You are on page 1of 82

iUii*iitllj|>irtiliii>'.-m?;<'.?<ntiwm.

i>tJw<>M>MMtHi

THEORY
tl^lCMENTARY'

r^All/E/GARDNEia'^
MMUunxn

BOSTON UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF MUSIC


LIBRARY

^'^.^^A

19//

No.

^*

ESSENTIALS OF

MUSIC THEORY
ELEMENTARY

BY

CARL

E.

GARDNER

Author of "Music Composition"

NEW YORK CARL FISCHER


1912

Boston University College of Music

Copyright, 191 2,

BY

CARL FISCHER
International Copyright Secured

PREFACE.
''

^HE

--

primary object in the following pages is to supply the teacher and student with a text book to accom-

pany the work on instrumental or vocal technic. of the great amount of time required to obtain
technic, text

Because
proficient

axe usually ignored.


this

books are often neglected, and, if exhaustive, Brevity and conciseness characterize
it is

volume and

planned to meet the needs of the busy

teacher and student.

Many pupils may not see the importance of some of the following text, such as the research for theoretical keys; but the results thus obtained are nothing more than the natural
of simple mathematical reasoning, and are inevithe structure of the scales is understood. Pupils should be impressed with the structure of scales rather than

outcome
table
if

be taught their keys and signatures by rote. Rote methods have little to recommend them in modern pedagogical ideals,

and are used principally in teaching the young. The lack knowledge of the whys and wherefores of scales, intervals, and chords among instrumentalists and singers is appalling, and is due partly to the neglect of text books and partly to
of

incompetent teachers.

further object of the text

is

to offer a course of prepara-

harmony, composition, and appreciation. Music Appreciation, as a cultural course of study, is growing in popularity and large enthusiastic classes in this subject are to

tion for the study of

be found in

all

our colleges.

These students
in

are

frequently handicapped

by poor preparation

the

PREFACE.
essential rudiments of

music such as are treated in

this

volume.
author's gratitude for valuable aid, criticisms, and suggestions is due his wife, Marion Dillon Gardner, and his
sisters,

The

Mabel Gardner Bankart and Lena Gardner Lewis.

CONTENTS.
Page
Preface
I.
iii

Rhythm: Note Values: Time Signatures: Tempo

3,

II.

Theory of Scales (Major and Minor)


The Major The Minor
Scale

10
11

Scale

21

III.

Intervals and Chord Building


Inversion of Intervals

32

36
38

Chord Construction
Inversion of Triads

40
41
43,

The Seventh Chord


Inversion of Seventh Chords IV.

Epitomized Acoustics

47
ci

V.

Ear Training
The Normal The Normal
Intervals of the Intervals

Major Scale of the Minor Scale

... ...

^.z-

55

Altered Intervals

Arpeggio Chords Two Voiced Chords The Four Voiced Chord

56 60
61
.

63

Boston University College of Music


Library

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY

CHAPTER
RHYTHM.
Sound
is

I.

waves which

the effect produced by propagated atmospheric affect the sense of hearing. Irregular impulses,
air,

propagated through the produce musical tone.

produce noise.

Regular impulses

The
or

duration of tone
is

is

indicated by symbols called notes.


:

Following

list

of notes

n
I

Double whole note or Breve.

Whole note

or Semibreve.

Half note or Minim.


Quarter note or Crotchet.

^
\
s
j^

Eighth note or Quaver.


Sixteenth note or Sefniquaver.

Thirty-second note or Demisemiquaver.


(

Occasionally the sixty-fourth note


is

is

used.

Following

a table of the relative value of notes:

/A

/\

/\

/\

AA

AA A A A AAA AAA AAA


/^

Boston University

4
The
as
it is

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


breve or double whole note
is

but seldom used.

The

value of

not given in this table it is twice the whole

note, four times the half, etc.

note is represented by an open oval the half, and stem the quarter, by a closed head and oval an open by stem the eighth note is the same as the quarter with a flag
;
; ;

The whole

the sixteenth, the same with two flags the thirty-second, the same with three flags. As is seen in the table, the eighth, six;

teenth and thirty-second notes are often grouped than one occurs in succession.

when more

Suspension of tone

Each note has


rests
:

its

indicated by symbols called rests. equivalent rest. Following is a list of


is

]:
i^?:
lil
j

Double whole

rest.

Whole
Half

rest.

rest.

Quarter

rest.

1 H

Eighth

rest.

Sixteenth rest.

Thirty-second
is

rest.

The

rate of vibration

called pitch.

Rapid vibrations

" " shrill ) tones. Slow vibrations produce produce ( high " low " tones. More complete information on sound, tone

and pitch

The

" Acoustics." is given later under the heading notes are written on the staff which consists of five

horizontal lines together with their spaces. The duration of a tone is determined by the note used the pitch, by the note's position on the staff.
;

A A

dot placed after a note or rest adds one half its value. " tie " is a curved line connecting two notes of the same

pitch.

Examples

of dots

and

ties

equals

^^

i*

RHYTHM.

J
J
^

equals

J
^^

or | -f i-

equals J
etc., etc.

or J

|.

A double dot adds one half and one fourth its value, thus
a
. .

equals

J
J

or

-f i

+ + +

i-

J.,
J
^ ^

^q^^^ls

/
^^^

orj
or J

+
+

f.

equals J
etc., etc.

^^

^V-

Bars are lines drawn vertically across the

staff

dividing
is

music into measures.

The

contents of the measure

deter-

mined by the fraction at the beginning. The denominator of the fraction shows the kind of notes, and the numerator, the number of that kind contained in a measure. Each measure must contain the number and kind of notes or rests designated

by the

fraction, or their equivalents.

Artificial groups are groups of notes played and summed in other than their fractional value. The most common artificial

groups are the


its

triplet

and

sextiiplet.

A triplet is a group
in the value of

of three notes played in the time

and summed
is

two of

a group of six notes sextuplet in in the time and summed the value of four of its played own kind. of five notes is group played in the time and
kind.

own

summed in
notes
its
is

the value of four of


in the time

its

own kind.

A group of seven

played
kind.

and summed

in the value of six of

Occasionally a group of two notes occurs. from other artificial groups inasmuch as it is played more slowly than the tempo notes. A group of two notes is played in the time and summed in the value of

own

This group

differs

6
three of

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


its

own

kind.

curved

line over or

Artificial groups are designated by a under the notes with a figure showing the
:

kind of group, thus


triplet

3
I
,

^
6

sextuplet

S s
2

S S 4

:roup of

two notes

.
|

In "counting" music, it is customary to give as many counts to each measure as the numerator of the fraction
indicates.

Each

of these counts

is

called a pulse.

Pulses

should occur regularly unless otherwise marked. Irregularities in the occurrence of pulses are marked in various ways.

The

ritardando, the hold

(^, and

the

accelerando
ritarda7ido

are

the

principal marks

of irregularities.

The

(abbre-

viated riiard, or rit^

means

to lessen the speed, the accelerando

to (abbreviated accel.) to quicken the speed, and the hold hold the note, over or under which it is placed, as long as musical taste dictates.

(^

This occurrence of pulses

is
,

called rhythjn.
12
|, |, |, |, |, |,

The most
and | or

common rhythms

are

or

^ also called alia breve.

681216343
On
the
first

4' 4 4' 8' 2' 2' 2' 2' 16'

and
all

Other rhythms not so common are less uiicu often 15 5 aim and 5 cn^. etc ^, ^, g ^g,
kinds of rhythm
is

pulse

of

a primary

accent called

Secondary accents, called arsis, occur in in s on the fourth count. count the third and on These 4 " " to the music. can natural accents give a swing They only
thesis.

be displaced or overshadowed by
designated
in various

artificial

accents which are


artificial ac-

ways. cents are \ht.forzando (designated thus

The most common


:

> A
,

ox/z),,

meaning

RHYTHM.

a sudden strong accent to the note or chord over or under

which

it

is

placed

marked

as the forza?ido)

the rinforzaiido (which is not quite so the staccato (designated by a dot


;

placed over or under the note or chord) which makes the note thus indicated short and crisp, and the syncopatmi, which is a

form of rhythm displacing the natural accent by the note's entrance on an unaccented part of the measure and its sustentation through the pulse. The rapidity of the occurrence of pulses
is called tempo^ indicated at the beginning of a movement by Italian words usually, the most common of which are as fol-

which
lows

is

Grave, slow and solemn (the slowest tempo). Largo, slow, a trifle faster than Grave. Larghetto, a trifle faster than Largo.

Adagio, a

trifle

faster than Larghetto.

Lefito, slow.

Andante, moderately slow. Andantino, translated literally means slower than Andante, but it is more often used incorrectly meaning faster than

Andante.
Moderato, moderate
Allegretto, cheerful.
;

the mediate between fast and slow.

Allegro, quick.
Vivo, quick.

