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Project Report On Comparative Analysis Of 4-Stroke Bikes

(Submitted towards the fulfillment of Post Graduate Diploma of Management)

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(Approved by AICTE, Govt. of India) ACADEMIC SESSION (YYYY-YY)

Under the guidance of: Supervisor Name Lecturer (college name)

Submitted by: Your Name Roll: -

CONTENTS
A) Title page B) Acknowledgement C) Certificate

1) INTRODUCTION 2) INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 3) MARKETING STRATEGIES 4) LITERATURE REVIEW 5) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 6) DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 7) FINDINGS 8) SUGGESTIONS 9) CONCLUSION 10) REFERENCES AND ANNEXURES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We express our sincere gratitude to our project guide Mr. Kamal K.Gupta for giving us the opportunity to work on this project. We are thankful to GUIDANCE NAME our Project Guide for their guidance and encouragement without which the satisfactory completion of our project would not have been possible. They have been a constant source of inspiration to us, showing all the patience and abundant encouragement throughout the project duration. Also, we are thankful to the librarians and staff of our institute, for their continued support and invaluable encouragement. Above all, we are thankful to the Almighty and to our parents for their blessings, humble support and showing their belief in us.

-YOUR NAME

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project study titled submitted by YOUR NAME on fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Post Graduate Diploma in Management is a record of original work carried out by him under my guidance and supervision. This work has not been submitted elsewhere for award of any degree or diploma.

INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION
HISTORY OF BIKES Through the years Bob Stark has been involved with Indian motorcycles throughout his entire life. Bob's father became an Indian dealer in 1918, after returning from military service during World War I. Bob still has a photo of his mother riding in a sidecar in 1923. Since Bob was born in 1934, his parents were involved with Indian cycles long before that. At the age of 10 Bob started staying around his fathers shop, and developed quite an interest in the Indian cycles. The mechanic considered him a pest, but allowed him to do minor items, such as changing oil & polishing cycles. By 1946 Bob was riding his own Whizzer motorbike, and in 1947 graduated to a Cushman scooter. By 1950, he had learned quite a bit more about the cycles and got his first Indian, a 741 Scout with skirted fenders. He bought the cycle for $50.00 without his fathers permission and had it for 4 months before his father knew it was his. By 1951, Bob purchased the '48 Chief, which he still rides. In addition, his father deemed the $50.00 741 Scout to be unsafe. So he traded a new Triumph 650cc even up for it. That was the best cycle deal in Bob's life. 1951 also was high school graduation, and the start of college. Some extra money was obtained during the next 3 summers by working on cycles. Bobs father had sold the Indian shop in 1952, so the work was done in the "ex" chicken coop at home. 1955 was the big change, graduation from Case Institute of Technology, Akron Ohio (Now called Case/Western) with a degree in mechanical engineering. This was a year of working days at Goodyear Tire & Rubber and nights on Indians. A short time was spent in the army during 1956 & 1957. The off hours were spent at Herb Reiber' s Indian shop in Washington D.C. The '48 Chief (purchased in 1951) was kept about 2 miles from Fort Belvoir. After an army discharge in the fall of 1957 Bob returned to Goodyear Tire during the day and worked on Indians at home during the evenings. By 1957 he reopened his fathers shop part time, selling the Royal Enfield built Indians, servicing them, and servicing the older Chiefs & Scouts. By 1958 Goodyear Tire was no longer in the picture as Bob quit to spend full time at the cycle shop. In 1959 health reasons mandated a move to Florida, and more building of cycles at home, while working at Martin Marietta Corporation. 1961 was a move to California, and the nominal

home workshop for night work. Later 60' s meant trips back to Florida as part of the launch crew on the first 2 moon shots from Cape Canaveral. Gary was born during this time frame and started riding between Shorty & Bob by age 2. In 1970, Starklite Cycle was formed and Bob was back to full time work on Indians. Again, Starklite took on the Indian dealership, this time for the Taiwan/Italian built models. This was different, but the main business was restoring the older Indians and manufacturing parts for them. By now Gary was riding. He got his first Indian at age 5, and his second one at age 7. He was given a '47 Chief at age 5 and he finished his restoration of it at age 16. As the years have progressed, Indian parts have become increasingly scarcer. This has led to the need to design and build increasing amounts of Indian parts. In 1989, Gary graduated from California State University of Long Beach with an Engineering degree in Manufacturing Engineering. The engineering has helped both Bob and Gary in the production of what we believe to be the best quality of Indian parts available. The line now stands at over 3000 items. Shortly has done her part by putting up with all of this for nearly 30 years, as well as handling most of the work in connection with the Indian Motorcycle Club. Gary has started helping her the last couple or years with much of the mailing and typesetting, as he has become very proficient on the computer.

In the fall of 1988, Starklite moved from Fullerton to Perris. The shop in Fullerton was left in the hands of Wilson Plank, who was employed there for 14 years. He is currently operating it under the name of American Indian Specialists and is running it very successfully working on Indians. As you can see from this brief background, The Stark Family has been involved in Indians from 1918 to the present with virtually no interruptions. Starklite is a family owned business involving Bob, Shorty, and Gary, as well as others. Gary is the third generation to be involved. The most gratifying part of the business has been the amount of nice people we have met. We consider them friends, not just a customer.

BACKGROUND
When we think of Indian Two-wheelers market, we think of stodgy Vespa based models of scooters and Japanese models of motorcycles, but now the situation is completely changed as the industry is sizzling hot with continuous poaching of scooters by motorcycles as well as regular launches of new models by all players. Earlier the shelf life of models was in tune of 10-15 years but now it has come down drastically due to intense competition. Hero Honda is trying to save its dominance in motorcycles market from rigorous attacks of Bajaj Auto and TVS while Bajaj Auto is changing its portfolio by heavy inclusion of motorcycles in it. In this battle LML Group, Kinetic Group, Yamaha Motors, Honda Motors and Royal Enfield are also trying to have a say.

2. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW (TWO-WHEELERS AND THREE-WHEELERS)

Two-Wheelers India is the second largest manufacturer and producer of two-wheelers in the world. It stands next only to Japan and China in terms of the number of two-wheelers produced and domestic sales respectively. This distinction was achieved due to variety of reasons like restrictive policy followed by the Government of India towards the passenger car industry, rising demand for personal transport, inefficiency in the public transportation system etc.

The Indian two-wheeler industry made a small beginning in the early 50s when Automobile Products of India (API) started manufacturing scooters in the country. Until 1958, API and Enfield were the sole producers. In 1948, Bajaj Auto began trading in imported Vespa scooters and three-wheelers. Finally, in 1960, it set up a shop to manufacture them in technical collaboration with Piaggio of Italy. Although various government and private enterprises entered the fray for scooters, the only new player that has lasted till today is LML. Under the regulated regime, foreign companies were not allowed to operate in India. It was a complete sellers market with the waiting period for getting a scooter from Bajaj Auto being as high as 12 years.

