's a(ter t$eir a&&roval certi(ie! tr%e co&ies o( all &rovincial cit' an! m%nici&al ta4 or!inances or reven%e meas%res s$all be &%blis$e! in (%ll (or t$ree ;1< consec%tive !a's in a ne,s&a&er o( local circ%lationA =rovi!e! $o,ever 2$at in &rovinces cities an! m%nici&alities ,$ere t$ere are no ne,s&a&ers o( local circ%lation t$e same ma' be &oste! in at least t,o ;/< cons&ic%o%s an! &%blicl' accessible &laces.F )angg%niang Ba'an o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( Hagono' B%lacan &resente! evi!ence ,$ic$ clearl' s$o,s t$at t$e &roce!%re (or t$e enactment o( t$e assaile! or!inance ,as com&lie! ,it$. M%nici&al Or!inance No. /8 ,as enacte! b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Hagono' on October 1 188G. 2$en #cting M%nici&al Ma'or Maria Garcia )antos a&&rove! t$e Or!inance on October 7 188G. #(ter its a&&roval co&ies o( t$e Or!inance ,ere given to t$e M%nici&al 2reas%rer on t$e same !a'. On November 8 188G t$e Or!inance ,as a&&rove! b' t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan. 2$e Or!inance ,as &oste! !%ring t$e &erio! (rom November 0 D /C 188G in t$ree ;1< &%blic &laces viB: in (ront o( t$e m%nici&al b%il!ing at t$e b%lletin boar! o( t$e )ta. #na =aris$ C$%rc$ an! on t$e (ront !oor o( t$e O((ice o( t$e Mar+et Master in t$e &%blic mar+et. =osting ,as vali!l' ma!e in lie% o( &%blication as t$ere ,as no ne,s&a&er o( local circ%lation in t$e m%nici&alit' o( Hagono'. 2$is (act ,as +no,n to an! a!mitte! b' &etitioner. 2$%s &etitioner>s ambig%o%s an! %ns%&&orte! claim t$at it ,as onl' Esometime in November 1887F t$at t$e =rovincial Boar! a&&rove! M%nici&al Or!inance No. /8 an! so t$e &osting co%l! not $ave been ma!e in November 188G ,as s%((icientl' !is&rove! b' t$e &ositive evi!ence o( res&on!ent m%nici&alit'. Given t$e (oregoing circ%mstances &etitioner cannot vali!l' claim lac+ o( +no,le!ge o( t$e a&&rove! or!inance. 2$e (iling o( its a&&eal a 'ear a(ter t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e s%b9ect or!inance is (atal to its ca%se.

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QQ3ven on t$e s%bstantive &oints raise! t$e &etition m%st (ail. )ection Gc.50 o( t$e 1881 M%nici&al -even%e Co!e an! )ection 181 o( t$e LGC limiting t$e &ercentage o( increase t$at can be im&ose! a&&l' to ta4 rates not rentals. Neit$er can it be sai! t$at t$e rates ,ere not %ni(orml' im&ose! or t$at t$e &%blic mar+ets incl%!e! in t$e Or!inance ,ere %nreasonabl' !etermine! or classi(ie!. 2o be s%re t$e Or!inance covere! t$e t$ree ;1< concrete &%blic mar+ets: t$e t,oDstore' Bagong =aleng+e t$e b%rnt b%t reconstr%cte! L%mang =aleng+e an! t$e more recent L%mang =aleng+e ,it$ ,et mar+et. Ho,ever t$e =aleng+eng Bagong M%nisi&'o or Gabal!on ,as e4cl%!e! (rom t$e increase in rentals as it is onl' a ma+es$i(t !ila&i!ate! &lace ,it$ no !oors or &rotection (or sec%rit' inten!e! (or transient &e!!lers ,$o %se! to sell t$eir goo!s along t$e si!e,al+. Republic v. CA Facts: =etitioner instit%te! e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings covering contig%o%s lan! sit%ate! along Mac#rt$%r Hig$,a' Malolos B%lacan to be %tiliBe! (or t$e contin%e! broa!cast o&eration an! %se o( ra!io transmitter (acilities (or t$e EKoice o( t$e =$ili&&inesF &ro9ect. =etitioner t$ro%g$ t$e =$ili&&ine *n(ormation #genc' too+ over t$e &remises a(ter t$e &revio%s lessee t$e EKoice o( #merica F $a! cease! its o&erations t$ereat. 2$e national government (aile! to &a' to $erein res&on!ents t$e com&ensation &%rs%ant to t$e (oregoing !ecision s%c$ t$at a little over (ive 'ears later res&on!ents (ile! a mani(estation ,it$ a motion see+ing &a'ment (or t$e e4&ro&riate! &ro&ert'. *n t$e meantime =resi!ent 3stra!a iss%e! =roclamation No. // trans(erring /5 $ectares o( t$e e4&ro&riate! &ro&ert' to t$e B%lacan )tate @niversit' (or t$e e4&ansion o( its (acilities an! anot$er C $ectares to be %se! e4cl%sivel' (or t$e &ro&agation o( t$e =$ili&&ine carabao. 2$e remaining &ortion ,as retaine! b' t$e =*#. 2$e )antos $eirs remaine! %n&ai! an! no action ,as ta+en on t$eir case %ntil &etitioner (ile! its mani(estation an! motion to &ermit t$e !e&osit in co%rt o( t$e amo%nt o( =0 GG0 555.55 b' ,a' o( 9%st com&ensation (or t$e e4&ro&riate! &ro&ert' o( t$e late L%is )antos s%b9ect to s%c$ (inal com&%tation as mig$t be a&&rove! b' t$e co%rt. 2$is time t$e )antos $eirs o&&osing t$e mani(estation an! motion s%bmitte! a co%nterDmotion to a!9%st t$e com&ensation (rom =G.55 &er s.%are meter &revio%sl' (i4e! in t$e 1878 !ecision to its c%rrent Bonal val%ation &egge! at =C 555.55 &er s.%are meter or in t$e alternative to ca%se t$e ret%rn to t$em o( t$e e4&ro&riate! &ro&ert'. #ssailing t$e (in!ing o( &rescri&tion b' t$e trial co%rt &etitioner $ere &osite! t$at a motion ,$ic$ res&on!ents $a! (ile! on 17 Febr%ar' 1880 (ollo,e! %& b' ot$er motions s%bse.%ent t$ereto ,as ma!e ,it$in t$e reglementar' &erio! t$at t$ereb' interr%&te! t$e CD'ear &rescri&tive &erio! ,it$in ,$ic$ to en(orce t$e 1878 9%!gment. F%rt$ermore &etitioner claime! t$e recei&t b' res&on!ents o( &artial com&ensation in t$e s%m o( =7/ G81.CC on /1 7%l' 1880 constit%te! &artial com&liance on t$e &art o( &etitioners an! e((ectivel' esto&&e! res&on!ents (rom invo+ing &rescri&tion e4&resse! in )ection G -%le 18 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt. *n o&&osing t$e &etition res&on!ents a!vance! t$e vie, t$at &%rs%ant to )ection G -%le 18 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt t$e (ail%re o( &etitioner to e4ec%te t$e 9%!gment !ate! /G Febr%ar' 1878 ,it$in (ive 'ears a(ter it $a! become (inal an! e4ec%tor' ren!ere! it %nen(orceable b' mere motion. 2$e motion (or &a'ment !ate! 58 Ma' 1880 as ,ell as t$e s%bse.%ent !isb%rsement to t$em o( t$e s%m o( =7/ G81.CC b' t$e &rovincial treas%rer o( B%lacan co%l! not be consi!ere! as $aving interr%&te! t$e (iveD'ear &erio! since a motion to be consi!ere! ot$er,ise s$o%l! instea! be ma!e b' t$e &revailing &art' in t$is case b' &etitioner. -es&on!ents maintaine! t$at t$e =7/ G81.CC &ai! to t$em b' t$e &rovincial treas%rer o( B%lacan &%rs%ant to t$e 1880 or!er o( t$e trial co%rt ,as &art o( t$e initial !e&osit ma!e b' &etitioner ,$en it (irst entere! &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' in 18G8 an! s$o%l! not be so regar!e! as a &artial &a'ment. -es&on!ents (%rt$er .%estione! t$e rig$t o( =*# to trans(er o,ners$i& o( a &ortion o( t$e &ro&ert' to t$e B%lacan )tate @niversit' even ,$ile t$e 9%st com&ensation !%e t$e $eirs $a! 'et to be (inall' settle!. *ss%e: 6ON t$e e4&ro&riate! &ro&ert' ma' be ret%rne!. NO. 2$e rig$t o( eminent !omain is %s%all' %n!erstoo! to be an %ltimate rig$t o( t$e sovereign &o,er to a&&ro&riate an' &ro&ert' ,it$in its territorial sovereignt' (or a &%blic &%r&ose. F%n!amental to t$e in!e&en!ent e4istence o( a )tate it re.%ires no recognition b' t$e Constit%tion ,$ose &rovisions are ta+en as being merel' con(irmator' o( its &resence an! as being reg%lator' at most in t$e !%e e4ercise o( t$e &o,er. *n t$e $an!s o( t$e legislat%re t$e &o,er is in$erent its sco&e

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matc$ing t$at o( ta4ation even t$at o( &olice &o,er itsel( in man' res&ects. *t reac$es to ever' (orm o( &ro&ert' t$e )tate nee!s (or &%blic %se an! as an ol! case so &%ts it all se&arate interests o( in!ivi!%als in &ro&ert' are $el! %n!er a tacit agreement or im&lie! reservation vesting %&on t$e sovereign t$e rig$t to res%me t$e &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' ,$enever t$e &%blic interest so re.%ires it. 2$e %bi.%ito%s c$aracter o( eminent !omain is mani(est in t$e nat%re o( t$e e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings. 34&ro&riation &rocee!ings are not a!versarial in t$e conventional sense (or t$e con!emning a%t$orit' is not re.%ire! to assert an' con(licting interest in t$e &ro&ert'. 2$%s b' (iling t$e action t$e con!emnor in e((ect merel' serves notice t$at it is ta+ing title an! &ossession o( t$e &ro&ert' an! t$e !e(en!ant asserts title or interest in t$e &ro&ert' not to &rove a rig$t to &ossession b%t to &rove a rig$t to com&ensation (or t$e ta+ing. Obvio%sl' $o,ever t$e &o,er is not ,it$o%t its limits: (irst t$e ta+ing m%st be (or &%blic %se an! secon! t$at 9%st com&ensation m%st be given to t$e &rivate o,ner o( t$e &ro&ert'. 2$ese t,in &roscri&tions $ave t$eir origin in t$e recognition o( t$e necessit' (or ac$ieving balance bet,een t$e )tate interests on t$e one $an! an! &rivate rig$ts %&on t$e ot$er $an! b' e((ectivel' restraining t$e (ormer an! a((or!ing &rotection to t$e latter. *n !etermining E&%blic %se F t,o a&&roac$es are %tiliBe! D t$e (irst is &%blic em&lo'ment or t$e act%al %se b' t$e &%blic an! t$e secon! is &%blic a!vantage or bene(it. *t is also %se(%l to vie, t$e matter as being s%b9ect to constant gro,t$ ,$ic$ is to sa' t$at as societ' a!vances its !eman!s %&on t$e in!ivi!%al so increases an! eac$ !eman! is a ne, %se to ,$ic$ t$e reso%rces o( t$e in!ivi!%al ma' be !evote!. 2$e e4&ro&riate! &ro&ert' $as been s$o,n to be (or t$e contin%e! %tiliBation b' t$e =*# a signi(icant &ortion t$ereo( being ce!e! (or t$e e4&ansion o( t$e (acilities o( t$e B%lacan )tate @niversit' an! (or t$e &ro&agation o( t$e =$ili&&ine carabao t$emselves in line ,it$ t$e re.%irements o( &%blic &%r&ose. -es&on!ents .%estion t$e &%blic nat%re o( t$e %tiliBation b' &etitioner o( t$e con!emne! &ro&ert' &ointing o%t t$at its &resent %se !i((ers (rom t$e &%r&ose originall' contem&late! in t$e 18G8 e4&ro&riation &rocee!ings. 2$e arg%ment is o( no moment. 2$e &ro&ert' $as ass%me! a &%blic c$aracter %&on its e4&ro&riation. )%rel' &etitioner as t$e con!emnor an! as t$e o,ner o( t$e &ro&ert' is ,ell ,it$in its rig$ts to alter an! !eci!e t$e %se o( t$at &ro&ert' t$e onl' limitation being t$at it be (or &%blic %se ,$ic$ !eci!e!l' it is. *n insisting on t$e ret%rn o( t$e e4&ro&riate! &ro&ert' res&on!ents ,o%l! e4$ort on t$e &rono%ncement in =rovincial Government o( )orsogon vs. K!a. !e Killaro'a ,$ere t$e %n&ai! lan!o,ners ,ere allo,e! t$e alternative reme!' o( recover' o( t$e &ro&ert' t$ere in .%estion. *t mig$t be borne in min! t$at t$e case involve! t$e m%nici&al government o( )orsogon to ,$ic$ t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain is not in$erent b%t merel' !elegate! an! o( limite! a&&lication. 2$e grant o( t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain to local governments %n!er -e&%blic #ct No. 71G5 cannot be %n!erstoo! as being t$e &ervasive an! allD encom&assing &o,er veste! in t$e legislative branc$ o( government. For local governments to be able to ,iel! t$e &o,er it m%st b' enabling la, be !elegate! to it b' t$e national legislat%re b%t even t$en t$is !elegate! &o,er o( eminent !omain is not strictl' s&ea+ing a &o,er o( eminent b%t onl' o( in(erior !omain or onl' as broa! or con(ine! as t$e real a%t$orit' ,o%l! ,ant it to be. 2$e e4ercise o( s%c$ rig$ts veste! to it as t$e con!emnee in!ee! $as amo%nte! to at least a &artial com&liance or satis(action o( t$e 1878 9%!gment t$ereb' &reem&ting an' claim o( bar b' &rescri&tion on gro%n!s o( nonDe4ec%tion. *n arg%ing (or t$e ret%rn o( t$eir &ro&ert' on t$e basis o( nonD &a'ment res&on!ents ignore t$e (act t$at t$e rig$t o( t$e e4&ro&riator' a%t$orit' is (ar (rom t$at o( an %n&ai! seller in or!inar' sales to ,$ic$ t$e reme!'

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


o( rescission mig$t &er$a&s a&&l'. #n in rem &rocee!ing con!emnation acts %&on t$e &ro&ert'. #(ter con!emnation t$e &aramo%nt title is in t$e &%blic %n!er a ne, an! in!e&en!ent titleA t$%s b' giving notice to all claimants to a !is&%te! title con!emnation &rocee!ings &rovi!e a 9%!icial &rocess (or sec%ring better title against all t$e ,orl! t$an ma' be obtaine! b' vol%ntar' conve'ance. =rivate res&on!ents alt$o%g$ not entitle! to t$e ret%rn o( t$e e4&ro&riate! &ro&ert' !eserve to be &ai! &rom&tl' on t$e 'et %n&ai! a,ar! o( 9%st com&ensation alrea!' (i4e! b' (inal 9%!gment o( t$e B%lacan -2C on /G Febr%ar' 1878 at =G.55 &er s.%are meter ,it$ legal interest t$ereon at 1/Y &er ann%m com&%te! (rom t$e !ate o( "ta+ing" o( t$e &ro&ert' i.e. 18 )e&tember 18G8 ;instit%tion o( con!emnation &rocee!ings< %ntil t$e !%e amo%nt s$all $ave been (%ll' &ai!. # cit' li+e Zamboanga ma' im&ose in lie% o( t$e gra!%ate! (i4e! ta4 &rescribe! %n!er )ection 18 o( t$e Local 2a4 Co!e a &ercentage ta4 on t$e gross sales (or t$e &rece!ing calen!ar 'ear o( nonD essential commo!ities at t$e rate o( not e4cee!ing t,o &er cent an! on t$e gross sales o( essential commo!ities at t$e rate o( not e4cee!ing one &er cent. 2$e Or!inance is %ltra vires as it is not ,it$in t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e Cit' to im&ose sai! ta4. 2$e a%t$orit' o( t$e Cit' is limite! to t$e im&osition o( a &ercentage ta4 on t$e gross sales or recei&ts o( sai! &ro!%ct ,$ic$ being nonDessential s$all be at t$e rate o( not e4cee!ing /Y o( t$e gross sales or recei&ts o( t$e so(t!rin+s (or t$e &rece!ing calen!ar 'ear. 2$e ta4 being im&ose! %n!er sai! Or!inance is base! on t$e o%t&%t or &ro!%ction an! not on t$e gross sales or recei&ts as a%t$oriBe! %n!er t$e Local 2a4 Co!e. 3ven i( t$e )ecretar' o( Finance (aile! to revie, or act on t$e Or!inance ,it$in t$e &rescribe! &erio! o( 1/5 !a's it !oes not (ollo, as a legal conse.%ence t$ereo( t$at an ot$er,ise invali! or!inance is t$ereb' vali!ate!. M%c$ less can it be inter&rete! to mean t$at t$e )ecretar' o( Finance can no longer act b' s%s&en!ing an!?or revo+ing an invali! or!inance even a(ter t$e la&se o( t$e 1/5D!a' &erio!. #ll t$at t$e la, sa's is t$at a(ter sai! &erio! t$e ta4 or!inance s$all remain in (orce. 2$e &rescribe! &erio! (or revie, is onl' !irector' an! t$e )ecretar' o( Finance ma' still revie, t$e or!inance an! act accor!ingl' even a(ter t$e la&se o( t$e sai! &erio! &rovi!e! $e acts ,it$in a reasonable time. Conse.%entl' even a(ter t$e &rescribe! &erio! $as la&se! s$o%l! t$e )ecretar' o( Finance %&on revie, (in! t$at t$e ta4 or (ee levie! or im&ose! is %n9%st e4cessive o&&ressive con(iscator' or not among t$ose t$at t$e &artic%lar local government ma' im&ose in t$e e4ercise o( its &o,er in accor!ance ,it$ t$is Co!eA or ,$en t$e ta4 or!inance is in ,$ole or in &art contrar' to t$e

%stanislao v. Costales Facts: 2$e )angg%niang =angl%nso! o( Zamboanga Cit' &asse! Or!inance No. 00 ,$ic$ im&oses a =5.51 ta4 &er liter o( so(t!rin+s &ro!%ce! man%(act%re! an!?or bottle! ,it$in t$e cit'. 2$e Minister o( Finance sent a letter to t$e )angg%nian s%s&en!ing t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e Or!inance on t$e gro%n! t$at it contravenes )ec 18 ;a< o( t$e Local 2a4 Co!e. Zamboanga a&&eale! t$e s%s&ension in t$e -2C. -2C: t$e ta4 im&ose! b' t$e Or!inance is not among t$ose t$at t$e )angg%nian ma' im&ose %n!er t$e Local 2a4 Co!e b%t %&$el! its vali!it' sa'ing t$at t$e Finance Minister !i! not act on it ,?in 1/5 !a's (rom recei&t o( t$e &etition. Finance )ecretar' a&&eale!. *ss%e: 6ON Or!inance 00 is vali!. NO.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


!eclare! national economic &olic'A or ,$en t$e or!inance is !iscriminator' in nat%re on t$e con!%ct o( b%siness or calling or in restraint o( tra!e t$e )ecretar' o( Finance ma' certainl' s%s&en! t$e e((ectivit' o( s%c$ or!inance an! revo+e t$e same ,it$o%t &re9%!ice to t$e rig$t to a&&eal to t$e co%rts ,it$in 15 !a's a(ter recei&t o( t$e notice o( s%s&ension. 2$e same r%le s$o%l! a&&l' to t$e &rovincial an! cit' treas%rers as t$e case ma' be %n!er )ection 00 o( t$e Local 2a4 Co!e. Or!inance No. 00: n%ll an! voi!. #n' ta4es &ai! %n!er &rotest t$ere%n!er s$o%l! be accor!ingl' re(%n!e! to t$e ta4&a'ers concerne!. Philippine Petroleum Corporation v. Municipalit# o! Pililia Facts: ==C is engage! in t$e man%(act%re o( l%bricate! oil basestoc+ ,$ic$ is a &etrole%m &ro!%ct ,it$ its re(iner' &lant in Mala'a =ililia -iBal. )ec. 10/ ;N*-C o( 1818<: Man%(act%re! oils an! ot$er (%els are s%b9ect to s&eci(ic ta4. =D /11: Local 2a4 Co!e: M%nici&alit' ma' im&ose ta4es on b%siness e4ce&t t$ose (or ,$ic$ (i4e! ta4es are &rovi!e! on man%(act%rers im&orters or &ro!%cers o( an' article o( commerce o( ,$atever +in! or nat%re incl%!ing bre,ers !istillers recti(iers an! com&o%n!ers o( li.%ors !istille! s&irits an!? or ,ines. Finance )ecretar' iss%e! =rovincial Circ%lar No. /GD71 ,$ic$ !irecte! all LG@ treas%rers to re(rain (rom collecting an' local ta4 im&ose! in ol! or ne, or!inances in t$e b%siness o( man%(act%ring ,$olesaling retailing or !ealing in &etrole%m &ro!%cts s%b9ect to s&eci(ic ta4 %n!er t$e N*-CA an! =rovincial Circ%lar No. /G #D71: *nstr%cte! treas%rers to sto& collecting an' local ta4 im&ose! on t$e b%sinesses o( man%(act%ring ,$olesaling retailing or !ealing in &etrole%m &ro!%cts s%b9ect to t$e s&eci(ic ta4 %n!er t$e N*-C &%rs%ant to or!inances enacte! be(ore or a(ter t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e Local 2a4 Co!e on 1 7%l' 1871. M%nici&alit' o( =ililia im&ose! M%nici&al 2a4 Or!inance No. 1 ;=ililia 2a4 Co!e< )ec 8P15 im&ose! a ta4 on b%siness e4ce&t (or t$ose ,$ic$ (i4e! ta4es are &rovi!e! in t$e L2C on man%(act%rers im&orters or &ro!%cers o( an' article o( commerce o( ,$atever +in! or nat%re incl%!ing bre,ers !istillers recti(iers an! com&o%n!ers o( li.%ors !istille! s&irits an!? or ,ines as ,ell as ma'or>s &ermit sanitar' ins&ection (ee an! storage &ermit (ee (or (lammable comb%stible or e4&losive s%bstances On #&ril 11 1870 =.D. 01G ,as &rom%lgate! increasing t$e s&eci(ic ta4 on l%bricating oils gasoline b%n+er (%el oil !iesel (%el oil an! ot$er similar &etrole%m &ro!%cts levie! %n!er )ections 10/ 100 an! 10C o( t$e N*-C as amen!e! an! granting &rovinces cities an! m%nici&alities certain s$ares in t$e s&eci(ic ta4 on s%c$ &ro!%cts in lie% o( local ta4es im&ose! on &etrole%m &ro!%cts. 2$e .%estione! M%nici&al 2a4 Or!inance No. 1 ,as revie,e! an! a&&rove! b' t$e =rovincial 2reas%rer o( -iBal on 7an%ar' 11 187C ;-ollo &. 101< b%t ,as not im&lemente! an!?or en(orce! b' t$e M%nici&alit' o( =ililla beca%se o( its $aving been s%s&en!e! %& to no, in vie, o( =rovincial Circ%lar Nos. /GD71 an! /G #D71. =rovincial Circ%lar No. GD77 !ate! Marc$ 11 1877 ,as also iss%e! !irecting all cit' an! m%nici&al treas%rers to re(rain (rom collecting t$e soDcalle! storage (ee on (lammable or comb%stible materials im&ose! %n!er t$e local ta4 or!inance o( t$eir res&ective localit' sai! (ee &arta+ing o( t$e nat%re o( a strictl' reven%e meas%re or service c$arge. On 7%ne 1 1877 =.D. 11C8 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e N*-C o( 1877 ,as enacte! )ection 1C1 o( ,$ic$ s&eci(icall' im&oses s&eci(ic ta4 on re(ine! an! man%(act%re! mineral oils an! motor (%els. 3n(orcing t$e &rovisions o( t$e aboveDmentione! or!inance t$e res&on!ent (ile! a com&laint against ==C (or t$e collection o( t$e b%siness ta4 (rom 1878 to 188GA storage &ermit (ees (rom 187C to 188GA ma'orHs &ermit an! sanitar' ins&ection (ees (rom 187C to 1880. ==C $o,ever $ave alrea!' &ai! t$e lastDname! (ees starting 188C. -2C: ==C to &a' b%siness ta4 storage &ermit (ee ma'or>s &ermit (ee sanitar' ins&ection (ee as ,ell as costs o( s%it. M- !enie!. *ss%e: 6ON ==C ,$ose oil &ro!%cts are s%b9ect to s&eci(ic ta4 %n!er t$e N*-C is still liable to &a' ta4 on b%siness an! storage (ees an! ma'orHs &ermit an! sanitar' ins&ection (ee %nto =ililla base! on M%nici&al Or!inance No. 1. ==C: ;a< =rovincial Circ%lar No. /G71 !eclare! as contrar' to national economic &olic' t$e im&osition o( local ta4es on t$e man%(act%re o( &etrole%m &ro!%cts as t$e' are alrea!' s%b9ect to s&eci(ic ta4 %n!er t$e N*-CA ;b< t$e above !eclaration covers not onl' ol! ta4 or!inances b%t ne, ones as ,ell as t$ose ,$ic$ ma' be enacte! in t$e (%t%reA ;c< bot$

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=rovincial Circ%lars ;=C< /GD71 an! /G #D71 are still e((ective $ence %nless an! %ntil revo+e! an' e((ort on t$e &art o( t$e res&on!ent to collect t$e s%s&en!e! ta4 on b%siness (rom t$e &etitioner ,o%l! be illegal an! %na%t$oriBe!A an! ;!< )ection / o( =.D. 01G &ro$ibits t$e im&osition o( local ta4es on &etrole%m &ro!%cts. =C No. /GD71 an! =C No. /G #D 71 s%s&en!e! t$e e((ectivit' o( local ta4 or!inances im&osing a ta4 on b%siness %n!er )ection 18 ;a< o( t$e Local 2a4 Co!e ;=.D. No. /11< ,it$ regar! to man%(act%rers retailers ,$olesalers or !ealers in &etrole%m &ro!%cts s%b9ect to t$e s&eci(ic ta4 %n!er t$e N*-C N*-C in vie, o( )ection // ;b< o( t$e Co!e regar!ing nonDim&osition b' m%nici&alities o( ta4es on articles s%b9ect to s&eci(ic ta4 %n!er t$e &rovisions o( t$e N*-C. 2$ere is no .%estion t$at =ilillaHs M%nici&al 2a4 Or!inance No. 1 im&osing t$e assaile! ta4es (ees an! c$arges is vali! es&eciall' )ection 8 ;#< ,$ic$ accor!ing to t$e trial co%rt ",as li(te! in toto an!?or is a literal re&ro!%ction o( )ection 18 ;a< o( t$e Local 2a4 Co!e as amen!e! b' =.D. No. 0/G." *t con(orms ,it$ t$e man!ate o( sai! la,. B%t =.D. No. 0/G amen!ing t$e Local 2a4 Co!e is !eeme! to $ave re&eale! =rovincial Circ%lar Nos. /GD71 an! /G #D71 iss%e! b' t$e )ecretar' o( Finance ,$en )ections 18 an! 18 ;a< ,ere carrie! over into =.D. No. 0/G an! no e4em&tions ,ere given to man%(act%rers ,$olesalers retailers or !ealers in &etrole%m &ro!%cts. 6ellDsettle! is t$e r%le t$at a!ministrative reg%lations m%st be in $armon' ,it$ t$e &rovisions o( t$e la,. *n case o( !iscre&anc' bet,een t$e basic la, an! an im&lementing r%le or reg%lation t$e (ormer &revails. #s a&tl' $el! b' t$e co%rt a .%o: Necessaril' t$ere co%l! not be an' ot$er logical concl%sion t$an t$at t$e (ramers o( =.D. No. 0/G reall' an! act%all' inten!e! to terminate t$e e((ectivit' an!?or en(orceabilit' o( =rovincial Circ%lars Nos. /GD71 an! /G #D71 inasm%c$ as clearl' t$ese circ%lars are in contravention ,it$ )ec. 18 ;a< o( =.D. 0/GDt$e amen!ator' la, to =.D. No. /11. 2$at intention to terminate is ver' a&&arent an! in (act it is e4&resse! in clear an! %ne.%ivocal terms in t$e e((ectivit' an! re&ealing cla%se o( =.D. 0/G F%rt$ermore ,$ile )ection / o( =.D. 01G &ro$ibits t$e im&osition o( local ta4es on &etrole%m &ro!%cts sai! !ecree !i! not amen! )ections 18 an! 18 ;a< o( =.D. /11 as amen!e! b' =.D. 0/G ,$erein t$e m%nici&alit' is grante! t$e rig$t to lev' ta4es on b%siness o( man%(act%rers im&orters &ro!%cers o( an' article o( commerce o( ,$atever +in! or nat%re. # ta4 on b%siness is !istinct (rom a ta4 on t$e article itsel(. 2$%s i( t$e im&osition o( ta4 on b%siness o( man%(act%rers etc. in &etrole%m &ro!%cts contravenets a !eclare! national &olic' it s$o%l! $ave been e4&ressl' state! in =.D. No. 01G. 2$e e4ercise b' local governments o( t$e &o,er to ta4 is or!aine! b' t$e &resent Constit%tion. 2o allo, t$e contin%o%s e((ectivit' o( t$e &ro$ibition set (ort$ in =C No. /GD71 ;1< ,o%l! be tantamo%nt to restricting t$eir &o,er to ta4 b' mere a!ministrative iss%ances. @n!er )ection C #rticle J o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion onl' g%i!elines an! limitations t$at ma' be establis$e! b' Congress can !e(ine an! limit s%c$ &o,er o( local governments. 2$%s: 3ac$ local government %nit s$all $ave t$e &o,er to create its o,n so%rces o( reven%es an! to lev' ta4es (ees an! c$arges s%b9ect to s%c$ g%i!elines an! limitations as t$e Congress ma' &rovi!e consistent ,it$ t$e basic &olic' o( local a%tonom' . . . =rovincial Circ%lar No. GD77 en9oining all cit' an! m%nici&al treas%rers to re(rain (rom collecting t$e soDcalle! storage (ee on (lammable or comb%stible materials im&ose! in t$e local ta4 or!inance o( t$eir res&ective localit' (rees &etitioner ==C (rom t$e &a'ment o( storage &ermit (ee. 2$e storage &ermit (ee being im&ose! b' =ilillaHs ta4 or!inance is a (ee (or t$e installation an! +ee&ing in storage o( an' (lammable comb%stible or e4&losive s%bstances. *nasm%c$ as sai! storage ma+es %se o( tan+s o,ne! not b' t$e m%nici&alit' o( =ililla b%t b'

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&etitioner ==C same is obvio%sl' not a c$arge (or an' service ren!ere! b' t$e m%nici&alit' as ,$at is envisione! in )ection 17 o( t$e same Co!e. )ection 15 ;B< ;11< o( =ilillaHs M%nici&al 2a4 Or!inance No. 1 &rescribing a &ermit (ee is a &ermit (ee allo,e! %n!er )ection 1G o( t$e amen!e! Co!e. #s to t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e ma'or to ,aive &a'ment o( t$e ma'orHs &ermit an! sanitar' ins&ection (ees t$e trial co%rt !i! not err in $ol!ing t$at "since t$e &o,er to ta4 incl%!es t$e &o,er to e4em&t t$ereo( ,$ic$ is essentiall' a legislative &rerogative it (ollo,s t$at a m%nici&al ma'or ,$o is an e4ec%tive o((icer ma' not %nilaterall' ,it$!ra, s%c$ an e4&ression o( a &olic' t$r% t$e enactment o( a ta4." 2$e ,aiver &arta+es o( t$e nat%re o( an e4em&tion. *t is an ancient r%le t$at e4em&tions (rom ta4ation are constr%e! in strictissimi 9%ris against t$e ta4&a'er an! liberall' in (avor o( t$e ta4ing a%t$orit'. 2a4 e4em&tions are loo+e! %&on ,it$ !is(avor. 2$%s in t$e absence o( a clear an! e4&ress e4em&tion (rom t$e &a'ment o( sai! (ees t$e ,aiver cannot be recogniBe!. #s alrea!' state! it is t$e la,Dma+ing bo!' an! not an e4ec%tive li+e t$e ma'or ,$o can ma+e an e4em&tion. @n!er )ection 1G o( t$e Co!e a &ermit (ee li+e t$e ma'orHs &ermit s$all be re.%ire! be(ore an' in!ivi!%al or 9%ri!ical entit' s$all engage in an' b%siness or occ%&ation %n!er t$e &rovisions o( t$e Co!e. Ho,ever since t$e Local 2a4 Co!e !oes not &rovi!e t$e &rescri&tive &erio! (or collection o( local ta4es #rticle 1101 o( t$e Civil Co!e a&&lies. )ai! la, &rovi!es t$at an action %&on an obligation create! b' la, &rescribes ,it$in ten ;15< 'ears (rom t$e time t$e rig$t o( action accr%es. 2$e M%nici&alit' o( =ililla can t$ere(ore en(orce t$e collection o( t$e ta4 on b%siness o( &etitioner ==C !%e (rom 187G to 188G an! NO2 t$e ta4 t$at $a! accr%e! &rior to 187G. =-3M*)3) CON)*D3-3D ,it$ t$e MOD*F*C#2*ON t$at b%siness ta4es accr%ing =-*O- to 187G are not to be &ai! b' ==C ;beca%se t$e same $ave &rescribe!< an! t$at storage (ees are not also to be &ai! b' ==C ;(or t$e storage tan+s are o,ne! b' ==C an! not b' t$e m%nici&alit' an! t$ere(ore cannot be a c$arge (or service b' t$e m%nici&alit'< t$e assaile! D3C*)*ON is $ereb' #FF*-M3D. &loro Cement Corp. v. Gorospe Facts: M%nici&alit' o( L%gait Misamis Oriental (ile! a com&laint (or collection o( man%(act%rer>s an! e4&orter>s ta4es &l%s s%rc$arges against Floro Cement Cor&oration. L%gait base! it on M%nici&al Or!inance No. C ;M%nici&al -even%e Co!e< &asse! &%rs%ant to =D /11A an! Or!inance No. 15. Floro>s !e(ense: not liable since t$e &lainti((>s &o,er to lev' (ees on EMines Mining Cor&orations an! Mineral =ro!%ctsF ,as limite! b' )ec. C/ o( =D 0G1 an! t$at it ,as grante! b' t$e )ecretar' o( #gric%lt%re an! Nat%ral -eso%rces a certi(icate o( ta4 e4em&tion (or a &erio! o( C 'ears ,$ic$ covers all ta4es e4ce&t income ta4. *ss%es: 1. 6ON cement is a mineral &ro!%ct. NO. t$is Co%rt $as consistentl' $el! t$at it is not a mineral &ro!%ct b%t rat$er a man%(act%re! &ro!%ct. 6$ile cement is com&ose! o( 85Y minerals it is not merel' an a!mi4t%re or blen!ing o( ra, materials as lime silica s$ale an! ot$ers. *t is t$e res%lt o( a !e(inite &rocessDt$e cr%s$ing o( minerals grin!ing mi4ing calcining a!!ing o( retar!er or ra, g'&s%m *n s$ort be(ore cement reac$es its saleable (orm t$e minerals $a! alrea!' %n!ergone a c$emical c$ange t$ro%g$ man%(act%ring &rocess. /. 6ON ==C ma' claim e4em&tion (rom &a'ing man%(act%rer>s an! e4&orter>s ta4es. NO. t$e &o,er o( ta4ation is a $ig$ &rerogative o( sovereignt' t$e relin.%is$ment is never &res%me! an! an' re!%ction or !imin%tion t$ereo( ,it$ res&ect to its mo!e or its rate m%st be strictl' constr%e! an! t$e same m%st be coac$e! in clear an! %nmista+able terms in or!er t$at it ma' be a&&lie!. More s&eci(icall' state! t$e general r%le is t$at an' claim (or e4em&tion (rom t$e ta4 stat%te s$o%l! be strictl' constr%e! against t$e ta4&a'er. He ,$o claims an e4em&tion m%st be able to &oint

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o%t some &rovision o( la, creating t$e rig$tA it cannot be allo,e! to e4ist %&on a mere vag%e im&lication or in(erence. *t m%st be s$o,n in!%bitabl' to e4ist (or ever' &res%m&tion is against it an! a ,ellD(o%n!e! !o%bt is (atal to t$e claim. 2$e &etitioner (aile! to meet t$is re.%irement. #s $el! b' t$e lo,er co%rt t$e e4em&tion mentione! in )ec. C/ o( =.D. No. 0G1 re(ers onl' to mac$ineries e.%i&ment tools (or &ro!%ction etc. as &rovi!e! in )ec. C1 o( t$e same !ecree. 2$e man%(act%re an! t$e e4&ort o( cement !oes not (all %n!er t$e sai! &rovision (or it is not a mineral &ro!%ct. *t is not cement t$at is mine! onl' t$e mineral &ro!%cts com&osing t$e (inis$e! &ro!%ct. F%rt$ermore b' t$e &artiesH o,n sti&%lation o( (acts s%bmitte! be(ore t$e co%rt a .%o it is a!mitte! t$at Floro Cement Cor&oration is engage! in t$e man%(act%ring an! selling incl%!ing e4&orting o( cement. #s s%c$ an! since t$e ta4es so%g$t to be collecte! ,ere levie! on t$ese activities &%rs%ant to )ec. 18 o( =.D. No. /11 Or!inances Nos. C an! 15 ,$ic$ ,ere enacte! &%rs%ant to =.D. No. /11 an! =.D. No. 0/G res&ectivel' &ro&erl' a&&l' to &etitioner Floro Cement Cor&oration. 'uzon an Mapagu v. CA &a'ment t$ro%g$ &ostal mone' or!er. His &a'ment ,as ret%rne! on t$e gro%n! t$at $e (aile! to com&l' ,it$ -es 8. 7%ra!o (ile! a s&ecial civil action (or man!am%s ,? !amages to com&el t$e iss%ance o( t$e ma'or>s &ermit an! license an! a &etition (or !eclarator' 9%!gment against -es 8 an! t$e im&lementing agreement (or being illegal eit$er as a !onation?ta4 meas%re -2C: @&$el! -es 8 an! im&lementing agreement an! !ismisse! claims (or !amages C#: #((irme! vali!it' o( -es 8 an! im&lementing agreement b%t (o%n! Ma'or 2%Bon an! 2reas%rer Ma&ag% to $ave acte! malicio%sl' an! in ba! (ait$ ,$en t$e' !enie! 7%ra!o>s a&&lication. *ss%e: 6ON t$e ta4 meas%re contravenes t$e limitations on t$e ta4ing &o,ers o( LG@s %n!er )ec C o( t$e LGC. )C ,ill not r%le on vali!it' o( -es 8 an! t$e im&lementing agreement beca%se t$e iss%e $as not been raise! as an assigne! error. Ho,ever it observes t$at t$at C# sai! no more t$an -es 8 ,as &asse! b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an in t$e la,(%l e4ercise o( its legislative &o,ers in &%rs%ance to ;1< #rt. J* )ec. C 1871 Consti Es%b9ect to s%c$ limitation as ma' be &rovi!e! b' la,F an! ;/< #rt. 0 )ec. /8 o( =D /11 ENt$e barrio co%ncil ma' solicit monies materials an! ot$er contrib%tions (rom N &rivate agencies an! in!ivi!%alsF. 2$e )C sai! t$at t$is ,as an oversim&li(ication. 2$e C# (aile! to o((er an' e4&lanation (or its concl%sion nor !oes it !isc%ss its o,n conce&t o( t$e nat%re o( t$e resol%tion. *( -es. 8 is claime! to be a EsolicitationF: *m&lementing agreement ma+es t$e E!onationFobligator' an! a con!ition &rece!ent to t$e iss%ance o( a ma'or>s &ermit. 2$ere(ore it goes against t$e nat%re o( a !onation. *( it is to be consi!ere! as a ta4 or!inance it m%st be s$o,n to $ave been enacte! in accor!ance ,it$ t$e re.%irements o( t$e Local 2a4 Co!e. *t ,o%l! incl%!e t$e $ol!ing o( a &%blic $earing on t$e meas%re its s%bse.%ent a&&roval b' t$e )ecretar' o( Finance in a!!ition to t$e re.%isites (or &%blication o( or!inances in general

Facts: 2$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Camalani%gan Caga'an a!o&te! -esol%tion No. 8 ,$ic$ solicits a 1Y !onation (rom t$res$er o&erators ,$o a&&l' (or a E&ermit to t$res$F ,it$in t$e m%nici&alit'>s 9%ris!iction to $el& (inance t$e constr%ction o( t$e m%nici&alit'>s )&orts an! N%trition Center. )%c$ 1Y s$all come (rom t$e val%e o( t$e &ala' t$res$e! b' t$em in t$e area. 2o im&lement t$e resol%tion M%nici&al 2reas%rer Ma&ag% &re&are! an agreement to !onate (or signat%re o( all t$res$er?o,ner? o&erators a&&l'ing (or a ma'or>s &ermit. 7%ra!o sent $is agent to t$e 2reas%rer>s o((ice to &a' t$e license (ee (or t$res$er o&erators. Ma&ag% re(%se! to acce&t &a'ment an! re.%ire! 7%ra!o to (irst sec%re a ma'or>s &ermit. Ma'or 2%Bon sai! t$at 7%ra!o s$o%l! (irst com&l' ,it$ -es 8 an! sign t$e agreement be(ore t$e &ermit co%l! be iss%e!. 7%ra!o ignore! t$e re.%irement an! sent $is license (ee

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*rilon v. Lim Facts: =%rs%ant to )ec 187 LGC1 t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice $a! on a&&eal to $im o( (o%r oil com&anies an! a ta4&a'er !eclare! Or!inance No. 7780 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e Manila -even%e Co!e n%ll an! voi! (or nonDcom&liance ,it$ t$e &rescribe! &roce!%re in t$e enactment o( ta4 or!inances an! (or containing certain &rovisions contrar' to la, an! &%blic &olic'. *n Manila>s &etition (or certiorari t$e Manila -2C s%staine! t$e or!inance. *t also !eclare! )ection 187 o( t$e LGC as %nconstit%tional since it vests in t$e 7%stice )ecretar' t$e &o,er o( control over LG@s in violation o( t$e &olic' o( local a%tonom' man!ate! in t$e Constit%tion. 7%stice )ecretar': *t is constit%tional an! t$e &roce!%ral re.%irements (or t$e enactment o( ta4 or!inances as s&eci(ie! in t$e LGC $a! in!ee! not been observe!. *ss%e: 6ON )ec 187 o( t$e LGC is constit%tional. :3). )ection 187 a%t$oriBes t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice to revie, onl' t$e constit%tionalit' or legalit' o( t$e ta4 or!inance an! i( ,arrante! to revo+e it on eit$er or bot$ o( t$ese gro%n!s. 6$en $e alters or mo!i(ies or sets asi!e a ta4 or!inance $e is not also &ermitte! to s%bstit%te $is o,n 9%!gment (or t$e 9%!gment o( t$e local government t$at enacte! t$e meas%re. )ecretar' Drilon !i! set asi!e t$e Manila -even%e Co!e b%t $e !i! not re&lace it ,it$ $is o,n version o( ,$at t$e Co!e s$o%l! be. He !i! not &rono%nce t$e or!inance %n,ise or %nreasonable as a basis (or its ann%lment. He !i! not sa' t$at in $is 9%!gment it ,as a ba! la,. 6$at $e (o%n! onl' ,as t$at it ,as illegal. #ll $e !i! in revie,ing t$e sai! meas%re ,as !etermine i( t$e &etitioners ,ere &er(orming t$eir (%nctions in accor!ance ,it$ la, t$at is ,it$ t$e &rescribe! &roce!%re (or t$e enactment o( ta4 or!inances an! t$e grant o( &o,ers to t$e cit' government %n!er t$e LGC. #s ,e see it t$at ,as an act not o( control b%t o( mere s%&ervision. #n o((icer in control la's !o,n t$e r%les in t$e !oing o( an act. *( t$e' are not (ollo,e! $e ma' in $is !iscretion or!er t$e act %n!one or reD!one b' $is s%bor!inate or $e ma' even !eci!e to !o it $imsel(. )%&ervision !oes not cover s%c$ a%t$orit'. 2$e s%&ervisor or s%&erinten!ent merel' sees to it t$at t$e r%les are (ollo,e! b%t $e $imsel( !oes not la' !o,n s%c$ r%les nor !oes $e $ave t$e !iscretion to mo!i(' or re&lace t$em. *( t$e r%les are not observe! $e ma' or!er t$e ,or+ !one or reD!one b%t onl' to con(orm to t$e &rescribe! r%les. He ma' not &rescribe $is o,n manner (or t$e !oing o( t$e act. He $as no 9%!gment on t$is matter e4ce&t to see to it t$at t$e r%les are (ollo,e!. *n t$e o&inion o( t$e Co%rt )ecretar' Drilon !i! &recisel' t$is an! no more nor less t$an t$is an! so &er(orme! an act not o( control b%t o( mere s%&ervision. 2a%le v. )antos cite! in t$e !ecision $as no a&&lication $ere beca%se t$e 9%ris!iction claime! b' t$e )ecretar' o( Local Governments over election contests in t$e Mati&%nan ng Mga Baranga' ,as $el! to belong to t$e Commission on 3lections b' constit%tional &rovision. 2$e con(lict ,as over 9%ris!iction not s%&ervision or control. )igni(icantl' a r%le similar to )ection 187 a&&eare! in t$e Local #%tonom' #ct ,$ic$ &rovi!e! in its )ection / as (ollo,s: # ta4 or!inance s$all go into e((ect on t$e (i(teent$ !a' a(ter its &assage %nless t$e or!inance s$all &rovi!e ot$er,ise: =rovi!e! $o,ever 2$at t$e )ecretar' o( Finance s$all $ave a%t$orit' to s%s&en! t$e e((ectivit' o( an' or!inance ,it$in one $%n!re! an! t,ent' !a's a(ter recei&t b'

=roce!%re For #&&roval #n! 3((ectivit' O( 2a4 Or!inances #n! -even%e Meas%resA Man!ator' =%blic Hearings. S 2$e &roce!%re (or a&&roval o( local ta4 or!inances an! reven%e meas%res s$all be in accor!ance ,it$ t$e &rovisions o( t$is Co!e: =rovi!e! 2$at &%blic $earings s$all be con!%cte! (or t$e &%r&ose &rior to t$e enactment t$ereo(A =rovi!e! (%rt$er 2$at an' .%estion on t$e constit%tionalit' or legalit' o( ta4 or!inances or reven%e meas%res ma' be raise! on a&&eal ,it$in t$irt' ;15< !a's (rom t$e e((ectivit' t$ereo( to t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice ,$o s$all ren!er a !ecision ,it$in si4t' ;G5< !a's (rom t$e !ate o( recei&t o( t$e a&&eal: =rovi!e! $o,ever 2$at s%c$ a&&eal s$all not $ave t$e e((ect o( s%s&en!ing t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e or!inance an! t$e accr%al an! &a'ment o( t$e ta4 (ee or c$arge levie! t$erein: =rovi!e! (inall' 2$at ,it$in t$irt' ;15< !a's a(ter recei&t o( t$e !ecision or t$e la&se o( t$e si4t'D!a' &erio! ,it$o%t t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice acting %&on t$e a&&eal t$e aggrieve! &art' ma' (ile a&&ro&riate &rocee!ings ,it$ a co%rt o( com&etent 9%ris!iction.

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$im o( a co&' t$ereo( i( in $is o&inion t$e ta4 or (ee t$erein levie! or im&ose! is %n9%st e4cessive o&&ressive or con(iscator' or ,$en it is contrar' to !eclare! national econom' &olic' an! ,$en t$e sai! )ecretar' e4ercises t$is a%t$orit' t$e e((ectivit' o( s%c$ or!inance s$all be s%s&en!e! eit$er in &art or as a ,$ole (or a &erio! o( t$irt' !a's ,it$in ,$ic$ &erio! t$e local legislative bo!' ma' eit$er mo!i(' t$e ta4 or!inance to meet t$e ob9ections t$ereto or (ile an a&&eal ,it$ a co%rt o( com&etent 9%ris!ictionA ot$er,ise t$e ta4 or!inance or t$e &art or &arts t$ereo( !eclare! s%s&en!e! s$all be consi!ere! as revo+e!. 2$erea(ter t$e local legislative bo!' ma' not reim&ose t$e same ta4 or (ee %ntil s%c$ time as t$e gro%n!s (or t$e s%s&ension t$ereo( s$all $ave cease! to e4ist. 2$at section allo,e! t$e )ecretar' o( Finance to s%s&en! t$e e((ectivit' o( a ta4 or!inance i( in $is o&inion t$e ta4 or (ee levie! ,as %n9%st e4cessive o&&ressive or con(iscator'. Determination o( t$ese (la,s ,o%l! involve t$e e4ercise o( 9%!gment or !iscretion an! not merel' an e4amination o( ,$et$er or not t$e re.%irements or limitations o( t$e la, $a! been observe!A $ence it ,o%l! smac+ o( control rat$er t$an mere s%&ervision. 2$at &o,er ,as never .%estione! be(ore t$is Co%rt b%t at an' rate t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice is not given t$e same latit%!e %n!er )ection 187. #ll $e is &ermitte! to !o is ascertain t$e constit%tionalit' or legalit' o( t$e ta4 meas%re ,it$o%t t$e rig$t to !eclare t$at in $is o&inion it is %n9%st e4cessive o&&ressive or con(iscator'. He $as no !iscretion on t$is matter. *n (act )ecretar' Drilon set asi!e t$e Manila -even%e Co!e onl' on t,o gro%n!s to ,it$ t$e incl%sion t$erein o( certain %ltra vires &rovisions an! nonD com&liance ,it$ t$e &rescribe! &roce!%re in its enactment. 2$ese gro%n!s a((ecte! t$e legalit' not t$e ,is!om or reasonableness o( t$e ta4 meas%re. 2$e iss%e o( nonDcom&liance ,it$ t$e &rescribe! &roce!%re in t$e enactment o( t$e Manila -even%e Co!e is anot$er matter. *n $is resol%tion )ecretar' Drilon !eclare! t$at t$ere ,ere no ,ritten notices o( &%blic $earings on t$e &ro&ose! Manila -even%e Co!e t$at ,ere sent to intereste! &arties as re.%ire! b' #rt. /7G;b< o( t$e *m&lementing -%les o( t$e LGC nor ,ere co&ies o( t$e &ro&ose! or!inance &%blis$e! in t$ree s%ccessive iss%es o( a ne,s&a&er o( general circ%lation &%rs%ant to #rt. /7G;a<. No min%tes ,ere s%bmitte! to s$o, t$at t$e obligator' &%blic $earings $a! been $el!. Neit$er ,ere co&ies o( t$e meas%re as a&&rove! &oste! in &rominent &laces in t$e cit' in accor!ance ,it$ )ec. C11;a< o( t$e LGC. Finall' t$e Manila -even%e Co!e ,as not translate! into =ili&ino or 2agalog an! !isseminate! among t$e &eo&le (or t$eir in(ormation an! g%i!ance con(ormabl' to )ec. C8;b< o( t$e Co!e. 7%!ge =alattao (o%n! ot$er,ise. He !eclare! t$at all t$e &roce!%ral re.%irements $a! been observe! in t$e enactment o( t$e Manila -even%e Co!e an! t$at t$e Cit' o( Manila $a! not been able to &rove s%c$ com&liance be(ore t$e )ecretar' onl' beca%se $e $a! given it onl' (ive !a's ,it$in ,$ic$ to gat$er an! &resent to $im all t$e evi!ence ;consisting o( /C e4$ibits< later s%bmitte! to t$e trial co%rt. 2o get to t$e bottom o( t$is .%estion t$e Co%rt acce!e! to t$e motion o( t$e res&on!ents an! calle! (or t$e elevation to it o( t$e sai! e4$ibits. 6e $ave care(%ll' e4amine! ever' one o( t$ese e4$ibits an! agree ,it$ t$e trial co%rt t$at t$e &roce!%ral re.%irements $ave in!ee! been observe!. Notices o( t$e &%blic $earings ,ere sent to intereste! &arties as evi!ence! b' 34$ibits GD1 to 17. 2$e min%tes o( t$e $earings are (o%n! in 34$ibits M MD 1 MD/ an! MD1. 34$ibits B an! C s$o, t$at t$e &ro&ose! or!inances ,ere &%blis$e! in t$e Balita an! t$e Manila )tan!ar! on #&ril /1 an! /C 1881 res&ectivel' an! t$e a&&rove! or!inance ,as &%blis$e! in t$e 7%l' 1 0 C 1881 iss%es o( t$e Manila )tan!ar! an! in t$e 7%l' G 1881 iss%e o( Balita as s$o,n b' 34$ibits W WD1 WD/ an! WD1. 2$e onl' e4ce&tions are t$e &osting o( t$e or!inance as a&&rove! b%t t$is omission !oes not a((ect its vali!it' consi!ering t$at its &%blication in t$ree s%ccessive iss%es o( a ne,s&a&er o( general

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


circ%lation ,ill satis(' !%e &rocess. *t $as also not been s$o,n t$at t$e te4t o( t$e or!inance $as been translate! an! !isseminate! b%t t$is re.%irement a&&lies to t$e a&&roval o( local !evelo&ment &lans an! &%blic investment &rograms o( t$e local government %nit an! not to ta4 or!inances. same co!e. MC*## &ai! t$e ta4 acco%nt %n!er &rotest b%t it (ile! a &etition (or !eclarator' relie( sa'ing t$at t$e &o,ers o( LG@s !o not e4ten! to t$e lev' o( ta4es or (ees o( an' +in! on an instr%mentalit' o( t$e national government. 2C: !ismisse! t$e &etition (or !eclarator' relie(. M- !enie!. MC*##: *t is a GOCC man!ate! to &er(orm (%nctions in t$e same categor' as an instr%mentalit' o( t$e government an! it is an attac$e! agenc' o( t$e DO2C. 2$%s it ma' stan! in t$e same (ooting as an agenc' or instr%mentalit' o( t$e national government. Hence its ta4 e4em&tion &rivilege %n!er its c$arter cannot be consi!ere! as ,it$!ra,n ,it$ t$e &assage o( t$e LGC beca%se )ec 111 s&eci(icall' states t$at t$e ta4ing &o,ers o( LG@s s$all not e4ten! to t$e lev' o( ta4es or (ees or c$arges o( an' +in! on t$e national government its agencies or instr%mentalities. Ceb% $as no &o,er nor a%t$orit' to im&ose realt' ta4es %&on it base! on )ec 111 o( t$e LGC cites Basco v. =#GCO-. *n relation to )ection /10 o( t$e LGC t$at t$e legislat%re meant to e4cl%!e instrumentalities of the national government (rom t$e ta4ing &o,er o( t$e local government %nits. Ceb%: as local a government %nit an! a &olitical s%b!ivision it $as t$e &o,er to im&ose lev' assess an! collect ta4es ,it$in its 9%ris!iction. )%c$ &o,er is g%arantee! b' t$e Constit%tion an! en$ance! (%rt$er b' t$e LGC. 6$ile it ma' be tr%e t$at %n!er its C$arter MC*## ,as e4em&t (rom t$e &a'ment o( realit' ta4es t$is e4em&tion ,as ,it$!ra,n b' )ec. /10 o( t$e LGC. )ec. /10 !oes not !isting%is$ bet,een GOCCs &er(orming governmental an! &%rel' &ro&rietar' (%nctions. *ss%e 1. 6ON MC*## is e4em&t (rom &a'ing ta4es. NO. #s a general r%le t$e &o,er to ta4 is an inci!ent o( sovereignt' an! is %nlimite! in its range ac+no,le!ging in its ver' nat%re no limits so t$at sec%rit' against its ab%se is to be (o%n! onl' in t$e res&onsibilit' o( t$e legislat%re ,$ic$ im&oses t$e ta4 on t$e constit%enc' ,$o are to &a' it. Nevert$eless e((ective limitations t$ereon ma' be im&ose! b' t$e &eo&le t$ro%g$ t$eir Constit%tions. O%r Constit%tion (or instance &rovi!es t$at t$e r%le o( ta4ation s$all be %ni(orm an! e.%itable an! Congress s$all evolve a &rogressive s'stem o( ta4ation. )o &otent in!ee! is t$e &o,er t$at it ,as once o&ine! t$at "t$e &o,er to ta4 involves t$e

Mactan Cebu )nternational Airport Authorit# v. Marcos Facts: MC*## ,as create! b' -# G8C8 ,$ic$ &rovi!e! t$at it be e4em&te! (rom &a'ment o( realt' ta4es. 2$e O((ice o( t$e 2reas%rer o( Ceb% Cit' !eman!e! &a'ment (or realt' ta4es on several &arcels o( lan! belonging to MC*##. MC*## ob9ecte! claiming t$at it is e4em&t (rom &a'ment o( realit' ta4es. *t also sai! t$at as it is an instr%mentalit' o( t$e government &er(orming governmental (%nctions it is e4em&te! as &rovi!e! (or b' )ec. 111 o( t$e LGC. 2$e Cit' insiste! t$at MC*## is not ta4 e4em&t as its e4em&tion $a! been ,it$!ra,n b' )ections 181 an! /10 o( t$e

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&o,er to !estro'." Keril' ta4ation is a !estr%ctive &o,er ,$ic$ inter(eres ,it$ t$e &ersonal an! &ro&ert' (or t$e s%&&ort o( t$e government. #ccor!ingl' ta4 stat%tes m%st be constr%e! strictl' against t$e government an! liberall' in (avor o( t$e ta4&a'er. B%t since ta4es are ,$at ,e &a' (or civiliBe! societ' or are t$e li(ebloo! o( t$e nation t$e la, (ro,ns against e4em&tions (rom ta4ation an! stat%tes granting ta4 e4em&tions are t$%s constr%e! strictissimi 0uris against t$e ta4&a'ers an! liberall' in (avor o( t$e ta4ing a%t$orit'. # claim o( e4em&tion (rom ta4 &a'ment m%st be clearl' s$o,n an! base! on lang%age in t$e la, too &lain to be mista+en. 3lse,ise state! ta4ation is t$e r%le e4em&tion t$ere(rom is t$e e4ce&tion. Ho,ever i( t$e grantee o( t$e e4em&tion is a &olitical s%b!ivision or instr%mentalit' t$e rigi! r%le o( constr%ction !oes not a&&l' beca%se t$e &ractical e((ect o( t$e e4em&tion is merel' to re!%ce t$e amo%nt o( mone' t$at $as to be $an!le! b' t$e government in t$e co%rse o( its o&erations. 2$e &o,er to ta4 is &rimaril' veste! in t$e CongressA $o,ever in o%r 9%ris!iction it ma' be e4ercise! b' local legislative bo!ies no longer merel' b' virt%e o( a vali! !elegation as be(ore b%t &%rs%ant to !irect a%t$orit' con(erre! b' )ection C #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion. @n!er t$e latter t$e e4ercise o( t$e &o,er ma' be s%b9ect to s%c$ g%i!elines an! limitations as t$e Congress ma' &rovi!e ,$ic$ $o,ever m%st be consistent ,it$ t$e basic &olic' o( local a%tonom'. 2$ere can be no .%estion t$at %n!er )ection 10 o( -.#. No. G8C8 t$e &etitioner is e4em&t (rom t$e &a'ment o( realt' ta4es im&ose! b' t$e National Government or an' o( its &olitical s%b!ivisions agencies an! instr%mentalities. Nevert$eless since ta4ation is t$e r%le an! e4em&tion t$ere(rom t$e e4ce&tion t$e e4em&tion ma' t$%s be ,it$!ra,n at t$e &leas%re o( t$e ta4ing a%t$orit'. 2$e onl' e4ce&tion to t$is r%le is ,$ere t$e e4em&tion ,as grante! to &rivate &arties base! on material consi!eration o( a m%t%al nat%re ,$ic$ t$en becomes contract%al an! is t$%s covere! b' t$e nonDim&airment cla%se o( t$e Constit%tion. 2$e LGC enacte! &%rs%ant to )ection 1 #rticle J o( t$e constit%tion &rovi!es (or t$e e4ercise b' local government %nits o( t$eir &o,er to ta4 t$e sco&e t$ereo( or its limitations an! t$e e4em&tion (rom ta4ation. )ection 111 o( t$e LGC &rescribes t$e common limitations on t$e ta4ing &o,ers o( local government %nits. 2$e "ta4es (ees or c$arges" re(erre! to are "o( an' +in!" $ence t$e' incl%!e all o( t$ese %nless ot$er,ise &rovi!e! b' t$e LGC. 2$e term "ta4es" is ,ell %n!erstoo! so as to nee! no (%rt$er elaboration es&eciall' in t$e lig$t o( t$e above en%meration. 2$e term "(ees" means c$arges (i4e! b' la, or Or!inance (or t$e reg%lation or ins&ection o( b%siness activit' ,$ile "c$arges" are &ec%niar' liabilities s%c$ as rents or (ees against &erson or &ro&ert'. #mong t$e "ta4es" en%merate! in t$e LGC is real &ro&ert' ta4 ,$ic$ is governe! b' )ection /1/. )ection /10 o( LGC &rovi!es (or t$e e4em&tions (rom &a'ment o( real &ro&ert' ta4es an! ,it$!ra,s &revio%s e4em&tions t$ere(rom grante! to nat%ral an! 9%ri!ical &ersons incl%!ing government o,ne! an! controlle! cor&orations e4ce&t as &rovi!e! t$erein. 2$ese e4em&tions are base! on t$e o,ners$i& c$aracter an! %se o( t$e &ro&ert'. 2$%sA ;a< wnership 3xemptions. 34em&tions (rom real &ro&ert' ta4es on t$e basis o( o,ners$i& are real &ro&erties o,ne! b': ;i< t$e -e&%blic ;ii< a &rovince ;iii< a cit' ;iv< a m%nici&alit' ;v< a baranga' an! ;vi< registere! coo&eratives. ;b< Character 3xemptions. 34em&te! (rom real &ro&ert' ta4es on t$e basis o( t$eir c$aracter are: ;i< c$aritable instit%tions ;ii< $o%ses an! tem&les o( &ra'er an! ;iii< non &ro(it or religio%s cemeteries. ;c< 4sage exemptions. 34em&te! (rom real &ro&ert' ta4es on t$e basis o( t$e act%al !irect an! e4cl%sive use to ,$ic$ t$e' are !evote! are: ;i< all lan!s b%il!ings an! im&rovements ,$ic$ are act%all' !irecte! an! e4cl%sivel' %se! (or religio%s c$aritable or

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e!%cational &%r&oseA ;ii< all mac$ineries an! e.%i&ment act%all' !irectl' an! e4cl%sivel' %se! or b' local ,ater !istricts or b' governmentDo,ne! or controlle! cor&orations engage! in t$e s%&&l' an! !istrib%tion o( ,ater an!?or generation an! transmission o( electric &o,erA an! ;iii< all mac$iner' an! e.%i&ment %se! (or &oll%tion control an! environmental &rotection. )ection 181 o( t$e LGC is t$e general &rovision on ,it$!ra,al o( ta4 e4em&tion &rivileges. On t$e ot$er $an! t$e LGC a%t$oriBes local government %nits to grant ta4 e4em&tion &rivileges. -ea!ing toget$er )ection 111 /1/ an! /10 o( t$e LGC ,e concl%!e t$at as a general r%le as lai! !o,n in )ection 111 t$e ta4ing &o,ers o( local government %nits cannot e4ten! to t$e lev' o( inter alia "ta4es (ees an! c$arges o( an' +in! o( t$e National Government its agencies an! instr%mentalties an! local government %nits"A $o,ever &%rs%ant to )ection /1/ &rovinces cities m%nici&alities in t$e Metro&olitan Manila #rea ma' im&ose t$e real &ro&ert' ta4 e4ce&t on inter alia "real &ro&ert' o,ne! b' t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines or an' o( its &olitical s%b!ivisions e4ce&t ,$en t$e bene(icial %se! t$ereo( $as been grante! (or consi!eration or ot$er,ise to a ta4able &erson" as &rovi!e! in item ;a< o( t$e (irst &aragra&$ o( )ection /10. #s to ta4 e4em&tions or incentives grante! to or &resentl' en9o'e! b' nat%ral or 9%ri!ical &ersons incl%!ing governmentDo,ne! an! controlle! cor&orations )ection 181 o( t$e LGC &rescribes t$e general r%le vi'. t$e' are withdrawn %&on t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e LGC e4ce&t %&on t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e LGC except t$ose grante! to local ,ater !istricts coo&eratives !%l' registere! %n!er -.#. No. G818 non stoc+ an! nonD&ro(it $os&itals an! e!%cational instit%tions an! %nless ot$er,ise &rovi!e! in t$e LGC. 2$e latter &roviso co%l! re(er to )ection /10 ,$ic$ en%merates t$e &ro&erties e4em&t (rom real &ro&ert' ta4. B%t t$e last &aragra&$ o( )ection /10 (%rt$er .%ali(ies t$e retention o( t$e e4em&tion in so (ar as t$e real &ro&ert' ta4es are concerne! b' limiting t$e retention onl' to t$ose en%merate! t$ereDinA all ot$ers not incl%!e! in t$e en%meration lost t$e &rivilege %&on t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e LGC. Moreover even as t$e real &ro&ert' is o,ne! b' t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines or an' o( its &olitical s%b!ivisions covere! b' item ;a< o( t$e (irst &aragra&$ o( )ection /10 t$e e4em&tion is ,it$!ra,n i( t$e bene(icial %se o( s%c$ &ro&ert' $as been grante! to ta4able &erson (or consi!eration or ot$er,ise. )ince t$e last &aragra&$ o( )ection /10 %ne.%ivocall' ,it$!re, %&on t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e LGC e4em&tions (rom real &ro&ert' ta4es grante! to nat%ral or 9%ri!ical &ersons incl%!ing governmentDo,ne! or controlle! cor&orations e4ce&t as &rovi!e! in t$e sai! section an! t$e &etitioner is %n!o%bte!l' a governmentD o,ne! cor&oration it necessaril' (ollo,s t$at its e4em&tion (rom s%c$ ta4 grante! it in )ection 10 o( its c$arter -.#. No. G8C8 $as been ,it$!ra,n. #n' claim to t$e contrar' can onl' be 9%sti(ie! i( t$e &etitioner can see+ re(%ge %n!er an' o( t$e e4ce&tions &rovi!e! in )ection /10 b%t not %n!er )ection 111 as it no, asserts since as s$o,n above t$e sai! section is .%ali(ie! b' )ection /1/ an! /10. *n s$ort t$e &etitioner can no longer invo+e t$e general r%le in )ection 111 t$at t$e ta4ing &o,ers o( t$e local government %nits cannot e4ten! to t$e lev' o(: ;o< ta4es (ees or c$arges o( an' +in! on t$e National Government its agencies or instr%mentalities an! local government %nits. *n lig$t o( t$e &etitionerHs t$eor' t$at it is an "instr%mentalit' o( t$e Government" it co%l! onl' be ,it$in be (irst item o( t$e (irst &aragra&$ o( t$e section b' e4&an!ing t$e sco&e o( t$e terms -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines" to embrace . . . . . . "instr%mentalities" an! "agencies" or e4&e!ienc' ,e .%ote: ;a< real &ro&ert' o,ne! b' t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines or an' o( t$e =$ili&&ines or an' o( its &olitical s%b!ivisions e4ce&t ,$en t$e bene(icial %se t$ereo( $as been grante! (or consi!eration or ot$er,ise to a ta4able &erson. 2$is vie, !oes not

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


&ers%a!e %s. *n t$e (irst &lace t$e &etitionerHs claim t$at it is an instr%mentalit' o( t$e Government is base! on )ection 111;o< ,$ic$ e4&ressl' mentions t$e ,or! "instr%mentalities"A an! in t$e secon! &lace it (ails to consi!er t$e (act t$at t$e legislat%re %se! t$e &$rase "National Government its agencies an! instr%mentalities" "in )ection 111;o< b%t onl' t$e &$rase "-e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines or an' o( its &olitical s%b!ivision "in )ection /10;a<. 2$e terms "-e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines" an! "National Government" are not interc$angeable. 2$e (ormer is boar!er an! s'non'mo%s ,it$ "Government o( t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines" ,$ic$ t$e #!ministrative Co!e o( t$e 1887 !e(ines as t$e "cor&orate governmental entit' t$o%g$ ,$ic$ t$e (%nctions o( t$e government are e4ercise! t$ro%g$ at t$e =$ili&&ines incl%!ing saves as t$e contrar' a&&ears (rom t$e conte4t t$e vario%s arms t$ro%g$ ,$ic$ &olitical a%t$orit' is ma!e e((ective in t$e =$ili&&ines ,$et$er &ertaining to t$e a%tonomo%s reason t$e &rovincial cit' m%nici&al or baranga' s%b!ivision or ot$er (orms o( local government." 2$ese a%tonomo%s regions &rovincial cit' m%nici&al or baranga' s%b!ivisions" are t$e &olitical s%b!ivision. On t$e ot$er $an! "National Government" re(ers "to t$e entire mac$iner' o( t$e central government as !isting%is$e! (rom t$e !i((erent (orms o( local Governments." 2$e National Government t$en is com&ose! o( t$e t$ree great !e&artments t$e e4ec%tive t$e legislative an! t$e 9%!icial. #n "agenc'" o( t$e Government re(ers to "an' o( t$e vario%s %nits o( t$e Government incl%!ing a !e&artment b%rea% o((ice instr%mentalit' or governmentDo,ne! or controlle! cor&oration or a local government or a !istinct %nit t$ereinA" ,$ile an "instr%mentalit'" re(ers to "an' agenc' o( t$e National Government not integrate! ,it$in t$e !e&artment (rame,or+ veste! ,it$ s&ecial (%nctions or 9%ris!iction b' la, en!o,e! ,it$ some i( not all cor&orate &o,ers a!ministering s&ecial (%n!s an! en9o'ing o&erational a%tonom'A %s%all' t$ro%g$ a c$arter. 2$is term incl%!es reg%lator' agencies c$artere! instit%tions an! governmentD o,ne! an! controlle! cor&orations". *( )ection /10;a< inten!e! to e4ten! t$e e4ce&tion t$erein to t$e ,it$!ra,al o( t$e e4em&tion (rom &a'ment o( real &ro&ert' ta4es %n!er t$e last sentence o( t$e sai! section to t$e agencies an! instr%mentalities o( t$e National Government mentione! in )ection 111;o< t$en it s$o%l! $ave restate! t$e ,or!ing o( t$e latter. :et it !i! not Moreover t$at Congress !i! not ,is$ to e4&an! t$e sco&e o( t$e e4em&tion in )ection /10;a< to incl%!e real &ro&ert' o,ne! b' ot$er instr%mentalities or agencies o( t$e government incl%!ing governmentD o,ne! an! controlle! cor&orations is (%rt$er borne o%t b' t$e (act t$at t$e so%rce o( t$is e4em&tion is )ection 05;a< o( =.D. No. G0G ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e ,$ic$ rea!s: )ec 05. 34em&tion (rom -eal =ro&ert' 2a4. S 2$e e4em&tion s$all be as (ollo,s: ;a< -eal &ro&ert' o,ne! b' t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines or an' o( its &olitical s%b!ivisions an! an' governmentDo,ne! or controlle! cor&orations so e4em&t b' is c$arter: #rovided% however t$at t$is e4em&tion s$all not a&&l' to real &ro&ert' o( t$e above mentione! entities t$e bene(icial %se o( ,$ic$ $as been grante! (or consi!eration or ot$er,ise to a ta4able &erson. Note t$at as a re&ro!%ce! in )ection /10;a< t$e &$rase "an! an' governmentDo,ne! or controlle! cor&oration so e4em&t b' its c$arter" ,as e4cl%!e!. 2$e 9%sti(ication (or t$is restricte! e4em&tion in )ection /10;a< seems obvio%s: to limit (%rt$er ta4 e4em&tion &rivileges es&eciall' in lig$t o( t$e general &rovision on ,it$!ra,al o( e4em&tion (rom &a'ment o( real &ro&ert' ta4es in t$e last &aragra&$ o( &ro&ert' ta4es in t$e last &aragra&$ o( )ection /10. 2$ese &olic' consi!erations are consistent ,it$ t$e )tate &olic' to ens%re a%tonom' to local governments 44 an! t$e ob9ective o( t$e LGC t$at t$e' en9o' gen%ine an! meaning(%l local a%tonom' to enable t$em to attain t$eir (%llest !evelo&ment as sel(Dreliant comm%nities an! ma+e t$em e((ective

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


&artners in t$e attainment o( national goals. 2$e &o,er to ta4 is t$e most e((ective instr%ment to raise nee!e! reven%es to (inance an! s%&&ort m'ria! activities o( local government %nits (or t$e !eliver' o( basic services essential to t$e &romotion o( t$e general ,el(are an! t$e en$ancement o( &eace &rogress an! &ros&erit' o( t$e &eo&le. *t ma' also be relevant to recall t$at t$e original reasons (or t$e ,it$!ra,al o( ta4 e4em&tion &rivileges grante! to governmentDo,ne! an! controlle! cor&orations an! all ot$er %nits o( government ,ere t$at s%c$ &rivilege res%lte! in serio%s ta4 base erosion an! !istortions in t$e ta4 treatment o( similarl' sit%ate! enter&rises an! t$ere ,as a nee! (or t$is entities to s$are in t$e re.%irements o( t$e !evelo&ment (iscal or ot$er,ise b' &a'ing t$e ta4es an! ot$er c$arges !%e (rom t$em. (ecretar# o! &inance v. )lar e Facts: Cabal%na (aile! to &a' lan! ta4es. # brea+!o,n o( t$e com&%tation o( t$e !elin.%ent ta4es an! &enalties on $is lots an! resi!ential $o%se as re(lecte! in t$e vario%s recei&ts iss%e! b' t$e Cit' 2reas%rerHs O((ice o( *loilo Cit' s$o,s t$at more t$an t,ent'D (o%r &ercent ;/0Y< o( t$e !elin.%ent ta4es ,ere c$arge! an! collecte! b' ,a' o( &enalties. Cabal%na &ai! $is lan! ta4es an! t$e corres&on!ing recei&ts ,ere iss%e! to $im b' t$e Cit' 2reas%rerHs O((ice ,it$ t$e notation "&ai! %n!er &rotest." Cabal%na (ile! a (ormal letter o( &rotest ,it$ t$e Cit' 2reas%rer o( *loilo Cit' ,$erein $e conten!s t$at t$e Cit' 2reas%rerHs com&%tation o( &enalties ,as erroneo%s since t$e rate o( &enalt' a&&lie! e4cee!e! t,ent'D(o%r &ercent ;/0Y< in contravention o( )ection GG o( =.D. No. 0G0 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e as amen!e!. *n res&onse $o,ever #ssistant Cit' 2reas%rer 2%lio (or an! in be$al( o( t$e Cit' 2reas%rer o( *loilo t%rne! !o,n &rivate res&on!entHs &rotest citing )ec. 0;c< o( 7oint #ssessment -eg%lations No. 1D8C an! Local 2reas%r' -eg%lations No. /D8C o( t$e t$en Ministr' ;no, De&artment< o( Finance. ,$ic$ rea!s: )ec. 0. Com&%tation o( =enalties on Delin.%ent -eal =ro&ert' 2a4es. X ;a< @nless con!one! ,$oll' or &artiall' in a !%l' a&&rove! resol%tion o( t$e Local )angg%nian !elin.%ent real &ro&ert' ta4es s$all be s%b9ect to &enalt' at t$e rate o( t,o &er cent ;/Y< (or ever' mont$ o( !elin.%enc' &rovi!e! t$at t$e total &enalt' (or one ta4 'ear s$all not e4cee! t,ent'D(o%r &ercent ;/0Y<. ;b< Fail%re to &a' on time at least t$e (irst .%arter installment o( t$e real &ro&ert' ta4 s$all constit%te a ,aiver on t$e &art o( t$e &ro&ert' o,ner or a!ministrator to avail o( t$e &rivilege grante! b' la, (or $im to &a' ,it$o%t &enalt' $is ann%al realt' ta4 obligation in (o%r ;0< e.%al installment on or be(ore t$e en! o( ever' .%arter o( t$e ta4 'ear. #ccor!ingl' i( t$e &ortion o( t$e real &ro&ert' ta4 !%e (or t$e (irst .%arter o( ta4 'ear is not &ai! on or be(ore t$e t$irt'D(irst !a' o( Marc$ o( t$e same 'ear t$e &enalt' s$all be rec+one! (rom t$e (irst !a' o( 7an%ar' at t$e rate o( t,o &er cent ;/Y< (or ever' mont$ o( !elin.%enc' on t$e basis o( t$e total amo%nt !%e (or t$e entire 'ear an! not onl' on t$e amo%nt !%e (or t$e sai! (irst .%arter o( t$e ta4 'ear. ;c< 2$e &enalt' o( t,o &ercent ;/Y< &er mont$ o( !elin.%enc' or t,ent'D(o%r &ercent ;/0Y< &er ann%m as t$e case ma' be s$all contin%e to be im&ose! on t$e %n&ai! ta4 (rom t$e time t$e !elin.%enc' ,as inc%rre! %& to t$e time t$at it is &ai! (or in (%ll. Cabal%na (ile! a =etition (or Declarator' -elie( ,it$ Damages on 5G 7%l' 1881 be(ore t$e sala o( res&on!ent 7%!ge assailing 7oint #ssessment -eg%lations No. 1D8C an! Local 2reas%r' -eg%lations No. /D8C ,$ic$ accor!ing to $im (lo%te! )ection GG o( =.D. No. 0G0 ,$ic$ (i4e! t$e ma4im%m &enalt' (or !elin.%enc' in t$e &a'ment o( real estate ta4es at /0Y o( t$e !elin.%ent ta4. -2C: )ection 0;c< o( 7oint #ssessment -eg%lation No. 1D8C an! Local 2reas%r' -eg%lation No. /D8C n%ll an! voi!. =enalt' t$at s$o%l! be im&ose! (or !elin.%enc' in t$e &a'ment o( real &ro&ert' ta4es s$o%l! be t,o &er cent%m on t$e amo%nt o( t$e !elin.%ent ta4 (or eac$ mont$ o( !elin.%enc' or (raction t$ereo( %ntil t$e !elin.%ent ta4 is (%ll' &ai! b%t in no case s$all t$e total &enalt' e4cee! t,ent'D(o%r &er cent%m o( t$e !elin.%ent ta4 as &rovi!e! (or in )ection GG o( =.D. 0G0 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e. *ss%e: 6ON 7oint #ssessment -eg%lations No. 1D8C an! Local 2reas%r' -eg%lations No. /D8C are vali!. NO. 2$e s%b9ect -eg%lations m%st be str%c+ !o,n (or being re&%gnant to )ection GG o( =.D. No. 0G0 or t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e ,$ic$ &rovi!es: E2$at in no case s$all t$e total &enalt' e4cee! t,ent'D(o%r &er cent%m o( t$e !elin.%ent ta4. 2$e rate o( &enalt' (or

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ta4 !elin.%enc' (i4e! $erein s$all be %ni(orml' a&&lie! in all &rovinces an! cities.F @&on t$e ot$er $an! )ection 0;c< o( t$e c$allenge! 7oint #ssessment -eg%lations No. 1D8C an! Local 2reas%r' -eg%lations No. /D8C iss%e! b' res&on!ent )ecretar' ;(ormerl' Minister< o( Finance &rovi!es t$at "t$e &enalt' o( t,o &ercent ;/Y< &er mont$ o( !elin.%enc' or t,ent'D(o%r &ercent ;/0Y< &er ann%m as t$e case ma' be s$all contin%e to be im&ose! on t$e %n&ai! ta4 (rom t$e time t$e !elin.%enc' ,as inc%rre! %& to t$e time t$at t$e !elin.%enc' is &ai! (or in (%ll." #s a!e&tl' observe! b' t$e trial co%rt t$e &enalt' im&ose! %n!er t$e assaile! -eg%lations $as no limit inasm%c$ as t$e /0Y &enalt' &er ann%m s$all be contin%o%sl' im&ose! on t$e %n&ai! ta4 %ntil it is &ai! (or in (%ll %nli+e t$at im&ose! %n!er )ection GG o( t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e ,$ere t$e total &enalt' is limite! onl' to t,ent'D(o%r &ercent o( t$e !elin.%ent ta4. Q 2$e secretar' anc$ors $is claim on 3O71 "2$e Minister o( Finance s$all &rom%lgate t$e necessar' r%les an! reg%lations to im&lement t$is 34ec%tive Or!er." 3.O. No. 71 !i! not to%c$ at all on t$e to&ic o( amen!ment o( rates o( !elin.%ent ta4es or t$e amen!ment o( rates o( &enalt' on !elin.%ent ta4es. Neit$er !i! 3.O. No. 1518 !irectl' or in!irectl' vest %&on t$e De&artment o( Finance t$e rig$t to (i!!le ,it$ t$e rates o( &enalt' to be assesse! on !elin.%enc' ta4es as containe! in t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e. Des&ite t$e &rom%lgation o( 3.O. No. 71 =.D. No. 0G0 in general an! )ection GG in &artic%lar remaine! to be goo! la,. NO re&eal b' im&lication itcabO #ss%ming arg%menti t$at 3.O. No. 71 $as a%t$oriBe! t$e &etitioner to iss%e t$e ob9ecte! -eg%lations s%c$ con(erment o( &o,ers is voi! (or being re&%gnant to t$e ,ellD encr%ste! !octrine in &olitical la, t$at t$e &o,er o( ta4ation is generall' veste! ,it$ t$e legislat%re. 2$e &o,er !elegate! to t$e e4ec%tive branc$ in t$is case t$e Ministr' o( Finance to la' !o,n im&lementing r%les m%st nevert$eless be germane to t$e general la, it see+s to a&&l'. 2$e im&lementing r%les cannot a!! to or !etract (rom t$e &rovisions o( t$e la, it is !esigne! to im&lement. Q t$e (act t$at &rivate res&on!ent Cabal%na ,as res&onsible (or t$e iss%ance an! im&lementation o( -egional O((ice Memoran!%m Circ%lar No. 50D88 ,$ic$ im&lemente! 7oint #ssessment -eg%lations No. 1D8C an! Local 2reas%r' -eg%lations No. /D8C !oes not &%t $im in esto&&el (rom see+ing t$e n%lli(ication o( sai! -eg%lations at t$is &oint.

