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Chapter 1 Exercise 1A

Q. 1.

(i)

Q. 4.
Q

b
a+

1 1
x + y
2
2

Q. 5.
Q

(ii)

a+

a+b
(a+
b) +
c

(iii)

a+

Q. 6.
Q

a + (
b+c
)

b
b
+
c

(iv)
b

a+

__

___

__

__

___

__

Yes; (a + b ) + c = a + (b + c ).

(v)

Q
Q. 7.

a+b

___

3x + 1.5y

(vi) 0 , The null vector

Q. 2.

2a

+b

Q. 8.
Q

1
2x
y

4x

Q. 3.

Q. 9.
Q

5 cm; E 53 N.

Q. 10.

Approximately 7 cm due East.

Q. 11.

13 cm.

Q
Q. 5.

(i) Magnitude = 32 + 42 = 5
__
_
1
Unit vector = __(3i + 4j )
5
__
__
1__
(ii) ___
(i + 2 j )
5
__
__
1__
(iii) ___
(i j )
2
__
__
1
___
(iv) ____
(3i j )
10
__
__
1 __
__
(v) ( 3 i + j )
2

Q
Q. 7.

k(2i j ) + l(4i + 3 j ) = 2i 11j

___
__

(ii) 8 , NE.
(iii) 5, E 36 52 S.
(iv) 13, W 67 23 S.
___

(v) 20 , W 26 34 N.
__

(vi) 2 , NE.
1__
(vii) ___
, SE.
2
(viii) 1, W 53 8 S.
(x) 12 , E 30 N.

Q
Q. 8.

(xi) 4, due West.


__

__

__

___

__

__

= 5i 4j
__

__

__

__

__

Q
Q. 9.

__

__

__

= i + 2j
__

__

__

__

__

Q.
Q 10.

__

= i 2j
___

__

__

__

__

= 7j
__

__

__

__

__

Q
Q. 11.

___

__

__

= 12i + 5j

Q.
Q 12.

___

(i) 13

____
________

__

(iii) |x + y | = 122 + 52 = 13
__

__

___

= 3.606 + 10.20
= 13.806

__

__

__

|x + y | < |x | + |y |
(since 13 < 13.806)
Q. 4.

__

________

________

___

(ii) 16 + 64 = 80 = 8.944

___

___

(iii) 80 < 10 + 50
since 8.944 < 10.233

____

121 + k2 = 125
____

___

2k2 = 50
3
__

8 24
___ = ____ = 1
4
24
6

2
___

20 40
___ = ____ = 1
8
40

Q. 15.
Q

Q
Q. 16.

3
__

2 6
___ = ___ = 1
6
6
1

t
___
9

6
__ = 1
2
t=3

__

(i) 4i + 8 j
___

Q. 14.
Q

____

(iv) |x | + |y | = 13 + 104

__

____

50 = 2p2

k = 5
Q. 13.
Q

___

__

_______

k = 2

x + y = (2i + 3j ) + (10i + 2j )

(ii) 104

__

p = 5

__

__

__

65 = 49 + k2

(iv) 2a 3b = 2(3i j ) 3(2i 3j )

Q. 3.

__

__

__

4i 2 j + t(7i + 5 j ) = ki + 0 j

k = 4

__

(iii) b a = (2i 3j ) (3i j )


__

__

t = 0.4

__

(ii) a b = (3i j ) (2i 3j )


___

__

4 + 7t = k and 2 + 5t = 0

(i) a + b = (3i j ) + (2i 3j )


__

__

Solving gives l = 2, k = 5

___

___

__

__

2k + 4l = 2 and k + 3l = 11

(ix) 2, W 30 N.

__

_______

Q. 6.
Q

(i) 29 , E 21 48 N.

Q. 2.

__

since 2.236 4.472 2.236

Exercise 1B
Q. 1.