The motorcycles segment was no different, with only three manufacturers viz Enfield, Ideal Jawa and Escorts. While Enfield bullet was a four-stroke bike, Jawa and the Rajdoot were two-stroke bikes. The motorcycle segment was initially dominated by Enfield 350cc bikes and Escorts 175cc bike. The two-wheeler market was opened to foreign competition in the mid-80s. Moreover, the then market leaders -Escorts and Enfield - were caught unaware by the onslaught of the 100cc bikes of the four Indo-Japanese joint ventures. With the availability of fuel-efficient low power bikes, demand swelled, resulting in Hero Honda - then the only producer of four stroke bikes (100cc category), gaining a top slot. The first Japanese motorcycles were introduced in the early eighties. TVS Suzuki and Hero Honda brought in the first two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles respectively. These two players initially started with assembly of CKD kits,

and later on progressed to indigenous manufacturing. In the 90s the major growth for motorcycle segment was brought in by Japanese motorcycles, which grew at a rate of nearly 25% CAGR in the last five years. The industry had a smooth ride in the 50s, 60s and 70s when the Government prohibited new entries and strictly controlled capacity expansion. The industry saw a sudden growth in the 80s. The industry witnessed a steady growth of 14% leading to a peak volume of 1.9mn vehicles in 1990. The entry of Kinetic Honda in mid-eighties with a variometric scooter helped in providing ease of use to the scooter owners. This helped in inducing youngsters and working women, towards buying scooters, who were earlier inclined towards moped purchases. In the 90s, this trend was reversed with the introduction of scooterettes. In line with this, the scooter segment has consistently lost its part of the market share in the two-wheeler market. In 1990, the entire automobile industry saw a drastic fall in demand. This resulted in a decline of 15% in 1991 and 8% in 1992, resulting in a production loss of 0.4mn vehicles. Barring Hero Honda, all the major producers suffered from recession in FY93 and FY94. Hero Honda showed a marginal decline in 1992. The reasons for recession in the sector were the incessant rise in fuel prices, high input costs and reduced purchasing power due to significant rise in general price level and credit crunch in consumer financing. Factors like increased production in 1992, due to new entrants coupled with the recession in the industry resulted in companies either reporting losses or a fall in profits

Three-Wheelers India is one of the very few countries manufacturing three-wheelers in the world. It is the world's largest manufacturer and seller of three-wheelers. Bajaj Auto commands a monopoly in the domestic market with a market share of above 80%, the rest is shared by Bajaj Tempo, Greaves Ltd and Scooters India.

3. MAJOR PLAYERS AND COMPETITION

a. HERO HONDA LTD.


The legend of Hero Honda what started out as a Joint Venture between Hero Group, the world's largest bicycle manufacturers and the Honda Motor Company of Japan, has today become the World's single largest two-wheeler Company. Coming into existence on January 19, 1984, Hero Honda Motors Limited gave India nothing less than a revolution on two-wheels, made even more famous by the 'Fill it - Shut it - Forget it ' campaign. Driven by the trust of over 5 million customers, the Hero Honda product range today commands a market share of 48% making it a veritable giant in the industry. Add to that technological excellence, an expansive dealer network, and reliable after sales service, and you have one of the most customer- friendly companies.

b. BAJAJ AUTO LIMITED

The Bajaj Group came into existence during the turmoil and the heady euphoria of India's freedom struggle. Jamnalal Bajaj, founder of the Bajaj Group, was a confidante and disciple of Mahatma Gandhi, and was deeply involved in the effort for freedom. The integrity, dedication, resourcefulness and determination to succeed which are characteristic of the Company today, are often traced back to its birth during those long days of relentless devotion to a common cause. Kamalnayan, the eldest son of Jamnalal Bajaj, succeeded his father in 1942, at the age of twentyseven. Putting the Nation before business, he devoted himself to the latter only after India achieved independence in 1947. But when he did so, he put his heart and soul into it. Within a short while, he not only consolidated the Group, but also diversified into various manufacturing activities, elevating the Group to the status it enjoys till this day. Rahul Bajaj today heads the Group. He has been the Chief Executive Officer of Bajaj since 1968 and is recognized as one of the most outstanding business leaders in India. As dynamic and ambitious as his illustrious predecessors, he has been recognised for his achievements at various national and international forums. Bajaj is currently India's largest two and three-wheeler manufacturer and one of the biggest in the world. Bajaj has long left behind its annual turnover of Rs.72 million (1968), to currently register an impressive figure of Rs.42.16 billion (US$ 936 million). Group/ Management Mr. Jamanalal Bajaj founded the Bajaj Group in the 30s. The group now has 24 companies, including 6 listed companies. Besides BAL, the major companies in the group are Mukand Ltd. (Alloy/ Special Steel, term key projects), Bajaj Electricals Ltd.(Electrical equipments, fans, and appliances) and Bajaj Hindustan Ltd.(Sugar, industrial alcohol)

BELIEFS Transparency: A commitment that the business is managed along transparent lines. Fairness: To all stakeholders in the Company, but especially to minority shareholders. Disclosure: Of all relevant financial and non-financial information in an easily understood manner. Supervision: Of the Companys activities by a professionally competent and independent board of directors.

PRESENCE Distribution network covers 50 countries. About 150,000 units likely to be exported this year. Dominant presence in Sri Lanka, Mexico, Bangladesh, Columbia, Guatemala, Peru, Egypt, Iran and Indonesia. Largest exporter of three-wheelers; over 40.875 units exported last year. All products customized as per market needs . 83% growth in total exports in 2002-03.

Different models of Bajaj 4-stroke bikes:

Bajaj CT 100 Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity Colours 4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 99.27cc 8.2 BHP @ 7500rpm 4 Speed CDI 110mm Drum 110mm Drum 2.75 X 18 2.75 X 18 1225mm 0mm 109 Kg 9.3 Litres Black, Maroon, Silver, Blue

Bajaj Discover Electricstart Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity Colours 4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 124.52cc 11.51 BHP @ 8000rpm 4 Speed CDI 130mm Drum 130mm Drum 2.75 X 17 3.00 X 17 1305mm 0mm 129 Kg 10 Litres Black, Red, Blue

Bajaj Pulsar 150 ES DTSi

Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity Colours

4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 178.6cc 16.5 BHP @ 8000rpm 5 Speed CDI Disc 130mm Drum 2.75 X 17 100/90 X 17 1330mm 165mm 140 Kg 15 Litres Black, Silver, Orange, Blue, Dark Grey

c. LML AUTO LTD.

The company was incorporated in 1972 as a private limited company called Lohia Machine Ltd. and starting manufacturing machine in technical collaboration with ARCT FRANCE in terms of companies Act 1956. The company was converted into public limited company. The activities were diversified by putting up synthetic yarn processing unit in 1978. Nylon 6 chips manufacturing of LML scooter. The activity of engineering unit was phased out and fiber unit was de-linked. As such as the company now manufacturing scooters and motorbike under the brand name of LML.

During the last 14 years the company has produced and sold over 19 Lacks scooters that is a remarkable achievement inspire of formidable competition formats competitors when LML entered the scooter industry in 1982. It was essentially operating in a seller market which had huge unmeet demand it was able to gain substantial and market shore approached operand from 14000 a month in 1990 to 5000 a month in 1992. Overall sales in1991 were half that of 1990. It introduced a new vehicle LML is in early 1992 which was priced higher than LML TS in September 1992 both the vehicles were restyled and re-launched as the NV special and TS special there was no immediate impacts on sales. Total sales in 1992 were lower than even 1991.

However there was considerable reshaping within the existing demand with the higher price TS rapidly wresting a 35 percent shares of LML 20 sales. By end 1992 the company had managed to fix its mingling quality problems which has been preventing it from attaining a premium states in the eye of the consumer it started spending on advertisement also for provide- ding product related information to potential customers.