Benguet Corporation v. Central Boar Appeals

o! Assessment

Facts: BC see+s to ann%l an! set asi!e t$e Decision o( t$e CB## o( Ma' /8 1881 as ,ell as t$e -esol%tion o( 7%l' 1 1881 !en'ing its motion (or reconsi!eration ,$ic$ a((irme! t$e !ecision o( res&on!ent Local Boar! o( #ssessment #&&eals o( t$e =rovince o( Beng%et !eclaring as vali! t$e ta4 assessments ma!e b' t$e M%nici&al #ssessor o( *togon Beng%et on t$e b%n+$o%ses o( &etitioner occ%&ie! as !,elling b' its ran+ an! (ile em&lo'ees base! on 2a4 Declarations Nos. 8071 an! 150C0. 2$e =rovincial #ssessor o( Beng%et t$ro%g$ t$e M%nici&al #ssessor o( *togon assesse! real &ro&ert' ta4 on t$e b%n+$o%ses o( &etitioner Beng%et Cor&oration occ%&ie! (or resi!ential &%r&oses b' its ran+ an! (ile em&lo'ees %n!er 2a4 Declarations Nos. 8071 ;e((ective 188C< an! 150C0 ;e((ective 188G<. #ccor!ing to t$e =rovincial #ssessor t$e ta4 e4em&tion o( b%n+$o%ses %n!er )ec. 1 ;a< =.D. 70C/ ;LiberaliBing t$e Financing an! Cre!it 2erms (or Lo, Cost Ho%sing =ro9ects o( Domestic Cor&orations an! =artners$i&s< ,as ,it$!ra,n b' =.D. 18CC1 ;6it$!ra,ing )%b9ect to Certain Con!itions t$e D%t' an! 2a4 =rivileges Grante! to =rivate B%siness 3nter&rises an!?or =ersons 3ngage! in #n' 3conomic #ctivit' an! Ot$er =%r&oses<. =etitioner a&&eale! t$e assessment on 2a4

")ection 1. =%rs%ant to t$e above incentive s%c$ !omestic cor&orations an! &artners$i&s s$all en9o' ta4 e4em&tion on: ;a< real estate ta4es on t$e im&rovements ,$ic$ ,ill be %se! e4cl%sivel' (or $o%sing t$eir em&lo'ees an! ,or+ers . . ."

")ection 1. 2$e &rovisions o( an' s&ecial or general la, to t$e contrar' not,it$stan!ing all e4em&tions (rom or an' &re(erential treatment in t$e &a'ment o( !%ties ta4es (ees im&osts an! ot$er c$arges $ereto(ore grante! to &rivate b%siness enter&rises an!?or &ersons engage! in an' economic activit' are $ereb' ,it$!ra,n e4ce&t t$ose en9o'e! b' t$e (ollo,ing: . . . ;e< 2$ose t$at ,ill be a&&rove! b' t$e =resi!ent o( t$e =$ili&&ines %&on t$e recommen!ation o( t$e Minister o( Finance "

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


Declarations Nos. 8071 an! 150C0 to t$e Local Boar! o( #ssessment #&&eals ;LB##< o( t$e =rovince o( Beng%et !oc+ete! as LB## Cases Nos. 0/ an! 01 res&ectivel'. Bot$ ,ere $ear! 9ointl'. Mean,$ile t$e &arties agree! to s%s&en! $earings in LB## Cases Nos. 0/ an! 01 to a,ait t$e o%tcome o( anot$er case LB## Case No. 01 covering 2a4 Declaration No. 1C10 ;e((ective 1880< ,$ic$ involve! t$e same &arties an! iss%e %ntil t$e a&&eal ,as !eci!e! b' t$e Central Boar! o( #ssessment #&&eals ;CB##<. On 7%l' 1C 188G CB## $an!e! !o,n its !ecision in LB## Case No. 01 $ol!ing t$at t$e b%il!ings o( &etitioner %se! as !,ellings b' its ran+ an! (ile em&lo'ees ,ere e4em&t (rom real &ro&ert' ta4 &%rs%ant to =.D. 70C. 2$erea(ter t$e &rocee!ings in LB## Cases Nos. 0/ an! 01 &rocee!e! a(ter ,$ic$ a !ecision ,as ren!ere! a((irming t$e ta4abilit' o( s%b9ect &ro&ert' o( &etitioner. On a&&eal CB## s%staine! t$e !ecision $ol!ing t$at t$e realt' ta4 e4em&tion %n!er =.D. 70C ,as ,it$!ra,n b' =.D. 18CC an! 3.O. 81 so t$at &etitioner s$o%l! $ave a&&lie! (or restoration o( t$e e4em&tion ,it$ t$e Fiscal *ncentives -evie, Boar! ;F*-B< 2$e !ecision o( CB## clari(ie! t$at Case No. 01 ,as !i((erent beca%se it ,as e((ective &rior to 188C $ence ,as not covere! b' =.D. 18CC nor b' 3.O. 81. =etitioner move! (or reconsi!eration b%t ,as !enie! ,it$ CB## $ol!ing t$at &etitionerHs "classi(ication" o( =.D. 70C is %navailing beca%se =.D. 18CC an! 3.O. 81 !o not !iscriminate against t$e soD calle! "social stat%tes". Hence t$is &etition. )C: s$o%l! be rea! in connection ,it$ Ministr' Or!er No. 18D80 )ec. 1 ;!< o( t$e t$en Ministr' o( Finance ,$ic$ too+ e((ect October 1C 1880 states: ")ection 1. 2$e ,it$!ra,al o( e4em&tions (rom or an' &re(erential treatment in t$e &a'ment o( !%ties ta4es (ees im&osts an! ot$er c$arges as &rovi!e! (or %n!er =resi!ential Decree No. 18CC !oes not a&&l' to e4em&tions or &re(erential treatment embo!ie! in t$e (ollo,ing la,s: . . . ;!< 2$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e . . ." 34ec%tive Or!er No. 81 &rom%lgate! December 17 188G is also to t$e same e((ect. Bot$ =.D. 18CC an! F.O. 81 o&erate as ,$olesale ,it$!ra,al o( ta4 incentives grante! to &rivate entities so t$at t$e government ma' reDe4amine e4isting ta4 e4em&tions an! restore t$ro%g$ t$e "revie, mec$anism" o( t$e Fiscal *ncentives -evie, Boar! onl' t$ose t$at are consistent ,it$ !eclare! economic &olic'. 2$%s ,ise t$e c$ie( reven%e so%rce o( t$e government ,ill not be greatl' i( not %nnecessaril' ero!e! since ta4 e4em&tions t$at ,ere grante! on &iecemeal basis an! ,$ic$ $ave lost relevance to e4isting &rograms are eliminate!. *ss%es: 1. 6ON res&on!ent #ssessors ma' vali!l' assess real &ro&ert' ta4 on t$e &ro&erties o( &etitioner consi!ering t$e &roscri&tion in 2$e Local 2a4 Co!e ;=.D /11< an! t$e Mineral -eso%rces Develo&ment Decree o( 1870 ;=.D. 0G1< against im&osition o( ta4es on mines b' local governments. :3). On t$e (irst iss%e &etitioner conten!s t$at local government %nits are ,it$o%t an' a%t$orit' to lev' realt' ta4es on mines &%rs%ant to )ec. C/ o( =.D. 0G1 ,$ic$ states: )ec. C/. =o,er to Lev' 2a4es on Mines Mining O&erations an! Mineral =ro!%cts. #n' la, to t$e contrar' not,it$stan!ing no &rovince cit' m%nici&alit' barrio or m%nici&al !istrict s$all lev' an! collect ta4es (ees rentals ro'alties or c$arges o( an' +in! ,$atsoever on mines mining claims mineral &ro!%cts or an' o&eration &rocess or activit' connecte! t$ere,it$ an! )ec. C ;m< o( 2$e Local 2a4 Co!e as amen!e! b' =.D. 0/G ;reiterate! in )ecs. 17 U!V an! // UcV same Co!e< ,$ic$ &rovi!es: )ec. C. Common limitations on t$e ta4ing &o,ers o( local governments. 2$e e4ercise o( t$e ta4ing &o,ers o( &rovinces cities m%nici&alities an! barrios s$all not e4ten! to t$e im&osition o( t$e (ollo,ing: . . . ;m< 2a4es on mines mining o&erationsA an! minerals mineral &ro!%cts an! t$eir b'D&ro!%cts ,$en sol! !omesticall' b' t$e o&erator. 2$e )olicitor General observes t$at t$e &etitioner is esto&&e! (rom raising t$e .%estion o( lac+ o( a%t$orit' to iss%e t$e c$allenge! assessments inasm%c$ as it ,as never raise! be(ore $ence not &asse! %&on b' t$e m%nici&al an! &rovincial assessors LB## an! CB##. 2$is observation is ,ell ta+en. 2$e r%le t$at t$e iss%e o( 9%ris!iction over s%b9ect matter ma' be raise! an'time even !%ring a&&eal $as been .%ali(ie! ,$ere its a&&lication res%lts in moc+er' o( t$e tenets o( (air &la' as in t$is case ,$en t$e iss%e co%l! $ave been !is&ose! o( earlier an! more a%t$oritativel' b' an' o( t$e res&on!ents ,$o are s%&&ose! to be e4&erts in t$e (iel! o( realt' ta4 assessment. #s 6e $el! in )%areB v. Co%rt o( #&&eals: . . . *t is settle! t$at an'

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


!ecision ren!ere!. ,it$o%t 9%ris!iction is a total n%llit' an! ma' be str%c+ !o,n at an' time even on a&&eal be(ore t$is Co%rt. 2$e onl' e4ce&tion is ,$ere t$e &art' raising t$e iss%e is barre! b' esto&&el. 2i9am v. )ibong$ano': 6$ile &etitioner co%l! $ave &revente! t$e trial co%rt (rom e4ercising 9%ris!iction over t$e case b' seasonabl' ta+ing e4ce&tion t$ereto t$e' instea! involve! t$e ver' same 9%ris!iction b' (iling an ans,er an! see+ing a((irmative relie( (rom it. 6$at is more t$e' &artici&ate! in t$e trial o( t$e case b' crossD e4amining res&on!ent. @&on t$e &remises &etitioner cannot no, be allo,e! belate!l' to a!o&t an inconsistent &ost%re b' attac+ing t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$e co%rt to ,$ic$ t$e' $a! s%bmitte! t$emselves vol%ntaril' #g%inal!o *n!%stries Cor&oration v. Commissioner o( *nternal -even%e an! t$e Co%rt o( 2a4 #&&eals:"2o allo, a litigant to ass%me a !i((erent &ost%re ,$en $e comes be(ore t$e co%rt an! c$allenge t$e &osition $e $a! acce&te! at t$e a!ministrative level ,o%l! be to sanction a &roce!%re ,$ereb' t$e co%rt ,$ic$ is s%&&ose! to revie, a!ministrative !eterminations ,o%l! not revie, b%t !etermine an! !eci!e (or t$e (irst time a .%estion not raise! at t$e a!ministrative (or%m. 2$is cannot be &ermitte! (or t$e same reason t$at %n!erlies t$e re.%irement o( &rior e4$a%stion o( a!ministrative reme!ies to give a!ministrative a%t$orities t$e &rior o&&ort%nit' to !eci!e controversies ,it$in its com&etence an! in m%c$ t$e same ,a' t$at on t$e 9%!icial level iss%es not raise! in t$e lo,er co%rt cannot be raise! (or t$e (irst time on a&&eal." Besi!es t$e s&ecial civil action o( certiorari is available to &ass %&on t$e !eterminations o( a!ministrative bo!ies ,$ere &atent !enial o( !%e &rocess is allege! as a conse.%ence o( grave ab%se o( !iscretion or lac+ o( 9%ris!iction or .%estion o( la, is raise! an! no a&&eal is available. *n t$is case &etitioner ma' not com&lain o( !enial o( !%e &rocess since it $a! eno%g$ o&&ort%nit' b%t o&te! not to raise t$e iss%e o( 9%ris!iction in an' o( t$e a!ministrative bo!ies to ,$ic$ t$e case ma' $ave been bro%g$t. BC: realt' ta4es are local ta4es beca%se t$e' are levie! b' local government %nitsA citing )ec. 18 o( =.D. 0G0 ,$ic$ &rovi!es: )ec. 18. -ates o( Lev'. 2$e &rovincial cit' or m%nici&al boar! or co%ncil s$all (i4 a %ni(orm rate o( real &ro&ert' ta4 a&&licable to t$eir res&ective localities . . . 6$ile local government %nits are c$arge! ,it$ (i4ing t$e rate o( real &ro&ert' ta4es it !oes not necessaril' (ollo, (rom t$at a%t$orit' t$e !etermination o( ,$et$er or not to im&ose t$e ta4. *n (act local governments $ave no alternative b%t to collect ta4es as man!ate! in )ec. 18 o( t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e ,$ic$ states: )ec. 18. *nci!ence o( -eal =ro&ert' 2a4. 2$ere s$all be levie! assesse! an! collecte! in all &rovinces cities an! m%nici&alities an ann%al a! valorem ta4 on real &ro&ert' s%c$ as lan! b%il!ings mac$iner' an! ot$er im&rovements a((i4e! or attac$e! to real &ro&ert' not $ereina(ter s&eci(icall' e4em&te!." *t is t$%s clear (rom t$e (oregoing t$at it is t$e national government e4&ressing itsel( t$ro%g$ t$e legislative branc$ t$at levies t$e real &ro&ert' ta4. Conse.%entl' ,$en local governments are re.%ire! to (i4 t$e rates t$e' are merel' constit%te! as agents o( t$e national government in t$e en(orcement o( t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e. 2$e !elegation o( ta4ing &o,er is not even involve! $ere beca%se t$e national government $as alrea!' im&ose! realt' ta4 in )ec. 18 aboveD.%ote! leaving onl' t$e en(orcement to be !one b' local governments. 2$e c$allenge o( &etitioner against t$e a&&licabilit' o( Meralco )ec%rities *n!%strial Cor&oration v. Central Boar! o( #ssessment #&&eals et al. 1 is %navailing absent an' cogent reason to overt%rn t$e same. 2$%s "Meralco )ec%rities arg%es t$at t$e realt' ta4 is a local ta4 or lev' an! not a ta4 o( general a&&lication. 2$is arg%ment is %ntenable beca%se t$e realt' ta4 $as al,a's been im&ose! b'

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t$e la,ma+ing bo!' an! later b' t$e =resi!ent o( t$e =$ili&&ines in t$e e4ercise o( $is la,ma+ing &o,ers as s$o,n in )ections 10/ et se.. o( t$e -evise! #!ministrative Co!e #ct No. 188C Common,ealt$ #ct No 075 an! =resi!ential Decree No. 0G0. "2$e realt' ta4 is en(orce! t$ro%g$o%t t$e =$ili&&ines an! not merel' in a &artic%lar m%nici&alit' or cit' b%t t$e &rocee!s o( t$e ta4 accr%e to t$e &rovince cit' m%nici&alit' an! barrio ,$ere t$e realt' ta4e! is sit%ate! ;)ec. 8G =.D. No. 0G0<. *n contrast a local ta4 is im&ose! b' t$e m%nici&al or cit' co%ncil b' virt%e o( t$e Local 2a4 Co!e =resi!ential Decree No. /11 ,$ic$ too+ e((ect on 7%l' 1 1871 ;G8 O.G. G187<." Conse.%entl' t$e &rovisions o( )ec. C/ o( t$e Mineral -eso%rces Develo&ment Decree o( 1870 ;=.D. 0G1< an! )ecs. C ;m< 17 ;!< an! // ;c< o( 2$e Local 2a4 Co!e ;=.D. /11< cite! b' &etitioner are mere limitations on t$e ta4ing &o,er o( local government %nits t$e' are not &ertinent to t$e iss%e be(ore @s an! t$ere(ore cannot an! s$o%l! not a((ect t$e im&osition o( real &ro&ert' ta4 b' t$e national government. /. 6ON t$e real ta4 e4em&tion grante! %n!er =.D. 70C ;&rom%lgate! 7%l' 1C 187C< ,as ,it$!ra,n b' =.D. 18CC ;too+ e((ect October 1C 1880< an! 3.O. 81. :3). Co%rt $el! t$at it $as no reco%rse b%t to a&&l' t$e e4&ress &rovision o( =.D. No. 18CC an! r%le in (avor o( t$e ,it$!ra,al o( t$e real &ro&ert' ta4 e4em&tion &rovi!e! %n!er =.D. No. 70C. #s regar!s t$e secon! iss%e &etitioner ,$ic$ claims t$at 3.O. 81 !oes not re&eal social stat%tes li+e =.D. 70C in t$e same breat$ ta+es re(%ge in )ec. 1 ;e< o( t$e same 3.O. 81 to ,it: )ection 1. 2$e &rovisions o( an' general or s&ecial la, to t$e contrar' not,it$stan!ing all ta4 an! !%t' incentives grante! to government an! &rivate entities are $ereb' ,it$!ra,n e4ce&t: . . . ;e< t$ose con(erre! %n!er t$e (o%r basic co!es namel': . . . ;iv< t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e as amen!e! . . . in relation to )ec. 05 o( t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e ,$ic$ &rovi!es: )ec. 05. 34em&tions (rom -eal =ro&ert' 2a4. 2$e e4em&tion s$all be as (ollo,s: . . . ;g< -eal &ro&ert' e4em&t %n!er ot$er la,s an! concl%!ing t$at =.D. 70C is one o( t$e "ot$er la,s" re(erre! to. 6e !o not agree. *( 6e are to sanction t$is inter&retation t$en necessaril' all real &ro&erties e4em&t b' an' la, ,o%l! be covere! an! t$ere ,o%l! be no nee! (or t$e legislat%re to s&eci(' "-eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e as amen!e!" instea! o( stating clearl' "realt' ta4 e4em&tion la,s". *n!%bitabl' t$e intention is to limit t$e a&&lication o( t$e "e4ce&tion cla%se" onl' to t$ose con(erre! b' t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e. 2$is is not onl' a logical constr%ction o( t$e &rovisions b%t more so in +ee&ing ,it$ t$e &rinci&le o( stat%tor' constr%ction t$at ta4 e4em&tions are constr%e! strictl' against ta4&a'ers $ence t$e' cannot be create! b' mere im&lication b%t m%st be clearl' &rovi!e! b' la,. NonD e4em&tion in case o( !o%bt is (avore!. W%ite obvio%sl' t$e e4ce&tion in )ec. 1 ;e< ;iv< o( 3.O. 81 re(ers to "t$ose con(erre! %n!er . . . -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e as amen!e!" an! t$at t$e e4em&tion claime! b' &etitioner is grante! not b' t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e b%t b' =.D. 70C. 6$en )ec. 05 ;g< o( t$e =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e &rovi!es t$at "U2V$e e4em&tion s$all be as (ollo,s: . . . -eal =ro&ert' e4em&t %n!er ot$er la,s". t$e Co!e merel' recogniBes realt' ta4 e4em&tions &rovi!e! b' ot$er la,s ot$er,ise it ma' %n,ittingl' re&eal t$ose "ot$er la,s". 2$e arg%ment o( &etitioner t$at =.D. 70C is a social stat%te to give (les$ to t$e Constit%tional &rovisions on $o%sing $ence not covere! b' =.D. 18CC ,as s.%arel' met b' res&on!ent CB## in its -esol%tion o( 7%l' 1 1881 to ,$ic$ 6e (%ll' agree "2$e &$rase Han' s&ecial or general la,H e4&licitl' in!icates t$at =.D. No. 18CC !i! not !isting%is$ bet,een a social stat%te an! an economic or ta4 legislation. Hence ,$ere t$e la, !oes not !isting%is$ ,e cannot !isting%is$. *n vie, t$ereo( ,e $ave no reco%rse b%t to a&&l' t$e e4&ress &rovision o( =.D. No. 18CC an! r%le in (avor o( t$e ,it$!ra,al o( t$e real &ro&ert' ta4

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e4em&tion &rovi!e! %n!er =.D. No. 70C. 6e also (in! ,it$o%t merit t$e contention o( =etitionerD #&&ellan t t$at B.=. No. 181 ;*nvestment *ncentives =olic' #ct o( 1881< is t$e so%rce an! reason (or t$e e4istence o( =.D. No. 18CCA t$ere(ore t$e sco&e o( =.D. No. 18CC is limite! to investment incentives. #lt$o%g$ )ection /5 o( sai! B.=. ,$ic$ a%t$oriBes t$e =resi!ent to restr%ct%re investment incentives s'stems?legislation s to align t$em ,it$ t$e overall economic !evelo&ment ob9ectives is one o( t$e !eclare! &olicies o( =.D. No. 18CC its &rimar' aim is t$e (orm%lation o( national recover' &rogram to meet an! overcome t$e grave emergenc' arising (rom t$e c%rrent economic crisis. Hence it cannot be maintaine! t$at its &rovisions a&&l' onl' to investment incentives. Besi!es even granting t$at its sco&e is limite! it is note! t$at =.D. No. 70C also s&ea+s o( investment incentives in )ections / an! 1 t$ereo( . . ." ,ational *evelopment Co. v. Cebu Cit# Facts: =roclamation No. 015 ,as iss%e! b' t$e =resi!ent ,$ic$ reserve! Bloc+ no. 0 -eclamation #rea No. 0 o( Ceb% Cit' consisting o( 0 C88 s.%are meters (or ,are$o%sing &%r&oses %n!er t$e a!ministration o( National 6are$o%sing Cor&oration. )%bse.%entl' a ,are$o%se ,it$ a (loor area o( 1 805 s.%are meters more or less ,as constr%cte! t$ereon. N6C !issolve! NDC too+ over. Commencing 1808 Ceb% assesse! an! collecte! (rom NDC real estate ta4es on t$e lan! an! t$e ,are$o%se t$ereon. B' t$e (irst .%arter o( 1875 a total o( =155 11G.11 ,as &ai! b' NDC o( ,$ic$ onl' =1 88C.5G ,as %n!er &rotest. On /5 Marc$ 1875 NDC ,rote t$e Cit' #ssessor !eman!ing (%ll re(%n! o( t$e real estate ta4es &ai! claiming t$at t$e lan! an! t$e ,are$o%se stan!ing t$ereon belonge! to t$e -e&%blic an! t$ere(ore e4em&t (rom ta4ation. Ceb% !i! not ac.%iesce in t$e !eman! $ence t$e &resent s%it (ile! /C October 187/ in t$e Co%rt o( First *nstance o( Manila. CF*: Ceb% to re(%n! t$e real estate ta4es &ai! b' NDC (or t$e &arcel o( lan! covere! b' =resi!ential =roclamation No. 015 o( #%g%st 15 1818 an! t$e ,are$o%se erecte! t$ereon (rom an! a(ter October /C 18GG C#: certi(ie! t$e case to )C as one involving &%re .%estions o( la, &%rs%ant to )ec. 17 -.#. /8G. *ss%e: 6ON NDC is e4em&te! (rom &a'ment o( t$e real estate ta4es on t$e lan! reserve! b' t$e =resi!ent (or ,are$o%sing &%r&oses as ,ell as t$e ,are$o%se constr%cte! t$ereon an! in t$e a((irmative ,$et$er NDC ma' recover in re(%n! %n&roteste! real estate ta4es it &ai! (rom 1808 to 1875. )ection 1 &ar. ;a< o( t$e #ssessment La, on ,$ic$ NDC claims real estate ta4 e4em&tion &rovi!es S )ection 1. =ro&ert' e4em&t (rom ta4. S 2$e e4em&tions s$all be as (ollo,s: ;a< =ro&ert' o,ne! b' t$e @nite! )tates o( #merica t$e Common,ealt$ o( t$e =$ili&&ines an' &rovince cit' m%nici&alit' at m%nici&al !istrict . . . 2$e same o&inion o( NDC ,as &asse! %&on in National Develo&ment Co. v. =rovince o( N%eva 3ci9a ,$ere 6e $el! t$at its &ro&erties ,ere not com&re$en!e! in )ec. 1 &ar ;a< o( t$e #ssessment La,. *n &art 6e state!: 1. Common,ealt$ #ct No. 18/ ,$ic$ create! NDC contains no &rovision e4em&ting it (rom t$e &a'ment o( real estate ta4 on &ro&erties it ma' ac.%ire . . . 2$ere is 9%sti(ication in t$e contention o( &lainti((Da&&ellee t$at . . . U*Vt is %n!eniable t$at to an' m%nici&alit' t$e &rinci&al so%rce o( reven%e ,it$ ,$ic$ it ,o%l! !e(ra' its o&eration ,ill came (rom real &ro&ert' ta4es. *( t$e National Develo&ment Com&an' ,o%l! be e4em&t (rom &a'ing real &ro&ert' ta4es over t$ese &ro&erties t$e to,n o( Gabal!on ,ill be !e&rive! o( m%c$ nee!e! reven%es ,it$ ,$ic$ it ,ill maintain itsel( an! (inance t$e com&elling nee!s o( its in$abitants /. De(en!antDa&&ellant NDC !oes not come %n!er classi(ication o( m%nici&al or &%blic cor&oration in t$e sense t$at it ma' s%e an! be s%e! in t$e same manner as an' ot$er &rivate cor&orations an! in t$is sense it is an entit' !i((erent (rom t$e government !e(en!ant cor&oration ma' be s%e! ,it$o%t its consent an! is s%b9ect to ta4ation. *n t$e case NDC vs. 7ose :%lo 2obias 7 )C-# G8/ it ,as $el! t$at . . . &lainti(( is

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neit$er t$e Government o( t$e -e&%blic nor a branc$ or s%b!ivision t$ereo( b%t a government o,ne! an! controlle! cor&oration ,$ic$ cannot be sai! to e4ercise a sovereign (%nction. it is a b%siness cor&oration an! as s%c$ its ca%ses o( action are s%b9ect to t$e stat%te o( limitations. . . . 2$at &lainti(( $erein !oes not e4ercise sovereign &o,ers S an! $ence cannot invo+e t$e e4em&tions t$ereo( XX b%t is an agenc' (or t$e &er(ormance o( &%rel' cor&orate &ro&rietar' or b%siness (%nctions is a&&arent (rom its Organic #ct ;Common,ealt$ #ct 18/ as amen!e! b' Common,ealt$ #ct 111< &%rs%ant to )ection 1 o( ,$ic$ it "s$all be s%b9ect to t$e &rovisions o( t$e Cor&oration La, inso(ar as t$e' are not inconsistent" ,it$ t$e &rovisions o( sai! Common,ealt$ #ct "an! s$all $ave t$e general &o,ers mentione! in sai!" Cor&oration La, an! $ence "ma' engage in commercial in!%strial mining agric%lt%ral an! ot$er enter&rises ,$ic$ ma' be necessar' or contrib%tor' to t$e economic !evelo&ment o( t$e co%ntr' or im&ortant in t$e &%blic interest " as ,ell as "ac.%ire $ol! mortgage an! alienate &ersonal an! real &ro&ert' in t$e =$ili&&ines or else,$ereA . . . ma+e contracts o( an' +in! an! !escri&tion" an! "&er(orm an' an! all acts ,$ic$ a cor&oration or nat%ral &ersons is a%t$oriBe! to &er(orm %n!er t$e la,s no, e4isting or ,$ic$ ma' be enacte! $erea(ter." 6e (in! no com&elling reason ,$' t$e (oregoing r%ling alt$o%g$ re(erring to lan!s ,$ic$ ,o%l! event%all' be trans(erre! to &rivate in!ivi!%als s$o%l! not a&&l' e.%all' to t$is case. NDC cites Boar! o( #ssessment #&&eals =rovince o( Lag%na v. Co%rt o( 2a4 #&&eal an! National 6ater,or+s an! )e,erage #%t$orit' ;N6)#<. *n t$at case 6e $el! t$at &ro&erties o( N6)# a GOCC ,ere e4em&t (rom real estate ta4 beca%se )ec. 1 &ar ;c< o( -.#. 075 !i! not !isting%is$ bet,een t$ose &ossesse! b' t$e government in sovereign?governmen tal?&olitical ca&acit' an! t$ose in &rivate?&ro&rietar' ?&atrimonial c$aracter.

2$e con(lict bet,een NDC v. N%eva 3ci9a s%&ra an!


B## v. C2# an! N6)# s%&ra is more s%&er(icial t$an real. 2$e NDC !ecision s&ea+s o( &ro&erties o,ne! b' NDC ,$ile t$e B## r%ling concerns &ro&erties belonging to t$e -e&%blic. 2$e latter case a&&ears to be e4ce&tional beca%se t$e &arties t$erein sti&%late! 1. 2$at t$e &etitioner National 6ater,or+s an! )e,erage #%t$orit' ;N#6#)#< is a &%blic cor&oration create! b' virt%e o( -e&%blic #ct. No. 1181 an! t$at it is o,ne! b' t$e Government o( t$e =$ili&&ines as ,ell as all &ro&ert' com&rising ,ater,or+s an! se,erage s'stems &lace! %n!er it ;3m&$asis s%&&lie!<. 2$ere t$e Co%rt observe!: "*t is conce!e! in t$e sti&%lation o( (acts t$at t$e &ro&ert' involve! in t$is case "is o,ne! b' t$e Government o( t$e =$ili&&ines. " Hence it belongs to t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines an! (alls s.%arel' ,it$in letter o( t$e above &rovision." *n t$e case at bar no similar statement a&&ears in t$e sti&%lation o( (acts $ence o,ners$i& o( s%b9ect &ro&erties s$o%l! (irst be establis$e!. For ,$ile it ma' be state! t$at t$e -e&%blic o,ns NDC it !oes not necessar' (ollo, t$at &ro&erties o,ne! b' NDC are also o,ne! b' -e&%blic S in t$e same ,a' t$at stoc+$ol!ers are not i&so (actoo,ners o( t$e &ro&erties o( t$eir cor&oration. 2$e -e&%blic li+e an' in!ivi!%al ma' (orm a cor&oration ,it$ &ersonalit' an! e4istence !istinct (rom its o,n. 2$e se&arate &ersonalit' allo,s a GOCC to $ol! an! &ossess &ro&erties in its o,n name an! t$%s &ermit greater in!e&en!ence an! (le4ibilit' in its o&erations. *t ma' t$ere(ore be state! t$at ta4 e4em&tion o( &ro&ert' o,ne! b' t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines "re(ers to &ro&erties o,ne! b' t$e Government an! b' its agencies ,$ic$ !o not $ave se&arate an! !istinct &ersonalities ;%nincor&orate! entities<. 2$e (oregoing !isc%ssion !oes not mean t$at beca%se NDC li+e most GOCCHs engages in commercial enter&rises all &ro&erties o( t$e government an! its %nincor&orate! agencies &ossesse! in &ro&riet' c$aracter are ta4able.

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)imilarl' in t$e case at bar NDC &rocee!e! on t$e &remise t$at t$e B## r%ling !eclare! all &ro&erties o,e! b' GOCCHs as &ro&erties in t$e name o( t$e -e&%blic $ence e4em&t %n!er )ec. 1 o( t$e #ssessment La,. 2o come ,it$in t$e ambit o( t$e e4em&tion &rovi!e! in #rt. 1 &ar. ;a< o( t$e #ssessment La, it is im&ortant to establis$ t$at t$e &ro&ert' is o,ne! b' t$e government or its %nincor&orate! agenc' an! once government o,ners$i& is !etermine! t$e nat%re o( t$e %se o( t$e &ro&ert' ,$et$er (or &ro&rietar' or sovereign &%r&oses becomes immaterial. 6$at a&&ears to $ave been ce!e! to N6C ;later trans(erre! to NDC< in t$e case be(ore @s is merel' t$e a!ministration o( t$e &ro&ert' ,$ile t$e government retains o,ners$i& o( ,$at $as been !eclare! reserve! (or ,are$o%sing &%r&oses %n!er =roclamation No. 015. *nci!entall' t$e &arties never raise! t$e iss%e! t$e iss%e o( o,ners$i& (rom t$e co%rt a .%o to t$is Co%rt. # reserve! lan! is !e(ine! as a "U&V%blic lan! t$at $as been ,it$$el! or +e&t bac+ (rom sale or !is&osition. " 2$e lan! remains "absol%te &ro&ert' o( t$e government." 2$e government "!oes not &art ,it$ its title b' reserving t$em ;lan!s< b%t sim&l' gives notice to all t$e ,orl! t$at it !esires t$em (or a certain &%r&ose." #bsol%te !is&osition o( lan! is not im&lie! (rom reservationA it merel' means "a ,it$!ra,al o( a s&eci(ie! &ortion o( t$e &%blic !omain (rom !is&osal %n!er t$e lan! la,s an! t$e a&&ro&riation t$ereo( (or t$e time being to some &artic%lar %se or &%r&ose o( t$e general government." #s its title remains ,it$ t$e -e&%blic t$e reserve! lan! is clearl' recovere! b' t$e ta4 e4em&tion &rovision. Ceb%: reservation o( t$e &ro&ert' in (avor o( N6C or NDC is a (orm o( !is&osition o( &%blic lan! ,$ic$ s%b9ects t$e reci&ient ;NDC < to real estate ta4ation %n!er )ec. 11C o( t$e =%blic Lan! #ct. as amen!e! b' -.#. 01G. #s 6e vie, it t$e e((ect o( reservation %n!er )ec. 81 is to segregate a &iece o( &%blic lan! an! trans(orm it into nonDalienable or nonD!is&osable %n!er t$e =%blic Lan! #ct. )ection 11C on t$e ot$er $an! a&&lies to !is&osable &%blic lan!s. Clearl' t$ere(ore )ec. 11C !oes not a&&l' to lan!s reserve! %n!er )ec. 81. Conse.%entl' t$e s%b9ect reserve! &%blic lan! remains ta4 e4em&t. #s regar!s t$e ,are$o%se constr%cte! on a &%blic reservation a !i((erent r%le s$o%l! a&&l' beca%se "UtV$e e4em&tion o( &%blic &ro&ert' (rom ta4ation !oes not e4ten! to im&rovements on t$e &%blic lan!s ma!e b' &reDem&tioners $omestea!ers an! ot$er claimants or occ%&ants at t$eir o,n e4&ense an! t$ese are ta4able b' t$e state . . ." Conse.%entl' t$e ,are$o%se constr%cte! on t$e reserve! lan! b' N6C ;no, %n!er a!ministration b' NDC< in!ee! s$o%l! &ro&erl' be assesse! real estate ta4 as s%c$ im&rovement !oes not a&&ear to belong to t$e -e&%blic. )ince t$e reservation is e4em&t (rom realt' ta4 t$e erroneo%s ta4 &a'ments collecte! b' Ceb% s$o%l! be re(%n!e! to NDC. 2$is is in consonance ,it$ )ec. 05 &ar. ;a< o( t$e (ormer -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e ,$ic$ e4em&te! (rom ta4ation real &ro&ert' o,ne! b' t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines or an' o( its &olitical s%b!ivisions as ,ell as an' GOCC so e4em&t b' its c$arter. #s regar!s t$e re.%irement o( &a'ing %n!er &rotest be(ore 9%!icial reco%rse C3B@ arg%es t$at in an' case NDC is not entitle! to re(%n! beca%se )ec. 7C o( -.#. 18C7 t$e -evise! C$arter o( t$e Cit' o( Ceb% re.%ires &a'ment%n!er &rotest be(ore resorting to 9%!icial action (or ta4 re(%n!A t$at it co%l! not $ave acte! on t$e (irst !eman! letter o( NDC o( /5 Ma' 1875 beca%se it ,as sent to t$e Cit' #ssessor an! not to t$e Cit' 2reas%rerA t$at conse.%entl' t$ere $aving been no a&&ro&riate &rior !eman! resort to 9%!icial reme!' is &remat%reA an! t$at even on t$e &remise t$at t$ere ,as &ro&er !eman! NDC $as 'et to e4$a%st a!ministrative reme!ies b' ,a' o( a&&eal to t$e De&artment o( Finance an!?or #%!itor General be(ore ta+ing 9%!icial action.

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NDC e4em&t (rom real estate ta4 on t$e reserve! lan! b%t liable (or t$e ,are$o%se erecte! t$ereon. Province o! 'arlac v. +u ge Alcantara Facts: 2arlac 3nter&rises is t$e o,ner o( a &arcel o( lan! an ice !ro& (actor' a mac$iner' s$e! all locate! at Mabini 2arlac 2arlac mac$iner' o( Diesel 3lect.. )ets. -eal estate ta4es o( t$e a(oresai! &ro&erties (rom 1870 to December 11 188/ in t$e total amo%nt o( =C1/ 01C.CC incl%!ing &rinci&als an! &enalties $as not been &ai!. 2arlac no, &ra's (or &a'ment as ,ell as !amages an! costs o( s%it. 23 move! to !ismiss. LC !enie!. M- !enie!. 2$erea(ter 2arlac set t$e a%ction sale o( 23Hs &ro&erties to satis(' t$e real estate ta4es !%e. 2$is &rom&te! 23 to (ile a motion &ra'ing t$at &etitioner be !irecte! to !esist (rom &rocee!ing ,it$ t$e &%blic a%ction sale. LC: iss%e! an or!er granting sai! motion to &revent mootness o( t$e case consi!ering t$at t$e &ro&erties to be sol! ,ere t$e s%b9ects o( t$e com&laint. 23>s ans,er: !eman!s (or t$e &a'ment o( real &ro&ert' ta4es $a! been ma!e b%t it re(%se! to &a' t$e same (or t$e reason t$at %n!er )ec. 05 &aragra&$ ;g< o( =D 0G0 in relation to =.D. No.. CC1 as amen!e! it ,as e4em&t (rom &a'ing sai! ta4. *t also raise! as a((irmative !e(enses t$at t$e com&laint state! no ca%se o( action an! t$at t$e claims $a! been ,aive! aban!one! or ot$er,ise e4ting%is$e! or barre! b' t$e stat%te o( limitations. LC: !ismisse! t$e com&laint. *t r%le! t$at =.D. No. CC1 e4&ressl' e4em&ts &rivate res&on!ent (rom &a'ing t$e real &ro&ert' ta4es !eman!e! it being a grantee o( a (ranc$ise to generate !istrib%te an! sell electric c%rrent (or lig$t. 2$e co%rt $el! t$at in lie% o( sai! ta4es &rivate res&on!ent $a! been re.%ire! to &a' t,o &ercent ;/Y< (ranc$ise ta4 in line ,it$ t$e intent o( t$e la, to give assistance to o&erators s%c$ as t$e &rivate res&on!ent to enable t$e cons%mers to en9o' c$ea&er rates. B%t%an )a,mill *nc. v. Cit' o( B%t%an: t$e co%rt r%le! t$at localDgovernments are ,it$o%t &o,er to ta4 t$e electric com&anies alrea!' s%b9ect to (ranc$ise ta4 %nless t$eir (ranc$ise allo,s t$e im&osition o( a!!itional ta4. M-: !enie!. *))@3: 6ON 23 is e4em&t (rom t$e &a'ment o( real &ro&ert' ta4 %n!er )ec. 05 ;g< o( =.D. No. 0G0 in relation to =.D. No. CC1 as amen!e!. NO. )ec. 05;g< o( =.D. No. 0G0 t$e -eal =ro&ert' 2a4 Co!e: )3C. 05. 34em&tions (rom -eal =ro&ert' 2a4. D 2$e e4em&tion s$all be as (ollo,s:;g< -eal &ro&ert' e4em&t %n!er ot$er la,s. 23 conten!s t$at t$e "ot$er la,s" re(erre! to in t$is )ection is =.D. No. CC1 ;Lo,ering t$e Cost to Cons%mers o( 3lectricit' b' -e!%cing t$e Franc$ise 2a4 =a'able b' 3lectric Franc$ise Hol!ers an! t$e 2ari(( on F%el Oils (or t$e Generation o( 3lectric =o,er b' =%blic @tilities<. *ts &ertinent &rovisions state: )3C2*ON 1. #n' &rovision o( la, or local or!inance to t$e contrar' not,it$stan!ing t$e (ranc$ise ta4 &a'able b' all grantees o( (ranc$ises to generate !istrib%te an! sell electric c%rrent (or lig$t $eat an! &o,er s$all be t,o ;/Y< o( t$eir gross recei&ts receive! (rom t$e sale o( electric c%rrent an! (rom transactions inci!ent to t$e generation !istrib%tion an! sale o( electric c%rrent. )%c$ (ranc$ise ta4 s$all be &a'able to t$e Commissioner o( *nternal -even%e or $is !%l' a%t$oriBe! re&resentative on or be(ore t$e t,entiet$ !a' o( t$e mont$ (ollo,ing t$e en! o( eac$ calen!ar .%arter or mont$ as ma' be &rovi!e! in t$e res&ective (ranc$ise or &ertinent m%nici&al reg%lation an! s$all an' &rovision o( t$e Local 2a4 Co!e or an' ot$er la, to t$e contrar' not,it$stan!ing be in lie% o( all ta4es assessments o( ,$atever nat%re im&ose! b' an' national or a%t$orit' on earnings recei&ts income an! &rivilege o( generation !istrib%tion an! sale o( electric c%rrent." =.D. No. CC1 ,as amen!e! on December 18. 187C b' =.D. No. 8C/ 15 ,it$ t$e insertion o( t$e &$rase "an! (or t$e man%(act%re !istrib%tion an! sale o( cit' gas" bet,een t$e &$rases ". . . lig$t $eat an! &o,er" an! "s$all be t,o ;/Y< . . . ." 6e !o not agree ,it$ t$e lo,er co%rt t$at t$e &$rase "in lie% o( all ta4es an! assessments o( ,$atever nat%re" in t$e secon! &aragra&$ o( )ec. 1 o( =.D. No. CC1 e4&ressl' e4em&ts &rivate res&on!ent (rom &a'ing real &ro&ert' ta4es. #s correctl' observe! b' t$e &etitioner sai! &roviso is

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


mo!i(ie! an! !elimite! b' t$e &$rase "on earnings recei&ts. income an! &rivilege o( generation !istrib%tion an! sale" ,$ic$ s&eci(ies t$e +in!s o( ta4es an! assessments ,$ic$ s$all not be collecte! in vie, o( t$e im&osition o( t$e (ranc$ise ta4. )ai! en%merate! items %&on ,$ic$ ta4es s$all not be im&ose! $ave no relation at all to an! are entirel' !i((erent (rom. real &ro&erties s%b9ect to ta4. *( t$e intention o( t$e la, is to e4em&t electric (ranc$ise grantees (rom &a'ing real &ro&ert' ta4 an! to ma+e t$e t,o ;/Y< &ercent (ranc$ise ta4 t$e onl' im&osable ta4 t$en sai! en%merate! items ,o%l! not $ave been a!!e! ,$en =.D. No. 8C/ ,as enacte! to amen! =.D. No. CC1. 2$e legislative a%t$orit' ,o%l! $ave sim&l' sto&&e! a(ter t$e &$rase "national or local a%t$orit'" b' &%tting t$erein a &erio!. On t$e contrar' it ,ent on to en%merate ,$at s$o%l! not be s%b9ect to ta4 t$ereb' !elimiting t$e e4tent o( t$e e4em&tion. 6e li+e,ise !o not (in! merit in &rivate res&on!entHs contention t$at t$e real &ro&erties being ta4e! viB. t$e mac$iner' (or t$e generation an! !istrib%tion o( electric &o,er t$e b%il!ing $o%sing sai! mac$iner' an! t$e lan! on ,$ic$ sai! b%il!ing is constr%cte! are necessar' (or t$e o&eration o( its b%siness o( generation !istrib%tion an! sale o( electric c%rrent an! t$ere(ore t$e' s$o%l! be e4em&te! (rom ta4ation. =rivate res&on!ent a&&arentl' !oes not .%ite com&re$en! t$e !istinction among t$e s%b9ect matters or ob9ects o( t$e ta4es involve!. *t bears em&$asis t$at =.D. No. CC1 as amen!e! b' =.D. No. 8C/ !eals ,it$ (ranc$ise ta4 an! tari(( on (%el oils an! t$e "earnings recei&ts income an! &rivilege o( generation !istrib%tion an! sale o( electric c%rrent" are t$e items e4em&te! (rom ta4ation b' t$e im&osition o( sai! ta4 or tari(( !%t'. On t$e ot$er $an! t$e collection com&laint (ile! b' &etitioner s&eci(ie! onl' ta4es !%e on real &ro&erties. 6$ile =.D. No. CC1 ,as inten!e! to give "assistance to t$e (ranc$ise $ol!ers b' re!%cing some o( t$eir ta4 an! tari(( obligations " to constr%e sai! !ecree as $aving grante! s%c$ (ranc$ise $ol!ers e4em&tion (rom &a'ment o( real &ro&ert' ta4 ,o%l! %n!%l' e4ten! t$e ambit o( e4em&tions be'on! t$e &%rvie, o( t$e la,. 2$e anne4es attac$e! to &rivate res&on!entHs comment on t$e &etition to &rove b' contem&oraneo%s inter&retation its claime! ta4 e4em&tion are not o( m%c$ $el& to it. De&artment Or!er No. 1CD70 !ate! )e&tember 1G 1870 reg%lating t$e im&lementation o( =.D. No. CC1 merel' reiterates t$e "in lie% o( all ta4es" &roviso. Local 2a4 -eg%lations 1D7C 1/ iss%e! b' t$en )ecretar' o( Finance Cesar Kirata an! a!!resse! to all =rovincial an! Cit' 2reas%rers en9oins strict com&liance ,it$ t$e !irective t$at "t$e (ranc$ise ta4 im&ose! %n!er Local 2a4 Or!inances &%rs%ant to )ection 18 o( t$e Local 2a4 Co!e as amen!e! s$all be collecte! (rom b%siness $ol!ing (ranc$ises b%t not (rom establis$ments ,$ose (ranc$ise contains t$e in lie% o( all ta4esH &roviso " t$ereb' clearl' in!icating t$at sai! &roviso e4em&ts ta4&a'ers li+e &rivate res&on!ent (rom &a'ing t$e (ranc$ise ta4 collecte! b' t$e &rovinces %n!er t$e Local 2a4 Co!e. Lastl' t$e letter o( t$e t$en B*- #cting Commissioner a!!resse! to t$e Matic La, O((ice granting e4em&tion to t$e latterHs client (rom &a'ing t$e "&rivilege ta4 ,$ic$ is an e4cise ta4 on t$e &rivilege o( engaging in b%siness" clearl' e4cl%!es realt' ta4 (rom s%c$ e4em&tion. 6e also (in! mis&lace! t$e lo,er co%rtHs an! t$e &rivate res&on!entHs reliance on B%t%an )a,mill. v. Cit' o( B%t%an. *n t$at case t$e .%estione! ta4 is a ta4 on t$e gross sales or recei&ts o( sai! sa,mill ,$ile t$e ta4 involve! $erein is a real &ro&ert' ta4. 2$e Cit' o( B%t%an is categoricall' &ro$ibite! t$erein b' )ec. /;9< o( t$e Local #%tonom' #ct (rom im&osing "ta4es o( an' +in!Non &erson &a'ing (ranc$ise ta4." On t$e ot$er $an! =.D. No. CC1 is not as allDencom&assing as sai! &rovision o( t$e Local #%tonom' #ct (or it en%merates t$e items ,$ic$ are not ta4able b' virt%e o( t$e &a'ment o( (ranc$ise ta4.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


*t $as al,a's been t$e r%le t$at "e4em&tions (rom ta4ation are constr%e! in strictissimi 9%ris against t$e ta4&a'er an! liberall' in (avor o( t$e ta4ing a%t$orit'" &rimaril' beca%se "ta4es are t$e li(ebloo! o( government an! t$eir &rom&t an! certain availabilit' is an im&erio%s nee!." 2$%s to be e4em&te! (rom &a'ment o( ta4es it is t$e ta4&a'erHs !%t' to 9%sti(' t$e e4em&tion "b' ,or!s too &lain to be mista+en an! too categorical to be misinter&rete!. =rivate res&on!ent $as %tterl' (aile! to !isc$arge t$is !%t'. Lo,er co%rt erre! in e4em&ting 23 (rom &a'ing real &ro&ert' ta4 on its &ro&erties ,$ic$ are en%merate! in t$e com&laint. Ho,ever in its !ecision t$e lo,er co%rt (o%n! t$at &rivate res&on!ent o,ns onl' t$ree real &ro&erties consisting o( t$e &arcel o( lan! mac$iner' s$e! an! mac$iner' noticeabl' omitting t$e ice !ro& (actor' mentione! in its com&laint b' t$e &etitioner. *n vie, $o,ever o( t$e &etitionerHs (ail%re to assign s%c$ omission as an error t$e same s$o%l! be consi!ere! ,aive!. Casi@o v. CA Facts: 2$e )angg%niang =angl%ngso! o( Gingoog &asse! -esol%tion 08 ,$ic$ classi(ie! certain areas incl%!ing CasiRo>s colise%m ,$ic$ ,as license! as a coc+&it. 2$e classi(ication le! to t$e cancellation o( CasiRo>s license to o&erate s%c$ coc+&it. 2$e or!inance &rovi!es t$at c$anges in t$e Boning or!inance as a res%lt o( t$e revie, b' t$e Local -evie, Committee s$all be treate! as an amen!ment &rovi!e! t$at s%c$ is carrie! o%t t$ro%g$ a resol%tion o( t$ree (o%rt$s vote o( t$e )=. )ai! amen!ments s$all ta+e e((ect onl' a(ter a&&roval an! a%t$entication b' t$e H)-C. On #%g%st 11 188C -esol%tion No. 178 Co!e Or!inance )eries o( 188C reclassi(ie! Bloc+ 1/C as ,it$in t$e recreational Bone t$%s allege!l' amen!ing -esol%tion No. 08. Nine ;8< members o( t$e sai! )= &artici&ate! ,it$ (o%r ;0< members voting (or t$e amen!ment ,$ile (o%r ;0< vote! against an! ,it$ one ;1< abstention. 2$e viceDma'or as &resi!ing o((icer bro+e t$e !ea!loc+ b' voting (or t$e amen!ment. 6$en -esol%tion No. 178 ,as transmitte! to t$en Cit' Ma'or Mig%el =a!eranga (or a&&roval $e ret%rne! t$e same to t$e )= ,it$in ten !a's ,it$o%t an' action stating t$at $is a&&roval t$ereo( ,as not necessar' since it !i! not involve a !is&osition o( cit' government (%n!s as &rovi!e! b' )ection 185 o( t$e LGC an! )ection 10 o( t$e c$arter o( Gingoog Cit'. B' virt%e o( sai! -esol%tion No. 178 Ma'or L%go! iss%e! to &etitioner t$e a(orestate! &ermit to o&erate a coc+&it !ate! #&ril / 188G ,$ic$ ,as rene,e! b' anot$er &ermit iss%e! on 7an%ar' C 1887. Gingoog Gallera &roteste! t$e o&eration o( Colise%m be(ore t$e =$ili&&ine Game(o,l Commission. 2$e &rotest ,as (o%n!e! on t$e (act t$at no certi(icate o( registration $a! as 'et been iss%e! b' t$e =GC alt$o%g$ cit' ma'orHs &ermits ,ere iss%e! to &etitioner. On #&ril 11 188G t$e =GC t$ro%g$ O*C Orog sent a telegram to t$e )tation Comman!er o( Gingoog Cit' to s%s&en! in t$e meantime t$e o&eration o( t$e coc+&it. On #&ril /0 188G t$e =GC event%all' sent a telegram to t$e cit' ma'or to sto& an' coc+(ig$t in t$e Colise%m in vie, o( its (ail%re to register ,it$ t$e =GC. 2$erea(ter an action (or &ro$ibition an! man!am%s ,it$ &reliminar' in9%nction ,as (ile! b' Gallera be(ore t$e -2C against &etitioner on t$e gro%n! t$at -esol%tion No. 178 &%r&orte!l' amen!ing Boning Or!inance No. 08 is invali!. *t asserte! t$at t$e classi(ication o( Colise%mHs site as still ,it$in t$e resi!ential Bone o( Gingoog Cit' ,as accor!ingl' maintaine! an! %nc$ange! t$ereb'

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ren!ering t$e ma'orHs &ermits iss%e! to t$e latter n%ll an! voi! (or being in violation o( )ection G o( t$e -%les an! -eg%lations o( t$e =GC. On #&ril /C 188G t$e trial co%rt iss%e! a ,rit o( &reliminar' in9%nction en9oining &etitioner to !esist (rom o&erating t$e Colise%m %ntil t$e =GC s$all $ave (inall' !eci!e! t$e controvers' bet,een &etitioner an! &rivate res&on!ent Gallera. -2C: !eclare! t$e a(oresai! ma'orHs &ermits n%ll an! voi! an! or!ere! CasiRo an! all &ersons re&resenting $im or acting in $is be$al( (rom (%rt$er o&erating t$e coc+&it in .%estion. M- !enie!. *ss%es: 1. 6ON t$e =GC controls t$e o&erations o( t$e Don -om%lo -o!rig%eB Colise%m ,it$ res&ect to t$e local?or!inar' coc+(ig$ts !%ring )%n!a's $oli!a's an! (iestas in Gingoog Cit' !es&ite t$e (act t$at t$e Ma'or o( Gingoog Cit' iss%e! a ma'orHs &ermit (or 188G an! 1887 ,it$ t$e conc%rrence o( t$e sangg%niang &anl%ngso!. :3). =GC $as t$e &o,er not o( control b%t onl' o( revie, an! s%&ervision. 2$is &o,er ,as vali!l' e4ercise! b' sai! commission over Colise%m ,$en it so%g$t to sto& t$e (ormerHs o&erations t$ro%g$ t$e local o((icials. *t !i! not ,$imsicall' or!er t$e s%s&ension an! t$e conse.%ent sto&&age o( Colise%mHs o&erations. -at$er =GC onl' e4ercise! its &o,er o( revie, over t$e acts &er(orme! b' t$e local a%t$orities in relation to or ,$ic$ a((ect t$e e4ercise o( its (%nctions. 2$e &o,er o( revie, is e4ercise! to !etermine ,$et$er it is necessar' to correct t$e acts o( t$e s%bor!inate an! to see to it t$at $e &er(orms $is !%ties in accor!ance ,it$ la,. 2$is t$e =GC !i! b' bringing to t$e attention o( t$e local a%t$orities t$e nonDcom&liance b' &etitioner ,it$ t$e r%les involve! in t$is case ,$ic$ ,e (in! reasonable an! necessar' in t$e !isc$arge o( t$e reg%lator' (%nctions o( =GC. =GC ma' (or t$at &%r&ose an! as it !i! $ere in!icate its !isa&&roval o( t$e acts o( t$e local o((icials concerne! to stress an! &er(orm its role ,it$ res&ect to t$e reg%lation o( coc+&its. 2$e !ecision o( t$e First Division o( t$is Co%rt in Gingoog Gallera *nc. vs. =GC is not "!iametricall' o&&ose! to" t$e !ecision ren!ere! in t$is case in regar! to t$e &rimac' o( t$e &o,er?a%t$orit' bet,een t$e local o((icials o( t$e Cit' o( Gingoog an! t$e =GC. Bot$ !ecisions are in accor! ,it$ one anot$er. 2$e !ecision o( t$e First Division t$at it is t$e M%nici&al?Cit' Ma'or ,it$ t$e a%t$oriBation o( t$e )angg%niang Ba'an t$at $as t$e &rimar' &o,er to iss%e licenses (or t$e o&eration o( or!inar' coc+&its is o( t$e same tenor an! e((ect as t$e !ecision o( t$is case as can be seen in t$e (ollo,ing ,or!ings: 2$e tas+ o( granting licenses to o&erate coc+&its is lo!ge! ,it$ Cit' an! M%nici&al Ma'or ,it$ t$e conc%rrence o( t$eir res&ective )angg%nians. 2$is is s&eci(icall' grante! to t$em b' )ection 0 o( =resi!ential Decree No. 185/ as amen!e! b' =resi!ential Decree No. 185/D# ,$ic$ states: )ec. 0. Cit' an! M%nici&al Ma'ors ,it$ t$e conc%rrence o( t$eir res&ective )angg%nians s$all $ave t$e a%t$orit' to license an! reg%late reg%lar coc+(ig$ting &%rs%ant to t$e r%les an! reg%lations &rom%lgate! b' t$e Commission an! s%b9ect to its revie, an! s%&ervision. 6$ile t$is Co%rt agrees ,it$ t$e movant t$at a ma'orHs &ermit? license is a con!ition &rece!ent to t$e iss%ance o( t$e =GC -egistration Certi(icate in t$e case at bar t$e cit' ma'orHs &ermits iss%e! to movant ,ere n%ll an! voi! as t$e' ,ere grante! &%rs%ant to -esol%tion No. C78 ,$ic$ never too+ e((ect beca%se o( nonDcom&liance ,it$ t$e &roce!%re &rescribe! in -esol%tion No. 08. #n! beca%se o( t$e n%llit' o( t$e Ma'orHs &ermit t$e -egistration Certi(icate No. CD8G81G iss%e! to movant is li+e,ise n%ll an! voi!. 2$e s&ring cannot rise $ig$er t$an its so%rce /. 6ON t$e ma'orHs &ermits iss%e! b' t$e Ma'or o( Gingoog Cit' (or t$e 'ears 188G an! 1887 are n%ll an! voi! beca%se -esol%tion 178 !i! not amen! )ection G.00 o( -esol%tion 08 Co!e Or!inance o( 1880 t$e t$reeD(o%rt$s ;1?0< votes not $aving been obtaine! in &assing sai! -esol%tion 178. :3). =etitioner: legal beca%se t$e same ,as &asse! b' t$e sangg%nian b' a ma9orit' o( (ive a((irmative votes as against (o%r negative votes. He conten!s

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t$at t$e t$reeD(o%rt$s vote re.%irement %n!er )ection G.00 -esol%tion No. 08 asi!e (rom its being merel' a (ormal re.%irement is an enactment o( t$e sangg%nian ,$ic$ is %ltra vires. )C: -esol%tion No. 178 ,as !eclare! invali! b' t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals (or (ail%re to com&l' ,it$ t$e re.%ire! votes necessar' (or its vali!it'. #lt$o%g$ t$e c$arter o( t$e Cit' o( Gingoog an! t$e LGC re.%ire onl' a ma9orit' (or t$e enactment o( an or!inance -esol%tion No. 08 cannot be vali!l' amen!e! b' t$e resol%tion in .%estion ,it$o%t com&l'ing ,it$ t$e categorical re.%irement o( a t$reeD(o%rt$s vote incor&orate! in t$e ver' same or!inance so%g$t to be amen!e!. 2$e &ertinent &rovisions in t$e a(oresai! cit' c$arter an! t$e LGC obvio%sl' are o( general a&&lication an! embrace a ,i!er sco&e or s%b9ect matter. *n t$e enactment o( or!inances in general t$e a&&lication o( t$e a(orementione! la,s cannot be !is&%te!. @n!eniabl' $o,ever )ection G.00 o( sai! or!inance regar!ing amen!ments t$ereto is a s&eci(ic an! &artic%lar &rovision (or sai! or!inance an! e4&licitl' &rovi!es (or a !i((erent n%mber o( votes. 6$ere t$ere is in t$e same stat%te a &artic%lar enactment an! also a general one ,$ic$ in its most com&re$ensive sense ,o%l! incl%!e ,$at is embrace! in t$e (ormer t$e &artic%lar enactment m%st be o&erative an! t$e general statement m%st be ta+en to a((ect onl' s%c$ cases ,it$in its lang%age as are not ,it$in t$e &rovisions o( t$e &artic%lar enactment. *n t$e instant case alt$o%g$ t$e general la, on t$e matter re.%ires a mere ma9orit' t$e $ig$er re.%isite vote in -esol%tion No. 08 s$all govern since m%nici&al a%t$orities are in a better &osition to !etermine t$e evils so%g$t to be &revente! b' t$e incl%sion or incor&oration o( &artic%lar &rovisions in enacting a &artic%lar stat%te an! t$ere(ore to &ass t$e a&&ro&riate or!inance to attain t$e main ob9ect o( t$e la,. 2$is more stringent re.%irement on t$e necessar' votes (or amen!ments to -esol%tion No. 08 a&&arentl' (orestalle! t$e a&&re$en!e! contingenc' (or to borro, t$e ,or!s o( res&on!ent co%rt "in an a&&arent attem&t to get ri! o( t$is legal st%mbling bloc+ ;t$e &ro$ibition against a coc+&it in a resi!ential Bone %n!er =roclamation 08< t$e )angg%niang =angl%nso! o( Gingoog Cit' &asse! -esol%tion No. 178 Co!e Or!inance series o( 188C " . . . "t$ereb' reclassi('ing Bloc+ 1/C into a recreational Bone." 6it$al it is legall' &ermissible as e4ce&tions to t$e general &rovisions on meas%res covere! b' cit' c$arters an! t$e LGC t$at t$e vote re.%irement in certain or!inances ma' be s&eciall' &rovi!e! (or as in t$e case o( )ection G.00 o( -esol%tion No. 08 instea! o( t$e %s%al ma9orit' Kote. Bloc+ 1/C ,$ere Colise%m is locate! remains classi(ie! as a resi!ential area $ence t$e o&eration o( a coc+&it t$erein is &ro$ibite!. 2$is ,eig$t' consi!eration ,$ic$ s$o%l! act%all' be t$e &rinci&al basis (or t$e n%lli(ication b' res&on!ent co%rt o( t$e t,o ma'orHs &ermits iss%e!. *n t$e case at bar t$ere ,as no registration certi(icate iss%e! m%c$ less a%t$oriBation to o&erate given b' t$e =GC to t$e &rivate res&on!entD a&&ellant a con!ition &rece!ent be(ore a grant o( ma'ors &ermit or license to con!%ct coc+(ig$ting. 2$ere(ore t$e ma'orHs &ermits iss%e! to &rivate res&on!ent are n%ll an! voi!. Obvio%sl' t$e =GC !i! not grant t$e &rivate res&on!entDa&&ellant t$e &ro&er registration certi(icate to o&erate $is coc+&it beca%se t$e same ,as not constr%cte! ,it$in t$e a&&ro&riate areas as &rescribe! in Boning la,s or or!inances o( Gingoog Cit' &%rs%ant to )ection G o( -%les an! -eg%lation o( t$e =GC. Gamboa v. Aguirre Facts: *n t$e 188C elections Coscoll%ela Gamboa 7r. an! #g%irre 7r. an! #raneta ,ere electe! Negros Occi!ental Governor KiceD Governor an! )= members res&ectivel'. )ometime in #%g%st o( 188C t$e governor !esignate! Gamboa as #cting Governor (or t$e !%ration o( t$e (ormerHs o((icial tri& abroa! %ntil $is ret%rn. 6$en t$e )= $el! its reg%lar session on )e&tember G 188C #g%irre an!

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#raneta .%estione! t$e a%t$orit' o( &etitioner to &resi!e t$erein in vie, o( $is !esignation as #cting Governor an! as+e! $im to vacate t$e C$air. Gamboa $o,ever re(%se! to !o so. *n anot$er session seven ;7< members o( t$e )= vote! to allo, &etitioner to contin%e &resi!ing ,$ile (o%r ;0< ot$ers vote! against ,it$ one ;1< abstention. On )e&tember // 188C #P# (ile! be(ore t$e lo,er co%rt a &etition (or !eclator' relie( an! &ro$ibition. *n t$e meantime on October / 188C t$e Governor reDass%me! $is o((ice. Later t$e trial co%rt ren!ere! a !ecision an! !eclare! &etitioner as "tem&oraril' legall' inca&acitate! to &resi!e over t$e sessions o( t$e )= !%ring t$e &erio! t$at $e is t$e #cting Governor." #ggrieve! Gamboa (ile! a &etition (or revie, raising t$e iss%e earlier mentione!. *ss%e: 6ON an inc%mbent KiceDGovernor ,$ile conc%rrentl' t$e #cting Governor contin%e to &resi!e over t$e sessions o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan. )ec. 08;a< an! 0GG;a< ;1< o( t$e LGC &rovi!e t$at t$e KiceDGovernor s$all be t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e )=. *n a!!ition to s%c$ (%nction $e "become;s<" t$e Governor an! "ass%me;s<" t$e $ig$er o((ice (or t$e %ne4&ire! term o( $is &re!ecessor in case o( "&ermanent vacanc'" t$erein. 6$en t$e vacanc' $o,ever is merel' tem&orar' t$e KiceDGovernor "s$all a%tomaticall' e4ercise t$e &o,ers ;s%b9ect to certain limitations< an! &er(orm t$e !%ties an! (%nctions" o( t$e Governor. *t ma' be note! t$at t$e co!e &rovi!es onl' (or mo!es o( s%ccession in case o( &ermanent vacanc' in t$e o((ice o( t$e Governor an! t$e KiceDGovernor ;,$et$er single or sim%ltaneo%sl'< as ,ell as in case o( a tem&orar' vacanc' in t$e o((ice o( t$e Governor. B%t no s%c$ contingenc' is &rovi!e! in case o( tem&orar' vacanc' in t$e o((ice o( t$e KiceDGovernor 9%st li+e t$e 1881 LGC. *t is correct t$at ,$en t$e KiceDGovernor e4ercises t$e "&o,ers an! !%ties" o( t$e O((ice o( t$e Governor $e !oes not ass%me t$e latter o((ice. He onl' "acts" as t$e Governor b%t !oes not "become" t$e Governor. His ass%m&tion o( t$e &o,ers !%ties an! (%nctions o( t$e &rovincial C$ie( 34ec%tive !oes not create a &ermanent vac%%m or vacanc' in $is &osition as t$e KiceDGovernor. Necessaril' $e !oes not relin.%is$ nor aban!on $is &osition an! title as KiceDGovernor b' merel' becoming an #cting Governor ;not Governor< or b' merel' e4ercising t$e &o,ers an! !%ties o( t$e $ig$er o((icer. B%t t$e &roblem is ,$ile in s%c$ ca&acit' !oes $e tem&oraril' relin.%is$ t$e &o,ers (%nctions !%ties an! res&onsibilities o( t$e KiceDGovernor incl%!ing t$e &o,er to &resi!e over t$e sessions o( t$e )=T LGC silent b%t :3). # KiceDGovernor ,$o is conc%rrentl' an #cting Governor is act%all' a .%asiD Governor. 2$is means t$at (or &%r&oses o( e4ercising $is legislative &rerogatives an! &o,ers $e is !eeme! as a nonDmember o( t$e )= (or t$e time being. B' tra!ition t$e o((ices o( t$e &rovincial Governor an! KiceDGovernor are essentiall' e4ec%tive in nat%re ,$ereas &lain members o( t$e &rovincial boar! &er(orm (%nctions &arta+ing o( a legislative c$aracter. 2$is is beca%se t$e a%t$orit' veste! b' la, in t$e &rovincial boar!s involves &rimaril' a !elegation o( some legislative &o,ers o( Congress. @nli+e %n!er t$e ol! Co!e ,$ere t$e Governor is not onl' t$e &rovincial C$ie( 34ec%tive b%t also t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e local legislative bo!' t$e ne, Co!e !elineate! t$e %nion o( t$e e4ec%tiveDlegislative &o,ers in t$e &rovincial cit' an! m%nici&al levels e4ce&t in t$e Baranga'. @n!er -.#. 71G5 t$e Governor ,as !e&rive! o( t$e &o,er to &resi!e over t$e )= an! is no longer consi!ere! a member t$ereo(. 2$is is clear (rom t$e la, ,$en it &rovi!es t$at "local legislative &o,er s$all be veste! in t$e )= " ,$ic$ is "t$e legislative bo!' o( t$e &rovince " an! en%merates t$erein members$i& consisting o( t$e: KiceDGovernor as &resi!ing o((icer reg%lar elective )= members t$ree elective sectoral re&resentatives an! t$ose e4Do((icio members namel' &resi!ent o( t$e &rovincial c$a&ter o( t$e liga ng mga baranga' &resi!ent o( t$e &anlala,igang &e!eras'on ng mga sangg%niang +abataan &resi!ent o( t$e &rovincial (e!eration o( sangg%niang members o( m%nici&alities an! com&onent cities. None being incl%!e! in t$e

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en%meration t$e Governor is !eeme! e4cl%!e! a&&l'ing t$e r%le in legal $ermene%tics t$at ,$en t$e la, en%merates t$e la, necessaril' e4cl%!es. On t$e contrar' local e4ec%tive &o,er in t$e &rovince is veste! alone in t$e Governor. 11 Conse.%entl' t$e %nion o( legislativeDe4ec%tive &o,ers in t$e o((ice o( t$e local c$ie( e4ec%tive %n!er t$e (ormer Co!e $as been !isban!e! so t$at eit$er !e&artment no, com&rises !i((erent an! nonD intermingling o((icial &ersonalities ,it$ t$e en! in vie, o( ens%ring a better !eliver' o( &%blic service an! &rovi!e a s'stem o( c$ec+ an! balance bet,een t$e t,o. *t $as been $el! t$at i( a Ma'or ,$o is o%t o( t$e contrar' is consi!ere! "e((ectivel' absent" t$e KiceD Ma'or s$o%l! !isc$arge t$e !%ties o( t$e ma'or !%ring t$e latterHs absence. 2$is !octrine s$o%l! e.%all' a&&l' to t$e KiceDGovernor since $e is similarl' sit%ate! as t$e KiceDMa'or. #lt$o%g$ it is !i((ic%lt to la' !o,n a !e(inite r%le as to ,$at constit%tes absence 'et t$is term s$o%l! be reasonabl' constr%e! to mean "e((ective" absence t$at is one t$at ren!ers t$e o((icer concerne! &o,erless (or t$e time being to !isc$arge t$e &o,ers an! &rerogatives o( $is o((ice. 2$ere is no vacanc' ,$enever t$e o((ice is occ%&ie! b' a legall' .%ali(ie! inc%mbent. # sens% contrario t$ere is a vacanc' ,$en t$ere is no &erson la,(%ll' a%t$oriBe! to ass%me an! e4ercise at &resent t$e !%ties o( t$e o((ice. B' virt%e o( t$e (oregoing !e(inition it can be sai! t$at t$e !esignation a&&ointment or ass%m&tion o( t$e KiceDGovernor as t$e #cting Governor creates a corres&on!ing tem&orar' vacanc' in t$e o((ice o( t$e KiceDGovernor !%ring s%c$ contingenc'. Consi!ering t$e silence o( t$e la, on t$e matter t$e mo!e o( s%ccession &rovi!e! (or &ermanent vacancies %n!er t$e ne, Co!e in t$e o((ice o( t$e KiceDGovernor ma' li+e,ise be observe! in t$e event o( tem&orar' vacanc' occ%rring in t$e same o((ice. 2$is is so beca%se in t$e e'es o( t$e la, t$e o((ice to ,$ic$ $e ,as electe! ,as le(t barren o( a legall' .%ali(ie! &erson to e4ercise t$e !%ties o( t$e o((ice o( t$e KiceD Governor. Being t$e #cting Governor t$e KiceDGovernor cannot contin%e to sim%ltaneo%sl' e4ercise t$e !%ties o( t$e latter o((ice since t$e nat%re o( t$e !%ties o( t$e &rovincial Governor call (or a (%llDtime occ%&ant to !isc$arge t$em. )%c$ is not onl' consistent ,it$ b%t also a&&ears to be t$e clear rationale o( t$e ne, Co!e ,$erein t$e &olic' o( &er(orming !%al (%nctions in bot$ o((ices $as alrea!' been aban!one!. 2o re&eat t$e creation o( a tem&orar' vacanc' in t$e o((ice o( t$e Governor creates a corres&on!ing tem&orar' vacanc' in t$e o((ice o( t$e KiceDGovernor ,$enever t$e latter acts as Governor b' virt%e o( s%c$ tem&orar' vacanc'. 2$is event constit%tes an "inabilit'" on t$e &art o( t$e reg%lar &resi!ing o((icer ;Kice Governor< to &resi!e !%ring t$e )= sessions ,$ic$ t$%s calls (or t$e o&eration o( t$e reme!' set in #rticle 08;b< o( t$e LGC S concerning t$e election o( a tem&orar' &resi!ing o((icer. 2$e contin%it' o( t$e #cting GovernorHs ;Kice Governor< &o,ers as &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e )= is s%s&en!e! so long as $e is in s%c$ ca&acit'. @n!er )ection 08;b< ";i<n t$e event o( t$e inabilit' o( t$e reg%lar &resi!ing o((icer to &resi!e at t$e sangg%nian session t$e members &resent an! constit%ting a .%or%m s$all elect (rom among t$emselves a tem&orar' &resi!ing o((icer." Garcia v. COM%L%C Facts: *n its =amba'ang Ma&as'a$an Blg. 15 )er'e 1881 t$e )angg%niang Ba'an ng Morong Bataan agree! to t$e incl%sion o( t$e m%nici&alit' o( Morong as &art o( t$e )%bic )&ecial 3conomic Zone in accor! ,it$ -# 7//7. On Ma' /0 1881 &etitioners (ile! a &etition ,it$ t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Morong to ann%l =amba'ang Ma&as'a$an Blg. 15 )er'e 1881 an! so%g$t to allo, t$e incl%sion o( Morong s%b9ect to certain con!itions. 2$e m%nici&alit' o( Morong !i! not ta+e an' action on t$e &etition ,it$in 15 !a's a(ter its s%bmission. =etitioners t$en resorte! to t$eir &o,er o( initiative %n!er t$e LGC. 2$e' starte! to solicit t$e re.%ire! n%mber o( signat%res to ca%se t$e re&eal o( sai!