Presto, very quick.

To many of the above words is added the ending issimo which gives the word to which it is added its superlative deOther terms are oftentimes combined with the above gree.
words to characterize the movement. Every pupil should have a dictionary of musical terms for constant reference. The majority of piano students have an absolute disregard for note values and tempo marks which are so important

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

that the pupils fail to gain any good results from their study unless they understand and pay strict attention to these

marks.

The incompetency

of so

many

teachers

is

somewhat

responsible for this state of affairs, but the majority of piano In second studies and methods is more largely responsible.

grade studies, there are many which, if written in a judicious manner, would be excellent second grade work, but when
played as they are written and as their tempo mark demands These studies require a virtuoso to execute them correctly.

have led pupils to playing allegro movements in largo tempo. At the end of a week's practice a mo derato tempo may be the
result.

but

habitual

Continued enforced disregard can produce nothing The teacher disregard for tempo marks.

far as possible,

should constantly remind the student of these facts and, in as omit such studies as cannot be played a tempo.

rewritten in a playable manner by so the teacher, who, by doing, would not only impress the with the importance of tempo marks, but would depupil

Many

exercises

may be

velop his ability to read from manuscript, an ability which, unfortunately, is almost universally lacking in pupils.

EXERCISES.

Oral and Written.


1.

What
What

is

sound?

2.

Tell the difference between noise


is

and musical tone^

3.
4. 5.

a note

Describe the most

common

notes.

Write a table of the relative value of notes comnote.

mencing with the whole


6.

Write a table of the relative value of notes comhalf note.

mencing with the dotted


7.

Describe the

rests.

EXERCISES.
8.

g
its

For each dotted note, show

equivalent by two
its

tied notes.
9.

For each double dotted note, show


Describe measure

equivalent by

three tied notes.


10.

and bar and upon what the


of

measure's contents depends. 11. Describe the manner


rhythms.

counting the different


in

Name the marks that designate irregularities and describe the character of each mark. rhythms
12. 13. 14.

Describe the natural accent.

Name
What

the most

common
?

artificial

accents and de-

scribe the character of each.


15.
is

meant by tempo

16.
17.

Name and

define twelve different


artificial

tempo marks.

Explain and notate

groups.

CHAPTER

II.

THEORY OF SCALES.
Major and Minor.
(Chapter i, page 4), the rate of vibraTones vibrating an equal number of times produce an unison which is a perfect concordance and
tion
is

As

stated before

called pitch.

is

ratio of

pleasant to the ear. Equally as pleasant to the ear is the two vibrations against one. A tone vibrating twice as fast as a given tone is called the given tone's octave. Be-

tween these two tones many tones may be found. example, suppose a note vibrating two hundred times
second,
its

For
in a

octave would vibrate four hundred times in the Between these two tones there would be ( avoiding fractions which would produce more different pitches ) one hundred and ninety-nine tones of different pitch. The ear is incapable of locating all these tones and modern custom
second.

has divided

all

octaves into twelve parts, each part being

These called a half step or, literally incorrect, a semi-tone. semi-tones sounded successively upwards or downwards from
any tone to
its

diatonic scale

octave produce the chromatic scale.* is a progression from any tone to

its

oc-

In modtave in which certain chromatic steps are omitted. em music there are three forms of diatonic scales, called :

1.

Major.

2.

Harmonic minor.
Melodic minor.

3.

* All references to scales, intervals and enharmonic changes treat of the tempered
scale.

10

THEORY OF SCALES.
octave of the

II

All three forms have eight tones, the eighth being the first and is given the same name.

The
ways
:

tones of the diatonic scale are

named

in four different

1.

2.
3.
4.

by by by by

numerals (Arabic and Roman), the first seven letters of the alphabet,
the Italian syllables the theory
(

do, re, mi, fa, sol^ la, sz,)

and

names

fom^:, supertonic,

mediant, sub-

domina7it, doinifiafit, submediant

and

siibtonic).
is built.

The key-tone
that
I

is

the tone from which a diatonic scale


is

The numerical system


is

a movable system which

means
is i.

The theory name system always the key-tone. a movable system, the tonic being always the key-tone or
alphabet system
is

The

a fixed system which

means

that a
Italian

letter is

system

always the same tone or its octave. as both a fixed system and is treated

The

a movable

system. the key-tone,

This book treats of the movable


i

do,

do always being

and

tonic.

The Major

Scale.

major scale is a progression from any tone to its octave 2 in which chromatic steps are omitted between i and 2 to from and 6 and and and 3, 4 6, 7 3 4 and 5, 5

from

8 half steps are made. Following is a diagram of a two octave keyboard:


7 to

C| Df
or or
d!>
eT?

n or
Gt

Gi A
or or
A!>

or

or

n or
Gl>

G# A
or

or

BV

Db eV

A^

B!>

12

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

The keyboard shows white and black keys. The black keys are in groups of two and three. As can be seen in the
diagram, the white key next to the left of the group of two The white keys in order to the right of c are black keys is c. Following ^ is a repetition of respectively d, e^f^g, a and b.
c at the distance of

an octave. Notice that between e and/" no black key as is also the case between b and c. In these two cases, where no black key separates the white keys, Two white keys septhe white keys are one semi-tone apart.
there
is

arated by a black key are one whole step apart. black key is at the distance of a semi-tone from an adjoining white key. The black keys derive their letter names from the white
keys.

black key
it is

is

between which
is

situated.
)

named from either of the white keys The black key between c and d
in

named

sharp (#

or dflat (b).

Starting at c

and sounding the white keys

order to

the right as far as the octave produces the ascending major scale of C ; sounding in order to the left produces the de-

Notice that no black keys are scending major scale of C. in of the the C major scale, the whole and case necessary

between

namely, whole steps and 2, 2 and 3, 4 and 5, 5 and 6, 6 and 7, and half steps between 3 and 4 and between 7 and 8. The student must constantly keep in mind the order of whole and
half steps being in their proper places
i
;

In each scale explained half steps in all scales explained. the letters will be numbered and a curved line will connect
those figures representing tones one half step apart.
All major keys except major require one or more black of The number or flats required for a key is sharps keys.

placed at the beginning of the


signature.

staff

and

this is called the

step and a

sharp (#) placed before a note raises the tone one half flat (b) lowers a tone one half step.

THEORY OF SCALES.
The sharp keys
Rule
I.

13

will

be considered

first

and a sharp major

scale will be built from each of the twelve tones.

The Fifth

of a Scale is the Tonic (or i) of the Scale


of Sharps.

having the next Number

nCtias no sharps, the fifth of Cis ^ and therefore by followhas one sharp. The scale of ing the rule, we find that
is

as follows

Gabc
I

de f#G
5

3^

7^8
is

Notice that the seventh of the scale

a black key.
:

The

fifth of G'ls

d and

has two sharps

D
I

e f^
2

g a b c^
5

3j

7^

remains sharped and the added sharp is the seventh of the scale. This is always the case, the added *"**" sharp is the seventh of the new scale. IS a and has three sharps "The fifth oi
Notice that

A
I

b
2

c#d

e
5

f^g^A
6

3^4

7^
:

The

fifth of -^ is ^

and has four sharps E fftg^a b c#d#E


I

3^4

The

fifth of

^
B

7^
sharps

is

and has
2

five

B c#d#e f#g#a#B
I

3^

7^
:

The

fifth of

is

y# and has six sharps F??g-^a^bcS d^e#F#


I

3^

7^

Notice that e^ is not a black key but the white key which It must be called e^ has been previously considered as f.
to retain the alphabetical order.

14

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


fifth of F'^ is

The

c^

and has seven sharps


5

as well as

C#d#e#figSa#b#C#
I

3j^
In this scale
the
e'^ is

7^
The ^#

all

the notes are sharped.

a white key.

The fifth of C# is g^ and has eight sharps. This key necessitates one double sharp and /"is double sharped. The double sharps are added in the same order that the single
sharps are.

The double sharp


step.

(designated thus

raises

a tone one whole

G#
I

a# bS c# d# e# fx
2

G^

3^4

5678
6

The

fifth

of

G^

sharps, /"and r):

is

d^ and has nine sharps (two double

D|^ es fx
2
is

^ a# bS ex D#
5

3^4
^ij^

7^
(

The

fifth of D'if

sharps, y,

^and ^):

and has ten sharps

three double

A# b#
I

3^4

ex d+t e#fx gx 5 6

A^
four double

7^
(

The

fifth of
^,

^+^

is

e'-^

sharps,/,

g and

d)-.

fx
2

and has eleven sharps


gx a# b# ex dx E#

E#
I

3^4
:

7^
( five

The

fifth of
c,

E^

is b'^

sharps, y^

g,

^and a)
I

and has twelve sharps


fx

double

B# ex dx e^
2

gx ax B^

3^

5 6

7^
with their sharp

B^

has taken us back to our starting key called by a different

name.
All twelve keys have

now been named

THEORY OF SCALES.
signatures.