Innovative marketing such as exchanging any old scooter for new LML one and paying the difference is easy installment he helped in booming up the market share of LML considerable LML enthused its dealer with mere generous morging which ranges from Rs-725 to Rs-1100.

By 1993, it introduced a new model LML select that proved an instant success by mid 1993 as much a 60 percent of LML sales to percent by 1993 had increased to 15000 per month. It stayed at the sales reputed to 20000 a per month by the year-end.

The severe demand recession during October 1990 top September 1992 upset the working of company resulting into heavy loses. As a result of house Research and Development. Activities the company could introduce a new range of scooter with lot of added features like a better fuel, efficient engine and attractive metallic colors etc with earning of recession the sales of company picked up a level of about 5000 scooter to 2000 scooter per month. During the year end 30-9-97 LML has achieved a remarkable turn over by earning a net profit Rs-2640 lacks as compared to net loss of 607 during the year proved further and the company has earned a net profit of Rs-467 crores during the period ended on 30-9-97 before exceptional item has also gone up from Rs346.39 crores during 1993-94 to Rs-748.72 crores during 1996-97. From a mere 7 percent, market share in 1991-1992 LML has today made significant result and commands an impressive market share of about 26 percent. LML achieved 14.63% increase in volumes against the backdrop of a slow down in the twowheeler industry and a negative growth in the scooter segment.

Different models of LML 4-strokes bikes: LML Freedom DX Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity 4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 109.15cc 8.5 BHP @ 7550rpm 4 Speed CDI Drum Drum 2.75 X 18 3.00 X 18 1235mm 165mm 111 Kg 12.25 Litres

LML Freedom Prima 125 Disc Brake Motorcycle

Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity Colours

4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 124.88cc 10.7 BHP @ 8000rpm 5 Speed CDI Disc 130mm Drum 2.75 X 18 3.00 X 18 1235mm 165mm 111 Kg 12.25 Litres Black, Silver

LML Graptor Kick Start Motorcycle

Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity Colours

4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 150.8cc 13.5 BHP @ 8000rpm 5 Speed CDI Disc 130mm Drum 2.75 X 18 3.00 X 18 1280mm 170mm 136 Kg 17 Litres Black, Maroon, Silver, Blue

d. TVS Motor Company

TVS Suzuki became the first Indian company to introduce 100 cc Indo-Japanese motorcycles in collaboration with Suzuki Motor Company. Having amicably parted ways TVS Motor Company continues to manufacture highly reliable mopeds, motorcycles & scooters. TVS have one of the most comprehensive line-ups of motorcycles. The 2 Stroke Max 100 range provide the entry level. The new TVS Centra and the latest TVS Victor GLX 125 both use the new VT-i (Variable Timing Ignition) to good effect. The Indian two- wheeler market has a size of over Rs100,000 million with the sales of more than 3.7 million units in 2000-01 and has been growing at 7% CAGR over 1997-2001. TVS Suzuki Ltd (TSL) is one of the three companies that account for more than 80% of the industry. The company has 23% market share in domestic two-wheeler industry. TSL is present in all the three leading segments of the 2-wheeler market viz; mopeds, motorcycles and scooters. The company is Indias largest manufacturer of mopeds with a market share of 66%, and dominates the southern parts of India. It is also a market leader in the fast growing vario-scooter (Scooty) market with a market share of 34%. In FY01, motorcycle sales contributed to 53% followed by sales in mopeds to 24% of total sales of Rs 18,408.2mn. TSLs first 4-stroke premium segment motorcycle Suzuki Fiero has achieved about 3% market share within the first year of its launch. Most recently the 19-yr old JV with Suzuki Motor Corporation (SMC) has fallen off and TVS has been renamed as TVS Motor Company Ltd. The Indian two-wheeler sector contributes the largest volumes amongst all the segments in automobile industry. Though the segment can be broadly categorized into 3 sub-segments viz; scooters, motorcycles and mopeds; some categories introduced in the market are a combination of two or more segments e.g. scooterettes and step-thrus. The market primarily comprises five players in the two-wheeler segment with most of the companies having foreign collaborations with well-known Japanese firms earlier. But with most of the companies now planning 100% subsidiaries in India, a few JVs have fallen out. In the last four to five years, the two-wheeler market has witnessed a marked shift towards motorcycles at the expense of scooters. In the rural areas, consumers have come to prefer sturdier bikes to withstand the bad road conditions. In the process the share of motorcycle segment has

grown from 48% to 58% , the share of scooters declined drastically from 33% to 25% , while that of mopeds declined by 2% from 19% to 17% during the year 2000-01. The Euro emission norms effective from April 2000 led to the existing players in the two- stroke segment to install catalytic converters. 4-stroke motorcycles are now replacing all new vehicles. Reduced excise duty and fierce competition has led to a fall in prices of certain models. TSL has been the largest manufacturer of mopeds, which are predominantly prevalent as a means of low cost transportation and provide a tremendous potential in all the parts of India. However the company is likely to face threat from domestic competitors viz; Bajaj Auto Ltd (BAL) which would continue its price-based competition and Honda Motorcycles and Scooters Ltd (HMSL) a new entrant in the 2-wheeler market. Since the two-wheeler industry has grown vigorously in the past, there has been excess capacity and cost pressures will lead to reduce margins. The removal of quantitative restrictions has also led to a threat from the Chinese players. In addition to this there has been a decline in the demand for mopeds, which is matter of concern for the company. Consequently, the company has been planning to launch a range of 4-stroke vehicles covering all segments over a period of time. Of late, TVS has been able to produce 100cc 4-stroke motorcycles indigenously and none of the companys fast selling 2-wheelers have a major Suzuki contribution. Current Scenario TVS - Suzuki s motorcycle volume growth at around 1.3% is way behind that of its competitors such as Hero Honda (37.28 %) and Bajaj Auto (34.5 %). The company for the first half of FY02 posted a drop in turnover by 8% to Rs8332.8mn. Operating profit margin has declined to 7.39% from 9.53% and has been affected on account of disproportionate increase in raw material cost in relation to the turnover. Increase in staff costs to Rs364.2mn from Rs312.3mn accompanied by marginal increase in depreciation and interest costs has affected the companys bottom line. The posttax earnings declined by about 53% to Rs191.6mn. However the earnings during second quarter are relatively better than the first quarter of current fiscal 01-02. The pick up in sales volumes of Victor and the steady off take of Fiero have helped the company stage some sort of recovery during the second quarter.

Different models of TVS 4-strokes bikes: TVS Centra

Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity Colours

4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 99.8cc 7.5 BHP @ 7500rpm 4 Speed, constant mesh CDI 110mm 110mm 2.75 X 18 2.75 X 18 1235mm 150mm 109 Kg 11 Litres Black, Blue, Red

TVS Fiero

Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity Colours

4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 147.5cc 12 BHP @ 7000 rpm 4 Speed CDI 240mm Disc 130mm Drum 2.75 X 18 90/90 X 18 1270mm 155mm 124 Kg 13 Litres Black, Blue, Red, Silver

TVS Victor

The TVS Victor offers amongst the best value for money in the Indian two-wheeler industry. Its 110cc engine, 4 stroke engine develops 8.1 BHP and, thanks to its digital ignition, can be optimised for power or fuel economy depending on your riding style. Its multi-reflector headlamps provide better illumination for safer riding while its long broad seat offers great comfort both for the pillion and the rider.

e. YAMAHA MOTOR INDIA PVT. LTD.