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resol%tion. @n+no,n to t$e &etitioners $o,ever t$e Kice Ma'or an! =resi!ing O((icer o( t$e )angg%niang Ba'an ng Morong ,rote a letter !ate! 7%ne 11 1881 to t$e 34ec%tive Director o( COM3L3C re.%esting t$e !enial o( t$e &etition (or a local initiative an!?or re(eren!%m beca%se t$e e4ercise ,ill 9%st &romote !ivisiveness co%nter &ro!%ctivit' an! (%tilit'. *n its session o( 7%l' G 1881 t$e COM3L3C en banc resolve! to !en' t$e &etition (or local initiative on t$e gro%n! t$at its s%b9ect is "merel' a resol%tion ;&amba'ang +a&as'a$an< an! not an or!inance." On 7%l' 11 1881 t$e COM3L3C en banc (%rt$er resolve! to !irect =rovincial 3lection )%&ervisor to $ol! action on t$e a%t$entication o( signat%res being gat$ere! b' &etitioners. COM3L3C o&&ose! t$e &etition. 2$ro%g$ t$e )olicitor General it conten!s t$at %n!er t$e LGC a resol%tion cannot be t$e s%b9ect o( a local initiative. 2$e same stance is ass%me! b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Morong. *ss%e: 6ON =amba'ang Ma&as'a$an Blg. 15 ser'e 1881 o( t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Morong Bataan is t$e &ro&er s%b9ect o( an initiative. -es&: %n!er t$e LGC onl' an or!inance can be t$e s%b9ect o( initiative. section 1/5 C$a&ter / 2itle J* Boo+ *: Local initiative is t$e legal &rocess ,$ereb' t$e registere! voters o( a local government %nit ma' !irectl' &ro&ose enact or amen! an' or!inance. )C: 2$e Constit%tion clearl' incl%!es not onl' or!inances b%t resol%tions as a&&ro&riate s%b9ects o( a local initiative. )ection 1/ o( #rticle K*: "2$e Congress s$all as earl' as &ossible &rovi!e (or a s'stem o( initiative an! re(eren!%m an! t$e e4ce&tions t$ere(rom ,$ereb' t$e &eo&le can !irectl' &ro&ose an! enact la,s or a&&rove or re9ect an' act or la, or &art t$ereo( &asse! b' t$e Congress or local legislative bo!' . . ." #n act incl%!es a resol%tion. Blac+: !e(ines an act as "an e4&ression o( ,ill or &%r&ose . . . it ma' !enote somet$ing !one . . . as a legislat%re incl%!ing not merel' &$'sical acts b%t also !ecrees e!icts la,s 9%!gments resolves a,ar!s an! !eterminations . . . ." *t is basic t$at a la, s$o%l! be constr%e! in $armon' ,it$ an! not in violation o( t$e constit%tion. *n -e G%arina t$at "i( t$ere is !o%bt or %ncertaint' as to t$e meaning o( t$e legislative i( t$e ,or!s or &rovisions are obsc%re or i( t$e enactment is (airl' s%sce&tible o( t,o or more constr%ctions t$at inter&retation ,ill be a!o&te! ,$ic$ ,ill avoi! t$e e((ect o( %nconstit%tionalit' even t$o%g$ it ma' be necessar' (or t$is &%r&ose to !isregar! t$e more %s%al or a&&arent im&ort o( t$e lang%age %se!." 2$e constit%tional comman! to incl%!e acts ;i.e. resol%tions< as a&&ro&riate s%b9ects o( initiative ,as im&lemente! b' Congress ,$en it enacte! -e&%blic #ct No. G71C entitle! "#n #ct =rovi!ing (or a )'stem o( *nitiative an! -e(eren!%m an! #&&ro&riating F%n!s 2$ere(or." 2$%s its section 1;a< e4&ressl' incl%!es resol%tions as s%b9ects o( initiatives on local legislations viB: )ec. 1. De(inition o( 2erms: For &%r&oses o( t$is #ct t$e (ollo,ing terms s$all meanA ;a< "*nitiative" is t$e &o,er o( t$e &eo&le to &ro&ose amen!ments to t$e Constit%tion or to &ro&ose an! enact legislations t$ro%g$ an election calle! (or t$e &%r&ose. 2$ere are t$ree ;1< s'stems o( initiative namel': a.1. *nitiative on t$e Constit%tion ,$ic$ re(ers to a &etition &ro&osing amen!ments to t$e Constit%tion. a./. *nitiative on stat%tes ,$ic$ re(ers to a &etition &ro&osing to enact a national legislationA an! a.1. *nitiative on local legislation ,$ic$ re(ers to a &etition &ro&osing to enact a regional &rovincial cit' m%nici&al or baranga' la, resol%tion or or!inance. )ection 1G: "Limitations @&on Local Legislative Bo!ies F #n' &ro&osition on or!inance or resol%tion a&&rove! t$ro%g$ t$e s'stem o( initiative an! re(eren!%m as $erein &rovi!e! s$all not be re&eale! mo!i(ie! or amen!e! b' t$e local legislative bo!' concerne! ,it$in si4 ;G< mont$s (rom t$e !ate t$ere(rom. On 7an%ar' 1G 1881 t$e COM3L3C also &rom%lgate! its -esol%tion No. /155 entitle! "*n -e -%les an! -eg%lations Governing t$e Con!%ct o( *nitiative on t$e Constit%tion an! *nitiative an! -e(eren!%m on National an! Local La,s." *t li+e,ise recogniBe! resol%tions as &ro&er s%b9ects o( initiatives. )ection C #rticle * o( its -%les states: ")co&e o( &o,er o( initiativeF 2$e &o,er o( initiative ma' be e4ercise! to amen! t$e Constit%tion or to enact a national legislation a regional &rovincial

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cit' m%nici&al or baranga' la, resol%tion or or!inance.." 2$ere can $ar!l' be an' !o%bt t$at ,$en Congress enacte! -e&%blic #ct No. G71C it inten! resol%tions to be &ro&er s%b9ects o( local initiatives. -es&on!ents !o not give an' reason ,$' resol%tions s$o%l! not be t$e s%b9ect o( a local initiative. Distinction bet,een a resol%tion an! an or!inance: a resol%tion is %se! ,$enever t$e legislat%re ,is$es to e4&ress an o&inion ,$ic$ is to $ave onl' a tem&orar' e((ect ,$ile an or!inance is inten!e! to &ermanentl' !irect an! control matters a&&l'ing to &ersons or t$ings in general. 2$%s resol%tions are not normall' s%b9ect to re(eren!%m (or it ma' !estro' t$e e((icienc' necessar' to t$e s%ccess(%l a!ministration o( t$e b%siness a((airs o( a cit'. *n t$e case at benc$ $o,ever it cannot be arg%e! t$at t$e s%b9ect matter o( t$e resol%tion o( t$e m%nici&alit' o( Morong merel' tem&oraril' a((ects t$e &eo&le o( Morong (or it !irects a &ermanent r%le o( con!%ct or government. 2$e incl%sion o( Morong as &art o( t$e )%bic )&ecial 3conomic Zone $as (ar reac$ing im&lications in t$e governance o( its &eo&le. 2$is is a&&arent (rom a rea!ing o( section 1/ o( -e&%blic #ct No. 7//7 entitle! "#n #ct #ccelerating t$e Conversion o( Militar' -eservations *nto Ot$er =ro!%ctive @ses Creating t$e Bases Conversion an! Develo&ment #%t$orit' For 2$is =%r&ose =rovi!ing F%n!s 2$ere(or an! For Ot$er =%r&oses." Consi!ering t$e lasting c$anges t$at ,ill be ,ro%g$t in t$e social &olitical an! economic e4istence o( t$e &eo&le o( Morong b' t$e incl%sion o( t$eir m%nici&alit' in t$e )%bic )&ecial 3conomic Zone it is b%t logical to $ear t$eir voice on t$e matter via an initiative. *t is not material t$at t$e !ecision o( t$e m%nici&alit' o( Morong (or t$e incl%sion came in t$e (orm o( a resol%tion (or ,$at matters is its en!%ring e((ect on t$e ,el(are o( t$e &eo&le o( Morong. 2$ro%g$ an initiative t$e &eo&le ,ere also en!o,e! ,it$ t$e &o,er to enact or re9ect an' act or la, b' congress or local legislative bo!'. #rticle K*: )ec. 1. 2$e legislative &o,er s$all be veste! in t$e Congress o( t$e =$ili&&ines ,$ic$ s$all consist o( a )enate an! a Ho%se o( -e&resentatives e4ce&t to t$e e4tent reserve! to t$e &eo&le b' t$e &rovisions on initiative an! re(eren!%m. )ec. 1/. 2$e Congress s$all as earl' as &ossible &rovi!e (or a s'stem o( initiative an! re(eren!%m an! t$e e4ce&tions t$ere(rom ,$ereb' t$e &eo&le can !irectl' &ro&ose an! enact la,s or a&&rove or re9ect an' act or la, or &art t$ereo( &asse! b' t$e Congress or local legislative bo!' a(ter t$e registration o( a &etition t$ere(or signe! b' at least ten &er cent%m o( t$e total n%mber o( registere! voters o( ,$ic$ ever' legislative !istrict m%st be re&resente! b' at least t$ree &er cent%m o( t$e registere! voters t$ereto. (ubic Ba# Metropolitan Authorit# v. COM%L%C Facts: On Marc$ 11 188/ Congress enacte! t$e BCD# ;-# 7//7< ,$ic$ &rovi!e! (or t$e creation o( t$e )%bic 3conomic Zone. *n #&ril 1881 t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Morong Bataan &asse! =amba'ang Ma&as'a$an Bilang 15 )er'e 1881 e4&ressing t$erein its absol%te conc%rrence as re.%ire! b' sai! )ec. 1/ o( -# 7//7 to 9oin t$e )%bic )&ecial 3conomic Zone. On )e&tember C 1881 t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Morong s%bmitte! =amba'ang Ma&as'a$an Bilang 15 )er'e 1881 to t$e O((ice o( t$e =resi!ent. On Ma' /0 1881 res&on!ents Garcia Calimbas an! t$eir com&anions (ile! a &etition ,it$ t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Morong to ann%l =amba'ang Ma&as'a$an Blg. 15 )er'e 1881. 2$e )angg%niang Ba'an ng Morong acte! %&on t$e &etition o( res&on!ents Garcia Calimbas et al. b' &rom%lgating =amba'ang Ma&as'a$an Blg. 18 )er'e 1881 re.%esting Congress o( t$e =$ili&&ines so amen! certain &rovisions o( -# 7//7. Not satis(ie! an! ,it$in 15 !a's (rom s%bmission o( t$eir &etition $erein res&on!ents resorte! to t$eir &o,er initiative %n!er t$e LGC )ec. 1// &aragra&$ ;b< ,$ic$ &rovi!es t$at i( no (avorable action t$ereon is ta+en b' t$e sangg%nian concerne! t$e &ro&onents t$ro%g$ t$eir !%l' a%t$oriBe! an! registere! re&resentatives ma' invo+e t$eir &o,er o( initiative giving notice t$ereo( to t$e sangg%niang concerne!. On 7%l' G 1881 res&on!ent Commission 3n Banc in Comelec -esol%tion No. 81D1G/1 !enie! t$e &etition (or local initiative b' $erein &rivate res&on!ents on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e s%b9ect t$ereo(

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,as merel' a resol%tion ;&amba'ang +a&as'a$an< an! not an or!inance. On 7%l' 11 1881 &%blic res&on!ent Comelec 3n Banc ;t$r% Comelec -esol%tion no. 81D1G7G< (%rt$er !irecte! its =rovincial 3lection )%&ervisor to $ol! action on t$e a%t$entication o( signat%res being solicite! b' &rivate res&on!ents. On #%g%st 1C 1881 &rivate res&on!ents instit%te! a &etition (or certiorari an! man!am%s be(ore t$is Co%rt against t$e Commission on 3lections an! t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Morong Bataan to set asi!e Comelec -esol%tion No. 81D1G/1 inso(ar as it !isallo,e! t$e con!%ct o( a local initiative to ann%l =amba'ang Ma&as'a$an Bilang 15 )er'e 1881 an! Comelec -esol%tion No. 81D1G7G inso(ar as it &revente! t$e =rovincial 3lection )%&ervisor o( Bataan (rom &rocee!ing ,it$ t$e a%t$entication o( t$e re.%ire! n%mber o( signat%res in s%&&ort o( t$e initiative an! t$e gat$ering o( signat%res. On Febr%ar' 1 188C &%rs%ant to )ec. 1/ o( -# 7//7 t$e =resi!ent o( t$e =$ili&&ines iss%e! =roclamation No. C1/ !e(ining t$e metes an! bo%n!s o( t$e ))3Z. )ai! &roclamation incl%!e! in t$e ))3Z all t$e lan!s ,it$in t$e (ormer )%bic Naval Base incl%!ing Gran!e *slan! an! t$at &ortion o( t$e (ormer naval base ,it$in t$e territorial 9%ris!iction o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( Morong. On 7%ne 18 188CG res&on!ent Comelec iss%e! -esol%tion No. /80C a!o&ting t$erein a "Calen!ar o( #ctivities (or local re(eren!%m on certain m%nici&al or!inance &asse! b' t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Morong Bataan" an! ,$ic$ in!icate! among ot$ers t$e sc$e!%le! -e(eren!%m Da' ;7%l' /7 188G )at%r!a'<. On 7%ne /7 188G t$e Comelec &rom%lgate! t$e assaile! -esol%tion No. /808 &rovi!ing (or "t$e r%les an! g%i!elines to govern t$e con!%ct o( t$e re(eren!%m &ro&osing to ann%l or re&eal Ma&as'a$an Blg. 15 )er'e 1881 o( t$e )angg%niang Ba'an o( Morong Bataan". On 7%l' 15 188G &etitioner instit%te! t$e &resent &etition (or certiorari an! &ro$ibition contesting t$e vali!it' o( -esol%tion No. /808 an! alleging inter alia t$at &%blic res&on!ent "is intent on &rocee!ing ,it$ a local initiative t$at &ro&oses an amen!ment o( a national la,. . . . *ss%es: 1. 6ON a bar b' (inal 9%!gment e4ists. Garcia conten!s t$at t$is Co%rt $a! alrea!' r%le! ,it$ (inalit' in 3nri.%e 2. Garcia et al. vs. Commission on 3lections et al. on "t$e ver' iss%e raise! in ;t$e< &etition: ,$et$er or not t$ere can be an initiative b' t$e &eo&le o( Morong Bataan on t$e s%b9ect &ro&osition F t$e ver' same &ro&osition it bears em&$asiBing t$e s%bmission o( ,$ic$ to t$e &eo&le o( Morong Bataan is no, so%g$t to be en9oine! b' &etitioner. )C: 2$e onl' iss%e resolve! in t$e earlier Garcia case is ,$et$er a m%nici&al resol%tion as contraD !isting%is$e! (rom an or!inance ma' be t$e &ro&er s%b9ect o( an initiative an!?or re(eren!%m. 2$e sole iss%e &resente! b' t$e &lea!ings ,as t$e .%estion o( ",$et$er or not a )angg%niang Ba'an -esol%tion can be t$e s%b9ect o( a vali! initiative or re(eren!%m" *n t$e &resent case &etitioner is not contesting t$e &ro&riet' o( a m%nici&al resol%tion as t$e (orm b' ,$ic$ t$ese t,o ne, constit%tional &rerogatives o( t$e &eo&le ma' be vali!l' e4ercise!. 6$at is at iss%e $ere is ,$et$er =amba'ang Ma&as'a$an Blg. 15 )er'e 1881 as ,or!e! is s%((icient in (orm an! s%bstance (or s%bmission to t$e &eo&le (or t$eir a&&rovalA in (ine ,$et$er t$e Comelec acte! &ro&erl' an! 9%ri!icall' in &rom%lgating an! im&lementing -esol%tion No. /808. 6ON t$e COM3L3C committe! a grave ab%se o( !iscretion in &rom%lgating an! im&lementing -esol%tion No. /808. :3). 2o begin ,it$ t$e &rocess starte! b' &rivate res&on!ents ,as an *N*2*#2*K3 b%t Comelec ma!e &re&arations (or a -3F3-3ND@M onl'. *n (act in t$e bo!' o( t$e -esol%tion 11 as re&ro!%ce! in t$e (ootnote belo, t$e ,or! "re(eren!%m" is re&eate! at least /7 times b%t "initiative" is not mentione! at all. 2$e Comelec labele! t$e e4ercise as a "-e(eren!%m"A t$e co%nting o( votes ,as entr%ste! to a "-e(eren!%m Committee"A t$e !oc%ments ,ere calle! "re(eren!%m ret%rns"A t$e canvassers "-e(eren!%m Boar! o( Canvassers" an! t$e ballots t$emselves bore t$e !escri&tion "re(eren!%m". 2o re&eat not once ,as t$e ,or! "initiative" %se! in sai! bo!' o( -esol%tion No. /808. #n! 'et t$is e4ercise is %n.%estionabl' an *N*2*#2*K3. "*nitiative" is t$e &o,er o( t$e &eo&le to &ro&ose amen!ments to t$e Constit%tion or to &ro&ose an! enact legislations t$ro%g$ an election calle! (or t$e

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&%r&ose. 1 s'stems: 1. *nitiative on t$e Constit%tion ,$ic$ re(ers to a &etition &ro&osing amen!ments to t$e Constit%tionA /. *nitiative on stat%tes ,$ic$ re(ers to a &etition &ro&osing to enact a national legislationA an! 1. *nitiative on local legislation ,$ic$ re(ers to a &etition &ro&osing to enact a regional &rovincial cit' m%nici&al or baranga' la, resol%tion or or!inance. "*n!irect initiative" is e4ercise o( initiative b' t$e &eo&le t$ro%g$ a &ro&osition sent to Congress or t$e local legislative bo!' (or action. "-e(eren!%m" is t$e &o,er o( t$e electorate to a&&rove or re9ect a legislation t$ro%g$ an election calle! (or t$e &%r&ose. *t ma' be o( t,o classes namel': 1. -e(eren!%m on stat%tes ,$ic$ re(ers to a &etition to a&&rove or re9ect an act or la, or &art t$ereo( &asse! b' CongressA an! /. -e(eren!%m on local la, ,$ic$ re(ers to a &etition to a&&rove or re9ect a la, resol%tion or or!inance enacte! b' regional assemblies an! local legislative bo!ies. Cr%B: *nitiative D "&o,er o( t$e &eo&le to &ro&ose bills an! la,s an! to enact or re9ect t$em at t$e &olls in!e&en!ent o( t$e legislative assembl'." re(eren!%m D "is t$e rig$t reserve! to t$e &eo&le to a!o&t or re9ect an' act or meas%re ,$ic$ $as been &asse! b' a legislative bo!' an! ,$ic$ in most cases ,o%l! ,it$o%t action on t$e &art o( electors become a la,." LGC: Local initiative is t$e legal &rocess ,$ereb' t$e registere! voters o( local government %nit ma' !irectl' &ro&ose enact or amen! an' or!inance. Local re(eren!%m is t$e legal &rocess ,$ereb' t$e registere! voters o( t$e local government %nits ma' a&&rove amen! or re9ect an' or!inance enacte! b' t$e sangg%nian. 2$e local re(eren!%m s$all be $el! %n!er t$e control an! !irection o( t$e Comelec ,it$in si4t' ;G5< !a's in case o( &rovinces an! cities (ort'D(ive ;0C< !a's in case o( m%nici&alities an! t$irt' ;15< !a's in case o( barangga's. 2$e Comelec s$all certi(' an! &roclaim t$e res%lts o( t$e sai! re(eren!%m. )C: initiative is resorte! to ;or initiate!< b' t$e &eo&le !irectl' eit$er beca%se t$e la,Dma+ing bo!' (ails or re(%ses to enact t$e la, or!inance resol%tion or act t$at t$e' !esire or beca%se t$e' ,ant to amen! or mo!i(' one alrea!' e4isting. @n!er )ec. 11 o( -.#. G71C t$e local legislative bo!' is given t$e o&&ort%nit' to enact t$e &ro&osal. *( it re(%ses?neglects to !o so ,it$in t$irt' ;15< !a's (rom its &resentation t$e &ro&onents t$ro%g$ t$eir !%l'Da%t$oriBe! an! registere! re&resentatives ma' invo+e t$eir &o,er o( initiative giving notice t$ereo( to t$e local legislative bo!' concerne!. )$o%l! t$e &ro&onents be able to collect t$e n%mber o( signe! con(ormities ,it$in t$e &erio! grante! b' sai! stat%te t$e Commission on 3lections "s$all t$en set a !ate (or t$e initiative ;not re(eren!%m< at ,$ic$ t$e &ro&osition s$all be s%bmitte! to t$e registere! voters in t$e local government %nit concerne! . On t$e ot$er $an! in a local re(eren!%m t$e la,D ma+ing bo!' s%bmits to t$e registere! voters o( its territorial 9%ris!iction (or a&&roval or re9ection an' or!inance or resol%tion ,$ic$ is !%l' enacte! or a&&rove! b' s%c$ la,Dma+ing a%t$orit'. )ai! re(eren!%m s$all be con!%cte! also %n!er t$e control an! !irection o( t$e Commission on 3lections. 6$ile initiative is entirel' t$e ,or+ o( t$e electorate re(eren!%m is beg%n an! consente! to b' t$e la,D ma+ing bo!'. *nitiative is a &rocess o( la,Dma+ing b' t$e &eo&le t$emselves ,it$o%t t$e &artici&ation an! against t$e ,is$es o( t$eir electe! re&resentatives ,$ile re(eren!%m consists merel' o( t$e electorate a&&roving or re9ecting ,$at $as been !ra,n %& or enacte! b' a legislative bo!'. Hence t$e &rocess an! t$e voting in an initiative are %n!erstan!abl' more com&le4 t$an in a re(eren!%m ,$ere e4&ecte!l' t$e voters ,ill sim&l' ,rite eit$er ":es" o( "No" in t$e ballot. From t$e above !i((erentiation it (ollo,s t$at t$ere is nee! (or t$e Comelec to s%&ervise an initiative more closel' its a%t$orit' t$ereon e4ten!ing not onl' to t$e co%nting an! canvassing o( votes b%t

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also to seeing to it t$at t$e matter or act s%bmitte! to t$e &eo&le is in t$e &ro&er (orm an! lang%age so it ma' be easil' %n!erstoo! an! vote! %&on b' t$e electorate. 2$is is es&eciall' tr%e ,$ere t$e &ro&ose! legislation is lengt$' an! com&licate! an! s$o%l! t$%s be bro+en !o,n into several a%tonomo%s &arts eac$ s%c$ &art to be vote! %&on se&aratel'. Care m%st also be e4ercise! t$at ";n<o &etition embracing more t$an one s%b9ect s$all be s%bmitte! to t$e electorate " alt$o%g$ "t,o or more &ro&ositions ma' be s%bmitte! in an initiative". *n initiative an! re(eren!%m t$e Comelec e4ercises a!ministration an! s%&ervision o( t$e &rocess itsel( a+in to its &o,ers over t$e con!%ct o( elections. 2$ese la,Dma+ing &o,ers belong to t$e &eo&le $ence t$e res&on!ent Commission cannot control or c$ange t$e s%bstance or t$e content o( legislation. *n t$e e4ercise o( its a%t$orit' it ma' ;in (act it s$o%l! $ave !one so alrea!'< iss%e relevant an! a!e.%ate g%i!elines an! r%les (or t$e or!erl' e4ercise o( t$ese "&eo&leD&o,er" (eat%res o( o%r Constit%tion. 6ON 6it$!ra,al o( #!$erence an! *m&osition o( Con!itionalities are @ltra Kires. )C: &remat%reO 2$e m%nici&al resol%tion is still in t$e &ro&osal stage. *t is not 'et an a&&rove! la,. )$o%l! t$e &eo&le re9ect it t$en t$ere ,o%l! be not$ing to contest an! to a!9%!icate. *t is onl' ,$en t$e &eo&le $ave vote! (or it an! it $as become an a&&rove! or!inance or resol%tion t$at rig$ts an! obligations can be en(orce! or im&lemente! t$ere%n!er. #t t$is &oint it is merel' a &ro&osal an! t$e ,rit or &ro$ibition cannot iss%e %&on a mere con9ect%re or &ossibilit'. Constit%tionall' s&ea+ing co%rts ma' !eci!e onl' act%al controversies not $'&ot$etical .%estions or cases. Ortiz v. Posa as Facts: )even o( t$e t$irteen members &resent incl%!ing t$e &resi!ent o( t$e m%nici&al co%ncil o( 2abaco #lba' vote! in (avor o( Or!inance No. /C concerning coc+&its an! si4 members vote! against t$e or!inance ,it$ t$ree members absent. *))@3: 6ON t$e or!inance is vali!. NO. )ection //0 o( t$e #!ministrative Co!e rea!s as (ollo,s: 7o%rnal o( =rocee!ings F Ma9orities necessar' (or transaction o( b%siness. F 2$e co%ncil s$all +ee& a 9o%rnal o( its o,n &rocee!ings. 2$e a'es an! noes s$all be ta+en %&on t$e &assage o( all or!inances %&on all &ro&ositions to create an' liabilit' against t$e m%nici&alit' an! %&on an' ot$er &ro&osition %&on t$e re.%est o( an' member an! t$e' s$all be entere! %&on t$e 9o%rnal. 2$e a((irmative vote o( a ma9orit' o( all t$e members o( t$e m%nici&al co%ncil s$all be necessar' to t$e &assage o( an' or!inance or o( an' &ro&osition creating in!ebte!nessA b%t ot$er meas%res e4ce&t as ot$er,ise s&eciall' &rovi!e! s$all &revail %&on t$e ma9orit' vote o( t$e members &resent at an' meeting !%l' calle! an! $el!. 2$e la, is clear. *t nee!s onl' a&&lication not inter&retation. 6$ile t$e )&anis$ te4t ma' be ambig%o%s t$e 3nglis$ te4t ,$ic$ governs is not. 2$e la, is entirel' consistent in conte4t. 2$e a'es an! noes are ta+en %&on ;1< t$e &assage o( all or!inances ;/< all &ro&ositions to create an' liabilit' against t$e m%nici&alit' an! ;1< an' ot$er &ro&osition %&on t$e re.%est o( an' member. 2$e same i!ea is carrie! into t$e s%ccee!ing sentence. For t$e &assage o( ;1< an' or!inance or ;/< an' &ro&osition creating in!ebte!ness t$e a((irmative vote o( a ma9orit' o( all t$e members o( t$e m%nici&al co%ncil s$all be necessar'. Ot$er meas%res &revail %&on t$e ma9orit' vote o( t$e members &resent "Creating in!ebte!ness" re(ers to "&ro&osition" an! not to "or!inance." 2$e contention t$at onl' or!inances creating in!ebte!ness re.%ire t$e a&&roval o( a ma9orit' o( all t$e members o( t$e m%nici&al co%ncil is !evoi! o( merit. Corroborative a%t$orit' is reall' s%&er(l%o%s. Nevert$eless ,e ,o%l! invite attention to t$e case o( McLean vs. Cit' o( 3ast )t. Lo%is ;U185GV /// *ll.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


C15<. )ection 11 o( t$e #ct (or t$e incor&oration o( cities an! villages in t$e )tate o( *llinois &rovi!e!: "2$e 'eas an! na's s$all be ta+en %&on t$e &assage o( all or!inances an! on all &ro&ositions to create an' liabilit' against t$e cit' or (or t$e e4&en!it%re or a&&ro&riation o( its mone' an! in all ot$er cases at t$e re.%est o( an' member ,$ic$ s$all be entere! on t$e 9o%rnal o( its &rocee!ingsA an! t$e conc%rrence o( a ma9orit' o( all t$e members electe! in t$e cit' co%ncil s$all be necessar' to t$e &assage o( an' s%c$ or!inance or &ro&osition: =rovi!e! it s$all re.%ire t,oDt$ir!s o( all t$e al!ermen elect to sell an' cit' or sc$ool &ro&ert'" Commenting on t$is &rovision o( la, t$e )%&reme Co%rt o( *llinois t$ro%g$ 7%stice Cart,rig$t observe!: )ome o( t$e co%nsel (or a&&ellee arg%e t$at section 11 relates onl' to or!inances an! &ro&ositions creating a liabilit' against a cit' or &rovi!ing (or t$e e4&en!it%re or a&&ro&riation o( its mone' an! t$at all ot$er or!inances ma' be &asse! b' a ma9orit' o( a .%or%m. 2$e' sa' t$at it is not %n%s%al (or co%rts in t$e constr%ction o( stat%tes to s%bstit%te one ,or! (or anot$er ,$ere t$e &lain meaning o( t$e stat%te ,ill 9%sti(' it an! t$at b' eliminating some ,or!s an! s%bstit%ting ot$ers t$is section ,ill e4&ress ,$at t$e' t$in+ ,as t$e intention o( t$e legislat%re. *t is t$e r%le t$at ,$ere t$e intention o( t$e legislat%re is ascertaine! ,it$ reasonable certaint' an! it a&&ears t$at ,or!s $ave been %se! inconsistent ,it$ s%c$ intention a ,or! erroneo%sl' %se! (or anot$er ma' be eliminate! an! t$e &ro&er ,or! s%bstit%te!. 6$ere t$e conte4t a((or!s t$e means o( correcting a mista+e in t$e %se o( lang%age t$e correction ma' be ma!e (or t$e &%r&ose o( giving e((ect to t$e intention &lainl' mani(este! in t$e act as a ,$ole. B%t ,e !o not agree ,it$ t$e t$eor' t$at t$e legislat%re in t$is instance inten!e! to limit t$e re.%irement o( a ma9orit' vote to or!inances creating a liabilit' or a&&ro&riating mone'. *n o%r o&inion to ma+e t$e c$anges s%ggeste! ,o%l! be merel' 9%ggling ,it$ t$e ,or!s o( t$e stat%te to give it a !i((erent meaning (rom t$at ,$ic$ ,as inten!e!. 2$e la, t$e &assage o( all or!inances an! t$e conc%rrence o( a ma9orit' o( t$e legislative bo!' is necessar' to t$eir &assage. 6e recogniBe! t$at constr%ction o( t$e stat%te in Hibbar! P Co. vs. Cit' o( C$icago 171 *ll. 81. *( a &ro&osition not in t$e (orm o( an or!inance creates an' liabilit' or &rovi!es (or t$e e4&en!it%re or a&&ro&riation o( mone' t$e re.%irement is t$e same ,$ile as to ot$er &ro&ositions ,$et$er t$e 'eas an! na's are entere! %&on t$e 9o%rnal or not t$e ma9orit' o( a .%or%m is s%((icient. 2$e basic i!ea o( t$e legislative bo!' to ma+e im&ossible t$e a&&roval o( or!inances or o( &ro&ositions creating in!ebte!ness b' minorit' votes o( m%nici&al co%ncils at meetings $astil' calle! is ,ise. Legislative intention s$o%l! be e((ect%ate!. )ection ///0 o( t$e #!ministrative Co!e re.%iring in man!ator' lang%age t$e a((irmative vote o( a ma9orit' o( all t$e members o( t$e m%nici&al co%ncil (or t$e &assage o( an' or!inance ,$et$er or not an or!inance creating in!ebte!ness an or!inance &asse! b' less t$an t$at ma9orit' is invali!. Or!inance No. /C o( 2abaco #lba' is voi!. Cit# o! Manila v. Laguio Facts: 2$e Malate 2o%rist Develo&ment Cor&oration ;M2DC< b%ilt an! o&ene! Kictoria Co%rt in Malate ,$ic$ ,as license! as a motel alt$o%g$ !%l' accre!ite! ,it$ t$e DO2C as a $otel. M2DC (ile! a &etition (or !eclarator' relie( against t$e Cit' o( Manila Lim ;ma'or< #tienBa ;viceDma'or< an! t$e members o( t$e cit' co%ncil o( Manila &ra'ing t$at t$e Or!inance t$e' enacte! ,$ic$ &ro$ibite! motels an! inns be !eclare! %nconstit%tional. 2$e Or!inance &ro$ibite! t$e establis$ment or o&eration o( b%sinesses &rovi!ing am%sement services or entertainment ,$ere ,omen are %se! as tools in entertainment an! ,$ic$ ten! to !ist%rb t$e comm%nit' anno' t$e in$abitants an! a!versel' a((ect t$e social an! moral ,el(are o( t$e comm%nit' in t$e 3rmitaDMalate area. )%c$ b%sinesses incl%!e sa%na &arlors massage &arlors +arao+e bars cl%bs !ance $alls motels an! inns. M2DC: Motels an! inns s$o%l! not $ave been &ro$ibite! as t$e' are not establis$ments (or am%sement or entertainmentA neit$er ,ere

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t$e' services or (acilities (or entertainment an! !i! not %se ,omen as tools etc. #lso t$e Or!inance ,as %nconstit%tional an! voi! beca%se ;1< 2$e Cit' Co%ncil $as no &o,er to &ro$ibit t$e o&eration o( motels as t$e LGC grante! onl' t$e &o,er to reg%late t$e establis$ment o&eration an! maintenance o( motels etc. ;/< *t is violative o( =D 088 ,$ic$ !eclare! &ortions o( t$e 3rmitaDMalate area as a commercial Bone ,it$ restrictions ;1< *t is not a &ro&er e4ercise o( &olice &o,er as t$ere is no relation to legitimate m%nici&al interests so%g$t to be &rotecte! ;0< *t is an e4 &ost (acto la, an! ;C< *t violates M2DC>s constit%tional rig$ts con(iscator' an! is an invasion o( &ro&ert' rig$ts also violates t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se. Manila: 2$e Cit' Co%ncil $a! t$e &o,er to &ro$ibit certain (orms o( entertainment in or!er to &rotect t$e social an! moral ,el(are o( t$e comm%nit' as &rovi!e! in )ec. 0C8 ;a< 0 ;vii< o( t$e LGC. M,ong )ing vs. Cit' o( Manila: &o,er o( reg%lation incl%!es t$e &o,er to control govern an! restrain &laces o( e4$ibition an! am%sement. 2$is is also in con9%nction ,it$ its &olice &o,er as (o%n! in -evise! C$arter o( Manila. 7%!ge Lag%io iss%e! an e4D&arte 2-O against t$e en(orcement o( t$e Or!inance. #(ter trial $e ren!ere! a !ecision en9oining t$e Cit' o( Manila (rom im&lementing t$e Or!inance. 2$e Cit' o( Manila t$en (ile! a &etition assailing t$e Decision ren!ere! b' Lag%io. *ss%e: 6ON t$e Or!inance is %nconstit%tional. :3). 2o be vali! an or!inance m%st con(orm to t$e (ollo,ing s%bstantive re.%irements: ;1< *t m%st not contravene t$e Constit%tion or an' stat%teA ;/< M%st not be %n(air or o&&ressiveA ;1< M%st not be &artial or !iscriminator'A ;0< M%st not &ro$ibit b%t ma' reg%late tra!eA ;C< M%st be general an! consistent ,it$ &%blic &olic'A ;C< M%st not be %nreasonable. #s regar!s t$e (irst criterion t$ere are / re.%irements: *t m%st &ass m%ster %n!er t$e test o( constit%tionalit' an! t$e test o( consistenc' ,it$ &revailing la,s. LG@s are able to legislate onl' b' virt%e o( t$eir !erivative legislative &o,er a !elegation o( legislative &o,er (rom Congress. 2$e !elegate cannot be s%&erior to t$e &rinci&al. 2$e means em&lo'e! b' t$e Or!inance (or t$e ac$ievement o( its &%r&oses t$e governmental inter(erence itsel( in(ringes on t$e constit%tional g%arantees o( a &ersonHs (%n!amental rig$t to libert' an! &ro&ert'. Motel &atrons ,$o are single an! %nmarrie! ma' invo+e t$is rig$t to a%tonom' to cons%mmate t$eir bon!s in intimate be it stresse! t$at t$eir se4%al con!%ct ,it$in t$e motelHs &remises consens%al se4%al be$avior !oes not contravene an' (%n!amental state &olic' as containe! in t$e Constit%tion. #!%lts $ave a rig$t to c$oose to (orge s%c$ relations$i&s ,it$ ot$ers in t$e con(ines o( t$eir o,n &rivate lives an! still retain t$eir !ignit' as (ree &ersons. 2$eir rig$t to libert' %n!er t$e !%e &rocess cla%se gives t$em t$e (%ll rig$t to engage in t$eir con!%ct ,it$o%t intervention o( t$e government as long as t$e' !o not r%n a(o%l o( t$e la,. Libert' s$o%l! be t$e r%le an! restraint t$e e4ce&tion. Libert' in t$e constit%tional sense not onl' means (ree!om (rom %nla,(%l government restraintA it m%st incl%!e &rivac' as ,ell i( it is to be a re&ositor' o( (ree!om. 2$e rig$t to be let alone it is t$e most com&re$ensive o( rig$ts an! is t$e beginning o( all (ree!om an! t$e rig$t most val%e! b' civiliBe! men. 2$e rig$t to &rivac' is a constit%tional rig$t t$e invasion o( ,$ic$ s$o%l! be 9%sti(ie! b' a com&elling state interest. 2$e Or!inance ,as &asse! b' t$e Cit' Co%ncil in t$e e4ercise o( its &olice &o,er as (o%n! in )ec. 1G o( t$e LGC. 2$is &olice &o,er ,$ile (arDreac$ing is s%bor!inate to constit%tional limitations t$e e4ercise m%st be reasonable an! (or t$e &%blic goo!. 2$e Or!inance violates t$e 1887 Constit%tion t$e relevant &rovisions o( ,$ic$ are #rt. ** )ecs. C an! 10 an! #rt. *** )ecs. 1 an! 8. 2o be constit%tional t$e e4ercise o( &olice &o,er not onl' m%st it a&&ear t$at t$e interests o( t$e &%blic generall' as !isting%is$e! (rom t$ose o( a &artic%lar class re.%ire an inter(erence ,it$ &rivate rig$ts b%t t$e means a!o&te! m%st be reasonabl' necessar' (or t$e accom&lis$ment o( t$e &%r&ose an! not %n!%l' o&&ressive %&on in!ivi!%als. *t m%st be evi!ent t$at no ot$er alternative (or t$e accom&lis$ment o( t$e &%r&ose less intr%sive o(

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&rivate rig$ts can ,or+. # reasonable relation m%st e4ist bet,een t$e &%r&oses o( t$e &olice meas%re an! t$e means em&lo'e! (or its accom&lis$ment. *n t$is case t$e means em&lo'e! is o&&ressive an! %nreasonable. 2$e Or!inance ,as enacte! to a!!ress an! arrest t$e social ills &%r&orte!l' s&a,n as it s%bstantiall' !ivests t$e res&on!ent o( t$e bene(icial %se o( its &ro&ert'. 2$e Or!inance in )ection 1 (orbi!s t$e r%nning o( t$e en%merate! b%sinesses in t$e 3rmitaD Malate area an! in )ection 1 instr%cts its o,ners?o&erators to ,in! %& b%siness o&erations or to trans(er o%tsi!e t$e area or convert sai! b%sinesses into allo,e! b%sinesses. #n or!inance ,$ic$ &ermanentl' restricts t$e %se o( &ro&ert' t$at it cannot be %se! (or an' reasonable &%r&ose goes be'on! reg%lation an! m%st be recogniBe! as a ta+ing o( t$e &ro&ert' ,it$o%t 9%st com&ensation. *t is intr%sive an! violative o( t$e &rivate &ro&ert' rig$ts o( in!ivi!%als. 2$e Cit' o( Manila cannot ta+e re(%ge in classi('ing t$e meas%re as a Boning or!inance. # Boning or!inance alt$o%g$ a vali! e4ercise o( &olice &o,er ,$ic$ limits a ",$olesome" &ro&ert' to a %se ,$ic$ cannot reasonabl' be ma!e o( it constit%tes t$e ta+ing o( s%c$ &ro&ert' ,it$o%t 9%st com&ensation. =rivate &ro&ert' ,$ic$ is not no4io%s or inten!e! (or no4io%s &%r&oses ma' not b' Boning be !estro'e! ,it$o%t com&ensation. Distinction s$o%l! be ma!e bet,een !estr%ction (rom necessit' an! eminent !omain. =ro&ert' ta+en in t$e e4ercise o( &olice &o,er is !estro'e! beca%se it is no4io%s or inten!e! (or a no4io%s &%r&ose ,$ile t$e &ro&ert' ta+en %n!er t$e &o,er o( eminent !omain is inten!e! (or a &%blic %se or &%r&ose an! is t$ere(ore ",$olesome." *( it be o( &%blic bene(it t$at a ,$olesome &ro&ert' remains %n%se! or relegate! to a &artic%lar &%r&ose t$en certainl' t$e &%blic s$o%l! bear t$e cost o( reasonable com&ensation (or t$e con!emnation o( &rivate &ro&ert' (or &%blic %se! b' t$e establis$ments in t$e 3rmitaDMalate area.

2$e closing !o,n an! trans(er o( b%sinesses or t$eir


conversion into b%sinesses allo,e! %n!er t$e Or!inance $ave no reasonable relation to t$e accom&lis$ment o( its &%r&oses. 2$e Cit' Co%ncil instea! s$o%l! reg%late $%man con!%ct t$at occ%rs insi!e t$e establis$ments b%t not to t$e !etriment o( libert' an! &rivac' ,$ic$ are covenants &remi%ms an! blessings o( !emocrac'. D%e &rocess (%rnis$es a stan!ar! to ,$ic$ governmental action s$o%l! con(orm in or!er t$at !e&rivation o( li(e libert' or &ro&ert' is vali!. 2$e Or!inance (ails to set %& an' stan!ar! to g%i!e or limit t$e &etitionersH actions. *t in no ,a' controls or g%i!es t$e !iscretion veste! in t$em. *t &rovi!es no !e(inition o( t$e establis$ments covere! b' it an! it (ails to set (ort$ t$e con!itions ,$en t$e establis$ments come ,it$in its ambit o( &ro$ibition. 2$e Or!inance con(ers %&on t$e ma'or arbitrar' an! %nrestricte! &o,er to close !o,n establis$ments. Or!inances &lacing restrictions %&on t$e la,(%l %se o( &ro&ert' m%st in or!er to be vali! an! constit%tional s&eci(' t$e r%les an! con!itions to be observe! an! con!%ct to avoi!A an! m%st not a!mit o( t$e e4ercise or o( an o&&ort%nit' (or t$e e4ercise o( %nbri!le! !iscretion b' t$e la, en(orcers in carr'ing o%t its &rovisions. )imilarl' t$e Or!inance !oes not s&eci(' t$e stan!ar!s to ascertain ,$ic$ establis$ments "ten! to !ist%rb t$e comm%nit' " "anno' t$e in$abitants " an! "a!versel' a((ect t$e social an! moral ,el(are o( t$e comm%nit'." 2$ere are no com&re$ensible stan!ar!s to g%i!e t$e la, en(orcers in carr'ing o%t its &rovisions. 3.%al &rotection re.%ires t$at all &ersons or t$ings similarl' sit%ate! s$o%l! be treate! ali+e bot$ as to rig$ts con(erre! an! res&onsibilities im&ose!. )imilar s%b9ects in ot$er ,or!s s$o%l! not be treate! !i((erentl' so as to give %n!%e (avor to some an! %n9%stl' !iscriminate against ot$ers. Legislative bo!ies are allo,e! to classi(' t$e s%b9ects o( legislation. *( t$e classi(ication is reasonable t$e la, ma' o&erate onl' on some an!

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not all o( t$e &eo&le ,it$o%t violating t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se. 2$e classi(ication m%st as an in!is&ensable re.%isite not be arbitrar'. 2o be vali! it m%st con(orm to t$e (ollo,ing re.%irements:1< *t m%st be base! on s%bstantial !istinctions. /< *t m%st be germane to t$e &%r&oses o( t$e la,. 1< *t m%st not be limite! to e4isting con!itions onl'. 0< *t m%st a&&l' e.%all' to all members o( t$e class. #ccor!ing to t$e )C: ;1< No s%bstantial !istinctions bet,een motels inns &ension $o%ses $otels lo!ging $o%ses an! ot$er similar establis$ments. #ll are commercial establis$ments &rovi!ing lo!ging. 2$e classi(ication is t$%s invali! ;similar s%b9ects are not similarl' treate!< an! arbitrar' ;it !oes not rest on s%bstantial !istinctions bearing a 9%st an! (air relation to t$e &%r&ose o( t$e Or!inance< ;/< No logic (or &ro$ibiting t$e b%siness an! o&eration o( motels in t$e 3rmitaDMalate area b%t not o%tsi!e o( t$is area. ;1< 2$e stan!ar! ",$ere ,omen are %se! as tools (or one o( t$e $inte! entertainment" is also !iscriminator' as &rostit%tion ills t$e Or!inance is not a &ro(ession e4cl%sive aims to banis$ to ,omen. Bot$ men an! ,omen $ave an e.%al &ro&ensit' to engage in &rostit%tion. 2$is !iscrimination base! on gen!er violates e.%al &rotection as it is not s%bstantiall' relate! to im&ortant government ob9ectives. #s to consistenc' ,it$ &revailing la,s: ;1< 2$e Or!inance contravenes t$e LGC. @n!er t$e LGC LG@s are em&o,ere! to reg%late an! not &ro$ibit t$e establis$ments en%merate! in )ec. 1 o( t$e Or!inance. 2$e &o,er o( t$e Cit' Co%ncil to reg%late b' or!inances t$e establis$ment o&eration an! maintenance o( motels $otels an! ot$er similar establis$ments is (o%n! in )ection 0C8 ;a< 0 ;iv< ,$ile its &o,er to reg%late t$e establis$ment o&eration an! maintenance o( an' entertainment or am%sement (acilities an! to &ro$ibit certain (orms o( am%sement or entertainment is &rovi!e! %n!er )ection 0C8 ;a< 0 ;vii<. Clearl' t$en t$e onl' &o,er o( t$e Cit' Co%ncil to legislate relative to t$ese establis$ments is to reg%late t$em to &romote t$e general ,el(are. 2$e Co!e still ,it$$ol!s (rom cities t$e &o,er to s%&&ress an! &ro$ibit altoget$er t$e establis$ment o&eration an! maintenance o( s%c$ establis$ments. 2$e ,or! reg%late incl%!es t$e &o,er to control govern an! restrain b%t it s$o%l! not be constr%e! as s'non'mo%s ,it$ s%&&ress or &ro$ibit. #s a general r%le ,$en a m%nici&al cor&oration is s&eci(icall' given a%t$orit' or &o,er to reg%late or to license an! reg%late t$e li.%or tra((ic &o,er to &ro$ibit is im&lie!l' ,it$$el!. Congress %ne.%ivocabl' s&eci(ie! t$e establis$ments an! (orms o( am%sement or entertainment s%b9ect to reg%lation among ,$ic$ are beer$o%ses $otels motels inns &ension $o%ses lo!ging $o%ses an! ot$er similar establis$ments ;)ection 0C8 ;a< 0 ;iv<< &%blic !ancing sc$ools &%blic !ance $alls sa%na bat$s massage &arlors an! ot$er &laces (or entertainment or am%sement ;)ection 0C8 ;a< 0 ;vii<<. 2$is en%meration t$ere(ore cannot be incl%!e! as among "ot$er events or activities (or am%sement or entertainment &artic%larl' t$ose ,$ic$ ten! to !ist%rb t$e comm%nit' or anno' t$e in$abitants" or "certain (orms o( am%sement or entertainment" ,$ic$ t$e Cit' Co%ncil ma' s%s&en! s%&&ress or &ro$ibit. 2$e r%le is t$at t$e Cit' Co%ncil $as onl' s%c$ &o,ers as are e4&ressl' grante! to it an! t$ose ,$ic$ are necessaril' im&lie! or inci!ental to t$e e4ercise t$ereo(. B' reason o( its limite! &o,ers an! t$e nat%re t$ereo( sai! &o,ers are to be constr%e! strictissimi 9%ris an! an' !o%bt or ambig%it' arising o%t o( t$e terms %se! in granting sai! &o,ers m%st be constr%e! against t$e Cit' Co%ncil. Moreover it is a general r%le in stat%tor' constr%ction t$at t$e e4&ress mention o( one &erson t$ing or conse.%ence is tantamo%nt to an e4&ress e4cl%sion o( all ot$ers. #lso t$e Co!e being a later e4&ression o( t$e legislative ,ill m%st necessaril' &revail an! overri!e t$e earlier la, t$e -evise! C$arter o( Manila. #s

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bet,een t,o la,s on t$e same s%b9ect matter ,$ic$ are irreconcilabl' inconsistent t$at ,$ic$ is &asse! later &revails since it is t$e latest e4&ression o( legislative ,ill. *n a!!ition )ection C10;(< o( t$e Co!e states t$at "#ll general an! s&ecial la,s acts cit' c$arters !ecrees e4ec%tive or!ers &roclamations an! a!ministrative reg%lations or &art or &arts t$ereo( ,$ic$ are inconsistent ,it$ an' o( t$e &rovisions o( t$is Co!e are $ereb' re&eale! or mo!i(ie! accor!ingl'." 2$%s s%bmitting to &etitionersH inter&retation t$at t$e -evise! C$arter o( Manila em&o,ers t$e Cit' Co%ncil to &ro$ibit motels t$at &ortion o( t$e C$arter stating s%c$ m%st be consi!ere! re&eale! b' t$e Co!e as it is at variance ,it$ t$e latterHs &rovisions granting t$e Cit' Co%ncil mere reg%lator' &o,ers. Manila also cannot see+ cover %n!er t$e general ,el(are cla%se a%t$oriBing t$e abatement o( n%isances ,it$o%t 9%!icial &rocee!ings. 2$at tenet a&&lies to a n%isance &er se or one ,$ic$ a((ects t$e imme!iate sa(et' o( &ersons an! &ro&ert' an! ma' be s%mmaril' abate! %n!er t$e %n!e(ine! la, o( necessit'. *t cannot be sai! t$at motels are in9%rio%s to t$e rig$ts o( &ro&ert' $ealt$ or com(ort o( t$e comm%nit'. *t is a legitimate b%siness. *( it be a n%isance &er acci!ens it ma' be so &roven in a $earing con!%cte! (or t$at &%r&ose. # motel is not &er se a n%isance ,arranting its s%mmar' abatement ,it$o%t 9%!icial intervention. 2$e Cit' Co%ncil ,as con(erre! &o,ers to &revent an! &ro$ibit certain activities an! establis$ments in )ection 0C8 ;1< ;v<. *( it ,ere t$e intention o( Congress to con(er %&on t$e Cit' Co%ncil t$e &o,er to &ro$ibit t$e establis$ments en%merate! in )ection 1 o( t$e Or!inance it ,o%l! $ave so !eclare! in %ncertain terms b' a!!ing t$em to t$e list o( t$e matters it ma' &ro$ibit %n!er t$e aboveD .%ote! )ection. 2$e Or!inance no, vainl' attem&ts to l%m& t$ese establis$ments ,it$ $o%ses o( illD re&%te an! e4&an! t$e Cit' Co%ncilHs &o,ers in t$e secon! an! t$ir! cla%ses o( )ection 0C8 ;a< 0 ;vii< o( t$e Co!e in an e((ort to overreac$ its &ro$ibitor' &o,ers. *t is evi!ent t$at t$ese establis$ments ma' onl' be reg%late! in t$eir establis$ment o&eration an! maintenance. *t is im&ortant to !isting%is$ t$e &%nis$able activities (rom t$e establis$ments t$emselves. 2$at t$ese establis$ments are recogniBe! legitimate enter&rises can be gleane! (rom anot$er )ection o( t$e Co!e. )ection 111 %n!er t$e 2itle on Local Government 2a4ation e4&ressl' mentione! &ro&rietors or o&erators o( massage clinics sa%na 2%r+is$ an! ),e!is$ bat$s $otels motels an! lo!ging $o%ses as among t$e "contractors" !e(ine! in &aragra&$ ;$< t$ereo(. 2$e same )ection also !e(ine! "am%sement" as a "&leas%rable !iversion an! entertainment " "s'non'mo%s to rela4ation avocation &astime or (%nA" an! "am%sement &laces" to incl%!e "t$eaters cinemas concert $alls circ%ses an! ot$er &laces o( am%sement ,$ere one see+s a!mission to entertain onesel( b' seeing or vie,ing t$e s$o, or &er(ormances." 2$%s it can be in(erre! t$at t$e Co!e consi!ers t$ese establis$ments as legitimate enter&rises an! activities. ;/< 2$e Or!inance also contravenes t$e &rovisions o( =.D. 088. #s correctl' arg%e! b' M2DC t$e stat%te $a! alrea!' converte! t$e resi!ential 3rmitaDMalate area into a commercial area. 2$e !ecree allo,e! t$e establis$ment an! o&eration o( all +in!s o( commercial establis$ments e4ce&t ,are$o%se or o&en storage !e&ot !%m& or 'ar! motor re&air s$o& gasoline service station lig$t in!%str' ,it$ an' mac$iner' or (%neral establis$ment. 2$e r%le is t$at (or an or!inance to be vali! an! to $ave (orce an! e((ect it m%st not onl' be ,it$in t$e &o,ers o( t$e co%ncil to enact b%t t$e same m%st not be in con(lict ,it$ or re&%gnant to t$e general la,. Perez v. e la Cruz

Facts: *n 18G8 !%ring a &rivate con(erence $el! at t$e o((ice o( t$e &etitioner Naga viceDma'or =ereB ,it$ 7 co%ncilors t$e matter o(

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selecting t$e secretar' o( t$e m%nici&al boar! o( t$e cit' as ,ell as t$e c$airmen o( t$e vario%s stan!ing committees came %& (or !isc%ssion. #t t$e in!ication b' t$e 0 Nacionalista =art' co%ncilors o( t$eir !esire to vote (or a &artic%lar &erson as secretar' o( t$e boar! an! to $ol! t$e c$airmans$i& o( t$e committee on mar+ets (or one o( t$em =ereB e4&resse! $er intention to vote in t$e !eliberation o( s%c$ matters to create a tie vote an! to t$en e4ercise $er &o,er to brea+ s%c$ !ea!loc+. 2$e (o%r a(oresai! co%ncilors (ile! ,it$ t$e Co%rt o( First *nstance o( Camarines )%r a &etition (or &ro$ibition ,it$ ,rit o( &reliminar' in9%nction to &revent =ereB (rom casting $er vote in t$e selection o( t$e secretar' o( t$e m%nici&al boar! an! in t$e c$oice o( c$airmen an! members o( t$e !i((erent stan!ing committees e4ce&t in t$e event o( a tie vote an! (rom voting on an' legislative &ro&osal or meas%re or in an' &rocee!ing o( t$e sai! boar! e4ce&t ,$en t$e members t$ereo( are e.%all' !ivi!e!. -es&on!ents allege! t$at t$e viceDma'or o( Naga Cit' is not a member o( t$e m%nici&al boar! b%t onl' its &resi!ing o((icer. # ,rit ,as iss%e! $ence viceDma'or =ereB assaile! t$e iss%ance o( t$e ,rit as %n!%e inter(erence in matters &%rel' legislative in c$aracter at t$e same time t$at s$e !enie! t$e e4istence o( a t$reatene! invasion o( t$e rig$ts o( t$e (o%r co%ncilors. )%bse.%entl' Liberal co%ncilors &asse! an amen!ment to t$e -%les o( =roce!%re o( t$e Naga m%nici&al boar! granting t$e c$airman t$ereo( t$e rig$t to vote as a member an! as &resi!ing o((icer t$e rig$t to vote again in case o( a tie. *ss%es: 1. 6ON t$e viceDma'or o( Naga cit' besi!es being t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e m%nici&al boar! also a member t$ereo(T NO. %&on a&&roval o( -e&%blic #ct //C8 1 ma+ing elective t$e o((ices o( ma'or viceDma'or an! co%ncilors in c$artere! cities t$e &osition o( viceD ma'or among ot$ers ,as create!. 2$%s section 1 o( sai! la, &rovi!es: 2$e &osition o( KiceDMa'or is $ereb' create! in c$artere! cities ,$ic$ at &resent $ave no &osition (or KiceDMa'or b' &rovision o( t$eir cor&orate c$arters: =rovi!e! 2$at t$e KiceDMa'or s$all be t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e Cit' Co%ncil or M%nici&al Boar! in all c$artere! cities. =ereB no, conten!s t$at since %n!er t$e Naga Cit' c$arter t$e ma'or ,as t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e m%nici&al boar! an! since %n!er -e&%blic #ct //C8 creating t$e &osition o( viceDma'or ,$o ,as ma!e t$e &resi!ing o((icer t$e viceDma'or sim&l' re&lace! t$e ma'or as "&resi!ing o((icer" o( t$e m%nici&al boar! t$e viceDma'or ac.%ire! all t$e rig$ts an! &rerogatives o( t$e &resi!ing o((icer %n!er t$e c$arter one o( ,$ic$ is "members$i& in t$e m%nici&al boar!." W%iem v. )eriRa: t$e silence o( -e&. #ct //C8 on ,$et$er t$e viceDma'or t$e &resi!ing o((icer is a member o( t$e boar! ,as not eno%g$ gro%n! (or e4cl%!ing t$e viceDma'or (rom members$i& in t$e boar!. B%t t$e legal setting an! &remises in W%iem are ,i!el' !is&arate (rom t$ose in t$e case at bar. *n t$e (irst &lace in W%iem ,e (o%n! t$at "b' e4&ress legal man!ate t$e viceDma'or o( Caga'an !e Oro Cit' is a member o( t$e boar!" beca%se "t$at cit'Hs original c$arters calls (or an a&&ointive KiceD Ma'or ,$o Hs$all be a member o( t$e M%nici&al Boar!H." *n t$e case at bar $o,ever in contrast ,it$ sec. 11 o( -e&%blic #ct C/1 creating t$e cit' o( Caga'an !e Oro ,$ic$ e4&licitl' ma!e t$e viceD ma'or a member o( t$e m%nici&al boar! section 11 o( -e&%blic #ct 15C creating t$e Cit' o( Naga (aile! to &rovi!e even (or t$e &osition o( viceDma'or. *n t$e secon! &lace -e&%blic #ct 11/C 15 &artic%larl' section 1 t$ereo( amen!ing t$e Caga'an !e Oro c$arter e4&ressl' reiterate! t$at t$e viceDma'or "s$all be a member o( t$e M%nici&al Boar!A" as s%c$ similar stat%tor' basis can be cogentl' invo+e! (or t$e &etitioner =ereB. Bagasao et al. vs. 2%mangan: t$e viceDma'or "as t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e M%nici&al Boar! o( t$e Cit' o( Cabanat%an is a member t$ereo(" an! "$e ma' e4ercise $is rig$t to vote as a member on an' &ro&ose! or!inance resol%tion or motion." B%t ,e so $el! beca%se "bot$ t$e %namen!e! an! amen!e! &rovisions o( section 11 o( t$e C$arter o( t$e Cit' o( Cabanat%an &rovi!e t$at t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e M%nici&al Boar! is a member t$ereo(. #n! as ,e $ave re re&eate!l' state! t$ere is no &rovision ,$atever in -e&%blic #ct 15C creating t$e Cit' o( Naga t$at &rovi!es (or t$e &osition o( viceD

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ma'orA an! t$e amen!ator' &rovisions o( -e&%blic #ct //C8 ma+ing t$e viceDma'or t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e m%nici&al boar! !oes not ma+e $im a constit%ent member t$ereo(. =aragra&$ ;g< o( -%le *** o( t$e -%les o( =roce!%re a!o&te! b' t$e m%nici&al boar! o( Naga Cit' ,$ic$ recites: ;g< 2$e c$airman cannot vote e4ce&t in case o( a tie. Ho,ever a member o( t$e Boar! acting as c$airman ma' vote as a member an! as c$airman to brea+ a tie. 2$e &etitioner insists $o,ever t$at t$e above &rovision ,as amen!e! b' t$e Gt$ m%nici&al boar! $ea!e! b' $er to rea! as (ollo,s: ;g< 2$e C$airman as member o( t$e Boar! can vote an! as a =resi!ing O((icer ma' vote again in case o( a tie. *n t$e same manner a member o( t$e Boar! acting as c$airman ma' vote as a member an! as C$airman to brea+ t$e tie. )%c$ insistence is a s$eer e4ercise in (%tilit' beca%se ;1< t$e amen!e! r%le &res%&&oses t$at t$e c$airman is a "member o( t$e Boar!" S an ass%m&tion t$at is ,it$o%t legal basisA ;/< t$e sai! amen!ator' r%le ,as &asse! on Marc$ C 18G8 almost t,o mont$s a(ter t$e (iling on 7an%ar' 1C 18G8 b' t$e &rivate res&on!ents o( t$eir &etition in civil case GC50 t$at is &en!ente liteA an! ;1< alt$o%g$ on t$e !ate t$e sai! amen!ment ,as &asse! t$at restraining or!er !ate! Febr%ar' /5 18G8 o( t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals ,as in (orce t$ere ,as no .%or%m in t$e boar! as t$e (o%r res&on!ents co%ncilors $a! ,al+e! o%t o( t$e session $all leaving onl' t$e t$ree Liberal =art' co%ncilors an! t$e &etitioner. 2$e &ro&ose! amen!ment ,as t$ere(ore a com&lete n%llit'. =etitioner>s t$eor' t$at since t$e ma'or o( Naga Cit' ,$o ,as a member o( t$e m%nici&al boar! %n!er -e&. #ct 15C ,as re&lace! b' t$e viceDma'or as &resi!ing o((icer t$ereo( t$e viceDma'or m%st &er(orce be !eeme! a member o( t$e m%nici&al boar!. =ressing $er bi! s$e asserts t$at -e&%blic #ct //C8 e((ecte! a mere c$ange in t$e o((icer ,$o ,ill &resi!e t$e meetings o( t$e boar! an! since t$e viceDma'or re&lace! t$e ma'or as "&resi!ing o((icer" t$ereo( t$e viceDma'or ac.%ire! all t$e rig$ts an! &rerogatives o( t$e &resi!ing o((icer one o( ,$ic$ is members$i& in t$e boar!. 2$is contention (in!s no s%&&ort eit$er in la, or logic. For section 1 o( -e&. #ct //C8 sim&l' installs t$e viceDma'or as t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e boar! in all c$artere! cities. *t !oes not install t$e viceDma'or as a member t$ereo(. 2$is is es&eciall' tr%e in t$e case o( Naga ,$ere t$e &osition o( viceDma'or ;,$et$er a&&ointive or elective< ,as originall' not even &rovi!e! (or in its c$arter S t$e o((icial ne4tD inDran+ to t$e ma'or being t$e cit' treas%rer. /. 6ON s$e can vote t,ice: to create a !ea!loc+ an! t$en to brea+ it. NO. 2$e &etitioner no, arg%es t$at as viceDma'or s$e merel' ste&&e! into t$e s$oes o( t$e ma'or as &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e boar! an! since t$e ma'or ,as consi!ere! a member t$ereo( s$e too became a member entitle! to t$e same rig$ts &o,ers an! &rerogatives o( voting as t$e ma'or. 2$ere is no gainsa'ing t$e (act t$at &rior to t$e a&&roval o( -e&. #ct //C8 t$e ma'or o( a m%nici&alit' ,as a member o( t$e m%nici&al co%ncil /C besi!es being t$e &resi!ing o((icer t$ereo( b%t $is rig$t to vote co%l! be e4ercise! onl' in "case o( a tie." /G Certainl' t$e viceDma'or ,$o merel' ste&&e! into t$e s$oes o( t$e ma'or co%l! $ave no greater &o,er t$an t$at &ossesse! b' t$e ma'or ,$o co%l! not create a tie vote an! t$en brea+ it. 1. 6ON t$e 9%!ge $as 9%ris!iction to iss%e t$e ,rit o( &ro$ibitor' in9%nction against =ereB. :3). 2$e &etitionerHs (inal contention is t$at as a legislative o((icial &er(orming legislative (%nctions s$e is not s%b9ect to an' &ro$ibitor' &rocess b' t$e co%rts. )$e invo+es Kera et al. vs. #velino et al. ;77 =$il. 18/< ,$ere ,e $el!: =etitioners &ra' (or a ,rit o( &ro$ibition. @n!er t$e la, &ro$ibition re(ers onl' to &rocee!ings o( an' trib%nal cor&oration boar! or &erson e4ercising (%nctions 9%!icial or ministerial. #s res&on!ents !o not e4ercise s%c$ +in! o( (%nctions t$eirs being legislative it is clear t$at t$e !is&%te (alls be'on! t$e sco&e o( s%c$ s&ecial reme!'.

111

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests *nvocation o( t$is r%ling is com&letel' ina&&osite. 2$e
!octrine t$erein lai! !o,n is base! on t$e &rinci&le o( se&aration o( &o,ers an! c$ee+s an! balances an! is not a&&licable to local governments. Moreover e4ec%tives at t$e local or m%nici&al level are veste! ,it$ bot$ legislative an! sometimes 9%!icial (%nctions in a!!ition to t$eir &%rel' e4ec%tive !%ties. B' e4&licit stat%tor' comman! co%rts are given a%t$orit' to !etermine t$e vali!it' o( m%nici&al &rocee!ings. *t is not !is&%te! t$at t$e &resent &rocee!ing (or &ro$ibition $as (or its ob9ective to &revent t$e &etitioner (rom "&artici&ating in t$e election o( )ecretar' o( t$e Boar! c$airmans$i& o( !i((erent committees an! in voting in ot$er legislative matters &ro&osals an! &rocee!ings ot$er t$an to brea+ a tie." *t is o%r vie, t$at t$e &etitioner in insisting to e4ercise t$e rig$t to vote t,ice in t$e m%nici&al boar! acte! ,it$o%t 9%ris!iction an! &o,er to !o so an! ma' be vali!l' &revente! an! restraine! b' a ,rit o( &ro$ibition. *n re&l' to t$e &etitionerHs assertion t$at t$e acts so%g$t to be restraine! are mere "&robable in!ivi!%al act%ations" be'on! t$e reac$ o( a &ro$ibitor' ,rit s%((ice it to state t$at &ro$ibition is essentiall' a "&reventive reme!'" an! is "not inten!e! to &rovi!e (or a reme!' (or acts alrea!' accom&lis$e!." 6it$al &etitionerHs t$reat o( voting t,ice in t$e m%nici&al boar! ,as not an em&t' or meaningless gest%re (or t$e recor! s$o,s t$at on Marc$ C 18G8 soon a(ter t$e ,rit com&laine! o( ,as li(te! b' t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals t$ro%g$ t$e latterHs restraining or!er o( Febr%ar' /5 18G8 t$e &etitioner &rocee!e! to act b' voting t,ice (or t$e a&&roval o( an allege! amen!ment to t$e r%les o( &roce!%re o( t$e m%nici&al boar!. 9omeo"ners Association o! the Philippines v. Municipal Boar o! Manila Facts: 2$e Cit' o( Manila &asse! M%nici&al Or!inance No. 0801 ,$ic$ reg%lates rentals o( lots an! b%il!ings (or resi!ential &%r&oses. 2$e Homeo,nersH #ssociation o( t$e =$ili&&ines *nc. an! its =resi!ent so%g$t to n%lli(' t$e or!inance. CF*: or!inance is %ltra vires %nconstit%tional illegal an! voi! ab initio. LC: str%c+ !o,n t$e .%estione! or!inance %&on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e &o,er to "!eclare a state o( emergenc' ... e4cl%sivel' &ertains to Congress"A t$at "t$ere is no longer an' state o( emergenc'" ,$ic$ ma' 9%sti(' t$e reg%lation o( $o%se rentalsA t$at sai! or!inance constit%tes an %nreasonable an! %n9%sti(ie! limitation on t$e %se o( &rivate &ro&erties an! arbitraril' encroac$es on t$e constit%tional rig$ts o( &ro&ert' o,ners"A t$at t$e &o,er o( t$e Cit' o( Manila to "reg%late t$e b%siness o( ... letting or s%bletting o( lan!s an! b%il!ings" !oes not incl%!e t$e a%t$orit' to &ro$ibit ,$at is (orbi!!en in sai! or!inanceA an! t$at t$e same cannot be !eeme! sanctione! b' t$e general ,el(are cla%se in t$e Cit' C$arter. *ss%e: 6ON t$e Or!inance is vali!. NO. 2$e a%t$orit' o( m%nici&al cor&orations to reg%late is essentiall' &olice &o,er. *nasm%c$ as t$e same generall' entails a c%rtailment o( t$e libert' t$e rig$ts an!?or t$e &ro&ert' o( &ersons ,$ic$ are &rotecte! an! even g%arantee! b' t$e Constit%tion t$e e4ercise o( &olice &o,er is necessaril' s%b9ect to a .%ali(ication limitation or restriction !eman!e! b' t$e regar! t$e res&ect an! t$e obe!ience !%e to t$e &rescri&tions o( t$e (%n!amental la, &artic%larl' t$ose (orming &art o( t$e Constit%tion o( Libert' ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e Bill o( -ig$ts S t$e &olice &o,er meas%re m%st be "reasonable". *n ot$er ,or!s in!ivi!%al rig$ts ma' be a!versel' a((ecte! b' t$e e4ercise o( &olice &o,er to t$e e4tent onl' S an! onl' to t$e e4tent S t$at ma' (airl' be re.%ire! b' t$e legitimate !eman!s o( &%blic interest or &%blic ,el(are. *( s%c$ !eman!s are bro%g$t abo%t b' a state o( emergenc' t$e inter(erence %&on in!ivi!%al rig$ts res%lting (rom t$e reg%lations a!o&te! to meet t$e sit%ation m%st be b' an! large coDe4tensive coDe.%al or coD termino%s ,it$ t$e e4istence t$ereo(. #n! since an emergenc' is b' nat%re tem&orar' in c$aracter so m%st t$e reg%lations &rom%lgate! t$ere(or be. *n t$e lang%age o( 7%stice Holmes "circ%mstances ma' so c$ange in time or !i((er in s&ace as to clot$e ,it$ s%c$ an interest ,$at at ot$er times or in ot$er &laces ,o%l! be a matter o( &%rel' &rivate concern." #s a conse.%ence a la, or or!inance a((ecting t$e rig$ts o( in!ivi!%als as a means to ti!e over a critical con!ition to be vali! an! legal m%st be (or a

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"!e(inite" &erio! o( time t$e lengt$ o( ,$ic$ m%st be "reasonable" in relation to t$e nat%re an! !%ration o( t$e crisis it see+s to overcome or s%rmo%nt. 2$e &ractical reason (or t$e re.%irement t$at a stat%te &asse! to meet a given emergenc' s$o%l! limit t$e &erio! o( its e((ectivit' is t$at ot$er,ise a ne, an! !i((erent la, ,o%l! be necessar' to re&eal it an! sai! &erio! ,o%l! accor!ingl' be "%nlimite! in!e(inite negative an! %ncertain" so t$at "t$at ,$ic$ ,as inten!e! to meet a tem&orar' emergenc' ma' become a &ermanent la," beca%se "Congress mig$t not enact t$e re&eal an! even i( it ,o%l! t$e re&eal mig$t not meet ,it$ t$e a&&roval o( t$e =resi!ent an! t$e Congress mig$t not be able to overri!e t$e veto". *n line ,it$ t$e basic &$iloso&$' %n!erl'ing t$e a%t$orit' to a((ect in!ivi!%al rig$ts t$is Co%rt (elt t$at Common,ealt$ #ct No. G71 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e 3mergenc' =o,ers #ct ,as meant to be an! "became ino&erative ,$en Congress met in reg%lar session on Ma' /C 180G " an! t$at 34ec%tive Or!ers Nos. G/ 18/ //C an! //G S &rom%lgate! s%bse.%entl' t$ereto S ",ere iss%e! ,it$o%t a%t$orit' o( la," beca%se ot$er,ise sai! emergenc' reg%lations ,o%l! &%r&ort to be in (orce (or an in!e(inite an! %nlimite! &erio! o( time an! $ence ,o%l! be %nconstit%tional. 2$e same consi!erations im&elle! t$e Co%rt to invali!ate 34ec%tive Or!er Nos. C0C an! C0G iss%e! on November 15 18C/. *n!ee! ot$er,ise "t$e res%lt ,o%l! be obvio%s %nconstit%tionalit'" b' ma+ing &ermanent a la, inten!e! to a((or! a relie( (or a tem&orar' emergenc' t$e lengt$ o( ,$ic$ s$o%l! be "(i4e! in t$e la, itsel( an! not !e&en!ent %&on t$e arbitrar' or elastic ,ill o( eit$er Congress or t$e =resi!ent". 2$e &o,ers o( m%nici&al cor&orations !elegate! t$ereto b' t$e National Government cannot esca&e t$e in$erent limitations to ,$ic$ t$e latter S as t$e so%rce o( sai! &o,ers S is s%b9ect. 2$en again since o%r la, on m%nici&al cor&orations is in &rinci&le &atterne! a(ter t$at o( t$e @nite! )tates t$e r%le t$erein to t$e e((ect t$at "in a &ro&er case emergenc' legislation limite! in time ma' be enacte! %n!er t$e &olice &o,er" o( a m%nici&al cor&oration s$o%l! be consi!ere! a &art o( o%r legal s'stem. #&&ellant assails t$e vali!it' o( t$e &rocee!ings in t$e lo,er co%rt %&on t$e ro%n! t$at alt$o%g$ &etitioners $erein $a! assaile! M%nici&al Or!inance No. 0801 not merel' as %ltra vires b%t also as %nconstit%tional t$e )olicitor General $a! been neit$er $ear! nor noti(ie! in connection t$ere,it$ in violation o( )ection 0 o( -%le G0 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt. *t s$o%l! be note! $o,ever t$at a&&ellant !i! not raise t$is .%estion or invo+e sai! )ection 0 eit$er in $is ans,er or in a motion to !ismiss in t$e lo,er co%rt. @&on t$e ot$er $an! t$e Cit' Fiscal o( Manila ,as noti(ie! t$erein. *n (act $e (ile! a memoran!%m a&art (rom t$e memoran!%m s%bmitte! b' co%nsel (or a&&ellant $erein. Neit$er !i! $is motion (or reconsi!eration o( t$e a&&eale! !ecision to%c$ %&on sai! .%estion ,$ic$ ,as raise! (or t$e (irst time in a "s%&&lement" to sai! motion (or reconsi!eration. #t an' rate t$e !etermination o( t$e .%estion ,$et$er or not t$e )olicitor General s$o%l! be re.%ire! to a&&ear "in an' action involving t$e vali!it' o( an' treat' la, or!inance or e4ec%tive or!er r%les or reg%lation" is a matter le(t to t$e "!iscretion" o( t$e Co%rt &%rs%ant to )ection /1 o( -%le 1 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt. *nasm%c$ as sai! re.%irement is not man!ator' b%t !iscretionar' nonDcom&liance t$ere,it$ an! ,it$ )ection 0 o( -%le G0 S t$e inter&retation o( ,$ic$ s$o%l! be $armoniBe! ,it$ sai! )ection /1 o( -%le 1 S a((ecte! neit$er t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$e trial co%rt nor t$e vali!it' o( t$e &rocee!ings t$erein in connection ,it$ t$e &resent case. 2$%s in )an B%enavent%ra vs. M%nici&alit' o( )an 7ose ,e $el!: t$at t$e re.%irement regar!ing noti(ication to t$e =rovincial Fiscal o( t$e &en!enc' o( an action

11C

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


involving t$e vali!it' o( a m%nici&al or!inance as &rovi!e! in )ec. C -%le GG o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt ;no, )ee. 0 -%le G0 o( t$e -evise! -%les o( Co%rt< is not 9%ris!ictionalA an! (ail%re on t$e &art o( &etitioner to noti(' t$e =rovincial Fiscal ,ill not be a s%((icient gro%n! to t$ro, t$e case o%t o( co%rt. 6e believe t$e &%r&ose o( t$e aboveD.%ote! r%le is sim&l' to give t$e =rovincial Fiscal ,$o is t$e legal o((icer o( t$e local governments a c$ance to &artici&ate in t$e !eliberation to !etermine t$e vali!it' o( a .%estione! m%nici&al or!inance be(ore t$e com&etent co%rt. *( it a&&ears $o,ever t$at t$e or!inance in .%estion is &atentl' illegal as in t$e &resent case an! t$e matter $a! alrea!' been &asse! %&on b' a com&etent co%rt t$e re.%irements o( )ec. C o( -%le GG o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt ;no, )ee. 0 o( -%le G0 o( t$e -evise! -%les o( Co%rt< ma' be !is&ense! ,it$.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


#ctions co%&le! ,it$ &rovisional reme!ies s%c$ as &reliminar' in9%nction attac$ment !eliver' o( &ersonal &ro&ert' an! s%&&ort &en!ente liteA an! U0V 6$ere t$e action ma' ot$er,ise be barre! b' t$e )tat%te o( Limitations )ection / o( t$e la, !e(ines t$e sco&e o( a%t$orit' o( t$e L%&on t$%s: )%b9ect matters (or amicable settlement.S2$e L%&on o( eac$ baranga' s$all $ave a%t$orit' to bring toget$er t$e &arties act%all' resi!ing in t$e same cit' or m%nici&alit' (or amicable settlement o( all !is&%tes e4ce&t: U1V 6$ere one &art' is t$e government or an' s%b!ivision or instr%mentalit' t$ereo(A U/V 6$ere one &art' is a &%blic o((icer or em&lo'ee an! t$e !is&%te relates to t$e &er(ormance o( $is o((icial (%nctionsA U1V O((enses &%nis$able b' im&risonment e4cee!ing 15 !a's or a (ine e4cee!ing =/55.55A U0V O((enses ,$ere t$ere is no &rivate o((en!e! &art'A UCV )%c$ ot$er classes o( !is&%tes ,$ic$ t$e =rime Minister ma' in t$e interest o( 9%stice !etermine %&on recommen!ation o( t$e Minister o( 7%stice an! t$e Minister o( Local Government. 2$%s e4ce&t in t$e instances en%merate! in sections / an! G o( t$e la, t$e L%&on $as t$e a%t$orit' to settle amicabl' all t'&es o( !is&%tes involving &arties ,$o act%all' resi!e in t$e same cit' or m%nici&alit'. 2$e la, as ,ritten ma+es no !istinction ,$atsoever ,it$ res&ect to t$e classes o( civil !is&%tes t$at s$o%l! be com&romise! at t$e baranga' level in contra!istinction to t$e limitation im&ose! %&on t$e L%&on b' &aragra&$ ;1< section / t$ereo( as regar!s its a%t$orit' over criminal cases. *n (act in !e(ining t$e L%&onHs a%t$orit' )ection / o( sai! la, em&lo'e! t$e %niversal an! com&re$ensive term "all" to ,$ic$ %sage 6e s$o%l! neit$er a!! nor s%btract in consonance ,it$ t$e r%!imentar' &rece&t in stat%tor' constr%ction t$at ",$ere t$e la, !oes not !isting%is$ 6e s$o%l! not !isting%is$. B' com&elling t$e !is&%tants to settle t$eir !i((erences t$ro%g$ t$e intervention o( t$e baranga' lea!er an! ot$er res&ecte! members o( t$e baranga' t$e animosit' generate! b' &rotracte! co%rt litigations bet,een members o( t$e same &olitical %nit a !isr%&tive (actor to,ar! %nit' an! coo&eration is avoi!e!. *t m%st be borne in min! t$at t$e conciliation &rocess at t$e baranga' level is li+e,ise !esigne! to !isco%rage in!iscriminate (iling o( cases in co%rt

Morata v. Go Facts: Kictor an! Flora Go (ile! a com&laint ,it$ t$e CF* against 7%li%s an! Ma. L%isa Morata (or recover' o( a s%m o( mone' &l%s !amages. 2$e &arties are all resi!ents o( Ceb% Cit'. 2$e Moratas (ile! a motion to !ismiss citing as gro%n!s t$e (ail%re o( t$e com&laint to allege &rior availment b' t$e Gos o( t$e baranga' conciliation &rocess re.%ire! b' =.D. 1C58 as ,ell as t$e absence o( a certi(ication b' t$e L%&on or =ang+at )ecretar' t$at no conciliation or settlement $a! been reac$e! b' t$e &arties. 2$e motion ,as o&&ose!. M2D !enie!. M- !enie!. *ss%e: 6ON t$e Matar%ngang =ambaranga' la, a&&l' to cases $ear! b' t$e -egional 2rial Co%rts. :3). )3C2*ON G. No com&laint &etition action (or &rocee!ing involving an' matter ,it$in t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e L%&on as &rovi!e! in )ection / $ereo( s$all be (ile! or instit%te! in co%rt or an' ot$er government o((ice (or a!9%!ication %nless t$ere $as been a con(rontation o( t$e &arties be(ore t$e L%&on C$airman or t$e =ang+at an! no conciliation or settlement $as been reac$e! as certi(ie! b' t$e L%&on )ecretar' or t$e =ang+at )ecretar' atteste! b' t$e L%&on or =ang+at C$airman or %nless t$e settlement $as been re&%!iate!. Ho,ever t$e &arties ma' go !irectl' to co%rt in t$e (ollo,ing cases: U1V 6$ere t$e acc%se! is %n!er !etentionA U/V 6$ere a &erson $as ot$er,ise been !e&rive! o( &ersonal libert' calling (or $abeas cor&%s &rocee!ingsA U1V

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in or!er to !econgest its clogge! !oc+ets an! in t$e &rocess en$ance t$e .%alit' o( 9%stice !is&ense! b' it. 2$%s to sa' t$at t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e L%&on is limite! to cases e4cl%sivel' cogniBable b' t$e in(erior co%rts is to lose sig$t o( t$is ob9ective. 6orse it ,o%l! ma+e t$e la, a sel(D !e(eating one. For ,$at ,o%l! sto& a &art' sa' in an action (or a s%m o( mone' or !amages as in t$e instant case (rom bloating %& $is claim in or!er to &lace $is case be'on! t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$e in(erior co%rt an! t$ereb' avoi! t$e man!ator' re.%irement o( =.D. 1C58T #n! ,$' in!ee! s$o%l! t$e la, see+ to ease t$e congestion o( !oc+ets onl' in in(erior co%rts an! not in t$e regional trial co%rts ,$ere t$e logD9am o( cases is m%c$ more serio%sT *n!ee! t$e la,ma+ers co%l! not $ave inten!e! s%c$ $al(Dmeas%re an! sel(D!e(eating legislation. 2$ere can be no .%estion t$at ,$en t$e la, con(erre! %&on t$e L%&on "t$e a%t$orit' to bring toget$er t$e &arties act%all' resi!ing in t$e same cit' or m%nici&alit' (or amicable settlement o( all !is&%tes ... " its obvio%s inten!ment ,as to grant to t$e L%&on as broa! an! com&re$ensive an a%t$orit' as &ossible as ,o%l! bring abo%t t$e o&tim%m realiBation o( t$e a(oresai! ob9ectives. 2$ese ob9ectives ,o%l! onl' be $al(Dmet an! easil' t$,arte! i( t$e L%&onHs a%t$orit' is e4ercise! onl' in cases (alling ,it$in t$e e4cl%sive 9%ris!iction o( in(erior co%rts. Moreover i( it is t$e intention o( t$e la, to restrict its coverage onl' to cases cogniBable b' t$e in(erior co%rts t$en it ,o%l! not $ave &rovi!e! in )ection 1 t$ereo( t$e (ollo,ing r%le on Ken%e to ,it: Ho,ever all !is&%tes ,$ic$ involve real &ro&ert' or an' interest t$erein s$all be bro%g$t in t$e Baranga' ,$ere t$e real &ro&ert' or an! &art t$ereo( is sit%ate!. 2$e a%t$orit' o( t$e L%&on is clearl' establis$e! in )ection / o( t$e la,A ,$ereas )ections 11 1/ an! 10 relie! %&on b' res&on!ent 9%!ge !eal ,it$ t$e n%lli(ication or e4ec%tion o( t$e settlement or arbitration a,ar!s obtaine! at t$e baranga' level. 2$ese sections con(erre! %&on t$e cit' an! m%nici&al co%rts t$e 9%ris!iction to &ass %&on an! resolve &etitions or actions (or n%lli(ication or en(orcement o( settlement?arbitration a,ar!s iss%e! b' t$e L%&on regar!less o( t$e amo%nt involve! or t$e nat%re o( t$e original !is&%te. B%t t$ere is not$ing in t$e conte4t o( sai! sections to 9%sti(' t$e t$esis t$at t$e man!ate! conciliation &rocess in ot$er t'&es o( cases a&&lies e4cl%sivel' to sai! in(erior co%rts. #n' !o%bt on t$e iss%e be(ore @s s$o%l! be !is&elle! b' Circ%lar No. // iss%e! b' C$ie( 7%stice 3nri.%e M. Fernan!o: E3((ective %&on 'o%r recei&t o( t$e certi(ication b' t$e Minister o( Local Government an! Comm%nit' Develo&ment t$at all t$e baranga's ,it$in 'o%r res&ective 9%ris!ictions $ave organiBe! t$eir L%&ons &rovi!e! (or in =resi!ential Decree No. 1C58 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e 5atarungang #ambarangay 2aw in im&lementation o( t$e baranga' s'stem o( settlement o( !is&%tes 'o% are $ereb' !irecte! to !esist (rom receiving com&laints &etitions actions or &rocee!ings in cases (alling ,it$in t$e a%t$orit' o( sai! L%&ons. *t is signi(icant t$at t$e aboveD.%ote! circ%lar embo!'ing t$e !irective "to !esist (rom receiving com&laints &etitions actions an! &rocee!ings in cases (alling ,it$in t$e a%t$orit' o( sai! L%&ons " $as been a!!resse! not onl' to 9%!ges o( cit' an! m%nici&al co%rts b%t also to all t$e 9%!ges o( t$e co%rts o( (irst instance circ%it criminal co%rts 9%venile an! !omestic co%rts an! co%rts o( agrarian relations no, +no,n as regional trial co%rts %n!er B.=. No. 1/8. 2$e sai! circ%lar ,as note! b' &resi!ent Fer!inan! 3. Marcos in a Letter o( *m&lementation !ate! November 1/ 1878 t$e (irst &aragra&$ o( ,$ic$ rea!s as (ollo,s: ",it$ t$e vie, to easing %& t$e logD9am o( cases an! solving t$e bac+logs in t$e case o( !oc+ets o( all government o((ices involve! in t$e investigation trial an! a!9%!ication o( cases it is $ereb' or!ere! t$at imme!iate im&lementation be ma!e b' all government o((icials an! o((ices concerne! o( t$e s'stem o( amicabl' settling !is&%tes at t$e baranga' level as &rovi!e! (or in t$e Matar%ngang =ambaranga' La, U=resi!ential Decree No. 1C58V." 2$e conciliation &rocess at t$e baranga' level &rescribe! b' =.D. 1C58 as a &reDcon!ition (or (iling a com&laint in co%rt is com&%lsor' not onl' (or cases (alling %n!er t$e e4cl%sive com&etence o( t$e metro&olitan an! m%nici&al trial co%rts b%t (or actions cogniBable b' t$e regional trial co%rts as ,ell. A# v. Contreras

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Facts: @' s%blease! (rom #ta'!e t$e ot$er $al( o( t$e secon! (loor o( a b%il!ing locate! at corner -e&oso an! Oliman )treets Ma+ati. )$e o&erate! an! maintaine! t$erein a bea%t' &arlor. 2$e s%blease contract e4&ire!. Ho,ever t$e @' ,as not able to remove all $er movable &ro&erties. #n arg%ment arose bet,een t$e @' an! #ta'!e ,$en t$e (ormer so%g$t to ,it$!ra, (rom t$e s%blease! &remises $er remaining movable &ro&erties s%c$ as cabinets s$elves (rames a mirror a s$am&oo bo,l an! an aircon!itioning casing. 2$e arg%ment !egenerate! into a sc%((le bet,een t$e &etitioner on t$e one $an! an! #ta'!e an! several o( #ta'!eHs em&lo'ees incl%!ing &rivate res&on!ent 7avier on t$e ot$er. 2$e &rivate res&on!ent $a! t$emselves me!icall' e4amine! (or t$e allege! in9%ries in(licte! on t$em b' @'. 2$e' t$en (ile! a com&laint ,it$ t$e baranga' ca&tain o( KalenB%ela Ma+ati. 2$e con(rontation o( t$e &arties ,as sc$e!%le! b' t$e baranga' ca&tain b%t onl' @' a&&eare!. 2$e con(rontation ,as reset. 2$e O((ice o( t$e =rovincial =rosec%tor o( -iBal (ile! t,o in(ormations (or slig$t &$'sical in9%ries against @'. 7%!ge Contreras or!ere! t$e &etitioner to s%bmit $er co%nterDa((i!avit an! t$ose o( $er ,itnesses. @' s%bmitte! t$e re.%ire! co%nterDa((i!avits ,$ere s$e s&eci(icall' allege! t$e &remat%rit' o( t$e (iling o( t$e criminal cases (or (ail%re to %n!ergo conciliation &rocee!ings as s$e an! t$e &rivate res&on!ents are resi!ents o( Manila. )$e also attac$e! to it a certi(ication b' t$e baranga' ca&tain o( KalenB%ela Ma+ati t$at t$ere ,as an ongoing conciliation bet,een t$e &arties. @' t$en (ile! an M2D (or nonD com&liance ,it$ t$e re.%irement o( =.D. No. 1C58 on &rior re(erral to t$e L%&ong 2aga&ama'a&a an! &%rs%ant to )ection 18 o( t$e 1881 -evise! -%le on )%mmar' =roce!%re. M2D !enie! M!enie!. *ss%e:6ON it is man!ator' (or t$e &arties $erein to s%bmit to t$e me!iation o( t$e +atar%ngang &ambaranga' be(ore a case in co%rt. :3). 2$e la, on t$e +atar%ngang &ambaranga' ,as originall' governe! b' =.D. No. 1C58 no, re&eale! b' LGC. 2$ree ne, (eat%res: ;1< *t increase! t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e l%&on in criminal o((enses (rom t$ose &%nis$able b' im&risonment not e4cee!ing t$irt' !a's or a (ine not e4cee!ing =/55.55 in =.D. No. 1C58 to t$ose o((enses &%nis$able b' im&risonment not e4cee!ing one 'ear or a (ine not e4cee!ing =C 555.55. ;/< #s to ven%e it &rovi!es t$at !is&%tes arising at t$e ,or+&lace ,$ere t$e conten!ing &arties are em&lo'e! or at t$e instit%tion ,$ere s%c$ &arties are enrolle! (or st%!' s$all be bro%g$t in t$e baranga' ,$ere s%c$ ,or+&lace or instit%tion is locate!. ;1< *t &rovi!es (or t$e s%s&ension o( t$e &rescri&tive &erio!s o( o((enses !%ring t$e &en!enc' o( t$e me!iation conciliation or arbitration &rocess. =aragra&$ ;c< o( )ection 015 o( t$e la, $o,ever s%((ers (rom some ambig%it' ,$en it &rovi!es t$at t$e &rescri&tive &erio!s "s$all res%me %&on recei&t b' t$e com&lainant o( t$e com&laint or t$e certi(icate o( re&%!iation or o( t$e certi(ication to (ile action iss%e! b' t$e l%&on or &ang+at secretar'." 6$at is re(erre! to as recei&t b' t$e com&lainant o( t$e com&laint is %nclearA obvio%sl' it co%l! $ave been a !ra(ting oversig$t. #ccor!ingl' in t$e above .%ote! )ection 11 o( t$e -%les an! -eg%lations iss%e! b' t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice t$e &$rase "t$e com&laint or" is not (o%n! s%c$ t$at t$e res%m&tion o( t$e r%nning o( t$e &rescri&tive &erio! s$all &ro&erl' be (rom recei&t b' t$e com&lainant o( t$e certi(icate o( re&%!iation or t$e certi(ication to (ile action iss%e! b' t$e l%&on or t$e &ang+at secretar'. )%c$ s%s&ension $o,ever s$all not e4cee! si4t' !a's. 2$e (irst (eat%re $as necessaril' broa!ene! t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$e l%&on an! i( t$e me!iation an! conciliation &rocess at t$at level ,o%l! be e((ectivel' &%rs%e! (e, cases ,o%l! reac$ t$e reg%lar co%rts 9%stice ,o%l! be ac$ieve! at less e4&ense to t$e litigants cor!ial relations$i&s among &rotagonists in a small comm%nit' ,o%l! be restore! an! &eace an! or!er t$erein en$ance!. 2$e secon! (eat%re ,$ic$ is covere! b' &aragra&$ ;!< )ection 058 o( t$e LGC also broa!ens t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e l%&on in t$e sense t$at a&&ro&riate civil an! criminal cases arising (rom inci!ents occ%rring in ,or+&laces or instit%tions o( learning s$all be bro%g$t in t$e baranga' ,$ere s%c$ ,or+&lace or instit%tion is locate!. 2$at baranga' ma' not be t$e a&&ro&riate ven%e in eit$er &aragra&$ ;a< or &aragra&$ ;b< o( t$e sai! section. 2$is r%le &rovi!es convenience to t$e &arties. =roce!%ral r%les incl%!ing t$ose relating to ven%e are !esigne! to ins%re a (air an! convenient $earing to t$e &arties ,it$ com&lete 9%stice bet,een t$em as a res%lt. 3lse,ise state! convenience is t$e raison !Hetre o( t$e r%le on ven%e.