15

To

continue counting five would take us over


is
is

The student the same keys called by different names. advised to do a little of this for mental discipline. If this

done beyond fourteen sharps, it will be necessary to add triple Of course, triple sharps are never used in musical sharps. notation and such a research would be entirely arithmetical.

The

order of the letters in the sharp signature which

lows should be committed to

memory

fol-

F C G D A E

B.

All keys having one double sharp or more would be difficult to read, and so instead of using the sharp signatures on

such keys, the


Rule

fiat

signatures are used.

All twelve keys with

their fiat signatures will


2.

now be

given.

The Fourth

of a Scale is the

Tonic of the Scale hav-

ing the Next

Number
;

of Flats.

C has no flats
the rule,

the fourth of

C is//
flat
:

we

find that

i^has one

therefore,

by following

FgabbcdeF
1234 567^
Notice the fourth of the scale
is

a black key.
:

The

fourth of

F\s
I

and has two flats Bb c d eb f g a B[?


b\?

the added
flat is

2345678
flat
is

Notice that the b remains


fourth of the scale.
flat is

and that the added


always the case

the

This

the fourth of the

new
f

scale.
:

The

fourth of B\^

is e\^

Eb
I

and has three flats g ab bb c d Eb


6

The

fourth of

^b
I

is

3j^ 5 7^ ^b and has four flats


c db eb
f

Ab bb

2345678

g Ab

l6

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


fourth oi A\?
is d\,

The

and has

five flats

Db
I

eb
2
is

3^

gb ab bb c Db 6 5 7 8
flats
f
:

'The fourth

of Z>b

^b and has six Gb ab bb cb db eb


I

Gb

2
is

3
c\,

5678
flats

The

fourth of

Gb
I

and has seven


fb

Cb db eb
2

gb ab bb
5

Cb

3^
in the

7^.

fourth of Cb is/b and has eight flats. This key necessitates one double flat and d has the double flat. The

The

double
are.

flats

are

added
flat

same order

The double
step.

(designated:

that the single flats bb) lowers a tone one

whole

Fb gb ab bbb Cb db eb Fb
I

3^
is

7^
flats

The

fourth of i^b
:

flats, <^bb

and ^bb ) Bbb Cb db ebb


I

^bb and has nine

(two double

fb
5

gb ab Bbb
6

3
is
'

4
^bb

7^^
flats

The

fourth of

^bb

flats, ^bb, <?bb

and^bb) Ebb fb gb abb bbb


I

and has ten


Cb db

(three double

3^j.

5678

Ebb

The

fourth of

flats, ^bb, <?bb>

^bb and has eleven bb and ^bb )

^bb

is

flats

(four double

Abb bbb
I

Cb dbb ebb fb gb
3
is

5678

Abb

The
-double

fourth

of A\,\?

^bb and has twelve


and^bb):

flats

(five

flats, <^bb, <?bb,

^bb, ^bb,

THEORY OF SCALES.
Dbb ebb
I

17

fb

gbb abb bbb cb Dbb


5

3^

7^

taken us back to our starting key called by a different name as was the case when we had twelve sharps.

Dbb has

continue counting four would take us over the same keys by different names. As was advised in the sharp research should be continued by the student. this If keys,
called
to

To

more than fourteen add triple flats.

flats

are considered,

it

will

be necessary

The order

of the letters in the flat signature

lows should be committed to

memory

which

fol-

B E A D G C
By comparing
with that of the sharp signature,
ture reversed.
it

F.
flat

the order of the letters in the


will
is

signature

be seen that the order

of the letters in the flat signature

that of the sharp signa-

Notice that each key has more than one

name

for ex-

ample, the white key next to the left of the group of two black keys has been called C, Z>bb and B^.

Rule
of a

3.

An Enharmonic Change
its Pitch.

is

the Change of a

Name

Tone without Altering

Two or more scales played from the same pitched tone but called by different names are called enharmonic scales. In practice,* fifteen major scales are used, three of which are
scales. Following is a list of the major scales used in practice together with their signatures:

enharmonic

no sharps or
I

flats

G
*

sharp (f)

D A

sharps

( f

and

3 sharps (f,c and g)


)

4 sharps

( f , c,

g and d

Theoretical keys appear in many compositions during transitions, but they are not obvious (except by analysis) because of the fact that their signatures do not appear.

i8

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


5 sharps 6 sharps
(f, c, g,
( f, c,
f , c,

g, d,

d and a) a and e )

7 sharps (

g, d, a, e

and b )

flat (

b
(

Bb. Eb

2 flats

flats

Ab

4 6

flats

Db. Gb. Cb.

5 flats
flats

7 flats

b and e ) (b, e and a) a and d ) ( b, e, (b, e, a, d and g ) enharmonical to C# and c ) enharmonical to F# ( b, e, a, d, g a, d, g, c and f ) enharmonical to B ( b, e,
in practice are
:

The enharmonic keys used

flats )
)

five (

sharps

)
)

enharmonical to

F#

(six sharps

enharmonical to
)

Cb Gb

seven

flats ( six

C#

(seven sharps
4.

enharmonical to
of

Db

five flats)

Rule

The Sum

tures is Twelve.

Notice that this

the Enharmonic Flat and Sharp Signais true in the above three

keys.

keys (that is, those having more are For example than seven sharps or flats) easily found. flats the to find the key having eleven key having eleven

By

this rule the theoretical

flats is

enharmonical to the key having one sharp (11+1 = 12). 6rhas one sharp and changing its name to the enharmonic flat key, we obtain ^bb which, therefore, has eleven flats.

This process should be applied to

all

keys having eight to


a

eleven sharps and eight to eleven flats inclusive. As stated in the first chapter, the pitch of

tone

is

determined by the note's position on the staff. The staff of five lines with its spaces allows of the designation of but one octave and one step, whereas, in modern music, there is need of This necessitates the use the notation of at least six octaves.
of

symbols called clefs and


^

lines

added

to the staff called ledger

THEORY OF
lines.

SCALES.

19
to the staff lines

Ledger lines are short lines parallel added above or below the staff lines. There are three clefs :1.

the treble or

G
F

clef,

2.

the tenor, movable or


the bass or
clef.

clef,

3.

Middle

C is

the tone v/hich

all

voices can sing.

It is in

the lower register of the high female voice and in the upper register of the low male voice.

The
Its

clef (treble

clef) is for

symbol shows the position

of the

high voices or instruments. G next above middle C

thus

i
Its
staff,

Middle

is

found on the

first

ledger

line

below the
tenor or

G clef,
C clef is

thus

w^
medium voices
or instruIt
is

The
ments.

for the use of

symbol shows the position of middle C. This clef is movable and may place middle C on any line or space of the staff. Its most common position is on the third line of
the

thus

-M

not

uncommon, how
For vocal music

ever, to find
it is

it

on the second or fourth

line.

often written in the third space. The bass orFclefis for the use of low voices or instruments.

Its

symbol shows the position of the

F next below middle


found on the
first

(7,

thus:
line

^' ^

Middle

is

ledger

above the

F clef
:

thus

The notation
practice follows

in the treble clef of all the

major scales used

in

20

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

Scale of C

i
^^

i
J

Cde
J

J
f

gabC
f

Scale of

p GabodefttG

Scale of

^*
ffS

tt

g
D
e
ftl

eft

Scale of

i'^
ft

'rr
b

cj

ftt

gtl

Scale

of

V^

J E

J
ftt

J
gtt

*
a b
ctt

Scale

of

(k

tf

^)j

^
cH
dtt

d E

ftt

gtt

att

Scale of Ft

^li^iiii"

J
Ftt

J
gtt

J
att

ctt

dft

ett

Ftt

Scale

C| d el

ftt

gtt

a b|

Cjt

THEORY OF SCALES.
Scale

21

FgabbcdfiF
Scale of Bb

^1 ^|
:3^

#
d
el>

J
f

J g

J
a

II

Bb
Scale of Eb

^'^'

J
Eb
f

ab

^^
bb
c

Bb

Eb

Sea le of Ab =^fe=>S

Ab bb
Scale of Db

dl?

eb

A]?

^
(jk

^^^K

J
Dl>

J
el>

gb ab

bl>

Dt

Sor>le of

Gb

1>

I;

y
Gb ab bb cb db eb
f

Gb

Scale of Cb

^^^^
Cb db eb fb gb ab bb Cb

The Minor
There are two forms
of

Scale.
scales, /larmonic 3.nd melodic^

minor

both differing in construction from the major form. The minor key having no sharps or flats in the signature is a. Starting at a and sounding the seven white keys in
order to the right produces a form of scale with whole steps

between

and

2,

steps between

3 and 4, 4 and 5, 6 and 7, 7 and 8, and half and 3 and between 5 and 6. This scale is

22

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

unsatisfactory to the ear as its subtonic is not a leading tone. The effect of a leading tone should be urgent, restless, and demand its tonic in order to obtain a restful effect. This

urgent effect can only be obtained by the subtonic being one This may be obtained by simply hair step below the tonic.
raisins: the

seventh one semi-tone in the above scale formais

tion

and thus

produced the so-called harmofiic minor


for raising a note are
\}i\&

sq.2X^.