Yamaha Motor India Private (YMIPL) Ltd. is the fully owned subsidiary of Yamaha Motor Co of Japan. YMIPL was initially known as Yamaha Motor Escorts Ltd. But the parent company, Yamaha Motor Company, purchased Escorts Ltd's remaining 26 per cent holding in their motorcycle joint venture Yamaha Motor Escorts Ltd in June 2001. It was therefore renamed as Yamaha Motor India Private Ltd.

YMI follows Yamaha Motor's corporate mission of creating 'Kando' - a unique Japanese word that means 'touching people's hearts.' 'Kando' also describes the 'spirit of challenge" to create new value surpassing customer expectations. YMIPL is committed to making products that benefit from the skills and technology used by Yamaha worldwide.

Now, the company being 100% subsidiary holder is known as the Yamaha Motor India (Pvt.) Limited. The logo of YMC has been adopted by YMIPL.

Plans after Merger To fulfill customer satisfaction, and meet the needs of the Indian market, YMI plans to produce one or more models in the first year, four models in three years. To achieve these goals, YMIPL will pursue three major objectives within the company. The first is customer satisfaction. The second is strengthening R&D. YMIPL's mission is to constantly produce what customers are looking for, by analysing market trends and changes. The third objective is to optimize the internal working system. YMIPL's motto is 'Speed, Quality, Yamaha's original design'. Yamaha is aiming to make a significant contribution to Indian society and create products that the people of India will take to their hearts. Ever since its founding as a motorcycle manufacturer on 1st July, 1955, Yamaha Motor Company has worked to build its products which stand among the very best in the world through its constant pursuit of quality; and at the same time, through these products, it has sought to contribute to the quality of life of people all over the world. Following on the success of our

Motorcycles, Yamaha being manufacturing Powerboats and out boards motors in 1960. Since then, engine and FRP technology were used as a base to actively diversify and globalize the area of business. Today our fields of influence extend from the land to the sea and even into the skies as our business divisions have grown Motorcycles operations to include Marine operations, Power Product operations, Automotive operations, Intelligent Machinery operations, Aeronautic operations and PAS operations.

Different models of Yamaha 4-strokes bikes: Yamaha Crux Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity Colours 4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 105.6cc 7.6 BHP @ 7500rpm 4 Speed CDI 130mm Drum 130mm Drum 2.50 X 18 2.75 X 18 1247mm 145mm 105.5 Kg 11 Litres Black, Blue & Red

Yamaha Enticer Electric Start Disc Brake

Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity Colours

4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 123.7cc 10.99 BHP @ 8000rpm 4 Speed CDI Disc 130mm Drum 2.75 X 18 120/80 X 16 1375mm 140mm 116 Kg 13 Litres Lavender, Gold, Red

Yamaha Libero

Engine Cubic Capacity Max. Power Gear Box Ignition Front Brakes Rear Brakes Front Tyre Rear Tyre Wheelbase Ground Clearance Dry Weight Tank Capacity Colours

4 Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 106cc 7.6 BHP @ 7500rpm 4 Speed CDI 130mm Drum 130mm Drum 2.75 X 18 3.00 X 18 1290mm 173mm 109 Kg 13 Litres Black, Maroon, Gold, Green

MARKETING STRATEGIES

5. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF HERO HONDA a. PRODUCT RELATED STRATEGIES OF HERO HONDA

Product Range and New Models: The Company's product range includes "Splendor" which is the largest selling motorcycle brand in the world with over 6.9 lacs vehicles sold in 2000-01. A cumulative over 4 million customers are the real foundation of the company's strength. The total shall soon cross the 5 million mark. Its volumes have been growing at a strong pace of 40% p.a. over the last five years.

The Company launched a new 100 cc model "Passion" in January 2001. The motorcycle is focused on style and contemporary design, compared to the Company's earlier motorcycles that were focused on utility and/or style. "Passion" has received an excellent response from the market and has established itself well, with sales reaching a level of 19000 units in March 2001, within just three months of its launch. In April 2001, another 100 cc model "Joy" was launched successfully. Its focus is on better styling and improved riding comfort. Hero Honda launches cheapest bike to stall Bajaj Auto19.03 IST 16th Apr 2003 By India Express Bureau In an attempt to beat competition from its rival Bajaj Auto, Hero Honda Motors launched its cheapest 100cc motorbike yet on Wednesday. The motorbike maker, in which India's Munjal family and Japan's Honda Motor Co each hold 26 per cent stakes, said the new model, CDDawn, would carry a showroom price of Rs 31,899 in Delhi. The company expects to sell 7,0008,000 units of the bike in April and hopes sales will touch 20, 000 a month in six months. Hero Honda, which accounts for 45 per cent share of the domestic market, has faced slowing demand and cutthroat competition after two consecutive years of 30 per cent-plus growth in the world's biggest motorcycle market. But the firm has forecast at least 10 per cent growth in sales volume in the current financial year to March 2004. Its sales in the past year to March grew 17.7 per cent to 1.68 million bikes.

Different models of Hero Honda 4-strokes bikes:

Presenting CD deluxe, the stylish, true value 100 cc motorcycle from Hero Honda. Encompassing the legendary Hero Honda values of fuel efficiency, economy and rock solid dependability. Engine Bore X Stroke Displacement Compression Ratio Max Power Torque Clutch Transmission Final Drive Ignition Starting Frame Suspension Dimensions (LXWXH) Wheel Base Ground Clearance Kerb Weight Tyres Brakes Fuel Tank Capacity Head Light 4-Stroke OHC, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 50 X 49.5 mm 97.2 cc 8.8 : 1 5.44 Kw (7.4 PS) @ 8000rpm 0.79 Kgm @ 5000 rpm Multi Plate Wet Type 4-Speed Constant Mesh Roller Chain Capacitor Discharge Ignition Kick Start Tubular Double Cradle Front: Telescopic Hydraulic Fork Rear: Swing Arm with Hydraulic Shock Absorbers 1970 X 720 X 1045 mm 1230 mm 159 mm 108 Kg Front: 2.75 X 18 - 4PR Rear: 2.75 X 18 - 6PR Front: Internal Expanding Shoe Type - 130 mm Dia Rear: Internal Expanding Shoe Type - 110 mm Dia 10.5 Ltrs Rectangular Multi Focal Reflector 35

The world's best-selling motorcycle just got better. The Splendor+, a bike that will stop you right in your tracks. Both by its looks and performance. Needless to add, owning a Splendor+ means a lot of other things too. Like getting admiring looks. Or the pride of riding a motorcycle that meets the pollution control standards of this decade. That's the Splendor+. The new face of trust. Engine Displacement Transmission Ignition Head light Frame Suspension (front) Suspension (rear) Wheelbase Ground clearance Kerb weight Tyre (front) Tyre (rear) Type of brake (front) Optional Type of brake (rear) Max power Max speed Fuel tank capacity 4-stroke, single cylinder lair-cooled, OHC 97.2.cc 4-speed constant mesh Electronic 12V 35/35W multi-reflector with halogen lamp Tubular double cradle type Telescopic hydraulic fork Hydraulic spring loaded type with both side action 1230 mm 159 mm 109 kgs 2.75*18-4 PR 2.75*18-6 PR Drum type (130 mm diameter) Disc type (240 mm diameter) Drum type (110mm diameter) 7.5PS @ 8000 rpm / 5.5 KW @ 8000rpm 85 kmph 10.5 litres (reserve 1.4 litres)