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2$e t$ir! (eat%re is aime! at ma4imiBing t$e e((ectiveness o( t$e me!iation conciliation or arbitration &rocess. *t !isco%rages an' intentional !ela' o( t$e re(erral to a !ate close to t$e e4&iration o( t$e &rescri&tive &erio! an! t$en invo+ing t$e &ro4imit' o( s%c$ e4&iration as t$e reason (or imme!iate reco%rse to t$e co%rts. *t also a((or!s t$e &arties s%((icient time to cool o(( an! (ace eac$ ot$er ,it$ less emotionalism an! more ob9ectivit' ,$ic$ are essential ingre!ients in t$e resol%tion o( t$eir !is&%te. 2$e si4t'D!a' s%s&ension o( t$e &rescri&tive &erio! co%l! s&ell t$e !i((erence bet,een &eace an! a (%llDblo,n ,earisome an! e4&ensive litigation bet,een t$e &arties. 6$ile =.D. No. 1C58 $as been re&eale! b' t$e LGC o( 1881 t$e 9%ris&r%!ence b%ilt t$ereon regar!ing &rior re(erral to t$e l%&on as a &reDcon!ition to t$e (iling o( an action in co%rt remains a&&licable beca%se its &rovisions on &rior re(erral ,ere s%bstantiall' re&ro!%ce! in t$e Co!e. =eregrina vs. =anis: 2$%s Morata vs. Go 1/C )C-# 000 ;1881< an! K!a. !e Borromeo vs. =ogo' 1/G )C-# /17 ;1881< $ave $el! t$at =.D. No. 1C58 ma+es t$e conciliation &rocess at t$e Baranga' level a con!ition &rece!ent (or t$e (iling o( a com&laint in Co%rt. NonDcom&liance ,it$ t$at con!ition &rece!ent co%l! a((ect t$e s%((icienc' o( t$e &lainti((Hs ca%se o( action an! ma+e $is com&laint v%lnerable to !ismissal on t$e gro%n! o( lac+ o( ca%se o( action or &remat%rit'. 2$e con!ition is analogo%s to e4$a%stion o( a!ministrative reme!ies or t$e lac+ o( earnest e((orts to com&romise s%its bet,een (amil' members lac+ing ,$ic$ t$e case can be !ismisse!. 2$e &arties $erein (all s.%arel' ,it$in t$e ambit o( =.D. No. 1C58. 2$e' are act%al resi!ents in t$e same baranga' an! t$eir !is&%tes !oes not (all %n!er an' o( t$e e4ce&te! cases." )%c$ nonDcom&liance is not $o,ever 9%ris!ictional. 2$is Co%rt sai! so in Garces vs. Co%rt o( #&&eals: &rior reco%rse to t$e conciliation &roce!%re re.%ire! %n!er =.D. 1C58 is not a 9%ris!ictional re.%irement nonDcom&liance ,it$ ,$ic$ ,o%l! !e&rive a co%rt o( its 9%ris!iction eit$er over t$e s%b9ect matter or over t$e &erson o( t$e !e(en!ant. 6$ere $o,ever t$e (act o( nonDcom&liance ,it$ an! nonD observance o( s%c$ &roce!%re $as been seasonabl' raise! as an iss%e be(ore t$e co%rt (irst ta+ing cogniBance o( t$e com&laint !ismissal o( t$e action is &ro&er. 2$e &recise tec$nical e((ect o( (ail%re to com&l' ,it$ t$e re.%irement o( =.D. 1C58 ,$ere a&&licable is m%c$ t$e same e((ect &ro!%ce! b' nonDe4$a%stion o( a!ministrative reme!iesA t$e com&laint becomes a((licte! ,it$ t$e vice o( &reDmat%rit'A t$e controvers' t$ere allege! is not ri&e (or 9%!icial !etermination. 2$e com&laint becomes v%lnerable to a motion to !ismiss. 2$ere ,ere o( co%rse cases ,$ere t$is Co%rt r%le! t$at t$e (ail%re o( t$e !e(en!ant to seasonabl' invo+e nonDre(erral to t$e a&&ro&riate l%&on o&erate! as a ,aiver t$ereo(. F%rt$ermore ,$en s%c$ !e(ect ,as initiall' &resent ,$en t$e case ,as (irst (ile! in t$e trial co%rt t$e s%bse.%ent iss%ance o( t$e certi(ication to (ile action b' t$e baranga' ,$ic$ constit%te! s%bstantial com&liance ,it$ t$e sai! re.%irement c%re! t$e !e(ect. -evise! -%le on )%mmar' =roce!%re: )ec. 18 Cases re.%iring re(erral to t$e L%&on (or conciliation %n!er t$e &rovisions o( =resi!ential Decree No. 1C58 ,$ere t$ere is no s$o,ing o( com&liance ,it$ s%c$ re.%irement s$all be !ismisse! ,it$o%t &re9%!ice an! ma' be revive! onl' a(ter s%c$ re.%irement s$all $ave been com&lie! ,it$. 2$is &rovision s$all not a&&l' to criminal cases ,$ere t$e acc%se! ,as arreste! ,it$o%t a ,arrant. *n t$e &rocee!ing be(ore t$e co%rt a .%o t$e &etitioner an! t$e res&on!ent $a! in min! onl' =.D. No. 1C58. 2$e &etitioner (%rt$er invo+e! t$e a(ore.%ote! )ection 18. None +ne, o( t$e re&eal o( t$e !ecree b' t$e LGC o( 1881. 3ven in $er instant &etition t$e &etitioner invo+es t$e !ecree an! )ection 18 o( t$e -evise! -%le on )%mmar' =roce!%re. Ho,ever t$e &rivate res&on!ents realiBing t$e ,ea+ness o( t$eir &osition %n!er =.D. No. 1C58 since t$e' !i! re(er t$eir grievances to ,$at mig$t be a ,rong (or%m %n!er t$e !ecree c$ange! tac+. *n t$eir Comment t$e' assert t$at on /5 #&ril 1881 #ta'!e "(ile! a com&laint against &etitioner be(ore t$e baranga' co%ncil o( Baranga' KalenB%ela Ma+ati in com&liance ,it$ t$e re.%irement o( t$e Matar%ngang =ambaranga' La, %n!er t$e LGC." :et in a !eliberate e((ort to be c%nning or s$re,! ,$ic$ is con!emnable (or it !isregar!s t$e virt%e o( can!or t$e' assert t$at t$e sai! la, is not a&&licable to t$eir cases be(ore t$e co%rt a .%o beca%se ;a< t$e &etitioner an! res&on!ent #ta'!e are not resi!ents o( baranga's in t$e

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same cit' or m%nici&alit'A ;b< t$e la, !oes not a&&l' ,$en t$e action as in t$e sai! cases ma' ot$er,ise be barre! b' t$e stat%te o( limitationsA an! ;c< even ass%ming t$at t$e la, a&&lies inso(ar as #ta'!e is concerne! s$e $as s%bstantiall' com&lie! ,it$ it. 2$e O((ice o( t$e =rovincial =rosec%tor o( -iBal s$o%l! $ave e4erte! eno%g$ !iligence to in.%ire (rom t$e &rivate res&on!ents i( &rior re(erral to t$e l%&on ,as necessar' be(ore (iling t$e in(ormations. -es&on!ent 9%!ge !i! not !o an' better. His total %na,areness o( t$e LGC o( 1881 more s&eci(icall' on t$e &rovisions on t$e Matar%ngang &ambaranga' is !istressing. He s$o%l! $ave ta+en 9%!icial notice t$ereo( ever min!(%l t$at %n!er )ection 1 -%le 1/8 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt co%rts are man!atoril' re.%ire! to ta+e 9%!icial notice o( "t$e o((icial acts o( t$e legislative e4ec%tive an! 9%!icial !e&artments o( t$e =$ili&&ines." 6e $ave r%le! t$at a 9%!ge is calle! %&on to e4$ibit more t$an 9%st a c%rsor' ac.%aintance ,it$ t$e stat%tes an! &roce!%ral r%les. /1 He s$o%l! $ave a&&lie! t$e revise! +atar%ngang &ambaranga' la, %n!er t$e LGC. Ha! $e !one so t$is &etition ,o%l! not $ave reac$e! %s an! ta+en val%able attention an! time ,$ic$ co%l! $ave been !evote! to more im&ortant cases. *n vie, o( t$e &rivate res&on!entsH (ail%re to a&&ear at t$e (irst sc$e!%le! me!iation on /8 #&ril 1881 (or ,$ic$ t$e me!iation ,as reset to /G Ma' 1881 no com&laint (or slig$t &$'sical in9%ries co%l! be vali!l' (ile! ,it$ t$e M2C o( Ma+ati at an' time be(ore s%c$ !ate. 2$e (iling t$en o( Criminal Cases Nos. 10C/11 an! 10C/10 ,it$ t$e sai! co%rt on 11 Ma' 1881 ,as &remat%re an! &%rs%ant to &aragra&$ ;a< )ection 01/ o( t$e LGC res&on!ent 7%!ge Contreras s$o%l! $ave grante! t$e motion to !ismiss t$e criminal cases. He cannot 9%sti(' its !enial b' ta+ing re(%ge %n!er )ection G o( =.D. No. 1C58 ;more &ro&erl' )ection 01/;b<;0< o( t$e LGC< ,$ic$ states t$at t$e &arties ma' go !irectl' to co%rt ,$ere t$e action is abo%t to &rescribe. 2$is is beca%se as earlier state! &%rs%ant to &aragra&$ ;c< )ection 015 o( t$e Co!e t$e &rescri&tive &erio! ,as a%tomaticall' s%s&en!e! (or a ma4im%m &erio! o( si4t' !a's (rom /1 #&ril 1881 ,$en t$e &rivate res&on!ents (ile! t$eir com&laints ,it$ t$e l%&on o( KalenB%ela Ma+ati.

Moreover $aving bro%g$t t$e !is&%te be(ore t$e l%&on o(


baranga' KalenB%ela Ma+ati t$e &rivate res&on!ents are esto&&e! (rom !isavo,ing t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e bo!' ,$ic$ t$e' t$emselves $a! so%g$t. 2$eir act o( tri(ling ,it$ t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e l%&on b' %n9%sti(iabl' (ailing to atten! t$e sc$e!%le! me!iation $earings an! instea! (iling t$e com&laint rig$t a,a' ,it$ t$e trial co%rt cannot be co%ntenance! (or to !o so ,o%l! ,rea+ $avoc on t$e baranga' conciliation s'stem. Granting arg%en!o t$at t$e &etitioner !i! in(lict t$e allege! &$'sical in9%ries t$e o((ense (or ,$ic$ s$e ma' be liable ,o%l! onl' be slig$t &$'sical in9%ries %n!er &aragra&$ ;/< #rticle /GG o( t$e -evise! =enal Co!e consi!ering t$at &er t$e me!ical certi(icates // t$e in9%ries s%staine! b' t$e &rivate res&on!ents ,o%l! "$eal" in nine !a's "in t$e absence o( com&lication" an! t$ere is no s$o,ing t$at t$e sai! in9%ries inca&acitate! t$em (or labor or ,o%l! re.%ire me!ical atten!ance (or s%c$ &erio!. 2$e &enalt' t$ere(or ,o%l! onl' be "arresto menor or a (ine not e4cee!ing /55 &esos an! cens%re." 2$ese &enalties are lig$t %n!er #rticle /C o( t$e -evise! =enal Co!e an! ,o%l! &rescribe in t,o mont$s &%rs%ant to #rticle 85. #ccor!ingl' since t$e slig$t &$'sical in9%ries c$arge! in Criminal Cases Nos. 10C/11 an! 10C/10 ,ere allege!l' in(licte! on 17 #&ril 1881 t$e &rescri&tive &erio! t$ere(or ,o%l! $ave e4&ire! t,o mont$s t$erea(ter. Nevert$eless its r%nning ,as tolle! b' t$e (iling o( t$e &rivate res&on!entsH com&laints ,it$ t$e l%&on o( KalenB%ela Ma+ati on /1 #&ril 1881 an! a%tomaticall' s%s&en!e! (or a &erio! o( si4t' !a's or %ntil // 7%ne 1881. *( no me!iation or conciliation co%l! be reac$e! ,it$in t$e sai! &erio! o( s%s&ension an! accor!ingl' a certi(ication to (ile action is iss%e! t$e &rivate res&on!ents ,o%l! still $ave (i(t'Dsi4 !a's ,it$in ,$ic$ to (ile t$eir se&arate criminal com&laints (or s%c$ o((ense. 3vi!entl' t$ere ,as no basis (or t$e invocation b' t$e res&on!ent 9%!ge o( t$e e4ce&tion &rovi!e! (or in &aragra&$ ;b< )ection 01/ o( t$e LGC. Neit$er are ,e &ers%a!e! b' t$e reasoning o( t$e res&on!ent 7%!ge t$at t$e &etitioner "$a! alrea!' ,aive! t$e rig$t to a reconciliation &rocee!ings be(ore t$e baranga' o( KalenB%ela Ma+ati consi!ering t$at t$e acc%se! an! t$e com&lainant are resi!ents o( !i((erent

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baranga's." 2$e &etitioner !i! not ,aive t$e reconciliation &rocee!ings be(ore t$e l%&on o( KalenB%ela Ma+atiA s$e s%bmitte! to it an! atten!e! t$e sc$e!%le! conciliation on /8 #&ril 1881 an! invo+e! t$e &reDcon!ition o( re(erral to t$e l%&on in $er co%nterDa((i!avit. Nor ,o%l! t$is Co%rt acce&t t$e contention o( t$e &rivate res&on!ent t$at t$e &arties co%l! not agree on a com&romise an! t$at t$e' $a! to re.%est t$e baranga' ca&tain to iss%e a certi(ication to (ile action. 2$e re.%est is !ate! /1 7%ne 1881 or nearl' one an! a $al( mont$s a(ter Criminal Cases Nos. 10C/11 an! 10C/10 ,ere (ile! ,it$ t$e co%rt a .%o. 3vi!entl' t$is ,as !one to s%&&ort t$eir contention in t$e sai! co%rt t$at in an' event t$ere ,as s%bstantial com&liance ,it$ t$e re.%irement o( re(erral to t$e l%&on. *t m%st be stresse! t$at t$e &rivate res&on!ents a(ter (ailing to a&&ear at t$e initial con(rontation an! long a(ter t$e criminal cases ,ere (ile! $a! no rig$t to !eman! t$e iss%ance o( a certi(ication to (ile action. 2$e res&on!ent 9%!ge t$%s acte! ,it$ grave ab%se o( !iscretion in re(%sing to !ismiss Criminal Cases Nos. 10C/11 an! 10C/10. =arties to !is&%tes cogniBable b' t$e l%&on s$o%l! ,it$ sincerit' e4$a%st t$e reme!ies &rovi!e! b' t$at la, government &rosec%tors s$o%l! e4ercise !%e !iligence in ascertaining com&liance ,it$ it an! trial co%rts s$o%l! not $esitate to im&ose t$e a&&ro&riate sanctions (or nonD com&liance t$ereo(. 7ingarts v. Me3ia Facts: #!ministrative com&laints ,ere (ile! against 7%!ge Me9ia in connection ,it$ 1 criminal cases !eci!e! b' $im. One o( t$em is Crim. Case /GG0 ,$ic$ ,as (ile! b' Col. M%nar against 7o$an 6ingarts (or grave t$reats. *nitiall' 7%!ge Me9ia too+ cogniBance o( t$e case an! iss%e! a ,arrant o( arrest against 6ingart. Ho,ever $e later !ismisse! t$e same an! in!orse! it to t$e baranga' o((icial concerne! (or baranga' conciliation. *n t$e &resent case 6ingarts c$arges 7%!ge Me9ia ,it$ incom&etence ignorance o( t$e la, an! ab%se o( a%t$orit' (or ta+ing cogniBance o( Crim Case /GG0 an! iss%ing a ,arrant o( arrest !es&ite t$e lac+ o( &rior baranga' conciliation. *n its Memoran!%m t$e O((ice o( t$e Co%rt #!ministrator ma!e t$e (ollo,ing (in!ings:t$at %n!er #rt. 058;c< C$a&ter 7 2itle One Boo+ *** LocGov Co!e o((enses &%nis$able b' im&risonment not e4cee!ing 1 'ear or a (ine not e4cee!ing =C 555 re.%ire &rior baranga' conciliation. t$at t$e crime o( grave t$reats (alls ,it$in t$e &%rvie, o( t$is section. t$at #rt. 01/;a< li+e,ise &rovi!e! t$e (ollo,ing: CONC*L*#2*ON D ;a< =recon!ition to (iling o( Com&laint in Co%rt D No com&laint &etition action or &rocee!ing involving an' matter ,it$in t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e l%&on s$all be (ille! ;)*C< or instit%te! !irectl' in co%rt or an' ot$er government o((ice (or a!9%!ication %nless t$ere $as been a con(rontation bet,een t$e &arties be(ore t$e l%&on c$airman or t$e &ang+at an! t$at no conciliation or settlement $as been reac$e! as certi(ie! b' t$e l%&on secretar' or &ang+at secretar' as atteste! to b' t$e l%&on or &ang+at c$airman or %nless t$e settlement $as been re&%!iate! b' t$e &arties t$ereto. 2$e Co%rt #!ministrator later concl%!e! t$e (ollo,ing: "Ha! res&on!ent 7%!ge observe! t$e man!ate o( t$e a(ore.%ote! &rovision o( la, $e co%l! $ave reman!e! t$e case to t$e l%&on instea! o( ta+ing cogniBance t$ereo( an! &remat%rel' iss%ing t$e ,arrant o( arrest against t$e acc%se!. )%c$ an act%ation $o,ever !oes not a&&ear to be tainte! ,it$ malice or evil intent. #s can be gleane! (rom t$e recor!s res&on!ent 7%!ge !ismisse! Criminal Case No. /GG0 in $is Or!er o( #&ril 1G 1881 %&on motion o( t$e !e(ense co%nsel. 2$is not,it$stan!ing a!ministrative sanction is ,arrante! against res&on!ent 7%!ge. *ss%e: 6ON 7%!ge Me9ia is liable (or incom&etence an! gross ignorance o( t$e la, (or ta+ing cogniBance o( t$e case ,$en s%c$ ,as not (irst s%bmitte! to t$e Matar%ngang =ambaranga' (or conciliation. :3). #lt$o%g$ t$ere is no clear &roo( o( malice ba! (ait$ bias or &artialit' on $is &art 7%!ge Me9ia s$o%l! $ave e4ercise! t$e re.%isite &r%!ence es&eciall' %n!er t$e environmental circ%mstances o( t$e a(oresai! criminal case ,$ere &ersonal libert' ,as involve!. He s$o%l! $ave care(%ll' e4amine! all relevant (acts an! iss%es an! avoi!e! t$e im&rovi!ent iss%ance o( t$e ,arrant o( arrest ,it$o%t a circ%ms&ect revie, o( t$e case ,$ic$ a(ter all !i! not e4$ibit abstr%se (act%al matters or com&licate! legal .%estions. 2$e &resent controvers' co%l! $ave been avoi!e! $a! $e +e&t (ait$ ,it$ t$e in9%nction t$at a member o( t$e benc$ m%st contin%o%sl' +ee& $imsel( abreast o( legal an! 9%ris&r%!ential !evelo&ments beca%se t$e learning &rocess in la, never ceases. #bsence o( ba! (ait$ P (act t$at 7%!ge

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


Me9ia s%bse.%entl' iss%e! an or!er to recall t$e ,arrant o( arrest mitigates b%t ,ill not altoget$er e4c%l&ate $im (rom t$e c$arge. 7%!ge Me9ia ,as or!er to &a' a =/ 555 (ine ,it$ stern ,arning. 7%!ges are !irecte! to !esist (rom im&rovi!entl' receiving an! !es%ltoril' acting on com&laints &etitions actions or &rocee!ings in cases (alling ,it$in t$e a%t$orit' o( t$e L%&on 2aga&ama'a&a. =rocee!ings be(ore t$e l%&on are a &recon!ition to t$e (iling o( an' action or &rocee!ing in co%rt or ot$er government o((ice. )%c$ an initiator' &lea!ing i( (ile! ,it$o%t com&liance ,it$ t$e &recon!ition ma' be !ismisse! on motion o( an' intereste! &art' on t$e gro%n! t$at it (ails to state a ca%se o( action. Corpuz v. CA Facts: Cor&%B (ile! an action (or %nla,(%l !etainer against &rivate res&on!ent #lvara!o ,it$ t$e Metro&olitan 2rial Co%rt o( Manila Branc$ G (or recover' o( &ossession o( t$e room being occ%&ie! b' t$e latter ,$ic$ Cor&%BH c$il!ren allege!l' nee!e! (or t$eir o,n %se. #lvara!o an! Cor&%B ,ere t,o o( t$e tenants o( a certain LorenBo Barre!o ,$o in Ma' 1888 !eci!e! to sell $is &ro&ert' to t$e tenants. D%e to economic !i((ic%lties $o,ever #lvara!o an! t$e ot$er lessees e4ec%te! an "#((i!avit o( 6aiver" granting Barre!o t$e rig$t to sell $is $o%se to an' &erson ,$o can a((or! to &%rc$ase t$e same. Conse.%entl' Barre!o sol! $is $o%se to Cor&%B (or =17 C55.55. #s a res%lt o( t$e sale a tenanc' relations$i& ,as establis$e! bet,een Cor&%B an! #lvara!o. *n October 1881 Cor&%B sent a ,ritten notice to #lvara!o !eman!ing t$at $e vacate t$e room ,$ic$ $e ,as occ%&'ing beca%se t$e c$il!ren o( Cor&%B nee!e! it (or t$eir o,n %se. #lvara!o re(%se! to vacate t$e room as !eman!e! &rom&ting Cor&%B to see+ $is e9ectment. *n $is ans,er #lvara!o raise! t,o ma9or !e(enses to ,it: ;1< t$e allege! "#((i!avit o( 6aiver" e4ec%te! bet,een $im an! Barre!o ,as a (orger'A an! ;/< t$e !is&%te ,as not re(erre! to t$e L%&ong 2aga&a'a&a. Fin!ing t$e !e(enses o( #lvara!o to be ,it$o%t merit t$e M2C o( Manila $an!e! !o,n on a !ecision or!ering #lvara!o to vacate t$e room. On a&&eal t$e -2C reverse! an! !eci!e! t$at t$e &%r&orte! sale bet,een Cor&%B an! Barre!o ,as t$e s%b9ect o( a controvers' &en!ing be(ore t$e National Ho%sing #%t$orit' ;NH#< ,$ic$ m%st be resolve! (irst b' sai! agenc'. *t also concl%!e! t$at t$e "#((i!avit o( 6aiver" e4ec%te! b' #lvara!o an! Barre!o ,as a (orger'. Conse.%entl' it or!ere! t$e !ismissal o( t$e case (or %nla,(%l !etainer an! r%le! t$at #lvara!o cannot be legall' e4&elle! (rom t$e s%b9ect &remises. M!enie!. C# a((irme!. M- !enie!. *ss%es: 1. 6ON Cor&%BH %nla,(%l !etainer s%it (ile! be(ore t$e M2C against #lvara!o s$o%l! be s%s&en!e! %ntil t$e resol%tion o( t$e case lo!ge! in t$e NH# im&%gning t$e sale o( sai! &ro&ert' /. 6ON t$e "#((i!avit o( 6aiver" bet,een Cor&%B an! Barre!o ,as a%t$entic *t is elementar' t$at t$e M2C $as e4cl%sive 9%ris!iction over e9ectment cases. #s t$e la, no, stan!s t$e onl' iss%e to be resolve! in (orcible entr' an! %nla,(%l !etainer cases is t$e &$'sical or material &ossession over t$e real &ro&ert' t$at is &ossession !e (acto. -e(%gia v.C#: "*n t$e case o( De la )anta vs. Co%rt o( #&&eals et al. t$is Co%rt in ma+ing a !istinction bet,een t$e rece&tion o( evi!ence an! t$e resol%tion o( t$e iss%e o( o,ners$i& $el! t$at t$e in(erior co%rt ma' loo+ into t$e evi!ence o( title or o,ners$i& an! &ossession !e 9%re inso(ar as sai! evi!ence ,o%l! in!icate or !etermine t$e nat%re o( &ossession. *t cannot $o,ever resolve t$e iss%e o( o,ners$i& t$at is b' !eclaring ,$o among t$e &arties is t$e tr%e an! la,(%l o,ner o( t$e s%b9ect &ro&ert' beca%se t$e resol%tion o( sai! iss%e ,o%l! e((ect an a!9%!ication on o,ners$i& ,$ic$ is not sanctione! in t$e s%mmar' action (or %nla,(%l !etainer. 6it$ t$is as a &remise an! ta+ing into consi!eration t$e amen!ment intro!%ce! b' Batas =ambansa Blg. 1/8 it ma' be s%ggeste! t$at in(erior co%rts are no, con!itionall' veste! ,it$ a!9%!icator' &o,er over t$e iss%e o( title or o,ners$i& raise! b' t$e &arties in an e9ectment s%it." )ince t$e &resent &etition involves t$e iss%e o( &ossession intert,ine! ,it$ t$e iss%e o( o,ners$i& ;i.e. t$e controvers' &en!ing in t$e NH#< t$e !octrinal &rono%ncement in -e(%gia is a&&licable. 2$e &revailing !octrine is t$at s%its or actions (or t$e ann%lment o( sale title or !oc%ment !o not abate an' e9ectment action res&ecting t$e same &ro&ert'. 6ilmor #%to )%&&l' Constr%ction Com&an' Cor&orations et al. v. C#: o%tline! t$e (ollo,ing cases involving t$e ann%lment o( t$e title or !oc%ment over t$e &ro&ert' ,$ic$

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


s$o%l! not be consi!ere! in t$e abatement o( an e9ectment s%it to ,it: "Neit$er !o s%its (or ann%lment o( sale or title or !oc%ment a((ecting &ro&ert' o&erate to abate e9ectment actions res&ecting t$e same &ro&ert'. Clearl' t$e %n!erl'ing reason (or t$e above r%lings is (or t$e !e(en!ant not to tri(le ,it$ t$e e9ectment s%it ,$ic$ is s%mmar' in nat%re b' t$e sim&le e4&e!ient o( asserting o,ners$i& t$ereon. 2$%s t$e controvers' &en!ing be(ore t$e NH# (or t$e ann%lment o( t$e Dee! o( )ale an! assailing t$e a%t$enticit' o( t$e "#((i!avit o( 7oint 6aiver" cannot !eter t$e M2C (rom ta+ing cogniBance o( t$e e9ectment s%it merel' (or t$e &%r&ose o( !etermining ,$o $as a better &ossessor' rig$t among t$e &arties. *t ma' be stresse! t$at #lvara!o is not ,it$o%t reme!'. 6e $ave r%le! t$at a 9%!gment ren!ere! in an e9ectment case s$all not bar an action bet,een t$e same &arties res&ecting title to t$e lan! or b%il!ing nor s$all it be concl%sive as to t$e (acts t$erein (o%n! in a case bet,een t$e same &arties %&on a !i((erent ca%se o( action involving &ossession. F%rt$ermore #lvara!o raises t$e iss%e in t$e instant &etition t$at t$e e9ectment s%it ,as not re(erre! to t$e L%&on 2aga&a'a&a as re.%ire! b' =resi!ential Decree No. 1C58. 6e are not &ers%a!e!. 2$is !e(ense ,as onl' state! in a single general s$ort sentence in #lvara!oHs ans,er. 6e $ave $el! in D%i v. Co%rt o( #&&eals t$at (ail%re o( a &art' to s&eci(icall' allege t$e (act t$at t$ere ,as no com&liance ,it$ t$e Baranga' conciliation &roce!%re constit%tes a ,aiver o( t$at !e(ense. # &er%sal o( #lvara!oHs ans,er reveals t$at no reason or e4&lanation ,as given to s%&&ort $is allegation ,$ic$ is !eeme! a mere general averment. *n an' event t$e &rocee!ing o%tline! in =.D. 1C58 is not a 9%ris!ictional re.%irement an! nonDcom&liance t$ere,it$ cannot a((ect t$e 9%ris!iction ,$ic$ t$e lo,er co%rt $a! alrea!' ac.%ire! over t$e s%b9ect matter an! t$e &arties t$erein.

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be$in! s%c$ or!er an! $e ,as a!vise! t$at &er$a&s $e s$o%l! s%bmit t$e min%tes o( t$e $earings $el! in t$e baranga'. Follo,ing sai! a!vice $e (ile! a com&liance ,it$ res&on!ent>s co%rt attac$ing t$ere,it$ a co&' o( $is com&laint (ile! be(ore t$e baranga' an! t$e min%tes o( t$e &rocee!ings $el! t$ereat. #(ter t$e (iling o( sai! com&liance no action ,as ta+en b' t$e co%rt !es&ite t$e (act t$at t$e case (alls %n!er t$e -%le on )%mmar' =roce!%re an! res&on!ent 9%!ge $as still to come %& ,it$ a !etermination as to ,$et$er s%mmons s$o%l! be iss%e! or not. He t$en in.%ire! &ersonall' ,it$ t$e co%rt abo%t t$e stat%s o( t$e case an! $e ,as tol! t$at no action co%l! be ta+en %nless t$e Or!er o( #&ril / 188G $a! been com&lie! ,it$. Disma'e! b' t$e Co%rt>s insistence o( re(erring t$e case to t$e baranga' t$o%g$ it $a! alrea!' gone t$ro%g$ all t$e re.%isite &rocee!ings t$ereat $e !eci!e! not to &%rs%e t$e case an! (ile! a notice to ,it$!ra, com&laint !ate! #%g%st /5 188G. )ai! ,it$!ra,al $o,ever ,as !enie! b' res&on!ent on t$e basis o( t$e action alrea!' ta+en t$ereon as containe! in t$e .%estione! Or!er !ate! #&ril / 188G. He t$en (ile! a Notice o( Dismissal b%t t$e same ,as still %nacte! %&on b' res&on!ent. *t ,as onl' a(ter a 'ear (rom t$e time t$e com&laint ,as (ile! t$at res&on!ent or!ere! t$at s%mmons be serve! on !e(en!ants. 6$en !e(en!ants (aile! to (ile an #ns,er $e ;com&lainant< (ile! a Motion to -en!er 7%!gment in accor!ance ,it$ t$e &rovisions o( )ec.C o( t$e -%le on )%mmar' =roce!%re. Ho,ever instea! o( ren!ering 9%!gment res&on!ent merel' re.%ire! !e(en!ants to comment on t$e motion to ren!er 9%!gment. #(ter !e(en!ants (ile! t$eir comment res&on!ent still !i! not act on t$e sai! motion. 2$e inor!inate !ela' o( res&on!ent on acting %&on sai! case $as ca%se! $im so m%c$ s%((ering as $is (amil' is (orce! to rent a $o%se to live in at a mont$l' rental rate o( =18 555.55. -es&on!ent>s arg%ment: *n all cases ,$ere t$ere is (ail%re o( settlement o( me!iation &rocee!ings be(ore t$e Baranga' C$airman it is necessar' t$at t$e =ang+at be constit%te! b' t$e &arties (rom t$e L%&on members in or!er t$at t$e' ma' $ave a secon! o&&ort%nit' to amicabl' settle t$eir !is&%te. *t is a man!ator' !%t' o( t$e Baranga' C$airman to set t$e meeting o( t$e &arties (or t$e constit%tion o( t$e =ang+at %&on (ail%re o( &arties to amicabl' settle ot$er,ise t$ere is no com&liance ,it$ t$e re.%irements o( =.D. 1C58 no, )ec. 01/ 1881 LGC. *n t$e case o( com&lainant it a&&ears (rom t$e recor!s t$ereo( t$at t$ere ,as

Boni!acio La" O!!ice v. Bellosillo Facts: *n a letterDcom&laint !ate! #%g%st /8 1887 #tt'. -icar!o M. )alomon 7r. o( t$e Boni(acio La, O((ice c$arge! t$en acting 7%!ge -e'nal!o B. Bellosillo o( t$e Metro&olitan 2rial Co%rt o( W%eBon Cit' Branc$ 10 ,it$ ignorance o( t$e la, grave ab%se o( !iscretion an! obvio%s &artialit'. )alomon assails t$e Or!er !ate! #&ril / 188G re(erring t$e sai! e9ectment case bac+ to t$e baranga' (or conciliation &rocee!ings !es&ite t$e (act t$at it ,as allege! in t$e veri(ie! com&laint t$at t$e matter $a! alrea!' been re(erre! to t$e baranga' an! t$at a co&' o( t$e Certi(ication to File Motion ,as attac$e! UtoV t$e veri(ie! com&laint as #NN3J 3 t$ereo(. Be,il!ere! ,it$ s%c$ Or!er $e trie! to tal+ ,it$ res&on!ent 9%!ge b%t ,as &revente! to !o so beca%se o( t$e strict an! e4tremel' tig$t ]cor!on sanitaire> o( t$e latter. He t$en in.%ire! (rom t$e res&on!ent>s branc$ cler+ o( co%rt t$e reason

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&remat%re iss%ance o( t$e Certi(icate to File #ction consi!ering t$at t$ere is no &roo( to s$o, t$at t$e =ang+at ,as !%l' constit%te! be(ore t$e sai! certi(icate ,as iss%e!. Moreover t$e belate! s%bmission b' com&lainant o( t$e Min%tes o( =rocee!ings be(ore t$e Baranga' C$airman ,$ic$ ,as inacc%rate an! !i((ic%lt to !eci&$er glaringl' reveals t$e nonDcom&liance o( com&lainant ,it$ t$e re.%irement o( t$e a(orecite! la,. *ss%e: 6ON 7%!ge ,as correct inre(erring t$e case bac+ to t$e baranga' (or conciliation &rocee!ings. :3). Com&lainant conten!s t$at $e $as com&lie! ,it$ t$e man!ator' baranga' conciliation &rocee!ings as evi!ence! b' t$e Certi(ication to File #ction attac$e! to t$e Com&laint (or e9ectment. 2$e recor!s $o,ever reveal t$at s%c$ Certi(ication ,as im&ro&erl' an! &remat%rel' iss%e!. *n ,$at a&&ears to be a &reD&rinte! stan!ar! (orm t$ereo( t$e E4F be(ore t$e secon! en%merate! statement clearl' s$o,s t$at no &ersonal con(rontation be(ore a !%l' constit%te! =ang+at ng 2aga&ag+as%n!o too+ &lace. -es&on!ent>s &osition t$at t$e =ang+at ,as not constit%te! an! t$at no (ace to (ace conciliation o( t$e &arties $a! ta+en &lace be(ore it is s%bstantiate! b' t$e Min%tes s%bmitte! b' com&lainant. 3vi!entl' com&lainant (aile! to com&lete t$e baranga' conciliation &rocee!ings. 6e also note t$at t$e Com&laint be(ore t$e baranga' ,as !ate! Febr%ar' 1G 188G. -ecor!s s$o, t$at t$e $earing ,as sc$e!%le! (or Febr%ar' /G 188G an! ,as reset (or Febr%ar' /8 188G. #n! 'et t$e Certi(ication to File #ction U8V ,as iss%e! on Marc$ 1 188G less t$an (i(teen !a's a(ter t$e (irst sc$e!%le! $earing be(ore t$e baranga' c$airman. )ection 015 ;b< o( t$e LGC is .%ote! $ere%n!er: EMe!iation b' l%&on c$airman. X @&on recei&t o( t$e com&laint t$e l%&on c$airman s$all ,it$in t$e ne4t ,or+ing !a' s%mmon t$e res&on!ent;s< ,it$ notice to t$e com&lainant;s< (or t$em an! t$eir ,itnesses to a&&ear be(ore $im (or a me!iation o( t$eir con(licting interests. *( $e (ails in $is me!iation e((ort ,it$in (i(teen ;1C< !a's (rom t$e (irst meeting o( t$e &arties be(ore $im $e s$all (ort$,it$ set a !ate (or t$e constit%tion o( t$e &ang+at in accor!ance ,it$ t$e &rovisions o( t$is C$a&ter.F #!ministrative Circ%lar No. 10D81 &rovi!es: E*n or!er t$at t$e la%!able &%r&ose o( t$e la, ma' not be s%bverte! an! its e((ectiveness %n!ermine! b' in!iscriminate im&ro&er an!?or &remat%re iss%ance o( certi(ications to (ile actions in co%rt b' t$e L%&on or =ang+at )ecretaries atteste! b' t$e L%&on?=ang+at C$airmen res&ectivel' t$e (ollo,ing g%i!elines are $ereb' iss%e! (or t$e in(ormation o( trial co%rt 9%!ges in cases bro%g$t be(ore t$em coming (rom t$e Baranga'. EU**V 0. *( me!iation or conciliation e((orts be(ore t$e =%nong Baranga' &rove! %ns%ccess(%l t$ere $aving been no agreement to arbitrate ;)ec. 015D^b_ -evise! -%le Matar%ngang =ambaranga' La,A )ec. 1 c U1V -%le *** Matar%ngang =ambaranga' -%les< or ,$ere t$e res&on!ent (ails to a&&ear at t$e me!iation &rocee!ing be(ore t$e =%nong Baranga' ;1r! &ar. )ec. 8 a -%le K* Matar%ngang =ambaranga' -%les< t$e =%nong Baranga' s$all not ca%se t$e iss%ance o( t$is stage o( a certi(ication to (ile action beca%se it is no, man!ator' (or $im to constit%te t$e =ang+at be(ore ,$om me!iation conciliation or arbitration &rocee!ings s$all be $el!. ***. #ll com&laints an!?or in(ormations (ile! or ra((le! to 'o%r sala?branc$ o( t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt Metro&olitan 2rial Co%rt or M%nici&al 2rial Co%rt s$all be care(%ll' rea! an! scr%tiniBe! to !etermine i( t$ere $as been com&liance ,it$ &rior Baranga' conciliation &roce!%re %n!er t$e -evise! Matar%ngang =ambaranga' La, an! its *m&lementing -%les an! -eg%lations as a &reDcon!ition to 9%!icial action &artic%larl' ,$et$er t$e certi(ication to (ile action attac$e! to t$e recor!s o( t$e case com&l' ,it$ t$e re.%irements $ereinabove en%merate! in &art **A ;3m&$asis an! italics s%&&lie!< *K. # case (ile! in co%rt ,it$o%t com&liance ,it$ &rior Baranga' conciliation ,$ic$ is a &reDcon!ition (or (ormal a!9%!ication 4 4 4 ma' be !ismisse! %&on motion o( t$e !e(en!ant?s or t$e co%rt ma' s%s&en! &rocee!ings %&on &etition o( an' &art'an! re(er t$e case mot% &ro&rio to t$e a&&ro&riate Baranga' a%t$orit'. 3vi!entl' t$e baranga' (aile! to e4ert eno%g$ e((ort re.%ire! b' la, to conciliate bet,een t$e &arties an! to settle t$e case be(ore it. Hence res&on!ent 9%!ge ,as not incorrect in reman!ing t$e case to it (or com&letion o( t$e man!ate! &rocee!ings. 6e cannot (a%lt $im (or see+ing to &romote t$e ob9ectives o( baranga' conciliation an! (or ta+ing to $eart t$e &rovisions o( )%&reme Co%rt Circ%lar No. 10D81. His re(erral o( t$e case bac+ to t$e baranga' cannot

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be e.%ate! ,it$ gross ignorance o( t$e la,. Neit$er !oes it constit%te grave ab%se o( !iscretion or obvio%s &artialit'. 2$erea(ter com&lainant (ile! a Motion &ra'ing t$at t$e &rocee!ings alrea!' $el! be(ore t$e baranga' be consi!ere! as s%bstantial com&liance ,it$ t$e re.%irements o( t$e la,. #cting on t$e Motion res&on!ent 9%!ge iss%e! t$e s%mmons an! o&te! to contin%e ,it$ t$e co%rt &rocee!ings ,it$o%t insisting on strict com&liance ,it$ t$e man!ate! baranga' &rocee!ings. He !i! so a(ter noting t$at com&lainant ,as a&&arentl' not ma+ing an' move to com&lete t$e baranga' &rocee!ings a(ter t$e case $a! been reman!e! to t$e baranga' an! t$at t$e case (ell %n!er t$e -%les on )%mmar' =roce!%re. )ection 18 o( t$e -%les on )%mmar' =roce!%re $o,ever &rovi!es t$at s%c$ cases ma' be revive! onl' a(ter t$e re.%irement (or conciliation $as been com&lie! ,it$. Nevert$eless res&on!ent 9%!ge>s error is 9%!icial in nat%re an! cannot be correcte! in a!ministrative &rocee!ings. #t an' rate beca%se $e c$ose to contin%e ,it$ t$e &rocee!ings o( t$e case an! beca%se res&on!ents (aile! to ans,er t$e e9ectment Com&laint on time $e s$o%l! $ave ren!ere! 9%!gment ,it$in t$irt' ;15< !a's (rom t$e e4&iration o( t$e &erio! to (ile an ans,er. 2$is action is re.%ire! %n!er t$e -%les on )%mmar' =rocee!ings ,$ic$ state: E)ec. G. 3((ect o( (ail%re to ans,er. D )$o%l! t$e !e(en!ant (ail to ans,er t$e com&laint ,it$in t$e &erio! above &rovi!e! t$e co%rt mot% &ro&rio or on motion o( t$e &lainti(( s$all ren!er 9%!gment as ma' be ,arrante! b' t$e (acts allege! in t$e com&laint an! limite! to ,$at is &ra'e! (or t$erein E)ec. 15. -en!ition o( 9%!gment. X 6it$in t$irt' ;15< !a's a(ter recei&t o( t$e last a((i!avits an! &osition &a&ers or t$e e4&iration o( t$e &erio! (or (iling t$e same t$e co%rt s$all ren!er 9%!gment.F Men ova v. A!able Facts: *n an a((i!avitDcom&laint !ate! 7%l' 1 1888 #bra$am L. Men!ova c$arge! 7%!ge Crisanto B. #(able o( t$e M%nici&al Circ%it 2rial Co%rt o( )an 7%lianX)%lat 3astern )amar ,it$ ignorance o( t$e la, relative to Criminal Case No. /188D88 E=eo&le o( t$e =$ili&&ines =lainti(( vs. -oberto W. =ala!a #cc%se! F (or slig$t &$'sical in9%ries. Com&lainant Men!ova allege! in $is a((i!avitD com&laint t$at on Febr%ar' 18 1888 $e (ile! ,it$ t$e O((ice o( t$e Baranga' C$airman o( =oblacion )an 7%lian 3astern )amar a com&laint (or slig$t &$'sical in9%ries against -obert =ala!a. Baranga' C$airman -onie D. W%int%a in $is Certi(ication !ate! #&ril 18 1888 U1V con(irme! s%c$ (act. =ang+at C$airman 3%(emia L. Cabago also certi(ie! in an %n!ate! EMin%tes *n )ettling Dis&%tesF t$at t$e case ,as set (or $earing on Marc$ 1G // an! /8 1888 b%t t$e &arties (aile! to reac$ an amicable settlement. On Ma' 0 1888 com&lainant (ile! ,it$ t$e M%nici&al Circ%it 2rial Co%rt o( )an 7%lianX)%lat 3astern )amar a com&laint (or slig$t &$'sical in9%ries against =ala!a !oc+ete! as Criminal Case No. /188D88. On November 1 1888 res&on!ent 9%!ge ren!ere! $is Decision !ismissing t$e case on t$e gro%n! o( &rescri&tion t$%s: "Com&laint in t$is case !ate! #&ril /5 1888 ,as (ile! ,it$ t$is Co%rt on Ma' 0 1888. 2$e a((i!avits o( com&lainant as ,ell as &rosec%tion ,itness Melvin C. W%iloRa ,ere s%bscribe! an! s,orn to be(ore t$e %n!ersigne! also on Ma' 0 1888. E2$e allege! o((ense too+ &lace on Febr%ar' 1C 1888. From t$e !ate o( t$e commission o( t$e allege! o((ense more t$an t,o mont$s $ave ela&se!. E2$is is (or slig$t &$'sical in9%ries an! is t$ere(ore a lig$t o((ense. E@n!er #rt. 88 o( t$e -evise! =enal Co!e criminal liabilit' is totall' e4ting%is$e! b' &resci&tion o( t$e crime. E#rticle 85 o( t$e same Co!e &rovi!es t$at lig$t o((enses &rescribe in t,o mont$s. 2$is being a lig$t o((ense t$e same s$o%l! be consi!ere! as alrea!' $aving &rescribe! beca%se t$e case against t$e acc%se! ,as (ile! a(ter t,o mont$s. EL32 2H3-3FO-3 t$is case be D*)M*))3D t$e crime $aving alrea!' &rescribe!. E)O O-D3-3D.F On 7%l' 7 1888 com&lainant (ile! ,it$ t$e O((ice o( t$e Co%rt #!ministrator an a!ministrative com&laint against res&on!ent 9%!ge. He allege! t$at in !ismissing t$e case res&on!ent 9%!ge s$o,e! $is ignorance o( t$e la, ,$en $e !i! not a&&l' t$e &rovisions o( )ection 015;c< o( -e&%blic #ct No. 71G5 ;2$e LGC< ,$ic$ state: )ection 015. =roce!%re (or #micable )ettlement ;c< )%s&ension o( &rescri&tive &erio! o( o((enses. X 6$ile t$e !is&%te is %n!er me!iation conciliation or arbitration t$e &rescri&tive &erio!s (or o((enses an! ca%ses o( action %n!er e4isting la,s s$all be interr%&te! %&on (iling o( t$e com&laint ,it$ t$e =%nong Baranga'. 2$e &rescri&tive &erio!s s$all res%me %&on recei&t b' t$e com&lainant o( t$e com&laint or t$e certi(icate o( re&%!iation or o( t$e certi(ication to (ile action iss%e! b' t$e L%&on

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or =ang+at )ecretar': =rovi!e! $o,ever 2$at s%c$ interr%&tion s$all not e4cee! si4t' ;G5< !a's (rom t$e (iling o( t$e com&laint ,it$ t$e &%nong baranga'." Com&lainant (%rt$er allege! t$at res&on!entHs con!%ct ca%se! $im in9%r' an! grave in9%stice. *n $is comment !ate! )e&tember 11 1888 res&on!ent a!mitte! t$at $is Decision being assaile! b' com&lainant E,as ,rong.F #ccor!ing to $im E;,<$en * ren!ere! t$e .%estione! !ecision ,$at entere! m' min! ,as t$e r%le on &rescri&tion as &rovi!e! %n!er t$e -evise! =enal Co!e. 2$ere ,as a mental la&se on m' &art ca%se! b' $eav' ,or+loa! F as $e ,as li+e,ise !esignate! t$e #cting =resi!ing 7%!ge o( MC2C LlorenteDHernani 3astern )amar. He begge! (or +in!ness an! %n!erstan!ing stating t$at $e $as been a trial 9%!ge (or 15 'ears an! t$at t$is is t$e E(irst +in! o( mista+eF $e $as ever committe!. *n its 3val%ation an! -ecommen!ation t$e O((ice o( t$e Co%rt #!ministrator t$ro%g$ De&%t' Co%rt #!ministrator Zenai!a N. 3le&aRo (o%n! res&on!ent g%ilt' as c$arge! an! recommen!e! t$at $e be (ine! =1 555.55 ,it$ a ,arning t$at a commission o( similar acts ,ill be !ealt ,it$ more severel'. Bot$ &arties (ile! t$eir res&ective mani(estations t$at t$e' are ,illing to $ave t$e case so !eci!e!. *n $is mani(estation res&on!ent 9%!ge ma!e t$e a!!itional comment t$at t$e com&lainant !i! not allege ba! (ait$ or malice on $is ;res&on!ent>s< &art in ren!ering t$e .%estione! !ecision. *ss%e: 1. 6ON res&on!ent 7%!ge is liable (or !ismissing t$e case on t$e gro%n! o( &rescri&tion. *t is a4iomatic as t$is Co%rt $as re&eate!l' stresse! t$at an a!ministrative com&laint is not t$e a&&ro&riate reme!' (or ever' irreg%lar or erroneo%s or!er or !ecision iss%e! b' a 9%!ge ,$ere a 9%!icial reme!' is available s%c$ as a motion (or reconsi!eration or an a&&eal. For obvio%sl' i( s%bse.%ent !evelo&ments &rove t$e 9%!ge>s c$allenge! act to be correct t$ere ,o%l! be no occasion to &rocee! against $im at all. Besi!es to $ol! a 9%!ge a!ministrativel' acco%ntable (or ever' erroneo%s r%ling or !ecision $e ren!ers ass%ming $e $as erre! ,o%l! be not$ing s$ort o( $arassment an! ,o%l! ma+e $is &osition !o%bl' %nbearable. 2o $ol! ot$er,ise ,o%l! be to ren!er 9%!icial o((ice %ntenable (or no one calle! %&on to tr' t$e (acts or inter&ret t$e la, in t$e &rocess o( a!ministering 9%stice can be in(allible in $is 9%!gment. *t is onl' ,$ere t$e error is so gross !eliberate an! malicio%s or inc%rre! ,it$ evi!ent ba! (ait$ t$at a!ministrative sanctions ma' be im&ose! against t$e erring 9%!ge. Flores vs. #besamis: E#s ever'one +no,s t$e la, &rovi!es am&le 9%!icial reme!ies against errors or irreg%larities being committe! b' a 2rial Co%rt in t$e e4ercise o( its 9%ris!iction. 2$e or!inar' reme!ies against errors or irreg%larities ,$ic$ ma' be regar!e! as normal in nat%re ;i.e. error in a&&reciation or a!mission o( evi!ence or in constr%ction or a&&lication o( &roce!%ral or s%bstantive la, or legal &rinci&le< incl%!e a motion (or reconsi!eration ;or a(ter ren!ition o( a 9%!gment or (inal or!er a motion (or ne, trial< an! a&&eal. 2$e e4traor!inar' reme!ies against error or irreg%larities ,$ic$ ma' be !eeme! e4traor!inar' in c$aracter ;i.e. ,$imsical ca&ricio%s !es&otic e4ercise o( &o,er or neglect o( !%t' etc.< are inter alia t$e s&ecial civil actions o( certiorari &ro$ibition or man!am%s or a motion (or in$ibition a &etition (or c$ange o( ven%e as t$e case ma' be. ENo, t$e establis$e! !octrine an! &olic' is t$at !isci&linar' &rocee!ings an! criminal actions against 7%!ges are not com&lementar' or s%&&letor' o( nor a s%bstit%te (or t$ese 9%!icial reme!ies ,$et$er or!inar' or e4traor!inar'. -esort to an! e4$a%stion o( t$ese 9%!icial reme!ies as ,ell as t$e entr' o( 9%!gment in t$e corres&on!ing action or &rocee!ing are &reDre.%isites (or t$e ta+ing o( ot$er meas%res against t$e &ersons o( t$e 9%!ges concerne! ,$et$er o( civil a!ministrative or criminal nat%re. *t is onl' a(ter t$e available 9%!icial reme!ies $ave been e4$a%ste! an! t$e a&&ellate trib%nals $ave s&o+en ,it$ (inalit' t$at t$e !oor to an in.%ir' into $is criminal civil or a!ministrative liabilit' ma' be sai! to $ave o&ene! or close!. EFlores ;com&lainant< resorte! to a!ministrative &rosec%tion ;or instit%tion o( criminal actions< as a s%bstit%te (or or s%&&lement to t$e s&eci(ic mo!es o( a&&eals or revie, &rovi!e! b' la, (rom co%rt 9%!gments or or!ers on t$e t$eor' t$at t$e 7%!ges> or!ers $a! ca%se! $im ]%n!%e in9%r'.> 2$is is im&ermissible as t$is Co%rt $as alrea!' more t$an once r%le!. La, an! logic !ecree t$at ]a!ministrative or criminal reme!ies are neit$er alternative nor c%m%lative to 9%!icial revie, ,$ere s%c$ revie, is available an! m%st ,ait on t$e res%lt t$ereo(. *n!ee! since 9%!ges m%st be (ree to 9%!ge ,it$o%t &ress%re or in(l%ence

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(rom e4ternal (orces or (actors t$e' s$o%l! not be s%b9ect to intimi!ation t$e (ear o( civil criminal or a!ministrative sanctions (or acts t$e' ma' !o an! !is&ositions t$e' ma' ma+e in t$e &er(ormance o( t$eir !%ties an! (%nctionsA an! it is so%n! r%le ,$ic$ m%st be recogniBe! in!e&en!entl' o( stat%te t$at 9%!ges are not generall' liable (or acts !one ,it$in t$e sco&e o( t$eir 9%ris!iction an! in goo! (ait$A an! t$at e4ce&tionall' &rosec%tion o( a 9%!ge can be $a! onl' i( ]t$ere be a (inal !eclaration b' a com&etent co%rt in some a&&ro&riate &rocee!ing o( t$e mani(estl' %n9%st c$aracter o( t$e c$allenge! 9%!gment or or!er an! 4 4 4 also evi!ence o( malice or ba! (ait$ ignorance or ine4c%sable negligence on t$e &art o( t$e 9%!ge in ren!ering sai! 9%!gment or or!er> or %n!er t$e stringent circ%mstances set o%t in #rticle 1/ o( t$e Civil Co!e. *n t$e &resent case ,e notice! (rom t$e recor!s be(ore %s t$at t$e com&lainant !i! not bot$er at all to (ile a motion (or reconsi!eration o( res&on!ent 9%!ge>s !ecision !ismissing t$e criminal case. No reason ,as a!vance! b' com&lainant ,$' $e (aile! to !o so. 2$%s (ollo,ing o%r settle! &rono%ncements cite! above $is instant a!ministrative com&laint is &remat%re. #ccor!ing to com&lainant -obert =ala!a committe! t$e crime o( slig$t &$'sical in9%ries on Febr%ar' 1C 1888. On Febr%ar' 18 1888 com&lainant (ile! $is com&laint ,it$ t$e O((ice o( t$e Baranga' C$airman at =oblacion )an 7%lian 3astern )amar. =%rs%ant to t$e &rovisions o( )ection 015;c< o( 2$e LGC .%ote! earlier s%c$ (iling interr%&te! t$e &rescri&tive &erio! U8V an! starte! to r%n again %&on recei&t b' t$e com&lainant o( t$e Certi(ication to File #ction iss%e! b' t$e =ang+at )ecretar'. Here recor!s (ail to s$o, ,$en com&lainant receive! t$e Baranga' Certi(ication to File #ction. 2$e %n!ate! certi(ication $e s%bmitte! merel' states t$at t$e case ,as set (or $earing be(ore t$e baranga' on Marc$ 1G // an! /8 1888 b%t t$e &arties (aile! to reac$ an amicable settlement. 6$en $e (ile! on Ma' 0 1888 Criminal Case No. /188D88 (or slig$t &$'sical in9%ries ,it$ res&on!entHs co%rt %ntil t$e !ismissal o( t$e case on November 1 1888 $e still (aile! to &resent &roo( o( $is recei&t o( t$e Baranga' Certi(ication to File #ction. Clearl' $e cannot no, (a%lt res&on!ent 9%!ge (or !ismissing t$e case on t$e gro%n! o( &rescri&tion. ALA v. Letron o;Monte3o Facts: 2$e =resi!ent o( t$e =$ili&&ines !eclare! December 0 188/ a "s&ecial !a'" (or t$e $ol!ing o( election (or )angg%niang Mabataan ;)M< t$ro%g$o%t t$e nation. 3m&lo'ees &%rs%ant to t$eir CB# s%bse.%entl' (ile! claims (or t$e &a'ment to t$em o( $oli!a' &a' (or t$at !a'. =rivate res&on!ent $o,ever re(%se! t$eir claims on t$e gro%n! t$at December 0 188/ ,as not a reg%lar $oli!a' ,it$in t$e contem&lation o( t$e CB#. *ss%e: 6ON t$e )angg%niang Mabataan 3lection Da' consi!ere! a reg%lar $oli!a' (or &%r&ose o( t$e CB#. 6e $ol! t$at it is an! t$at in !en'ing &etitionerHs claim res&on!ent Kol%ntar' #rbitrator !enie! members o( &etitioner %nion s%bstantial 9%stice as a res%lt o( $er erroneo%s inter&retation o( t$e CB# t$ereb' 9%sti('ing 9%!icial revie,. First. 2$e )angg%niang Mabataan ;)M< is &art o( t$e local government str%ct%re. 2$e LGC ;-e&. #ct. No. 71G5< creates in ever' baranga' a )angg%niang Mabataan com&ose! o( a c$airman seven ;7< members a secretar' an! a treas%rer. 1 2$e c$airman an! t$e seven members are electe! b' t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan ,$ic$ is com&ose! o( citiBens o( t$e =$ili&&ines resi!ing in t$e baranga' (or at least si4 ;G< mont$s ,$o are bet,een t$e ages o( 1C an! /1 an! ,$o are registere! as members. 2$e c$airman o( t$e )M is an e4 o((icio member o( t$e )angg%niang Barangga' ,it$ t$e same &o,ers !%ties (%nctions an! &rivileges as t$e reg%lar members o( t$e )angg%niang Baranga'. C 2$e =resi!ent o( t$e =e!eras'on ng mga )angg%niang Mabataan ,$ic$ is im&ose! o( t$e )M c$airmen o( t$e sangg%niang +abataan o( t$e baranga's in t$e &rovince cit' or m%nici&alit' is an e4 o((icio member o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan )angg%niang =anl%ngso! an! )angg%niang Ba'an. Hence as t$e )olicitor General &oints o%t t$e election (or members o( t$e )M ma' &ro&erl' be consi!ere! a "local election" ,it$in t$e meaning o( #rt. K** sec 1 o( t$e CB# an! t$e !a' on ,$ic$ it is $el! to be a $oli!a' t$ereb' entitling &etitioners members at t$e #M) Farming Cor&. to t$e &a'ment o( $oli!a' on s%c$ !a'.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests )econ!. 2$e Kol%ntar' #rbitrator $el! $o,ever t$at t$e
election (or members o( t$e )M cannot be consi!ere! a local election as t$e election (or Governors Kice Governors Ma'ors an! Kice Ma'ors an! t$e vario%s local legislative assemblies ;sangg%nians< beca%se t$e )M election is &artici&ate! in onl' b' t$e 'o%t$ ,$o are bet,een t$e ages o( 1C an! /1 an! (or t$is reason t$e !a' is not a non,or+ing $oli!a'. 2o begin ,it$ it is not tr%e t$at December 0 188/ ,as not a non,or+ing $oli!a'. *t ,as a non,or+ing $oli!a' an! t$is ,as anno%nce! in t$e me!ia. 7 *n =roclamation No. 118 !ate! December / 188/ =resi!ent -amos !eclare! t$e !a' as "a s&ecial !a' t$ro%g$ t$e co%ntr' on t$e occasion o( t$e )angg%niang Mabataan 3lections" an! en9oine! all "local government %nits t$ro%g$ t$eir res&ective C$ie( Local 34ec%tives UtoV e4ten! all &ossible assistance an! s%&&ort to ens%re t$e smoot$ con!%ct o( t$e general elections." # "s&ecial !a'" is a "s&ecial !a'" as &rovi!e! b' t$e #!ministrative Co!e o( 1887. 8 On t$e ot$er $an! t$e term "general elections" means in t$e conte4t o( )M elections t$e reg%lar elections (or members o( t$e )M as !isting%is$e! (rom t$e s&ecial elections (or s%c$ o((icers. 8 Moreover t$e (act t$at onl' t$ose bet,een 1C an! /1 ta+e &art in t$e election (or members o( t$e )M !oes not ma+e s%c$ election an' less a reg%lar local election. 2$e Constit%tion &rovi!es (or e4am&le (or t$e sectoral re&resentatives in t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives o( among ot$ers ,omen an! 'o%t$. 15 Onl' voters belonging to t$e relevant sectors can ta+e &art in t$e election o( t$eir re&resentatives. :et it cannot be !enie! t$at s%c$ election is a reg%lar national election an! t$e !a' set (or its $ol!ing a $oli!a'. 2$ir!. *n!ee! t$e CB# &rovision in .%estion merel' reiterates t$e &rovision on &ai! $oli!a's. 6$et$er in t$e conte4t o( t$e CB# or t$e Labor Co!e December 0 188/ ,as a $oli!a' (or ,$ic$ $oli!a' &a' s$o%l! be &ai! b' res&on!ent em&lo'er. Merca o v. Boar o! %lection (upervisors 2ellers ;B32< acting as t$e Boar! o( Canvassers on t$e basis o( its tall' ,$ic$ s$o,e! Merca!o ,inning b' one vote over $is rival &rivate res&on!ent Crisanto =. =angilinan. Merca!oH s victor' ,as $o,ever s$ortDlive!. *mme!iatel' a(ter Merca!oHs &roclamation as t$e ,inner b' t$e B32 =angilinan (ile! a (ormal &rotest .%estioning t$e res%lts o( t$e election. He allege! t$at t$e B32 C$airman !rin+ing gin an! Co+e !%ring t$e co%nting $a! invali!ate! some votes ,it$o%t cons%lting t$e ot$er boar! members. 2$e B3) or!ere! .t$e reo&ening o( t$e ballot bo4 an! t$e reco%nt o( t$e votes (or )M C$airman. 2$e reco%nt reverse! t$e earlier tall' to C1 to 08 in (avor o( =angilinan ,$o ,as t$ere%&on &roclaime! t$e !%l' electe! )M C$airman b' t$e B3) ,$ic$ iss%e! (or t$at &%r&ose its o,n Certi(icate o( Canvass an! =roclamation. Merca!o t$en (ile! ,it$ t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt ;-2C< o( Batangas Cit' a &etition (or certiorari an! man!am%s &ra'ing (or t$e ann%lment o( =angilinanHs &roclamation b' t$e B3) an! (or t$e iss%ance o( an or!er to com&el t$e De&artment o( *nterior an! Local Government ;D*LG< to recogniBe $im as t$e !%l' electe! )M C$airman o( Baranga' Mabalor an! to allo, $im to ta+e $is oat$ o( o((ice an! !isc$arge $is !%ties as s%c$. *n $is &etition !oc+ete! as Civil Case No. 1CGC Merca!o assaile! t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$e B3) to act on t$e &rotest (ile! b' =angilinan as t$e gro%n! cite! t$erein ,as allege!l' in t$e nat%re o( an election &rotest &ro&erl' cogniBable b' t$e Metro&olitan or M%nici&al 2rial Co%rt in accor!ance ,it$ )ection /C/ o( t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e. He (%rt$er claime! t$at ass%ming t$at t$e B3) $as 9%ris!iction over t$e &rotest t$e gro%n!s raise! t$erein ,ere !eeme! ,aive! b' =angilinanHs (ail%re to invo+e t$em at t$e level o( t$e B32 an! t$at t$e B3) acte! ,it$ grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ or e4cess o( 9%ris!iction in !en'ing t$e &etitioner o( !%e &rocess ,$en it or!ere! t$e reo&ening o( t$e ballot bo4 an! t$e reco%nting o( t$e votes ,it$o%t a((or!ing $im t$e o&&ort%nit' to be $ear!. *n its Or!er !ate! 11 7an%ar' 1881 t$e -2C !ismisse! t$e &etition (or lac+ o( 9%ris!iction 2$e trial co%rt state! t$at it ,as not a,are o( an' la, b' ,$ic$ it co%l! act on t$e matters raise! in Merca!oHs &etition since -esol%tion No. /088 o( t$e COM3L3C !i! not vest in t$e -2C 9%ris!iction over controversies a((ecting )angg%niang Mabataan electionsA constit%ting instea! t$e B3) ,$ic$ is %n!er COM3L3C 9%ris!iction as t$e (inal arbiter o( all election controversies ,it$in its level. Merca!o move! (or a reconsi!eration o( t$e !ismissal or!er. He arg%e! t$at t$e -2C ,as com&etent to act on $is &etition beca%se ;a< one mo!e o( see+ing 9%!icial revie,

Facts: 7ose M. Merca!o ,as &roclaime! ,inner in t$e 0 December 188/ election (or c$airman o( t$e )M o( Baranga' Mabalor *baan Batangas. 2$e &roclamation ,as ma!e b' t$e Boar! o( 3lection

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is t$ro%g$ t$e ,rit o( certiorari ,$ic$ ma' be iss%e! b' t$e -2C %n!er B.=. Blg. 1/8A;b< %n!er its -esol%tions Nos. /088 an! /C/5 t$e COM3L3C ,as to &rovi!e onl' tec$nical assistance in t$e con!%ct o( t$e )M election an! t$ere(ore co%l! not grant an' relie( (rom t$e action o( t$e B3)A moreover %n!er sai! -esol%tion No. /088 no a&&eal to a $ig$er a!ministrative level ,as$ allo,e! (rom t$e action o( t$e B3) an! ;c< t$e &rinci&le o( e4$a%stion o( a!ministrative reme!ies !i! not a&&l' to t$e case at bar t$e 9%ris!ictional an! !%e &rocess iss%es raise! t$erein being legal in nat%re. @nconvince! t$e -2C in its Or!er !ate! / Marc$ 1881 !enie! t$e motion (or reconsi!eration (or lac+ o( merit. *t r%le! t$at t$e reo&ening o( t$e ballot bo4 (or Baranga' Mabalor an! t$e reco%nting o( t$e votes cast t$erein ,ere &er(ectl' ,it$in t$e ambit o( t$e B3)Hs a%t$orit' an! t$at Merca!o s$o%l! $ave gone to t$e D*LG ,$ic$ $as !irect control an! s%&ervision o( t$e )M elections. *ss%e: 6ON t$e B3) ma' ta+e cogniBance o( =angilinan>s &rotest )M $istor': t$e )M ,as initiall' organiBe! b' =.D. No. G80 ;1C #&ril 187C< as t$e Mabataang Baranga' ;MB< a 'o%t$ organiBation com&ose! o( all baranga' resi!ents ,$o ,ere less t$an 18 'ears o( age ,$ic$ aims to &rovi!e its members ,it$ t$e o&&ort%nit' to e4&ress t$eir vie,s an! o&inions on iss%es o( transcen!ental im&ortance. *ts a((airs ,ere a!ministere! b' a baranga' 'o%t$ c$airman toget$er ,it$ si4 baranga' 'o%t$ lea!ers ,$o s$o%l! at least be 1C 'ears o( age or over b%t less t$an 18 2$e t$en )ecretar' o( Local Government an! Comm%nit' Develo&ment ,as a%t$oriBe! to &rom%lgate t$e im&lementing r%les an! reg%lations. =%rs%ant to =.D. No. 1181 ;1 )e&tember 1877< t$e =ambansang Mati&%nan ng Mabataang Baranga' ng =ili&inas ,as constit%te! as "a bo!' cor&orate" ,it$ "t$e &o,ers an! attrib%tes o( a cor&oration" an! &lace! !irectl' %n!er t$e O((ice o( t$e =resi!ent. *ts a((airs ,ere to be a!ministere! b' t$e 34ec%tive Committee ,$ic$ ,as em&o,ere! to &rom%lgate r%les an! reg%lations governing t$e MB. 2$is 'o%t$ organiBation ,as recogniBe! in B.=. Blg. 117 ;2$e LGC< / ,$ic$ raise! t$e ma4im%m age re.%irement o( t$e members (rom 18 to /1. @n!er -.#. No. 71G5 ;2$e LGC< t$e Mabataang Baranga' ,as c$ange! to t$e )angg%niang Mabataan. 1 *t remains as a 'o%t$ organiBation in ever' baranga' com&ose! o( a c$airman an! seven members to be electe! b' t$e +ati&%nan ng +abataan an! t$e secretar' an! t$e treas%rer to be a&&ointe! b' t$e )M c$airman ,it$ t$e conc%rrence o( t$e )M. 0 2$e +ati&%nan ng +abataan is com&ose! o( all citiBens o( t$e =$ili&&ines act%all' resi!ing in t$e baranga' (or at least si4 mont$s ,$o are 1C b%t not more t$an /1 an! ,$o are !%l' registere! in t$e list o( t$e )M or in t$e o((icial baranga' list in t$e c%sto!' o( t$e baranga' secretar'. 2$e c$airman %&on ass%m&tion o( o((ice s$all a%tomaticall' become an e4Do((icio member o( t$e sangg%niang baranga' @n!er s%b&aragra&$ ;C< &aragra&$ ;e< #rticle /51 -%le JJK** o( t$e -%les an! -eg%lations *m&lementing t$e LGC 7 t$e con!%ct an! a!ministration o( t$e elections (or sangg%niang +abataan members s$all be governe! b' t$e r%les &rom%lgate! b' t$e COM3L3C.=%rs%ant to s%c$ a%t$orit' an! (or &%r&oses o( t$e )M election a%t$oriBe! %n!er )ection C1/ o( -.#. No. 71G5 t$e COM3L3C &rom%lgate! -esol%tion No. /088 ,$ic$ closel' (ollo,e! t$e &attern set in t$e Constit%tion o( t$e Mabataang Baranga' &rovi!ing (or a Boar! o( 3lection )%&ervisors an! Boar! o( 3lection 2ellers ,it$ t$e (ormer $aving !irect general s%&ervision in t$e con!%ct o( s%c$ election an! as t$e (inal arbiter o( all election &rotests. #rticle K o( -esol%tion No. /088 e4&ressl' &rovi!es: 2$ere s$all be create! aboar! o( election s%&ervisors ;B3)< in ever' cit' or m%nici&alit' com&ose! o( t$e (ollo,ing: a< cit'?m%nici&al local government o&erations o((icer as c$airmanA b< cit'?m%nici&al election o((icer as memberA an! c< cit'?m%nici&al secretar' as member. 2$e boar! s$all $ave !irect general s%&ervision in t$e con!%ct o( elections (or sangg%niang +abataan in t$e baranga' an! s$all act as (inal arbiter in t$e resol%tion o( all election &rotests. No &reD &roclamation cases s$all be allo,e! on matters relating to t$e election o( sangg%niang +abataan c$airman an! members. 2$e &etitioner conten!s t$at COM3L3C -esol%tion No. /088 is illegal an! %nconstit%tional beca%se it ma+es t$e B3) t$e (inal arbiter o( election contests involving t$e )M in contravention o( )ection /C/ o( t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e ,$ic$ vests in t$e &ro&er metro&olitan or m%nici&al trial co%rt original 9%ris!iction over s%c$ contests an! on a more (%n!amental gro%n! in contravention o( )ection / #rticle *JDC o( t$e Constit%tion ,$ic$ lo!ges on. s%c$ co%rts

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e4cl%sive original 9%ris!iction over contests involving elective baranga' o((icials. 2$is contention is ,it$o%t merit (or it ass%mes t$at t$e )M election is an election involving elective baranga' o((icials ,it$in t$e &%rvie, o( t$e a(oresai! stat%tor' an! constit%tional &rovisions. )ection /C/ o( t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e an! t$at &ortion o( &aragra&$ ;/< )ection / #rticle *JDC o( t$e Constit%tion on t$e COM3L3CHs e4cl%sive a&&ellate 9%ris!iction over contests involving elective baranga' o((icials re(er to t$e elective baranga' o((icials %n!er t$e &ertinent la,s in (orce at t$e time t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e ,as enacte! an! %&on t$e rati(ication o( t$e Constit%tion. 2$at la, ,as B.=. Blg. 117 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e LGC an! t$e elective baranga' o((icials re(erre! to ,ere t$e &%nong baranga' an! t$e si4 sangg%niang ba'an members. 8 2$e' ,ere to be electe! b' t$ose .%ali(ie! to e4ercise t$e rig$t o( s%((rage. 15 2$e' are also t$e same o((icers re(erre! to b' t$e &rovisions o( t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e o( t$e =$ili&&ines on election o( baranga' o((icials. Metro&olitan an! m%nici&al trial co%rts $a! e4cl%sive original 2$e 9%ris!iction over contests relating to t$eir election . 2$e !ecisions o( t$ese co%rts ,ere a&&ealable to t$e -egional 2rial Co%rts. 2$e Co%rt recogniBes t$e conse.%ences o( t$e .%asiD9%!icial acts &er(orme! b' t$e B3) &%rs%ant to )ection /0 o( COM3L3C -esol%tion No. /088 %n!er t$e o&erative (act !octrineA t$%s ,e $ol! t$at t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt is com&etent to revie, t$e !ecision o( t$e B3) in election controversies ,it$in its level. #s correctl' state! b' t$e &etitioner it is a basic &rinci&le in a!ministrative la, t$at t$e absence o( a &rovision (or t$e revie, o( an a!ministrative action !oes not &recl%!e reco%rse to t$e co%rts. *t is generall' %n!erstoo! t$at as to a!ministrative agencies e4ercising .%asiD9%!icial or legislative &o,er t$ere is an %n!erl'ing &o,er in t$e co%rts to scr%tiniBe t$e acts o( s%c$ agencies on .%estions o( la, an! 9%ris!iction even t$o%g$ no rig$t o( revie, is given b' stat%te. 2$e &%r&ose o( 9%!icial revie, is to +ee& t$e a!ministrative agenc' ,it$in its 9%ris!iction an! &rotect s%bstantial rig$ts o( &arties a((ecte! b' its !ecisions. it is &art o( t$e s'stem o( c$ec+s an! balances ,$ic$ restricts t$e se&aration o( &o,ers an! (orestalls arbitrar' an! %n9%st a!9%!ications. Garvi a v. (ales Facts: =etitioner a&&lie! (or members$i& in t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan b%t ,as !enie! s%c$ as s$e ,as alrea!' /1 'ears an! 15 mont$s ol!. )$e (ile! a "=etition (or *ncl%sion as -egistere! Mabataang Member an! Koter" ,it$ t$e M%nici&al Circ%it 2rial Co%rt Bang%iD=ag%!&%!D#!amsDDamalneg *locos Norte. 2$e co%rt (o%n! $er .%ali(ie!. 2$e Boar! o( 3lection 2ellers a&&eale! b%t t$e -2C 9%!ge in$ibite! $imsel( b' reason o( $is close relation ,it$ $er. =etitioner (ile! $er certi(icate o( can!i!ac' (or t$e &osition o( C$airman )angg%niang Mabataan. 3lection O((icer Dionisio F. -ios &er a!vice o( =rovincial 3lection )%&ervisor Noli =i&o !isa&&rove! &etitionerHs certi(icate o( can!i!ac' again !%e to $er age. =etitioner $o,ever a&&eale! to COM3L3C -egional Director Filemon #. #s&erin ,$o set asi!e t$e or!er o( res&on!ents an! allo,e! &etitioner to r%n. -ios iss%e! a memoran!%m to &etitioner in(orming $er o( $er ineligibilit' an! giving $er /0 $o%rs to e4&lain ,$' $er certi(icate o( can!i!ac' s$o%l! not be !isa&&rove!. 3arlier an! ,it$o%t t$e +no,le!ge o( t$e COM3L3C o((icials &rivate res&on!ent Florencio G. )ales 7r. a rival can!i!ate (or C$airman o( t$e )angg%niang Mabataan (ile! ,it$ t$e COM3L3C en banc a "=etition o( Denial an!?or Cancellation o( Certi(icate o( Can!i!ac'" against &etitioner Garvi!a (or (alsel' re&resenting $er age .%ali(ication in $er certi(icate o( can!i!ac'. 2$at same !a' -ios iss%e! t$e memoran!%m to &etitioner t$e COM3L3C en banc iss%e! an or!er !irecting t$e Boar! o( 3lection 2ellers an! Boar! o( Canvassers o( Baranga' )an LorenBo to s%s&en! t$e &roclamation o( &etitioner in t$e event s$e ,on in t$e election. =etitioner ,on. *n accor!ance ,it$ t$e Ma' / 188G or!er o( t$e COM3L3C en banc t$e Boar! o( 3lection 2ellers !i! not &roclaim &etitioner as t$e ,inner. Hence t$e instant &etition (or certiorari ,as (ile! on Ma' /7 188G. On 7%ne / 188G $o,ever t$e Boar! o( 3lection 2ellers &roclaime! &etitioner t$e ,inner (or t$e &osition o( )M c$airman Baranga' )an LorenBo Bang%i *locos Norte. 2$e &roclamation ,as ",it$o%t &re9%!ice to an' (%rt$er action b' t$e Commission on 3lections or an' ot$er intereste! &art'." On 7%l' C 188G &etitioner ran in t$e =amba'ang =e!eras'on ng mga )angg%niang Mabataan (or t$e m%nici&alit' o( Bang%i *locos Norte. )$e ,on as #%!itor an! ,as &roclaime! one o( t$e electe! o((icials o( t$e =e!eras'on.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


*ss%e: 6ON t$e cancellation o( $er certi(icate o( can!i!ac' on t$e gro%n! t$at s$e $as e4cee!e! t$e age re.%irement to r%n as an elective o((icial o( t$e )M is vali!. :3). 2$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan ,as originall' create! b' =D G80 in 187C as t$e Mabataang Baranga' a baranga' 'o%t$ organiBation com&ose! o( all resi!ents o( t$e baranga' ,$o ,ere at least 1C 'ears b%t less t$an 18 'ears o( age. 2$e Mabataang Baranga' so%g$t to &rovi!e its members a me!i%m to e4&ress t$eir vie,s an! o&inions an! &artici&ate in iss%es o( transcen!ental im&ortance. *ts a((airs ,ere a!ministere! b' a baranga' 'o%t$ c$airman toget$er ,it$ si4 baranga' 'o%t$ lea!ers ,$o ,ere act%al resi!ents o( t$e baranga' an! ,ere at least 1C 'ears b%t less t$an 18 'ears o( age. *n 1881 Batas =ambansa Blg. 117 t$en t$e LGC raise! t$e ma4im%m age o( t$e Mabataang Baranga' members (rom "less t$an 18 'ears o( age" to "not more t$an /1 'ears o( age." 2$e LGC c$ange! t$e Mabataang Baranga' into t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan. *t $o,ever retaine! t$e age limit o( t$e members lai! !o,n in B.=. 117 at 1C b%t not more t$an /1 'ears ol!. 2$e a((airs o( t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan are a!ministere! b' t$e )angg%niang Mabataan ;)M< com&ose! o( a c$airman an! seven ;7< members ,$o are electe! b' t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan. Members$i& in t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan is s%b9ect to s&eci(ic .%ali(ications lai! !o,n b' t$e LGC: ;a< a Fili&ino citiBenA ;b< an act%al resi!ent o( t$e baranga' (or at least si4 mont$sA ;c< 1C b%t not more t$an /1 'ears o( ageA an! ;!< !%l' registere! in t$e list o( t$e )angg%niang Mabataan or in t$e o((icial baranga' list. )ection 0/8 o( t$e Co!e re.%ires t$at an elective o((icial o( t$e )angg%niang Mabataan m%st be: ;a< a Fili&ino citiBenA ;b< a .%ali(ie! voter in t$e Mati&%nan ng MabataanA ;c< a resi!ent o( t$e baranga' at least one ;1< 'ear imme!iatel' &rece!ing t$e electionA ;!< at least 1C 'ears b%t not more t$an /1 'ears o( age on t$e !a' o( $is electionA ;e< able to rea! an! ,riteA an! ;(< m%st not $ave been convicte! o( an' crime involving moral t%r&it%!e. # member o( t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan ma' be a .%ali(ie! voter in t$e Ma' G 188G )M elections i( $e is: ;a< a Fili&ino citiBenA ;b< 1C b%t not more t$an /1 'ears o( age on election !a' i.e. t$e voter m%st be born bet,een Ma' G 187C an! Ma' G 1881 incl%siveA an! ;c< a resi!ent o( t$e =$ili&&ines (or at least one ;1< 'ear an! an act%al resi!ent o( t$e baranga' at least si4 ;G< mont$s imme!iatel' &rece!ing t$e elections. # can!i!ate (or t$e )M m%st: ;a< &ossess t$e (oregoing .%ali(ications o( a voterA ;b< be a resi!ent in t$e baranga' at least one ;1< 'ear imme!iatel' &rece!ing t$e electionsA an! ;c< able to rea! an! ,rite. 34ce&t (or t$e .%estion o( age &etitioner $as all t$e .%ali(ications o( a member an! voter in t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan an! a can!i!ate (or t$e )angg%niang Mabataan. =etitionerHs age is a!mitte!l' be'on! t$e limit set in )ection 1 UbV o( COM3L3C -esol%tion No. /8/0. =etitioner $o,ever arg%es t$at )ection 1 UbV o( -esol%tion No. /8/0 is %nla,(%l %ltra vires an! be'on! t$e sco&e o( )ections 0/0 an! 0/8 o( t$e LGC. )$e conten!s t$at t$e Co!e itsel( !oes not &rovi!e t$at t$e voter m%st be e4actl' /1 'ears o( age on election !a'. )$e %rges t$at so long as s$e !i! not t%rn t,ent'Dt,o ;//< 'ears ol! s$e ,as still t,ent'Done 'ears o( age on election !a' an! t$ere(ore .%ali(ie! as a member an! voter in t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan an! as can!i!ate (or t$e )M elections. # closer loo+ at t$e LGC ,ill reveal a !istinction bet,een t$e ma4im%m age o( a member in t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan an! t$e ma4im%m age o( an elective )M o((icial. )ection 0/0 o( t$e Co!e sets a memberHs ma4im%m age at /1 'ears onl'. 2$ere is no (%rt$er &rovision as to ,$en t$e member s$all $ave t%rne! /1 'ears o( age. On t$e ot$er $an! )ection 0/8 &rovi!es t$at t$e ma4im%m age o( an elective )M o((icial is /1 'ears ol! "on t$e !a' o( $is election." 2$e a!!ition o( t$e &$rase "on t$e !a' o( $is election" is an a!!itional .%ali(ication. 2$e member ma' be more t$an /1 'ears o( age on election !a' or on t$e !a' $e registers as member o( t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan. 2$e elective o((icial $o,ever m%st not be more t$an /1 'ears ol! on t$e !a' o( election. 2$e !istinction is %n!erstan!able consi!ering t$at t$e Co!e itsel( &rovi!es more .%ali(ications (or an elective )M o((icial t$an (or a member o( t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan. Dissimil%m !issimilis est ratio. 2$e co%rts ma' !isting%is$ ,$en t$ere are (acts an! circ%mstances s$o,ing t$at t$e legislat%re inten!e! a !istinction or .%ali(ication. 2$e .%ali(ication t$at a voter in t$e )M elections m%st not be more t$an /1 'ears o( age on t$e !a' o( t$e election is not

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&rovi!e! in )ection 0/0 o( t$e LGC. *n (act t$e term ".%ali(ie! voter" a&&ears onl' in COM3L3C -esol%tion No. /8/0. )ince a ".%ali(ie! voter" is not necessaril' an elective o((icial t$en it ma' be ass%me! t$at a ".%ali(ie! voter" is a "member o( t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan." )ection 0/0 o( t$e Co!e !oes not &rovi!e t$at t$e ma4im%m age o( a member o( t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan is !etermine! on t$e !a' o( t$e election. )ection 1 UbV o( COM3L3C -esol%tion No. /8/0 is t$ere(ore %ltra vires inso(ar as it sets t$e age limit o( a voter (or t$e )M elections at e4actl' /1 'ears on t$e !a' o( t$e election. 2$e &rovision t$at an elective o((icial o( t$e )M s$o%l! not be more t$an /1 'ears o( age on t$e !a' o( $is election is ver' clear. 2$e LGC s&ea+s o( 'ears not mont$s nor !a's. 6$en t$e la, s&ea+s o( 'ears it is %n!erstoo! t$at 'ears are o( 1GC !a's eac$. One born on t$e (irst !a' o( t$e 'ear is conse.%entl' !eeme! to be one 'ear ol! on t$e 1GCt$ !a' a(ter $is birt$ DD t$e last !a' o( t$e 'ear. *n com&%ting 'ears t$e (irst 'ear is reac$e! a(ter com&leting t$e (irst 1GC !a's. #(ter t$e (irst 1GCt$ !a' t$e (irst !a' o( t$e secon! 1GCD!a' c'cle begins. On t$e 1GCt$ !a' o( t$e secon! c'cle t$e &erson t%rns t,o 'ears ol!. 2$is c'cle goes on an! on in a li(etime. # &erson t%rns /1 'ears ol! on t$e 1GCt$ !a' o( $is /1st 1GCD!a' c'cle. 2$is means on $is /1st birt$!a' $e $as com&lete! t$e entire s&an o( /1 1GCD!a' c'cles. #(ter t$is birt$!a' t$e 1GCD!a' c'cle (or $is //n! 'ear begins. 2$e !a' a(ter t$e 1GCt$ !a' is t$e (irst !a' o( t$e ne4t 1GCD!a' c'cle an! $e t%rns // 'ears ol! on t$e 1GCt$ !a'. 2$e &$rase "not more t$an /1 'ears o( age" means not over /1 'ears not be'on! /1 'ears. *t means /1 1GCD!a' c'cles. *t !oes not mean /1 'ears an! one or some !a's or a (raction o( a 'ear beca%se t$at ,o%l! be more t$an /1 1GCD !a' c'cles. "Not more t$an /1 'ears ol!" is not e.%ivalent to "less t$an // 'ears ol! " contrar' to &etitionerHs claims. 2$e la, !oes not state t$at t$e can!i!ate be less t$an // 'ears on election !a'. *n =.D. G80 t$e la, t$at create! t$e Mabataang Baranga' t$e age .%ali(ication o( a baranga' 'o%t$ o((icial ,as e4&ressl' state! as "at least (i(teen 'ears o( age or over b%t less t$an eig$teen." 2$is &rovision clearl' states t$at t$e 'o%t$ o((icial m%st be at least 1C 'ears ol! an! ma' be 17 'ears an! a (raction o( a 'ear b%t s$o%l! not reac$ t$e age o( eig$teen 'ears. 6$en t$e LGC increase! t$e age limit o( members o( t$e 'o%t$ organiBation to /1 'ears it !i! not reenact t$e &rovision in s%c$ a ,a' as to ma+e t$e 'o%t$ "at least 1C b%t less t$an // 'ears ol!." *( t$e intention o( t$e Co!eHs (ramers ,as to incl%!e citiBens less t$an // 'ears ol! t$e' s$o%l! $ave state! so e4&ressl' instea! o( leaving t$e matter o&en to con(%sion an! !o%bt. 2$e general r%le is t$at an elective o((icial o( t$e )angg%niang Mabataan m%st not be more t$an /1 'ears o( age on t$e !a' o( $is election. 2$e onl' e4ce&tion is ,$en t$e o((icial reac$es t$e age o( /1 'ears !%ring $is inc%mbenc'. )ection 0/1 UbV o( t$e Co!e allo,s $im to serve t$e remaining &ortion o( t$e term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!. #ccor!ing to )enator =imentel t$e 'o%t$ lea!er m%st $ave "been electe! &rior to $is /1st birt$!a'." Conversel' t$e )M o((icial m%st not $ave t%rne! /1 'ears ol! be(ore $is election. -ea!ing )ection 0/1 UbV toget$er ,it$ )ection 0/8 o( t$e Co!e t$e latest !ate at ,$ic$ an )M elective o((icial t%rns /1 'ears ol! is on t$e !a' o( $is election. 2$e ma4im%m age o( a 'o%t$ o((icial m%st t$ere(ore be e4actl' /1 'ears on election !a'. )ection 1 UbV in relation to )ection G UaV o( COM3L3C -esol%tion No. /8/0 is not %ltra vires inso(ar as it (i4es t$e ma4im%m age o( an elective )M o((icial on t$e !a' o( $is election. *n t$e case at bar &etitioner ,as born on 7%ne 11 1870. On Marc$ 1G 188G t$e !a' s$e registere! as voter (or t$e Ma' G 188G )M elections &etitioner ,as t,ent'Done ;/1< 'ears an! nine ;8< mont$s ol!. On t$e !a' o( t$e elections s$e ,as /1 'ears 11 mont$s an! C !a's ol!. 6$en s$e ass%me! o((ice on 7%ne 1 188G s$e ,as /1 'ears 11 mont$s an! /5 !a's ol! an! ,as merel' ten ;15< !a's a,a' (rom t%rning // 'ears ol!. =etitioner ma' $ave .%ali(ie! as a member o( t$e Mati&%nan ng Mabataan b%t !e(initel' &etitioner ,as over t$e age limit (or elective )M o((icials set b' )ection 0/8 o( t$e LGC an! )ections 1 UbV an! G o( Comelec -esol%tion No. /8/0. )$e ,as ineligible to r%n as can!i!ate (or t$e Ma' G 188G )angg%niang Mabataan elections. 2$e re.%irement t$at a can!i!ate &ossess t$e age .%ali(ication is (o%n!e! on &%blic &olic' an! i( $e lac+s t$e age on t$e !a' o( t$e election $e can be !eclare! ineligible.