The symbols

sharp (^), the double

sharp (X), and the cancel (tj) (also called natural) when placed The before a note that has been previously affected by a flat.

symbols for lowering a note are the yf^/ (i^), the double flat and the ca?icel when placed before a note that has been (t>t), By these statements it can be previously affected by a sharp.
seen that the cancel
bol.
(h) is

both a lowering and a raising sym-

The

cancel lowers a tone

when
flat.

it

cancels a sharp and

raises a tone

when

it

cancels a

'The harmonic minor scale is formed by whole steps between half steps between 2 and 3, and 2, 4 and 5, 3 and 4, and interval of one and one-half steps and and an 6, 8, 7 5 6 and 7. In demonstraan between (called augmented step) line will be minor a curved used to connect the ting keys, those figures representing tones one half step apart and a
I

bracket to connect those figures representing tones an aug-

mented step

apart.
(

The key of a minor


I

harmonic form

is

as follows

abcdefg^a
2

3^ 5j

7^
The

The

Nevertheless, the a minor

student will notice that this scale has one sharp (^). is the minor key which has neither
flats in
is
its

sharps nor

signature.

raised seventh of

all

minor keys
Ticcidmtal,

never present in the signature, but appears as

THEORV OF SCALES.
When
which
it is
ill

23

a sharp, double sharp, flat, double flat or cancel, not present in the signature, is placed before a note, If the raised seventh were present called an accidental.
is

the signature, uniform signatures in the minor would be It may also be remarked here that the seventh impossible.
is

is

not always raised during the course of a composition and necessarily raised only when the composer desires the

listener's ear to

come

at rest

on the

tonic, in

which case the

must be preceded by the raised seventh, if the subtonic precedes the tonic in the melody or harmony. The same rules (pages 13 and 15) used in the major for finding the key having the next number of sharps and the
tonic

key having the next number


minor.

of flats are applicable in

the
flat

The order
is

of the letters in both the sharp


in the

and

signatures

the

same

minor as
fifth

in the
is

major.
<?

minor has no sharps, the

sharp (/):

of ^

and has one

f :}^

g a b

d^^

123456 78
The
fifth of
<?

is

and has two sharps (/and


e f#

c)'.

b c# d

12345678
{f, c

ai^

The

fifth of b

is/# and has three sharps


f#

and ^

):

gS a b c# d e# f#

12
The
fifth

345678
(/,
c,

oif'^

is

C^

and has four sharps


b# c#

g and

d):

c# d# e f# g^ a

123456

78

24
The

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


fifth

of c^

is

^^ and has

five

sharps (/,
fx

c,

gy

d and

g# a^ b cs ds

123456
and has

g^

78

The

F
^):

is

student will notice that in this key, yis double sharped, sharped in the signature, but because the subtonic

requires raising,

y demands
is
d'-^

a double sharp.
six sharps (y,
c,

The

fifth of

g^

g, d^

a and

d#esf#gi^a#b cxd#

12345678and has seven sharps


(/,
c,

The
and

fifth of
-

by.

d^

is a'^

g, d, a, e

aftb^cft

12345678

d#e#fS gxas

The minor keys having more than seven sharps should be found by the student and submitted to the teacher for For the sake of brevity, they are not given correction. here, but the student should be thoroughly capable, by this
time, of finding

them

all.

A minor (jy

has no

flats,

the fourth of ^

is

^ and has one

flat

d e

g a

b[7

c^^d

123456 78
The
fourth oi

\s

g and

has two

flats
f;j

and

e ):

a bb c d eb

123 456 78
The
fourth of

^ is

and has three flats d eb f g ab bb c

( ^,

<?

and a )

123456 78

THEORY OF SCALES.
The
it is

25
;

student will notice a contradiction in the above scale


stated that c has three flats

cancelled.

This

the example, b is cancel, however, appears as accidental (the


in

and

raised seventh) and must be a flat in the signature. The fourth of c is and has four flats { b, e, a and

y
f

d)

a[?

bb

c di? eb

123
The
fourth
of

45678
and has
f

\s b\,

five flats ( b,

e,

a,

d and

bb c db eb

12345678
The
fourth of
<^b is e\}

gb

at[

bb

and has

six flats

( b,

<?,

a, d,

g and

c):eb
f

123456
and/):
The
fourth of
e\,

gb ab bb cb
I

d|;j

eb

78
flats {b, e^ a^ d, g, c

\s a\?

and has seven

12345678
The
seven
student should find the minor keys having more than
flats.

ab bb Cb db eb fb

gt[

ab

The harmonic minor

scale

is

awkward

in

formation

on

account of the augmented second step between steps six and All augmented intervals sound harsh and are difficult seven.
to sing tunefully. scale
is

For

this reason, another

form

of

minor

sometimes used which eliminates the augmented second step. This form is called melodic minor and is used, It defies as its name implies, only for melodic purposes.
harmonization for the obvious reason that
differs
its

ascending form

from

its

descending form.

26

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


The melodic minor
scale

has the sixth as well as the seventh

raised by accideiital in ascending, but in descending, both The ascending form has the sixth and seventh are restored.

whole steps between i and 2, 4 and 5, 3 and 4, 5 6 and 7, and half steps between 2 and 3 and beand 6, tween 7 and 8. The descending form has its half steps be-

tween 6 and

and between 3 and


is

2.

Notice that the


taised

descending form

as

its

signature dictates.
raised

Ascending

123456 Descending 876543


:
:

78
21

The ascending form


as the major scale,

the raised sixth


in a

of the melodic minor is nearly the same and for this reason it is best not to retain and seventh in descending. The subtonic

descending scale does not lead ( progress) to the tonic and therefore need not necessarily be situated one half step below the tonic.

Any minor key


having the

is

called the relative of the


;

same signature

therefore, the relative

major key minor of C


flats.

major

is

a* as they both have neither sharps nor

Rule

5.

The Relative Minor The Relative Major

is

found on the Sixth of the

Major Scale.

Rule

6.

is

found on the Third of the

Minor

Scale.

Some writers have called the relative xmxiox parallel vcvmox^ This is a usage using relative and parallel synonymously. to be regretted as it causes considerable confusion. By most
minor is treated as the scale commencing on the same key-note as the major and will thus be treated
writers, the parallel
in this

book, therefore

the relative minor of


the parallel minor of
*

C
C

is is

a;
c.

Capital letters are used to designate major keys and small letters to designate

minor keys.

THEORY OF SCALES.
The
sharps
parallel
in its

27
flats

minor scale has three more

or three less

In other words, signature than the major scale. by lowering steps 3, 6 and 7 of the major scale one semitone, the signature of the parallel minor is obtained.

The

notation in the treble clef of


:

monic and melodic) follows


Scale of a

all

the minor scales (har-

Harmonic

^^ ^
i w
I

Scale of a

>.#4r^

Melodic

t=m

Scale of e

JP

ft

Harmonic

jjJp f^l J* f 1^
I

Scale of e

Melodic

^^

41^

Scale of b

Harmonic

m
i
*'
^

i
MjjJJi^^^^
J^^f^

Scale of b

Melodic

Scj Dale

of

ftf

Hiarmonic

hj-ftj t ^

WItT^ g
i

Scale of

fjt

Melodic

^ jjjp^rr

r'ryfpJJji

28
Scale

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

Harm(onic

^
Ik

^J *

Scale of

cjf

Melodic

j^j

jJJ

iJtf|'f

a
**i

Scale ofgjf

Harmonic

I'll'
[

'

ii

ir rr:

Scale Melodi

Scale of

djf

Harmonic

^1
^

Jj>Y

Scale of

djf

Melodic

jVMjjjJJttpYF^^
k21

Scale ofajf

Harmonic
Scale of

I^^A^Wrrr

ajt

Melodic

^ B
^

tfj^^ft^tt^ '
t^

_,p<^Yr

fi''g

Scale
nic Harmo]

^7

^ J

Scale of d

Melodic

.i"

jjjJ-Vrnr'f^

Scale of g

Harmonic
Scale of g

^
^i)'

THEORY OF SCALES.

29

Melodic

jj^r'T^rri^

^
i
wrgr

Scale of c

Harmonic
Scale of c

jA^jjiiJ

Melodic

Scale of

Harmonic

$ ^ ^^

ii

e=b
'^fW

fciz

k^

^
:fy

mW

Scale of

Melodic

Scale of bb

Harmonic
Scale of bb

^ ^ s ^5 P
TO==K

^
I'
!