___

__

5 20 5

Q. 17.
Q

p
__

2
______ = 1
p+1
4p + 4 = 2p

p = 2

Q. 5.
Q
x

Q. 1.

(i) |AB| = H cos q; |BC| = H sin q


(ii) |AB| = H sin q; |BC| = H cos q
(iii) |AC| = H cos q; |BC| = H sin q

5
12
(i) cos A = ___, sin q = ___
13
13
35
12
(ii) cos A = ___, sin q = ___
37
37
__
__
7
7
___
___
(iii) sin A =
, tan A =
4
3
(iv) cos =

Q. 3.

x = ADJ = H cos a cos b

(iv) |AC| = H cos q; |AB| = H sin q


Q. 2.

b
H cos a

Exercise 1C

( )( )

7 ___
1__
7
___
x = H ____
= ___ H
10
50 2
H : x = 10 : 7

Exercise 1D
E

40
___

Q. 1.
Q

41

__

__

__ __

__

__

(ii) 10 cos 18 i + 10 sin 18 j

__

__

(i) |AB| = 4 3 cm; |BC| = 4 cm

__

= 9.511i + 3.09j

(ii) |XY| = 2 m; |YZ| = 2 m

__

__

(iii) 8 cos 45 i 8 sin 45 j


__ __

(iii) |AB| = 10 sin 40 = 6.428 m

__ __

= 4 2 i 4 2 j

|BC| = 10 cos 40 = 7.66 m

__

__

(iv) 20 cos 20 i + 20 sin 20 j


__

(iv) |XY| = 20 cos 35 = 16.38 cm

__

= 18.794i + 6.84 j

|XZ| = 20 sin 35 = 11.47 cm

__

___

__

___

(v) 50 cos 45 i 50 sin 45 j


__

(v) |PQ| = 40 cos 20 = 37.59 m

__

= 5 i 5 j

|QR| = 40 sin 20 = 13.68 m

__

__

(vi) 12 cos 39 i 12 sin 39 j


__

(vi) |PQ| = 12 cos 60 = 6 m

__

= 9.3252 i 7.5516 j

__

|RQ| = 12 sin 60 = 63 m
(vii) |AB| = 15 cos q = 12 cm

__

(i) 2 cos 60 i + 2 sin 60 j = i + 3 j

Q. 2.
Q

|BC| = 15 sin q = 9 cm
11

(viii) |RQ| = 78 cos a = 30 m


|PQ| = 78 sin a = 72 m

___

(ix) |XY| = 13 cos q = 3

___

|YZ| = 13 sin q = 2
___

(x) |AB| = 20 cos a = 4


___

|BC| = 20 sin a = 2

__

___

__

u = 10 cos a i 10 sin a j
__

__

= 8i 6 j

__

__

v = 13 cos b i 13 sin b j
H sin q

Q. 4.
H
q

___

f
x

x = ADJ = H sin q cos f


3 5
x = (13) __ ___ = 3
5 13

( )( )

__

= 12i 5j

__

__

u + v = 4i 11j
___

___

__

w = (u + v )
_

__

= 4i + 11j

____________

___

|w | = (4)2 + (11)2

Exercise 1E
E

____

= 137

Q. 1.
Q

= 11.7

10 26 cos a = 0
5
cos a = ___
13
12
sin a = ___
13

__

__

p = 8 cos 45 i + 8 sin 45 j
__

___

___

q = 4 cos 30 i 4 sin 30 j
= 2 3 i 2 j

p + q = ( 2 + 2 3 ) i + 0 j
__

= 7.66i 6.428j

Q. 2.
Q

__

__

Q. 5.

No i -component
4 5 cos a = 0
4
cos a = __
5
3
sin a = __
5

(i) a = 12i
___

__

__

b = 13 cos a i + 13 sin a j
__

= 12i + 5 j
___

__

___

__

Q. 3.
Q

Q. 6.

(i) x = 25 cos Ai + 25 sin Aj


__

= 20i + 15j

__

___

__
1
__

(ii) x + y = 20i + 15j + 8i 15j


_

j -component

__

__

(iii) |x + y | = 12 units

xi +
___

xj

1
__

x)i +

__

_
3
___

xj
2
_
1
No i -component 4 + __ x = 0
2
x=8
2

___

= 12i , which
has no
_

__

_
3
___

a + b = (4 +

__

__

__

y = 17 cos Bi 17 sin Bj
= 8i 15j

Let |b | = x

b=

__

__

___

a = 4i

__

__

( ))