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*n t$e same vein i( t$e can!i!ate is over t$e ma4im%m age limit on t$e !a' o( t$e election $e is ineligible. 2$e (act t$at t$e can!i!ate ,as electe! ,ill not ma+e t$e age re.%irement !irector' nor ,ill it vali!ate $is election. 2$e ,ill o( t$e &eo&le as e4&resse! t$ro%g$ t$e ballot cannot c%re t$e vice o( ineligibilit'. 2$e ineligibilit' o( &etitioner !oes not entitle &rivate res&on!ent t$e can!i!ate ,$o obtaine! t$e $ig$est n%mber o( votes in t$e Ma' G 188G elections to be !eclare! electe!. # !e(eate! can!i!ate cannot be !eeme! electe! to t$e o((ice. Moreover !es&ite $is claims &rivate res&on!ent $as (aile! to &rove t$at t$e electorate t$emselves act%all' +ne, o( &etitionerHs ineligibilit' an! t$at t$e' malicio%sl' vote! (or $er ,it$ t$e intention o( misa&&l'ing t$eir (ranc$ises an! t$ro,ing a,a' t$eir votes (or t$e bene(it o( $er rival can!i!ate. Neit$er can t$is Co%rt or!er t$at &%rs%ant to )ection 01C o( t$e LGC &etitioner s$o%l! be s%ccee!e! b' t$e )angg%niang Mabataan member ,$o obtaine! t$e ne4t $ig$est n%mber o( votes in t$e Ma' G 188G elections. )ection 01C a&&lies ,$en a )angg%niang Mabataan C$airman "re(%ses to ass%me o((ice (ails to .%ali(' is convicte! o( a (elon' vol%ntaril' resigns !ies is &ermanentl' inca&acitate! is remove! (rom o((ice or $as been absent ,it$o%t leave (or more t$an t$ree ;1< consec%tive mont$s." 2$e .%estion o( t$e age .%ali(ication is a .%estion o( eligibilit'. Being "eligible" means being "legall' .%ali(ie!A ca&able o( being legall' c$osen." *neligibilit' on t$e ot$er $an! re(ers to t$e lac+ o( t$e .%ali(ications &rescribe! in t$e Constit%tion or t$e stat%tes (or $ol!ing &%blic o((ice. *neligibilit' is not one o( t$e gro%n!s en%merate! in )ection 01C (or s%ccession o( t$e )M C$airman. 2o avoi! a $iat%s in t$e o((ice o( )M C$airman t$e Co%rt !eems it necessar' to or!er t$at t$e vacanc' be (ille! b' t$e )M member c$osen b' t$e inc%mbent )M members o( Baranga' )an LorenBo Bang%i *locos Norte b' sim&le ma9orit' (rom among t$emselves. 2$e member c$osen s$all ass%me t$e o((ice o( )M C$airman (or t$e %ne4&ire! &ortion o( t$e term an! s$all !isc$arge t$e &o,ers an! !%ties an! en9o' t$e rig$ts an! &rivileges a&&%rtenant to sai! o((ice. Facts: On Febr%ar' 18 /55/ &etitioner #ntoniette K.C. Montesclaros sent a letter to t$e Comelec !eman!ing t$at t$e )M elections be $el! as sc$e!%le! on Ma' G /55/. Montesclaros also %rge! t$e Comelec to res&on! to $er letter ,it$in 15 !a's %&on recei&t o( t$e letter ot$er,ise s$e ,ill see+ 9%!icial relie(. On Febr%ar' /5 /55/ #l(re!o L. Beni&a'o t$en Comelec C$airman ,rote i!entical letters to t$e )&ea+er o( t$e Ho%se an! t$e )enate =resi!ent abo%t t$e stat%s o( &en!ing bills on t$e )M an! Baranga' elections. *n $is letters t$e Comelec C$airman intimate! t$at it ,as Eo&erationall' ver' !i((ic%ltF to $ol! bot$ elections sim%ltaneo%sl' in Ma' /55/. *nstea! t$e Comelec C$airman e4&resse! s%&&ort (or t$e bill o( )enator Fran+lin Drilon t$at &ro&ose! to $ol! t$e Baranga' elections in Ma' /55/ an! &ost&one t$e )M elections to November /55/. 2en !a's la&se! ,it$o%t t$e Comelec res&on!ing to t$e letter o( Montesclaros. )%bse.%entl' &etitioners receive! a co&' o( Comelec 3n Banc -esol%tion No. 07G1 !ate! Febr%ar' C /55/ recommen!ing to Congress t$e &ost&onement o( t$e )M elections to November /55/ b%t $ol!ing t$e Baranga' elections in Ma' /55/ as sc$e!%le!. On Marc$ G /55/ t$e )enate an! t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives &asse! t$eir res&ective bills &ost&oning t$e )M elections. On Marc$ 11 /55/ t$e Bicameral Con(erence Committee ;EBicameral CommitteeF (or brevit'< o( t$e )enate an! t$e Ho%se came o%t ,it$ a -e&ort recommen!ing a&&roval o( t$e reconcile! bill consoli!ating )enate Bill No. /5C5 U10V an! Ho%se Bill No. 00CG. U1CV 2$e Bicameral Committee>s consoli!ate! bill reset t$e )M an! Baranga' elections to 7%l' 1C /55/ an! lo,ere! t$e members$i& age in t$e )M to at least 1C b%t not more t$an 18 'ears o( age. On Marc$ 11 /55/ &etitioners (ile! t$e instant &etition. On Marc$ 11 /55/ t$e )enate a&&rove! t$e Bicameral Committee>s consoli!ate! bill an! on Marc$ 11 /55/ t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives a&&rove! t$e same. 2$e =resi!ent signe! t$e a&&rove! bill into la, on Marc$ 18 /55/. *ss%es: 1. 6ON t$ere e4ists a 9%sticiable controvers'. NO. 2$e Co%rt>s &o,er o( 9%!icial revie, ma' be e4ercise! in constit%tional cases onl' i( all t$e (ollo,ing re.%isites are com&lie! ,it$ namel': ;1< t$e e4istence o( an act%al an! a&&ro&riate case or controvers'A ;/< a &ersonal an! s%bstantial interest o( t$e &art' raising t$e constit%tional .%estionA ;1< t$e e4ercise o( 9%!icial revie, is &lea!e! at t$e

Montesclaros v. COM%L%C

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


earliest o&&ort%nit'A an! ;0< t$e constit%tional .%estion is t$e lis mota o( t$e case. *n t$e instant case t$ere is no act%al controvers' re.%iring t$e e4ercise o( t$e &o,er o( 9%!icial revie,. 6$ile see+ing to &revent a &ost&onement o( t$e Ma' G /55/ )M elections &etitioners are nevert$eless amenable to a resetting o( t$e )M elections to an' !ate not later t$an 7%l' 1C /55/. -# No. 81G0 $as reset t$e )M elections to 7%l' 1C /55/ a !ate acce&table to &etitioners. 6it$ res&ect to t$e !ate o( t$e )M elections t$ere is t$ere(ore no act%al controvers' re.%iring 9%!icial intervention. =etitioners> &ra'er to &revent Congress (rom enacting into la, a &ro&ose! bill lo,ering t$e members$i& age in t$e )M !oes not &resent an act%al 9%sticiable controvers'. # &ro&ose! bill is not s%b9ect to 9%!icial revie, beca%se it is not a la,. # &ro&ose! bill creates no rig$t an! im&oses no !%t' legall' en(orceable b' t$e Co%rt. # &ro&ose! bill $aving no legal e((ect violates no constit%tional rig$t or !%t'. 2$e Co%rt $as no &o,er to !eclare a &ro&ose! bill constit%tional or %nconstit%tional beca%se t$at ,o%l! be in t$e nat%re o( ren!ering an a!visor' o&inion on a &ro&ose! act o( Congress. 2$e &o,er o( 9%!icial revie, cannot be e4ercise! in vac%o. 2$e secon! &aragra&$ o( )ection 1 #rticle K*** o( t$e Constit%tion states X E7%!icial &o,er incl%!es t$e !%t' o( t$e co%rts o( 9%stice to settle act%al controversies involving rig$ts ,$ic$ are legall' !eman!able an! en(orceable an! to !etermine ,$et$er or not t$ere $as been a grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ or e4cess o( 9%ris!iction on t$e &art o( an' branc$ or instr%mentalit' o( t$e Government.F 2$%s t$ere can be no 9%sticiable controvers' involving t$e constit%tionalit' o( a &ro&ose! bill. 2$e Co%rt can e4ercise its &o,er o( 9%!icial revie, onl' a(ter a la, is enacte! not be(ore. @n!er t$e se&aration o( &o,ers t$e Co%rt cannot restrain Congress (rom &assing an' la, or (rom setting into motion t$e legislative mill accor!ing to its internal r%les. 2$%s t$e (ollo,ing acts o( Congress in t$e e4ercise o( its legislative &o,ers are not s%b9ect to 9%!icial restraint: t$e (iling o( bills b' members o( Congress t$e a&&roval o( bills b' eac$ c$amber o( Congress t$e reconciliation b' t$e Bicameral Committee o( a&&rove! bills an! t$e event%al a&&roval into la, o( t$e reconcile! bills b' eac$ c$amber o( Congress. #bsent a clear violation o( s&eci(ic constit%tional limitations or o( constit%tional rig$ts o( &rivate &arties t$e Co%rt cannot e4ercise its &o,er o( 9%!icial revie, over t$e internal &rocesses or &roce!%res o( Congress. 2$e Co%rt $as also no &o,er to !ictate to Congress t$e ob9ect or s%b9ect o( bills t$at Congress s$o%l! enact into la,. 2$e 9%!icial &o,er to revie, t$e constit%tionalit' o( la,s !oes not incl%!e t$e &o,er to &rescribe to Congress ,$at la,s to enact. 2$e Co%rt $as no &o,er to com&el Congress b' man!am%s to enact a la, allo,ing &etitioners regar!less o( t$eir age to vote an! be vote! (or in t$e 7%l' 1C /55/ )M elections. 2o !o so ,o%l! !estro' t$e !elicate s'stem o( c$ec+s an! balances (inel' cra(te! b' t$e Constit%tion (or t$e t$ree coD e.%al coor!inate an! in!e&en!ent branc$es o( government. 1. 6ON t$e &ost&onement o( t$e )M elections amo%nte! to a grave ab%se o( !iscretion. NO. -# No. 81G0 is no, t$e la, t$at &rescribes t$e .%ali(ications o( can!i!ates an! voters (or t$e )M elections. 2$is la, also (i4es t$e !ate o( t$e )M elections. =etitioners $ave not s$o,n t$at t$e Comelec acte! illegall' or ,it$ grave ab%se o( !iscretion in recommen!ing to Congress t$e &ost&onement o( t$e )M elections. 2$e ver' evi!ence relie! %&on b' &etitioners contra!ict t$eir allegation o( illegalit'. 2$e evi!ence consist o( t$e (ollo,ing: ;1< Comelec en banc -esol%tion No. 07G1 !ate! Febr%ar' C /55/ t$at recommen!e! t$e &ost&onement o( t$e )M elections to /551A ;/< t$e letter o( t$en Comelec C$airman Beni&a'o a!!resse! to t$e )&ea+er o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives an! t$e =resi!ent o( t$e )enateA an! ;1< t$e Con(erence Committee -e&ort consoli!ating )enate Bill No. /5C5 an! Ho%se Bill No. 00CG. 2$e Comelec e4ercise! its &o,er an! !%t' to Een(orce an! a!minister all la,s an! reg%lations relative to t$e con!%ct o( an election &lebiscite initiative re(eren!%m an! recallF an! to Erecommen! to Congress e((ective meas%res to minimiBe election s&en!ing.F 2$e Comelec>s acts en9o' t$e &res%m&tion o( reg%larit' in t$e &er(ormance o( o((icial !%ties. 2$ese acts cannot constit%te &roo( as claime! b' &etitioners t$at t$ere Ee4ists a connivance an! cons&irac' ;among< res&on!ents in contravention o( t$e &resent la,.F

11G

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


2$e 1887 Constit%tion im&oses %&on t$e Comelec t$e !%t' o( en(orcing an! a!ministering all la,s an! reg%lations relative to t$e con!%ct o( elections. =etitioners (aile! to &rove t$at t$e Comelec committe! grave ab%se o( !iscretion in recommen!ing to Congress t$e &ost&onement o( t$e Ma' G /55/ )M elections. 2$e evi!ence cite! b' &etitioners even establis$ t$at t$e Comelec $as !emonstrate! an earnest e((ort to a!!ress t$e &ractical &roblems in $ol!ing t$e )M elections on Ma' G /55/. 2$e &res%m&tion remains t$at t$e !ecision o( t$e Comelec to recommen! to Congress t$e &ost&onement o( t$e elections ,as ma!e in goo! (ait$ in t$e reg%lar co%rse o( its o((icial !%ties. Grave ab%se o( !iscretion is s%c$ ca&ricio%s an! ,$imsical e4ercise o( 9%!gment t$at is &atent an! gross as to amo%nt to an evasion o( a &ositive !%t' or a virt%al re(%sal to &er(orm a !%t' en9oine! b' la,. =%blic res&on!ents $aving acte! strictl' &%rs%ant to t$eir constit%tional &o,ers an! !%ties ,e (in! no grave ab%se o( !iscretion in t$eir assaile! acts. 1. 6ON t$e e4cl%sion o( &ersons 18D/1 (rom t$e )M ,as %nconstit%tional. NO. @n!er -# No. 81G0 Congress merel' restore! t$e age re.%irement in =D No. G80 t$e original c$arter o( t$e )M ,$ic$ (i4e! t$e ma4im%m age (or members$i& in t$e )M to 'o%t$s less t$an 18 'ears ol!. =etitioners !o not $ave a veste! rig$t to t$e &ermanence o( t$e age re.%irement %n!er )ection 0/0 o( t$e LGC. 3ver' la, &asse! b' Congress is al,a's s%b9ect to amen!ment or re&eal b' Congress. 2$e Co%rt cannot restrain Congress (rom amen!ing or re&ealing la,s (or t$e &o,er to ma+e la,s incl%!es t$e &o,er to c$ange t$e la,s. 2$e Co%rt cannot also !irect t$e Comelec to allo, overDage! voters to vote or be vote! (or in an election t$at is limite! %n!er -# No. 81G0 to 'o%t$s at least 1C b%t less t$an 18 'ears ol!. # la, is nee!e! to allo, all t$ose ,$o $ave t%rne! more t$an /1 'ears ol! on or a(ter Ma' G /55/ to &artici&ate in t$e 7%l' 1C /55/ )M elections. :o%t$s (rom 18 to /1 'ears ol! as o( Ma' G /55/ are also no longer )M members an! cannot &artici&ate in t$e 7%l' 1C /55/ )M elections. Congress ,ill $ave to !eci!e ,$et$er to enact an amen!ator' la,. =etitioners> reme!' is legislation not 9%!icial intervention. =etitioners $ave no &ersonal an! s%bstantial interest in maintaining t$is s%it. # &art' m%st s$o, t$at $e $as been or is abo%t to be !enie! some &ersonal rig$t or &rivilege to ,$ic$ $e is la,(%ll' entitle!. # &art' m%st also s$o, t$at $e $as a real interest in t$e s%it. B' Ereal interestF is meant a &resent s%bstantial interest as !isting%is$e! (rom a mere e4&ectanc' or (%t%re contingent s%bor!inate or inconse.%ential interest. *n t$e instant case &etitioners see+ to en(orce a rig$t originall' con(erre! b' la, on t$ose ,$o ,ere at least 1C b%t not more t$an /1 'ears ol!. No, ,it$ t$e &assage o( -# No. 81G0 t$is rig$t is limite! to t$ose ,$o on t$e !ate o( t$e )M elections are at least 1C b%t less t$an 18 'ears ol!. 2$e ne, la, restricts members$i& in t$e )M to t$is s&eci(ic age gro%&. Not (alling ,it$in t$is classi(ication &etitioners $ave cease! to be members o( t$e )M an! are no longer .%ali(ie! to &artici&ate in t$e 7%l' 1C /55/ )M elections. =lainl' &etitioners no longer $ave a &ersonal an! s%bstantial interest in t$e )M elections. 2$is &etition !oes not raise an' constit%tional iss%e. #t t$e time &etitioners (ile! t$is &etition -# No. 81G0 ,$ic$ reset t$e )M elections an! re!%ce! t$e age re.%irement (or )M members$i& ,as not 'et enacte! into la,. #(ter t$e &assage o( -# No. 81G0 &etitioners (aile! to assail an' &rovision in -# No. 81G0 t$at co%l! be %nconstit%tional. 2o grant &etitioners> &ra'er to be allo,e! to vote an! be vote! (or in t$e 7%l' 1C /55/ )M elections necessitates assailing t$e constit%tionalit' o( -# No. 81G0. 2$is &etitioners $ave not !one. 2$e Co%rt ,ill not stri+e !o,n a la, %nless its constit%tionalit' is &ro&erl' raise! in an a&&ro&riate action an! a!e.%atel' arg%e!. 6ON )M members$i& is a &ro&ert' rig$t. NO. Congress e4ercises t$e &o,er to &rescribe t$e .%ali(ications (or )M members$i&. One ,$o is no longer .%ali(ie! beca%se o( an amen!ment in t$e la, cannot com&lain o( being !e&rive! o( a &ro&rietar' rig$t to )M members$i&. Onl' t$ose ,$o .%ali(' as )M members can contest base! on a stat%tor' rig$t an' act !is.%ali('ing t$em (rom )M members$i& or (rom voting in t$e )M elections. )M members$i& is not a &ro&ert' rig$t &rotecte! b' t$e

1.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


Constit%tion beca%se it is a mere stat%tor' rig$t con(erre! b' la,. Congress ma' amen! at an' time t$e la, to c$ange or even ,it$!ra, t$e stat%tor' rig$t. # &%blic o((ice is not a &ro&ert' rig$t. #s t$e Constit%tion e4&ressl' states a EU=V%blic o((ice is a &%blic tr%st.F No one $as a veste! rig$t to an' &%blic o((ice m%c$ less a veste! rig$t to an e4&ectanc' o( $ol!ing a &%blic o((ice. *n Corne9o v. Gabriel !eci!e! in 18/5 t$e Co%rt alrea!' r%le!: F#gain (or t$is &etition to come %n!er t$e !%e &rocess o( la, &ro$ibition it ,o%l! be necessar' to consi!er an o((ice a E&ro&ert'.F *t is $o,ever ,ell settle! t$at a &%blic o((ice is not &ro&ert' ,it$in t$e sense o( t$e constit%tional g%aranties o( !%e &rocess o( la, b%t is a &%blic tr%st or agenc'. 2$e basic i!ea o( t$e government is t$at o( a &o&%lar re&resentative government t$e o((icers being mere agents an! not r%lers o( t$e &eo&le one ,$ere no one man or set o( men $as a &ro&rietar' or contract%al rig$t to an o((ice b%t ,$ere ever' o((icer acce&ts o((ice &%rs%ant to t$e &rovisions o( t$e la, an! $ol!s t$e o((ice as a tr%st (or t$e &eo&le $e re&resents.F =etitioners ,$o a&&arentl' !esire to $ol! &%blic o((ice s$o%l! realiBe (rom t$e ver' start t$at no one $as a &ro&rietar' rig$t to &%blic o((ice. 6$ile t$e la, ma+es an )M o((icer an e4Do((icio member o( a local government legislative co%ncil t$e la, !oes not con(er on &etitioners a &ro&rietar' rig$t or even a &ro&rietar' e4&ectanc' to sit in local legislative co%ncils. 2$e constit%tional &rinci&le o( a &%blic o((ice as a &%blic tr%st &recl%!es an' &ro&rietar' claim to &%blic o((ice. 3ven t$e )tate &olic' !irecting Ee.%al access to o&&ort%nities (or &%blic serviceF cannot besto, on &etitioners a &ro&rietar' rig$t to )M members$i& or a &ro&rietar' e4&ectanc' to e4Do((icio &%blic o((ices. Moreover ,$ile t$e )tate &olic' is to enco%rage t$e 'o%t$>s involvement in &%blic a((airs t$is &olic' re(ers to t$ose ,$o belong to t$e class o( &eo&le !e(ine! as t$e 'o%t$. Congress $as t$e &o,er to !e(ine ,$o are t$e 'o%t$ .%ali(ie! to 9oin t$e )M ,$ic$ itsel( is a creation o( Congress. 2$ose ,$o !o not .%ali(' beca%se t$e' are &ast t$e age gro%& !e(ine! as t$e 'o%t$ cannot insist on being &art o( t$e 'o%t$. *n government service once an em&lo'ee reac$es man!ator' retirement age $e cannot invo+e an' &ro&ert' rig$t to cling to $is o((ice. *n t$e same manner since &etitioners are no, &ast t$e ma4im%m age (or members$i& in t$e )M t$e' cannot invo+e an' &ro&ert' rig$t to cling to t$eir )M members$i&. 1. 6ON t$e &ost&onement o( t$e )M elections ,o%l! allo, t$e inc%mbent )M o((icers to &er&et%ate t$emselves in &o,er !e&riving ot$er 'o%t$s o( t$e o&&ort%nit' to serve in elective )M &ositions. NO. 2$is arg%ment !eserves scant consi!eration. 6$ile -# No. 81G0 contains a $ol!Dover &rovision inc%mbent )M o((icials can remain in o((ice onl' %ntil t$eir s%ccessors $ave been electe! or .%ali(ie!. On 7%l' 1C /55/ ,$en t$e )M elections are $el! t$e $ol!Dover &erio! e4&ires an! all inc%mbent )M o((icials a%tomaticall' cease to $ol! t$eir )M o((ices an! t$eir e4Do((icio &%blic o((ices. Munez v. Ari@o Facts: Ma'or *risari o( Loreto #g%san !el )%r s%mmone! to $is o((ice $erein com&lainant #&olinario ). M%ReB (or con(erence res&ecting a lan! !is&%te ,$ic$ M%ReB $a! ,it$ one 2irso #ma!o. #s com&lainant (aile! to atten! t$e con(erence Ma'or *risari iss%e! a ,arrant o( arrest against $im on December /7 1888. 2$e ,arrant ,as serve! an! b' virt%e o( it com&lainant ,as bro%g$t be(ore Ma'or *risari alt$o%g$ no investigation ,as later con!%cte!.Com&lainant (ile! a com&laint against Ma'or *risari (or grave miscon!%ct an! %s%r&ation o( 9%!icial (%nction ,it$ t$e O((ice o( t$e Omb%!sman as ,ell as a!ministrative com&laint (or violation o( t$e Constit%tion miscon!%ct in o((ice an! ab%se o( a%t$orit' ,it$ t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan o( #g%san !el )%r. #(ter &reliminar' investigation t$e investigating o((icer o( t$e O((ice o( t$e Omb%!sman (ile! a case (or %s%r&ation o( 9%!icial (%nction against Ma'or #s%ero *risari in t$e M%nici&al Circ%it 2rial Co%rt o( Loreto #g%san !el )%r. Originall' ra((le! to t$e 9%!ge o( t$at co%rt t$e criminal case ,as later assigne! to res&on!ent 7%!ge Ciriaco #riRo on acco%nt o( t$e in$ibition o( t$e (irst 9%!ge. #cc%se! *risari move! to .%as$ t$e in(ormation on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e acts com&laine! o( !i! not constit%te a crime %n!er t$e la,. He conten!e! t$at %n!er )ec. 101;1< o( t$e (ormer LGC ;Batas =ambansa Blg. 117< ma'ors ,ere a%t$oriBe! to iss%e ,arrants o( arrest. 7%!ge #riRo !enie! t$e motion to .%as$ on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e &o,er o( ma'ors to iss%e ,arrants o( arrest $a! cease! to e4ist as o( Febr%ar' / 1887 ,$en t$e Constit%tion too+ e((ect. For its &art t$e )angg%niang

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=anlala,igan acting on t$e a!ministrative com&laint against t$e ma'or (o%n! $im g%ilt' o( miscon!%ct in o((ice an! ab%se o( a%t$orit' an! accor!ingl' or!ere! $im s%s&en!e! (or eig$t ;8< mont$s ,it$o%t &a'. On a&&eal $o,ever t$e De&artment o( *nterior an! Local Government ;D*LG< reverse! on t$e gro%n! t$at ,$at t$e ma'or $a! iss%e! to t$e com&lainant alt$o%g$ !enominate! "6arrant o( #rrest " ,as act%all' 9%st an invitation or a s%mmons. Ma'or *risari (ile! a motion (or reconsi!eration o( t$e or!er o( !enial o( res&on!ent 9%!ge invo+ing t$e resol%tion o( t$e D*LG. 7%!ge #riRo reconsi!ere! $is &revio%s or!er an! !ismisse! t$e case. -es&on!ent sai! in $is or!er: 2$e acc%se! in $is Motion (or -econsi!eration asserts t$at since t$e .%estion abo%t t$e ,arrant o( arrest iss%e! against #&olinario M%ReB $as been resolve! in an a!ministrative &rocee!ings as not t$e ,arrant o( arrest contem&late! b' la, it ,o%l! (ollo, t$en t$at t$is case no, be(ore t$is Co%rt against t$e acc%se! be !ismisse!. 2$e Co%rt (in!s t$at t$e s%b9ect matter in t$is case an! t$at in t$e a!ministrative com&laint arose (rom one an! t$e same inci!ent an! it involve! t$e same &arties. Co%rts are not bo%n! b' t$e (in!ings o( a!ministrative agencies li+e t$e D*LG as in t$is case i( s%c$ (in!ings are tainte! ,it$ %n(airness an! t$ere is arbitrar' action or &al&able serio%s error. 2$e Co%rt believes t$at t$e resol%tion b' t$e a!ministrative agenc' in DLGD#CDG5D81 is not tainte! ,it$ %n(airness an! arbitrariness neit$er it s$o,s arbitrar' action or &al&able an! serio%s error t$ere(ore it m%st be res&ecte! ;Mang%bat vs. !e Castro G.-. 1188/A 7%l' /8 1888A Bl%e Bar Cocon%t =$ili&&ines vs. 2ant%ico 7r. et al. G.-. 075C1 7%l' /8 1888 C%er!o vs. Commission on #%!it G.-. 80C8/ October /7 1888<. @&on recei&t o( t$is or!er com&lainant M%ReB sent t,o letters !ate! 7%l' C an! 1/ 1811 to t$e =resi!ential #ntiDCrime Commission c$arging res&on!ent 7%!ge Ciriaco C. #riRo ,it$ +no,ingl' ren!ering an %n9%st 9%!gment (or !ismissing t$e case against Ma'or *risari. 2$e matter ,as in!orse! to t$e O((ice o( t$e Omb%!sman ,$ic$ as alrea!' state! re(erre! it to t$is Co%rt (or &ossible !isci&linar' action against res&on!ent 9%!ge. *ss%e: 6ON t$e 7%!ge ma' be $el! a!ministrativel' liable. :3). 2$e acts allege! in t$e in(ormation constit%te a crime. @n!er #rt. /01 o( t$e -evise! =enal Co!e t$e crime o( %s%r&ation o( 9%!icial a%t$orit' involves t$e (ollo,ing elements: ;1< t$at t$e o((en!er is an o((icer o( t$e e4ec%tive branc$ o( t$e governmentA an! ;/< t$at $e ass%mes 9%!icial &o,ers or obstr%cts t$e e4ec%tion o( an' or!er or !ecision ren!ere! b' an' 9%!ge ,it$in $is 9%ris!iction. 2$ese elements ,ere allege! in t$e in(ormation. Ma'or *risari ,as an o((icer o( t$e e4ec%tive branc$. *t is not tr%e t$at ,$at $e $a! iss%e! against t$e com&lainant ,as not a ,arrant o( arrest. *t ,as. *n &lain terms it state!: E:o% are $ereb' re.%este!?or!ere! to e((ect t$e arrest o( #&olinario M%ReB o( =oblacion Loreto #g%san !el )%r (or $is re(%sal to ac+no,le!ge t$e )%mmons !ate! December /G 1888 an! bring $im be(ore t$e O((ice o( t$e M%nici&al Ma'or to ans,er an in.%ir'?investigation in connection ,it$ t$e com&laint o( one 2irso #ma!o $el! &en!ing be(ore t$is O((ice.F ;)g!< #)@3-O ). *-*)#-* M%nici&al Ma'or. For an! in t$e absence o( t$e M%nici&al Circ%it 7%!ge. #n' one rea!ing t$e ,arrant co%l! not $ave been mista+en t$at it ,as a ,arrant (or t$e arrest o( t$e com&lainant #&olinario M%ReB. #s a matter o( (act Ma'or *risari 9%sti(ie! $is or!er on t$e basis o( )ec. 101;1< o( t$e (ormer LGC ,$ic$ e4&ressl' &rovi!e! t$at in cases ,$ere t$e ma'or ma' con!%ct &reliminar' investigation t$e ma'or s$all %&on &robable ca%se a(ter e4amination o( ,itnesses $ave t$e a%t$orit' to or!er t$e arrest o( t$e acc%se!." 2$is &rovision $a! $o,ever been re&eale! b' #rt. *** )ec. / o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion =onsica v. *gnalaga: No longer !oes t$e ma'or $ave at t$is time t$e &o,er to con!%ct &reliminar' investigations m%c$ less iss%e or!ers o( arrest. )ection 101 o( t$e LGC con(erring t$is &o,er on t$e ma'or $as been abrogate! ren!ere! (%nct%s o((icio b' t$e 1887 Constit%tion ,$ic$ too+ e((ect on Febr%ar' / 1887 t$e !ate o( its rati(ication b' t$e Fili&ino &eo&le. )ection / #rticle *** o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion &ertinentl' &rovi!es t$at "no searc$ ,arrant or ,arrant o( arrest s$all iss%e e4ce&t %&on &robable ca%se to be !etermine! &ersonall' b' t$e 9%!ge a(ter e4amination %n!er oat$ or a((irmation o( t$e com&lainant an! t$e ,itnesses $e ma' &ro!%ce an! &artic%larl' !escribing t$e &lace to be searc$e! an! t$e &erson or t$ings to be seiBe!." 2$e constit%tional &roscri&tion $as t$ereb' been mani(este! t$at t$ence(ort$ t$e (%nction o( !etermining &robable ca%se an! iss%ing on t$e basis t$ereo( ,arrants o( arrest or searc$ ,arrants ma' be vali!l' e4ercise! onl' b' 9%!ges t$is

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being evi!ence! b' t$e elimination in t$e &resent Constit%tion o( t$e &$rase "s%c$ ot$er res&onsible o((icer as ma' be a%t$oriBe! b' la," (o%n! in t$e co%nter&art &rovision o( sai! 1871 Constit%tion D ,$o asi!e (rom 9%!ges mig$t con!%ct &reliminar' investigation an! iss%e ,arrants o( arrest or searc$ ,arrants. 2$at t$ere ,as no &en!ing criminal case against t$e com&lainant !i! not ma+e t$e or!er against $im an' less an or!er o( arrest contrar' to t$e o&inion o( D*LG. On t$e ot$er $an! t$e iss%ance o( t$e ,arrant ,$en t$ere ,as be(ore $im no criminal case b%t onl' a lan! !is&%te as it is no, being ma!e to a&&ear onl' ma!e it ,orse (or t$e ma'or (or it ,o%l! t$en a&&ear t$at $e ass%me! a 9%!icial (%nction ,$ic$ even a 9%!ge co%l! not $ave !one. #ll t$e more t$ere(ore res&on!ent 9%!ge s$o%l! not $ave !ismisse! t$e criminal case against t$e ma'or. *t cannot be &reten!e! t$at Ma'or *risari merel' inten!e! to invite or s%mmon M%ReB to $is o((ice beca%se $e $a! &recisel' !one t$is t$e !a' be(ore $e iss%e! t$e ,arrant o( arrest an! $e or!ere! t$e arrest o( com&lainant beca%se t$e latter $a! re(%se! to a&&ear be(ore $im. 2$e s%mmons iss%e! b' Ma'or *risari s$o,s clearl' t$at $e %n!erstoo! t$e !i((erence bet,een a s%mmons an! a ,arrant o( arrest. 2$e s%mmons rea!: E:o% are $ereb' !eman!e! to a&&ear be(ore t$e O((ice o( t$e M%nici&al Ma'or on /7 December 1888 at aro%n! 8:15 #.M. t$en an! t$ere to ans,er in an in.%ir'?investigation in connection ,it$ a certain com&laint o( Mr. 2irso #ma!o lo!ge! in t$is o((ice. *n!ee! res&on!ent $a! &revio%sl' !enie! t$e motion to !ismiss ,$ic$ t$e acc%se! Ma'or *risari $a! (ile! on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e a%t$orit' invo+e! b' $im as basis (or $is ,arrant o( arrest $a! been abrogate! b' t$e Constit%tion. He s%bse.%entl' reverse! $imsel( on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e !ecision o( t$e D*LG (in!ing Ma'or *risari not g%ilt' "m%st be res&ecte!." He sai! "Co%rts are not bo%n! b' (in!ings o( a!ministrative agencies li+e t$e D*LG as in t$is case i( s%c$ (in!ings are tainte! ,it$ %n(airness an! t$ere is arbitrar' action or &al&able serio%s error." )ince t$e D*LG !ecision ,as not so tainte! "t$ere(ore it m%st be res&ecte!." 7%!ge Ciriaco #riRo s$o%l! $ave +no,n t$at t$e case o( Ma'or *risari ,as not be(ore $im on revie, (rom t$e !ecision o( an a!ministrative agenc' an! t$ere(ore t$ere ,as no basis (or a&&l'ing t$e r%le on s%bstantialit' o( evi!ence. 6$at ,as be(ore $im ,as a criminal case an! $e s$o%l! $ave consi!ere! solel' t$e (acts allege! in t$e in(ormation in resolving t$e motion to !ismiss o( t$e acc%se!. Greater Balanga *evelopment Corporation /supra1

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Facts: On December 7 188/ Bistro (ile! be(ore t$e trial co%rt a &etition (or man!am%s an! &ro$ibition ,it$ &ra'er (or tem&orar' restraining or!er or ,rit o( &reliminar' in9%nction against Lim in $is ca&acit' as Ma'or o( t$e Cit' o( Manila. Bistro (ile! t$e case beca%se &olicemen %n!er Lim>s instr%ctions ins&ecte! an! investigate! Bistro>s license as ,ell as t$e ,or+ &ermits an! $ealt$ certi(icates o( its sta((. 2$is ca%se! t$e sto&&age o( ,or+ in Bistro>s nig$t cl%b an! resta%rant o&erations. Lim also re(%se! to acce&t Bistro>s a&&lication (or a b%siness license as ,ell as t$e ,or+ &ermit a&&lications o( Bistro>s sta(( (or t$e 'ear 1881. 2C: iss%e! (irst assaile! 2-O a(ter $earing co%rt grante! Bistro>s a&&lication (or a ,rit o( &ro$ibitor' &reliminar' in9%nction. Des&ite t$e trial co%rt>s or!er Lim still iss%e! a clos%re or!er on Bistro>s o&erations even sen!ing &olicemen to carr' o%t $is clos%re or!er. Bistro (ile! an "@rgent Motion (or Contem&t" against Lim an! t$e &olicemen ,$o sto&&e! Bistro>s o&erations. #t t$e $earing o( t$e motion (or contem&t Bistro ,it$!re, its motion on con!ition t$at Lim ,o%l! res&ect t$e co%rt>s in9%nction. Lim acting t$ro%g$ $is agents an! &olicemen again !isr%&te! Bistro>s b%siness o&erations. Mean,$ile Lim (ile! a motion to !issolve t$e in9%nctive or!er an! to !ismiss t$e case. Lim insiste! t$at t$e &o,er o( a ma'or to ins&ect an! investigate commercial establis$ments an! t$eir sta(( is im&licit in t$e stat%tor' &o,er o( t$e cit' ma'or to iss%e s%s&en! or revo+e b%siness &ermits an! licenses. 2$is stat%tor' &o,er is e4&ressl' &rovi!e! (or in )ection 11 ;l< #rticle ** o( t$e -evise! C$arter o( t$e Cit' o( Manila an! in )ection 0CC &aragra&$ 1 ;iv< o( t$e LGC. 2C !enie!. Lim (ile! ,it$ t$e C# a &etition (or certiorari &ro$ibition an! man!am%s against Bistro an! 7%!ge 6il(re!o -e'es. Lim claime! t$at t$e trial 9%!ge committe! grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ o( 9%ris!iction in iss%ing t$e ,rit o( &ro$ibitor' &reliminar' in9%nction. C# !enie!. M- !enie!. Manila Cit' Or!inance No. 778110 too+ e((ect. On t$e same !a' Lim or!ere! t$e 6estern =olice District Comman! to &ermanentl' close !o,n t$e o&erations o( Bistro ,$ic$ or!er t$e &olice im&lemente! at once. *ss%e: 6ON Lim as Ma'or o( t$e Cit' o( Manila &ro&erl' close! !o,n t$e o&erations o( Bistro. NO. 2$e a%t$orit' o( ma'ors to iss%e b%siness licenses an! &ermits is be'on! .%estion. 2$e la, e4&ressl' &rovi!es (or s%c$ a%t$orit'. )ection 11 ;l< #rticle ** o( t$e -evise!

Lim an

Gara#blas v. CA

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C$arter o( t$e Cit' o( Manila rea!s: 2$e general !%ties an! &o,ers o( t$e ma'or s$all be: ;l< 2o grant an! re(%se m%nici&al licenses or &ermits o( all classes an! to revo+e t$e same (or violation o( t$e con!itions %&on ,$ic$ t$e' ,ere grante! or i( acts &ro$ibite! b' la, or m%nici&al or!inances are being committe! %n!er t$e &rotection o( s%c$ licenses or in t$e &remises in ,$ic$ t$e b%siness (or ,$ic$ t$e same $ave been grante! is carrie! on or (or an' ot$er reason o( general interest." On t$e ot$er $an! )ection 0CC ;1< ;iv< o( t$eLGC &rovi!es: ;b< For e((icient e((ective an! economical governance t$e &%r&ose o( ,$ic$ is t$e general ,el(are o( t$e Cit' an! its in$abitants &%rs%ant to )ection 1G o( t$is Co!e t$e Cit' Ma'or s$all: ;iv< *ss%e licenses an! &ermits an! s%s&en! or revo+e t$e same (or an' violation o( t$e con!ition %&on ,$ic$ sai! licenses or &ermits $a! been iss%e! &%rs%ant to la, or or!inance." From t$e lang%age o( t$e t,o la,s it is clear t$at t$e &o,er o( t$e ma'or to iss%e b%siness licenses an! &ermits necessaril' incl%!es t$e corollar' &o,er to s%s&en! revo+e or even re(%se to iss%e t$e same. Ho,ever t$e &o,er to s%s&en! or revo+e t$ese licenses an! &ermits is e4&ressl' &remise! on t$e violation o( t$e con!itions o( t$ese &ermits an! licenses. 2$e la,s s&eci(icall' re(er to t$e "violation o( t$e con!ition;s<" on ,$ic$ t$e licenses an! &ermits ,ere iss%e!. )imilarl' t$e &o,er to re(%se to iss%e s%c$ licenses an! &ermits is &remise! on nonDcom&liance ,it$ t$e &rere.%isites (or t$e iss%ance o( s%c$ licenses an! &ermits. 2$e ma'or m%st observe !%e &rocess in e4ercising t$ese &o,ers ,$ic$ means t$at t$e ma'or m%st give t$e a&&licant or licensee notice an! o&&ort%nit' to be $ear!. 2r%e t$e ma'or $as t$e &o,er to ins&ect an! investigate &rivate commercial establis$ments (or an' violation o( t$e con!itions o( t$eir licenses an! &ermits. Ho,ever t$e ma'or $as no &o,er to or!er a &olice rai! on t$ese establis$ments in t$e g%ise o( ins&ecting or investigating t$ese commercial establis$ments. Lim acte! be'on! $is a%t$orit' ,$en $e !irecte! &olicemen to rai! t$e Ne, Bang+o+ Cl%b an! t$e 34otic Gar!en -esta%rant. )%c$ act o( Lim violate! Or!inance No. 771G18 ,$ic$ e4&ressl' &ro$ibits &olice rai!s an! ins&ections to ,it: No member o( t$e 6estern =olice District s$all con!%ct ins&ection o( (oo! an! ot$er b%siness establis$ments (or t$e &%r&ose o( en(orcing sanitar' r%les an! reg%lations ins&ecting licenses an! &ermits an!?or en(orcing internal reven%e an! c%stoms la,s an! reg%lations. 2$is res&onsibilit' s$o%l! be &ro&erl' e4ercise! b' Local Government #%t$orities an! ot$er concerne! agencies." Lim $as no a%t$orit' to close !o,n Bistro>s b%siness or an' b%siness establis$ment in Manila ,it$o%t !%e &rocess o( la,. Lim cannot ta+e re(%ge %n!er t$e -evise! C$arter o( t$e Cit' o( Manila an! t$e LGC. 2$ere is no &rovision in t$ese la,s e4&ressl' or im&lie!l' granting t$e ma'or a%t$orit' to close !o,n &rivate commercial establis$ments ,it$o%t notice an! $earing an! even i( t$ere is s%c$ &rovision ,o%l! be voi!. 2$e !%e &rocess cla%se o( t$e Constit%tion re.%ires t$at Lim s$o%l! $ave given Bistro an o&&ort%nit' to reb%t t$e allegations t$at it violate! t$e con!itions o( its licenses an! &ermits. 2$e reg%lator' &o,ers grante! to m%nici&al cor&orations m%st al,a's be e4ercise! in accor!ance ,it$ la, ,it$ %tmost observance o( t$e rig$ts o( t$e &eo&le to !%e &rocess an! e.%al &rotection o( t$e la,. )%c$ &o,er cannot be e4ercise! ,$imsicall' arbitraril' or !es&oticall'. *n t$e instant case ,e (in! t$at Lim>s e4ercise o( t$is &o,er violate! Bistro>s &ro&ert' rig$ts t$at are &rotecte! %n!er t$e !%e &rocess cla%se o( t$e Constit%tion. Lim !i! not c$arge Bistro ,it$ an' s&eci(ic violation o( t$e con!itions o( its b%siness license or &ermits. )till Lim close! !o,n Bistro>s o&erations even be(ore t$e e4&iration o( its b%siness license on December 11 188/. Lim also re(%se! to acce&t Bistro>s license a&&lication (or 1881 in e((ect !en'ing t$e a&&lication ,it$o%t e4amining ,$et$er it com&lies ,it$ legal &rere.%isites. *isomancop v. *atumanong Facts: -# G710 "#n #ct =rovi!ing (or #n Organic #ct (or t$e #%tonomo%s -egion in M%slim Min!anao " ,as enacte! an! signe! into la,. Lanao !el )%r Mag%in!anao )%l% an! 2a,iD2a,i &%rs%ant to a &lebiscite became t$e #-MM. *n accor!ance ,it$ -.#. G710 t$en =resi!ent #.%ino iss%e! 3.O. 0/G "=lacing t$e Control an! )%&ervision o( t$e O((ices o( t$e De&artment o( =%blic 6or+s an! Hig$,a's ,it$in t$e #-MM %n!er t$e #%tonomo%s -egional

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Government an! (or ot$er &%r&oses." #-MM ,as (ormall' organiBe! on G November 1885. =resi!ent CoraBon C. #.%ino (le, to Cotabato t$e seat o( t$e -egional Government (or t$e ina%g%ration. #t t$at &oint s$e $a! alrea!' signe! 7 3Os !evolving to #-MM t$e &o,ers o( 7 cabinet !e&artments namel': ;1< local governmentA ;/< labor an! em&lo'mentA ;1< science an! tec$nolog'A ;0< &%blic ,or+s an! $ig$,a'sA ;C< social ,el(are an! !evelo&mentA ;G< to%rismA an! ;7< environment an! national reso%rces. Nearl' nine 'ears later t$en D=6H )ecretar' Kigilar iss%e! D.O. 118 ,$ic$ &rovi!es t$at a D=6H Mara,i )%bDDistrict 3ngineering O((ice s$all $ave 9%ris!iction over all national in(rastr%ct%re &ro9ects an! (acilities %n!er t$e D=6H ,it$in Mara,i Cit' an! t$e &rovince o( Lanao !el )%r. 2$e $ea!.%arters o( t$e Mara,i )%bDDistrict 3ngineering O((ice s$all be at t$e (ormer .%arters o( t$e Mara,i Cit' 3ngineering O((ice. =ersonnel o( t$e aboveDmentione! )%bDDistrict 3ngineering O((ice s$all be ma!e %& o( em&lo'ees o( t$e National Government )ection o( t$e (ormer Mara,i Cit' 3ngineering O((ice ,$o are no, assigne! ,it$ t$e *ligan Cit' )%bDDistrict 3ngineering O((ice as ma' be !etermine! b' t$e D=6H -egion J** -egional Director. #lmost / 'ears later t$en =resi!ent 3stra!a a&&rove! an! signe! into la, -.#. 8888 ,$ic$ constit%te! t$e Cit' o( Mara,i an! t$e m%nici&alities com&rising t$e First District o( t$e =rovince o( Lanao !el )%r into an engineering !istrict to be +no,n as t$e First 3ngineering District o( t$e =rovince o( Lanao !el )%r. Congress later &asse! -.#. 85C0 "#n #ct to )trengt$en an! 34&an! t$e Organic #ct (or t$e #%tonomo%s -egion in M%slim Min!anao #men!ing (or t$e =%r&ose -e&%blic #ct No. G710 entitle! #n #ct =rovi!ing (or t$e #-MM as #men!e!." Li+e its (orer%nner -.#. 85C0 contains !etaile! &rovisions on t$e &o,ers o( t$e -egional Government an! t$e retaine! areas o( governance o( t$e National Government. -.#. 85C0 la&se! into la,. *t ,as rati(ie! in a &lebiscite. 2$e &rovince o( Basilan an! t$e Cit' o( Mara,i also vote! to 9oin #-MM on t$e same !ate. -.#. G710 an! -.#. 85C0 are collectivel' re(erre! to as t$e #-MM Organic #cts. On /1 7%l' /551 &etitioners Disomangco& an! Dimalotang a!!resse! a &etition to t$en D=6H )ecretar' Dat%manong see+ing t$e revocation o( D.O. 118 an! t$e nonDim&lementation o( -.#. 8888. No action $o,ever ,as ta+en on t$e &etition. *ss%es: 1. 6ON &etitioners $ave legal stan!ing. :3). Legal stan!ing or loc%s stan!i is !e(ine! as a &ersonal an! s%bstantial interest in t$e case s%c$ t$at t$e &art' $as s%staine! or ,ill s%stain !irect in9%r' as a res%lt o( t$e governmental act t$at is being c$allenge!. 2$e term "interest" means a material interest an interest in iss%e a((ecte! b' t$e !ecree as !isting%is$e! (rom a mere interest in t$e .%estion involve! or a mere inci!ental interest. # &art' c$allenging t$e constit%tionalit' o( a la, act or stat%te m%st s$o, "not onl' t$at t$e la, is invali! b%t also t$at $e $as s%staine! or is in imme!iate or imminent !anger o( s%staining some !irect in9%r' as a res%lt o( its en(orcement an! not merel' t$at $e s%((ers t$ereb' in some in!e(inite ,a'." He m%st s$o, t$at $e $as been or is abo%t to be !enie! some rig$t or &rivilege to ,$ic$ $e is la,(%ll' entitle! or t$at $e is abo%t to be s%b9ecte! to some b%r!ens or &enalties b' reason o( t$e stat%te com&laine! o(. B%t (ollo,ing t$e ne, tren! t$is Co%rt is incline! to ta+e cogniBance o( a s%it alt$o%g$ it !oes not satis(' t$e re.%irement o( legal stan!ing ,$en &aramo%nt interests are involve!. *n several cases t$e Co%rt $as a!o&te! a liberal stance on t$e loc%s stan!i o( a &etitioner ,$ere t$e &etitioner is able to cra(t an iss%e o( transcen!ental signi(icance to t$e &eo&le. *n t$e instant case &etitioner Disomangco& $ol!s t$e &osition o( 3ngineer *K. 6$en $e (ile! t$is &etition $e ,as t$e O((icerDinDC$arge O((ice o( t$e District 3ngineer o( t$e First 3ngineering District o( D=6HD#-MM Lanao !el )%r. On t$e ot$er $an! &etitioner Dimalotang is an 3ngineer ** an! =resi!ent o( t$e ran+ an! (ile em&lo'ees also o( t$e First 3ngineering District o( D=6HD#-MM in Lanao !el )%r. Bot$ are c$arge! ,it$ t$e !%t' an! res&onsibilit' o( s%&ervising an! im&lementing all &%blic ,or+s &ro9ects to be %n!erta+en an! being %n!erta+en in Lanao !el )%r ,$ic$ is t$e area o( t$eir 9%ris!iction. *t is t$%s not (arD(etc$e! t$at t$e creation o( t$e Mara,i )%bD District 3ngineering O((ice %n!er D.O. 118 an! t$e creation o( an! a&&ro&riation o( (%n!s to t$e First 3ngineering District o( Lanao !el )%r as !irecte! %n!er -.#. 8888 ,ill a((ect t$e &o,ers (%nctions an! res&onsibilities o( t$e &etitioners an! t$e D=6HD#-MM. #s t$e t,o o((ices $ave a&&arentl' been en!o,e! ,it$ (%nctions almost i!entical to t$ose o( D=6HD#-MM First 3ngineering District in Lanao !el )%r it is li+el' t$at &etitioners are in imminent !anger o(

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being ease! o%t o( t$eir !%ties an! not remotel' even t$eir 9obs. 2$eir material an! s%bstantial interests ,ill !e(initel' be &re9%!ice! b' t$e en(orcement o( D.O. 118 an! -.#. 8888. )%c$ in9%r' is !irect an! imme!iate. 2$%s t$e' can legitimatel' c$allenge t$e vali!it' o( t$e enactments s%b9ect o( t$e instant case. 6ON -.#. 8888 is constit%tional. 2$e c$allenge! la, never became o&erative an! ,as s%&erse!e! or re&eale! b' a s%bse.%ent enactment. 2$e #-MM Organic #cts are !eeme! a &art o( t$e regional a%tonom' sc$eme. 6$ile t$e' are classi(ie! as stat%tes t$e Organic #cts are more t$an or!inar' stat%tes beca%se t$e' en9o' a((irmation b' a &lebiscite. Hence t$e &rovisions t$ereo( cannot be amen!e! b' an or!inar' stat%te s%c$ as -.#. 8888 in t$is case. 2$e amen!ator' la, $as to be s%bmitte! to a &lebiscite. 2$e (irst #-MM Organic #ct -.#. G570 as im&lemente! b' 3.O. 0/G !evolve! t$e (%nctions o( t$e D=6H in t$e #-MM ,$ic$ incl%!es Lanao !el )%r ;min%s Mara,i Cit' at t$e time<18 to t$e -egional Government. B' creating an o((ice ,it$ &revio%sl' !evolve! (%nctions -.#. 8888 in essence so%g$t to amen! -.#. G570. 2$e amen!ator' la, s$o%l! t$ere(ore (irst obtain t$e a&&roval o( t$e &eo&le o( t$e #-MM be(ore it co%l! vali!l' ta+e e((ect. #bsent com&liance ,it$ t$is re.%irement -.#. 8888 $as not even become o&erative. From anot$er &ers&ective -.#. 8888 ,as re&eale! an! s%&erse!e! b' -.#. 85C0. 6$ere a stat%te o( later !ate clearl' reveals an intention on t$e &art o( t$e legislat%re to abrogate a &rior act on t$e s%b9ect t$at intention m%st be given e((ect. O( co%rse t$e intention to re&eal m%st be clear an! mani(est. *m&lie! re&eal b' irreconcilable inconsistenc' ta+es &lace ,$en t$e t,o stat%tes cover t$e same s%b9ect matterA t$e' are clearl' inconsistent an! incom&atible ,it$ eac$ ot$er t$at t$e' cannot be reconcile! or $armoniBe!A an! bot$ cannot be given e((ect t$at is t$at one la, cannot be en(orce! ,it$o%t n%lli('ing t$e ot$er. -.#. 85C0 is anc$ore! on t$e 1887 Constit%tion. *t a!vances t$e constit%tional grant o( a%tonom' b' !etailing t$e &o,ers o( t$e #-G covering among ot$ers Lanao !el )%r an! Mara,i Cit' one o( ,$ic$ is its 9%ris!iction over regional %rban an! r%ral &lanning. -.#. 8888 $o,ever vent%res to reestablis$ t$e National GovernmentHs 9%ris!iction over in(rastr%ct%re &rograms in Lanao !el )%r. -.#. 8888 is &atentl' inconsistent ,it$ -.#. 85C0 an! it !estro's t$e latter la,Hs ob9ective. Clearl' -.#. 8888 is antagonistic to an! cannot be reconcile! ,it$ bot$ #-MM Organic #cts -.#. G710 an! -.#. 85C0. 2$e +ernel o( t$e antagonism an! !is$armon' lies in t$e regional a%tonom' ,$ic$ t$e #-MM Organic #cts or!ain &%rs%ant to t$e Constit%tion. On t$e ot$er $an! -.#. 8888 contravenes tr%e !ecentraliBation ,$ic$ is t$e essence o( regional a%tonom'. -egional #%tonom' @n!er -.#. G710 an! -.#. 85C0: 2$e 1887 Constit%tion man!ates regional a%tonom' to give a bol! an! %ne.%ivocal ans,er to t$e cr' (or a meaning(%l e((ective an! (orce(%l a%tonom'.0/ #ccor!ing to Commissioner 7ose Nolle!o C$airman o( t$e Committee ,$ic$ !ra(te! t$e &rovisions it "is an in!ictment against t$e stat%s .%o o( a %nitar' s'stem t$at to m' min! $as inel%ctabl' tie! t$e $an!s o( &rogress in o%r co%ntr' . . . o%r var'ing regional c$aracteristics are (actors to ca&italiBe on to attain national strengt$ t$ro%g$ !ecentraliBation. 2$e i!ea be$in! t$e Constit%tional &rovisions (or a%tonomo%s regions is to allo, t$e se&arate !evelo&ment o( &eo&les ,it$ !istinctive c%lt%res an! tra!itions. 2$ese c%lt%res as a matter o( rig$t m%st be allo,e! to (lo%ris$. #%tonom' as a national &olic' recogniBes t$e ,$oleness o( t$e =$ili&&ine societ' in its et$noling%istic c%lt%ral an! even religio%s !iversities. *t strives to (ree =$ili&&ine societ' o( t$e strain an! ,astage ca%se! b' t$e assimilationist a&&roac$. =olicies emanating (rom t$e legislat%re are invariabl' assimilationist in c$aracter !es&ite c$annels being o&en (or minorit' re&resentation. #s a res%lt !emocrac' becomes an iron' to t$e minorit' gro%&. 2$e nee! (or regional a%tonom' is more &ressing in t$e case o( t$e Fili&ino M%slims an! t$e Cor!illera &eo&le ,$o $ave been (ig$ting (or it. 2$eir &olitical str%ggle $ig$lig$ts t$eir %ni.%e c%lt%res an! t$e %nres&onsiveness o( t$e %nitar' s'stem to t$eir as&irations. 2$e MorosH str%ggle (or sel(D !etermination !ates as (ar bac+ as t$e )&anis$ con.%est in t$e =$ili&&ines. 3ven at &resent t$e str%ggle goes on. =er(orce regional a%tonom' is also a means to,ar!s solving e4isting serio%s &eace an! or!er &roblems an! secessionist

/.

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movements. =arent$eticall' a%tonom' !ecentraliBation an! regionaliBation in international la, $ave become &oliticall' acce&table ans,ers to intractable &roblems o( nationalism se&aratism et$nic con(lict an! t$reat o( secession. Ho,ever t$e creation o( a%tonomo%s regions !oes not signi(' t$e establis$ment o( a sovereignt' !istinct (rom t$at o( t$e -e&%blic as it can be installe! onl' ",it$in t$e (rame,or+ o( t$is Constit%tion an! t$e national sovereignt' as ,ell as territorial integrit' o( t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines." -egional a%tonom' is t$e !egree o( sel(D !etermination e4ercise! b' t$e local government %nit visD`D vis t$e central government. 2$e ob9ective o( t$e a%tonom' s'stem is to &ermit !etermine! gro%&s ,it$ a common tra!ition an! s$are! socialDc%lt%ral c$aracteristics to !evelo& (reel' t$eir ,a's o( li(e an! $eritage e4ercise t$eir rig$ts an! be in c$arge o( t$eir o,n b%siness. 2$is is ac$ieve! t$ro%g$ t$e establis$ment o( a s&ecial governance regime (or certain member comm%nities ,$o c$oose t$eir o,n a%t$orities (rom ,it$in t$e comm%nit' an! e4ercise t$e 9%ris!ictional a%t$orit' legall' accor!e! to t$em to !eci!e internal comm%nit' a((airs. DecentraliBation is a !ecision b' t$e central government a%t$oriBing its s%bor!inates ,$et$er geogra&$icall' or (%nctionall' !e(ine! to e4ercise a%t$orit' in certain areas. *t involves !ecisionDma+ing b' s%bnational %nits. *t is t'&icall' a !elegate! &o,er ,$erein a larger government c$ooses to !elegate certain a%t$orit' to more local governments. Fe!eralism im&lies some meas%re o( !ecentraliBation b%t %nitar' s'stems ma' also !ecentraliBe. DecentraliBation !i((ers intrinsicall' (rom (e!eralism in t$at t$e s%bD%nits t$at $ave been a%t$oriBe! to act ;b' !elegation< !o not &ossess an' claim o( rig$t against t$e central government. DecentraliBation comes in t,o (ormsS!econcentration an! !evol%tion. Deconcentration is a!ministrative in nat%reA it involves t$e trans(er o( (%nctions or t$e !elegation o( a%t$orit' an! res&onsibilit' (rom t$e national o((ice to t$e regional an! local o((ices. 2$is mo!e o( !ecentraliBation is also re(erre! to as a!ministrative !ecentraliBation. Devol%tion on t$e ot$er $an! connotes &olitical !ecentraliBation or t$e trans(er o( &o,ers res&onsibilities an! reso%rces (or t$e &er(ormance o( certain (%nctions (rom t$e central government to local government %nits. 2$is is a more liberal (orm o( !ecentraliBation since t$ere is an act%al trans(er o( &o,ers an! res&onsibilities. *t aims to grant greater a%tonom' to local government %nits in cogniBance o( t$eir rig$t to sel(Dgovernment to ma+e t$em sel(Dreliant an! to im&rove t$eir a!ministrative an! tec$nical ca&abilities. 2$e !imin%tion o( CongressH &o,ers over a%tonomo%s regions ,as con(irme! in GanBon v. Co%rt o( #&&eals: "t$e omission ;o( "as ma' be &rovi!e! b' la,"< signi(ies not$ing more t$an to %n!erscore local governmentsH a%tonom' (rom Congress an! to brea+ CongressH HcontrolH over local government a((airs." 2$is is tr%e to s%b9ects over ,$ic$ a%tonomo%s regions $ave &o,ers as s&eci(ie! in )ections 18 an! /5 #rticle J o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion. 34&ressl' not incl%!e! t$erein are &o,ers over certain areas. 6ort$' o( note is t$at t$e area o( &%blic ,or+s is not e4cl%!e! an! neit$er is it reserve! (or t$e National Government. More im&ortantl' Congress itsel( t$ro%g$ -.#. 85C0 trans(erre! an! !evolve! t$e a!ministrative an! (iscal management o( &%blic ,or+s an! (%n!s (or &%blic ,or+s to t$e #-G. @nless a&&rove! b' t$e -egional #ssembl' no &%blic ,or+s (%n!s allocate! b' t$e central government or national government (or t$e -egional Government or allocate! b' t$e -egional Government (rom its o,n reven%es ma' be !isb%rse! !istrib%te! realigne! or %se! in an' manner. 2$e aim o( t$e Constit%tion is to e4ten! to t$e a%tonomo%s &eo&les t$e &eo&le o( M%slim Min!anao in t$is case t$e rig$t to sel(D!eterminationSa rig$t to c$oose t$eir o,n &at$ o( !evelo&mentA t$e rig$t to !etermine t$e &olitical c%lt%ral an! economic content o( t$eir !evelo&ment &at$ ,it$in t$e (rame,or+ o( t$e sovereignt' an! territorial integrit' o( t$e =$ili&&ine -e&%blic.85 )el(D!etermination re(ers to t$e nee! (or a &olitical str%ct%re t$at ,ill res&ect t$e a%tonomo%s &eo&lesH %ni.%eness an! grant t$em s%((icient room (or sel(D e4&ression an! sel(Dconstr%ction. *n trea!ing t$eir c$osen &at$ o( !evelo&ment t$e M%slims in Min!anao are to be given (ree!om an! in!e&en!ence ,it$ minim%m inter(erence (rom t$e National Government. 2$is necessaril' incl%!es t$e (ree!om to !eci!e on b%il! s%&ervise an! maintain t$e &%blic ,or+s an! in(rastr%ct%re

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&ro9ects ,it$in t$e a%tonomo%s region. 2$e !evol%tion o( t$e &o,ers an! (%nctions o( t$e D=6H in t$e #-MM an! trans(er o( t$e a!ministrative an! (iscal management o( &%blic ,or+s an! (%n!s to t$e #-G are meant to be tr%e meaning(%l an! %n(ettere!. 2$is %nassailable concl%sion is gro%n!e! on a clear consens%s reac$e! at t$e Constit%tional Commission an! rati(ie! b' t$e entire Fili&ino electorate on t$e centralit' o( !ecentraliBation o( &o,er as t$e a&&ro&riate vessel o( !eliverance (or M%slim Fili&inos an! t$e %ltimate %nit' o( M%slims an! C$ristians in t$is co%ntr'. 6it$ -.#. 8888 $o,ever t$is (ree!om is ta+en a,a' an! t$e National Government ta+es control again. 2$e $an!s once more o( t$e a%tonomo%s &eo&les are reine! in an! tie! %&. 2$e c$allenge! la, creates an o((ice ,it$ (%nctions an! &o,ers ,$ic$ b' virt%e o( 3.O. 0/G $ave been &revio%sl' !evolve! to t$e D=6HD#-MM First 3ngineering District in Lanao !el )%r. 3.O. 0/G clearl' or!ains t$e trans(er o( t$e control an! s%&ervision o( t$e o((ices o( t$e D=6H ,it$in t$e #-MM incl%!ing t$eir (%nctions &o,ers an! res&onsibilities &ersonnel e.%i&ment &ro&erties an! b%!gets to t$e #-G. #mong its ot$er (%nctions t$e D=6HD#-MM %n!er t$e control o( t$e -egional Government s$all be res&onsible (or $ig$,a's (loo! control an! ,ater reso%rce !evelo&ment s'stems an! ot$er &%blic ,or+s ,it$in t$e #-MM. *ts sco&e o( &o,er incl%!es t$e &lanning !esign constr%ction an! s%&ervision o( &%blic ,or+s. #ccor!ing to -.#. 85C0 t$e reac$ o( t$e -egional Government enables it to a&&ro&riate manage an! !isb%rse all &%blic ,or+ (%n!s allocate! (or t$e region b' t$e central government. 2$e %se o( t$e ,or! "&o,ers" in 3.O. 0/G mani(ests an %nmista+able case o( !evol%tion. *n t$is regar! it is not amiss to cite O&inion No. 1/5 ). 18818/ o( t$e )ecretar' o( 7%stice on ,$et$er t$e national !e&artments or t$eir co%nter&art !e&artments in t$e #-G are res&onsible (or im&lementation o( roa!s r%ral ,ater s%&&l' $ealt$ e!%cation ,omen in !evelo&ment agric%lt%ral e4tension an! ,aters$e! management. -e(erring to )ection / #rticle K o( -.#. G710 ,$ic$ en%merates t$e &o,ers o( t$e #-G $e states:*t is clear (rom t$e (oregoing &rovision o( la, t$at e4ce&t (or t$e areas o( e4ec%tive &o,er mentione! t$erein all ot$er s%c$ areas s$all be e4ercise! b' t$e #%tonomo%s -egional Government ;"#-G"< o( t$e #%tonomo%s -egion in M%slim Min!anao. *t is note! t$at &rograms relative to in(rastr%ct%re (acilities $ealt$ e!%cation ,omen in !evelo&ment agric%lt%ral e4tension an! ,aters$e! management !o not (all %n!er an' o( t$e e4em&te! areas liste! in t$e above.%ote! &rovision o( la,. 2$%s t$e inevitable concl%sion is t$at all t$ese s&$eres o( e4ec%tive res&onsibilit' $ave been trans(erre! to t$e #-G. -ein(orcing t$e above vie, are t$e vario%s e4ec%tive or!ers iss%e! b' t$e =resi!ent &rovi!ing (or t$e !evol%tion o( t$e &o,ers an! (%nctions o( s&eci(ie! e4ec%tive !e&artments o( t$e National Government to t$e #-G. 2$ese are 3.O. Nos. 0/C ;De&artment o( Labor an! 3m&lo'ment Local Government 2o%rism 3nvironment an! Nat%ral -eso%rces )ocial 6el(are an! Develo&ment an! )cience an! 2ec$nolog'< 0/G ;De&artment o( =%blic 6or+s an! Hig$,a's< 0C8 ;De&artment o( 3!%cation C%lt%re an! )&orts< an! 0G5 ;De&artment o( #gric%lt%re<. 2$e e4ec%tion o( &ro9ects on in(rastr%ct%re e!%cation ,omen agric%lt%ral e4tension an! ,aters$e! management ,it$in t$e #%tonomo%s -egion o( M%slim Min!anao normall' (all ,it$in t$e res&onsibilit' o( one o( t$e a(orementione! e4ec%tive !e&artments o( t$e National Government b%t b' virt%e o( t$e a(orestate! 3Os s%c$ res&onsibilit' $as been trans(erre! to t$e #-G. 3.O. 0/G ,as iss%e! to im&lement t$e &rovisions o( t$e (irst #-MM Organic #ct -.#. G710St$e vali!it' o( ,$ic$ t$is Co%rt %&$el! in t$e case o( #bbas v. Commission on 3lections.81 *n )ection 0 #rticle JK*** o( sai! #ct "central government or national government o((ices an! agencies in t$e a%tonomo%s region ,$ic$ are not e4cl%!e! %n!er )ection 1 #rticle *K80 o( t$is Organic #ct s$all be &lace! %n!er t$e control an! s%&ervision o( t$e -egional Government &%rs%ant to a sc$e!%le &rescribe! b' t$e oversig$t committee." 3vi!entl' t$e intention is to ce!e some i( not most o( t$e &o,ers o( t$e national government to t$e a%tonomo%s government in or!er to e((ect%ate a veritable a%tonom'. 2$e contin%e! en(orcement o( -.#. 8888 t$ere(ore r%ns a(o%l o( t$e #-MM Organic #cts an! res%lts in t$e recall o( &o,ers ,$ic$ $ave &revio%sl' been $an!e! over. 2$is

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s$o%l! not be sanctione! else,ise t$e Organic #ctsH !esire (or greater a%tonom' (or t$e #-MM in accor!ance ,it$ t$e Constit%tion ,o%l! be .%elle!. *t bears stressing t$at national la,s are s%b9ect to t$e Constit%tion one o( ,$ose state &olicies is to ens%re t$e a%tonom' o( a%tonomo%s regions. ;)ection /C #rticle ** o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion< -.#. 8888 $as ma!e t$e D=6HD#-MM e((ete an! ren!ere! regional a%tonom' ill%sor' ,it$ res&ect to in(rastr%ct%re &ro9ects. 2$e Congressional -ecor! s$o,s on t$e ot$er $an! t$at t$e "lac+ o( an im&lementing an! monitoring bo!' ,it$in t$e area" $as $in!ere! t$e s&ee!' im&lementation o( in(rastr%ct%re &ro9ects.8C #&&arentl' in t$e legislat%reHs estimation t$e e4isting D=6HD#-MM engineering !istricts (aile! to meas%re %& to t$e tas+. B%t i( it ,as in!ee! t$e case t$e &roblem co%l! not be solve! t$ro%g$ t$e sim&le legislative creation o( an incongr%o%s engineering !istrict (or t$e central government in t$e #-MM. #s it ,as Ho%se Bill No. 88C ,$ic$ %ltimatel' became -.#. 8888 ,as &asse! in recor! time on secon! rea!ing ;not more t$an 15 min%tes< absol%tel' ,it$o%t t$e %s%al s&onsors$i& s&eec$ an! !ebates.8G 2$e &reci&itate s&ee! ,$ic$ c$aracteriBe! t$e &assage o( -.#. 8888 is !i((ic%lt to com&re$en! since -.#. 8888 co%l! $ave res%lte! in t$e amen!ment o( t$e (irst #-MM Organic #ct an! t$ere(ore co%l! not ta+e e((ect ,it$o%t (irst being rati(ie! in a &lebiscite. 6$at is more ba((ling is t$at in Marc$ /551 or barel' t,o ;/< mont$s a(ter it enacte! -.#. 8888 in 7an%ar' /551 Congress &asse! -.#. 85C0 t$e secon! #-MM Organic #ct ,$ere it rea((irme! t$e !evol%tion o( t$e D=6H in #-MM incl%!ing Lanao !el )%r an! Mara,i Cit' to t$e -egional Government an! e((ectivel' re&eale! -.#. 8888. /. 6ON DO 118 is constit%tional. D=6H De&artment Or!er No. 118: D.O. 118 creating t$e Mara,i )%bDDistrict 3ngineering O((ice ,$ic$ $as 9%ris!iction over in(rastr%ct%re &ro9ects ,it$in Mara,i Cit' an! Lanao !el )%r is violative o( t$e &rovisions o( 3.O. 0/G. 2$e 34ec%tive Or!er ,as iss%e! &%rs%ant to -.#. G710S,$ic$ initiate! t$e creation o( t$e constit%tionall'D man!ate! a%tonomo%s region87 an! ,$ic$ !e(ine! t$e basic str%ct%re o( t$e a%tonomo%s government.88 3.O. 0/G so%g$t to im&lement t$e trans(er o( t$e control an! s%&ervision o( t$e D=6H ,it$in t$e #-MM to t$e #%tonomo%s -egional Government. *n &artic%lar it i!enti(ie! (o%r ;0< District 3ngineering O((ices in eac$ o( t$e (o%r ;0< &rovinces namel': Lanao !el )%r Mag%in!anao )%l% an! 2a,iD2a,i.88 #ccor!ingl' t$e First 3ngineering District o( t$e D=6HD #-MM in Lanao !el )%r $as 9%ris!iction over t$e &%blic ,or+s ,it$in t$e &rovince. 2$e o((ice create! %n!er D.O. 118 $aving essentiall' t$e same &o,ers is a !%&lication o( t$e D=6HD#-MM First 3ngineering District in Lanao !el )%r (orme! %n!er t$e aegis o( 3.O. 0/G. 2$e !e&artment or!er in e((ect ta+es bac+ &o,ers ,$ic$ $ave been &revio%sl' !evolve! %n!er t$e sai! e4ec%tive or!er. D.O. 118 r%ns co%nter to t$e &rovisions o( 3.O. 0/G. 2$e D=6HHs or!er li+e s&ring ,ater cannot rise $ig$er t$an its so%rce o( &o,erSt$e 34ec%tive. 3.O. No. 1/0 %&on ,$ic$ D.O. 118 is base! is a general la, reorganiBing t$e Ministr' o( =%blic 6or+s an! Hig$,a's ,$ile 3.O. 0/G is a s&ecial la, trans(erring t$e control an! s%&ervision o( t$e D=6H o((ices ,it$in #-MM to t$e #%tonomo%s -egional Government. 2$e latter stat%te s&eci(icall' a&&lies to D=6HD#-MM o((ices. 3.O. 1/0 s$o%l! t$ere(ore give ,a' to 3.O. 0/G in t$e instant case. *n an' event t$e #-MM Organic #cts an! t$eir rati(ication in a &lebiscite in e((ect s%&erse!e! 3.O. 1/0. *n case o( an irreconcilable con(lict bet,een t,o la,s o( !i((erent vintages t$e later enactment &revails beca%se it is t$e later legislative ,ill. F%rt$er in its re&ealing cla%se -.#. 85C0 states t$at "all la,s !ecrees or!ers r%les an! reg%lations an! ot$er iss%ances or &arts t$ereo( ,$ic$ are inconsistent ,it$ t$is Organic #ct are $ereb' re&eale! or mo!i(ie! accor!ingl'."81 6it$ t$e re&eal o( 3.O. 1/0 ,$ic$ is t$e basis o( D.O. 118 it necessaril' (ollo,s t$at D.O. 118 ,as also ren!ere! (%nct%s o((icio b' t$e #-MM Organic #cts. Abbas v. COM%L%C Facts: 2$e &resent controvers' relates to t$e &lebiscite in 11 &rovinces an! nine 8 cities in Min!anao an! =ala,an in im&lementation o( -# G710 "#n #ct =rovi!ing (or an Organic #ct (or t$e #-MM." 2$ese consoli!ate! &etitions &ra' t$at t$e Co%rt: ;1< en9oin t$e Commission on 3lections ;COM3L3C< (rom con!%cting t$e &lebiscite an! t$e )ecretar' o( B%!get an! Management (rom releasing (%n!s to t$e COM3L3C (or t$at &%r&oseA an! ;/< !eclare

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-.#. No. G710 or &arts t$ereo( %nconstit%tional. *n 1887 a ne, Constit%tion ,as rati(ie! ,$ic$ t$e (or t$e (irst time &rovi!e! (or regional a%tonom' #rticle J section 1C o( t$e c$arter &rovi!es t$at "UtV$ere s$all be create! a%tonomo%s regions in M%slim Min!anao an! in t$e Cor!illeras consisting o( &rovinces cities m%nici&alities an! geogra&$ical areas s$aring common an! !istinctive $istorical an! c%lt%ral $eritage economic an! social str%ct%res an! ot$er relevant c$aracteristics ,it$in t$e (rame,or+ o( t$is Constit%tion an! t$e national sovereignt' as ,ell as territorial integrit' o( t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines. =%rs%ant to t$e constit%tional man!ate -.#. No. G710 ,as enacte! an! signe! into la, on #%g%st 1 1888. *ss%es: 1. 6ON certain &rovisions o( -.#. No. G710 con(lict ,it$ t$e &rovisions o( t$e 2ri&oli #greement. *n t$e (irst &lace it is no, t$e Constit%tion itsel( t$at &rovi!es (or t$e creation o( an a%tonomo%s region in M%slim Min!anao. 2$e stan!ar! (or an' in.%ir' into t$e vali!it' o( -.#. No. G710 ,o%l! t$ere(ore be ,$at is so &rovi!e! in t$e Constit%tion. 2$%s an' con(lict bet,een t$e &rovisions o( -.#. No. G710 an! t$e &rovisions o( t$e 2ri&oli #greement ,ill not $ave t$e e((ect o( en9oining t$e im&lementation o( t$e Organic #ct. #ss%ming (or t$e sa+e o( arg%ment t$at t$e 2ri&oli #greement is a bin!ing treat' or international agreement it ,o%l! t$en constit%te &art o( t$e la, o( t$e lan!. B%t as internal la, it ,o%l! not be s%&erior to -.#. No. G710 an enactment o( t$e Congress o( t$e =$ili&&ines rat$er it ,o%l! be in t$e same class as t$e latter. 2$%s i( at all -.#. No. G710 ,o%l! be amen!ator' o( t$e 2ri&oli #greement being a s%bse.%ent la,. Onl' a !etermination b' t$is Co%rt t$at -.#. No. G710 contravene! t$e Constit%tion ,o%l! res%lt in t$e granting o( t$e relie(s so%g$t. /. 6ON ma9orit' re(ers to a ma9orit' o( t$e total votes cast in t$e &lebiscite in all t$e constit%ent %nits or a ma9orit' in eac$ o( t$e constit%ent %nits or bot$T *( t$e (ramers o( t$e Constit%tion inten!e! to re.%ire a&&roval b' a ma9orit' o( all t$e votes cast in t$e &lebiscite t$e' ,o%l! $ave so in!icate!. 2$%s in #rticle JK*** section /7 it is &rovi!e! t$at "UtV$is Constit%tion s$all ta+e e((ect imme!iatel' %&on its rati(ication b' a ma9orit' o( t$e votes cast in a &lebiscite $el! (or t$e &%r&ose ... Com&aring t$is ,it$ t$e &rovision on t$e creation o( t$e a%tonomo%s region ,$ic$ rea!s: 2$e creation o( t$e a%tonomo%s region s$all be e((ective ,$en a&&rove! b' ma9orit' o( t$e votes cast b' t$e constit%ent %nits in a &lebiscite calle! (or t$e &%r&ose &rovi!e! t$at onl' &rovinces cities an! geogra&$ic areas voting (avorabl' in s%c$ &lebiscite s$all be incl%!e! in t$e a%tonomo%s region. U#rt. J sec 18 &ara /V. *t ,ill rea!il' be seen t$at t$e creation o( t$e a%tonomo%s region is ma!e to !e&en! not on t$e total ma9orit' vote in t$e &lebiscite b%t on t$e ,ill o( t$e ma9orit' in eac$ o( t$e constit%ent %nits an! t$e &roviso %n!erscores t$is. (or i( t$e intention o( t$e (ramers o( t$e Constit%tion ,as to get t$e ma9orit' o( t$e totalit' o( t$e votes cast t$e' co%l! $ave sim&l' a!o&te! t$e same &$raseolog' as t$at %se! (or t$e rati(ication o( t$e Constit%tion i.e. "t$e creation o( t$e a%tonomo%s region s$all be e((ective ,$en a&&rove! b' a ma9orit' o( t$e votes cast in a &lebiscite calle! (or t$e &%r&ose." *t is t$%s clear t$at ,$at is re.%ire! b' t$e Constit%tion is a sim&le ma9orit' o( votes a&&roving t$e organic #ct in in!ivi!%al constit%ent %nits an! not a !o%ble ma9orit' o( t$e votes in all constit%ent %nits &%t toget$er as ,ell as in t$e in!ivi!%al constit%ent %nits. More im&ortantl' beca%se o( its categorical lang%age t$is is also t$e sense in ,$ic$ t$e vote re.%irement in t$e &lebiscite &rovi!e! %n!er #rticle J section 18 m%st $ave been %n!erstoo! b' t$e &eo&le ,$en t$e' rati(ie! t$e Constit%tion. 6ON onl' t$ose areas ,$ic$ to $is vie, s$are common an! !istinctive $istorical an! c%lt%ral $eritage economic an! social str%ct%res an! ot$er relevant c$aracteristics s$o%l! be &ro&erl' incl%!e! ,it$in t$e coverage o( t$e a%tonomo%s region. MamaDo insists t$at -.#. No. G710 is %nconstit%tional beca%se onl' t$e &rovinces o( Basilan )%l% 2a,iD2a,i Lanao !el )%r Lanao !el Norte an! Mag%in!anao an! t$e cities o( Mara,i an! Cotabato an! not all o( t$e 11 &rovinces an! 8 cities incl%!e! in t$e Organic #ct &ossess s%c$ conc%rrence in $istorical an! c%lt%ral $eritage an! ot$er relevant c$aracteristics. B' incl%!ing areas ,$ic$ !o not strictl' s$are t$e same c$aracteristic as t$e ot$ers &etitioner claims t$at Congress $as e4&an!e! t$e sco&e o(

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t$e a%tonomo%s region ,$ic$ t$e constit%tion itsel( $as &rescribe! to be limite!. =etitionerHs arg%ment is not tenable. 2$e Constit%tion la's !o,n t$e stan!ar!s b' ,$ic$ Congress s$all !etermine ,$ic$ areas s$o%l! constit%te t$e a%tonomo%s region. G%i!e! b' t$ese constit%tional criteria t$e ascertainment b' Congress o( t$e areas t$at s$are common attrib%tes is ,it$in t$e e4cl%sive realm o( t$e legislat%reHs !iscretion. #n' revie, o( t$is ascertainment ,o%l! $ave to go into t$e ,is!om o( t$e la,. 2$is t$e Co%rt cannot !o ,it$o%t !oing violence to t$e se&aration o( governmental &o,ers. 6ON ot$er nonDM%slim areas in Min!anao s$o%l! li+e,ise be covere!. He arg%es t$at since t$e Organic #ct covers several nonD M%slim areas its sco&e s$o%l! be (%rt$er broa!ene! to incl%!e t$e rest o( t$e nonDM%slim areas in Min!anao in or!er (or t$e ot$er nonDM%slim areas !enies sai! areas e.%al &rotection o( t$e la, an! t$ere(ore is violative o( t$e Constit%tion. =etitionerHs contention r%ns co%nter to t$e ver' same constit%tional &rovision $e $a! earlier invo+e!. #n' !etermination b' Congress o( ,$at areas in Min!anao s$o%l! com&romise t$e a%tonomo%s region ta+ing into acco%nt s$are! $istorical an! c%lt%ral $eritage economic an! social str%ct%res an! ot$er relevant c$aracteristics ,o%l! necessaril' carr' ,it$ it t$e e4cl%sion o( ot$er areas. #s earlier state! s%c$ !etermination b' Congress o( ,$ic$ areas s$o%l! be covere! b' t$e organic act (or t$e a%tonomo%s region constit%tes a recogniBe! legislative &rerogative ,$ose ,is!om ma' not be in.%ire! into b' t$is Co%rt. Moreover e.%al &rotection &ermits o( reasonable classi(ication. 2$e Co%rt r%le! t$at once class ma' be treate! !i((erentl' (rom anot$er ,$ere t$e gro%&ings are base! on reasonable an! real !istinctions. 2$e g%arantee o( e.%al &rotection is t$%s not in(ringe! in t$is case t$e classi(ication $aving been ma!e b' Congress on t$e basis o( s%bstantial !istinctions as set (ort$ b' t$e Constit%tion itsel(. 6ON -# G710 violates t$e constit%tional g%arantee on (ree e4ercise o( religion. 2$e ob9ection centers on a &rovision in t$e Organic #ct ,$ic$ man!ates t$at s$o%l! t$ere be an' con(lict bet,een t$e M%slim Co!e U=.D. No. 1581V an! t$e 2ribal Co!e ;still be enacte!< on t$e one $a! an! t$e national la, on t$e ot$er $an! t$e )$ariHa$ co%rts create! %n!er t$e same #ct s$o%l! a&&l' national la,. =etitioners maintain t$at t$e islamic la, ;)$ariHa$< is !erive! (rom t$e Moran ,$ic$ ma+es it &art o( !ivine la,. 2$%s it ma' not be s%b9ecte! to an' "manDma!e" national la,. =etitioner #bbas s%&&orts t$is ob9ection b' en%merating &ossible instances o( con(lict bet,een &rovisions o( t$e M%slim Co!e an! national la, ,$erein an a&&lication o( national la, mig$t be o((ensive to a M%slimHs religio%s convictions. #s ens$rine! in t$e Constit%tion 9%!icial &o,er incl%!es t$e !%t' to settle act%al controversies involving rig$ts ,$ic$ are legall' !eman!able an! en(orceable. *n t$e &resent case no act%al controvers' bet,een real litigants e4ists. 2$ere are no con(licting claims involving t$e a&&lication o( national la, res%lting in an allege! violation o( religio%s (ree!om. 2$is being so t$e Co%rt in t$is case ma' not be calle! %&on to resolve ,$at is merel' a &erceive! &otential con(lict bet,een t$e &rovisions t$e M%slim Co!e an! national la,. 6ON -# G710 grants t$e =resi!ent t$e &o,er to merge regions. 6$at is re(erre! to in -.#. No. G710 is t$e merger o( a!ministrative regions i.e. -egions * to J** an! t$e National Ca&ital -egion ,$ic$ are mere gro%&ings o( contig%o%s &rovinces (or a!ministrative &%r&oses #!ministrative regions are not territorial an! &olitical s%b!ivisions li+e &rovinces cities m%nici&alities an! baranga's. 6$ile t$e &o,er to merge a!ministrative regions is not e4&ressl' &rovi!e! (or in t$e Constit%tion it is a &o,er ,$ic$ $as tra!itionall' been lo!ge! ,it$ t$e =resi!ent to (acilitate t$e e4ercise o( t$e &o,er o( general s%&ervision over local governments Usee #rt. J sec. 0 o( t$e Constit%tionV. 2$ere is no con(lict bet,een t$e &o,er o( t$e =resi!ent to merge a!ministrative regions ,it$ t$e constit%tional &rovision re.%iring a &lebiscite in t$e merger o( local government %nits beca%se t$e re.%irement o( a &lebiscite in a merger e4&ressl' a&&lies onl' to &rovinces cities m%nici&alities or baranga's not to a!ministrative regions. 6ON &rovisions in t$e Organic #ct ,$ic$ create an Oversig$t Committee to s%&ervise t$e trans(er to t$e a%tonomo%s region o( t$e &o,ers a&&ro&riations an!