Melodic

jijjj^*'

^^i'J jj ji^

Harmonic
Scale of eb iMelodic

^
g)

I'

'

''i^'^i.'^

JJ^

30
Scale of

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY


al

Harmonic

i^
td^

Scale of

al>

Melodic

EXERCISES
Oral and Written
1.

Into
?

how many
is

parts does

modern custom divide

an octave
2.

3.

What What

each part called ? is the difference between a chromatic scale


?

and

a diatonic scale
4.

How many

forms of diatonic scales are there and


four ways in which the tones

Avhat are their names ? Name and define the 5.


6.

of the diatonic scales are named.

What

is

the key-tone

7.

8. 9.

Describe the movable and fixed systems. Describe the major scale.
Describe the effect of a sharp of a double flat of a cancel.
; ;

of a double sharp

of a

flat

10.

number of sharps and next number of flats.


1 1
.

State the rule for finding the key having the next the rule for finding the key having the

Write on the

staff,

using the treble


flats.

clef,

all

the

major keys
tenor
clefs.

to eleven sharps

and eleven

Write several

scales (the teacher deciding the

(Show by curved
is

line those notes situated

number) using the bass and one

semi-tone apart.)
1 2.

What
In the

the order of the letters in the sharp signasignature


?

ture

flat

EXERCISES.
13. 14.
15.

31

What is meant by enhar?nomc ? What are the e7iharmonic scales used


Give enkarmofiic
letter

in practice

names for each


and
flat

of the twelve

keys.
16.

What
By

is
?

the

smn

of sharp

signatures of

enharmonic keys
17.

the use of this enharmonic sum, find

all

the

theoretical keys.
18.

What

is

the construction of the harmonic


?

minor

scale

Of the melodic minor

Write on the staff all the minor scales (both har19. monic and melodic) to eleven sharps and eleven flats, letting the teacher determine which clef or clefs to use.
20.

What
?

is

the reason for raising the seventh in har-

monic minor
21.

What

is

the reason for raising the sixth in melodic

minor
differ

Why does the descending form of melodic minor from the ascending form ? 23. Why does not the raised sixth or seventh appear
22.
?

in the signature

24.
25.

26.

What What What


from

is is

an accidental?
the relative minor and

is t\\Q
its

parallel minor and

how is it found ? how does its signa-

ture differ

parallel

major

Before proceeding to the next chapter all these exercises should be properly answered and corrected by the

N. B.

teacher.

CHAPTER

III.

INTERVALS AND INTRODUCTION TO CHORD


BUILDING.

An
are

interval

is

the distance between two tones


ordinals.

intervals

named by the

The number

of letters

comprised
of

in the notation of

two tones determines the ordinal name


:

the interval.

Example

^ to

is

an

inter-

It makes val of a second because two letters are comprised. no difference whether or not either or both of the above tones
is

affected by an accidental, the interval

still

comprises two

letters

and

is

a second.
tonic of the major scale to each degree
:

Reckoning from the

of the scale produces the following intervals

prime. 3nd

Brd

4th 5th

6th

7th

^
perf.

8th or octave

9th

The

interval

of

the

ninth

is

often called a

second, the

octave not being considered.

These intervals are the normal intervals of the major These normal intervals are qualified in two ways. prime, fourth, fifth and octave are called perfect.

scale.

The The

second, third, sixth and seventh are called major ; thus:


perf.

prime Snd

maj. maj. 3rd

perf. perf. jnaj. maj.

4th

5th

^ jiUJUJiiJij^
32

^
6th

7th octave

maj. 9th

CHORD BUILDING.
All

33

intervals
is

should be

reckoned from the lower note,

which
that

If the upper note is considered a major key-note. in the major scale of the lower note, the interval is normal
;

the upper note is not in the major scale of the lower note, the interval is a derivative The derivative intervals are called mi?ior, dinwiinterval.
is,

either perfect or major.

If

ished and augme?ited.

minor interval

is

one semi-tone smaller.

derived from a major interval and is By lowering the upper tone of any

major interval one half step or by raising the lower tone of any major interval one half step (not altering the letter name
in either case) a

minor interval

is

formed, thus

minoi^

minor
3rd

minor
6th

3nd

g JU

^
minor
7th
etc.

i w^

$ w^
A
diminished interval
is

one half step smaller than a minor or a perfect interval. By lowering the upper tone of any minor or any perfect interval one half step, or by raising the lower tone of any minor or any perfect interval one half step
(not altering the letter val is formed, thus
:

name

in either case) a

diminished inter-

dim.

3nd

dim. 3rd

dim.

4th

dim. 5th
fc

dim,

6th

dim. 7th

dim.>

8th

i
The

#I

must be called a second because two

tones of the diminished second are the same pitch, but letters are comprised.

34

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


is

The diminished prime


ically,

possible melodically, but harmon-

only in theory.

It is

^f^zr^~~^^

An augmented interval is one half step larger than a major or a perfect interval. By raising the upper tone of any major or perfect interval one half step, or by lowering the lower
tone

any major or perfect interval one half step (not the letter name in either case) an augmented inter" altering val is formed, thus
of
:

aug.

aug.

aug.

prime Snd

3rd
I

aug. 4th
I

aug. 5th
i

aug.

6th

aug. 7th

aug.

8th

Jjji \jtt

itf

jH

^
|,i

u^
in

w^

etc.

Notice that the tones of the augmented seventh are the same pitch, but must be called a seventh as seven letters are

comprised.

The name
:

following

intervals are the

same

sound, but not in

perfect prime

sounds the same as diminished 2nd

augmented

CHORD BUILDING.
From
the preceding
7.
list

35
is

the following rule

apparent

of

Rule

By Changing

Enharmonically

Either or
is

Both

the Tones of an Interval, a Different Interval

Obtained

Which

Sounds the Same as the Original Interval.

The
is

distance in semi-tones of
:

as follows

all

the intervals to an octave

prime

36

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

A quicker and better method of determining an interval than by committing to memory the above table is to consider If the upper the lower note the tonic of the major scale.
note
is

in the

major scale of the lower note, the interval


.

is

practice the num( ) ber of letters in an interval can be determined at a glance.

normal
If the

major or perfect
is

After a

little

upper note
is

the interval

derivative

not in the major scale of the lower note and is determined by the informa-

tion heretofore given.

Inversion of Intervals.
Intervals are said to be inverted

when

the lower note of

the original interval is placed an octave higher, thereby becoming the upper note of the interval thus fonned. Ex-

ample

the inversion of

The same
is

letters are

in

both intervals, but the


is

is

first

interval

a third and the inverted interval

a sixth.
is

Rule

8.

The Sum

of

an Interval and Its Inversion

Nine.

The above
versions
:

rule, therefore, gives the following table of in-

a prime inverts to an octave " " a seventh a second


a third a fourth
" "
" "

( i

a sixth a
fifth

=9 (2 + 7 = 9) (3 + 6 = 9)
+
8

"

fifth

"

a sixth
a seventh

" "
"

"a
"
"

a fourth
third

a second a prime

(4 + 51=9) = 9) (5 + 4 (6 + 3 = 9) (7 + 2=9)

an octave

(8 +

= 9)

To

find to

etc.,

invert, consider

what intervals ninths, tenths, elevenths, twelfths, them respectively as seconds, thirds^

CHORD BUILDING.
fourths, fifths, etc.,

37

and consider the lower note placed two


:

octaves higher instead of one octave. Qualifications invert in the following manner

intervals intervals invert to minor >? " " " 7najor " " 7> " perfect perfect >J " " " aus:mejited diminished

major

viitior

auzniented

}}

)j

7J

diminished

)>

By

the use of the above table

be determined.

Examples

and

rule 8, all inversions

may

major 3nd

minor
7th
inverts
t

*
major
6th

o^

minor
3rd

tt
l^erf.

prime
>

>

t>

>i

etc.

38

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

tervals,

is also called an u7iison, but in speaking of inshould always be called 2ipri??7e. Correctly speaking, a perfect pri7tie is not an interval, but in the theory of music it is so called. There is good reason for making this
it

The prime

error,

tmisoTi.

but none for calling a dim'mished prime a di77iinished Notice that the di77ii7tished seco7id as well as the peris

fect prt77ie

an

U7iis07i.

Intervals are considered both harmonically and melodically, or in other words, both when sounded together or sepIn either case, the lower note is the one from which arately.
to determine the interval.

Chord Construction.

chord

is

a combination of two or more tones sounded


All chords are constructed in thirds.

simultaneously.

The

fundamental
is

tone of a

chord

is

the tone on which the chord

constructed.

A chord of three tones is a /rzW which consists oi^ifimdamental together with its third and its fifth. Triads are The indedivided into two classes, indepe7ide7it and depende7it.
pendent triads have no dissonant intervals and may end a comThe dependent chords have one or more dissonant position.
intervals
" restless " chords

and are

and demand another

chord to follow.

dependent chord to an independent chord, thereby obtaining a restful effect, is


progression of a
called resolution.