= 0i j

(iii) |a + b | = 5 units
__

__

= 5 j , along the j -axis

___

__

3
a + b = 0i + 4 + 5 __ j
5
_
_

__

(ii) a + b = 12i 12i + 5 j


__

__

r + s + t = 2.6 i + 5.8 j
__

__

a + b = (4 5 cos a)i + (4 + 5 sin a)j

__

__

___

___

= 10.3367 i + 3.762 j
__

__

b = 5 cos ai + 5 sin a j

t = 11 cos 20 i + 11 sin 20 j
_

__

__

= 4i 4j
___

( )

__

__

( )

___
___
__
1__
1__
a = 32 ___
i 32 ___
j
2
2

s = 10 cos 58i + 10 sin 58 j


= 5.299 i + 8.48 j

___

|a + b | = 24 units

r = 10 cos 40 i 10 sin 40 j
_

__

= 24 j

__

__

__

( )

__

__ _

___

__

12
a + b = 0i + 26 ___ j
13

__ _

__

__

No i -component

= 2i + 2 j

Q. 4.

__

___

___

__

Direction is W 70 N.
_

__

__

a + b = (10 26 cos a)i + 26 sin a j

A = 70

Q. 3.

___

b = 26 cos a i + 26 sin a j

11
Tan A = ___
4

___

__

a = 10i

i.e. |b | = 8
__

___

__ _

a + b = 0i + 4 3 j
__

___

__

|a + b | = 43 units

Q. 4.

__

Q
Q. 6. (i) p = 35 cos a i + 35 sin a j
__
_
3
4
= 35 __ i + 35 __ j
5
5
__
= 21i + 28j

__

()

= 3.420i + 9.397 j
__

__

__

Let |s | = x s = x i

__

__

__

___

a = 10 cos q i + 10 sin q j

()

()

__

__

___

___

( )

___

33
tan A = ___ = 1
33
A = 45

Let |b | = x b = x j
__

= 33i + 33 j

= 8i + 6j
___

(ii) p + q = 21i + 28 j + 12 i + 5 j

3
4
= 10 __ i + 10 __ j
5
5
_

__

__

( )

__

p
A

5
12
= 13 ___ i + 13 ___ j
13
13
_
_
= 12 i + 5 j

i.e. |s | = 3.420
__

q = 13 cos b i + 13 sin b j

No i -component x = 3.420
__

()

___

r + s = (3.420 + x)i + 9.397j

Q. 5.

__

__

___

i = 10 cos 70 i + 10 sin 70 j

a + b = 8i + (6 x) j
_

__

= k i + 0j
x = 6 and k = 8
Q. 7.

____

__

r = 3.42 i + 9.397j
__

Let |s | = x
__

__

__

s = x cos 10i + x sin 10j


= 0.9848xi + 0.1736x j
__

__

__

__

r + s = (3.42 + 0.9848x)i + (9.397 + 0.1736x) j


_

__

__

Since (r + s ) is in a NE direction, the i and j components must be equal.


3.42 + 0.9848x = 9.397 + 0.1736x
x = 15.8
Q
Q. 8
8.

____

_______

___

__________

___

(i) |p | = 82 + 12 = 65

___

|q | = (7)2 + 42 = 65
___

___

|p | = |q |

1
__

(ii) Slope of p = _
= = m1
i -bit 8
4
4
Slope of q = ___ = __ = m2
7
7
1
___
m1 m2 = 1
14
Not perpendicular
__

_______

___

Q. 9. |7i + j | = 49 + 1 = 50
_

__

____

___

a = 10 cos 80 i + 10 sin 80 j
__

= 1.736 i + 9.848 j
___

Let |b | = x

j -bit
____

Q
Q. 10
10.

___

__

Therefore, b = xi
__

___

a + b = (1.736 + x)i + 9.848j


___

___

Since the direction___ of (a + b ) is 21 48,


___

the slope of (a + b ) must equal tan 21 48.


9.848
_________ = 0.4
1.736 + x
x = 22.88

|p(i + j )| = |pi + p j |
_______

____

= p2 + p2 = 2p2

2p2 = 50

p = 5 (sin ce p > 0)