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&ro&erties veste! %&on t$e regional government b' t$e organic #ct are %nconstit%tional beca%se ,$ile t$e Constit%tion states t$at t$e creation o( t$e a%tonomo%s region s$all ta+e e((ect %&on a&&roval in a &lebiscite t$e re.%irement o( organiBing an Oversig$t committee tas+e! ,it$ s%&ervising t$e trans(er o( &o,ers an! &ro&erties to t$e regional government ,o%l! in e((ect !ela' t$e creation o( t$e a%tonomo%s region. @n!er t$e constit%tion t$e creation o( t$e a%tonomo%s region $inges onl' on t$e res%lt o( t$e &lebiscite. i( t$e Organic #ct is a&&rove! b' ma9orit' o( t$e votes cast b' constit%ent %nits in t$e sc$e!%le! &lebiscite t$e creation o( t$e a%tonomo%s region imme!iatel' ta+es e((ect. 2$e .%estione! &rovisions in -.#. No. G710 re.%iring an oversig$t Committee to s%&ervise t$e trans(er !o not &rovi!e (or a !i((erent !ate o( e((ectivit'. M%c$ less ,o%l! t$e organiBation o( t$e Oversig$t Committee ca%se an im&e!iment to t$e o&eration o( t$e Organic #ct (or s%c$ is evi!entl' aime! at e((ecting a smoot$ transition &erio! (or t$e regional government. 2$e constit%tional ob9ection on t$is &oint t$%s cannot be s%staine! as t$ere is no bases t$ere(or. Pan i v. CA Facts: Macac%a in $er ca&acit' as -egional Director an! as )ecretar' o( t$e De&artment o( Healt$ o( t$e #%tonomo%s -egion in M%slim Min!anao iss%e! a Memoran!%m !esignating =an!i ,$o ,as t$en DOHD#-MM #ssistant -egional )ecretar' as O((icerDinD C$arge o( t$e *ntegrate! =rovincial Healt$ O((iceD#mai =a+&a+ General Hos&ital ;*=HOD#=GH< Lanao !el )%r. *n t$e same Memoran!%m Macac%a !etaile! Dr. Mamasao )ani t$en t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer o( t$e *=HOD#=GH Lanao !el )%r to t$e DOHD#-MM -egional O((ice in Cotabato Cit'. Lanao !el )%r =rovincial Governor Ma$i! M. M%tilan iss%e! O((ice Or!er No. 57 !esignating )aber also as O((icerDinDC$arge o( t$e *=HOD#=GH Lanao !el )%r. )ani (ile! a com&laint ,it$ t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt o( Lanao !el )%r Branc$ 15 Mara,i Cit' c$allenging t$e #%g%st 8 1881 Memoran!%m trans(erring $im to t$e DOHD#-MM -egional O((ice in Cotabato Cit' alleging t$at $e is t$e $ol!er o( a &ermanent a&&ointment as &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer o( t$e *=HOD #=GH Lanao !el )%r. )aber (ile! ,it$ t$e Co%rt o( #&&eals a &etition (or .%o ,arranto ,it$ &ra'er (or &reliminar' in9%nction claiming t$at $e is t$e la,(%ll' !esignate! O((icerDinDC$arge o( t$e *=HOD#=GH Lanao !el )%r. =resi!ent -amos iss%e! 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111 trans(erring t$e &o,ers an! (%nctions o( t$e De&artment o( Healt$ in t$e region to t$e -egional Government o( t$e #-MM. On November G 1881 Macac%a again in $er ca&acit' as DOHD#-MM )ecretar'DDesignate iss%e! a Memoran!%m reiterating =an!i>s !esignation as O((icerDinDC$arge o( t$e *=HOD#=GH Lanao !el )%r as ,ell as )ani>s !etail to t$e -egional O((ice o( t$e DOHD#-MM in Cotabato Cit' . C#: )aber is t$e la,(%ll' !esignate! O((icerDinD C$arge o( t$e *=HOD#=GH Lanao !el )%r an! t$at Governor Ma$i! M%tilan $as t$e &o,er an! a%t$orit' to a&&oint t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer. C# maintaine! t$at t$e Organic #ct o( 1888 an! t$e #-MM Local Co!e co%l! not &revail over t$e LGC. C# inter&rete! )ection 0C7 ;b< an! ;!< o( t$e #-MM Local Co!e to mean t$at it is t$e #-MM -egional Governor an! not t$e =rovincial Governor ,$o e4ercises a recommen!ator' &rerogative in t$e a&&ointment o( t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer. *ss%es: 1. 6ON an inc%mbent &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer o( Lanao !el )%r can be assigne! to anot$er &rovince an! i( so ,$o can or!er s%c$ assignment. /. 6$o can !esignate t$e O((icerDinDC$arge in t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((ice o( Lanao !el )%r D t$e =rovincial Governor or t$e #-MM )ecretar' o( Healt$T 1. 6$o is em&o,ere! to a&&oint t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer o( Lanao !el )%r D t$e =rovincial Governor t$e -egional Governor or t$e #-MM )ecretar' o( Healt$T First =erio!: =rior to t$e Organic #ct o( 1888 2$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((ice ,as an agenc' o( t$e Ministr' o( Healt$ an! t$e Minister o( Healt$ ,as t$e a&&ointing &o,er o( &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers. )econ! =erio!: #(ter t$e Organic #ct o( 1888 *t ,as not %ntil October /8 1881 ,$en t$en =resi!ent Fi!el K. -amos iss%e! 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111 t$at t$e regional o((ices o( t$e De&artment o( Healt$ in t$e #-MM ,ere &lace! %n!er t$e s%&ervision an! control o( t$e -egional Government. 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111 ,as t$e o&erative act t$at act%all' trans(erre! t$e &o,ers an! (%nctions o( t$e De&artment o( Healt$ toget$er ,it$ its regional &ersonnel

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e.%i&ment &ro&erties an! b%!gets to t$e -egional Government. 2$%s %ntil t$e e((ectivit' o( 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111 t$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ o( t$e National Government contin%e! to a&&oint &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers in t$e #-MM ,it$ t$e a%t$orit' to assign a &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer to an' &rovince ,it$in t$e region. 2$is ,as t$e state o( t$e la, a(ter t$e &assage o( t$e Organic #ct o( 1888 %ntil t$e e((ectivit' o( 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111. 2$ir! =erio!: #(ter t$e LGC o( 1881 @nli+e t$e 1880 LG@ Co!e t$e 1881 LG@ Co!e ma!e (or t$e (irst time t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers one o( t$e o((icials o( t$e &rovincial government to be a&&ointe! b' t$e &rovincial governor i( $is salar' came mainl' (rom &rovincial (%n!s. 3ven a(ter t$e &assage o( t$e 1881 LG@ Co!e t$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ contin%e! to be t$e a&&ointing &o,er o( &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers ,$o remaine! national government o((icials. 2$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ also contin%e! to e4ercise t$e a%t$orit' to assign &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers to an' &rovince ,it$in t$e region. 2$is sit%ation $o,ever ,as onl' tem&orar' arising (rom t$e nee! (or a &$ase! trans(er o( t$e &ersonnel e.%i&ment &ro&erties an! b%!gets o( t$e De&artment o( Healt$ in t$e #-MM to t$e -egional Government &%rs%ant to )ection 0 #rticle J*J o( t$e Organic #ct o( 1888. On October /8 1881 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111 ,as iss%e! (inall' trans(erring t$e &o,ers an! (%nctions o( t$e De&artment o( Healt$ in t$e a%tonomo%s region to t$e -egional Government. 2$e !evolve! &o,ers %n!er t$e Organic #ct o( 1888 as im&lemente! b' 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111 incl%!e! t$e &o,er o( s%&ervision an! control over &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers as ,ell as t$e &o,er to a&&oint &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers. 2$e &o,er o( s%&ervision an! control &revio%sl' e4ercise! b' t$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ carrie! ,it$ it t$e a%t$orit' to assign &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers to an' &rovince ,it$in t$e region &%rs%ant to )ection 17 o( 34ec%tive Or!er No. 118. #ssignment ,it$in a region o( &ersonnel a&&ointe! to a region is an a!ministrative matter e4ercise! b' t$e $ea! o( o((ice ,$o is veste! ,it$ t$e &o,er o( s%&ervision an! control over t$e o((ice.

@&on t$e e((ectivit' o( 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111 t$e


a!ministrative a%t$orit' o( t$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ to assign &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers to an' &rovince ,it$in a region ,as trans(erre! to t$e #-MM )ecretar' o( Healt$ as t$e regional co%nter&art o( t$e national )ecretar' o( Healt$. 2$is trans(er o( a!ministrative a%t$orit' to t$e -egional )ecretar' ,as essential to ins%re t$e contin%ation o( vital $ealt$ services to resi!ents in t$e #-MM. On t$e ot$er $an! t$e &o,er to a&&oint &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers &revio%sl' con(erre! b' la, on t$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ ,as !evolve! to t$e -egional Governor. 2$e &o,er to a&&oint &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers is one t$at t$e -egional #ssembl' co%l! t$%s grant b' la, to t$e -egional )ecretar' o( Healt$. Ho,ever t$e -egional #ssembl' $as not enacte! a la, a%t$oriBing t$e -egional )ecretar' o( Healt$ to a&&oint &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers. )ince t$e &o,er to a&&oint m%st be e4&ressl' con(erre! b' la, an! cannot be im&lie! (rom t$e &o,er o( s%&ervision an! control t$is r%le! o%t t$e -egional )ecretar' o( Healt$ as t$e a&&ointing &o,er o( &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers. )igni(icantl' t$e &o,er to a&&oint &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers is not one o( t$e &o,ers trans(erre! to t$e -egional )ecretar' o( Healt$ %n!er 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111. 2$ere co%l! be no ga& or lac%na in t$e !evol%tion o( &o,ers (rom t$e National Government to t$e -egional Government beca%se t$e e4ercise o( t$ese &o,ers ,as essential to t$e maintenance o( basic services (or t$e general ,el(are. =erio!: #(ter t$e #-MM Local Co!e @n!er t$e #-MM Local Co!e t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer in t$e #-MM &revio%sl' a regional o((icial $as also become a &rovincial government o((icial catc$ing %& ,it$ t$e stat%s o( &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers o%tsi!e o( t$e #-MM. 2$e -egional Governor a&&oints t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer (rom a list o( t$ree recommen!ees o( t$e =rovincial Governor. 2$e #-MM Local Co!e &rovi!es t$at t$e salar' o( t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer s$all be &ai! (rom regional (%n!s. 2$e #-MM Local Co!e also states t$at i( t$e salar' o( t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer comes mainl' (rom &rovincial (%n!s t$e =rovincial Governor is t$e a&&ointing &o,er. 2$e &o,er o( t$e -egional Governor to a&&oint &rovincial o((icials a&&lies onl' to &rovincial o((icials "&ai! b' regional (%n!s."

Fo%rt$

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


)ection 0C8 o( t$e #-MM Local Co!e vests in t$e =rovincial Governor t$e &o,er to e4ercise s%&ervision an! control over all &rovincial government o((icials. 2$e conversion o( t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer (rom a regional government o((icial to a &rovincial government o((icial %n!er )ection 0C7 o( t$e #-MM Local Co!e &lace! t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer %n!er t$e s%&ervision an! control o( t$e =rovincial Governor. Conse.%entl' ,it$ t$e &assage o( t$e #-MM Local Co!e t$e -egional )ecretar' o( Healt$ lost t$e a%t$orit' to assign &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers to ot$er &rovinces ,it$in t$e region. 2$e state o( t$e la, a(ter t$e enactment o( t$e #-MM Local Co!e became more (avorable to =rovincial Governors at least ,it$ res&ect to t$e a&&ointment an! assignment o( &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers. 6$ile be(ore t$e a&&ointment o( &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers ,as solel' t$e &rerogative o( t$e -egional Governor no, a =rovincial Governor $as t$e &o,er to recommen! t$ree nominees. 2$e -egional Governor can a&&oint onl' (rom among t$e t$ree nominees o( t$e =rovincial Governor even t$o%g$ t$e salar' o( t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer comes (rom regional (%n!s. Li+e,ise ,$ile be(ore t$e -egional )ecretar' o( Healt$ co%l! assign &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers to ot$er &rovinces ,it$in t$e region t$is a%t$orit' o( t$e -egional )ecretar' cease! to e4ist. )ince a &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer ,as no, a&&ointe! to a s&eci(ic &rovince $e co%l! no longer be assigne! to anot$er &rovince ,it$o%t $is consent. Moreover t$e =rovincial Governor no, e4ercises s%&ervision an! control over t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer ,$o $as become a &rovincial government o((icial. Finall' i( t$e &rovincial government ass%mes &a'ment o( t$e salar' o( t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer t$en t$e =rovincial Governor becomes t$e a&&ointing &o,er o( s%c$ &rovincial o((icial. Fi(t$ =erio!: 2$e Organic #ct o( /551 2$e &assage o( t$e Organic #ct o( /551 means t$at t$e &o,ers an! (%nctions o( a =rovincial Governor %n!er t$e 1881 LG@ Co!e are no, en9o'e! as a minim%m b' a =rovincial Governor in t$e #-MM. 2$%s t$e =rovincial Governor a&&oints t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer i( t$e latter>s salar' comes (rom &rovincial (%n!s. *( t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer>s salar' comes mainl' (rom regional (%n!s t$en t$e #-MM Local Co!e a&&lies in ,$ic$ case t$e -egional Governor is t$e a&&ointing &o,er b%t $e m%st a&&oint onl' (rom among t$e t$ree nominees o( t$e =rovincial Governor. Moreover t$e =rovincial Governor e4ercises s%&ervision an! control over t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer beca%se t$e #-MM Local Co!e $as classi(ie! $im as a &rovincial government o((icial. 2$is is no, t$e &resent state o( t$e la, on t$e a&&ointment o( &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers in t$e #-MM.

-e: )aber: Lanao !el )%r =rovincial Governor Ma$i! M.


M%tilan !esignate! )aber as O((icerDinDC$arge o( t$e *=HOD #=GH Lanao !el )%r on )e&tember 1C 1881. On t$is !ate t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer o( Lanao !el )%r ,as still a national government o((icial &ai! entirel' (rom national (%n!s. 2$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer ,as still a&&ointe! b' t$e national )ecretar' o( Healt$ to a region an! not to a &rovince. 2$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ e4ercise! s%&ervision an! control over t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer. 2$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ ,as also t$e o((icial a%t$oriBe! b' la, to assign t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer to an' &rovince ,it$in t$e region. *n!is&%tabl' on )e&tember 1C 1881 =rovincial Governor M%tilan $a! no &o,er to !esignate )aber as O((icerDinD C$arge o( *=HOD#=GH Lanao !el )%r. Conse.%entl' t$e !esignation o( )aber as s%c$ O((icerDinDC$arge is voi!. 2$e Co%rt o( #&&eals> reliance on )ection 078 o( t$e 1881 LG@ Co!e as =rovincial Governor M%tilan>s a%t$orit' to a&&oint )aber is mis&lace!. )ection 078 o( t$e 1881 LG@ Co!e ,$ic$ &rovi!es t$at "U2V$e a&&ointment o( a $ealt$ o((icer s$all be man!ator' (or &rovincial cit' an! m%nici&al governments " is not a grant o( &o,er to governors an! ma'ors to a&&oint local $ealt$ o((icers. *t is sim&l' a !irective t$at t$ose em&o,ere! to a&&oint local $ealt$ o((icers are man!ate! to !o so. *n s$ort t$e a&&ointment o( local $ealt$ o((icers being essential (or &%blic services is a man!ator' obligation on t$e &art o( t$ose veste! b' la, ,it$ t$e &o,er to a&&oint t$em. -e: )ani: )ani ,as a&&ointe! &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer b' t$en )ecretar' o( Healt$ #l(re!o -.#. BengBon on 7an%ar' 1 1888. )ani ,as a&&ointe! &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer in -egion J** since at t$at time 34ec%tive Or!er No. 118 t$e c$arter o( t$e De&artment o( Healt$ e4&ressl' state! t$at &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers ,ere to be a&&ointe! to a region. 2$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ %&on recommen!ation o( t$e -egional

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


Director co%l! assign &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers to an' &rovince ,it$in t$e region. Conse.%entl' )ani cannot claim an' sec%rit' o( ten%re as &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer o( Lanao !el )%r beca%se $e ,as never a&&ointe! to t$at o((ice. Macac%a in $er ca&acit' as -egional Director an! #-MM )ecretar' o( Healt$ !etaile! )ani to t$e DOHD#-MM -egional O((ice in Cotabato Cit' on #%g%st 8 1881. #s o( t$at !ate t$e &o,ers an! (%nctions o( t$e De&artment o( Healt$ ,ere not 'et trans(erre! to t$e -egional Government an! t$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ o( t$e National Government still e4ercise! t$e &o,er to assign t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icers in t$e #-MM. Conse.%entl' t$e #%g%st 8 1881 !irective o( Macac%a !etailing or assigning )ani to t$e -egional O((ice in Cotabato Cit' is voi!. 2$e secon! !etail or assignment o( )ani to t$e -egional O((ice in Cotabato iss%e! on November G 1881 is ,it$in t$e a%t$orit' o( Macac%a as -egional )ecretar' o( Healt$. 2$%s t$e secon! !etail o( )ani is vali!. -e: =an!i: 2$e !esignation !ate! #%g%st 8 1881 is voi! since t$e -egional )ecretar' at t$at time !i! not 'et e4ercise s%&ervision an! control over t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((ices o( t$e #-MM. Ho,ever t$e !esignation o( =an!i on November G 1881 is vali! since at t$at time 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111 $a! alrea!' been iss%e! vesting in t$e -egional )ecretar' o( Healt$ s%&ervision an! control over all (%nctions an! activities o( t$e De&artment o( Healt$ in t$e #-MM. 2$e !esignation o( =an!i $o,ever ,$ile vali! is onl' tem&orar' in nat%re goo! %ntil a ne, !esignation or a &ermanent a&&ointment is ma!e. #s -egional )ecretar' o( Healt$ Macac%a ,as as o( November G 1881 t$e o((icial veste! b' la, to e4ercise s%&ervision an! control over all &rovincial $ealt$ o((ices in t$e #-MM. 2$e -egional )ecretar' b' virt%e o( 34ec%tive Or!er No. 111 ass%me! t$e a!ministrative &o,ers an! (%nctions o( t$e )ecretar' o( Healt$ o( t$e National Government ,it$ res&ect to &rovincial $ealt$ o((ices ,it$in t$e #-MM. 2$e o((icial e4ercising s%&ervision an! control over an o((ice $as t$e a!ministrative a%t$orit' to !esignate in t$e interest o( &%blic service an O((icerDinDC$arge i( t$e o((ice becomes vacant. Macac%a t$ere(ore $a! t$e a%t$orit' on November G 1881 to !esignate an O((icerDinD C$arge in t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((ice o( Lanao !el )%r &en!ing t$e a&&ointment o( t$e &ermanent &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer. #(ter t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e #-MM Local Co!e t$e -egional )ecretar' o( Healt$ lost t$e a%t$orit' to ma+e s%c$ a !esignation. @n!er t$e #-MM Local Co!e t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer became (or t$e (irst an o((icial o( t$e &rovincial government even t$o%g$ $e is a&&ointe! b' t$e -egional Governor an! !ra,s $is salar' (rom regional (%n!s. 2$e #-MM Local Co!e vests in t$e =rovincial Governor t$e &o,er to "e4ercise general s%&ervision an! control over all &rograms &ro9ects services an! activities o( t$e &rovincial government." @&on t$e e((ectivit' o( t$e #-MM Local Co!e t$e &o,er o( s%&ervision an! control over t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer &asse! (rom t$e -egional )ecretar' to t$e =rovincial Governor. From t$en on t$e =rovincial Governor began to e4ercise t$e a!ministrative a%t$orit' to !esignate an O((icerDinDC$arge in t$e &rovincial $ealt$ o((ice &en!ing t$e a&&ointment o( a &ermanent &rovincial $ealt$ o((icer.

Or illo v. COM%L%C Facts: 2$e &eo&le o( t$e &rovinces o( Beng%et Mo%ntain =rovince *(%gao #bra an! Malinga #&a'ao an! t$e cit' o( Bag%io cast t$eir votes in a &lebiscite $el! &%rs%ant to -# G7GG. 2$e COM3L3C res%lts s$o,e! t$at t$e creation o( t$e -egion ,as a&&rove! onl' b' a ma9orit' o( C 888 votes in onl' t$e *(%gao =rovince an! ,as over,$elmingl' re9ecte! b' 108 G7G votes in t$e rest o( t$e &rovinces an! cit' abovementione!. )ec o( 7%stice: consi!ering t$e &roviso t$at onl' t$e &rovinces an! cit' voting (avorabl' s$all be incl%!e! in t$e C#- t$e &rovince o( *(%gao being t$e onl' &rovince ,$ic$ vote! (avorabl' legall' constit%tes t$e C#-. #s a res%lt o( t$is Congress enacte! -# G8G1 ,$ic$ set t$e elections in t$e C#-. Or!illo et al t$en (ile! a &etition ,it$ t$e COM3L3C to !eclare t$e nonDrati(ication o( t$e Organic #ct (or t$e -egion. 2$e &resi!ent iss%e! #O 1G5 !eclaring t$at t$e Cor!illera 34ec%tive Boar! an! Cor!illera -egional #ssembl' an! ot$er o((ices create! %n!er 3O//5 are abolis$e! in vie, o( t$e rati(ication o( t$e Organic #ct. 2$e &etitioners maintain t$at t$ere can be no vali! C#- as t$e

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


Constit%tion an! -# G7GG re.%ire t$at t$e sai! region be com&ose! o( more t$an one constit%ent %nit. 2$e' &ra' t$at t$e co%rt !eclare COM3L3C -es. No. //C8 #O 1G5 an! -#G8G1 as n%ll an! voi! an! restrain t$e res&on!ents (rom im&lementing t$e same. 2$e' also &ra' t$at it !eclare 3O //5 constit%ting t$e C3B an! t$e C-# an! ot$er o((ices to be still in (orce an! e((ect %ntil anot$er organic la, (or t$e #%tonomo%s -egion s$all $ave been enacte! an! !%l' rati(ie!. *ss%e: 6ON t$e &rovince o( *(%gao being t$e onl' &rovince ,$ic$ vote! (avorabl' (or t$e creation o( t$e C#- can alone legall' an! vali!l' constit%te s%c$ region. NO. #rt. J )ec. 1C o( 1887 Constit%tion: 2$ere s$all be create! a%tonomo%s regions in M%slim Min!anao an! in t$e Cor!illera consisting o( &rovinces cities m%nici&alities an! geogra&$ical areas s$aring common an! !istinctive $istorical an! c%lt%ral $eritage economic an! social str%ct%res an! ot$er relevant c$aracteristics ,it$in t$e (rame,or+ o( t$is Constit%tion an! t$e national sovereignt' as ,ell as territorial integrit' o( t$e -e&%blic o( t$e =$ili&&ines. 2$e term EregionF %se! in its or!inar' sense means t,o or more &rovinces. 2$is is s%&&orte! b' t$e (act t$at t$e 11 regions into ,$ic$ t$e =$ili&&ines is !ivi!e! (or a!ministrative &%r&oses are gro%&ings o( contig%o%s &rovinces. *(%gao is a &rovince b' itsel(. 2o become &art o( a region it m%st 9oin ot$er &rovinces cities m%nici&alities an! geogra&$ical areas. -# G7GG s$o,s t$at Congress never inten!e! t$at a single &rovince ma' constit%te t$e a%tonomo%s region. Ot$er,ise ,e ,o%l! be (ace! ,it$ t$e abs%r! sit%ation o( $aving t,o sets o( &rovincial o((icials an! anot$er set o( regional o((icials e4ercising t$eir e4ec%tive an! legislative &o,ers over e4actl' t$e same small area. )%c$ ,ill res%lt in an a,+,ar! &re!icament ,$ere t$ere ,ill be t,o legislative bo!ies: t$e Cor!illera #ssembl' an! t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan e4ercising t$eir legislative &o,ers over t$e &rovince o( *(%gao. -# G7GG &rovi!es (or a -egional =lanning an! Develo&mental Boar! ,$ic$ $as a &rovincial co%nter&art t$e =rovincial =lanning an! Develo&mental Coor!inator. *( it ta+es onl' one &erson in t$e &rovincial level to &er(orm s%c$ (%nctions ,$ile it ta+es an entire boar! to &er(orm t$e same in t$e regional level it co%l! onl' mean t$at a larger area m%st be covere! at t$e regional level. 2$e la, also &rovi!es an allocation (or 15M=$& (or its initial organiBational re.%irements. )%c$ cannot be constr%e! as (%n!ing onl' a lone an! small &rovince. Moreover t$e &rovince o( *(%gao ma+es %& onl' 11Y o( t$e total &o&%lation o( t$e areas ,$ic$ ,ere en%merate! in t$e la,. 2$is case m%st be !isting%is$e! (rom t$e #bbas case ,$ic$ lai! !o,n t$e r%le on t$e meaning o( ma9orit': ,$at is re.%ire! b' t$e Constit%tion is a sim&le ma9orit' o( votes a&&roving t$e Organic #ct in in!ivi!%al constit%ent %nits an! not a !o%ble ma9orit' o( t$e votes in all constit%ent %nits &%t toget$er as ,ell as t$e in!ivi!%al constit%ent %nits. 2$ere is not$ing in t$e #bbas case t$at !eals ,it$ t$e iss%e on ,$et$er an a%tonomo%s region co%l! e4ist !es&ite t$e (act t$at onl' one &rovince or cit' is to constit%te it. Cor illera Broa Coalition v. COA /supra1

MM*A v. Bel;Air /supra1 MM*A v. Garin Facts: Dante O. Garin ,as iss%e! a tra((ic violation recei&t ;2K-< (or &ar+ing illegall' along Gan!ara )treet Binon!o Manila. His !riverHs license ,as also con(iscate!. )$ortl' be(ore t$e e4&iration o( t$e 2K-Hs vali!it' t$e Garin a!!resse! a letter to t$en MMD# C$airman Oreta re.%esting t$e ret%rn o( $is !riverHs license an! e4&ressing $is &re(erence (or $is case to be (ile! in co%rt. -eceiving no imme!iate re&l' Garin (ile! t$e original com&laint ,it$ a&&lication (or &reliminar' in9%nction conten!ing t$at in t$e absence o( an' im&lementing r%les an! reg%lations )ec. C;(< o( -e&. #ct No. 78/0 grants t$e MMD# %nbri!le! !iscretion to !e&rive erring motorists o( t$eir licenses &reDem&ting a 9%!icial !etermination o( t$e vali!it' o( t$e !e&rivation t$ereb' violating t$e !%e &rocess cla%se o( t$e Constit%tion. 2$e res&on!ent (%rt$er conten!e! t$at t$e &rovision violates t$e constit%tional &ro$ibition against %n!%e !elegation o( legislative a%t$orit' allo,ing as it !oes t$e MMD# to (i4 an! im&ose %ns&eci(ie! X an! t$ere(ore %nlimite! D (ines an! ot$er &enalties on erring motorists. *n s%&&ort o( $is a&&lication (or a ,rit o( &reliminar' in9%nction Garin allege! t$at $e s%((ere! an!

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


contin%es to s%((er great an! irre&arable !amage beca%se o( t$e !e&rivation o( $is license an! t$at absent an' im&lementing r%les (rom t$e Metro Manila Co%ncil t$e 2K- an! t$e con(iscation o( $is license $ave no legal basis. For its &art t$e MMD# re&resente! b' t$e O((ice o( t$e )olicitor General &ointe! o%t t$at t$e &o,ers grante! to it b' )ec. C;(< o( -# 78/0 are limite! to t$e (i4ing collection an! im&osition o( (ines an! &enalties (or tra((ic violations ,$ic$ &o,ers are legislative an! e4ec%tive in nat%reA t$e 9%!iciar' retains t$e rig$t to !etermine t$e vali!it' o( t$e &enalt' im&ose!. *t (%rt$er arg%e! t$at t$e !octrine o( se&aration o( &o,ers !oes not &recl%!e "a!mi4t%re" o( t$e t$ree &o,ers o( government in a!ministrative agencies. 2$e MMD# also re(%te! GarinHs allegation t$at t$e Metro Manila Co%ncil t$e governing boar! an! &olic' ma+ing bo!' o( t$e &etitioner $as as 'et to (orm%late t$e im&lementing r%les (or )ec. C;(< o( -e&. #ct No. 78/0 an! !irecte! t$e co%rtHs attention to MMD# Memoran!%m Circ%lar No. 22D8CD551 !ate! 1C #&ril 188C. -es&on!ent Garin $o,ever .%estione! t$e vali!it' o( MMD# Memoran!%m Circ%lar No. 22D8CD551 as $e claims t$at it ,as &asse! b' t$e Metro Manila Co%ncil in t$e absence o( a .%or%m. -2C: iss%e! a tem&orar' restraining or!er e4ten!ing t$e vali!it' o( t$e 2K- as a tem&orar' !riverHs license (or t,ent' more !a's. # &reliminar' man!ator' in9%nction ,as grante! an! t$e MMD# ,as !irecte! to ret%rn t$e res&on!entHs !riverHs license. -2C !ecision: a. 2$ere ,as in!ee! no .%or%m in t$at First -eg%lar Meeting o( t$e MMD# Co%ncil $el! on Marc$ /1 188C $ence MMD# Memoran!%m Circ%lar No. 22D8CD551 a%t$oriBing con(iscation o( !riverHs licenses %&on iss%ance o( a 2Kis voi! ab initio. b. 2$e s%mmar' con(iscation o( a !riverHs license ,it$o%t (irst giving t$e !river an o&&ort%nit' to be $ear!A !e&riving $im o( a &ro&ert' rig$t ;!riverHs license< ,it$o%t D@3 =-OC3))A not (illing ;sic< in Co%rt t$e com&laint o( s%&&ose! tra((ic in(raction cannot be 9%sti(ie! b' an' legislation ;an! is< $ence %nconstit%tional. *ss%es: 1. 6ON a license to o&erate a motor ve$icle is a &rivilege t$at t$e state ma' ,it$$ol! in t$e e4ercise o( its &olice &o,er. :3). 2$e &etitioner correctl' &oints o%t t$at a license to o&erate a motor ve$icle is not a &ro&ert' rig$t b%t a &rivilege grante! b' t$e state ,$ic$ ma' be s%s&en!e! or revo+e! b' t$e state in t$e e4ercise o( its &olice &o,er in t$e interest o( t$e &%blic sa(et' an! ,el(are s%b9ect to t$e &roce!%ral !%e &rocess re.%irements.

)tate e4. -el. )%llivan: "t$e legislative &o,er to reg%late


travel over t$e $ig$,a's an! t$oro%g$(ares o( t$e state (or t$e general ,el(are is e4tensive. *t ma' be e4ercise! in an' reasonable manner to conserve t$e sa(et' o( travelers an! &e!estrians. )ince motor ve$icles are instr%ments o( &otential !anger t$eir registration an! t$e licensing o( t$eir o&erators $ave been re.%ire! almost (rom t$eir (irst a&&earance. 2$e rig$t to o&erate t$em in &%blic &laces is not a nat%ral an! %nrestraine! rig$t b%t a &rivilege s%b9ect to reasonable reg%lation %n!er t$e &olice &o,er in t$e interest o( t$e &%blic sa(et' an! ,el(are. 2$e &o,er to license im&orts (%rt$er &o,er to ,it$$ol! or to revo+e s%c$ license %&on noncom&liance ,it$ &rescribe! con!itions." Common,ealt$ v. F%n+: "#%tomobiles are ve$icles o( great s&ee! an! &o,er. 2$e %se o( t$em constit%tes an element o( !anger to &ersons an! &ro&ert' %&on t$e $ig$,a's. Care(%ll' o&erate! an a%tomobile is still a !angero%s instr%mentalit' b%t ,$en o&erate! b' careless or incom&etent &ersons it becomes an engine o( !estr%ction. 2$e Legislat%re in t$e e4ercise o( t$e &olice &o,er o( t$e common,ealt$ not onl' ma' b%t m%st &rescribe $o, an! b' ,$om motor ve$icles s$all be o&erate! on t$e $ig$,a's. One o( t$e &rimar' &%r&oses o( a s'stem o( general reg%lation o( t$e s%b9ect matter as $ere b' t$e Ke$icle Co!e is to ins%re t$e com&etenc' o( t$e o&erator o( motor ve$icles. )%c$ a general la, is mani(estl' !irecte! to t$e &romotion o( &%blic sa(et' an! is ,ell ,it$in t$e &olice &o,er." 2$e common t$rea! r%nning t$ro%g$ t$e cite! cases is t$at it is t$e legislat%re in t$e e4ercise o( &olice &o,er ,$ic$ $as t$e &o,er an! res&onsibilit' to reg%late $o, an! b' ,$om motor ve$icles ma' be o&erate! on t$e state $ig$,a's.

/. 6ON t$e MMD# is veste! ,it$ &olice &o,er. NO. Metro Manila Develo&ment #%t$orit' v. BelD#ir Killage
#ssociation *nc. ,e categoricall' state! t$at -e&. #ct No. 78/0 !oes not grant t$e MMD# ,it$ &olice &o,er let alone legislative &o,er an! t$at all its (%nctions are a!ministrative in nat%re. 2racing t$e legislative $istor' o( -# 78/0 creating t$e MMD# ,e concl%!e! t$at t$e MMD# is not a local government %nit or a &%blic cor&oration en!o,e!

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


,it$ legislative &o,er an! %nli+e its &re!ecessor t$e Metro Manila Commission it $as no &o,er to enact or!inances (or t$e ,el(are o( t$e comm%nit'. 2$%s in t$e absence o( an or!inance (rom t$e Cit' o( Ma+ati its o,n or!er to o&en t$e street ,as invali!. =olice &o,er as an in$erent attrib%te o( sovereignt' is t$e &o,er veste! b' t$e Constit%tion in t$e legislat%re to ma+e or!ain an! establis$ all manner o( ,$olesome an! reasonable la,s stat%tes an! or!inances eit$er ,it$ &enalties or ,it$o%t not re&%gnant to t$e Constit%tion as t$e' s$all 9%!ge to be (or t$e goo! an! ,el(are o( t$e common,ealt$ an! (or t$e s%b9ects o( t$e same. Having been lo!ge! &rimaril' in t$e National Legislat%re it cannot be e4ercise! b' an' gro%& or bo!' o( in!ivi!%als not &ossessing legislative &o,er. 2$e National Legislat%re $o,ever ma' !elegate t$is &o,er to t$e &resi!ent an! a!ministrative boar!s as ,ell as t$e la,ma+ing bo!ies o( m%nici&al cor&orations or local government %nits ;LG@s<. Once !elegate! t$e agents can e4ercise onl' s%c$ legislative &o,ers as are con(erre! on t$em b' t$e national la,ma+ing bo!'. Congress !elegate! &olice &o,er to t$e LG@s in LGC. # local government is a "&olitical s%b!ivision o( a nation or state ,$ic$ is constit%te! b' la, an! $as s%bstantial control o( local a((airs." Local government %nits are t$e &rovinces cities m%nici&alities an! baranga's ,$ic$ e4ercise &olice &o,er t$ro%g$ t$eir res&ective legislative bo!ies. Metro&olitan or Metro Manila is a bo!' com&ose! o( several local government %nits. 6it$ t$e &assage o( -e&. #ct No. 78/0 in 188C Metro&olitan Manila ,as !eclare! as a "s&ecial !evelo&ment an! a!ministrative region" an! t$e a!ministration o( "metroD,i!e" basic services a((ecting t$e region &lace! %n!er "a !evelo&ment a%t$orit'" re(erre! to as t$e MMD#. 2$%s: t$e &o,ers o( t$e MMD# are limite! to t$e (ollo,ing acts: (orm%lation coor!ination reg%lation im&lementation &re&aration management monitoring setting o( &olicies installation o( a s'stem an! a!ministration. 2$ere is no s'llable in -. #. No. 78/0 t$at grants t$e MMD# &olice &o,er let alone legislative &o,er. 3ven t$e Metro Manila Co%ncil $as not been !elegate! an' legislative &o,er. @nli+e t$e legislative bo!ies o( t$e local government %nits t$ere is no &rovision in -. #. No. 78/0 t$at em&o,ers t$e MMD# or its Co%ncil to "enact or!inances a&&rove resol%tions an! a&&ro&riate (%n!s (or t$e general ,el(are" o( t$e in$abitants o( Metro Manila. 2$e MMD# is as terme! in t$e c$arter itsel( a "!evelo&ment a%t$orit'." *t is an agenc' create! (or t$e &%r&ose o( la'ing !o,n &olicies an! coor!inating ,it$ t$e vario%s national government agencies &eo&leHs organiBations nonD governmental organiBations an! t$e &rivate sector (or t$e e((icient an! e4&e!itio%s !eliver' o( basic services in t$e vast metro&olitan area. Clearl' t$e MMD# is not a &olitical %nit o( government. 2$e &o,er !elegate! to t$e MMD# is t$at given to t$e Metro Manila Co%ncil to &rom%lgate a!ministrative r%les an! reg%lations in t$e im&lementation o( t$e MMD#Hs (%nctions. 2$ere is no grant o( a%t$orit' to enact or!inances an! reg%lations (or t$e general ,el(are o( t$e in$abitants o( t$e metro&olis. 6ON )ec. C;(< grants t$e MMD# ,it$ t$e !%t' to en(orce e4isting tra((ic r%les an! reg%lations. :3). )ection C o( -# 78/0 en%merates t$e "F%nctions an! =o,ers o( t$e Metro Manila Develo&ment #%t$orit'." 2$e conteste! cla%se in )ec. C;(< states t$at t$e &etitioner s$all "install an! a!minister a single tic+eting s'stem (i4 im&ose an! collect (ines an! &enalties (or all +in!s o( violations o( tra((ic r%les an! reg%lations ,$et$er moving or nonmoving in nat%re an! con(iscate an! s%s&en! or revo+e !riversH licenses in t$e en(orcement o( s%c$ tra((ic la,s an! reg%lations t$e &rovisions o( -# 011G an! =.D. No. 1G5C to t$e contrar' not,it$stan!ing " an! t$at ";(<or t$is &%r&ose t$e #%t$orit' s$all en(orce all tra((ic la,s an! reg%lations in Metro Manila t$ro%g$ its tra((ic o&eration center an! ma' !e&%tiBe members o( t$e =N= tra((ic en(orcers o( local government %nits !%l' license! sec%rit' g%ar!s or members o( nonD governmental organiBations to ,$om ma' be !elegate! certain a%t$orit' s%b9ect to s%c$ con!itions an! re.%irements as t$e #%t$orit' ma' im&ose." 2$%s ,$ere t$ere is a tra((ic la, or reg%lation vali!l' enacte! b' t$e legislat%re or t$ose agencies to ,$om legislative &o,ers $ave been !elegate! ;t$e Cit' o( Manila in t$is case< t$e &etitioner is not &recl%!e! X an! in (act is !%t'Dbo%n! X to con(iscate an! s%s&en! or revo+e !riversH licenses in t$e e4ercise o( its man!ate o( trans&ort an!

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


tra((ic management as ,ell as t$e a!ministration an! im&lementation o( all tra((ic en(orcement o&erations tra((ic engineering services an! tra((ic e!%cation &rograms.

League o! Cities v. COM%L%C Facts: 11t$ Congress: 11 bills converting 11 m%nici&alities into cities ,ere enacte!. Ho,ever Congress !i! not act on bills converting /0 ot$er m%nici&alities into cities. 1/t$ Congress: -# 8558 ,$ic$ amen!e! )ec. 0C5 o( t$e LGC b' increasing t$e ann%al income re.%irement (or conversion o( a m%nici&alit' into a cit' (rom =/5 million to =155 million ,as enacte!. 2$e rationale (or t$e amen!ment ,as to restrain in t$e ,or!s o( )en. =imentel Et$e ma! r%s$F o( m%nici&alities to convert into cities solel' to sec%re a larger s$are in t$e *nternal -even%e #llotment !es&ite t$e (act t$at t$e' are inca&able o( (iscal in!e&en!ence. #(ter t$e e((ectivit' o( -# 8558 t$e Ho%se a!o&te! 7oint -esol%tion No. /8 ,$ic$ so%g$t to e4em&t (rom t$e =155 million income re.%irement in -# 8558 t$e /0 m%nici&alities ,$ose cit'$oo! bills ,ere not a&&rove! in t$e 11t$ Congress. Ho,ever t$e 1/t$ Congress en!e! ,it$o%t t$e )enate a&&roving 7oint -esol%tion No. /8. 11t$ Congress: 7- /8 ,as reDa!o&te! as 7- 1 an! ,as (or,ar!e! to t$e )enate (or a&&roval. Ho,ever t$e )enate again (aile! to a&&rove t$e 7oint -esol%tion. Follo,ing t$e a!vice o( )en.=imentel 1G m%nici&alities (ile! t$ro%g$ t$eir res&ective s&onsors in!ivi!%al cit'$oo! bills. 2$e 1G cit'$oo! bills containe! a common &rovision e4em&ting all t$e 1G m%nici&alities (rom t$e =155 million income re.%irement in -# 8558. On // December /55G t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives a&&rove! t$e cit'$oo! bills. 2$e )enate also a&&rove! t$e cit'$oo! bills in Febr%ar' /557 e4ce&t t$at o( Naga Ceb% ,$ic$ ,as &asse! on 7 7%ne /557. 2$e cit'$oo! bills la&se! into la, ,it$o%t t$e =resi!ent>s signat%re. 2$e Cit'$oo! La,s !irect

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


t$e COM3L3C to $ol! &lebiscites to !etermine ,$et$er t$e voters in eac$ res&on!ent m%nici&alit' a&&rove o( t$e conversion o( t$eir m%nici&alit' into a cit'. =etitioners (ile! t$e &resent &etitions to !eclare t$e Cit'$oo! La,s %nconstit%tional (or violation o( )ection 15 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion as ,ell as (or violation o( t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se. =etitioners also lament t$at t$e ,$olesale conversion o( m%nici&alities into cities ,ill re!%ce t$e s$are o( e4isting cities in t$e *nternal -even%e #llotment beca%se more cities ,ill s$are t$e same amo%nt o( internal reven%e set asi!e (or all cities %n!er )ection /8C o( t$e LGC. *ss%es: 1. 6ON -# 8558 violates t$e &rinci&le o( nonDretroactivit'. NO Congress &asse! t$e Cit'$oo! La,s long a(ter t$e e((ectivit' o( -# 8558. -# 8558 became e((ective on 15 7%ne /551 or !%ring t$e 11t$ Congress. 2$e 11t$ Congress &asse! in December /55G t$e cit'$oo! bills ,$ic$ became la, onl' in /557. 2$%s res&on!ent m%nici&alities cannot invo+e t$e &rinci&le o( nonDretroactivit' o( la,s. 2$is basic r%le $as no a&&lication beca%se -# 8558 an earlier la, to t$e Cit'$oo! La,s is not being a&&lie! retroactivel' b%t &ros&ectivel'. /. 6ON -# 8558 violates )ec 15 #rt J o( t$e Constit%tion. 2$e Constit%tion is clear. 2$e creation o( local government %nits m%st (ollo, t$e criteria establis$e! in t$e LGC an! not in an' ot$er la,. 2$ere is onl' one LGC. 2$e Constit%tion re.%ires Congress to sti&%late in t$e LGC all t$e criteria necessar' (or t$e creation o( a cit' incl%!ing t$e conversion o( a m%nici&alit' into a cit'. Congress cannot ,rite s%c$ criteria in an' ot$er la, li+e t$e Cit'$oo! La,s. 2$e criteria &rescribe! in t$e LGC govern e4cl%sivel' t$e creation o( a cit'. No ot$er la, not even t$e c$arter o( t$e cit' can govern s%c$ creation. 2$e clear intent o( t$e Constit%tion is to ins%re t$at t$e creation o( cities an! ot$er &olitical %nits m%st (ollo, t$e same %ni(orm nonD!iscriminator' criteria (o%n! solel' in t$e LGC. #n' !erogation or !eviation (rom t$e criteria &rescribe! in t$e LGC violates )ection 15 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion. -# 8558 amen!e! )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC to increase t$e income re.%irement (rom =/5 million to =155 million (or t$e creation o( a cit'. 2$is too+ e((ect on 15 7%ne /551. Hence (rom t$at moment t$e LGC re.%ire! t$at an' m%nici&alit' !esiring to become a cit' m%st satis(' t$e =155 million income re.%irement. )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC as amen!e! b' -# 8558 !oes not contain an' e4em&tion (rom t$is income re.%irement. *n enacting -# 8558 Congress !i! not grant an' e4em&tion to res&on!ent m%nici&alities even t$o%g$ t$eir cit'$oo! bills ,ere &en!ing in Congress ,$en Congress &asse! -# 8558. 2$e Cit'$oo! La,s all enacte! a(ter t$e e((ectivit' o( -# 8558 e4&licitl' e4em&t res&on!ent m%nici&alities (rom t$e increase! income re.%irement in )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC as amen!e! b' -# 8558. )%c$ e4em&tion clearl' violates )ection 15 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion an! is t$%s &atentl' %nconstit%tional. 2o be vali! s%c$ e4em&tion m%st be ,ritten in t$e LGC an! not in an' ot$er la, incl%!ing t$e Cit'$oo! La,s. 2$ere can be no resort to e4trinsic ai!s S li+e !eliberations o( Congress S i( t$e lang%age o( t$e la, is &lain clear an! %nambig%o%s. Co%rts !etermine t$e intent o( t$e la, (rom t$e literal lang%age o( t$e la, ,it$in t$e la,>s (o%r corners. *( t$e lang%age o( t$e la, is &lain clear an! %nambig%o%s co%rts sim&l' a&&l' t$e la, accor!ing to its e4&ress terms. *( a literal a&&lication o( t$e la, res%lts in abs%r!it' im&ossibilit' or in9%stice t$en co%rts ma' resort to e4trinsic ai!s o( stat%tor' constr%ction li+e t$e legislative $istor' o( t$e la,. Congress in enacting -# 8558 to amen! )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC !i! not &rovi!e an' e4em&tion (rom t$e increase! income re.%irement not even to res&on!ent m%nici&alities ,$ose cit'$oo! bills ,ere t$en &en!ing ,$en Congress &asse! -# 8558. )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC as amen!e! b' -# 8558 contains no e4em&tion ,$atsoever. )ince t$e la, is clear &lain an! %nambig%o%s t$at an' m%nici&alit' !esiring to convert into a cit' m%st meet t$e increase! income re.%irement t$ere is no reason to go be'on! t$e letter o( t$e la, in a&&l'ing )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC as amen!e! b' -# 8558. 2r%e members o( Congress !isc%sse! e4em&ting res&on!ent m%nici&alities (rom -# 8558 as s$o,n b' t$e vario%s !eliberations on t$e matter !%ring t$e 11t$ Congress. Ho,ever Congress !i! not ,rite t$is inten!e! e4em&tion into la,. Congress co%l! $ave easil' incl%!e! s%c$ e4em&tion in -# 8558 b%t Congress !i! not. 2$is is (atal to t$e ca%se o( res&on!ent m%nici&alities beca%se s%c$

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


e4em&tion m%st a&&ear in -# 8558 as an amen!ment to )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC. 2$e Constit%tion re.%ires t$at t$e criteria (or t$e conversion o( a m%nici&alit' into a cit' incl%!ing an' e4em&tion (rom s%c$ criteria m%st all be ,ritten in t$e LGC. Congress cannot &rescribe s%c$ criteria or e4em&tion (rom s%c$ criteria in an' ot$er la,. *n s$ort Congress cannot create a cit' t$ro%g$ a la, t$at !oes not com&l' ,it$ t$e criteria or e4em&tion (o%n! in t$e LGC. 6ON t$e Cit'$oo! La,s violate )ec G#rt J o( t$e Constit%tion. @ni(orm an! nonD!iscriminator' criteria as &rescribe! in t$e LGC are essential to im&lement a (air an! e.%itable !istrib%tion o( national ta4es to all local government %nits. )ection G #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion &rovi!es: Local government %nits s$all $ave a 9%st s$are as !etermine! b' la, in t$e national ta4es ,$ic$ s$all be a%tomaticall' release! to t$em. *( t$e criteria in creating local government %nits are not %ni(orm an! !iscriminator' t$ere can be no (air an! 9%st !istrib%tion o( t$e national ta4es to local government %nits. # cit' ,it$ an ann%al income o( onl' =/5 million all ot$er criteria being e.%al s$o%l! not receive t$e same s$are in national ta4es as a cit' ,it$ an ann%al income o( =155 million or more. 2$e criteria o( lan! area &o&%lation an! income as &rescribe! in )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC m%st be strictl' (ollo,e! beca%se s%c$ criteria &rescribe! b' la, are material in !etermining t$e E9%st s$areF o( local government %nits in national ta4es. )ince t$e Cit'$oo! La,s !o not (ollo, t$e income criterion in )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC t$e' &revent t$e (air an! 9%st !istrib%tion o( t$e *nternal -even%e #llotment in violation o( )ection G #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion. 6ON t$e !eliberations o( %na&&rove! bills b' t$e 11t$ Congress ma' be %se! as basis (or t$ose a&&rove! b' t$e 1/t$ . NO Congress is not a contin%ing bo!'. 2$e %na&&rove! cit'$oo! bills (ile! !%ring t$e 11t$ Congress became mere scra&s o( &a&er %&on t$e a!9o%rnment o( t$e 11t$ Congress. #ll t$e $earings an! !eliberations con!%cte! !%ring t$e 11t$ Congress on %na&&rove! bills also became ,ort$less %&on t$e a!9o%rnment o( t$e 11t$ Congress. 2$ese $earings an! !eliberations cannot be %se! to inter&ret bills enacte! into la, in t$e 11t$ or s%bse.%ent Congresses. 2$e members an! o((icers o( eac$ Congress are !i((erent. #ll %na&&rove! bills (ile! in one Congress become (%nct%s o((icio %&on a!9o%rnment o( t$at Congress an! m%st be reD (ile! ane, in or!er to be ta+en %& in t$e ne4t Congress. 6$en t$eir res&ective a%t$ors reD(ile! t$e cit'$oo! bills in /55G !%ring t$e 11t$ Congress t$e bills $a! to start (rom s.%are one again going t$ro%g$ t$e legislative mill 9%st li+e bills ta+en %& (or t$e (irst time (rom t$e (iling to t$e a&&roval. 2$e !eliberations !%ring t$e 11t$ Congress on t$e %na&&rove! cit'$oo! bills as ,ell as t$e !eliberations !%ring t$e 1/t$ an! 11t$ Congresses on t$e %na&&rove! resol%tion e4em&ting (rom -# 8558 certain m%nici&alities $ave no legal signi(icance. 2$e' !o not .%ali(' as e4trinsic ai!s in constr%ing la,s &asse! b' s%bse.%ent Congresses. 6ON t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se ,as violate!. *( )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC as amen!e! b' -# 8558 containe! an e4em&tion to t$e =155 million ann%al income re.%irement t$e criteria (or s%c$ e4em&tion co%l! be scr%tiniBe! (or &ossible violation o( t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se. 2$%s t$e criteria (or t$e e4em&tion i( (o%n! in t$e LGC co%l! be assaile! on t$e gro%n! o( absence o( a vali! classi(ication. Ho,ever )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC as amen!e! b' -# 8558 !oes not contain an' e4em&tion. 2$e e4em&tion is containe! in t$e Cit'$oo! La,s ,$ic$ are %nconstit%tional beca%se s%c$ e4em&tion m%st be &rescribe! in t$e LGC as man!ate! in )ection 15 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion. 3ven i( t$e e4em&tion &rovision in t$e Cit'$oo! La,s ,ere ,ritten in )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC as amen!e! b' -# 8558 s%c$ e4em&tion ,o%l! still be %nconstit%tional (or violation o( t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se. 2$e e4em&tion &rovision merel' states E34em&tion (rom -e&%blic #ct No. 8558 2$e Cit' o( 4 4 4 s$all be e4em&te! (rom t$e income re.%irement &rescribe! %n!er -e&%blic #ct No. 8558.F 2$is one sentence e4em&tion &rovision contains no classi(ication stan!ar!s or g%i!elines !i((erentiating t$e e4em&te! m%nici&alities (rom t$ose t$at are not e4em&te!. 3ven i( ,e ta+e into acco%nt t$e !eliberations in t$e 11t$ Congress t$at m%nici&alities ,it$ &en!ing cit'$oo! bills

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


s$o%l! be e4em&t (rom t$e =155 million income re.%irement t$ere is still no vali! classi(ication to satis(' t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se. 2$e e4em&tion ,ill be base! solel' on t$e (act t$at t$e 1G m%nici&alities $a! cit'$oo! bills &en!ing in t$e 11t$ Congress ,$en -# 8558 ,as enacte!. 2$is is not a vali! classi(ication bet,een t$ose entitle! an! t$ose not entitle! to e4em&tion (rom t$e =155 million income re.%irement. 2o be vali! t$e classi(ication in t$e &resent case m%st be base! on s%bstantial !istinctions rationall' relate! to a legitimate government ob9ective ,$ic$ is t$e &%r&ose o( t$e la, U/1V not limite! to e4isting con!itions onl' an! a&&licable to all similarl' sit%ate!. 2$%s t$is Co%rt $as r%le!: 2$e e.%al &rotection cla%se o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion &ermits a vali! classi(ication %n!er t$e (ollo,ing con!itions: 1. 2$e classi(ication m%st rest on s%bstantial !istinctionsA /. 2$e classi(ication m%st be germane to t$e &%r&ose o( t$e la,A 1. 2$e classi(ication m%st not be limite! to e4isting con!itions onl'A an! 0. 2$e classi(ication m%st a&&l' e.%all' to all members o( t$e same class. 2$ere is no s%bstantial !istinction bet,een m%nici&alities ,it$ &en!ing cit'$oo! bills in t$e 11t$ Congress an! m%nici&alities t$at !i! not $ave &en!ing bills. 2$e mere &en!enc' o( a cit'$oo! bill in t$e 11t$ Congress is not a material !i((erence to !isting%is$ one m%nici&alit' (rom anot$er (or t$e &%r&ose o( t$e income re.%irement. 2$e &en!enc' o( a cit'$oo! bill in t$e 11t$ Congress !oes not a((ect or !etermine t$e level o( income o( a m%nici&alit'. M%nici&alities ,it$ &en!ing cit'$oo! bills in t$e 11t$ Congress mig$t even $ave lo,er ann%al income t$an m%nici&alities t$at !i! not $ave &en!ing cit'$oo! bills. *n s$ort t$e classi(ication criterion a mere &en!enc' o( a cit'$oo! bill in t$e 11t$ Congress a is not rationall' relate! to t$e &%r&ose o( t$e la, ,$ic$ is to &revent (iscall' nonDviable m%nici&alities (rom converting into cities. M%nici&alities t$at !i! not $ave &en!ing cit'$oo! bills ,ere not in(orme! t$at a &en!ing cit'$oo! bill in t$e 11t$ Congress ,o%l! be a con!ition (or e4em&tion (rom t$e increase! =155 million income re.%irement. Ha! t$e' been in(orme! man' m%nici&alities ,o%l! $ave ca%se! t$e (iling o( t$eir o,n cit'$oo! bills. 2$ese m%nici&alities even i( t$e' $ave bigger ann%al income t$an t$e 1G res&on!ent m%nici&alities cannot no, convert into cities i( t$eir income is less t$an =155 million. 2$e (act o( &en!enc' o( a cit'$oo! bill in t$e 11t$ Congress limits t$e e4em&tion to a s&eci(ic con!ition e4isting at t$e time o( &assage o( -# 8558. 2$at s&eci(ic con!ition ,ill never $a&&en again. 2$is violates t$e re.%irement t$at a vali! classi(ication m%st not be limite! to e4isting con!itions onl'. 2$is re.%irement is ill%strate! in Ma'(lo,er Farms *nc. v. 2en 3'c+ ,$ere t$e c$allenge! la, allo,e! mil+ !ealers engage! in b%siness &rior to a (i4e! !ate to sell at a &rice lo,er t$an t$at allo,e! to ne,comers in t$e same b%siness. *n Ma'(lo,er t$e @.). )%&reme Co%rt $el!: 6e are re(erre! to a $ost o( !ecisions to t$e e((ect t$at a reg%lator' la, ma' be &ros&ective in o&eration an! ma' e4ce&t (rom its s,ee& t$ose &resentl' engage! in t$e calling or activit' to ,$ic$ it is !irecte!. 34am&les are stat%tes licensing &$'sicians an! !entists ,$ic$ a&&l' onl' to t$ose entering t$e &ro(ession s%bse.%ent to t$e &assage o( t$e act an! e4em&t t$ose t$en in &ractice or Boning la,s ,$ic$ e4em&t e4isting b%il!ings or la,s (orbi!!ing sla%g$ter$o%ses ,it$in certain areas b%t e4ce&ting e4isting establis$ments. 2$e c$allenge! &rovision is %nli+e s%c$ la,s since on its (ace it is not a reg%lation o( a b%siness or an activit' in t$e interest o( or (or t$e &rotection o( t$e &%blic b%t an attem&t to give an economic a!vantage to t$ose engage! in a given b%siness at an arbitrar' !ate as against all t$ose ,$o enter t$e in!%str' a(ter t$at !ate. 2$e a&&ellees !o not intimate t$at t$e classi(ication bears an' relation to t$e &%blic $ealt$ or ,el(are generall'A t$at t$e &rovision ,ill !isco%rage mono&ol'A or t$at it ,as aime! at an' ab%se cogniBable b' la, in t$e mil+ b%siness. *n t$e absence o( an' s%c$ s$o,ing ,e $ave no rig$t to con9%re %& &ossible sit%ations ,$ic$ mig$t 9%sti(' t$e !iscrimination. 2$e classi(ication is arbitrar' an! %nreasonable an! !enies t$e a&&ellant t$e e.%al &rotection o( t$e la,. *n t$e same vein t$e e4em&tion &rovision in t$e Cit'$oo! La,s gives t$e 1G m%nici&alities a %ni.%e a!vantage base! on an arbitrar' !ate a t$e (iling o( t$eir cit'$oo! bills be(ore t$e en! o( t$e 11t$ Congress X as against all ot$er m%nici&alities t$at ,ant to convert into cities a(ter t$e e((ectivit' o( -# 8558.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests F%rt$ermore limiting t$e e4em&tion onl' to t$e 1G
m%nici&alities violates t$e re.%irement t$at t$e classi(ication m%st a&&l' to all similarl' sit%ate!. M%nici&alities ,it$ t$e same income as t$e 1G res&on!ent m%nici&alities cannot convert into cities ,$ile t$e 1G res&on!ent m%nici&alities can. Clearl' as ,or!e! t$e e4em&tion &rovision (o%n! in t$e Cit'$oo! La,s even i( it ,ere ,ritten in )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC ,o%l! still be %nconstit%tional (or violation o( t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se. -e'es !issent: 1. 2$e cit'$oo! la,s !o not violate )ection 15 #rticle J o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion. )ec 15 man!ator'. 2$e %se o( t$e ,or! "s$all" in a constit%tional &rovision is generall' consi!ere! as a man!ator' comman! t$o%g$ t$e ,or! "s$all" ma' receive a &ermissive inter&retation ,$en necessar' to carr' o%t t$e tr%e intent o( t$e &rovision ,$ere t$e ,or! is (o%n!. 2$%s it is not al,a's t$e case t$at t$e %se o( t$e ,or! "s$all" is concl%sive. Ho,ever a rea!ing o( )ection 15 #rticle J cannot be constr%e! as an't$ing else b%t man!ator'. 2$e intent o( -.#. No. 8558 ,$ic$ amen!e! )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC is to e4em&t res&on!ent m%nici&alities (rom t$e income re.%irement o( =155 555 555.55. 2$%s t$e cit'$oo! la,s ,$ic$ merel' carr' o%t t$e intent o( -.#. No. 8558 are in accor!ance ,it$ t$e "criteria establis$e! in t$e LGC " &%rs%ant to )ection 15 #rticle J o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion. 2$e cit'$oo! la,s contain a %ni(orml' ,or!e! e4em&tion cla%se ,$ic$ states: "34em&tion (rom -e&%blic #ct No. 8558. 2$e cit' o( UbbbV s$all be e4em&t (rom t$e income re.%irement &rescribe! %n!er -e&%blic #ct No. 8558." 6$at Congress $a! in min! is not at all times acc%ratel' re(lecte! in t$e lang%age o( t$e stat%te. 2$%s t$e literal inter&retation o( a stat%te ma' ren!er it meaninglessA an! lea! to abs%r!it' in9%stice or contra!iction.15C 6$en t$is $a&&ens an! (ollo,ing t$e r%le t$at t$e intent or t$e s&irit o( t$e la, is t$e la, itsel( resort s$o%l! be $a! to t$e &rinci&le t$at t$e s&irit o( t$e la, controls its letter. Not to t$e letter t$at +illet$ b%t to t$e s&irit t$at vivi(iet$. Hin!i ang letra na &%ma&ata' +%ng $in!i ang !i,a na nagbibiga' b%$a'.

2$e &%r&ose o( t$e enactment o( -.#. No. 8558 can be seen


in t$e s&onsors$i& s&eec$ o( )enator =imentel on )enate Bill No. /1C7. Note,ort$' is $is statement t$at t$e basis (or t$e &ro&ose! increase (rom =/5 555 555.55 to =155 555 555.55 in t$e income re.%irement (or m%nici&alities an! cl%ster o( baranga's ,anting to be converte! into cities is t$e "ma! r%s$ o( m%nici&alities ,anting to be converte! into cities " an! in or!er t$at t$e co%ntr' ",ill not be a nation o( all cities an! no m%nici&alities." 2$e !eliberations o( Congress are necessar' to (erret o%t t$e intent o( t$e legislat%re in enacting -.#. No. 8558. *t is ver' clear t$at Congress inten!e! t$at t$e t$en &en!ing cit'$oo! bills ,o%l! not be covere! b' t$e income re.%irement o( =155 555 555.55 im&ose! b' -.#. No. 8558. *t ,as ma!e clear b' t$e Legislat%re t$at -.#. No. 8558 ,o%l! not $ave an' retroactive e((ect. *t t$en becomes clear t$at t$e basis (or t$e incl%sion o( t$e e4em&tion cla%se o( t$e cit'$oo! la,s is t$e clearDc%t intent o( t$e Legislat%re o( not giving retroactive e((ect to -.#. No. 8558. *n (act not onl' !o t$e legislative recor!s bear t$e legislative intent o( e4em&ting t$e cit'$oo! la,s (rom t$e income re.%irement o( =155 555 555.55 im&ose! b' -.#. No. 8558. Congress $as no, ma!e its intent e4&ress in t$e cit'$oo! la,s. =etitioners an! &etitionersDintervention ,ere not able to !isc$arge t$eir on%s &roban!i o( overcoming t$e &res%m&tion o( constit%tionalit' accor!e! to t$e cit'$oo! la,s. 2$e cit'$oo! la,s !o not violate t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se %n!er )ection 1 #rticle *** o( t$e Constit%tion b' granting s&ecial treatment to res&on!ent m%nici&alities in e4em&ting t$em (rom t$e minim%m income re.%irement im&ose! b' -.#. No. 8558. *n essence t$e Cit'$oo! Bills no, %n!er consi!eration ,ill $ave t$e same e((ect as t$at o( Ho%se 7oint -esol%tion No. 1 beca%se eac$ o( t$e 1/ bills see+s e4em&tion (rom t$e $ig$er income re.%irement o( -# 8558. 2$e &ro&onents are invo+ing t$e e4em&tion on t$e basis o( 9%stice an! (airness. Base! on t$ese !ata it is clear t$at all t$e 1/ m%nici&alities %n!er consi!eration are .%ali(ie! to become cities &rior to -# 8558. #ll o( t$em satis(' t$e man!ator' re.%irement on

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


income an! one o( t$e t,o o&tional re.%irements o( territor'. 2$e classi(ication rests on s%bstantial !istinctions. 6$at !isting%is$es res&on!ent m%nici&alities (rom ot$er m%nici&alities is t$at t$e latter $a! &en!ing cit'$oo! bills be(ore t$e &assage o( -.#. No. 8558. *n t$e ,or!s o( )enator Lim t$e &ec%liar con!itions o( res&on!ent m%nici&alities ,$ic$ le! to t$eir e4em&tion (rom t$e increase! =155 555 555.55 income re.%irement o( -.#. No. 8558 is t$at t$e im&osition o( a m%c$ $ig$er income re.%irement on t$ose t$at ,ere .%ali(ie! to become cities be(ore t$e enactment o( -.#. No. 8558 ,as "%n(airA li+e an' s&ort D c$anging t$e r%les in t$e mi!!le o( t$e game." 2$%s "(airness !ictates t$at t$e' s$o%l! be given a legal reme!' b' ,$ic$ t$e' s$o%l! be allo,e! to &rove t$at t$e' $ave all t$e necessar' .%ali(ications (or cit' stat%s %sing t$e criteria set (ort$ %n!er t$e LGC &rior to its amen!ment b' -.#. No. 8558." 2r%l' t$e &ec%liar con!itions o( res&on!ent m%nici&alities ,$ic$ are act%al an! real (%rnis$ s%((icient gro%n!s (or legislative classi(ication. 2$e classi(ication is germane to t$e &%r&ose o( t$e la,. 2$e e4em&tion o( res&on!ent m%nici&alities (rom t$e =155 555 555.55 income re.%irement o( -.#. No. 8558 ,as %n.%estionabl' !esigne! to ins%re t$at (airness an! 9%stice ,ere accor!e! to res&on!ent m%nici&alities as t$eir cit'$oo! bills ,ere not enacte! b' Congress in vie, o( intervening events an! (or reasons be'on! t$eir control. 2$e e.%al &rotection cla%se !oes not merel' &ro$ibit Congress (rom &assing !iscriminator' la,s. 2$e e.%al &rotection cla%se also comman!s Congress to &ass la,s ,$ic$ ,o%l! &ositivel' &romote e.%alit' or re!%ce e4isting ine.%alities. 2$is ,as ,$at Congress act%all' !i! in enacting t$e cit'$oo! la,s. 2$ese la,s &ositivel' &romote e.%alit' an! re!%ce t$e e4isting ine.%alit' bet,een res&on!ent m%nici&alities an! t$e "ot$er t$irt'Dt,o ;1/< m%nici&alities" ,$ose cit'$oo! bills ,ere enacte! !%ring t$e 11t$ Congress. 2$e classi(ication is not limite! to e4isting con!itions onl'. 2$e nonDretroactive e((ect o( -.#. No. 8558 is not limite! in a&&lication to con!itions e4isting at t$e time o( its enactment. *t is inten!e! to a&&l' (or all time as long as t$e con!itions set t$ere e4ist. *t is a&&licable as long as t$e concerne! m%nici&alities $ave (ile! t$eir res&ective cit'$oo! bills be(ore t$e e((ectivit' o( -.#. No. 8558 an! .%ali(' (or conversion into cit' %n!er t$e original version o( )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC. 2$e common e4em&tion cla%se in t$e cit'$oo! la,s is an a&&lication o( t$e nonDretroactive e((ect o( -.#. No. 8558. *t is not a !eclaration o( certain rig$ts b%t a mere !eclaration o( &rior .%ali(ication an!?or com&liance ,it$ t$e nonD retroactive e((ect o( -.#. No. 8558. C%rio%sl' &etitioners an! &etitionersDinDintervention !o not .%estion t$e constit%tionalit' o( -.#. No. 8558. *n (act t$e' %se -.#. No. 8558 to arg%e (or t$e allege! %nconstit%tionalit' o( t$e cit'$oo! la,s. 2$is is abs%r! consi!ering t$at t$e cit'$oo! la,s onl' e4&resse! t$e intent o( -.#. No. 8558 to e4em&t res&on!ent m%nici&alities (rom t$e income re.%irement o( =155 555 555.55. #n analog' ma' be (o%n! in t$e Constit%tion. CitiBens$i& ma' be grante! to t$ose born be(ore 7an%ar' 17 1871 o( Fili&ino mot$ers ,$o elect =$ili&&ine citiBens$i& %&on reac$ing t$e age o( ma9orit'. CitiBens$i& $o,ever is !enie! to t$ose ,$o alt$o%g$ born be(ore 7an%ar' 17 1871 o( Fili&ino mot$ers !i! not elect =$ili&&ine citiBens$i& %&on reac$ing t$e age o( ma9orit'.1CC *n li+e manner Congress $as t$e &o,er to carr' o%t t$e intent o( -.#. No. 8558 b' ma+ing a la, ,$ic$ e4em&ts m%nici&alities (rom t$e =155 555 555.55 income re.%irement im&ose! b' -.#. No. 8558 i( t$eir cit'$oo! la,s ,ere &en!ing ,$en -.#. No. 8558 ,as &asse! an! ,ere com&liant ,it$ t$e income t$res$ol! re.%irement o( =/5 555 555.55 im&ose! b' t$en )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC. 3ven i( t$e classi(ication o( t$e cit'$oo! la,s is limite! to e4isting con!itions onl' t$is !oes not a%tomaticall' mean t$at t$e' are %nconstit%tional. 2$e general r%le is t$at a classi(ication m%st not be base! on e4isting con!itions onl'. *t m%st also be ma!e (or (%t%re ac.%isitions o( t$e class as ot$er s%b9ects ac.%ire t$e c$aracteristics ,$ic$ (orm t$e basis o( t$e classi(ication. 2$e e4ce&tion is ,$en t$e stat%te is c%rative or reme!ial an! t$%s tem&orar'. Here t$e cit'$oo! la,s are c%rative or reme!ial stat%tes. 2$e' see+ to &revent t$e great in9%stice ,$ic$ ,o%l! be committe! to res&on!ent m%nici&alities. #gain t$e cit'$oo! la,s are not contrar' to t$e s&irit an! intent o( -.#. No.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


8558 beca%se Congress inten!e! sai! la, to be &ros&ective not retroactive in a&&lication. *n!ee! to !en' res&on!ent m%nici&alities t$e same rig$ts an! &rivileges accor!e! to t$e ot$er t$irt'Dt,o ;1/< m%nici&alities ,$en t$e' are %n!er t$e same circ%mstances is tantamo%nt to !en'ing res&on!ent m%nici&alities t$e &rotective mantle o( t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se. *n e((ect &etitioners an! &etitionersDinD intervention are creating an abs%r! sit%ation in ,$ic$ an allege! violation o( t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se o( t$e Constit%tion is reme!ie! b' anot$er violation o( t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se. 2$at t$e Co%rt cannot s%stain. 2$e classi(ication a&&lies e.%all' to all members o( t$e same class. 2$e cit'$oo! la,s in carr'ing o%t t$e clear intent o( -.#. No. 8558 a&&l' to m%nici&alities t$at $a! &en!ing cit'$oo! bills be(ore t$e &assage o( -.#. No. 8558 an! ,ere com&liant ,it$ t$en )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC t$at &rescribe! an income re.%irement o( =/5 555 555.55. QQ)%mming @& Ma9orit'>s gro%n! (or %nconstit%tionalit': ;1< a&&l'ing -.#. No. 8558 to t$e &resent case is a &ros&ective not a retroactive a&&lication beca%se -.#. No. 8558 too+ e((ect in /551 ,$ile t$e cit'$oo! bills became la,s more t$an (ive ;C< 'ears laterA cit'$oo! bills ,ere &en!ing be(ore t$e &assage o( -.#. No. 8558. Congress ,as ,ell a,are o( s%c$ (act. 2$%s Congress inten!e! t$e $i+e! income re.%irement in -.#. No. 8558 not to a&&l' to t$e cit'$oo! bills ,$ic$ became t$e s%b9ect cit'$oo! la,s. 2$is is t$e conte4t o( t$e re(erence to t$e &ros&ective a&&lication o( t$e sai! -.#. Congress inten!e! t$e cit'$oo! la,s in .%estion to be e4em&te! (rom t$e income re.%irement o( =155 555 555.55 im&ose! b' -.#. No. 8558. ;/< t$e Constit%tion re.%ires t$at Congress s$all &rescribe all t$e criteria (or t$e creation o( a cit' in t$e LGC an! not in an' ot$er la,A 2$e secon! &oint is s&ecio%s. *t overloo+s t$at -.#. No. 8558 is no, )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC. 2$e cit'$oo! la,s also merel' carr' o%t t$e intent o( -.#. No. 8558 to e4em&t res&on!ent m%nici&alities (rom t$e income re.%irement o( =155 555 555.55. ;1< t$e cit'$oo! la,s violate )ection G #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion beca%se t$e' &revent a (air an! 9%st !istrib%tion o( t$e national ta4es to local government %nitsA 2$e t$ir! nee!s clari(ication. #rticle J )ection G o( t$e Constit%tion s&ea+s (or itsel(. 6$ile it is tr%e t$at local government %nits s$all $ave a "9%st s$are" in t$e national ta4es it is .%ali(ie! b' t$e &$rase "as !etermine! b' la,." ;0< t$e intent o( members o( Congress to e4em&t certain m%nici&alities (rom t$e coverage o( -.#. No. 8558 remaine! an intent an! ,as never ,ritten into la,A Congress meant not to incor&orate its intent in ,$at event%all' became -.#. No. 8558. 2o recall )enate =resi!ent Fran+lin Drilon as+e! i( t$ere ,o%l! be an a&&ro&riate lang%age to be cra(te! ,$ic$ ,o%l! re(lect t$e intent o( Congress. )enator #.%ilino =imentel gave a categorical ans,er: "* !o not t$in+ it is necessar' to &%t t$at &rovision beca%se ,$at ,e are sa'ing $ere ,ill (orm &art o( t$e inter&retation o( t$is bill." ;C< t$e criteria &rescribe! in )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC as amen!e! b' -.#. No. 8558 (or converting a m%nici&alit' into a cit' are clear &lain an! %nambig%o%s nee!ing no resort to an' stat%tor' constr%ctionA Neit$er is t$e (i(t$ item &ers%asive. 2$e !issent a!mits t$at co%rts ma' resort to e4trinsic ai!s o( stat%tor' constr%ction li+e t$e legislative $istor' o( t$e la, i( t$e literal a&&lication o( t$e la, res%lts in abs%r!it' im&ossibilit' or in9%stice. ;G< t$e !eliberations o( t$e 11t$ or 1/t$ Congress on %na&&rove! bills or resol%tions are not e4trinsic ai!s in inter&reting a la, &asse! in t$e 11t$ Congress beca%se it is not a contin%ing bo!'A an! *t is immaterial i( Congress is not a contin%ing bo!'. 2$e $earings an! !eliberations con!%cte! !%ring t$e 11t$ or 1/t$ Congress ma' still be %se! as e4trinsic ai!s or re(erence beca%se t$e same cit'$oo! bills ,$ic$ ,ere (ile! be(ore t$e &assage o( -.#. No. 8558 ,ere being consi!ere! !%ring t$e 11t$ Congress. *t !oes not matter i( t$e o((icers o( eac$ Congress or t$e a%t$ors o( t$e bills are !i((erent. *n t$e en! t$e rationale (or e4em&ting t$e cit'$oo! bills (rom t$e =155 555 555.55 income re.%irement im&ose! b' -.#. No. 8558 remains t$e same: ;1< t$e cit'$oo! bills ,ere &en!ing be(ore t$e

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&assage o( -.#. No. 8558 an! ;/< res&on!ent m%nici&alities ,ere com&liant ,it$ t$e =/5 555 555.55 income re.%irement im&ose! b' t$e ol! )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC ,$ic$ ,as event%all' amen!e! b' -.#. No. 8558. 6$at s$o%l! not be overloo+e! is t$at t$e cit'$oo! la,s en9o' t$e &res%m&tion o( constit%tionalit'. =etitioners an! &etitionersDinDintervention bear t$e $eav' b%r!en o( overcoming s%c$ &res%m&tion. Ho,ever t$e ma9orit' !oes e4actl' t$e o&&osite. *t s$i(ts t$e on%s &roban!i to res&on!ent m%nici&alities to &rove t$at t$eir cit'$oo! la,s are constit%tional. 2$at is violative o( t$e basic r%le o( evi!ence. ;7< even i( t$e e4em&tion in t$e cit'$oo! la,s ,ere ,ritten in )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC t$e e4em&tion ,o%l! still be %nconstit%tional (or violation o( t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se beca%se t$e e4em&tion is base! solel' on t$e (act t$at t$e 1G m%nici&alities $a! cit'$oo! bills &en!ing in t$e 11t$ Congress ,$en -.#. No. 8558 ,as enacte!. 2$e e4em&tion on t$e 1G m%nici&alities is not onl' base! on t$e (act t$at t$e' $a! &en!ing cit'$oo! bills ,$en -.#. No. 8558 ,as enacte!. #si!e (rom com&l'ing ,it$ t$e territor' an! &o&%lation re.%irements o( t$e LGC t$ese m%nici&alities also met t$e =/5 555 555.55 income t$res$ol! o( t$e ol! )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC. QQ intent o( -.#. No. 8558 is clear. Congress inten!e! to e4em&t m%nici&alities ;1< t$at $a! &en!ing cit'$oo! bills be(ore t$e &assage o( -.#. No. 8558A an! ;/< t$at ,ere com&liant ,it$ t$e income t$res$ol! o( =/5 555 555.55 %n!er t$e ol! )ection 0C5 o( t$e LGC. -es&on!ent m%nici&alities are covere! b' t$e t,in criteria. 2$%s &etitioners an! &etitionersDinDintervention cannot $ar!l' claim t$e cit'$oo! la,s are %nconstit%tional on t$e gro%n! t$e' violate t$e criteria establis$e! in t$e LGC. Neit$er ma' t$e' claim t$at t$e cit'$oo! la,s violate t$e e.%al &rotection cla%se o( t$e Constit%tion. Congress is given t$e ,i!est latit%!e in ma+ing classi(ications an! in la'ing !o,n t$e criteria. )e&aration o( &o,ers &revents t$e Co%rt (rom &r'ing into t$e ,is!om or 9%!gment o( Congress. 3ven i( t$e Co%rt !i! t$ere is no %nreasonable classi(ication $ere m%c$ less grave ab%se o( !iscretion. 2$e intent o( Congress D to avert t$e ma! r%s$ o( m%nici&alities ,anting to be converte! into cities an! to &revent t$is nation (rom becoming a nation o( all cities an! no m%nici&alities D is &reserve!.

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Caasi v. CA Facts: Merito Mig%el ,on in t$e 1888 ma'oral elections in Bolinao =angasinan. =etitions ,ere (ile! see+ing to !is.%ali(' $im on t$e gro%n! t$at $e $ol!s a green car! iss%e! to $im b' t$e @) *mmigration )ervice ,$ic$ ,o%l! mean t$at $e $is a &ermanent resi!ent o( t$e @nite! )tates an! not o( Bolinao. COM3L3C !ismisse! t$e &etitions on t$e gro%n! t$at &ossession o( a green car! b' Mig%el !oes not s%((icientl' establis$ t$at $e $as aban!one! $is resi!ence in t$e =$ili&&ines. On t$e contrar' !es&ite $is green car! $e $as s%((icientl' in!icate! $is intention to contin%o%sl' resi!e in Bolinao as s$o,n b' $is $aving vote! in s%ccessive elections in sai! m%nici&alit'. Commissioner Ba!o'>s !issent: # green car! $ol!er being a &ermanent resi!ent o( or an immigrant o( a (oreign co%ntr' an! res&on!ent $aving a!mitte! t$at $e is a green car! $ol!er it is inc%mbent %&on $im %n!er )ection G8 o( t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e to &rove t$at $e "$as ,aive! $is stat%s as a &ermanent resi!ent or immigrant" to be .%ali(ie! to r%n (or electe! o((ice. 2$is res&on!ent $as not !one. Mig%el>s o&&onent Caasi also (ile! a &etition (or .%o ,arranto. Mig%el (ile! an M2D ,$ic$ ,as !enie! b' t$e -2C. C# or!ere! t$e -2C to !ismiss an! !esist (rom (%rt$er &rocee!ing in t$e .%o ,arranto case on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e COM3L3C $as alrea!' r%le! on $is .%ali(ications. *ss%es: 1. 6ON a green car! is &roo( t$at t$e $ol!er is a &ermanent resi!ent o( t$e @nite! )tates Consti: #rticle J* )ec. 18. =%blic o((icers an! em&lo'ees o,e t$e )tate an! t$is Constit%tion allegiance at all times an!