The

There are two kinds


minor.

of

independent
of

triads,

major and

A
third,

major triad consists

the

fundamental, the

major

and the

perfect

fifth.

Example

'~^S
:

CHORD

BUILDING.

39

fninor triad consists of the fundamental, the minor third,

and the

perfect fifth.

Example
is

'^
first

augmented or diminished, the triad a dependent. Dependent triads are found constructed on the subtonic of major keys on the subtonic, supertonic, and mediant of the minor keys. The triad on the mediant of the
If the fifth of

a triad

is

minor key

is

an augmented triad and the

three mentioned

triads are diminished.

Music written

for four voices necessitates the


triad.

doubUng
is

of

one of the factors of the

Any

factor of the triad

may

be doubled.

The

factor

most frequently doubled

the

fundamental

double octave, or unison. The four voices are soprano (high female voice), alto (low female voice) te7ior (high male voice), and bass (low male
in the octave,
,

voice).

merals.

Chords are figured under the bass by Large numerals designate 7najor triads
;

Roman
;

nu-

small nu-

merals designate minor triads


(')

affixed designate

augmented

large numerals with the mark triads small numerals with a


;

The notation of cipher afiixed designate diminished triads. the triads on each degree of the major and minor scales
follows
:

Major Mode.

N.B.

^^5

II

? ni

m
IV

VI

VllO

40

ESSENTIALS
Minor Mode;

OP^

MUSIC THEORY.

^
1

^
III'
IV

^
V
VI
viio

II"

Although doubled in the above examples, the fundamental of the subtonic triad is seldom doubled in four
N. B.
voice writing and
if

doubled, a bad

progression results

in

many The
.

cases.

three upper voices in a fundamental chord arranged in a different manner


:

may be

With the fundamental

in

the

soprano

^g
C
I

With the

ird in third

the soprano
I

upper voices do not exceed the compass of an is said to be in "close position." If the chord the octave, three upper voices exceed the compass of an octave, the
If the three

chord

is

" said to be in

open position."

Inversion of Triads.

chord
is

is

inverted

damental

in the bass.

when a factor other than the funThe first inversion of the triad is

It is called the chord where we have the third in the bass. of the sixth, because the fundamental is the sixth of the bass. This chord is figured by a small Arabic figure () over the bass note, the Roman numeral under the bass showing the

fundamental.

Examples:

CHORD BUILDING.
doubled fundamental

41

doubled

^
^
6

third

^
The second
and
is

inversion of the triad has the

fifth in

the bass
six-four

called the chord of the sixth

and fourth, or

chord, because the fundamental is the fourth of the bass. This chord is figured by the small Arabic figures {%) over the bass, the Roman numeral under the bass showing the fun-

damental.

Examples

doubled
fifth

doubled fundamental

i
6

i
6 4

^^
The seventh chord
is

m
The Seventh Chord.

obtained by adding the seventh of A seventh chord may be the fundamental to any triad. of the formed on each degree major and minor scales. It is
figured with the

Roman

numerals below the bass and a small

The notation of the seventh chords Arabic (7) over the bass. the on each degree of major and minor scales follows
:

42

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


C Major.

i
i
I

m
i
VI
VTI*

^
IT

P
ux

IV

a Minor.

g^

i
S
Iir

i i
^
IV

^
fe
viio

no

VI

The tonic and subdominant of the major mode and the submediant of the minor mode are formed with the major triad
and the major seventh. The dominant seventh in both modes formed with the major triad and the minor seventh. The seventh chords on ii, iii and vi in the major mode and on IV of the minor mode are formed with the minor triad and the minor seventh. The seventh chords on vii in the major mode and on ii in the minor mode are formed with the diminished triad and the minor seventh. The subtonic seventh chord in the minor mode is called the dhiiinished sevefith and is formed with the diminished triad and the dimis

The seventh chord on the mediant in the formed with the augmented triad and the major seventh. The seventh chord on the tonic of the minor mode is formed with the minor triad and the major seventh. In
inished seventh.
is

minor mode

four voice writing,

all

the seventh chords with the exception

CHORD BUILDING.
of those on the subtonic of both

43

modes

are often written with-

and with the doubled fundamental. All seventh chords are dependent chords and their natural resolution is to the chord the fundamental of which is situated a fourth above or a fifth below the fundamental of the seventh chord.
out the
fifth

This progression
to the tonic.
inant,

is

tonic seventh chord of both

called "cadencing resolution." The submodes may also naturally resolve


is

The most important seventh chord


to the tonic.
close.

the
is

domcalled

which resolves
close
)

This progression
of

the authentic
is

Another method

ending a composition

by the plagal
(

which
is

is

harmony
the

triad

to tonic.

a progression from subdominant The plagal close is preceded by

the authentic close and

also called the after cadefice

and

Amen

cadence.

Inversion of Seventh Chords.

The

first

inversion of the seventh chord


(

is

called the chord

of the fifth

and sixth

by the Roman
figures
(

The chord is figured chord). numeral below the bass note and the Arabic
six-five

over the bass.

Example

i
s
6

^
The second
inversion
is

called

the chord of the

third,

It is figured by the fourth and sixth (four-three chord). Roman numeral below the bass and the Arabic figures I

or simply

over the bass.

Example

44

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

g
4
3

s
The
fourth.

third inversion
It is figured

is called the chord of the second and by the Roman numeral below the bass
(

and the Arabic

Example

figures (1),

f),

or simply (a) over the bass,

C
^ >:

V^

study of chord progression, altered chords, melody writing, passing tones, etc., belongs properly to the study of

The

harmony and counterpoint which


volume.

is

not the subject of this

EXERCISES.

Oral and Written.


1.

What

is

an interval

? ?

2. 3.
4.

How
What
?

are intervals

named

are the normal intervals

Qualify the derived intervals

from what

is

each

derived

EXERCISES.
5.

45
and
all

Notate

all

the normal intervals

the deriva-

tive

intervals.
6.

Name

all

the following intervals

(Accidentals affect only those notes before

which they are placed.)

ii

U J U '^inib J |jj J ji
l

ijtf^

|j

JiOi^

jrij^riiJrij"^'j^ui"^iiJti^
l-r-L
I

^
f

^
f
7.
I

.,

1"^

iM
(

itj

1^

p^
invert.

Name

several intervals

the teacher to determine

the number) having different names, but sounding the same. 8. What is the sum of inversions ?
9.

State the

manner

in

which qualifications

10. 11.

Invert

the intervals given in exercise 6. Notate and figure all the triads in several different
all

major and minor keys.


?

Which

are dependent and which are

independent Describe a dependent triad. 12. Describe open and close position. 13.
14.

Notate and figure several

sixth

chords; several

six-four chords.

46
15.

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

Notate and figure all the seventh chords in several different major and minor keys. What is the most important seventh chord ? 16.
17.

18.
19.

What What

is

the authentic close? the plagal close


?

is

Notate and figure a

six-five

dominant chord

in sev-

major and minor keys. Notate and figure a four-three dominant chord 20. several major and minor keys. Notate and figure a four-two dominant chord 21.
eral

in

in

several major and minor keys.


22.

vised

Choose some standard chorals (Bach's are adand analyze the chords therein.

CHAPTER
The
science of sound, including
velocity,
is
its

IV.

EPITOMIZED ACOUSTICS.
cause and effect and the

manner,

and

intensity of

its

conveyance through
is

dif-

ferent media,

called acoustics.

The medium through which sound


agated
is

most commonly prop-

at a temperature of 32 Fahrenheit, sound travels at a rate of 1090 feet per second.


air.

Through

this

medium,

The
sible.

quality

speed.
locity of

If this

and intensity of sound do not alter the rate of were not true, ensemble music would be imposis

Intensity of sound

greater in condensed air;

ve-

temperature. Many experiments have been made to determine the ve locity of sound, the most reliable of which vary not over seven
of six of the best experiments, nineteenth century, is 1089.7 Ten hundred and ninety feet per second at 32 Fahrenheit.
feet per second.

sound

is

greater in a

warm

The average

made

in the early part of the

now generally adopted. are the only circumstances affecting Sound travels the velocity of sound in the air to any extent. about four times faster through water than through air, and
feet per

second

is

the rate

Wind and temperature

than
of a

about ten times faster through solids such as metals and wood through air. A sudden displacement of the molecules

medium produces sound which


all

travels in

waves

at

an
in
a.

equal velocity in
stone in water

directions.

An

idea of the

manner

which sound waves


;

travel

may be

obtained by throwing

small waves are propagated from the point of impact which, if the water be still, spread equally in all directions, but if it be running water, the waves extend a
47

48

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

down stream than up stream. The effect of wind on sound waves may be compared to the effect of running water on the waves propagated by the impact of the
greater distance'
stone.