Engine Bore X Stroke Displacement Compression Ratio Max Power Torque Max Speed Clutch Final Drive Ignition Starting Frame Suspension Dimensions (LXWXH) Wheel Base Ground Clearance Kerb Weight Tyres Brakes

4-Stroke OHC, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled 52.4 X 57.8 mm 124.7 cc 9.1: 1 6.72 Kw (9 BHP) @ 7000 rpm 10.35 Nm @ 4000 rpm 90 Kmph 4 - Speed Constant Mesh Roller Chain Digital - CDI Ignition (AMI) Advanced Micro Processor Ignition system Kick Start Self Start (Optional) Tubular Double Cradle Front : Telescopic Hydraulic Fork Rear : Swing Arm with Hydraulic Shock Absorbers 1995 X 735 X 1095 mm 1265 mm 150 mm 117 Kg (Kick Version) 121 Kg (Self Version) Front : 2.75 X 18 - 4 PR / 42P Rear : 2.75 X 18 - 6 PR / 48P Front Drum Type : Internal Expanding Type - 130 mm Dia Front Disc Type : Hydraulic Disc Type - 215 mm Dia (Optional Rear: Internal Expanding Type - 130 mm Dia 12 Ltrs. (Min) 12V - 35W Multi Reflector Halogen Bulb - AC Type

Fuel Tank Capacity Head Light

New two-tone body colours PLUS Body colour rear view mirrors PLUS Aluminum die cast rear grip PLUS Heat protector on the muffler. All this and much more to make the biker and his bike stay married for eve. 4-stroke, Single Cylinder, Air - Cooled OHC 97.2 cc 7.5 Ps at 8000 rpm 4 Speed Constant Mesh Multi-Plate Wet Type 85 Kmph. Tubular Double Cradle Telescopic Hydraulic Fork Swing Arm with 5 step adjustable hydraulic damper. 2.75 * 18- 4 PR /42 P 3.00*18-4/6 PR Internal Expanding Shoes Type (130mm)/ Hydraulic Disc Type (Optional) Internal Expanding Shoes Type (130 mm) Brakes (Rear) Roller Chain Final Drive 12 V-2.5 Ah Battery Electronic CDI Ignition Kick Starter Starting 1235 mm Wheelbase Ground Clearance 160mm 1980 mm Length 720 mm Width 1060 mm Height 116 kgs. Kerb Weight Fuel Tank Capacity 12.8 litres (Reserve 1.1 litres) Halogen Bulb 35 W / 35 W Head light Engine Displacement Maximum Power Gear Box Clutch Max. Speed Frame Suspension (Front) Suspension (Rear ) Tyre Size (Front ) Tyre Size (Rear ) Brakes (Front)

Karizima

The Karizima features a 223cc, 17PS power pack that accelerates you from 0-60 in 3.8 seconds. Distinctive styling and Mag alloy wheels make this bike stand out before it races away from the pack. Digital ignition and a constant vacuum carburetor facilitate better control of ignition timing.

The legend refreshedwith all new body language. The original spirit of CBZ, now with a cool, new look. A wonder bike that can take on the winds. And like you, it runs on passion. Rev up and flaunt your style.

CBZ
Engine Displacement Clutch Type Clutch Primary Clutch Secondary Transmission Final Drive Ignition Starting Frame Suspension (Front ) Suspension (Rear ) Dimensions (L*W*H) Wheel Base Ground Clearance Kerb Weight Tyres:Front/Rear Max. Power Max.Speed Fuel Tank Capacity 4-stroke, single cylinder , air - cooled, OHC 156.8cc Manual Multi-plate wet 5-speed constant mesh Roller chain Electronic Kick starter Tubular single cradle Telescopic hydraulic fork Swing arm with hydraulic damper- 5-step adjustment 2100*755*1130mm 1335mm 160mm 138 kg 2.75*18-42P/100/90*18-56P 12.8 PS@8000 rpm 100 kmph 12.5 1tr(2.5 ltr reserve)

b. PLACE STRATEGY OF HERO HONDA


Today Hero Honda has managed to achieve indigenization of over 95 percent, a Honda record worldwide. Hero Honda is at present the largest-selling Indian motorcycle and the most fuelefficient in its category - the outcome of Hero Group's foresight and another classic example of how the Group strives to provide the customer with excellence and satisfaction. Hero Honda became the first company in the country to introduce four-stroke motorcycles and set the standards for fuel efficiency, pollution control and quality. It has a production capacity of 1.2 million motorcycles, which shall be enhanced to 1.5 million motorcycles in the coming years. It has an excellent distribution and service network spread throughout the country. Hero Honda is the market leader in motorcycles, with sales of over a million motorcycles and a strong market share of 47% during 2000-01. This is proved by the company's sales over the years: YEAR 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 SALES 43,000 units 96,200 units 5,30,600 units 7,61,210 units 10,29,555 units 14,25,195 units 16,77,537 units 18,23,234 units

As economies open up, are Asian enterprises ready for the global battle for export markets and investment? Hero Honda sales decline 1.2 pc Our Bureau NEW DELHI, May 1

HERO Honda, the country's largest motorcycle manufacturer, saw its sales decline by 1.2 per cent to 1,34,318 units in April 2003 from 1,35,961 units in the same month last year. According to industry sources, sales of the company could have been affected by sluggish rural demand combined with the 10-day trucker's strike affecting production as well as distribution of products in April. The company saw a growth of 16.06 per cent in sales volume during April compared to March. Meanwhile, Hero Honda is planning to launch new 200 plus cc motorcycle during May, a company release said. The company today announced that it has achieved a milestone with its Daruhera plant, in Haryana, becoming the first Indian two-wheeler plant to produce 5 million units. The 5 millionth motorcycle was a Splendor. The first motorcycle, CD100, had rolled off the assembly line in April 1985. Customer satisfaction, a high quality product, the strength of Honda technology and the Hero group's dynamism have helped HHML scale new frontiers and exceed limits. In the words of Mr. Brijmohan Lall Munjal, the Chairman and Managing Director, "We will continue to make every effort required for the development of the motorcycle industry, through new product development, technological innovation, investment in equipment and facilities and through and through efficient management."

c. PRICING STRATEGY OF HERO HONDA


A rich background of manufacturing high value, reasonably priced products; an uncompromising pursuit of the goals to attain quality along with customer satisfaction; the resulting affinity in working cultures - brought the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles in collaboration with the world's largest bicycle manufacturer, bringing forth a market leader. Honda Motor Company of Japan and the Hero Group entered a joint venture to setup Hero Honda Motors Limited in 1984. The Karizima features a 223cc, 17PS power pack that accelerates you from 0-60 in 3.8 seconds. Distinctive styling and Mag alloy wheels make this bike stand out before it races away from the pack. Digital ignition and a constant vacuum carburetor facilitate better control of ignition timing Thats why Priced at Rs. 76,206/- on road Mumbai the Karizma is available in seven attractive shades. If we take the example of Karizma (A bike of Hero Honda).