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an' &%blic o((icer or em&lo'ee ,$o see+s to c$ange $is citiBens$i& or ac.%ire t$e stat%s o( an immigrant o( anot$er co%ntr' !%ring $is ten%re s$all be !ealt ,it$ b' la,. Omnib%s 3lection Co!e: )3C. G8. Dis.%ali(ications ... #n' &erson ,$o is a &ermanent resi!ent o( or an immigrant to a (oreign co%ntr' s$all not be .%ali(ie! to r%n (or an' elective o((ice %n!er t$is Co!e %nless sai! &erson $as ,aive! $is stat%s as &ermanent resi!ent or immigrant o( a (oreign co%ntr' in accor!ance ,it$ t$e resi!ence re.%irement &rovi!e! (or in t$e election la,s. Co%rt too+ note o(: a.in t$e "#&&lication (or *mmigrant Kisa an! #lien -egistration" Mig%elHs ans,er regar!ing $is "Lengt$ o( inten!e! sta' ;i( &ermanentl' so state< " ,as E=ermanentl'." b. on its (ace t$e green car! t$at ,as s%bse.%entl' iss%e! b' t$e @nite! )tates De&artment o( 7%stice an! *mmigration an! -egistration )ervice to t$e res&on!ent Merito C. Mig%el i!enti(ies $im in clear bol! letters as a -3)*D3N2 #L*3N. c. On t$e bac+ o( t$e car! t$e %&&er &ortion t$e (ollo,ing in(ormation is &rinte!:#lien -egistration -ecei&t Car!. =erson i!enti(ie! b' t$is car! is entitle! to resi!e &ermanentl' an! ,or+ in t$e @nite! )tates." Des&ite $is vigoro%s !isclaimer Mig%elHs immigration to t$e @nite! )tates in 1880 constit%te! an aban!onment o( $is !omicile an! resi!ence in t$e =$ili&&ines. For $e !i! not go to t$e @nite! )tates merel' to visit $is c$il!ren or $is !octor t$ereA $e entere! t$e limite! )tates ,it$ t$e intention to $ave t$ere &ermanentl' as evi!ence! b' $is a&&lication (or an immigrantHs ;not a visitorHs or to%ristHs< visa. Base! on t$at a&&lication o( $is $e ,as iss%e! b' t$e @.). Government t$e re.%isite green car! or a%t$orit' to resi!e t$ere &ermanentl'. *mmigration: removing into one &lace (rom anot$erA t$e act o( immigrating t$e entering into a co%ntr' ,it$ t$e intention o( resi!ing in it. *mmigrant: &erson ,$o removes into a co%ntr' (or t$e &%r&ose o( &ermanent resi!ence. Ho,ever stat%tes sometimes give a broa!er meaning to t$e term "immigrant." #s a resi!ent alien in t$e @.). Mig%el o,es tem&orar' an! local allegiance to t$e @.). t$e co%ntr' in ,$ic$ $e resi!es. 2$is is in ret%rn (or t$e &rotection given to $im !%ring t$e &erio! o( $is resi!ence t$erein. #liens rea!ing in t$e limite! )tates ,$ile t$e' are &ermitte! to remain are in general entitle! to t$e &rotection o( t$e la,s ,it$ regar! to t$eir rig$ts o( &erson an! &ro&ert' an! to t$eir civil an! criminal res&onsibilit'. *n general aliens resi!ing in t$e @nite! )tates ,$ile t$e' are &ermitte! to remain are entitle! to t$e sa(eg%ar!s o( t$e constit%tion ,it$ regar! to t$eir rig$ts o( &erson an! &ro&ert' an! to t$eir civil an! criminal res&onsibilit'. 2$%s resi!ent alien (rien!s are entitle! to t$e bene(it o( t$e &rovision o( t$e Fo%rteent$ #men!ment to t$e (e!eral constit%tion t$at no state s$all !e&rive "an' &erson" o( li(e libert' or &ro&ert' ,it$o%t !%e &rocess o( la, or !en' to an' &erson t$e e.%al &rotection o( t$e la, an! t$e &rotection o( t$is amen!ment e4ten!s to t$e rig$t to earn a liveli$oo! b' (ollo,ing t$e or!inar' occ%&ations o( li(e. )o an alien is entitle! to t$e &rotection o( t$e &rovision o( t$e Fi(t$ #men!ment to t$e (e!eral constit%tion t$at no &erson s$all be !e&rive! o( li(e libert' or &ro&ert' ,it$o%t !%e &rocess o( la,. )ection 18 #rticle J* o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion ,$ic$ &rovi!es t$at "an' &%blic o((icer or em&lo'ee ,$o see+s to c$ange $is citiBens$i& or ac.%ire t$e stat%s o( an immigrant o( anot$er co%ntr' !%ring $is ten%re s$all be !ealt ,it$ b' la," is not a&&licable to Merito Mig%el (or $e ac.%ire! t$e stat%s o( an immigrant o( t$e @nite! )tates be(ore $e ,as electe! to &%blic o((ice not "!%ring $is ten%re" as ma'or o( Bolinao =angasinan. 2$e la, a&&licable to $im is )ection G8 o( t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e ;B.=. Blg. 881< ,$ic$ &rovi!es: #n' &erson ,$o is a &ermanent resi!ent o( or an immigrant to a (oreign co%ntr' s$all not be .%ali(ie! to r%n (or an' elective o((ice %n!er t$is Co!e %nless s%c$ &erson $as ,aive! $is stat%s as &ermanent resi!ent or immigrant o( a (oreign co%ntr' in accor!ance ,it$ t$e resi!ence re.%irement &rovi!e! (or in t$e election la,s.H 6ON Mig%el ,aive! $is stat%s as a &ermanent resi!ent o( or immigrant to t$e @.).#. &rior to t$e local elections on 7an%ar' 18 1888. 2o be ".%ali(ie! to r%n (or elective o((ice" in t$e =$ili&&ines t$e la, re.%ires t$at t$e can!i!ate ,$o is a green car! $ol!er m%st $ave ",aive! $is stat%s as a &ermanent resi!ent or immigrant o( a (oreign co%ntr'." 2$ere(ore $is act o( (iling a certi(icate o( can!i!ac' (or elective o((ice in

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t$e =$ili&&ines !i! not o( itsel( constit%te a ,aiver o( $is stat%s as a &ermanent resi!ent or immigrant o( t$e @nite! )tates. 2$e ,aiver o( $is green car! s$o%l! be mani(este! b' some act or acts in!e&en!ent o( an! !one &rior to (iling $is can!i!ac' (or elective o((ice in t$is co%ntr'. 6it$o%t s%c$ &rior ,aiver $e ,as "!is.%ali(ie! to r%n (or an' elective o((ice" ;)ec. G8 Omnib%s 3lection Co!e<. Mig%el a!mits t$at $e $ol!s a green car! ,$ic$ &roves t$at $e is a &ermanent resi!ent or immigrant it o( t$e @nite! )tates b%t t$e recor!s o( t$is case are star+l' bare o( &roo( t$at $e $a! ,aive! $is stat%s as s%c$ be(ore $e ran (or election as m%nici&al ma'or o( Bolinao on 7an%ar' 18 1888. 6e t$ere(ore $ol! t$at $e ,as !is.%ali(ie! to become a can!i!ate (or t$at o((ice. -esi!ence in t$e m%nici&alit' ,$ere $e inten!s to r%n (or elective o((ice (or at least one ;1< 'ear at t$e time o( (iling $is certi(icate o( can!i!ac' is one o( t$e .%ali(ications t$at a can!i!ate (or elective &%blic o((ice m%st &ossess. Mig%el !i! not &ossess t$at .%ali(ication beca%se $e ,as a &ermanent resi!ent o( t$e @nite! )tates an! $e resi!e! in Bolinao (or a &erio! o( onl' t$ree ;1< mont$s ;not one 'ear< a(ter $is ret%rn to t$e =$ili&&ines in November 1887 an! be(ore $e ran (or ma'or o( t$at m%nici&alit' on 7an%ar' 18 1888. *n banning (rom elective &%blic o((ice =$ili&&ine citiBens ,$o are &ermanent resi!ents or immigrants o( a (oreign co%ntr' t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e $as lai! !o,n a clear &olic' o( e4cl%!ing (rom t$e rig$t to $ol! elective &%blic o((ice t$ose =$ili&&ine citiBens ,$o &ossess !%al lo'alties an! allegiance. 2$e la, $as reserve! t$at &rivilege (or its citiBens ,$o $ave cast t$eir lot ,it$ o%r co%ntr' ",it$o%t mental reservations or &%r&ose o( evasion." 2$e ass%m&tion is t$at t$ose ,$o are resi!ent aliens o( a (oreign co%ntr' are inca&able o( s%c$ entire !evotion to t$e interest an! ,el(are o( t$eir $omelan! (or ,it$ one e'e on t$eir &%blic !%ties $ere t$e' m%st +ee& anot$er e'e on t$eir !%ties %n!er t$e la,s o( t$e (oreign co%ntr' o( t$eir c$oice in or!er to &reserve t$eir stat%s as &ermanent resi!ents t$ereo(. Mig%el insists t$at even t$o%g$ $e a&&lie! (or immigration an! &ermanent resi!ence in t$e @nite! )tates $e never reall' inten!e! to live t$ere &ermanentl' (or all t$at $e ,ante! ,as a green car! to enable $im to come an! go to t$e @.). ,it$ ease. *n ot$er ,or!s $e ,o%l! $ave t$is Co%rt believe t$at $e a&&lie! (or immigration to t$e @.). %n!er (alse &retensesA t$at all t$is time $e onl' $a! one (oot in t$e @nite! )tates b%t +e&t $is ot$er (oot in t$e =$ili&&ines. 3ven i( t$at ,ere tr%e t$is Co%rt ,ill not allo, itsel( to be a &art' to $is !%&licit' b' &ermitting $im to bene(it (rom it an! giving $im t$e best o( bot$ ,orl!s so to s&ea+. Mig%elHs a&&lication (or immigrant stat%s an! &ermanent resi!ence in t$e @.). an! $is &ossession o( a green car! attesting to s%c$ stat%s are concl%sive &roo( t$at $e is a &ermanent resi!ent o( t$e @.). !es&ite $is occasional visits to t$e =$ili&&ines. 2$e ,aiver o( s%c$ immigrant stat%s s$o%l! be as in!%bitable as $is a&&lication (or it. #bsent clear evi!ence t$at $e ma!e an irrevocable ,aiver o( t$at stat%s or t$at $e s%rren!ere! $is green car! to t$e a&&ro&riate @.). a%t$orities be(ore $e ran (or ma'or o( Bolinao in t$e local elections on 7an%ar' 18 1888 o%r concl%sion is t$at $e ,as !is.%ali(ie! to r%n (or sai! &%blic o((ice $ence $is election t$ereto ,as n%ll an! voi!. Ro riguez v. COM%L%C Facts : -o!rig%eB ,on against Mar.%eB (or t$e g%bernatorial &ost in W%eBon &rovince. Mar.%eB c$allenge! -o!rig%eB> victor' via &etition (or .%o ,arranto be(ore t$e COM3L3C. Mar.%eB reveale! t$at -o!rig%eB le(t t$e @nite! )tates ,$ere a c$arge (ile! on November 1/ 188C is &en!ing against t$e latter be(ore t$e Los #ngeles M%nici&al Co%rt (or (ra%!%lent ins%rance claims gran! t$e(t an! attem&te! gran! t$e(t o( &ersonal &ro&ert'. -o!rig%eB is t$ere(ore a "(%gitive (rom 9%stice" ,$ic$ is a gro%n! (or $is !is.%ali(ication?ineligibilit' %n!er )ection 05;e< o( t$e LGC. 2$e COM3L3C !ismisse! Mar.%eB> .%o ,arranto &etition in a resol%tion o( Febr%ar' / 1881 an! li+e,ise !enie! a reconsi!eration t$ereo(. Mar.%eB c$allenge! t$e COM3L3C !ismissal via &etition (or certiorari. *n t$e Ma' 8 188C election -o!rig%eB an! Mar.%eB rene,e! t$eir rivalr' (or t$e same &osition o( governor. 2$is time Mar.%eB c$allenge! -o!rig%eBH can!i!ac' via &etition (or !is.%ali(ication be(ore t$e COM3L3C base! &rinci&all' on t$e same allegation t$at -o!rig%eB is a "(%gitive (rom 9%stice." 2$is &etition (or !is.%ali(ication ,as (ile! b' Mar.%eB on #&ril 11 188C ,$en -o!rig%eBH &etition (or certiorari ;11/888< S (rom ,$ere t$e #&ril 18 188C M#-W@3Z Decision s&r%ng S ,as still t$en &en!ing

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be(ore t$e Co%rt. On Ma' 7 188C an! a(ter t$e &rom%lgation o( t$e M#-W@3Z Decision t$e COM3L3C &rom%lgate! a Consoli!ate! -esol%tion (or 3=C No. 8/D/8 ;.%o ,arranto case< an! )=# No. 8CD 588 ;!is.%ali(ication case<. *ss%e: 6ON -o!rig%eB is a "(%gitive (rom 9%stice" as contem&late! b' )ection 05;e< o( t$e LGC base! on t$e allege! &en!enc' o( a criminal c$arge against $im. F%gitive (rom 9%stice: # &erson ,$o $aving committe! a crime (lees (rom 9%ris!iction o( t$e co%rt ,$ere crime ,as committe! or !e&arts (rom $is %s%al &lace o( abo!e an! conceals $imsel( ,it$in t$e !istrict ;Blac+>s La,< Ob9ective (acts s%((icient to constit%te (lig$t (rom 9%stice are: ;a< a &erson committe! a HcrimeH or $as been c$arge! (or t$e commission t$ereo(A an! ;b< t$erea(ter leaves t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$e co%rt ,$ere sai! crime ,as committe! or $is %s%al &lace o( abo!e. Filing o( c$arges &rior to (lig$t is not al,a's an antece!ent re.%irement to label one a H(%gitive (rom 9%stice.> Mere commission o( a HcrimeH ,it$o%t c$arges $aving been (ile! (or t$e same an! (lig$t s%bse.%ent t$ereto s%((icientl' meet t$e !e(inition. #ttention is !irecte! at t$e %se o( t$e ,or! HcrimeH ,$ic$ is not em&lo'e! to connote g%ilt or conviction (or t$e commission t$ereo(. 7%stice Davi!eHs se&arate o&inion in G.-. No. 11/888 el%ci!ates t$at t$e !is.%ali(ication (or being a (%gitive !oes not involve t$e iss%e o( t$e &res%m&tion o( innocence t$e reason (or !is.%ali(ication being t$at a &erson H,as not bro%g$t ,it$in t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$e co%rt beca%se $e $a! s%ccess(%ll' eva!e! arrestA or i( $e ,as bro%g$t ,it$in t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$e co%rt an! ,as trie! an! convicte! $e $as s%ccess(%ll' eva!e! service o( sentence beca%se $e $a! 9%m&e! bail or esca&e!. 2$e !is.%ali(ication t$en is base! on $is ](lig$t (rom 9%stice.> )tate v. -ic$ter: 2$e sim&le (act t$at t$e' ;&erson ,$o $ave committe! crime ,it$in a state< are not ,it$in t$e state to ans,er its criminal &rocess ,$en re.%ire! ren!ers t$em in legal inten!ment (%gitives (rom 9%stice. 2H3 M3-3 F#C2 2H#2 2H3-3 #-3 =3ND*NG CH#-G3) *N 2H3 @N*23D )2#23) #ND 2H#2 =32*2*ON3- -OD-*G@3Z *) *N 2H3 =H*L*==*N3) M#M3 =32*2*ON3- # HF@G*2*K3 F-OM 7@)2*C3.H

Mar.%eB !ecision: incl%!es not onl' t$ose ,$o (lee a(ter


conviction to avoi! &%nis$ment b%t li+e,ise ,$o a(ter being c$arge! (lee to avoi! &rosec%tion." 2$e !e(inition t$%s in!icates t$at t$e intent to eva!e is t$e com&elling (actor t$at animates oneHs (lig$t (rom a &artic%lar 9%ris!iction. #n! obvio%sl' t$ere can onl' be an intent to eva!e &rosec%tion or &%nis$ment ,$en t$ere is +no,le!ge b' t$e (leeing s%b9ect o( an alrea!' instit%te! in!ictment or o( a &rom%lgate! 9%!gment o( conviction. -o!rig%eBH case 9%st cannot (it in t$is conce&t. 2$ere is no !is&%te t$at $is arrival in t$e =$ili&&ines (rom t$e @) on 7%ne /C 188C as &er certi(ications iss%e! b' t$e B%rea% o( *mmigrations !ate! #&ril /7an! 7%ne /G o( 188C U0V &rece!e! t$e (iling o( t$e (elon' com&laint in t$e Los #ngeles Co%rt on November 1/ 188C an! o( t$e iss%ance on even !ate o( t$e arrest ,arrant b' t$at same (oreign co%rt b' almost (ive ;C< mont$s. *t ,as clearl' im&ossible (or -o!rig%eB to $ave +no,n abo%t s%c$ (elon' com&laint an! arrest ,arrant at t$e time $e le(t t$e @) as t$ere ,as in (act no com&laint an! arrest ,arrant S m%c$ less conviction S to s&ea+ o( 'et at s%c$ time. 6$at &rosec%tion or &%nis$ment t$en ,as -o!rig%eB !eliberatel' r%nning a,a' (rom ,it$ $is !e&art%re (rom t$e @)T 2$e ver' essence o( being a "(%gitive (rom 9%stice" %n!er t$e M#-W@3Z Decision !e(inition is 9%st no,$ere to be (o%n! in t$e circ%mstances o( -o!rig%eB. "2$e circ%mstantial (act t$at it ,as seventeen ;17< !a's a(ter -o!rig%eBH !e&art%re t$at c$arges against $im ,ere (ile! cannot overt%rn t$e &res%m&tion o( goo! (ait$ in $is (avor. 2$e same s%ggests not$ing more t$an t$e se.%ence o( events ,$ic$ trans&ire!. # s%b9ective (act as t$at o( &etitionerHs &%r&ose cannot be in(erre! (rom t$e ob9ective !ata at $an! in t$e absence o( (%rt$er &roo( to s%bstantiate s%c$ claim. *n (act t$e evi!ence o( &etitioner -o!rig%eB s%((icientl' &roves t$at $is com&%lsion to ret%rn to t$e =$ili&&ines ,as !%e to $is !esire to 9oin an! &artici&ate vigoro%sl' in t$e &olitical cam&aigns against (ormer =resi!ent Fer!inan! 3. Marcos. For in!ee! not long a(ter &etitionerHs arrival in t$e co%ntr' t$e %&$eaval ,ro%g$t b' t$e &olitical (orces an! t$e avalanc$e o( events ,$ic$ occ%rre! res%lte! in one o( t$e more color(%l events in =$ili&&ine $istor'. 2$e 3D)# -evol%tion le! to t$e o%ster o(

18C

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


(ormer =res. Marcos an! &reci&itate! c$anges in t$e &olitical climate. #n! being a (ig%re in t$ese !evelo&ments &etitioner -o!rig%eB began serving $is $ome &rovince as O*CDBoar! Member o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan ng W%eBon in 188G. 2$en $e ,as electe! Governor in 1888 an! contin%es to be involve! in &olitics in t$e same ca&acit' as reDelecte! Governor in 188/ an! t$e !is&%te! reDelection in 188C. #ltoget$er t$ese lan!mar+ !ates $em in (or &etitioner a &erio! o( relentless intensive an! e4tensive activit' o( varie! &olitical cam&aigns S (irst against t$e Marcos government t$en (or t$e governors$i&. #n! serving t$e &eo&le o( W%eBon &rovince as s%c$ t$e &osition entails absol%te !e!ication o( oneHs time to t$e !eman!s o( t$e o((ice. "Having establis$e! &etitionerHs lac+ o( +no,le!ge o( t$e c$arges to be (ile! against $im at t$e time $e le(t t$e @nite! )tates it becomes immaterial %n!er s%c$ constr%ction to !etermine t$e e4act time ,$en $e ,as ma!e a,are t$ereo(. 6$ile t$e la, as inter&rete! b' t$e )%&reme Co%rt !oes not co%ntenance (lig$t (rom 9%stice in t$e instance t$at a &erson (lees t$e 9%ris!iction o( anot$er state a(ter c$arges against $im or a ,arrant (or $is arrest ,as iss%e! or even in vie, o( t$e imminent (iling an! iss%ance o( t$e same &etitionerHs &lig$t is altoget$er a !i((erent sit%ation. 6$en in goo! (ait$ a &erson leaves t$e territor' o( a state not $is o,n $ome,ar! bo%n! an! learns s%bse.%entl' o( c$arges (ile! against $im ,$ile in t$e relative &eace an! service o( $is o,n co%ntr' t$e (act t$at $e !oes not s%b9ect $imsel( to t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$e (ormer state !oes not .%ali(' $im o%trig$t as a (%gitive (rom 9%stice. 2$e severit' o( t$e la, constr%e! in t$e manner as to re.%ire o( a &erson t$at $e s%b9ect $imsel( to t$e 9%ris!iction o( anot$er state ,$ile alrea!' in $is co%ntr' or else be !is.%ali(ie! (rom o((ice is more a&&arent ,$en a&&lie! in &etitionerHs case. 2$e criminal &rocess o( t$e @nite! )tates e4ten!s onl' ,it$in its territorial 9%ris!iction. 2$at &etitioner $as alrea!' le(t sai! co%ntr' ,$en t$e latter so%g$t to s%b9ect $im to its criminal &rocess is $ar!l' &etitionerHs (a%lt. *n t$e absence o( an intent to eva!e t$e la,s o( t$e @nite! )tates &etitioner $a! ever' rig$t to !e&art t$ere(rom at t$e &recise time t$at $e !i! an! to ret%rn to t$e =$ili&&ines. No 9%sti(iable reason e4iste! to c%rtail or (etter &etitionerHs e4ercise o( $is rig$t to leave t$e @nite! )tate an! ret%rn $ome. Hence s%staining t$e contrar' &ro&osition ,o%l! be to %n!%l' b%r!en an! &%nis$ &etitioner (or e4ercising a rig$t as $e cannot be (a%lte! (or t$e circ%mstances t$at bro%g$t $im ,it$in =$ili&&ine territor' at t$e time $e ,as so%g$t to be &lace! %n!er arrest an! to ans,er (or c$arges (ile! against $im. "*t m%st be note! t$at moral %&rig$tness is not a stan!ar! too (arDreac$ing as to !eman! o( &olitical can!i!ate t$e &er(ormance o( !%ties an! obligations t$at are s%&ererogator' in nat%re. 6e !o not !is&%te t$at an allege! H(%gitive (rom 9%sticeH m%st &er(orm acts in or!er not to be so categoriBe!. Clearl' a &erson ,$o is a,are o( t$e imminent (iling o( c$arges against $im or o( t$e same alrea!' (ile! in connection ,it$ acts $e committe! in t$e 9%ris!iction o( a &artic%lar state is %n!er an obligation not to (lee sai! &lace o( commission. Ho,ever as in &etitionerHs case $is !e&art%re (rom t$e @nite! )tates ma' not &lace $im %n!er a similar obligation. His s%bse.%ent +no,le!ge ,$ile in t$e =$ili&&ines an! nonDs%bmission to t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$e (ormer co%ntr' !oes not o&erate to label &etitioner a%tomaticall' a (%gitive (rom 9%stice. #s $e ,as a &%blic o((icer a&&ointe! an! electe! imme!iatel' a(ter $is ret%rn to t$e co%ntr' &etitioner -o!rig%eB $a! ever' reason to !evote %tmost &riorit' to t$e service o( $is o((ice. He co%l! not $ave gone bac+ to t$e @nite! )tates in t$e mi!!le o( $is term nor co%l! $e $ave travele! intermittentl' t$ereto ,it$o%t 9eo&ar!iBing t$e interest o( t$e &%blic $e serves. 2o re.%ire t$at o( &etitioner ,o%l! be to &%t $im in a &ara!o4ical .%an!ar' ,$ere $e is com&elle! to violate t$e ver' (%nctions o( $is o((ice." 2o s%mmariBe t$e term "(%gitive (rom 9%stice" as a gro%n! (or t$e !is.%ali(ication or ineligibilit' o( a &erson see+ing to r%n (or an' elective local &osition %n!er )ection 05;e< o( t$e LGC s$o%l! be %n!erstoo! accor!ing to t$e !e(inition given in t$e M#-W@3Z Decision. *ntent to eva!e on t$e &art o( a can!i!ate m%st t$ere(ore be establis$e! b' &roo( t$at t$ere $as alrea!' been a conviction or at least a c$arge $as alrea!' been (ile! at t$e time o( (lig$t. Not being a "(%gitive (rom 9%stice" %n!er t$is !e(inition -o!rig%eB cannot be !enie! t$e W%eBon =rovince g%bernatorial &ost. *e La 'orre v. COM%L%C

18G

Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


Facts: =etitioner -olan!o =. Dela 2orre via t$e instant &etition (or certiorari see+s t$e n%lli(ication o( t,o resol%tions iss%e! b' t$e COM3L3C allege!l' ,it$ grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ o( 9%ris!iction in a case (or !is.%ali(ication (ile! against &etitioner be(ore t$e COM3L3C. 2$e (irst assaile! resol%tion !ate! Ma' G 188C !eclare! t$e &etitioner !is.%ali(ie! (rom r%nning (or t$e &osition o( Ma'or o( Cavinti Lag%na in t$e last Ma' 8 188C elections citing as t$e gro%n! t$ere(or )ection 05;a< o( t$e LGC ,$ic$ &rovi!es as (ollo,s: 2$e (ollo,ing &ersons are !is.%ali(ie! (rom r%nning (or an' elective local &osition: ;a< 2$ose sentence! b' (inal 9%!gment (or an o((ense involving moral t%r&it%!e or (or an o((ense &%nis$able b' one ;1< 'ear or more o( im&risonment ,it$in t,o ;/< 'ears a(ter serving sentence. *n !is.%ali('ing t$e &etitioner t$e COM3L3C $el! t$at: Doc%mentar' evi!ence establis$e! t$at $erein res&on!ent ;&etitioner< ,as (o%n! g%ilt' b' t$e M%nici&al 2rial Co%rt (or violation o( =.D. 1G1/ ;ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e #ntiD (encing La,< in a Decision !ate! 7%ne 1 1885. -es&on!ent a&&eale! t$e sai! conviction ,it$ t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt ,$ic$ $o,ever a((irme! res&on!ent>s conviction in a Decision !ate! November 10 1885. -es&on!ent>s conviction became (inal on 7an%ar' 18 1881. 2$e secon! assaile! resol%tion !ate! #%g%st /8 188C !enie! &etitioner>s motion (or reconsi!eration. *n sai! motion &etitioner claime! t$at )ection 05 ;a< o( t$e LGC !oes not a&&l' to $is case inasm%c$ as t$e &robation grante! $im b' t$e M2C on December /1 1880 ,$ic$ s%s&en!e! t$e e4ec%tion o( t$e 9%!gment o( conviction an! all ot$er legal conse.%ences (lo,ing t$ere(rom ren!ere! ina&&licable )ection 05 ;a< as ,ell.U0V *ss%es: 1. 6ON t$e crime o( (encing involves moral t%r&it%!e. )ection 05 ;a<: E,$en t$e conviction b' (inal 9%!gment is (or an o((ense involving moral t%r&it%!e.F #n! in t$is connection t$e Co%rt $as consistentl' a!o&te! t$e !e(inition in Blac+>s La, Dictionar' o( Emoral t%r&it%!eF as: an act o( baseness vileness or !e&ravit' in t$e &rivate !%ties ,$ic$ a man o,es $is (ello,men or to societ' in general contrar' to t$e acce&te! an! c%stomar' r%le o( rig$t an! !%t' bet,een man an! ,oman or con!%ct contrar' to 9%stice $onest' mo!est' or goo! morals. Not ever' criminal act $o,ever involves moral t%r&it%!e. *t is (or t$is reason t$at Eas to ,$at crime involves moral t%r&it%!e is (or t$e )%&reme Co%rt to !etermineF. *n resolving t$e (oregoing .%estion t$e Co%rt is g%i!e! b' one o( t$e general r%les t$at crimes mala in se involve moral t%r&it%!e ,$ile crimes mala &ro$ibita !o not t$e rationale o( ,$ic$ ,as set (ort$ in EZari v. Flores F to ,it: E*t ;moral t%r&it%!e< im&lies somet$ing immoral in itsel( regar!less o( t$e (act t$at it is &%nis$able b' la, or not. *t m%st not be merel' mala &ro$ibita b%t t$e act itsel( m%st be in$erentl' immoral. 2$e !oing o( t$e act itsel( an! not its &ro$ibition b' stat%te (i4es t$e moral t%r&it%!e. Moral t%r&it%!e !oes not $o,ever incl%!e s%c$ acts as are not o( t$emselves immoral b%t ,$ose illegalit' lies in t$eir being &ositivel' &ro$ibite!.F 2$is g%i!eline nonet$eless &rove! s$ort o( &rovi!ing a clearD c%t sol%tion (or in E*nternational -ice -esearc$ *nstit%te v. NL-C t$e Co%rt a!mitte! t$at it cannot al,a's be ascertaine! ,$et$er moral t%r&it%!e !oes or !oes not e4ist b' merel' classi('ing a crime as mal%m in se or as mal%m &ro$ibit%m. 2$ere are crimes ,$ic$ are mala in se an! 'et b%t rarel' involve moral t%r&it%!e an! t$ere are crimes ,$ic$ involve moral t%r&it%!e an! are mala &ro$ibita onl'. *n t$e (inal anal'sis ,$et$er or not a crime involves moral t%r&it%!e is %ltimatel' a .%estion o( (act an! (re.%entl' !e&en!s on all t$e circ%mstances s%rro%n!ing t$e violation o( t$e stat%te. Fencing is !e(ine! in )ection / o( =.D.1G1/ ;#ntiDFencing La,< as: t$e act o( an' &erson ,$o ,it$ intent to gain (or $imsel( or (or anot$er s$all b%' receive &ossess +ee& ac.%ire conceal sell or !is&ose o( or s$all b%' an! sell or in an' manner !eal in an' article item ob9ect or an't$ing o( val%e ,$ic$ $e +no,s or s$o%l! be +no,n to $im to $ave been !erive! (rom t$e &rocee!s o( t$e crime o( robber' or t$e(t. 3lements: 1. # crime o( robber' or t$e(t $as been committe!A /. 2$e acc%se! ,$o is not a &rinci&al or accom&lice in t$e crime o( robber' or t$e(t b%'s receives &ossesses +ee&s ac.%ires conceals sells or !is&oses or b%'s an! sells or in an' manner !eals in an' article item ob9ect or an't$ing o( val%e ,$ic$ $ave been !erive! (rom t$e &rocee!s o( t$e sai! crimeA 1. 2$e acc%se! +no,s or s$o%l! $ave +no,n t$at t$e sai! article item ob9ect or an't$ing o( val%e $as been !erive! (rom t$e &rocee!s o( t$e

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crime o( robber' or t$e(tA an! 0. 2$ere is on t$e &art o( t$e acc%se! intent to gain (or $imsel( or (or anot$er. Moral t%r&it%!e is !e!%cible (rom t$e t$ir! element. #ct%al +no,le!ge b' t$e E(enceF o( t$e (act t$at &ro&ert' receive! is stolen !is&la's t$e same !egree o( malicio%s !e&rivation o( one>s rig$t(%l &ro&ert' as t$at ,$ic$ animate! t$e robber' or t$e(t ,$ic$ b' t$eir ver' nat%re are crimes o( moral t%r&it%!e. #n! alt$o%g$ t$e &artici&ation o( eac$ (elon in t$e %nla,(%l ta+ing !i((ers in &oint in time an! in !egree bot$ t$e E(enceF an! t$e act%al &er&etrator?s o( t$e robber' or t$e(t inva!e! one>s &eace(%l !ominion (or gain D t$%s !eliberatel' reneging in t$e &rocess E&rivate !%tiesF t$e' o,e t$eir E(ello,menF or Esociet'F in a manner Econtrar' to acce&te! an! c%stomar' r%le o( rig$t an! !%t' 9%stice $onest' or goo! morals.F 2$e !%t' not to a&&ro&riate or to ret%rn an't$ing ac.%ire! eit$er b' mista+e or ,it$ malice is so basic it (in!s e4&ression in some +e' &rovisions o( t$e Civil Co!e on EH%man -elationsF an! E)ol%tio *n!ebitiF 2$e same %n!erl'ing reason $ol!s even i( t$e E(enceF !i! not $ave act%al +no,le!ge b%t merel' Es$o%l! $ave +no,nF t$e origin o( t$e &ro&ert' receive!. *n t$is regar! t$e Co%rt $el!: E6$en +no,le!ge o( t$e e4istence o( a &artic%lar (act is an element o( t$e o((ense s%c$ +no,le!ge is establis$e! i( a &erson is a,are o( t$e $ig$ &robabilit' o( its e4istence %nless $e act%all' believes t$at it !oes not e4ist. On t$e ot$er $an! t$e ,or!s ]s$o%l! +no,> !enote t$e (act t$at a &erson o( reasonable &r%!ence an! intelligence ,o%l! ascertain t$e (act in t$e &er(ormance o( $is !%t' to anot$er or ,o%l! govern $is con!%ct %&on ass%m&tion t$at s%c$ (act e4ists.F 6ON a grant o( &robation a((ects )ection 05 ;a<>s a&&licabilit'. #nent t$e secon! iss%e ,$ere &etitioner conten!s t$at $is &robation $a! t$e e((ect o( s%s&en!ing t$e a&&licabilit' o( )ection 05 ;a< o( t$e LGC s%((ice it to sa' t$at t$e legal e((ect o( &robation is onl' to s%s&en! t$e e4ec%tion o( t$e sentence. =etitioner>s conviction o( (encing ,$ic$ ,e $ave $ereto(ore !eclare! as a crime o( moral t%r&it%!e an! t$%s (alling s.%arel' %n!er t$e !is.%ali(ication (o%n! in )ection 05 ;a< s%bsists an! remains totall' %na((ecte! not,it$stan!ing t$e grant o( &robation. *n (act a 9%!gment o( conviction in a criminal case i&so (acto attains (inalit' ,$en t$e acc%se! a&&lies (or &robation alt$o%g$ it is not e4ec%tor' &en!ing resol%tion o( t$e a&&lication (or &robation. Clearl' t$en &etitioner>s t$eor' $as no merit. Magno v. COM%L%C Facts: # case ,as (ile! b' &rivate res&on!ent on Marc$ /1 /551 (or t$e !is.%ali(ication o( &etitioner Nestor Magno as ma'oralt' can!i!ate o( )an *si!ro N%eva 3ci9a !%ring t$e Ma' 10 /551 elections on t$e gro%n! t$at &etitioner ,as &revio%sl' convicte! b' t$e )an!iganba'an o( (o%r co%nts o( !irect briber' &enaliBe! %n!er #rticle /15 o( t$e -evise! =enal Co!e. *t a&&ears t$at on 7%l' /C 188C &etitioner ,as sentence! to s%((er t$e in!eterminate &enalt' o( 1 mont$s an! 11 !a's o( arresto ma'or as minim%m to 1 'ear 8 mont$s an! /1 !a's o( &rision correccional as ma4im%m (or eac$ o( t$e (o%r co%nts o( !irect briber'. 2$erea(ter &etitioner a&&lie! (or &robation an! ,as !isc$arge! on Marc$ C 1888 %&on or!er o( t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt o( Ga&an N%eva 3ci9a. On Ma' 7 /551 t$e Commission on 3lections ;COM3L3C< ren!ere! a !ecision granting t$e &etition o( &rivate res&on!ent an! !eclaring t$at &etitioner ,as !is.%ali(ie! (rom r%nning (or t$e &osition o( ma'or in t$e Ma' 10 /551 elections base! on )ec 1/ o( t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e. On Ma' 15 /551 &etitioner (ile! a motion (or reconsi!eration b%t t$e same ,as !enie! b' t$e COM3L3C in its resol%tion !ate! Ma' 1/ /551. Hence t$is &etition. *ss%e: 6ON &etitioner ,as !is.%ali(ie! to r%n (or ma'or in t$e /551 elections. a. ,$et$er t$e crime o( !irect briber' involves moral t%r&it%!e Moral 2%r&it%!e: an act o( baseness vileness or !e&ravit' in t$e &rivate !%ties ,$ic$ a man o,es $is (ello, men or to societ' in general contrar' to t$e acce&te! an! c%stomar' r%le o( rig$t an! !%t' bet,een man an! ,oman or con!%ct contrar' to 9%stice $onest' mo!est' or goo! morals. ;Blac+>s La,< 3lements o( Briber': 1. t$e o((en!er is a &%blic o((icerA /. t$e o((en!er acce&ts an o((er or &romise or receives a gi(t or &resent b' $imsel( or t$ro%g$ anot$erA 1. s%c$ o((er or &romise be acce&te! or gi(t or &resent be receive! b' t$e &%blic o((icer ,it$ a vie, to committing some crime or in consi!eration o( t$e e4ec%tion o( an act ,$ic$ !oes not constit%te a crime b%t t$e act m%st be %n9%st or to re(rain

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(rom !oing somet$ing ,$ic$ it is $is o((icial !%t' to !oA an! 0. t$e act ,$ic$ t$e o((en!er agrees to &er(orm or ,$ic$ $e e4ec%tes is connecte! ,it$ t$e &er(ormance o( $is o((icial !%ties. Moral t%r&it%!e can be in(erre! (rom t$e t$ir! element. 2$e (act t$at t$e o((en!er agrees to acce&t a &romise or gi(t an! !eliberatel' commits an %n9%st act or re(rains (rom &er(orming an o((icial !%t' in e4c$ange (or some (avors !enotes a malicio%s intent on t$e &art o( t$e o((en!er to renege on t$e !%ties ,$ic$ $e o,es $is (ello,men an! societ' in general. #lso t$e (act t$at t$e o((en!er ta+es a!vantage o( $is o((ice an! &osition is a betra'al o( t$e tr%st re&ose! on $im b' t$e &%blic. *t is a con!%ct clearl' contrar' to t$e acce&te! r%les o( rig$t an! !%t' 9%stice $onest' an! goo! morals. *n all res&ects !irect briber' is a crime involving moral t%r&it%!e. ,$et$er it is t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e or t$e LGC t$at s$o%l! a&&l' in t$is sit%ation. 2$ere a&&ears to be a glaring incom&atibilit' bet,een t$e (iveD'ear !is.%ali(ication &erio! &rovi!e! in )ec 1/ o( t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e an! t$e t,oD'ear !is.%ali(ication &erio! in )ec 05 o( t$e LGC. *t s$o%l! be note! t$at t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e ;B= 881< ,as a&&rove! on December 1 188C ,$ile t$e LGC ;-# 71G5< too+ e((ect on 7an%ar' 1 188/. *t is basic in stat%tor' constr%ction t$at in case o( irreconcilable con(lict bet,een t,o la,s t$e later enactment m%st &revail being t$e more recent e4&ression o( legislative ,ill. Legis &osteriores &riores contrarias abrogant. *n enacting t$e later la, t$e legislat%re is &res%me! to $ave +no,le!ge o( t$e ol!er la, an! inten!e! to c$ange it. F%rt$ermore t$e re&ealing cla%se o( )ection C10 o( -# 71G5 or t$e LGC states t$at: ;(< #ll general an! s&ecial la,s acts cit' c$arters !ecrees e4ec%tive or!ers &roclamations an! a!ministrative reg%lations or &art or &arts t$ereo( ,$ic$ are inconsistent ,it$ an' &rovisions o( t$is Co!e are $ereb' re&eale! or mo!i(ie! accor!ingl'. *n accor!ance t$ere,it$ )ection 05 o( -# 71G5 is !eeme! to $ave re&eale! )ection 1/ o( B= 881. F%rt$ermore #rticle 7 o( t$e Civil Co!e &rovi!es t$at la,s are re&eale! onl' b' s%bse.%ent ones an! not t$e ot$er ,a' aro%n!. 6$en a s%bse.%ent la, entirel' encom&asses t$e s%b9ect matter o( t$e (ormer enactment t$e latter is !eeme! re&eale!.

Davi! v. COM3L3C: -# 71G5 is a co!i(ie! set o( la,s t$at


s&eci(icall' a&&lies to local government %nits. )ection 05 t$ereo( s&eciall' an! !e(initivel' &rovi!es (or !is.%ali(ications o( can!i!ates (or elective local &ositions. *t is a&&licable to t$em onl'. On t$e ot$er $an! )ection 1/ o( B= 881 s&ea+s o( !is.%ali(ications o( can!i!ates (or an' &%blic o((ice. *t !eals ,it$ t$e election o( all &%blic o((icers. 2$%s )ection 05 o( -# 71G5 inso(ar as it governs t$e !is.%ali(ications o( can!i!ates (or local &ositions ass%mes t$e nat%re o( a s&ecial la, ,$ic$ o%g$t to &revail. 2$e intent o( t$e legislat%re to re!%ce t$e !is.%ali(ication &erio! o( can!i!ates (or local &ositions (rom (ive to t,o 'ears is evi!ent. 2$e car!inal r%le in t$e inter&retation o( all la,s is to ascertain an! give e((ect to t$e intent o( t$e la,. 2$e re!%ction o( t$e !is.%ali(ication &erio! (rom (ive to t,o 'ears is t$e mani(est intent. 2$ere(ore alt$o%g$ $is crime o( !irect briber' involve! moral t%r&it%!e &etitioner nonet$eless co%l! not be !is.%ali(ie! (rom r%nning in t$e /551 elections. #rticle 1/ o( t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e ;B= 881< m%st 'iel! to #rticle 05 o( t$e LGC. =etitioner>s !is.%ali(ication cease! as o( Marc$ C /555 an! $e ,as t$ere(ore %n!er no s%c$ !is.%ali(ication an'more ,$en $e ran (or ma'or o( )an *si!ro N%eva 3ci9a in t$e Ma' 10 /551 elections. Lingating v. COM%L%C Facts: Mig%el M. Lingating (ile! a !is.%ali(ication case against res&on!ent Cesar B. )%long as can!i!ate (or ma'or o( La&%'an Zamboanga !el )%r in t$e Ma' 10 /551 elections &%rs%ant to c05;b< o( t$e LGC ,$ic$ !is.%ali(ies (rom r%nning (or an' elective local &osition Et$ose remove! (rom o((ice as a res%lt o( an a!ministrative case. *t a&&ears t$at res&on!ent )%long $a! &revio%sl' ,on as ma'or o( La&%'an on 7an%ar' 18 1888. *n t$e Ma' 11 188/ an! again in t$e Ma' 8 188C elections $e ,as reelecte!. *n a &etition (or !is.%ali(ication &etitioner allege! t$at in 1881 !%ring $is (irst term as ma'or o( La&%'an res&on!ent )%long along ,it$ a m%nici&al co%ncilor o( La&%'an an! several ot$er in!ivi!%als ,as a!ministrativel' c$arge! ,it$ vario%s o((enses an! t$at on Febr%ar' 0 188/ t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan o( Zamboanga !el )%r (o%n! $im g%ilt' o( t$e c$arges an! or!ere! $is removal (rom o((ice. =etitioner claime! t$at t$is !ecision $a! become (inal an! e4ec%tor' an! conse.%entl' t$e

a.

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t$en viceDma'or o( La&%'an Kicente *mbing too+ $is oat$ as ma'or vice res&on!ent )%long on Marc$ 1 188/. -es&on!ent )%long !enie! t$at t$e !ecision in #C No. 1/D81 $a! become (inal an! e4ec%tor'. He averre! t$at a(ter receiving a co&' o( t$e !ecision on Febr%ar' 17 188/ $e (ile! a motion (or reconsi!eration an!?or notice o( a&&eal t$ereo( on Febr%ar' 18 188/A t$at on Febr%ar' /7 188/ t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan re.%ire! 7im Lingating t$e com&lainant in #C No. 1/D81 to comment on res&on!ent )%long>s motion (or reconsi!eration an!?or notice o( a&&ealA t$at t$e sai! com&lainant $a! not 'et com&lie! t$ere,it$ an! $is ;res&on!ent )%long>s< motion $a! conse.%entl' remaine! &en!ing. -es&on!ent )%long !enie! $e $a! been remove! (rom o((ice b' virt%e o( t$e !ecision in #C No. 1/D81. #(ter t$e &arties $a! (ile! t$eir memoran!a t$e case ,as s%bmitte! (or resol%tion. Beca%se t$e COM3L3C ,as %nable to ren!er 9%!gment be(ore t$e elections o( Ma' 10 /551 res&on!ent )%long ,as vote! (or in t$e elections receiving 0 88/ votes as against t$e 1 G11 votes (or &etitioner. On Ma' 1G /551 res&on!ent )%long ,as &roclaime! b' t$e M%nici&al Boar! o( Canvassers o( La&%'an as t$e !%l' electe! ma'or o( t$at m%nici&alit'. *n a resol%tion !ate! #%g%st 1 /551 t$e COM3L3C>s First Division !eclare! res&on!ent Cesar B. )%long !is.%ali(ie!. -es&on!ent )%long (ile! a motion (or reconsi!eration citing a certi(ication !ate! #%g%st 7 /551 o( =rovincial )ecretar' o( Zamboanga !el )%r ;O*C< 6il(re!o Cima(ranca t$at t$e !ecision in #C No. 1/D81 E$as not become (inal an! e4ec%tor' as t$e (inal !is&osition t$ereo( ,as overta+en b' t$e local elections o( Ma' 188/.F He reiterate! $is claim t$at at no time $a! $e been remove! b' virt%e o( t$e sai! !ecision. =etitioner (ile! an o&&osition conten!ing among ot$er t$ings t$at t$e (act t$at Zamboanga !el )%r Governor #riosa $a! or!ere! t$e en(orcement o( t$e !ecision signi(ie! t$at res&on!ent )%long>s motion (or reconsi!eration an!?or notice o( a&&eal $a! not been given !%e co%rse b' t$e )angg%niang =anlala,iganA an! t$at res&on!ent )%long>s claim t$at $e $a! not been remove! (rom o((ice ,as belie! b' t$e (act t$at $e ;res&on!ent )%long< bro%g$t c$arges against Kicente *mbing (or @s%r&ation o( O((icial F%nctions ;*.). No. 8/D1C< in s%&&ort o( ,$ic$ res&on!ent )%long atteste! %n!er oat$ t$at *mbing $a! s%ccee!e! $im as ma'or o( La&%'an. *n a se&arate motion &etitioner &ra'e! t$at t$e resol%tion o( #%g%st 1 /551 be e4ec%te! an! t$at $e be installe! as ma'or o( La&%'an in vie, o( &rivate res&on!ent>s !is.%ali(ication. On #%g%st 15 /551 t$e COM3L3C>s First Division !enie! &etitioner>s motion (or e4ec%tion on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e !is.%ali(ication o( an electe! $ig$est n%mber o( votes to occ%&' t$e o((ice vacate!. =etitioner t$en (ile! a motion (or reconsi!eration o( t$is or!er. On #&ril 0 /55/ t$e COM3L3C en banc iss%e! its resol%tion s%b9ect o( t$e &etition in t$is case reversing t$e resol%tion !ate! #%g%st 1 /551 o( its First Division inso(ar as it (o%n! res&on!ent )%long !is.%ali(ie! (rom r%nning as ma'or. *n t$e Ma' 188/ elections res&on!ent )%long ,as reDelecte! ma'or o( La&%'an Zamboanga !el )%r !es&ite t$e !ecision o( t$e )angg%niang !ismissing $im (rom o((ice. *n t$e 188C Ma' elections res&on!ent )%long ran an! ,on t$e ma'oralt' elections o( La&%'an Zamboanga !el )%r. 2$e COM3L3C en banc also r%le! t$at in an' event res&on!ent )%long ,as not entitle! to occ%&' t$e o((ice t$%s vacate!. Hence t$is &etition b' Lingating. *ss%e: 6ON an elective local e4ec%tive o((icer ,$o is remove! be(ore t$e e4&iration o( t$e term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe! is !is.%ali(ie! (rom being a can!i!ate (or a local elective &osition %n!er c05;b< o( t$e LGC. -e'es case: =etitioner invo+es t$e r%ling in #g%inal!o v. COM3L3C in ,$ic$ it ,as $el! t$at a &%blic o((icial co%l! not be remove! (or miscon!%ct committe! !%ring a &rior term an! t$at $is reelection o&erate! as a con!onation o( t$e o((icer>s &revio%s miscon!%ct to t$e e4tent o( c%tting o(( t$e rig$t to remove $im t$ere(or. B%t t$at ,as beca%se in t$at case be(ore t$e &etition .%estioning t$e vali!it' o( t$e a!ministrative !ecision removing &etitioner co%l! be !eci!e! t$e term o( o((ice !%ring ,$ic$ t$e allege! miscon!%ct ,as committe! e4&ire!. -emoval cannot e4ten! be'on! t$e term !%ring ,$ic$ t$e allege! miscon!%ct ,as committe!. *( a &%blic o((icial is not remove! be(ore $is term o( o((ice e4&ires $e can no longer be remove! i( $e is t$erea(ter reelecte! U(orV anot$er term. 2$is is t$e rationale (or t$e r%ling in t$e t,o #g%inal!o cases. 2$e case at bar is t$e ver' o&&osite o( t$ose cases. Here . . . t$e !ecision in t$e a!ministrative case . . . ,as serve! on &etitioner an! it t$erea(ter became (inal on #&ril 1 188C beca%se &etitioner (aile! to a&&eal to t$e O((ice o( t$e =resi!ent. He ,as t$%s vali!l' remove! (rom o((ice an! &%rs%ant to c05;b< o( t$e LGC $e ,as !is.%ali(ie! (rom r%nning (or reelection. *t is note,ort$' t$at at t$e time t$e #g%inal!o cases ,ere !eci!e! t$ere ,as no &rovision similar to c05;b< ,$ic$

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!is.%ali(ies an' &erson (rom r%nning (or an' elective &osition on t$e gro%n! t$at $e $as been remove! as a res%lt o( an a!ministrative case. 2$e LGC o( 1881 ;-.#. No. 71G5< co%l! not be given retroactive e((ect. Ho,ever -e'es cannot be a&&lie! to t$is case beca%se it a&&ears t$at t$e 188/ !ecision o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan (in!ing res&on!ent )%long g%ilt' o( !is$onest' (alsi(ication an! malversation o( &%blic (%n!s $as not %ntil no, become (inal. 2$e recor!s o( t$is case s$o, t$at t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan o( Zamboanga !el )%r ren!ere! 9%!gment in #C No. 1/D81 on Febr%ar' 0 188/ a co&' o( ,$ic$ ,as receive! b' res&on!ent )%long on Febr%ar' 17 188/A t$at on Febr%ar' 18 188/ $e (ile! a Emotion (or reconsi!eration an!?or notice o( a&&ealAF t$at on Febr%ar' /7 188/ t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan re.%ire! 7im Lingating t$e com&lainant in #C No. 1/D81 to commentA an! t$at t$e com&lainant in #C No. 1/D81 $as not (ile! a comment nor $as t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan resolve! res&on!ent>s motion. 2$e (iling o( $is motion (or reconsi!eration &revente! t$e !ecision o( )angg%niang =anlala,igan (rom becoming (inal. 6$ile -.#. No. 71G5 on !isci&linar' actions is silent on t$e (iling o( a motion (or reconsi!eration t$e same cannot be inter&rete! as a &ro$ibition against t$e (iling o( a motion (or reconsi!eration. 2$%s it ,as $el!U1CV t$at a &art' in a !isbarment &rocee!ing %n!er -%le 118DB c1/;c< can move (or a reconsi!eration o( a resol%tion o( t$e *ntegrate! Bar o( t$e =$ili&&ines alt$o%g$ -%le 118DB !oes not so &rovi!e: #lt$o%g$ -%le 118DB c1/;c< ma+es no mention o( a motion (or reconsi!eration not$ing in its te4t or $istor' s%ggests t$at s%c$ motion is &ro$ibite!. *t ma' t$ere(ore be (ile! . . . . *n!ee! t$e (iling o( s%c$ motion s$o%l! be enco%rage! be(ore Uan a&&eal isV resortUe!V to . . . as a matter o( e4$a%stion o( a!ministrative reme!ies to a((or! t$e agenc' ren!ering t$e 9%!gment UanV o&&ort%nit' to correct an' error it ma' $ave committe! t$ro%g$ a misa&&re$ension o( (acts or misa&&reciation o( evi!ence. 2$ere is t$%s no !ecision (in!ing res&on!ent g%ilt' to s&ea+ o(. #s =rovincial )ecretar' o( Zamboanga !el )%r 6il(re!o Cima(ranca atteste! t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan sim&l' consi!ere! t$e matter as $aving become moot an! aca!emic beca%se it ,as Eoverta+en b' t$e local elections o( Ma' U11 V188/.F Neit$er can t$e s%ccession o( t$e t$en viceDma'or o( La&%'an Kicente *mbing an! t$e $ig$est ran+ing m%nici&al co%ncilor o( La&%'an -omeo 2an to t$e o((ices o( ma'or an! viceDma'or res&ectivel' be consi!ere! &roo( t$at t$e !ecision in #C No. 1/D81 $a! become (inal beca%se it a&&ears to $ave been ma!e &%rs%ant to cG8U1GV o( t$e LGC ,$ic$ ma+es !ecisions in a!ministrative cases imme!iatel' e4ec%tor'. *n!ee! consi!ering t$e (ail%re o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan to resolve res&on!ent>s motion it is %n(air to t$e electorate to be tol! a(ter t$e' $ave vote! (or res&on!ent )%long t$at a(ter all $e is !is.%ali(ie! es&eciall' since at t$e time o( t$e elections on Ma' 10 /551 t$e !ecision o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan $a! been ren!ere! nearl' ten 'ears ago. Having come to t$e concl%sion t$at res&on!ent )%long is not !is.%ali(ie! (rom $ol!ing t$e &osition o( ma'or o( La&%'an it is %nnecessar' to &ass %&on &etitioner>s contention t$at as t$e can!i!ate ,$o obtaine! t$e secon! $ig$est n%mber o( votes $e is entitle! to be installe! as ma'or beca%se t$e votes cast in (avor o( res&on!ent )%long ,ere voi!. &lores v. COM%L%C Facts: 2$e constit%tionalit' o( )ec. 11 &ar. ;!< o( -.#. 7//7 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e "Bases Conversion an! Develo&ment #ct o( 188/ " %n!er ,$ic$ res&on!ent Ma'or -ic$ar! 7. Gor!on o( Olonga&o Cit' ,as a&&ointe! C$airman an! C$ie( 34ec%tive O((icer o( t$e )%bic Ba' Metro&olitan #%t$orit' ;)BM#< is c$allenge! in t$is original &etition ,it$ &ra'er (or &ro$ibition &reliminar' in9%nction an! tem&orar' restraining or!er "to &revent %seless an! %nnecessar' e4&en!it%res o( &%blic (%n!s b' ,a' o( salaries an! ot$er o&erational e4&enses attac$e! to t$e o((ice . . . ." =aragra&$ ;!< rea!s: C$airman a!ministrator S 2$e =resi!ent s$all a&&oint a &ro(essional manager as a!ministrator o( t$e )%bic #%t$orit' ,it$ a com&ensation to be !etermine! b' t$e Boar! s%b9ect to t$e a&&roval o( t$e )ecretar' o( B%!get ,$o s$all be t$e e4 o(icio c$airman o( t$e Boar! an! ,$o s$all serve as t$e c$ie( e4ec%tive o((icer o( t$e )%bic #%t$orit': =rovi!e! $o,ever 2$at (or t$e (irst

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'ear o( its o&erations (rom t$e e((ectivit' o( t$is #ct t$e ma'or o( t$e Cit' o( Olonga&o s$all be a&&ointe! as t$e c$airman an! c$ie( e4ec%tive o((icer o( t$e )%bic #%t$orit'. =etitioners ,$o claim to be ta4&a'ers em&lo'ees o( t$e @.). Facilit' at t$e )%bic Zambales an! o((icers an! members o( t$e Fili&ino Civilian 3m&lo'ees #ssociation in @.). Facilities in t$e =$ili&&ines maintain t$at t$e &roviso in &ar. ;!< o( )ec. 11 in(ringes on t$e (ollo,ing constit%tional an! stat%tor' &rovisions: ;a< )ec. 7 (irst &ar. #rt. *JD B o( t$e Constit%tion ,$ic$ states t$at "UnVo elective o((icial s$all be eligible (or a&&ointment or !esignation in an' ca&acit' to an' &%blic o((icer or &osition !%ring $is ten%re " beca%se t$e Cit' Ma'or o( Olonga&o Cit' is an elective o((icial an! t$e s%b9ect &osts are &%blic o((icesA ;b< )ec. 1G #rt. K** o( t$e Constit%tion ,$ic$ &rovi!es t$at "UtV$e =resi!ent s$all . . . . a&&oint all ot$er o((icers o( t$e Government ,$ose a&&ointments are not ot$er,ise &rovi!e! (or b' la, an! t$ose ,$om $e ma' be a%t$oriBe! b' la, to a&&oint" since it ,as Congress t$ro%g$ t$e .%estione! &roviso an! not t$e =resi!ent ,$o a&&ointe! t$e Ma'or to t$e s%b9ect &ostsA an! ;c< )ec. /G1 &ar. ;g< o( t$e Omnib%s 3lection Co!e ,$ic$ sa's: )ec. /G1. =ro$ibite! #cts. S 2$e (ollo,ing s$all be g%ilt' o( an election o((ense: . . . ;g< #&&ointment o( ne, em&lo'ees creation o( ne, &osition &romotion or giving salar' increases. S D%ring t$e &erio! o( (ort'D(ive !a's be(ore a reg%lar election an! t$irt' !a's be(ore a s&ecial election ;1< an' $ea! o((icial or a&&ointing o((icer o( a government o((ice agenc' or instr%mentalit' ,$et$er national or local incl%!ing governmentD o,ne! or controlle! cor&orations ,$o a&&oints or $ires an' ne, em&lo'ee ,$et$er &rovisional tem&orar' or cas%al or creates an! (ills an' ne, &osition e4ce&t %&on &rior a%t$orit' o( t$e Commission. 2$e Commission s$all not grant t$e a%t$orit' so%g$t %nless it is satis(ie! t$at t$e &osition to be (ille! is essential to t$e &ro&er (%nctioning o( t$e o((ice or agenc' concerne! an! t$at t$e &osition s$all not be (ille! in a manner t$at ma' in(l%ence t$e election. #s an e4ce&tion to t$e (oregoing &rovisions a ne, em&lo'ee ma' be a&&ointe! in case o( %rgent nee!: =rovi!e! $o,ever 2$at notice o( t$e a&&ointment s$all be given to t$e Commission ,it$in t$ree !a's (rom t$e !ate o( t$e a&&ointment. #n' a&&ointment or $iring in violation o( t$is &rovision s$all be n%ll an! voi!. ;/< #n' government o((icial ,$o &romotes or gives an' increase o( salar' or rem%neration or &rivilege to an' government o((icial or em&lo'ee incl%!ing t$ose in governmentDo,ne! or controlle! cor&orations . . . .(or t$e reason t$at t$e a&&ointment o( res&on!ent Gor!on to t$e s%b9ect &osts ma!e b' res&on!ent 34ec%tive )ecretar' on 1 #&ril 188/ ,as ,it$in t$e &ro$ibite! 0CD !a' &erio! &rior to t$e 11 Ma' 188/ 3lections. *ss%e: 6ON &roviso in )ec. 11 &ar. ;!< o( -.#. 7//7 ,$ic$ states "=rovi!e! $o,ever 2$at (or t$e (irst 'ear o( its o&erations (rom t$e e((ectivit' o( t$is #ct t$e ma'or o( t$e Cit' o( Olonga&o s$all be a&&ointe! as t$e c$airman an! c$ie( e4ec%tive o((icer o( t$e )%bic #%t$orit' " violates t$e constit%tional &roscri&tion against a&&ointment or !esignation o( elective o((icials to ot$er government &osts. )ec. 7 o( #rt. *JDB o( t$e Constit%tion:No elective o((icial s$all be eligible (or a&&ointment or !esignation in an' ca&acit' to an' &%blic o((ice or &osition !%ring $is ten%re. @nless ot$er,ise allo,e! b' la, or b' t$e &rimar' (%nctions o( $is &osition no a&&ointive o((icial s$all $ol! an' ot$er o((ice or em&lo'ment in t$e Government or an' s%b!ivision agenc' or instr%mentalit' t$ereo( incl%!ing governmentD o,ne! or controlle! cor&orations or t$eir s%bsi!iaries. 2$e section e4&resses t$e &olic' against t$e concentration o( several &%blic &ositions in one &erson so t$at a &%blic o((icer or em&lo'ee ma' serve (%llDtime ,it$ !e!ication an! t$%s be e((icient in t$e !eliver' o( &%blic services. *t is an a((irmation t$at a &%blic o((ice is a (%llDtime 9ob. Hence a &%blic o((icer or em&lo'ee li+e t$e $ea! o( an e4ec%tive !e&artment !escribe! in Civil Liberties @nion v. 34ec%tive )ecretar' G.-. No. 8188G an! #ntiDGra(t Leag%e o( t$e =$ili&&ines *nc. v. =$ili& 3lla C. 7%ico as )ecretar' o( #grarian -e(orm G.-. No. 8181C G ". . . . s$o%l! be allo,e! to atten! to $is !%ties an! res&onsibilities ,it$o%t t$e !istraction o( ot$er governmental !%ties or em&lo'ment. He s$o%l! be &recl%!e! (rom !issi&ating $is e((orts attention an! energ' among too man' &ositions o( res&onsibilit' ,$ic$ ma' res%lt in $a&$aBar!ness an! ine((icienc' . . . ." *n t$e case be(ore %s t$e s%b9ect &roviso !irects t$e =resi!ent to a&&oint an elective o((icial i.e. t$e Ma'or o( Olonga&o Cit' to ot$er government &osts ;as C$airman o( t$e Boar! an! C$ie( 34ec%tive O((icer o( )BM#<. )ince t$is is &recisel' ,$at t$e constit%tional &roscri&tion see+s to &revent it nee!s no stretc$ing o( t$e imagination to concl%!e t$at t$e &roviso contravenes )ec. 7 (irst &ar. #rt. *JDB o( t$e Constit%tion. Here t$e (act t$at t$e e4&ertise o(

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an elective o((icial ma' be most bene(icial to t$e $ig$er interest o( t$e bo!' &olitic is o( no moment. *t is arg%e! t$at )ec. 80 o( t$e LGC ;LGC< &ermits t$e a&&ointment o( a local elective o((icial to anot$er &ost i( so allo,e! b' la, or b' t$e &rimar' (%nctions o( $is o((ice. 8 B%t t$e contention is (allacio%s. )ection 80 o( t$e LGC is not !eterminative o( t$e constit%tionalit' o( )ec. 11 &ar. ;!< o( -.#. 7//7 (or no legislative act can &revail over t$e (%n!amental la, o( t$e lan!. Moreover since t$e constit%tionalit' o( )ec. 80 o( LGC is not t$e iss%e $ere nor is t$at section so%g$t to be !eclare! %nconstit%tional ,e nee! not r%le on its vali!it'. Neit$er can ,e invo+e a &ractice ot$er,ise %nconstit%tional as a%t$orit' (or its vali!it'. *n an' case t$e vie, t$at an elective o((icial ma' be a&&ointe! to anot$er &ost i( allo,e! b' la, or b' t$e &rimar' (%nctions o( $is o((ice ignores t$e clearDc%t !i((erence in t$e ,or!ing o( t$e t,o ;/< &aragra&$s o( )ec. 7 #rt. JDB o( t$e Constit%tion. 6$ile t$e secon! &aragra&$ a%t$oriBes $ol!ing o( m%lti&le o((ices b' an a&&ointive o((icial ,$en allo,e! b' la, or b' t$e &rimar' (%nctions o( $is &osition t$e (irst &aragra&$ a&&ears to be more stringent b' not &rovi!ing an' e4ce&tion to t$e r%le against a&&ointment or !esignation o( an elective o((icial to t$e government &ost e4ce&t as are &artic%larl' recogniBe! in t$e Constit%tion itsel( e.g. t$e =resi!ent as $ea! o( t$e economic an! &lanning agenc'A 8 t$e KiceD=resi!ent ,$o ma' be a&&ointe! Member o( t$e CabinetA 15 an! a member o( Congress ,$o ma' be !esignate! e4 o((icio member o( t$e 7%!icial an! Bar Co%ncil. 2$e !istinction bet,een t$e (irst an! secon! &aragra&$s o( )ec. 7 #rt. *JDB ,as not acci!ental ,$en !ra,n an! not ,it$o%t reason. *t ,as &%r&osel' so%g$t b' t$e !ra(ters o( t$e Constit%tion as s$o,n in t$eir !eliberation t$%s S M-. MON)OD. *n ot$er ,or!s ,$at t$en Commissioner is sa'ing Mr. =resi!ing O((icer is t$at t$e &ro$ibition is more strict ,it$ res&ect to elective o((icials beca%se in t$e case o( a&&ointive o((icials t$ere ma' be a la, t$at ,ill allo, t$em to $ol! ot$er &ositions. M-. FOZ. :es * s%ggest ,e ma+e t$at !i((erence beca%se in t$e case o( a&&ointive o((icials t$ere ,ill be certain sit%ations ,$ere t$e la, s$o%l! allo, t$em to $ol! some ot$er &ositions. 2$e !istinction being clear t$e e4em&tion allo,e! to a&&ointive o((icials in t$e secon! &aragra&$ cannot be e4ten!e! to elective o((icials ,$o are governe! b' t$e (irst &aragra&$. *t is (%rt$er arg%e! t$at t$e )BM# &osts are merel' e4 o((icio to t$e &osition o( Ma'or o( Olonga&o Cit' $ence an e4ce&te! circ%mstance citing Civil Liberties @nion v. 34ec%tive )ecretar' ,$ere ,e state! t$at t$e &ro$ibition against t$e $ol!ing o( an' ot$er o((ice or em&lo'ment b' t$e =resi!ent KiceD=resi!ent Members o( t$e Cabinet an! t$eir !e&%ties or assistants !%ring t$eir ten%re as &rovi!e! in )ec. 11 #rt. K** o( t$e Constit%tion !oes not com&re$en! a!!itional !%ties an! (%nctions re.%ire! b' t$e &rimar' (%nctions o( t$e o((icials concerne! ,$o are to &er(orm t$em in an e4 o((icio ca&acit' as &rovi!e! b' la, ,it$o%t receiving an' a!!itional com&ensation t$ere(or. 2$is arg%ment is a&&arentl' base! on a ,rong &remise. Congress !i! not contem&late ma+ing t$e s%b9ect )BM# &osts as e4 o((icio or a%tomaticall' attac$e! to t$e O((ice o( t$e Ma'or o( Olonga&o Cit' ,it$o%t nee! o( a&&ointment. 2$e &$rase "s$all be a&&ointe!" %n.%estionabl' s$o,s t$e intent to ma+e t$e )BM# &osts a&&ointive an! not merel' a!9%nct to t$e &ost o( Ma'or o( Olonga&o Cit'. Ha! it been t$e legislative intent to ma+e t$e s%b9ect &ositions e4 o((icio Congress ,o%l! $ave at least avoi!e! t$e ,or! "a&&ointe!" an! instea! "e4 o((icio" ,o%l! $ave been %se!. 3ven in t$e )enate !eliberations t$e )enators ,ere (%ll' a,are t$at s%b9ect &roviso ma' contravene )ec. 7 (irst &ar. #rt. *JDB b%t t$e' nevert$eless &asse! t$e bill an! !eci!e! to $ave t$e controvers' resolve! b' t$e co%rts. *n!ee! t$e )enators ,o%l! not $ave been concerne! ,it$ t$e e((ects o( )ec. 7 (irst &ar. $a! t$e' consi!ere! t$e )BM# &osts as e4 o((icio. =etitioners also assail t$e legislative encroac$ment on t$e a&&ointing a%t$orit' o( t$e =resi!ent. )ection 11 &ar. ;!< itsel( vests in t$e =resi!ent t$e &o,er to a&&oint t$e C$airman o( t$e Boar! an! t$e C$ie( 34ec%tive O((icer o( )BM# alt$o%g$ $e reall' $as no c$oice %n!er t$e la, b%t to a&&oint t$e Ma'or o( Olonga&o Cit'. #s ma' be !e(ine! an "a&&ointment" is "UtV$e !esignation o( a &erson b' t$e &erson or &ersons $aving a%t$orit' t$ere(or to !isc$arge t$e !%ties o( some o((ice or tr%st " 17 or "UtV$e selection or !esignation o( a &erson b' t$e &erson

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or &ersons $aving a%t$orit' t$ere(or to (ill an o((ice or &%blic (%nction an! !isc$arge t$e !%ties o( t$e same. *n $is treatise =$ili&&ine =olitical La, )enior #ssociate 7%stice *sagani #. Cr%B !e(ines a&&ointment as "t$e selection b' t$e a%t$orit' veste! ,it$ t$e &o,er o( an in!ivi!%al ,$o is to e4ercise t$e (%nctions o( a given o((ice." Consi!ering t$at a&&ointment calls (or a selection t$e a&&ointing &o,er necessaril' e4ercises a !iscretion. #ccor!ing to 6oo!b%r' 7. "t$e c$oice o( a &erson to (ill an o((ice constit%tes t$e essence o( $is a&&ointment " an! Mr. 7%stice Malcolm a!!s t$at an "UaV&&ointment to o((ice is intrinsicall' an e4ec%tive act involving t$e e4ercise o( !iscretion." =amantasan ng L%ngso! ng Ma'nila v. *nterme!iate #&&ellate Co%rt: 2$e &o,er to a&&oint is in essence !iscretionar'. 2$e a&&ointing &o,er $as t$e rig$t o( c$oice ,$ic$ $e ma' e4ercise (reel' accor!ing to $is 9%!gment !eci!ing (or $imsel( ,$o is best .%ali(ie! among t$ose ,$o $ave t$e necessar' .%ali(ications an! eligibilities. *t is a &rerogative o( t$e a&&ointing &o,er 6$en Congress clot$es t$e =resi!ent ,it$ t$e &o,er to a&&oint an o((icer it ;Congress< cannot at t$e same time limit t$e c$oice o( t$e =resi!ent to onl' one can!i!ate. Once t$e &o,er o( a&&ointment is con(erre! on t$e =resi!ent s%c$ con(erment necessaril' carries t$e !iscretion o( ,$om to a&&oint. 3ven on t$e &rete4t o( &rescribing t$e .%ali(ications o( t$e o((icer Congress ma' not ab%se s%c$ &o,er as to !ivest t$e a&&ointing a%t$orit' !irectl' or in!irectl' o( $is !iscretion to &ic+ $is o,n c$oice. Conse.%entl' ,$en t$e .%ali(ications &rescribe! b' Congress can onl' be met b' one in!ivi!%al s%c$ enactment e((ectivel' eliminates t$e !iscretion o( t$e a&&ointing &o,er to c$oose an! constit%tes an irreg%lar restriction on t$e &o,er o( a&&ointment. *n t$e case at bar ,$ile Congress ,ille! t$at t$e s%b9ect &osts be (ille! ,it$ a &resi!ential a&&ointee (or t$e (irst 'ear o( its o&erations (rom t$e e((ectivit' o( -.#. 7//7 t$e &roviso nevert$eless limits t$e a&&ointing a%t$orit' to onl' one eligible i.e. t$e inc%mbent Ma'or o( Olonga&o Cit'. )ince onl' one can .%ali(' (or t$e &osts in .%estion t$e =resi!ent is &recl%!e! (rom e4ercising $is !iscretion to c$oose ,$om to a&&oint. )%c$ s%&&ose! &o,er o( a&&ointment sans t$e essential element o( c$oice is no &o,er at all an! goes against t$e ver' nat%re itsel( o( a&&ointment. 6$ile it ma' be vie,e! t$at t$e &roviso merel' sets t$e .%ali(ications o( t$e o((icer !%ring t$e (irst 'ear o( o&erations o( )BM# i.e. $e m%st be t$e Ma'or o( Olonga&o Cit' it is mani(estl' an ab%se o( congressional a%t$orit' to &rescribe .%ali(ications ,$ere onl' one an! no ot$er can .%ali('. #ccor!ingl' ,$ile t$e con(erment o( t$e a&&ointing &o,er on t$e =resi!ent is a &er(ectl' vali! legislative act t$e &roviso limiting $is c$oice to one is certainl' an encroac$ment on $is &rerogative. )ince t$e ineligibilit' o( an elective o((icial (or a&&ointment remains all t$ro%g$o%t $is ten%re or !%ring $is inc%mbenc' $e ma' $o,ever resign (irst (rom $is elective &ost to cast o(( t$e constit%tionall'Dattac$e! !is.%ali(ication be(ore $e ma' be consi!ere! (it (or a&&ointment. #s long as $e is an inc%mbent an elective o((icial remains ineligible (or a&&ointment to anot$er &%blic o((ice. 6$ere as in t$e case o( res&on!ent Gor!on an inc%mbent elective o((icial ,as not,it$stan!ing $is ineligibilit' a&&ointe! to ot$er government &osts $e !oes not a%tomaticall' (or(eit $is elective o((ice nor remove $is ineligibilit' im&ose! b' t$e Constit%tion. On t$e contrar' since an inc%mbent elective o((icial is not eligible to t$e a&&ointive &osition $is a&&ointment or !esignation t$ereto cannot be vali! in vie, o( $is !is.%ali(ication or lac+ o( eligibilit'. 2$is &rovision s$o%l! not be con(%se! ,it$ )ec. 11 #rt. K* o( t$e Constit%tion ,$ere ";n<o )enator or Member o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives ma' $ol! an' ot$er o((ice or em&lo'ment in t$e Government . . . !%ring $is term ,it$o%t (or(eiting $is seat . . . ." 2$e !i((erence bet,een t$e t,o &rovisions is signi(icant in t$e sense t$at inc%mbent national legislators lose t$eir elective &osts onl' a(ter t$e' $ave been a&&ointe! to anot$er government o((ice ,$ile ot$er inc%mbent elective o((icials m%st (irst resign t$eir &osts be(ore t$e' can be a&&ointe! t$%s r%nning t$e ris+ o( losing t$e elective &ost as ,ell as not being a&&ointe! to t$e ot$er &ost. *t is t$ere(ore clear t$at ineligibilit' is not !irectl' relate! ,it$ (or(eit%re o( o((ice. ". . . . 2$e e((ect is .%ite !i((erent ,$ere it is e4&ressl' &rovi!e! b' la, t$at a &erson $ol!ing one o((ice s$all be ineligible to anot$er. )%c$ a &rovision is $el! to inca&acitate t$e inc%mbent o( an o((ice

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(rom acce&ting or $ol!ing a secon! o((ice an! to ren!er $is election or a&&ointment to t$e latter o((ice voi! or voi!able "6$ere t$e constit%tion or stat%tes !eclare t$at &ersons $ol!ing one o((ice s$all be ineligible (or election or a&&ointment to anot$er o((ice eit$er generall' or o( a certain +in! t$e &ro$ibition $as been $el! to inca&acitate t$e inc%mbent o( t$e (irst o((ice to $ol! t$e secon! so t$at an' attem&t to $ol! t$e secon! is voi! #s inc%mbent elective o((icial res&on!ent Gor!on is ineligible (or a&&ointment to t$e &osition o( C$airman o( t$e Boar! an! C$ie( 34ec%tive o( )BM#A $ence $is a&&ointment t$ereto &%rs%ant to a legislative act t$at contravenes t$e Constit%tion cannot be s%staine!. He $o,ever remains Ma'or o( Olonga&o Cit' an! $is acts as )BM# o((icial are not necessaril' n%ll an! voi!A $e ma' be consi!ere! a !e (acto o((icer "one ,$ose acts t$o%g$ not t$ose o( a la,(%l o((icer t$e la, %&on &rinci&les o( &olic' an! 9%stice ,ill $ol! vali! so (ar as t$e' involve t$e interest o( t$e &%blic an! t$ir! &ersons ,$ere t$e !%ties o( t$e o((ice ,ere e4ercise! . . . . %n!er color o( a +no,n election or a&&ointment voi! beca%se t$e o((icer ,as not eligible or beca%se t$ere ,as a ,ant o( &o,er in t$e electing or a&&ointing bo!' or b' reason o( some !e(ect or irreg%larit' in its e4ercise s%c$ ineligibilit' ,ant o( &o,er or !e(ect being %n+no,n to t$e &%blic . . . . UorV %n!er color o( an election or a&&ointment b' or &%rs%ant to a &%blic %nconstit%tional la, be(ore t$e same is a!9%!ge! to be s%c$. Garvi a v. (ales /supra- see p. 00B1 Facts: Gali!o an! Galeon ,ere can!i!ates !%ring t$e 18 7an%ar' 1888 local elections (or t$e &osition o( ma'or in t$e M%nici&alit' o( GarciaDHernan!eB =rovince o( Bo$ol. Gali!o ,as &roclaime! !%l'D electe! Ma'or b' t$e M%nici&al Boar! o( Canvassers. Galeon t$en (ile! an election &rotest be(ore t$e -2C o( Bo$ol. #(ter $earing t$e sai! co%rt %&$el! t$e &roclamation o( Gali!o as t$e !%l'Delecte! Ma'or o( GarciaDHernan!eB b' a ma9orit' o( 11 votes. On a&&eal to t$e COM3L3C -2C !ecision ,as reverse! an! Galeon ,as !eclare! !%l'Delecte! ma'or b' a &l%ralit' o( C votes. M- !enie!. 2$e COM3L3C $el! t$at t$e (i(teen ;1C< ballots in t$e same &recinct containing t$e initial "C" a(ter t$e name "Gali!o" ,ere mar+e! ballots an! t$ere(ore invali!. 2$e COM3L3C sai! t$at ,$ere a ,or! or a letter rec%rs in a &attern or s'stem to mar+ an! i!enti(' ballots t$e ballots containing t$e same s$o%l! be re9ecte! as mar+e! ballots. Gali!o (ile! a &etition (or certiorari an! in9%nction. )C !ismisse! (or (ail%re o( &etitioner to com&l' ,it$ &ar. 0 o( t$e Co%rtHs Circ%lar No. 1D88 ,$ic$ re.%ires t$at a &etition s$all contain a veri(ie! statement o( t$e !ate ,$en notice o( t$e .%estione! 9%!gment or!er or resol%tion ,as receive! an! t$e !ate o( recei&t o( t$e !enial o( t$e motion (or reconsi!eration i( an' ,as (ile!. M!enie!. Gali!o (ile! &etition (or certiorari an! in9%nction ,it$ &ra'er (or a restraining or!er ,$ic$ contains t$e same allegations an! legal iss%es. 2-O iss%e! res&on!ents re.%ire! to (ile comment. *ss%es: 1. 6ON (inal !ecisions o( t$e COM3L3C are a&&ealable. 2$e COM3L3C $as e4cl%sive original 9%ris!iction over all contests relating to t$e elections ret%rns an! .%ali(ications o( all elective regional &rovincial an! cit' o((icials an! $as a&&ellate 9%ris!iction over all contests involving elective m%nici&al o((icials !eci!e! b' trial co%rts o( general 9%ris!iction or involving elective baranga' o((icials !eci!e! b' trial co%rts o( limite! 9%ris!iction. ;#rticle *J ;C< )ection / ;/< &aragra&$ 1 o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion<. 2$e (act t$at !ecisions (inal or!ers or r%lings o( t$e Commission on 3lections in contests involving elective m%nici&al an! baranga' o((ices are (inal e4ec%tor' an! not a&&ealable !oes not &recl%!e a reco%rse to t$is Co%rt b' ,a' o( a s&ecial civil action o( certiorari. M-. -3G#L#DO: *t is %n!erstoo! $o,ever t$at ,$ile t$ese !ecisions ,it$ res&ect to baranga' an! m%nici&al o((icials are (inal an! imme!iatel' e4ec%tor' an! t$ere(ore not a&&ealable t$at !oes not r%le o%t t$e &ossibilit' o( an

Gali o v. COM%L%C

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


original s&ecial civil action (or certiorari &ro$ibition or man!am%s as t$e case ma' be %n!er -%le GC o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt. /. 6ON t$e COM3L3C committe! a grave ab%se o( !iscretion. 6e !o not $o,ever believe t$at t$e res&on!ent COM3L3C committe! grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ or e4cess o( 9%ris!iction in ren!ering t$e .%estione! !ecision. *t is settle! t$at t$e (%nction o( a ,rit o( certiorari is to +ee& an in(erior co%rt or trib%nal ,it$in t$e bo%n!s o( its 9%ris!iction or to &revent it (rom committing a grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ or e4cess o( 9%ris!iction. #s correctl' arg%e! b' &%blic res&on!ent COM3L3C it $as t$e in$erent &o,er to !eci!e an election contest on &$'sical evi!ence e.%it' la, an! 9%stice an! a&&l' establis$e! 9%ris&r%!ence in s%&&ort o( its (in!ings an! concl%sionsA an! t$at t$e e4tent to ,$ic$ s%c$ &rece!ents a&&l' rests on its !iscretion t$e e4ercise o( ,$ic$ s$o%l! not be controlle! %nless s%c$ !iscretion $as been ab%se! to t$e &re9%!ice o( eit$er &art'. QQ2$e recor!s !isclose t$at &rivate res&on!ent $a! alrea!' ass%me! t$e &osition o( Ma'or o( GarciaDHernan!eB as t$e !%l'D electe! ma'or o( t$e m%nici&alit' b' virt%e o( t$e COM3L3C !ecision. 2$e main &%r&ose o( &ro$ibition is to s%s&en! all action an! &revent t$e (%rt$er &er(ormance o( t$e act com&laine! o(. *n t$is lig$t t$e &etition at bar $as become moot an! aca!emic. Rivera v. COM%L%C Facts: -ivera an! Garcia ** ,ere can!i!ates (or t$e &osition o( Ma'or o( G%inobatan #lba' !%ring t$e local elections in 7an%ar' 1888. 2$e M%nici&al Boar! o( Canvassers &roclaime! -ivera as t$e !%l' electe! Ma'or b' a ma9orit' o( 15 votes. Garcia (ile! an election &rotest ,it$ t$e -2C. #(ter !%e $earing an! %&on consi!ering t$e re&ort o( a -evision Committee it $a! earlier create! t$e trial co%rt (o%n! Garcia to $ave obtaine! G 17G votes as against -iveraHs G ///. -ivera a&&eale! to t$e COM3L3C. 2$e COM3L3C s%staine! ,it$ mo!i(ication ;(o%n! Garcia lea!ing b' 1C1 instea! o( 1C0<. M- !enie! rea((irme! ,it$ mo!i(ication ;1/1 votes<. Garcia commence! to !isc$arge t$e !%ties an! (%nctions o( Ma'or o( G%inobatan on 15 October 1885 b' virt%e o( a ,rit o( e4ec%tion im&lementing t$e COM3L3C !ecision o( G )e&tember 1885. He contin%e! as ma'or %ntil 15 November 1885 ,$en $e ,as serve! notice o( t$is Co%rtHs tem&orar' restraining or!er iss%e! %&on -iveraHs motion. -ivera (ile! t$e &resent &etition on C October 1885 see+ing ann%lment o( t$e COM3L3C en banc !ecision ren!ere! in (avor o( res&on!ent Garcia. He also &ra'e! (or t$e iss%ance o( an or!er restraining t$e im&lementation o( t$e sai! 9%!gment arg%ing t$at t$e same $a! not 'et become (inal an! e4ec%tor' as o( t$e time t$is &etition ,as (ile!. He cites #rticle *JDC )ection / =ar. ;/< o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion in relation to =art K** -%le 18 )ection 1 o( t$e COM3L3C -%les o( =roce!%re. He also conten!s t$at since t$e COM3L3C !ecision o( G )e&tember 1885 $as not 'et become (inal an! e4ec%tor' t$e COM3L3C $as no a%t$orit' to iss%e t$e assaile! or!er an! ,rit o( e4ec%tion. =etitioner maintains (%rt$er t$at $e $as a &erio! o( t$irt' ;15< !a's (rom G )e&tember 1885 or %ntil G October 1885 ,it$in ,$ic$ to elevate t$e COM3L3C !ecision on certiorari to t$is Co%rt &%rs%ant to )ection 1 -%le 18 o( t$e COM3L3C -%les o( =roce!%re. He s%bmits t$at t$e .%estione! COM3L3C !ecision is not one t$at became (inal an! e4ec%tor' %nless restraine! b' t$is Co%rt as &rovi!e! %n!er )ection 1 -%le 18 o( t$e COM3L3C -%les as sai! r%le a&&lies onl' to "!ecisions in &reD&roclamation cases an! &etitions to !en' !%e co%rse or to !is.%ali(' a can!i!ate an! &ost&one or s%s&en! elections." Lastl' accor!ing to &etitioner )ection 11;a< o( -%le 18 ;(inalit' o( Comelec !ecisions or resol%tions< an! )ection 1 o( -%le 18 ;revie, b' t$e )%&reme Co%rt o( Comelec !ecisions or!ers an! r%lings< o( t$e COM3L3C -%les o( =roce!%re s$o%l! be rea! in t$e conte4t o( )ection 7 #rticle *JD# o( t$e Constit%tion ;)%&reme Co%rt a%t$orit' to revie, on certiorari a Comelec !ecision or!er or r%ling<. @&on t$e ot$er $an! res&on!ent Garcia conten!s t$at: 1. 2$e Constit%tion !eclares t$e !ecisions o( t$e COM3L3C on election contests involving elective m%nici&al an! baranga' o((icials to be (inal e4ec%tor' an! not a&&ealable ;#rticle *JDC )ec. / &ar. ;/< secon! sentence 1887 Constit%tion<. /. *n an earlier &etition (or certiorari (ile! b' -ivera ,it$ t$is Co%rt !oc+ete! as G.-. No. 8750G c$arging t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt o( grave ab%se o( !iscretion in Case No. 51D88 ,$erein t$e same iss%e no, raise! in t$is &etition ,as raise! b' -ivera t$is Co%rt !ismisse! t$e &etition (or lac+ o( merit on 7 Marc$ 1888.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests


1. 2$e s%&&lemental gro%n! raise! b' &etitioner -ivera t$at t$e COM3L3C committe! grave ab%se o( !iscretion "b' not e4cl%!ing (rom t$e total votes o( Garcia at least ten ;15< votes ,$ic$ ,ere misa&&reciate! in GarciaHs (avor o%tsi!e o( t$ose ob9ecte! votes alrea!' r%le! %&on b' t$e COM3L3C" !oes not !eserve an' consi!eration. *( tr%e it is an error in 9%!gment correctible b' a&&eal not b' a &etition (or certiorari &%rs%ant to -%le GC )ection 1 o( t$e -%les o( Co%rt. *ss%es: 1. 6ON t$e !ecisions o( t$e COM3L3C in election contests involving elective m%nici&al an! baranga' o((icials being (inal an! e4ec%tor' an! not a&&ealable &recl%!e t$e (iling o( a s&ecial civil action o( certiorari. Gali!o Case. Flores v. COM3L3C: Obvio%sl' t$e &rovision o( #rticle *JDC )ection /;/< o( t$e Constit%tion t$at "!ecisions (inal or!ers or r%lings o( t$e Commission on election contests involving elective m%nici&al an! baranga' o((ices s$all be (inal e4ec%tor' an! not a&&ealable" a&&lies onl' to .%estions o( (act an! not o( la,. 2$at &rovision ,as not inten!e! to !ivest t$e )%&reme Co%rt o( its a%t$orit' to resolve .%estions o( la, as in$erent in t$e 9%!icial &o,er con(erre! %&on it b' t$e Constit%tion. 6e esc$e, a literal rea!ing o( t$at &rovision t$at ,o%l! contra!ict s%c$ a%t$orit'. /. 6ON t$e COM3L3C committe! a grave ab%se o( !iscretion. 2$e main t$r%st o( t$e &resent &etition (or certiorari is t$at t$e res&on!ent COM3L3C en banc committe! grave ab%se o( !iscretion ,$en it a((irme! t$e !ecision o( its First Division &rom%lgate! on / Ma' 1885 ann%lling t$e &roclamation o( t$e &etitioner as t$e !%l' electe! Ma'or o( G%inobatan #lba' an! ,$en it !i! not e4cl%!e (rom t$e total votes o( Garcia at least ten ;15< votes ,$ic$ ,ere allege!l' misa&&reciate! in GarciaHs (avor. 6e $ave closel' scr%tiniBe! t$e c$allenge! COM3L3C !ecision an! (in! t$at t$e sai! !ecision ,as not arrive! at ca&ricio%sl' or ,$imsicall' b' res&on!ent COM3L3C. # &ainsta+ing reDeval%ation o( t$e .%estione! G7 ballots ,as ma!e b' t$e COM3L3C en banc. *n (act 10 ballots originall' a!9%!icate! in GarciaHs (avor ,ere overr%le! b' t$e Commission en banc t$%s re!%cing t$e n%mber o( votes in $is (avor to 880 votes o%t o( t$e / 00C conteste! ballots. On t$e ot$er $an! 1G ballots ,ere a!!e! in -iveraHs (avor t$%s increasing t$e votes in $is (avor to 1 587 votes.