Musical tone is produced by regular vibrations noise by The tones of the tempered chromatic irregular vibrations. scale have the following number of vibrations per second
;
:

'

Middle
c^ or
<i# or

258.6
274.

db d
eb
e
f

290.3

507.6
325-9 345-2

f#or

gb

365-8
387-5 410.5
.

g#or
a#or

ab

......
figures "

435.

bb

460.8
488.2 represent the vibrations of the which was adopted by the Piano

The preceding
**

International Pitch

A is the standard pitch Manufacturers' meeting in 189 1. having 435 double vibrations per second at a temperature of 68 Fahrenheit. Many pitches have prevailed in different
At the time of Handel and was lower Mozart, the pitch (422.5 and 421.6). England run as has had the pitch high 454.7 and the United States
countries at different times.

as high as 460.8.

Sounds vibrating below a certain number lose the character of musical tones as do those vibrating above a certain number.
Great discrepancies of opinion
exist

among

theorists

on

this

Savart claims the lowest audible sound has eight subject. vibrations per second; Helmholtz claims that there is no

EPITOMIZED ACOUSTICS.
definite pitch of

49

sounds having

less

than forty vibrations per

second

Herr Appum claims

to hear fifteen vibrations

by

the use of specially loaded tongues in reed pipes. He claims the character of tone commences at twenty vibrations, but the

musical character of bass tones does not exist until frequencies exceed twenty-four vibrations per second. On the subject of the audibility of acute sounds, opinions are

advanced

ranging from 6,400

The

36,000 vibrations per second. limits of the human voices are tabulated below
to

Bass

50

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


at the present time in chord construction. chords of the eleventh and thirtreated old theorists

exist but are not

used

The

teenth, but

modern

theorists treat these intervals as suspen-

sions, anticipations, etc.*

The

origin of chord construction

may be seen from these har77ionics. These over tones, generated from a fundamental, are the pure (untempered) intervals.
intervals, with the exception of the octave, are of tune but not enough so to shock the ear. out slightly The pure (untempered) scale of C has the following

The tempered

number

of vibrations per c

second

Middle

261.

d
e
f

293.6
326.2 348.

g
a

391-5
435-

489-3
to explain completely All ambitious students should con-

An
sult

entire

volume would be necessary

the science of acoustics.

books on acoustics. The author recommends the books, on sound by the following writers
:

Appum
G. B. Airy Pietro Blaserno

Benjamin Peirce

Rodolphe Radau
Savart

Helmholtz
Pole

Tyndall
J.

August Zahn
intervals as chord factors.
i

Composers

of the present

day often use these

CHAPTER
A
person with

V.

EAR TRAINING.
comparatively

little,

an untrained ear can appreciate music even though he is well educated in the

Absolute pitch is the ability to recognize theory of music. and intonate any tone indicated. Very few persons possess naturally absolute pitch, but it may be acquired by a systematic study of ear training. Relative pitch is the ability to recAdvanceognize a tone by comparison with a known tone. ment in relative pitch eventually leads to the attainment of

absolute pitch.

In practicing ear training, only a few minutes at a sitting are advised. Too much time at once devoted to this practice tires the ear and does more harm than good. On the other
hand, these sittings should be

many each day.


in ear training
is

Students

who

do not have a teacher


mistakes.
If

daily, should have a

member

of the

household play the exercises

and correct the


musical, the stu-

no member of the household

dent should co-operate with another student. Each exercise should be thoroughly learned before proIt may be recognizable ceeding to the following exercise.

and properly intonated

at
is

once or

it

may take

several sittings.

the standard for orchestral tuning pitch 435 and is recommended to the student for a fundamental. The
at

The

pitch

student should carry upon his person a tuning fork of this and sound it as often as an opportunity permits, and

Eventthereby fix this fundamental thoroughly in his mind. the will student this whenever he hears pitch ually, recognize
51

52
it.

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


Other tones
fundamental.
will

this

Any

be recognizable by comparison with other pitch for a fundamental may


is

favor of

be chosen with equally good results. The argument A because of its use in orchestral tuning.

in

Many

results, exist.

systems of ear training, which produce the desired The following system has been found the

most satisfactory by the author.* Deviations from and additions to this system do no harm and are advisable in certain
individual cases.

The
cises.

Italian syllables should be used in singing the exer-

Movable do

is

advised.

Any

instrument

may be

used by the teacher or co-operator to play the exercises. For low voices, the exercises should be played two octaves lower than indicated, and for medium voices, one octave
lower.

The

teacher, after having played an exercise, should

The student should explain the interval or intervals therein. and then without. instrument with the first exercise the sing
Each
exercise should be faultlessly intonated before proceed-

ing to the following exercise.

GROUP
The Normal Intervals
I.

I.

of the

Major

scale

Major

Scale.

i
2.

w
All intervals of the major scale
:

^m
i

[
3.

V,

i'

|i
:

||i

rMrMr

Tonic triad

P
*

Jrijr

XE

children find difficulty in intonating small intervals and it is necessary in such cases to commence with large intervals and work toward the smaller intervals.

Many young

EAR TRAINING.
4.

53

Perfect

fifth

ii

JJl^i
The
given.

nJrJ

III

ii

I I

II

teacher should

use various rhythms besides

those

^^
u &^
b)
6.

5.

Perfect fourth

t*

i
3a:

$
i
i?f

l-J^J

Perfect octave

^ I S
fe

a)

?F

i
ZZ

b)

^
t
nn

XE

Perfect intervals combined

#fe^
The
ways and
ody
free

zz

XE

teacher should

in several different

combine these intervals in various rhythms and the student should


teacher

notate the exercise.

The

may also choose some

mel-

from accidentals and play it slowly while the student notates. Such practice accomplishes a two-fold result,
ability to notate

rhythm as well as

intervals.

54
8.

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


Major
third
:

^f

^*

^ i
sixth

Minor

^
lO

fc^

^ ^
<-

^
:

f ^
XE

Major

sixth

#
II.
.

^
Minor
third
:

i^^^lJ

ri'iij'ijjuj'
first
is

j.j.

iTnrjii
The
last

The
which

measure of exercise

contains the major second

an easily recognized

interval.

measure

but two of exercise 2 contains the major seventh. This interval is ordinarily a difficult interval to intonate but coming
as
it

does

in exercise 2

ascending scale
the present,
it is

it is easy to intonate because of the on the second half of the measures. For

except

in

some such sequence as exercise

not advisable to practice the major seventh All other nor2.

mal

intervals

tions.

may be practiced separately and in combinaAfter the student has become thoroughly proficient
and properly intonating
II.
all

in recognizing

the intervals in

group found

I,

he

may proceed

to the intervals of the

minor scale

in

group

EAR TRAINING.

55

GROUP
The Normal Intervals
1
.

II.

of the

Minor

Scale.

Melodic minor scale


t

^
*L><

Vf
:

w=*

-j^-^^rn
2.

Harmonic minor

scale

$
If the
3.

^
Do

^ffM^^

mi ^

student finds difficulty in singing the harmonic form with the awkward augmented step, the singing of this scale

may be postponed.
of minor,

Play alternatively the major scale and both forms and require the student to distinguish between
not proceed until the student
all
is

them.

capable of recog-

nizing and distinguishing between


4.

diatonic scales.
:

All intervals of the harmonic minor scale


/
1
1

L.I

Ui

r^i

pi

Itt^i

If

It

56

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


8.

The major
1

sixth

22

J
I

..
I
I

The minor

sixth

$
II.

^
lo.

The major

third

s i^
lations

^^
free

Play slowly several minor melodies and require the student to notate.
to parallel

from modu-

The teacher should now


tions

play melodies in which are transi-

from major

minor and
is

vice versa.

Great

familiarity with the

normal intervals
It is

studying altered intervals.

necessary before that the major seventh hoped


considerable

may now be properly intonated. The student may experience

difficulty

with

the following group, in which case it is advisable to postpone this group until the ear is more thoroughly trained. The of its the normal intervals is fix to object following firmly the

fundamental and
mental.

all

intervals

by comparison with
III.

this funda-

GROUP

Altered Intervals.
I.

The chromatic

scale

%% %0f%fT ^rri"rry

r^ r r

i^^

^@

EAR TRAINING.

57

tervals, the syllable

In syllabicating the chromatic scale or any of the altered inah may be used on each tone. To those

wishing to adhere to the Italian syllables, the tonic sol-fa syllables, invented by Miss Sarah Ann Glover, may be used

which are as follows


ray,
re,

ascending chromatic scale


se,

doh^

de,

me, fah, fe, soh, chromatic scale doh, te,

lah,

le,

te,

doh

ta,

lah, la, soh, sa,

descending fah, me, ma,


;

ray, ra, doh.

syllables to also changed the subtonic


2.