d. PROMOTION STRATEGY OF HERO HONDA


A thorough understanding of the fast-changing consumer behavior, new market segments and product opportunities along with sensitivity to changing customer needs, form the core of Hero's marketing strategy and philosophy. At Hero, we essentially have a completely customer-driven approach. A nation-wide dealer network comprising of over 3,500 bicycle dealers, 350 dealers for mopeds and 225 franchise holders for motorcycles, ensures convenient access to the Group's products across the country. With a deep sense of belonging to the Hero fraternity, the Group's dealer network has catalyzed growth and acted as a strong bridge between the customers and the Group. Conventionally, very few Indian bicycle manufacturers were interested in exports. However, the Hero Group's foray into the overseas markets pioneered Indian exports in the bicycle segment as early as 1963. It was a move prompted primarily by the need to be attuned to the global marketplace. While initial exports were restricted to Africa and the Middle East, today more than 50 percent of the Group's bicycle exports meet the demands of sophisticated markets in Europe and America. This is primarily because of appropriate product development and excellent quality that Hero offers. The Group has undertaken a steady up gradation of technologies and there has been diversifications and setting up of newer establishments to meet stringent international standards. At the core of it all is a customer-centric scheme of policies and production ... and the bottom line is to "Add Value while Engineering Satisfaction. Advertisement strategy Hero Honda has snagged the brat pack Virender Sehwag, Mohammad Kaif, Yuvraj Singh and Zaheer Khan. The two-wheeler maker, an official sponsor of the World Cup tournament to be played in South Africa in February, has brought the young and exciting cricketers of the Indian team on board as brand ambassadors. The Fab Four along with team captain Sourav Ganguly will feature in the ads for its latest motorcycle model: the Ambition. Hero Honda is extremely cagey about saying how much they had to fork out to bring the top cricketers to feature in the ads.

Atul Sobti, senior vice-president, marketing and sales declined to say how much they planned to invest in the ad campaign. "It will give a lot of leverage to the new product Ambition by giving the image of a powerful and efficient motorcycle. The powerfu-e-l bike will be well represented by the leadership qualities, power and the capacity to face any challenges," he added. The current ad for Ambition is tame; it shows an important file reaching a destination in time because of the power of the motorcycle. "It does not properly appeal to the customers about the power and efficiency of the product. 'Team Ambition' will be much better suited to represent the product," sources said. Hero Honda is hoping to crank up sales of Ambition because of the endorsements by the top cricketers during the World Cup when cricket fever will be at its highest. One major advantage is that none of its rivals will be able to use cricketers to endorse their products before and after the World Cup because of the ambush-marketing clause that the International Cricket Council (ICC) has worked into the players contracts. The issue had sparked a row when it was raised just before the ICC champions trophy in Sri Lanka in September but was resolved after a stand-off between ICC, the cricket boards of several nations and the players. Hero Honda plans to increase its market-share to 50 per cent this fiscal and is targeting sales of 10,000 Ambitions a month. Its share dipped from 48 per cent to 45 per cent. The 133 cc Ambition generates 11 bhp of thrust, which has been kept low in order to improve fuel efficiency. It has been placed in between the 125cc and 150cc motorcycle categories to draw the maximum clientele. The bike accelerates from 0-60 kmph in only six seconds. While launching the new campaign with the cricketers, Hero Honda is also drawing up plans for a couple of ads with the other brand ambassador, Hrithik Roshan. Hero Honda's association with cricket goes back to 1993, when it sponsored the Hero Cup. It was the official sponsor of the recent ICC Champions Trophy in Sri Lanka and will have the same status for the ICC World Cup in 2003.

6. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY


Whenever we think of the origin of Indian Two-wheelers market, we think of old and stodgy Vespa based models of scooters and Japanese models of motorcycles, but now in the era of globalization the situation has completely changed as the many industries are sizzling hot with continuous poaching of scooters by motorcycles as well as regular launching of new models of motor bikes. Earlier the shelf life of models was in tune of 10-15 years but now it has come down drastically due to intense competition in motor bike industry. Hero Honda is trying to save its dominance in motorbike market from rigorous attacks of Bajaj Auto and TVS while Bajaj Auto is changing its portfolio by heavy inclusion of motorcycles in it. In this battle LML Group, Kinetic Group, Yamaha Motors, Honda Motors and Royal Enfield are also trying to provide something new to the customers.

7. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
To study the position of 4-strokes bikes in India To forecast the consumers requirements and to study the consumers preference by collecting the data through questionnaire To determine the consumers buying attitudes towards the 4-strokes bikes To determine the satisfaction level of consumer to the product features and various aspects to the 4-strokes bikes To determine the usage of the product To trace the customer profile

LITERATURE REVIEW

8. LITERATURE REVIEW
Motorcycles are the most expensive of all two-wheelers. They are more powerful than scooters and mopeds, have the highest load carrying capacity (which is essential for rural areas), are fuelefficient, have better road grip, and are the most expensive. Besides, motorcycles are viewed as trendy in the urban areas as compared with scooters and mopeds.

Motorcycle production in India began in 1952, when Enfield India Limited commenced manufacture at its plant in Tamil Nadu. It was the only motorcycle producer in the country until the early 1960s when Ideal Jawa (India) Private Limited and Escorts Limited entered the market. By 1970-71, production of motorcycles had reached 39,000 units per annum.

The fortunes of the motorcycle industry changed after the announcement of the liberal licensing policy in 1982 whereby foreign collaboration was allowed. In 1982, the Government allowed foreign players to enter the industry through joint ventures. Within four years, the TVS Group tied up with Suzuki, the Hero Group with Honda, the Escorts Group with Yamaha, and Bajaj Auto Limited (Bajaj Auto) with Kawasaki. TVS Suzuki introduced Ind-Suzuki in 1984, Hero Honda Motors Limited (HHML) launched CD100 in 1985, and both Escorts and Bajaj Auto launched their models in 1986-87. These models catered for the upwardly mobile, middle-toupper income group consumers who preferred a stylish, powerful vehicle that could be used as an urban personal transportation vehicle. The principal brands that competed in the 1980s were the HHML CD100 (a four-stroke 100cc), the Ind-Suzuki AX100 (from TVS, two-stroke, 100cc) and the EscortsYamaha RX100 (two-stroke, 100cc). While the CD100 was positioned primarily on the efficiency plank, giving riders an unprecedented mileage of 80 kms per litre (kmpl), the RX100 became popular with young buyers because of its high power. The AX100 took the middle path, balancing power with reasonable fuel efficiency. To reinforce its image of being a maker of powerful motorcycles, Escorts launched the 350cc twin-carb, twin-cylinder Yamaha RD350, a vehicle that soon gained cult status. It offered 36bhp, but was plagued by problems very few mechanics could tune the engine and the average fuel consumption was as low as 15 kmpl. Subsequently, the product had to be discontinued. The launch of the 100cc motorcycles was path

breaking, as till then the existing big models like the Yezdi, Rajdoot and Bullet could not compete with scooters.