Moreover t$e a&&reciation an! reDeval%ation o( ballots are


(act%al !eterminations. *t is settle! t$at in a &etition (or certiorari (in!ings o( (act o( a!ministrative bo!ies are (inal %nless grave ab%se o( !iscretion $as marre! s%c$ (act%al !eterminations. 6e (in! none in t$is case. Bor3a v. COM%L%C Facts: Ca&co ,as electe! viceDma'or o( =ateros on 7an%ar' 18 1888 (or a term en!ing 7%ne 15 188/. On )e&tember / 1888 $e became ma'or b' o&eration o( la, %&on t$e !eat$ o( t$e inc%mbent Bor9a. On Ma' 11 188/ $e ran an! ,as electe! ma'or (or a term o( t$ree 'ears ,$ic$ en!e! on 7%ne 15 188C. On Ma' 8 188C $e ,as reelecte! ma'or (or anot$er term o( t$ree 'ears en!ing 7%ne 15 1888. On Marc$ /7 1888 Ca&co (ile! a certi(icate o( can!i!ac' (or ma'or o( =ateros relative to t$e Ma' 11 1888 elections. Bor9a 7r. ,$o ,as also a can!i!ate (or ma'or so%g$t Ca&co>s !is.%ali(ication on t$e t$eor' t$at t$e latter ,o%l! $ave alrea!' serve! as ma'or (or t$ree consec%tive terms b' 7%ne 15 1888 an! ,o%l! t$ere(ore be ineligible to serve (or anot$er term a(ter t$at. On #&ril 15 1888 t$e )econ! Division o( t$e COM3L3C r%le! in (avor o( Bor9a an! !eclare! Ca&co !is.%ali(ie! (rom r%nning (or reelection as ma'or o( =ateros. Ho,ever on motion o( &rivate res&on!ent t$e COM3L3C en banc voting CD/ reverse! t$e !ecision an! !eclare! Ca&co eligible to r%n (or ma'or in t$e Ma' 11 1888 elections. 2$e ma9orit' state! in its !ecision: *n bot$ t$e Constit%tion an! t$e LGC t$e t$reeDterm limitation re(ers to t$e term o( o((ice (or ,$ic$ t$e local o((icial ,as electe!. *t ma!e no re(erence to s%ccession to an o((ice to ,$ic$ $e ,as not electe!. )%ccession into o((ice is not co%nte! as 1 term (or &%r&oses o( t$e com&%tation o( t$e t$reeDterm limitation %n!er t$e Constit%tion an! t$e LGC. Ca&co ,on an! ,as &roclaime! electe! b' t$e M%nici&al Boar! o( Canvassers. 2$is is a &etition (or certiorari bro%g$t to set asi!e t$e resol%tion !ate! Ma' 7 1888 o( t$e COM3L3C an! to see! a !eclaration t$at Ca&co is !is.%ali(ie! to serve anot$er term as Ma'or o( =ateros Metro Manila. *ss%e: 6ON a viceDma'or ,$o s%ccee!s to t$e o((ice o( ma'or b' o&eration o( la, an! serves t$e remain!er o( t$e term is consi!ere! to $ave serve! a term in t$at o((ice (or t$e &%r&ose o( t$e t$reeDterm limit.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests #rticle J c8 o( t$e Constit%tion &rovi!es: 2$e term o( o((ice
o( elective local o((icials e4ce&t baranga' o((icials ,$ic$ s$all be !etermine! b' la, s$all be t$ree 'ears an! no s%c$ o((icial s$all serve (or more t$an t$ree consec%tive terms. Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( t$e o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( $is service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!. 2$is &rovision is restate! in c01;b< o( t$e LGC ;-.#. No. 71G5<: No local elective o((icial s$all serve (or more t$an t$ree ;1< consec%tive terms in t$e same &osition. Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( t$e o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ t$e elective o((icial concerne! ,as electe!. 2,o i!eas t$%s emerge (rom a consi!eration o( t$e &rocee!ings o( t$e Constit%tional Commission. 2$e (irst is t$e notion o( service o( term !erive! (rom t$e concern abo%t t$e acc%m%lation o( &o,er as a res%lt o( a &rolonge! sta' in o((ice. 2$e secon! is t$e i!ea o( election !erive! (rom t$e concern t$at t$e rig$t o( t$e &eo&le to c$oose t$ose ,$om t$e' ,is$ to govern t$em be &reserve!. *n !isc%ssing term limits t$e !ra(ters o( t$e Constit%tion !i! so on t$e ass%m&tion t$at t$e o((icials concerne! ,ere serving b' reason o( reelection. *n!ee! a (%n!amental tenet o( re&resentative !emocrac' is t$at t$e &eo&le s$o%l! be allo,e! to c$oose ,$om t$e' &lease to govern t$em. 2o bar t$e election o( a local o((icial beca%se $e $as alrea!' serve! t$ree terms alt$o%g$ t$e (irst as a res%lt o( s%ccession b' o&eration o( la, rat$er t$an election ,o%l! t$ere(ore be to violate t$is &rinci&le. )econ! not onl' $istorical e4amination b%t te4t%al anal'sis as ,ell s%&&orts t$e r%ling o( t$e COM3L3C t$at #rt. J c8 contem&lates service b' local o((icials (or t$ree consec%tive terms as a res%lt o( election. 2$e (irst sentence s&ea+s o( Et$e term o( o((ice o( elective local o((icialsF an! bars Es%c$ o((icialUsVF (rom serving (or more t$an t$ree consec%tive terms. 2$e secon! sentence in e4&laining ,$en an elective local o((icial ma' be !eeme! to $ave serve! $is (%ll term o( o((ice states t$at Evol%ntar' ren%nciation o( t$e o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( $is service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!.F 2$e term serve! m%st t$ere(ore be one E(or ,$ic$ Ut$e o((icial concerne!V ,as electe!.F 2$e &%r&ose o( t$is &rovision is to &revent a circ%mvention o( t$e limitation on t$e n%mber o( terms an elective o((icial ma' serve. Conversel' i( $e is not serving a term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe! beca%se $e is sim&l' contin%ing t$e service o( t$e o((icial $e s%ccee!s s%c$ o((icial cannot be consi!ere! to $ave (%ll' serve! t$e term no, ,it$stan!ing $is vol%ntar' ren%nciation o( o((ice &rior to its e4&iration. 2$ere is a !i((erence bet,een t$e case o( a viceDma'or an! t$at o( a member o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives ,$o s%ccee!s anot$er ,$o !ies resigns becomes inca&acitate! or is remove! (rom o((ice. 2$e viceDma'or s%ccee!s to t$e ma'ors$i& b' o&eration o( la,. On t$e ot$er $an! t$e -e&resentative is electe! to (ill t$e vacanc'. *n a real sense t$ere(ore s%c$ -e&resentative serves a term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!. #s t$e &%r&ose o( t$e constit%tional &rovision is to limit t$e rig$t ot be electe! an! to serve in Congress $is service o( t$e %ne4&ire! term is rig$tl' co%nte! as $is (irst term. -at$er t$an re(%te ,$at ,e believe to be t$e inten!ment o( #rt. J c8 ,it$ regar! to elective local o((icials t$e case o( a -e&resentative ,$o s%ccee!s anot$er con(irms t$e t$eor'. =etitioner also cites #rt. K** c0 o( t$e Constit%tion ,$ic$ &rovi!es (or s%ccession o( t$e KiceD=resi!ent to t$e =resi!enc' in case o( vacanc' in t$at o((ice. #(ter stating t$at E2$e =resi!ent s$all not be eligible (or an' reelection F t$is &rovision sa's t$at ENo &erson ,$o $as s%ccee!e! as =resi!ent an! $as serve! as s%c$ (or more t$an (o%r 'ears s$all be .%ali(ie! (or election to t$e same o((ice at an' time.F =etitioner conten!s t$at b' analog' t$e viceDma'or s$o%l! li+e,ise be consi!ere! to $ave serve! a (%ll term as ma'or i( $e s%ccee!s to t$e latter>s o((ice an! serves (or t$e remain!er o( t$e term. 2$e (ramers o( t$e Constit%tion incl%!e! s%c$ a &rovision beca%se ,it$o%t it t$e KiceD=resi!ent ,$o sim&l' ste&s into t$e =resi!enc' b' s%ccession ,o%l! be .%ali(ie! to r%n (or =resi!ent even i( $e $as occ%&ie! t$at o((ice (or more t$an (o%r 'ears. 2$e absence o( a similar &rovision in #rt. J c8 on elective local o((icials t$ro,s in bol! relie( t$e !i((erence bet,een t$e t,o cases. *t %n!erscores t$e constit%tional intent to cover onl' t$e terms o( o((ice to ,$ic$ one ma' $ave been electe! (or &%r&ose o( t$e t$reeD

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term limit on local elective o((icials !isregar!ing (or t$is &%r&ose service b' a%tomatic s%ccession. 2$ere is anot$er reason ,$' t$e KiceD=resi!ent ,$o s%ccee!s to t$e =resi!enc' an! serves in t$at o((ice (or more t$an (o%r 'ears is ineligible (or election as =resi!ent. 2$e KiceD=resi!ent is electe! &rimaril' to s%ccee! t$e =resi!ent in t$e event o( t$e latter>s !eat$ &ermanent !isabilit' removal or resignation. 6$ile $e ma' be a&&ointe! to t$e cabinet $is becoming so is entirel' !e&en!ent on t$e goo! graces o( t$e =resi!ent. *n r%nning (or KiceD=resi!ent $e ma' t$%s be sai! to also see+ t$e =resi!enc'. For t$eir &art t$e electors li+e,ise c$oose as KiceD=resi!ent t$e can!i!ate ,$o t$e' t$in+ can (ill t$e =resi!enc' in t$e event it becomes vacant. Hence service in t$e &resi!enc' (or more t$an (o%r 'ears ma' rig$tl' be consi!ere! as service (or a (%ll term. 2$is is not so in t$e case o( t$e viceDma'or. @n!er t$e LGC $e is t$e &resi!ing o((icer o( t$e sangg%nian an! $e a&&oints all o((icials an! em&lo'ees o( s%c$ local assembl'. He $as !istinct &o,ers an! (%nctions s%ccession to ma'ors$i& in t$e event o( vacanc' t$erein being onl' one o( t$em. *t cannot be sai! o( $im as m%c$ as o( t$e KiceD=resi!ent in t$e event o( a vacanc' in t$e =resi!enc' t$at in r%nning (or viceDma'or $e also see+s t$e ma'ors$i&. His ass%m&tion o( t$e ma'ors$i& in t$e event o( vacanc' is more a matter o( c$ance t$an o( !esign. Hence $is service in t$at o((ice s$o%l! not be co%nte! in t$e a&&lication o( an' term limit. 2o reca&it%late t$e term limit (or elective local o((icials m%st be ta+en to re(er to t$e rig$t to be electe! as ,ell as t$e rig$t to serve in t$e same elective &osition. Conse.%entl' it is not eno%g$ t$at an in!ivi!%al $as serve! t$ree consec%tive terms in an elective local o((ice $e m%st also $ave been electe! to t$e same &osition (or t$e same n%mber o( times be(ore t$e !is.%ali(ication can a&&l'. QQCase No. 1. )%&&ose # is a viceDma'or ,$o becomes ma'or b' reason o( t$e !eat$ o( t$e inc%mbent. )i4 mont$s be(ore t$e ne4t election $e resigns an! is t,ice electe! t$erea(ter. Can $e r%n again (or ma'or in t$e ne4t election. :es beca%se alt$o%g$ $e $as alrea!' (irst serve! as ma'or b' s%ccession an! s%bse.%entl' resigne! (rom o((ice be(ore t$e (%ll term e4&ire! $e $as not act%all' serve! t$ree (%ll terms in all (or t$e &%r&ose o( a&&l'ing t$e term limit. @n!er #rt. J c8 vol%ntar' ren%nciation o( t$e o((ice is not consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( $is service (or t$e (%ll term onl' i( t$e term is one E(or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!.F )ince # is onl' com&leting t$e service o( t$e term (or ,$ic$ t$e !ecease! an! not $e ,as electe!. # cannot be consi!ere! to $ave com&lete! one term. His resignation constit%tes an interr%&tion o( t$e (%ll term. QQCase No. /. )%&&ose B is electe! Ma'or an! !%ring $is (irst term $e is t,ice s%s&en!e! (or miscon!%ct (or a total o( 1 'ear. *( $e is t,ice reelecte! a(ter t$at can $e r%n (or one more term in t$e ne4t electionT :es beca%se $e $as serve! onl' t,o (%ll terms s%ccessivel'. *n bot$ cases t$e ma'or is entitle! to r%n (or reelection beca%se t$e t,o con!itions (or t$e a&&lication o( t$e !is.%ali(ication &rovisions $ave not conc%rre! namel' t$at t$e local o((icial concerne! $as been electe! t$ree consec%tive times an! t$at $e $as (%ll' serve! t$ree consec%tive terms. *n t$e (irst case even i( t$e local o((icial is consi!ere! to $ave serve! t$ree (%ll terms not,it$stan!ing $is resignation be(ore t$e en! o( t$e (irst term t$e (act remains t$at $e $as not been electe! t$ree times. *n t$e secon! case t$e local o((icial $as been electe! t$ree consec%tive times b%t $e $as not (%ll' serve! t$ree consec%tive terms. QQCase No. 1. 2$e case o( viceDma'or C ,$o becomes ma'or b' s%ccession involves a total (ail%re o( t$e t,o con!itions to conc%r (or t$e &%r&ose o( a&&l'ing #rt. J c8. )%&&ose $e is t,ice electe! a(ter t$at term is $e .%ali(ie! to r%n again in t$e ne4t electionT :es beca%se $e ,as not electe! to t$e o((ice o( t$e ma'or in t$e (irst term b%t sim&l' (o%n! $imsel( t$r%st into it b' o&eration o( la,. Neit$er $a! $e serve! t$e (%ll term beca%se $e onl' contin%e! t$e service interr%&te! b' t$e !eat$ o( t$e !ecease! ma'or. 2o consi!er C in t$e t$ir! case to $ave serve! t$e (irst term in (%ll an! t$ere(ore ineligible to r%n a t$ir! time (or reelection ,o%l! be not onl' to (alsi(' realit' b%t also to %n!%l' restrict t$e rig$t o( t$e &eo&le to c$oose ,$om t$e' ,is$ to govern t$em. *( t$e viceD ma'or t%rns o%t to be a ba! ma'or t$e &eo&le can reme!' t$e sit%ation b' sim&l' not reelecting $im (or anot$er term. B%t i( on t$e ot$er $an! $e &roves to be a goo! ma'or t$ere ,ill be no ,a' t$e &eo&le can ret%rn $im to o((ice ;even i( it is 9%st t$e t$ir! time $e is stan!ing (or reelection< i( $is service o( t$e (irst term is co%nte! as one o( t$e &%r&ose o( a&&l'ing t$e term limit. 2o consi!er C as eligible (or reelection ,o%l! be in accor! ,it$ t$e %n!erstan!ing o( t$e Constit%tional Commission t$at ,$ile t$e

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&eo&le s$o%l! be &rotecte! (rom t$e evils t$at a mono&ol' o( &olitical &o,er ma' bring abo%t care s$o%l! be ta+en t$at t$eir (ree!om o( c$oice is not %n!%l' c%rtaile!. Lonzani a v. COM%L%C Facts: LonBani!a ,as !%l' electe! an! serve! t,o consec%tive terms as m%nici&al ma'or o( )an #ntonio Zambales &rior to t$e Ma' 8 188C elections. *n t$e Ma' 188C elections LonBani!a ran (or ma'or o( )an #ntonio Zambales an! ,as again &roclaime! ,inner. He ass%me! o((ice an! !isc$arge! t$e !%ties t$ereo(. His &roclamation in 188C ,as $o,ever conteste! b' $is t$en o&&onent 7%an #lveB ,$o (ile! an election &rotest be(ore t$e -egional 2rial Co%rt o( Zambales ,$ic$ in a !ecision !ate! 7an%ar' 8 1887 !eclare! a (ail%re o( elections. #ccor!ingl' t$e o((ice o( t$e ma'or o( t$e M%nici&alit' o( )an #ntonio Zambales is $ereb' !eclare! vacant. On a&&eal t$e COM3L3C !eclare! #lveB t$e !%l' electe! ma'or o( )an #ntonio Zambales b' &l%ralit' o( votes cast in $is (avor totaling 1 7/5 votes as against 1 088 votes (or LonBani!a. On Febr%ar' /7 1888 t$e COM3L3C iss%e! a ,rit o( e4ec%tion or!ering LonBani!a to vacate t$e &ost ,$ic$ $e obe'e! an! #lveB ass%me! o((ice (or t$e remain!er o( t$e term. *n t$e Ma' 11 1888 elections LonBani!a again (ile! $is certi(icate o( can!i!ac' (or ma'or o( )an #ntonio. On #&ril /1 1888 $is o&&onent 3%(emio M%li timel' (ile! a &etition to !is.%ali(' LonBani!a (rom r%nning (or ma'or o( )an #ntonio in t$e 1888 elections on t$e gro%n! t$at $e $a! serve! t$ree consec%tive terms in t$e same &ost. On Ma' 11 1888 &etitioner LonBani!a ,as &roclaime! ,inner. On Ma' /1 1888 t$e First Division o( t$e COM3L3C iss%e! t$e .%estione! resol%tion granting t$e &etition (or !is.%ali(ication %&on a (in!ing t$at LonBani!a $a! serve! t$ree consec%tive terms as ma'or o( )an #ntonio Zambales an! $e is t$ere(ore !is.%ali(ie! to r%n (or t$e same &ost (or t$e (o%rt$ time. 2$e COM3L3C (o%n! t$at LonBani!aHs ass%m&tion o( o((ice b' virt%e o( $is &roclamation in Ma' 188C alt$o%g$ $e ,as later %nseate! be(ore t$e e4&iration o( t$e term s$o%l! be co%nte! as service (or one (%ll term in com&%ting t$e t$ree term limit %n!er t$e Constit%tion an! t$e LGC. 2$e (in!ing o( t$e COM3L3C First Division ,as a((irme! b' t$e COM3L3C 3n Banc in a resol%tion !ate! #%g%st 11 1888. *ss%e: 6ON LonBani!aHs ass%m&tion o( o((ice as ma'or o( )an #ntonio Zambales (rom Ma' 188C to Marc$ 1888 ma' be consi!ere! as service o( one (%ll term (or t$e &%r&ose o( a&&l'ing t$e t$reeDterm limit (or elective local government o((icials. )ec. 8 #rt. J o( t$e Constit%tion &rovi!es: 2$e term o( o((ice o( elective local o((icials e4ce&t baranga' o((icials ,$ic$ s$all be !etermine! b' la, s$all be t$ree 'ears an! no s%c$ o((icials s$all serve (or more t$an t$ree consec%tive terms. Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( t$e o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( $is service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!. )ec. 01 o( t$e LGC ;-.#. No. 71G5< restates t$e same r%le: No local elective o((icial s$all serve (or more t$an t$ree consec%tive terms in t$e same &osition. Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( t$e o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ t$e elective o((icial concerne! ,as electe!. 2$e recor!s o( t$e 188G Constit%tional Commission s$o, t$at t$e t$reeDterm limit ,$ic$ is no, embo!ie! in section 8 #rt. J o( t$e Constit%tion ,as initiall' &ro&ose! to be an absol%te bar to an' elective local government o((icial (rom r%nning (or t$e same &osition a(ter serving t$ree consec%tive terms. 2$e sai! !is.%ali(ication ,as &rimaril' inten!e! to (orestall t$e acc%m%lation o( massive &olitical &o,er b' an elective local government o((icial in a given localit' in or!er to &er&et%ate $is ten%re in o((ice. 2$e !elegates also consi!ere! t$e nee! to broa!en t$e c$oices o( t$e electorate o( t$e can!i!ates ,$o ,ill r%n (or o((ice an! to in(%se ne, bloo! in t$e &olitical arena b' !is.%ali('ing o((icials (rom r%nning (or t$e same o((ice a(ter a term o( nine 'ears. 2$e ma'or ,as com&are! b' some !elegates to t$e =resi!ent o( t$e -e&%blic as $e is a &o,er(%l c$ie( e4ec%tive o( $is &olitical territor' an! is most li+el' to (orm a &olitical !'nast'. 2$e !ra(ters $o,ever recogniBe! an! too+ note o( t$e (act t$at some local government o((icials r%n (or o((ice be(ore t$e' reac$ (ort' 'ears o( ageA t$%s to &er&et%all' bar t$em (rom r%nning (or t$e same o((ice a(ter serving nine consec%tive 'ears ma' !e&rive t$e &eo&le o( .%ali(ie! can!i!ates to c$oose (rom. #s (inall' vote! %&on it ,as agree! t$at an elective local government o((icial s$o%l! be barre! (rom r%nning (or t$e

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same &ost a(ter t$ree consec%tive terms. #(ter a $iat%s o( at least one term $e ma' again r%n (or t$e same o((ice. Bor9a Case: 2$is Co%rt $el! t$at t$e t,o con!itions (or t$e a&&lication o( t$e !is.%ali(ication m%st conc%r: 1< t$at t$e o((icial concerne! $as been electe! (or t$ree consec%tive terms in t$e same local government &ost an! /< t$at $e $as (%ll' serve! t$ree consec%tive terms. *t state!: 2o reca&it%late t$e term limit (or elective local o((icials m%st be ta+en to re(er to t$e rig$t to be electe! as ,ell as t$e rig$t to serve in t$e same elective &osition. Conse.%entl' it is not eno%g$ t$at an in!ivi!%al $as serve! t$ree consec%tive terms in an elective local o((ice $e m%st also $ave been electe! to t$e same &osition (or t$e same n%mber o( times be(ore t$e !is.%ali(ication can a&&l'. *t is not !is&%te! t$at t$e &etitioner ,as &revio%sl' electe! an! serve! t,o consec%tive terms as ma'or o( )an #ntonio Zambales &rior to t$e Ma' 188C ma'oral elections. *n t$e Ma' 188C elections $e again ran (or ma'or o( )an #ntonio Zambales an! ,as &roclaime! ,inner. He ass%me! o((ice an! !isc$arge! t$e rig$ts an! !%ties o( ma'or %ntil Marc$ 1888 ,$en $e ,as or!ere! to vacate t$e &ost b' reason o( t$e COM3L3C !ecision !ate! November 11 1887 on t$e election &rotest against t$e &etitioner ,$ic$ !eclare! $is o&&onent 7%an #lveB t$e !%l' electe! ma'or o( )an #ntonio. #lveB serve! t$e remaining &ortion o( t$e 188CD1888 ma'oral term. 2$e t,o re.%isites (or t$e a&&lication o( t$e t$ree term r%le are absent. D D First t$e &etitioner cannot be consi!ere! as $aving been !%l' electe! to t$e &ost in t$e Ma' 188C elections an! secon! t$e &etitioner !i! not (%ll' serve t$e 188CD1888 ma'oral term b' reason o( invol%ntar' relin.%is$ment o( o((ice. #(ter a reDa&&reciation an! revision o( t$e conteste! ballots t$e COM3L3C itsel( !eclare! b' (inal 9%!gment t$at &etitioner LonBani!a lost in t$e Ma' 188C ma'oral elections an! $is &revio%s &roclamation as ,inner ,as !eclare! n%ll an! voi!. His ass%m&tion o( o((ice as ma'or cannot be !eeme! to $ave been b' reason o( a vali! election b%t b' reason o( a voi! &roclamation. *t $as been re&eate!l' $el! b' t$is co%rt t$at a &roclamation s%bse.%entl' !eclare! voi! is no &roclamation at all C an! ,$ile a &roclaime! can!i!ate ma' ass%me o((ice on t$e strengt$ o( t$e &roclamation o( t$e Boar! o( Canvassers $e is onl' a &res%m&tive ,inner ,$o ass%mes o((ice s%b9ect to t$e (inal o%tcome o( t$e election &rotest. G =etitioner LonBani!a !i! not serve a term as ma'or o( )an #ntonio Zambales (rom Ma' 188C to Marc$ 1888 beca%se $e ,as not !%l' electe! to t$e &ostA $e merel' ass%me! o((ice as &res%m&tive ,inner ,$ic$ &res%m&tion ,as later overt%rne! b' t$e COM3L3C ,$en it !eci!e! ,it$ (inalit' t$at LonBani!a lost in t$e Ma' 188C ma'oral elections. )econ! t$e &etitioner cannot be !eeme! to $ave serve! t$e Ma' 188C to 1888 term beca%se $e ,as or!ere! to vacate $is &ost be(ore t$e e4&iration o( t$e term. 2$e res&on!entsH contention t$at t$e &etitioner s$o%l! be !eeme! to $ave serve! one (%ll term (rom Ma' 188CD1888 beca%se $e serve! t$e greater &ortion o( t$at term $as no legal basis to s%&&ort itA it !isregar!s t$e secon! re.%isite (or t$e a&&lication o( t$e !is.%ali(ication i.e. t$at $e $as (%ll' serve! t$ree consec%tive terms. 2$e secon! sentence o( t$e constit%tional &rovision %n!er scr%tin' states "Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!. "2$e clear intent o( t$e (ramers o( t$e constit%tion to bar an' attem&t to circ%mvent t$e t$reeDterm limit b' a vol%ntar' ren%nciation o( o((ice an! at t$e same time res&ect t$e &eo&leHs c$oice an! grant t$eir electe! o((icial (%ll service o( a term is evi!ent in t$is &rovision. Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( a term !oes not cancel t$e reno%nce! term in t$e com&%tation o( t$e t$ree term limitA conversel' invol%ntar' severance (rom o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$ort o( t$e (%ll term &rovi!e! b' la, amo%nts to an interr%&tion o( contin%it' o( service. 2$e &etitioner vacate! $is &ost a (e, mont$s be(ore t$e ne4t ma'oral elections not b' vol%ntar' ren%nciation b%t in com&liance ,it$ t$e legal &rocess o( ,rit o( e4ec%tion iss%e! b' t$e COM3L3C to t$at e((ect. )%c$ invol%ntar' severance (rom o((ice is an interr%&tion o( contin%it' o( service an! t$%s t$e &etitioner !i! not (%ll' serve t$e 188CD1888 ma'oral term. =etitioner ,as not t$e !%l' electe! ma'or an! t$at $e !i! not $ol! o((ice (or t$e (%ll termA $ence $is ass%m&tion o( o((ice (rom 188C to Marc$ 1888 cannot be co%nte! as a term (or &%r&oses o( com&%ting t$e t$ree term limit. 2$e -esol%tion o( t$e COM3L3C (in!ing $im !is.%ali(ie! on t$is

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gro%n! to r%n in t$e Ma' 1888 ma'oral elections s$o%l! t$ere(ore be set asi!e. 6ON t$e !ela' in resolving t$e election &rotest bet,een &etitioner an! $is t$en o&&onent #lveB ,$ic$ too+ ro%g$l' abo%t t$ree 'ears an! res%ltantl' e4ten!e! t$e &etitioners inc%mbenc' in an o((ice to ,$ic$ $e ,as not la,(%ll' electe!. )%c$ !ela' cannot be im&%te! to t$e &etitioner. 2$ere is no s&eci(ic allegation nor &roo( t$at t$e !ela' ,as !%e to an' &olitical mane%vering on $is &art to &rolong $is sta' in o((ice. Moreover &rotestant #lveB ,as not ,it$o%t legal reco%rse to move (or t$e earl' resol%tion o( t$e election &rotest ,$ile it ,as &en!ing be(ore t$e regional trial co%rt or to (ile a motion (or t$e e4ec%tion o( t$e regional trial co%rtHs !ecision !eclaring t$e &osition o( ma'or vacant an! or!ering t$e viceDma'or to ass%me o((ice ,$ile t$e a&&eal ,as &en!ing ,it$ t$e COM3L3C. )%c$ !ela' ,$ic$ is not $ere s$o,n to $ave intentionall' so%g$t b' t$e &etitioner to &rolong $is sta' in o((ice cannot serve as basis to bar $is rig$t to be electe! an! to serve $is c$osen local government &ost in t$e s%ccee!ing ma'oral election. 6ON t$e COM3L3C cease! to $ave 9%ris!iction over t$e &etition (or !is.%ali(ication a(ter $e ,as &roclaime! ,inner. 2$e instant &etition (or !is.%ali(ication ,as (ile! on #&ril /1 1888 or be(ore t$e Ma' 1888 elections an! ,as resolve! on Ma' /1 1888 or a(ter t$e &etitionerHs &roclamation. *t ,as $el! in t$e case o( )%nga vs. COM3L3C an! 2rini!a! t$at t$e &roclamation nor t$e ass%m&tion o( o((ice o( a can!i!ate against ,$om a &etition (or !is.%ali(ication is &en!ing be(ore t$e COM3L3C !oes not !ivest t$e COM3L3C o( 9%ris!iction to contin%e $earing t$e case an! to resolve it on t$e merits. )ec. G o( -# GG0G s&eci(icall' man!ates t$at: an' can!i!ate ,$o $as been !eclare! b' (inal 9%!gment to be !is.%ali(ie! s$all not be vote! (or an! t$e votes cast (or $im s$all not be co%nte!. *( (or an' reason a can!i!ate is not !eclare! b' (inal 9%!gment be(ore an election to be !is.%ali(ie! an! $e is vote! (or an! receives t$e ,inning n%mber o( votes in s%c$ election t$e co%rt or commission s$all contin%e ,it$ t$e trial an! $earing o( t$e action in.%ir' or &rotest an! %&on motion o( t$e com&lainant or an' intervenor ma' !%ring t$e &en!enc' t$ereo( or!er t$e s%s&ension o( t$e &roclamation o( s%c$ can!i!ate ,$enever t$e evi!ence o( $is g%ilt is strong. 2$is co%rt $el! t$at t$e clear legislative intent is t$at t$e COM3L3C s$o%l! contin%e t$e trial an! $earing o( t$e !is.%ali(ication case to its concl%sion i.e. %ntil 9%!gment is ren!ere!. 2$e o%trig$t !ismissal o( t$e &etition (or !is.%ali(ication (ile! be(ore t$e election b%t ,$ic$ remaine! %nresolve! a(ter t$e &roclamation o( t$e can!i!ate so%g$t to be !is.%ali(ie! ,ill %n!%l' re,ar! t$e sai! can!i!ate an! ma' enco%rage $im to em&lo' !ela'ing tactics to im&e!e t$e resol%tion o( t$e &etition %ntil a(ter $e $as been &roclaime!. 2$e (act t$at 2rini!a! ,as alrea!' &roclaime! an! $a! ass%me! t$e &osition o( ma'or !i! not !ivest t$e COM3L3C o( a%t$orit' an! 9%ris!iction to contin%e t$e $earing an! event%all' !eci!e t$e !is.%ali(ication case. #g%am v. COM3L3C: 2ime an! again t$is Co%rt $as given its im&rimat%r on t$e &rinci&le t$at COM3L3C is ,it$ a%t$orit' to ann%l an' canvass an! &roclamation ,$ic$ ,as illegall' ma!e. 2$e (act t$at a can!i!ate &roclaime! $as ass%me! o((ice ,e $ave sai! is no bar to t$e e4ercise o( s%c$ &o,er. *t o( co%rse ma' not be availe! o( ,$ere t$ere $as been a vali! &roclamation. )ince &rivate res&on!entHs &etition be(ore t$e COM3L3C is &recisel' !irecte! at t$e ann%lment o( t$e canvass an! &roclamation ,e &erceive t$at in.%ir' into t$is iss%e is ,it$in t$e area allocate! b' t$e Constit%tion an! la, to COM3L3C . . . -eall' ,ere a victim o( a &roclamation to be &recl%!e! (rom c$allenging t$e vali!it' t$ereo( a(ter t$at &roclamation an! t$e ass%m&tion o( o((ice t$ere%n!er bane(%l e((ects ma' easil' s%&ervene. =%r&ose o( a !is.%ali(ication &rocee!ing : to &revent t$e can!i!ate (rom r%nning or i( electe! (rom serving or to &rosec%te $im (or violation o( t$e election la,s. Obvio%sl' t$e (act t$at a can!i!ate $as been &roclaime! electe! !oes not signi(' t$at $is !is.%ali(ication is !eeme! con!one! an! ma' no longer be t$e s%b9ect o( a se&arate investigation . A ormeo v. COM%L%C Facts: #!ormeo an! 2alaga ,ere t$e onl' can!i!ates ,$o (ile! t$eir certi(icates o( can!i!ac' (or ma'or o( L%cena Cit' in t$e Ma' 10 /551 elections. 2alaga ,as t$en t$e inc%mbent ma'or. 2alaga

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,as electe! ma'or in Ma' 188/. He serve! t$e (%ll term. #gain $e ,as reDelecte! in 188CD1888. *n t$e election o( 1888 $e lost to 2agarao. *n t$e recall election o( Ma' 1/ /555 $e again ,on an! serve! t$e %ne4&ire! term o( 2agarao %ntil 7%ne 15 /551. On Marc$ / /551 #!ormeo (ile! ,it$ t$e O((ice o( t$e =rovincial 3lection )%&ervisor L%cena Cit' a =etition to Den' D%e Co%rse to or Cancel Certi(icate o( Can!i!ac' an!?or Dis.%ali(ication o( 2alaga on t$e gro%n! t$at t$e latter ,as electe! an! $a! serve! as cit' ma'or (or t$ree ;1< consec%tive terms as (ollo,s: ;1< in t$e election o( Ma' 188/ ,$ere $e serve! t$e (%ll termA ;/< in t$e election o( Ma' 188C ,$ere $e again serve! t$e (%ll termA an! ;1< in t$e recall election o( Ma' 1/ /555 ,$ere $e serve! onl' t$e %ne4&ire! term o( 2agarao a(ter $aving lost to 2agarao in t$e 1888 election. =etitioner conten!e! t$at 2alaga>s can!i!ac' as Ma'or constit%te! a violation o( )ection 8 #rticle J o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion ,$ic$ &rovi!es t$at t$e term o( o((ice o( elective local o((icials e4ce&t baranga' o((icials ,$ic$ s$all be !etermine! b' la, s$all be t$ree 'ears an! no s%c$ o((icial s$all serve (or more t$an t$ree consec%tive terms. Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( t$e o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( $is service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!. 2alaga res&on!e! t$at $e ,as not electe! Cit' Ma'or (or t$ree ;1< consec%tive terms b%t onl' (or t,o ;/< consec%tive terms. He &ointe! to $is !e(eat in t$e 1888 election b' 2agarao. Beca%se o( $is !e(eat t$e consec%tiveness o( $is 'ears as ma'or ,as interr%&te! an! t$%s $is ma'ors$i& ,as not (or t$ree consec%tive terms o( t$ree 'ears eac$. -es&on!ent a!!e! t$at $is service (rom Ma' 1/ /551 %ntil 7%ne 15 /551 (or 11 mont$s an! eig$teen ;18< !a's ,as not a (%ll term in t$e contem&lation o( t$e la, an! t$e Constit%tion. 2$e COM3L3C (o%n! 2alaga !is.%ali(ie! (or t$e &osition o( cit' ma'or on t$e gro%n! t$at $e $a! alrea!' serve! t$ree ;1< consec%tive terms an! $is Certi(icate o( Can!i!ac' ,as or!ere! ,it$!ra,n an!?or cancelle!. M- reverse! COM3L3C r%ling an! $el! t$at 1< res&on!ent ,as not electe! (or t$ree ;1< consec%tive terms beca%se $e !i! not ,in in t$e Ma' 11 1888 electionsA /< t$at $e ,as installe! onl' as ma'or b' reason o( $is victor' in t$e recall electionsA 1< t$at $is victor' in t$e recall elections ,as not consi!ere! a term o( o((ice an! is not incl%!e! in t$e 1Dterm !is.%ali(ication r%le an! 0< t$at $e !i! not (%ll' serve t$e t$ree ;1< consec%tive terms an! $is loss in t$e Ma' 11 1888 elections is consi!ere! an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( $is service as Ma'or o( L%cena Cit'. On Ma' 18 /551 a(ter canvassing &rivate res&on!ent ,as &roclaime! as t$e !%l' electe! Ma'or o( L%cena Cit'. *ss%e: 6ON COM3L3C 2alaga is .%ali(ie! to r%n (orMa'or in L%cena Cit' (or t$e /551 elections. =etitioner conten!s t$at &rivate res&on!ent ,as !is.%ali(ie! to r%n (or cit' ma'or b' reason o( t$e t$reeDterm r%le beca%se t$e %ne4&ire! &ortion o( t$e term o( o((ice $e serve! a(ter ,inning a recall election covering t$e &erio! Ma' 1/ /555 to 7%ne 15 /551 is consi!ere! a (%ll term. He &osits t$at to inter&ret ot$er,ise &rivate res&on!ent ,o%l! be serving (o%r ;0< consec%tive terms o( 15 'ears in violation o( )ection 8 #rticle J o( 1887 Constit%tionU0V an! )ection 01 ;b< o( -.#. 71G5 +no,n as t$e LGC. =rivate res&on!ent in t%rn maintains t$at $is service as cit' ma'or o( L%cena is not consec%tive. He lost $is bi! (or a secon! reDelection in 1888 an! bet,een 7%ne 15 1888 to Ma' 1/ /555 !%ring 2agarao>s inc%mbenc' $e ,as a &rivate citiBen t$%s $e $a! not been ma'or (or 1 consec%tive terms. *n its comment t$e COM3L3C restate! its &osition t$at &rivate res&on!ent ,as not electe! (or t$ree ;1< consec%tive terms $aving lost $is t$ir! bi! in t$e Ma' 11 1888 elections sai! !e(eat is an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( service as cit' ma'or o( L%cena. Bor9a Case: Case No. /. )%&&ose B is electe! ma'or an! !%ring $is (irst term $e is t,ice s%s&en!e! (or miscon!%ct (or a total o( 1 'ear. *( $e is t,ice reelecte! a(ter t$at can $e r%n (or one more term in t$e ne4t electionT :es beca%se $e $as serve! onl' t,o (%ll terms s%ccessivel'. 2o consi!er C as eligible (or reelection ,o%l! be in accor! ,it$ t$e %n!erstan!ing o( t$e Constit%tional Commission t$at ,$ile t$e &eo&le s$o%l! be &rotecte! (rom t$e evils t$at a mono&ol' o( &olitical &o,er ma' bring abo%t care s$o%l! be ta+en t$at t$eir (ree!om o( c$oice is not %n!%l' c%rtaile!. LonBani!a Case: 2,o con!itions (or t$e a&&lication o( t$e !is.%ali(ication m%st conc%r: a< t$at t$e o((icial concerne! $as been electe! (or t$ree consec%tive terms in t$e same local government &ost an! /< t$at $e $as (%ll' serve! t$ree consec%tive terms. COM3L3C>s r%ling t$at &rivate res&on!ent ,as not electe! (or t$ree ;1< consec%tive terms s$o%l! be %&$el!. For nearl'

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t,o 'ears $e ,as a &rivate citiBen. 2$e contin%it' o( $is ma'ors$i& ,as !isr%&te! b' $is !e(eat in t$e 1888 elections. =atentl' %ntenable is &etitioner>s contention t$at COM3L3C in allo,ing res&on!ent 2alaga 7r. to r%n in t$e Ma' 1888 election violates #rticle J )ection 8 o( 1887 Constit%tion. 2o bolster $is case res&on!ent a!verts to t$e comment o( Fr. 7oa.%in Bernas a Constit%tional Commission member stating t$at in inter&reting sai! &rovision t$at Ei( one is electe! re&resentative to serve t$e %ne4&ire! term o( anot$er t$at %ne4&ire! no matter $o, s$ort ,ill be consi!ere! one term (or t$e &%r&ose o( com&%ting t$e n%mber o( s%ccessive terms allo,e!.F #s &ointe! o%t b' t$e COM3L3C en banc Fr. Bernas> comment is &ertinent onl' to members o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives. @nli+e local government o((icials t$ere is no recall election &rovi!e! (or members o( Congress. Neit$er can res&on!ent>s victor' in t$e recall election be !eeme! a violation o( )ection 8 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion as Evol%ntar' ren%nciationF (or clearl' it is not. *n LonBani!a vs. COM3L3C ,e sai!: 2$e secon! sentence o( t$e constit%tional &rovision %n!er scr%tin' states EKol%ntar' ren%nciation o( o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!.F 2$e clear intent o( t$e (ramers o( t$e constit%tion to bar an' attem&t to circ%mvent t$e t$reeDterm limit b' a vol%ntar' ren%nciation o( o((ice an! at t$e same time res&ect t$e &eo&le>s c$oice an! grant t$eir electe! o((icial (%ll service o( a term is evi!ent in t$is &rovision. Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( a term !oes not cancel t$e reno%nce! term in t$e com&%tation o( t$e t$ree term limitA conversel' invol%ntar' severance (rom o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$ort o( t$e (%ll term &rovi!e! b' la, amo%nts to an interr%&tion o( contin%it' o( service. 2$e &etitioner vacate! $is &ost a (e, mont$s be(ore t$e ne4t ma'oral elections not b' vol%ntar' ren%nciation b%t in com&liance ,it$ t$e legal &rocess o( ,rit o( e4ec%tion iss%e! b' t$e COM3L3C to t$at e((ect. )%c$ invol%ntar' severance (rom o((ice is an interr%&tion o( contin%it' o( service an! t$%s t$e &etitioner !i! not (%ll' serve t$e 188CD1888 ma'oral term. (ocrates v. COM%L%C Facts: On 7%l' / /55/ 11/ o%t o( C/8 members o( t$e t$en inc%mbent baranga' o((icials o( t$e =%erto =rincesa convene! t$emselves into a =re&arator' -ecall #ssembl' to initiate t$e recall o( Kictorino Dennis M. )ocrates ,$o ass%me! o((ice as =%erto =rincesa>s ma'or on 7%ne 15 /551. 2$e members o( t$e =-# !esignate! Mar+ Davi! M. Hage!orn &resi!ent o( t$e #ssociation o( Baranga' Ca&tains as interim c$air o( t$e =-#. =-# &asse! a resol%tion ,$ic$ !eclare! its loss o( con(i!ence in )ocrates an! calle! (or $is recall. 2$e =-# re.%este! t$e COM3L3C to sc$e!%le t$e recall election (or ma'or ,it$in 15 !a's (rom recei&t o( t$e -ecall -esol%tion. On 7%l' 1G /55/ )ocrates (ile! ,it$ t$e COM3L3C a &etition to n%lli(' an! !en' !%e co%rse to t$e -ecall -esol%tion. On #%g%st 10 /55/ t$e COM3L3C !ismisse! )ocrates> &etition an! gave !%e co%rse to t$e -ecall -esol%tion an! sc$e!%le! t$e recall election on )e&tember 7 /55/. On #%g%st /1 /55/ t$e COM3L3C en banc &rom%lgate! a resol%tion &rescribing t$e calen!ar o( activities an! &erio!s o( certain &ro$ibite! acts in connection ,it$ t$e recall election. 2$e COM3L3C (i4e! t$e cam&aign &erio! (rom #%g%st /7 /55/ to )e&tember C /55/ or a &erio! o( 15 !a's. On #%g%st /1 /55/ . Hage!orn (ile! $is certi(icate o( can!i!ac' (or ma'or in t$e recall election. #!ovo an! Gilo (ile! a &etition to !is.%ali(' Hage!orn (rom r%nning in t$e recall election an! to cancel $is certi(icate o( can!i!ac'. Ollave an! Manaa' also. 2$e &etitions ,ere all anc$ore! on t$e gro%n! t$at EHage!orn is !is.%ali(ie! (rom r%nning (or a (o%rt$ consec%tive term $aving been electe! an! $aving serve! as ma'or o( t$e cit' (or t$ree ;1< consec%tive (%ll terms imme!iatel' &rior to t$e instant recall election (or t$e same &ost.F *n a resol%tion &rom%lgate! on )e&tember /5 /55/ t$e COM3L3C !ismisse! (or lac+ o( merit an! !eclare! Hage!orn .%ali(ie! to r%n in t$e recall election. 2$e COM3L3C also reset t$e recall election (rom )e&tember 7 /55/ to )e&tember /0 /55/. M- !enie!. Hage!orn ,on an! (ile! motions to li(t t$e or!er restraining t$e COM3L3C (rom &roclaiming t$e ,inning can!i!ate an! to allo, $im to ass%me o((ice to give e((ect to t$e ,ill o( t$e electorate. *ss%es: 1. 6ON t$e COM3L3C committe! grave ab%se o( !iscretion in giving !%e co%rse to t$e -ecall -esol%tion an! sc$e!%ling t$e recall election (or ma'or o( =%erto =rincesa.

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)ocrates arg%es t$at t$e COM3L3C committe! grave ab%se o( !iscretion in %&$ol!ing t$e -ecall -esol%tion !es&ite t$e absence o( notice to 115 =-# members an! t$e !e(ective service o( notice to ot$er =-# members. 2$e COM3L3C $o,ever (o%n! t$at on vario%s !ates in t$e mont$ o( 7%ne /55/ t$e &ro&onents (or t$e -ecall o( inc%mbent Cit' Ma'or Kictorino Dennis M. )ocrates sent notices o( t$e convening o( t$e =-# to t$e members t$ereo( &%rs%ant to )ection 75 o( t$e LGC. Notices ,ere li+e,ise &oste! in cons&ic%o%s &laces &artic%larl' at t$e Baranga' Hall. 2$e &ro&onents li+e,ise %tiliBe! t$e broa!cast mass me!ia in t$e !issemination o( t$e convening o( t$e =-#. 2$e Cit' 3lection O((icer o( =%erto =rincesa Cit' in $er Certi(ication !ate! 15 7%l' /55/ certi(ie! t$at %&on a ]t$oro%g$ an! care(%l veri(ication o( t$e signat%res ma9orit' o( all members o( t$e =-# concerne! a&&rove! sai! resol%tion.> )$e li+e,ise certi(ie! ]t$at not a single member?signator' o( t$e =-# com&laine! or ob9ecte! as to t$e veracit' an! a%t$enticit' o( t$eir signat%res.> 2$e =rovincial 3lection )%&ervisor o( =ala,an #tt'. @rbano #rlan!o in $is *n!orsement !ate! 15 7%l' /55/ state! ]%&on &ro&er revie, all !oc%ments s%bmitte! are (o%n! in or!er.> 2$e #cting Director *K -egion *K (o%n! t$at t$e =-# ,as vali!l' constit%te! an! t$at t$e ma9orit' o( all members t$ereo( a&&rove! -esol%tion No. 51D5/ calling (or t$e recall o( Ma'or Kictorino Dennis M. )ocrates.> /. 6ON Hage!orn is .%ali(ie! to r%n (or ma'or in t$e recall election o( =%erto =rincesa on )e&tember /0 /55/. 2$e t$reeDterm limit r%le (or elective local o((icials is (o%n! in )ection 8 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion ,$ic$ states: 2$e term o( o((ice o( elective local o((icials e4ce&t baranga' o((icials ,$ic$ s$all be !etermine! b' la, s$all be t$ree 'ears an! no s%c$ o((icial s$all serve (or more t$an t$ree consec%tive terms. Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( t$e o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( $is service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!.F 2$is t$reeDterm limit r%le is reiterate! in )ection 01 ;b< o( -# No. 71G5 ot$er,ise +no,n as t$e LGC ,$ic$ &rovi!es: No local elective o((icial s$all serve (or more t$an t$ree ;1< consec%tive terms in t$e same &osition. Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( t$e o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ t$e elective o((icial ,as electe!.F 2$ese constit%tional an! stat%tor' &rovisions $ave t,o &arts. 2$e (irst &art &rovi!es t$at an elective local o((icial cannot serve (or more t$an t$ree consec%tive terms. 2$e clear intent is t$at onl' consec%tive terms co%nt in !etermining t$e t$reeDterm limit r%le. 2$e secon! &art states t$at vol%ntar' ren%nciation o( o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time !oes not interr%&t t$e contin%it' o( service. 2$e clear intent is t$at invol%ntar' severance (rom o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time interr%&ts contin%it' o( service an! &revents t$e service be(ore an! a(ter t$e interr%&tion (rom being 9oine! toget$er to (orm a contin%o%s service or consec%tive terms. #(ter t$ree consec%tive terms an elective local o((icial cannot see+ imme!iate reelection (or a (o%rt$ term. 2$e &ro$ibite! election re(ers to t$e ne4t reg%lar election (or t$e same o((ice (ollo,ing t$e en! o( t$e t$ir! consec%tive term. #n' s%bse.%ent election li+e a recall election is no longer covere! b' t$e &ro$ibition (or t,o reasons. First a s%bse.%ent election li+e a recall election is no longer an imme!iate reelection a(ter t$ree consec%tive terms. )econ! t$e intervening &erio! constit%tes an invol%ntar' interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( service. 2$e (ramers o( t$e Constit%tion t$%s clari(ie! t$at a )enator can r%n a(ter onl' t$ree 'ears (ollo,ing $is com&letion o( t,o terms. 2$e (ramers e4&ressl' ac+no,le!ge! t$at t$e &ro$ibite! election re(ers onl' to t$e imme!iate reelection an! not to an' s%bse.%ent election !%ring t$e si4D'ear &erio! (ollo,ing t$e t,o term limit. 2$e (ramers o( t$e Constit%tion !i! not inten! Et$e &erio! o( restF o( an elective o((icial ,$o $as reac$e! $is term limit to be t$e (%ll e4tent o( t$e s%ccee!ing term. *n t$e case o( Hage!orn $is can!i!ac' in t$e recall election on )e&tember /0 /55/ is not an imme!iate reelection a(ter $is t$ir! consec%tive term ,$ic$ en!e! on 7%ne 15 /551. 2$e imme!iate reelection t$at t$e Constit%tion barre! Hage!orn (rom see+ing re(erre! to t$e reg%lar elections in /551. Hage!orn !i! not see+ reelection in t$e /551 elections.

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Mabelle O. Nebres | Local Governments Case Digests Hage!orn ,as electe! (or t$ree consec%tive terms in t$e
188/ 188C an! 1888 elections an! serve! in (%ll $is t$ree consec%tive terms as ma'or o( =%erto =rincesa. @n!er t$e Constit%tion an! t$e LGC Hage!orn co%l! no longer r%n (or ma'or in t$e /551 elections. 2$e Constit%tion an! t$e LGC !is.%ali(ie! Hage!orn ,$o $a! reac$e! t$e ma4im%m t$reeDterm limit (rom r%nning (or a (o%rt$ consec%tive term as ma'or. 2$%s Hage!orn !i! not r%n (or ma'or in t$e /551 elections. )ocrates ran an! ,on as ma'or o( =%erto =rincesa in t$e /551 elections. #(ter Hage!orn cease! to be ma'or on 7%ne 15 /551 $e became a &rivate citiBen %ntil t$e recall election o( )e&tember /0 /55/ ,$en $e ,on b' 1 518 votes over $is closest o&&onent )ocrates. From 7%ne 15 /551 %ntil t$e recall election on )e&tember /0 /55/ t$e ma'or o( =%erto =rincesa ,as )ocrates. D%ring t$e same &erio! Hage!orn ,as sim&l' a &rivate citiBen. 2$is &erio! is clearl' an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( Hage!orn>s service as ma'or not beca%se o( $is vol%ntar' ren%nciation b%t beca%se o( a legal &ro$ibition. Hage!orn>s t$ree consec%tive terms en!e! on 7%ne 15 /551. Hage!orn>s ne, recall term (rom )e&tember /0 /55/ to 7%ne 15 /550 is not a seamless contin%ation o( $is &revio%s t$ree consec%tive terms as ma'or. One cannot stitc$ toget$er Hage!orn>s &revio%s t$reeDterms ,it$ $is ne, recall term to ma+e t$e recall term a (o%rt$ consec%tive term beca%se (act%all' it is not. #n invol%ntar' interr%&tion occ%rre! (rom 7%ne 15 /551 to )e&tember /0 /55/ ,$ic$ bro+e t$e contin%it' or consec%tive c$aracter o( Hage!orn>s service as ma'or. LonBani!a Case: Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$all not be consi!ere! as an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( service (or t$e (%ll term (or ,$ic$ $e ,as electe!.F 2$e clear intent o( t$e (ramers o( t$e constit%tion to bar an' attem&t to circ%mvent t$e t$reeDterm limit b' a vol%ntar' ren%nciation o( o((ice an! at t$e same time res&ect t$e &eo&le>s c$oice an! grant t$eir electe! o((icial (%ll service o( a term is evi!ent in t$is &rovision. Kol%ntar' ren%nciation o( a term !oes not cancel t$e reno%nce! term in t$e com&%tation o( t$e t$reeDterm limitA conversel' invol%ntar' severance (rom o((ice (or an' lengt$ o( time s$ort o( t$e (%ll term &rovi!e! b' la, amo%nts to an interr%&tion o( contin%it' o( service. *n Hage!orn>s case t$e nearl' 1CDmont$ &erio! $e ,as o%t o( o((ice alt$o%g$ s$ort o( a (%ll term o( t$ree 'ears constit%te! an interr%&tion in t$e contin%it' o( $is service as ma'or. 2$e Constit%tion !oes not re.%ire t$e interr%&tion or $iat%s to be a (%ll term o( t$ree 'ears. 2$e clear intent is t$at interr%&tion E(or an' lengt$ o( time F as long as t$e ca%se is invol%ntar' is s%((icient to brea+ an elective local o((icial>s contin%it' o( service. #!ormeo Case: an interr%&tion consisting o( a &ortion o( a term o( o((ice brea+s t$e contin%it' o( service o( an elective local o((icial. 2$e iss%e in #!ormeo ,as ,$et$er 2alaga>s recall term ,as a contin%ation o( $is &revio%s t,o terms so t$at $e ,as !eeme! to $ave alrea!' serve! t$ree consec%tive terms as ma'or. 2$e Co%rt r%le! t$at 2alaga ,as .%ali(ie! to r%n in t$e /551 elections stating t$at t$e &erio! (rom 7%ne 15 1888 to Ma' 1/ /555 ,$en 2alaga ,as o%t o( o((ice interr%&te! t$e contin%it' o( $is service as ma'or. 2alaga>s recall term as ma'or ,as not consec%tive to $is &revio%s t,o terms beca%se o( t$is interr%&tion t$ere $aving been a brea+ o( almost t,o 'ears !%ring ,$ic$ time 2agarao ,as t$e ma'or. *n t$e instant case ,e li+e,ise $ol! t$at t$e nearl' 1C mont$s Hage!orn ,as o%t o( o((ice interr%&te! $is contin%it' o( service an! &revents $is recall term (rom being stitc$e! toget$er as a seamless contin%ation o( $is &revio%s t$ree consec%tive terms. 2$e onl' !i((erence bet,een #!ormeo an! t$e instant case is t$e time o( t$e interr%&tion. *n #!ormeo t$e interr%&tion occ%rre! a(ter t$e (irst t,o consec%tive terms. *n t$e instant case t$e interr%&tion $a&&ene! a(ter t$e (irst t$ree consec%tive terms. *n bot$ cases t$e res&on!ents ,ere see+ing election (or a (o%rt$ term. 2$e &erio! o( time &rior to t$e recall term ,$en anot$er elective o((icial $ol!s o((ice constit%tes an interr%&tion in contin%it' o( service. Clearl' #!ormeo establis$e! t$e r%le t$at t$e ,inner in t$e recall election cannot be c$arge! or cre!ite! ,it$ t$e (%ll term o( t$ree 'ears (or &%r&oses o( co%nting t$e consec%tiveness o( an elective o((icial>s terms in o((ice. Hage!orn>s recall term !oes not retroact to incl%!e t$e ten%re in o((ice o( )ocrates. Hage!orn can onl' be !is.%ali(ie! to r%n in t$e )e&tember /0 /55/ recall election i( t$e recall term is ma!e to retroact to 7%ne 15 /551 (or

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onl' t$en can t$e recall term constit%te a (o%rt$ consec%tive term. B%t to consi!er Hage!orn>s recall term as a (%ll term o( t$ree 'ears retroacting to 7%ne 15 /551 !es&ite t$e (act t$at $e ,on $is recall term onl' last )e&tember /0 /55/ is to ignore realit'. 2$is Co%rt cannot !eclare as consec%tive or s%ccessive terms o( o((ice ,$ic$ $istoricall' an! (act%all' are not. 2o ma+e Hage!orn>s recall term retroact to 7%ne 15 /551 creates a legal (iction t$at %n!%l' c%rtails t$e (ree!om o( t$e &eo&le to c$oose t$eir lea!ers t$ro%g$ &o&%lar elections. 2$e conce&t o( term limits is in !erogation o( t$e sovereign ,ill o( t$e &eo&le to elect t$e lea!ers o( t$eir o,n c$oosing. 2erm limits m%st be constr%e! strictl' to give t$e (%llest &ossible e((ect to t$e sovereign ,ill o( t$e &eo&le. # necessar' conse.%ence o( t$e interr%&tion o( contin%it' o( service is t$e start o( a ne, term (ollo,ing t$e interr%&tion. #n o((icial electe! in recall election serves t$e %ne4&ire! term o( t$e recalle! o((icial. 2$is %ne4&ire! term is in itsel( one term (or &%r&oses o( co%nting t$e t$reeDterm limit. #n elective local o((icial ,$o serves a recall term can serve (or more t$an nine consec%tive 'ears com&rising o( t$e recall term &l%s t$e reg%lar t$ree (%ll terms. # local o((icial ,$o serves a recall term s$o%l! +no, t$at t$e recall term is in itsel( one term alt$o%g$ less t$an t$ree 'ears. 2$is is t$e in$erent limitation $e ta+es b' r%nning an! ,inning in t$e recall election. QQHage!orn is .%ali(ie! to r%n in t$e )e&tember /0 /55/ recall election (or ma'or o( =%erto =rincesa beca%se: 1. Hage!orn is not r%nning (or imme!iate reelection (ollo,ing $is t$ree consec%tive terms as ma'or ,$ic$ en!e! on 7%ne 15 /551A /. Hage!orn>s contin%it' o( service as ma'or ,as invol%ntaril' interr%&te! (rom 7%ne 15 /551 to )e&tember /0 /55/ !%ring ,$ic$ time $e ,as a &rivate citiBenA 1. Hage!orn>s recall term (rom )e&tember /0 /55/ to 7%ne 15 /550 cannot be ma!e to retroact to 7%ne 15 /551 to ma+e a (o%rt$ consec%tive term beca%se (act%all' t$e recall term is not a (o%rt$ consec%tive termA an! 0. 2erm limits s$o%l! be constr%e! strictl' to give t$e (%llest &ossible e((ect to t$e rig$t o( t$e electorate to c$oose t$eir lea!ers. Men oza v. COM%L%C Osme@a v. COM%L%C Facts: -# 75CG ;#n #ct =rovi!ing (or t$e National an! Local 3lections in 188/ =ave t$e 6a' (or )'nc$roniBe! an! )im%ltaneo%s 3lections Beginning 188C an! #%t$oriBing #&&ro&riations 2$ere(or< ,as enacte!. )%it ,as instit%te! b' Governor OsmeRa Governor =ag!anganan on be$al( o( t$e Leag%e o( Governors o( t$e =$ili&&ines -e&resentatives Garcia !el Mar Bacaltos Cainglet an! G%anBon b' ,a' o( a &etition (or =ro$ibition man!am%s an! *n9%nction ,it$ tem&orar' restraining or!er an!?or &reliminar' in9%nction to &revent t$e im&lementation o( sai! -# an! t$e conse.%ent e4&en!it%re o( &%blic (%n!s an! to com&el t$e Comelec to imme!iatel' an! ,it$ all !eliberate s&ee! set %& t$e mac$iner' an! ma+e t$e necessar' &re&aration (or t$e $ol!ing o( s'nc$roniBe! national an! local elections on t$e secon! Mon!a' o( Ma' 188/. 2$e' &ra' (or t$is Co%rt to !eclare -e&%blic #ct No. 75CG as %nconstit%tional an! t$ere(ore invali! an! ino&erative beca%se: 1. -e&%blic #ct 75CG violates t$e man!ate o( t$e Constit%tion (or t$e $ol!ing o( s'nc$roniBe! national an! local elections on t$e secon! Mon!a' o( Ma' 188/. /. -e&%blic #ct 75CG &artic%larl' t$e /n! &aragra&$ o( )ection 1 t$ereo( &rovi!ing t$at all inc%mbent &rovincial cit' an! m%nici&al o((icials s$all $ol! over be'on! 7%ne 15 188/ an! s$all serve %ntil t$eir s%ccessors s$all $ave been !%l' electe! an! .%ali(ie! violates )ection / #rticle JK*** ;2ransitor' =rovision< o( t$e Constit%tion. 1. 2$e same &aragra&$ o( )ection 1 o( -e&%blic #ct 75CG ,$ic$ in e((ect s$ortens t$e term or ten%re o( o((ice o( local o((icials to be electe! on t$e /n! Mon!a' o( November 188/ violates )ection 8 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion. 0. )ection 8 o( -e&%blic #ct 75CG &rovi!ing (or t$e cam&aign &erio!s (or =resi!ential KiceD=resi!ential an! )enatorial elections violates t$e &rovision o( )ection 8 #rticle *J %n!er t$e title "Commission on 3lections" o( t$e Constit%tion. C. 2$e soDcalle! man' !i((ic%lt i( not ins%rmo%ntable &roblems mentione! in -e&%blic #ct 75CG to s'nc$roniBe! national an! local elections set b' t$e Constit%tion on t$e secon! Mon!a' o( Ma' 188/ are not s%((icient m%c$ less vali! 9%sti(ication (or &ost&oning t$e local elections to t$e secon! Mon!a' o( November 188/ an! in t$e &rocess violating t$e Constit%tion itsel(. *( at all Congress can !evise ,a's an! means ,it$in t$e &arameters o( t$e Constit%tion

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to eliminate or at least minimiBe t$ese &roblems an! i( t$is still is not (easible resort can be ma!e to t$e sel(Dcorrecting mec$anism b%ilt in t$e Constit%tion (or its amen!ment or revision. ;&&. 0DC =etition< )imilar claims $ave been ma!e in t$e ot$er cases mentione! in t$e ca&tion. 2$e Co%rt in its -esol%tion !ate! 7%ne /7 1881 iss%e! a restraining or!er "or!ering t$e res&on!ents an!?or an'one acting in t$eir &lace or stea! or b' t$eir a%t$orit' to cease an! !esist (rom im&lementing -e&%blic #ct 75CG ,$ic$ &rovi!es among ot$ers (or t$e $ol!ing o( !es'nc$roniBe! national an! local elections in 188/." ;&. /8 -ollo< 2$e Co%rt also re.%ire! res&on!ents to comment on t$e &etition ,it$in a nonDe4ten!ible &erio! o( ten ;15< !a's (rom notice. Commenting on t$e &etition as re.%ire! t$e )olicitor General &ra's (or t$e !enial o( t$e &etition arg%ing t$at t$e .%estion raise! b' &etitioners is &olitical in nat%re an! t$ere(ore be'on! t$e 9%ris!iction o( t$is Co%rt. He stresses citing National 3conomic =rotective #ssociation v. Ong&in 171 )C-# GC7 t$at &etitioners (aile! to s$o, 9%sti(ication (or t$e e4ercise o( its 9%!icial &o,er viB ;1< t$e e4istence o( an a&&ro&riate caseA ;/< an interest &ersonal an! s%bstantial b' t$e &art' raising t$e constit%tional .%estionA ;1< t$e &lea t$at t$e (%nction be e4ercise! at t$e earliest o&&ort%nit'A an! ;0< t$e necessit' t$at t$e constit%tional .%estion be &asse! %&on in or!er to !eci!e t$e case. He also .%estions t$e legal stan!ing o( t$e &etitioners ,$o $e conten!s are merel' as+ing (or an a!visor' o&inion (rom t$e Co%rt t$ere being no 9%sticiable controvers' (or resol%tion. On t$e merits o( t$e case t$e )olicitor General conten!s t$at -e&%blic #ct 75CG is a vali! e4ercise o( legislative &o,er b' Congress an! t$at t$e reg%lar amen!ing &rocess &rescribe! b' t$e Constit%tion !oes not a&&l' to its transitor' &rovisions. *ss%es: 1. 6ON t$e co%rt ma' act on t$e matter at bar. 6$at is be(ore %s is not a !iscretionar' act o( Congress or t$e 34ec%tive t$at ma' not be revie,e! b' %s beca%se it is &olitical in nat%re. 6$at is involve! $ere is t$e legalit' not t$e ,is!om o( -# 75CG. #n! even i( ,e ,ere to ass%me t$at t$e iss%e &resente! be(ore %s is &olitical in nat%re 6e ,o%l! still not be &recl%!e! (rom resolving it %n!er t$e e4&an!e! 9%ris!iction con(erre! %&on %s t$at no, covers in &ro&er cases even &olitical .%estions &rovi!e! nat%rall' t$at t$e .%estion is not solel' an! e4cl%sivel' &olitical ;as ,$en t$e 34ec%tive e4ten!s recognition to a (oreign government< b%t one ,$ic$ reall' necessitates a (ort$rig$t !etermination o( constit%tionalit' involving as it !oes a .%estion o( national im&ortance. #rticle K*** )ec. 1 o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion clearl' &rovi!es: 2$e 9%!icial &o,er s$all be veste! in one )%&reme Co%rt an! in s%c$ lo,er co%rts as ma' be establis$e! b' la,. 7%!icial &o,er incl%!es t$e !%t' o( t$e co%rts o( 9%stice to settle act%al controversies involving rig$ts ,$ic$ are legall' !eman!able an! en(orceable an! to !etermine ,$et$er or not t$ere $as been a grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to lac+ or e4cess o( 9%ris!iction on t$e &art o( an' branc$ or instr%mentalit' o( t$e Government. 2$e iss%e &resente! to %s in t$e case at bar is 9%sticiable rat$er t$an &olitical. 3ven i( t$e .%estion ,ere &olitical in nat%re it ,o%l! still come ,it$in o%r &o,ers o( revie, %n!er t$e e4&an!e! 9%ris!iction con(erre! %&on %s b' #rticle K*** )ection 1 o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion ,$ic$ incl%!es t$e a%t$orit' to !etermine ,$et$er grave ab%se o( !iscretion amo%nting to e4cess or lac+ o( 9%ris!iction $as been committe! b' an' branc$ or instr%mentalit' o( t$e government. #s (or t$e ot$er allege! &roce!%ral (la,s S lac+ o( co%rt stan!ing etc. ass%ming t$e e4istence o( s%c$ (la,s t$e same ma' be br%s$e! asi!e con(ormabl' ,it$ e4isting !octrine so t$at t$e im&ortant constit%tional iss%e raise! ma' be a!!resse!. 6ON -# 75CG is constit%tional. #rticle JK*** )ec /o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion: 2$e )enators Members o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives an! t$e local o((icials (irst electe! %n!er t$is Constit%tion s$all serve %ntil noon o( 7%ne 15 188/. O( t$e )enators electe! in t$e election in 188/ t$e (irst t,elve obtaining t$e $ig$est n%mber o( votes s$all serve (or si4 'ear an! t$e remaining t,elve (or t$ree 'ears. )ec. C. 2$e si4D'ear term o( t$e inc%mbent =resi!ent an! Kice =resi!ent electe! in t$e Febr%ar' 7 188G election is (or &%r&oses o( s'nc$roniBation o( elections $ereb'

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e4ten!e! to noon o( 7%ne 15 188/. 2$e (irst reg%lar elections (or =resi!ent an! KiceD=resi!ent %n!er t$is Constit%tion s$all be $el! on t$e secon! Mon!a' o( Ma' 188/. 2erms o( o((ice o( )enators Members o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives t$e local o((icials t$e =resi!ent an! t$e KiceD=resi!ent $ave been s'nc$roniBe! to en! on t$e same $o%r !ate an! 'ear S noon o( 7%ne 15 188/. 2erm o( s'nc$roniBation is %se! s'non'mo%sl' as t$e &$rase $ol!ing sim%ltaneo%sl' since t$is is t$e &recise intent in terminating t$eir O((ice 2en%re on t$e same !a' or occasion. 2$is common termination !ate ,ill s'nc$roniBe (%t%re elections to once ever' t$ree 'ears. 2$e Constit%tion $as man!ate! a s'nc$roniBe! national an! local election &rior to 7%ne 15 188/ or more s&eci(icall' as &rovi!e! (or in #rticle JK*** )ec. CDon t$e secon! Mon!a' o( Ma' 188/. 2$e term o( o((ice o( elective local o((icials e4ce&t baranga' o((icials is (i4e! b' t$e Constit%tion at t$ree 'ears ;)ec. 8 #rt. J<. 2$e inc%mbent local o((icials ,ere electe! in 7an%ar' 1888. 2$ere(ore t$eir term ,o%l! $ave e4&ire! on Febr%ar' / 1881. B%t t$eir term ,as a!9%ste! to e4&ire at noon o( 7%ne 15 188/. 2$e reason (or t$e sai! a!9%stment as ,ell as t$ose o( t$e )enators members o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives =resi!ent an! KiceD=resi!ent is t$e same S to s'nc$roniBe t$e national an! local elections. @&on t$e ot$er $an! an! contrar' to t$e e4&ress man!ate o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion -e&%blic #ct 75CG &rovi!es (or t,o ;/< se&arate elections in 188/ as (ollo,s: )ec. /. )tart o( )'nc$roniBation S 2o start t$e &rocess o( s'nc$roniBation o( election in accor!ance ,it$ t$e &olic' $ereinbe(ore !eclare! t$ere s$all be $el!: ;a< #n election (or =resi!ent an! KiceD =resi!ent o( t$e =$ili&&ines t,ent' (o%r ;/0< )enators an! all elective Members o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives on t$e secon! Mon!a' o( Ma' 188/ an! ;b< #n election o( all &rovincial cit' an! m%nici&al elective o((icials on t$e secon! Mon!a' o( November 188/. 2$e &%r&ose o( -e&%blic #ct 75CG is as state! in )ection 1 t$ereo( %n!er t$e $ea!ing ")tatement o( =olic'" S to start as m%c$ as &racticable t$e s'nc$roniBation o( t$e elections so t$at t$e &rocess can be com&lete! in t$e 188C elections ,it$ t$e res%lt t$at beginning 188C t$ere s$all be onl' one ;1< sim%ltaneo%s reg%lar elections (or national an! local elective o((icials ever' t$ree ;1< 'ears. 6it$ t$e clear man!ate o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion to $ol! s'nc$roniBe! ;sim%ltaneo%s< national an! local elections in t$e secon! Mon!a' o( Ma' 188/ t$e inevitable concl%sion ,o%l! be t$at -e&%blic #ct 75CG is clearl' violative o( t$e Constit%tion beca%se it &rovi!es (or t$e $ol!ing o( a !es'nc$roniBe! election. )tate! !i((erentl' -e&%blic #ct 75CG &artic%larl' )ections 1 an! / t$ereo( contravenes #rticle JK*** )ections / an! C o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion. Ot$er Consti &rovisions violate! b' -# 75CG: )ection / #rticle JK*** o( t$e Constit%tion ,$ic$ &rovi!es t$at t$e local o((icial (irst electe! %n!er t$e Constit%tion s$all serve %ntil noon o( 7%ne 15 188/. B%t %n!er )ec. 1 o( -# 75CG t$ese inc%mbent local o((icials s$all $ol! over be'on! 7%ne 15 188/ an! s$all serve %ntil t$eir s%ccessors s$all $ave been !%l' electe! an! .%ali(ie!. *t $as been $el! t$at *t is not com&etent (or t$e legislat%re to e4ten! t$e term o( o((icers b' &rovi!ing t$at t$e' s$all $ol! over %ntil t$eir s%ccessors are electe! an! .%ali(ie! ,$ere t$e constit%tion $as in e((ect or b' clear im&lication &rescribe! t$e term an! ,$en t$e Constit%tion (i4es t$e !a' on ,$ic$ t$e o((icial term s$all begin t$ere is no legislative a%t$orit' to contin%e t$e o((ice be'on! t$at &erio! even t$o%g$ t$e s%ccessors (ail to .%ali(' ,it$ t$e time. #merican 7%ris&r%!ence: t$e legislat%re cannot b' an act &ost&oning t$e election to (ill an o((ice t$e term o( ,$ic$ is limite! b' t$e Constit%tion e4ten! t$e term o( t$e inc%mbent be'on! t$e &erio! as limite! b' t$e Constit%tion. )ection 8 #rticle J o( t$e Constit%tion ,$ic$ &rovi!es t$at: 2$e term o( o((ice o( elective local o((icials e4ce&t baranga' o((icials ,$ic$ s$all be !etermine! b' la, s$all be t$ree 'ears an! no s%c$ o((icial s$all serve (or more t$an t$ree consec%tive terms. B%t i( t$e local election ,ill be $el! on t$e secon! Mon!a' o( November 188/ %n!er -# 75CG t$ose to be electe! ,ill be serving (or onl' t,o 'ears an! seven mont$s t$at is (rom November 15 188/ to 7%ne 15 188C not t$ree 'ears as &rovi!e! (or b' t$e Constit%tion. )ection 8 #rticle *J o( t$e Constit%tion &rovi!es t$at: @nless ot$er,ise (i4e! b' t$e Commission in s&ecial cases t$e election &erio! s$all commence ninet' !a's be(ore t$e !a' o( election an! s$all en! t$irt' !a's t$erea(ter. @n!er t$is

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&rovision t$e (iling o( t$e Certi(icate o( Can!i!ac' an! t$e ens%ing cam&aign &erio! m%st be embrace! or circ%mscribe! ,it$in t$at election &erio! o( ninet' !a's e4ce&t ,$en in s&ecial cases t$e Comelec ;not Congress< alters t$e &erio!. B%t -# 75CG &rovi!es (or a !i((erent cam&aign &erio! as (ollo,s: )ec. 8. ;a< For =resi!ent ari! KiceD=resi!ential elections one $%n!re! t$irt' ;115< !a's be(ore t$e !a' o( election. ;b< For )enatorial elections ninet' ;85< !a's be(ore t$e !a' o( t$e election an! ;c< For t$e election o( Members o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives an! local elective &rovincial cit' an! m%nici&al o((icials (ort'D(ive ;0C< !a's be(ore t$e !a' o( t$e elections. QQ#ll t$ese S t$e &ost&onement o( t$e $ol!ing o( a s'nc$roniBe! national an! local election (rom 188/ to 188CA t$e $ol!Dover &rovision (or inc%mbent local o((icialsA t$e re!%ction o( t$e term o( o((ice o( local o((icials to be electe! on t$e secon! Mon!a' o( November 188/ an! t$e c$ange in t$e cam&aign &erio!s are violative o( t$e 1887 Constit%tion. QQ2$e contention o( t$e )olicitor General t$at t$e met$o! o( amen!ment or revision &rescribe! b' t$e Constit%tion ;#rticle JK***< !oes not a&&l' to t$e 2ransitor' =rovisions beca%se in t$e nat%re o( t$ings 2ransitor' =rovisions are to be carrie! o%t as soon as &racticable an! Congress can in t$e e4ercise o( its legislative &o,er enact t$e nee!e! legislation in t$is case -# 75CG !eserves no consi!eration at all. 2$e 1887 Constit%tion $as state! in clear an! categorical lang%age t$at "t$e si4D'ear term o( t$e inc%mbent =resi!ent an! KiceD=resi!ent electe! in t$e Febr%ar' 7 188G election is (or &%r&oses o( s'nc$roniBation o( elections $ereb' e4ten!e! to noon o( 7%ne 15 188/ ;#rticle JK*** )ec. C<." #s !isc%sse! earlier t$e elections re(erre! to to be s'nc$roniBe! ,it$ t$e election o( t$e =resi!ent an! KiceD=resi!ent on t$e secon! Mon!a' o( Ma' 188/ is t$e election (or )enators Members o( t$e Ho%se o( -e&resentatives an! local o((icials. QQ)'nc$roniBation S as t$e act or res%lt o( s'nc$roniBingA conc%rrence o( events or motions in res&ect to time. )'nc$roniBe S to $a&&en or ta+e &lace at t$e same timeA to re&resent or arrange event so as to in!icate coinci!ence or coD e4istenceA to ca%se to agree in time.

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Facts: On Febr%ar' 1G 1888 b' virt%e o( t$e (act t$at no Governor $a! been &roclaime! in t$e &rovince o( Le'te )ecretar' o( Local Government )antos !esignate! KiceDGovernor =etilla as #cting Governor o( Le'te. On Marc$ /C 1888 MenBon a senior member o( t$e )angg%niang =anlala,igan ,as also !esignate! b' )antos to act as t$e KiceDGovernor (or t$e &rovince o( Le'te. On Ma' /8 1888 =rovincial #!ministrator W%intero in.%ire! (rom t$e @n!ersecretar' o( t$e De&artment o( Local Government -%billar as to t$e legalit' o( t$e a&&ointment o( t$e &etitioner to act as t$e KiceDGovernor o( Le'te. *n $is re&l' letter !ate! 7%ne // 1888 -%billar state! t$at since B.=. 117 $as no &rovision relating to s%ccession in t$e O((ice o( t$e KiceDGovernor in case o( a tem&orar' vacanc' t$e a&&ointment o( MenBon as t$e tem&orar' KiceD Governor is not necessar' since t$e KiceDG