Miss Glover changed the spelling of the Italian coincide with the English pronunciation. She

from

si to

te.

fourth is found as a scale interval between the fourth and seventh steps of the major scale (^fah to te^. It is more difficult to conceive and intonate properly

The

aicg77iented

the augmented fourth when it is constructed upon the tonic. In order to make this interval less difficult, the following exercise contains the intermediate scale steps previous to the

skip of an augmented fourth

m
It

y:s

rrr T.nrf^'^ r F
i i

%fi\t?

necessary with some students to interpolate some the intermediate steps previous to skips to all altered It may not be amiss to state here that in correct intervals.

may be
all

or

melody writing augmented and diminished


ally avoided.

intervals are usu-

of tune.

Singers almost invariably intonate them out When these intervals exist as constituent parts of

an arpeggio chord progression, they are comparatively easy.

As

strum^ts being capable

altered intervals these skips are given to instruments ( inof properly intonating all skips )

when

a dramatic effect

is

desired.

3.

fourth.

is analogous to the augmented Being the inversion of the augmented fourth, it is

The diminished ffth

58

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

found as a scale interval between the seventh and fourth


steps
(

te

to

fah

diminished

fifth

following built upon the tonic


).

The

exercise

contains the

f^iM
It
is

0=^

^
:

k
33:

The augmented Jifth is analogous to the minor sixth. 4. found as a scale interval between the third and seventh steps of the harmonic minor scale and ascending melodic
minor
scale.

The

following exercise contains the augmented

fifth built

upon the major tonic

i
5.

t
The
fifth

^
is

?r)

i
is

TTr

te

xs:

di77iinished

fourth

mented

and

analogous to the

the inversion of the augmajor third


:

^
6.

T
It is

T/J

J^J

"'^|

rg~^

22

xe:

third.

The augmented second is analogous to the minor found as a scale interval between the sixth and seventh steps of the harmonic minor. The following exercise
contains the augmented second built upon the major tonic

^m m ^^^
The diminished seventh
is

za.

7.

is

the inversion of the an 0-,


:

mented second and

analogous to the major sixth

^^

^P

i-^

EAR TRAINING.
The augme7iled third is found tween the third and the raised
8.
is

59

analogous to the perfect

fourth.

This interval

in the altered
fifth

minor

triad be-

of the triad.

Derivation

of the

augmented

third

Exercise

J. p r ' r'JM'r-iV'i

mi^
i^ ygr.
9.
27/<f

^
Xt?^

3C2

r^

IF

-<s>-"

X-(5>-

XiS>-

Ji

seventh.

augmented sixth is analogous to the minor This interval is found in the augmented sixth
;

chord.

Origin of the augmented sixth chord

^
TJie

\\

,\\

^
the aug-

En
is

diminished sixth, which


third

the inversion of

and analogous to the perfect fifth, is not used The diminished third, which is the inversion of melodically. the augmented sixth aad analogous to the major second, is

mented

but seldom used melodically.


If the singing of the
it

harmonic minor scale has been postExercises containing the

now be practiced. poned, seventh major may now be given.


should

6o

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

GROUP

IV.

Arpeggio Chords.
not yet fixed in the student's mind exercises pertaining to groups I and II should be given beThe intervals already given should be exfore proceeding.

If the fundamental

is

panded, the major second to a major ninth, the major third


to a major tenth, etc., etc. In practicing the following exercises, the student should name the intervals between consecutive notes and between

each note

of the

chord and the fundamental.

^^
I.

The major

triad

? p

2.

The minor
=3=

triad

t
$

^^ m
:

2t

3.

The diminished
=JF

triad

^
The augmented

4.

triad

i'^
A

UV

tiii

iJft

^m ^m
?
:

The dominant seventh chord


?x:

XE

EAR TRAINING.
The
its

6i

resolution.

teacher should explam the dominant seventh chord and Also give exercises on the skip of a minor

seventh.
6.

$
I

a ^
The
r.

The

supertonic seventh chord

#
8

-o-

P
:

TJ

7.

U 1
4

subtonic seventh chord

?^

--*

?
:

-^

8.

The diminished seventh chord

w
A

great

.r

i^^-4
|||J p

#8

^
in

-O-

many exercises on these chords should be given the natural resolution of the dependent chords. with together Exercises on the inversions of these chords may be given when the student has obtained proficiency on the fundamental position.
III.

The

inversions

may be found

Chapter

GROUP

V.

Two Voiced Chords.


with the other.
the exercise

The student should name the interval that one voice forms The upper melody should then be sung as

is played. Repeat the exercise, the student singIf the student experiences ing the lower melody this time. chords should be played difficulty in naming the intervals, the

in arpeggio style.

62
I.

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.


Thirds
:

2.

Sixths:-

V
3.

jj.Hiii'rrirrri'11
intervals

h
:

XE

Mixed

^
a

and rhythm (contrapuntal)


33: -o33:

Cherubini
33:

^^^ i

m ^^ P
y:

14

-O-

xn

^
fZi:

3X

33:

-o-

P
XT
-O-

m
-^

^
33:

-O-

3X

14

JJJJ

^ ^ i i

33:

EAR TRAINING.

63

GROUP

VI.

The Four Voiced Chord,


It

becomes necessary
student should
voice.

to use

organ or piano for this group.

The

name

the kind of chord

and sing the

upper
I.

The primary

triads

22
-vS

^
3

3 il

XE

2Z
31:

^^
2.

The primary and secondary

triads

:-

^^
^^ ^
3.

22

T*^
22

m
:

Sf m s^
^I

w
3?
g:

^^^
i

Introducing the dominant seventh chord


(a)

"XT"

m
g

m^ ^
4

z:;

i
:]i:

i i
^5^^

-:ir-^r#-

^^

-sjs^

-|S>-

fr4-

3X

i 00

64
(b)

ESSENTIALS OF MUSIC THEORY.

ffe

^ ^^ mh^a ^ ^^
m
i

22ZI

4.

chords

Introducing the dominant and secondary seventh

M44
(b)

^t-^4^

^
rJ
r.

"CCr

3CE
-3-

^
i
(

f
"iTF

:g^-f

zsizzz:

^Sr

S^
The
is

--

XE

should

chorals that were chosen for analysis in Chapter III now be played for ear training. The teacher's judg-

ment

very necessary in deciding the limitations of each

EAR TRAINING.
individual student.

65

made.

Before the student

be capable of any and all chords sounded.

At the proper time modulations may be may be called proficient, he must instantly recognizing and properly intonating

Can You Compose Music?


In this, the latest of methods for the study of Harmony, the author, Carl E. Gardner, presents a system of training which, both in purpose and plan, provides, what up to the present has frequently been hinted at, but

never practically accomplished music composition.

"direct" method for the teaching of

In the writing of the work the student's practical development has been uppermost in the author's mind and to this end he has provided not a mere treatise on musical grammar, along conventional, hackneyed lines, but a new method which will allow and encourage the student to compose as he advances and develops.

MUSIC COMPOSITION
A NEW METHOD OF HARMONY
BY

CARL
Author
of

E.

GARDNER
Music Theory."

"

Essentials of

Price, $1.50

OPINION OF THE PRESS


"His work
It
is

numbering i6i small pages

is of

necessity simply an abbreviated affair.


his subject

soundly done, the work of a


capitally written."

man who knows

through and through, and

it is

MUSICAL AMERICA.

" The author calls his method the direct method, in that he makes the pupil begin to compose from the beginning instead of after a long and tedious course of technical Time will tell whether this new method will make better composers than the old rules. way or not, but the new method will certainly make the way of the pupil less thorny.

The average student


by Carl E. Gardner
.

probably enjoy learning composition according to the method is no reason whatever why this method should not be as useful as the long established methods of Jadassohn, Prout, Richter and others who beUeve in keeping the pupil's nose to the grindstone for several years before furnishing MUSICAL COURIER. him with wings."
will

There

by Carl

of harmony,' by Carl E. Gardner, published a meritorious text book which seeks to combine, in efficient manner, the teaching of simple forms with the customary guidance in chord conThe abandoning of the isolated manner in which harmony is generally taught nection. and the stimulus of life it undoubtedly receives by joining to it symmetry, rhythm and
'

"

Music Composition,' a 'new method


Fischer,

New

York,

is

melody,

is

undeniably a progress."

CANADIAN JOURNAL OF MUSIC.

PUBLISHED BY

CARL FISCHER
BOSTON

NEW YORK

CHICAGO

BOSTON UNIVERSITY

MT6F12
Essentials of music theory
...

BOSS

17n

D03D3

M7bfi

DO NOT REMOVE CHARGE SLIP FROM THIS POCKET IF SLIP IS LOST PLEASE RETURN BOOK DIRECTLY TO A ORCULAnON STAFF MEMBER.

Boston University Libraries


771 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, Massachusetts 02215

n.

-k

:^.-

t
i
l-

^*

-4