A significant development in the motorcycle industry during the late 1990s was the shift from two-stroke to four-stroke technology. The attraction of the four-stroke technology was earlier limited to fuel efficiency, while two-stroke held its own by offering better performance and easier maintenance. But, following the enforcement of India 2000 emission norms beginning April 1, 2000, the less polluting four-stroke has become the preferred technology. The two-stroke technology can also meet the existing environment norms, but only when supplemented by catalytic convertersan option that is both costly and shortsighted. The high temperature of the exhaust, combustion irregularities, the problem of lubricating oil contamination with metallic additives, and finally, fuel adulteration can poison the catalyst and render it completely ineffective. Further, the use of catalytic converter affects the initial pick-up of two-stroke engines, which is one of their main attractions. Given these shortcomings, most motorcycle manufacturers have offered four-stroke vehicles. While the four-stroke motorcycle segment is the fastest growing, it is also highly competitive. Competition has intensified in this segment since CY2001 when players introduced new products at a relatively fast pace. Also, new entrants have entered the market by introducing their products at lower price points, while the existing players have announced price cuts. This has led to price competition in the domestic market. At the lower end of the segment, Bajaj Auto has its Boxer range of motorcycles and Byk; HHML has Dawn as well as CD Dawn and KEL Boss. Above this segment, there are strong brands such as Victor (TVS), Passion and Splendor (HHML), Caliber 115 and Aspire (Bajaj Auto), Freedom, Adreno and Energy (LML), and Crux R (Yamaha). Through its CBZ model, HHML had tapped the premium segment of the market in 1999.

Since then, however, quite a few models such as Pulsar 180 by Bajaj Auto and Fiero by TVS have been launched in this segment. Royal Enfield is the market leader in the lifestyle segment. This segment has also attracted new model launches such as Eliminator by Bajaj Auto, Aquila by KEL and Karizma by HHML.

NEED FOR FOUR-STROKES BIKES

Growth of Bikes Significant growth has been witnessed in the motor cycle segment and the company is fully aware of the need to enter in this segment for maintaining growth and optimizing product mix the growth in motor cycle is attributed largely to the opening up the rural markets and also to its wider acceptance in the youth market. It is growing at any average rates of 20% over the last three years. Another high legal is that the motorcycle sales have surpassed the scooter sales for the first time in 1998-1999 until then motorcycle was always trailing behind. The two-wheeler industry has been rather slow in taking advantages of the board bandings introduced in Rajeev Gandhi time way back in 1994. Even today, there are manufactures such as Escort, Hero Honda, Bajaj, Yamaha and LML, which later to only a single segment like motorcycle or scooter. Any variation of demand in a particular segment hits them hands it is therefore a product policy to have presence in each segment.

Growth of two-wheeler

2008-2009 BIKE SCOOTER MOPEDS TOTAL IN LACS 2.95 3.32 1.54 7.9

2009-2010 3.81 2.95 1.58 8.35

GROWTH % +29 -11 +2.8 +16.8

SOURCE: Survey of Indian industries in Jan. 2005

Emission Norms

The years 2004 emission norms are more stringent than stringent norms as may be seen from table:

GRAMES /K.M. 2009 2010

CO 4.5 2.0

HC+NOX 3.6 1.5

The industry need to adopt suitable technology so that it can conveniently meet these horns in time since the production largely of two stroke engines figment of catalytic converter will become necessary. But it will lead some in case in prices. The life of these converter is limited to 25/30 thousand hence consumer will prefer something durable and longer lasting.

Some manufacture is therefore planning to switch over to stroke technology to comply with the emission norms. It has an additional advantage of more complete combustion of hydrocarbons in petrol, which gives higher mileage and better fuel economy. The 4 strokes bike are currently giving of fuel 70 to 80 km/hr. this will important from consumers point of view because of high price level of petrol in India. It is therefore not surprising that every major player is trying to get into the motor cycle market to have a piece of cake. Amazing but true!

Just when the market of scooter is shrinking in India residents London seem to be switching to scooter. The number of scooter on Britons road rise 40 %over the part 12 months. As roads get alleged with traffic and average speed of traffic is London has dropped to 19.2 km/hr more and more people are buying scooter to get around traffic shares.

Motorcycle association has released figures acknowledging the new popularity of 4-strokes bikes.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

9. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Meaning of Research

Research is a common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertient information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advance Learners Dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Mory defines research as a Systematized efforts to gain new knowledge. Some people consider research as a movement, a movement to from the known to unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our Inquisitiveness make us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown.

Methodology

In planning and designing a specific research project, it is necessary to anticipate all the steps that must be undertaken if the project is to be successful in collecting valid and reliable information.

RESEARCH DESIGN
The research design is the determination and statement of general research approach of strategy adopted for the particular product. It is the heart of the planning which the design adheres to the research objected which will ensure that the needs will be served. My study is based on Descriptive Research as it is invested to produce accurate descriptive of various relevant to the decision faced without demonstrating that some relationship exist within variable. It is used to measure the behavior variables of people of subject who are under the study.

The research undertaken was descriptive research in nature. The emphasis was made to understand the nature and the expectations of the customers.

SAMPLE

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
The type of sampling that was carried out was probability (convenience) Sampling due to limited resources available.

In non-probability sampling, I have chosen RANDOM sampling. Because this was best sampling method to do market survey. On the other aspect, to cover all consumers in Ghaziabad was easy task.

SAMPLE SIZE
The total number of these selected persons is called sample size. In this case, study sample units are Two Hundred Eighty Two.

SAMPLE AREA: Ghaziabad

(Raj Nagar, Rajendra Nagar, Nehru Nagar, G.T. Road)

DATA COLLECTION METHOD


COLLECTING THE DATA

Primary data Secondary data

Primary data: Through survey researcher obtains primary data directly from the Reader through following method. Observation method. Interview method. Questionnaires.

Observation method: Researcher went to the dealers showroom and service center and even parking places. Researcher directly observes the customers researcher with out asking any question. Here researcher found most of the customer was empty buying behavior.

Interview Method: Researcher went to the service center and parking places and collects the data through personal interview.

SURVEY INSTRUMENTS
Researchs instrument is questionnaires for collecting the primary data. This is very common and flexible instrument.

Through Questionnaires: Researcher collects most of the data through questionnaires; researcher went to the consumers and requested them to fill the questionnaires. Secondary data: Through Company Profile Through Newspapers Times of India Hindustan Times The Hindu Economics Times Through Magazines Business India Auto Express Business India Auto India Through T.V. Channel CNBC Awaz

LIMITATIONS Small Sample size: In my survey, I have taken a sample size of 282 customers, but only with these samples I cant make a proper conclusion. Time Constraint: Time for this project is not sufficient. As I go for the survey at the dealership then time for completing and filling the questionnaires is not sufficient. Sample Area: The study was conducted in GHAZIABAD only. Hence, the study may not be useful for projection of behavioral aspect of consumers living in other cities. Money Constraint: Budget and finance are always been constraints in doing any project.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

10.DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS

PURCHASE OF 2-STROKE AND 4-STROKE BIKES:


Bikes 2-strokes 4-strokes TOTAL No. of Consumers 76 206 282 % age 27% 73%

4-strokes 73%

2-strokes 27%

2-strokes

4-strokes

INTERPRETATION: Most of the consumers i.e. 73% want to purchase a 4-strokes bike. Whereas, 27% consumers want to purchase a 2-strokes bike.

INFLUENCING FACTORS:
Factors Advertisement Sales Team Friends Family TOTAL No. of consumers 70 50 110 52 282 %age 25 18 39 18

45 40 RESPONDENTS 35 30 25 25 20 15 10 5 0 18 18 39

INTERPRETATION: Most of the consumers i.e. 39% are influenced by the friends. 25% consumers out of 282 respondents are influenced by advertisement. 18% consumers out of 282 respondents are influenced by the family. Whereas, rest of the consumers i.e. 18% are influenced by sales team while making the purchase decision.

RESPONSE OF THE CONSUMERS REGADING MODELS AND COLOURS:


Company Hero Honda Bajaj LML TVS Yamaha TOTAL No. of models & colours 40 140 40 30 32 282 %age 14% 50% 14% 11% 11%

80 70 NO. OF RESPONDENTS 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

70

20

20 15

16

HERO HONDA

BAJAJ

LML

TVS

YAMAHA

INTERPRETATION: Most of the consumers i.e. 50% like colours and models of Bajaj motorcycles. Whereas, equal 14% consumers like colours and models of Hero Honda and LML motorcycles. Moreover, rest equal 11% consumers like colours and models of TVS and YAMAHA motorcycles.

PREFERENCE FACTOR:
Features of bikes Power Mileage Low maintenance Total No. of consumers 136 112 34 282 % age 48% 40% 12%

12% 48% 40%

Power

Mileage

Low Maintenance

INTERPRETATION: 40 % consumers prefer mileage in their bike. 48 % consumers prefer power in their bike. 12 % consumers prefer low maintenance in their bike.

PREFERENCE OF BIKE REGARDING CC:


Prefer CC of bikes by consumers Under 100cc 100-125cc 125-150cc 150cc & above Total No. of consumers 0 84 144 54 282 % age 0% 30% 51% 19%

0% 19% 30%

51%

Under 100cc

100-125cc

125-150cc

150cc & above

INTERPRETATION: Most of the consumers i.e. 51% like to purchase the bike in between 125 cc and 150 cc. And 30% of consumers like to purchase the bike in between 100 cc and 125 cc. Whereas, rest 19% of consumers like to purchase the bike in 150 cc and above.

FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR:


Factors Price Average Looks Brand Image Power Pick up Low Maintenance After Sales Service Total No. of Respondents 22 36 90 22 20 56 20 16 282 %age 8% 13% 31% 8% 7% 20% 7% 8%

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

45

RESPONDANTS

28 18 11 11 10 10 8

Price Brand Image Low Maintenance

Average Power After Sales Service

Looks Pick up

INTERPRETATION: 31% consumers out of 282 are influenced by Looks Factors (Most Influencing Factor). 20% consumers out of 282 are influenced by pick up factor. 13% consumers out of 282 are influenced by mileage.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS:
Brand Name Yamaha Hero Honda Bajaj TVS LML Others TOTAL No. of consumers 20 116 76 36 20 14 282 %age 7 41 27 13 7 5

45 40 35
CONSUMERS (in %)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yamaha Hero Honda Bajaj TVS LML Others

INTERPRETATION: 41% respondents out of 282 consumers like to purchase Hero Honda (Surva Guna Smpana). 27% respondents out of 282 consumers like to purchase Bajaj. 13% respondents out of 282 consumers like to purchase TVS. 7 7 % respondents out of 282 consumers like to purchase LML and YAMAHA.

POST PURCHASE ANALYSIS:


Post Purchase Behavior Full Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied TOTAL No. of consumers 42 160 80 282 %age 14.89 56.74 28.37

28%

15%

57%

Full Satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

INTERPRETATION: Only 15% consumers are full satisfied with their bike. Whereas 57% and 28% consumers are satisfied and dissatisfied with their bike respectively.

FINDINGS

FINDINGS

AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUP The age group 20-25 years figures out to be very much aware regarding 4-strokes bikes Warranty/Guarantee never influenced any age far the purchase availability of spare part is considered most important Mileage was given top priority Gift schemes and finance option are not option is not more success to influence the people DIFFERENT INCOME GROUP The income group Rs. 8000-12000 seems to be very aware regarding 4-strokes bikes market

SUGGESTIONS

SUGGESTIONS

The best target market for any new product is 20 to 35 yrs and income group of 8000 to 12000 Before the launch an aggressive advertising must be carried out in order to inform the consumer about the new bike The media adopted for such purpose should be electronic as it is wildly accepted Continuous innovation in product process and services too are recommended to get the competitive edge Nicely designed and fuel efficient vehicle Is must to find better prospects and widen its market Easily available spare parts at reasonable price backed by efficient sales as competitions An eye on competitors policies and review of its own according to changing market condition will help in formulation of effective strategies from time to time The pricing TAG which BAJAJ is going to put on its bikes should not be more Rs.35,000 50,000 in any case, because it is the price which is going to determine the success of the product Through demonstration in rural area so that they can get specification of bike

CONCLUSIONS

CONCLUSIONS
From the analysis of the data, it can be concluded that the Bajaj and Hero Honda motorbikes are most familiar by people. An ideal by as suggested by responded should have the following figures: Good looks Good mileage Affordable price After sales services

REFERENCES AND ANNEXURE

REFERENCES

In this project while finalizing and for analyzing quality problem in detail the following books, magazines and websites have been referred. Books Consulted: Marketing Management Philip Kotler Research Methodology Kothari Business Statistics S.P. Gupta Magazines Consulted: Indian Journal of Marketing IBAT Journal of Management Journal of Indian Management & Strategy Auto Expo of India

Newspapers: Hindustan times Times of India The Hindu Financial Express Economics times

Websites Consulted: www.bajajauto.com www.herohonda.com www.lml.com www.yamaha.com www.google.com

ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE

Name Father's Name Age Nationality Address

: : : : :

Telephone Nos.

. . . .. . . . .

1. Are you using the bike: a. Yes 2. Who are you using the bike a. 2 Strokes 3. Which bike do you like most a. Hero Honda c. LML e. Yamaha 4. What will you prefer a. Mileage c. Maintenance e. Looking 5. How much CC Bike you want a. Under 100 CC c. 125-150CC 6. Maximum Mileage of given by a. Hero Honda c. LML e. Yamaha 7. Attractive Price of Company a. Hero Honda c. LML e. Yamaha

b. No

b. 4 Strokes

b. Bajaj d. TVS f. Others

b. Power d. Price

b. 100-125 CC d. Above 150CC

b. Bajaj d. TVS f. Others

b. Bajaj d. TVS f. Others

8. Which company produce minimum maintenance bike

a. Hero Honda c. LML e. Yamaha

b. Bajaj d. TVS f. Others

9. Who influence your decision most while purchasing bike a. Parents b. Friends c. Advertisement d. Other 10. Which company provide the attractive finance facility a. Hero Honda b. Bajaj c. LML d. TVS e. Yamaha f. Others 11. Which company provide festival offers: a. Hero Honda c. LML e. Yamaha 12. Which brand aware by you a. Hero Honda c. LML e. Yamaha

b. Bajaj d. TVS f. Others

b. Bajaj d. TVS f. Others

13. How much money you can expend in 4 Strokes bikes a. 30,000-35,000 b. 35,000 - 40,000 c. 40,000 - 50,000 d. above 50,000 14. Which company provide after sales services a. Hero Honda c. LML e. Yamaha

b. Bajaj d. TVS f. Others

15. Which company pricing strategies of better according to their features a. Hero Honda b. Bajaj c. LML d. TVS e. Yamaha f. Others 16. Which company have more models & colours a. Hero Honda c. LML e. Yamaha

b. Bajaj d. TVS f. Others

Consumer Signature