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Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1

Assessment Name

Unit or Chapter Test


Test that are used to gauge learning at a particular time in relation to the content they are studying.

Definition Purpose
To determine a students understanding and knowledge gained at the end of a chapter or unit.

Example

Students are studying planets and their characteristics from a chapter in the student text. The end of chapter test would consist of questions relevant to what they learned in the unit.

Teachers can see exactly how successful they were in imparting the material to their students. Teachers can get Characteristics an idea of how much a student has retained through direct instruction and from the unit or chapter.

Positive

Chapter test are not necessarily the most effective Negative Characteristics means of testing a students knowledge. (Classroom disruptions, lack of sleep, or a poorly written question can lower a students score and may not accurately reflect their knowledge of the material. Summative Assessment Summative test determine how much a student has gained from a lesson. They are given to see what a student has learned at the end of a lesson, and the grade is usually counted to show their knowledge in a given area.

Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1

Assessment Name
Definition

Showcase Portfolio

Used to evaluate a students mastery of curriculum outcomes. Student can be involved in the selection process. To show the learning outcome of a student by using some of the students best work that is determined by a combination of the student and teacher selection. This type of assessment allows students the opportunity to self-reflect. Portfolios can be used throughout the year to show a students progression. It may include writing samples, literary goals, classroom experiences, and any variety of products that show how a student has advanced through the year. Portfolios focus on what a student can do instead of where they are lacking. Students can also reflect and self-evaluate as they choose pieces for their portfolios. Portfolios encourage self-directed learning. This type of assessment requires extra time to plan a system and conduct the assessment with the student. Scheduling individual portfolio conferences is difficult and time consuming.

Purpose

Examples of Use

Positive Characteristics

Negative Characteristics

Formative Assessment

This is a formative assessment as students are involved in the process of choosing their portfolio pieces, and students and teachers are able to see beyond a grade, from where the student started and the progress they are making towards their goals.

Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1

Assessment Name Definition

State Testing (Standardized test)

A test that is administered and scored in a consistent or standard manner. Standardized test are designed for large scale application. State test are designed to measure large groups of testers against each other as well as a standard. The purpose of standardized test is to compare the abilities and skills of students from different schools and backgrounds. These assessments are generally given in Spring and Fall every year to assess the gains in achievements of groups of students. Two examples of standardized testing are state test, and the SAT.

Purpose

Example

One positive characteristic is that the grading is Positive Characteristics standardized so test scores are the same no matter who is scoring them. This can prevent bias from the scorer. Another positive is that it gives a general idea of how schools compare. Standardized test may encourage teachers to focus on Negative Characteristics subjects and materials covered in the test and neglect other subject matter. Some educators also believe that standardized test fail to measure thinking and problem solving skill, and in depth knowledge of subjects (Roe, Smith, and Burns 2009). Summative Standardized test are summative assessments because they measure accountability and gauge a students learning in relation to content standards.

Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1

Assessment

Observation

Definition

Watching the activities of a single student, or groups of students to collect information about the students performance regarding a target behavior. The purpose of observation is to obtain information regarding a students progress, and over time formulate conclusions that can help in determining how a student is progressing. An example of observation is listening to casual conversations and evaluating literacy development. Another example is to watch how students engage material during group activities. Listen to students as they think, pair, and share.

Purpose

Example

By observing the students a teacher can pick up on cues Positive Characteristics and adjust the instruction accordingly. Observation also gives teachers time to write observation notes which will allow them to document and describe the students learning in relation to concept development, reading, social interaction, and communication skills. It may be difficult for teachers to make appropriate and Negative Characteristics dependable assessment judgments from the observation of students in natural settings. This means that students may not demonstrate all relevant learning outcomes in a natural setting. It may also be difficult for teachers to interpret their insights with accuracy. Formative Observation is a formative assessment because it can help teachers determine if and how quickly students are picking up the material. Observation is ongoing and incorporated into classroom practice. This allows the teacher to adjust instruction WHILE it is happening. For this reason observation is formative.

Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1

Assessment

Criterion Reference Test

Definition

This is a test that is designed to yield scores that are interpretable in terms of specific performance standards.

Purpose

The purpose of a Criterion Reference Test is to match the standards or expectations of what students should know at benchmarks throughout their school career. This test should be used to indicate whether or not a student meets performance standards. For example; to indicate whether a student can sequence, or identify the main idea a certain percent of the time. Most assessments administered in school are criterion reference test.

Example

A Criterion Reference Test allows teachers to see what Positive Characteristics skills a student has or has not mastered. They are useful in determining what type of specifically designed instruction that a student needs to advance. A disadvantage to this type of testing is that it can make Negative Characteristics reading appear to be nothing more than a set of skills to be taught and tested (Roe, Smith, and Burns, 2009). Teachers may teach skills in isolation rather than in conjunction with one another. This type of knowledge can be difficult for students to apply to tangible reading situations. Criterion Reference Tests are summative assessments because they gauge a students progress at a particular point in time. Criterion Reference Test show where a student is in relation to the district benchmark.

Summative

Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1

Assessment

Informal Reading Inventory

Definition

An informal assessment designed to help the teacher determine a childs independent, instructional, frustration, and capacity levels.

Purpose

IRIs can help a teacher to identify specific types of word recognition and comprehension difficulties that a student may have. They can use this information to plan appropriate instruction for their students.

Example

This assessment can be used when a teacher needs to figure out a students independent reading level. This is important in being sure that a student is reading books with their appropriate skill level. Another example would be using the test to determine what a student can understand when it is read to them. (comprehension level)

The IRI can help in determining the instructional level and Positive Characteristics support a student will need to succeed in reading. IRIs take into effect a students level of frustration.

While this assessment is helpful in determining a students Negative Characteristics reading ability, it is not infallible. Educators should use the IRI as a baseline in making an initial instruction plan, but after observing the student for 2-3 weeks, the instruction plan may need to be re-done. Formative IRIs are formative assessments because they provide information needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening. IRIs inform teachers of a students reading skill and ability so adjustments can be made to help insure that students are able to achieve standard-based learning goals within a period of time.

Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1

Assessment

Self-Appraisal

Definition

This is an assessment used to help students develop the ability to evaluate their own accomplishments, to set their own goals, and to decide how they will achieve these goals, and then to evaluate their progress in meeting their goals. To help students achieve metacognition so that they are aware of their personal strengths and weaknesses in relation to a specific learning task.

Purpose

Example

Teachers can work with students in self-appraisal to help them assess their abilities in various reading skills. After a student reads a book, passage, or article, the teacher can allow students to complete a self-check exercise to assist them in understanding their strengths and weaknesses.

Self-Appraisal uses critical reflection, and can be used in Positive Characteristics conjunction with several other methods of assessment. It also teaches students to ask themselves questions to assess the difficulty of as assignment, what type of strategies they may use, and how likely they are to succeed. Self-Appraisal is not appropriate to use as the only method Negative Characteristics of assessment. This type of assessment may also favor students with strong writing skills. It may also be too time consuming for teachers because of the need to conference with students about their personal progress. Formative Self-Appraisal is a formative assessment because it is part of an instructional process. Students and teachers can work together to help students focus on their own progress, and then adjust where needed. As students begin to recognize their strengths and weaknesses, the teacher can plan appropriate instructional interventions as necessary.

Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1

Assessment

Informal Test of Specific Content or Skill An informal test given to determine a students knowledge of a specific skill or content area.

Definition

Purpose

These tests are given to see if students are gaining knowledge and understanding of a specific skill or area of study.

Example

This type of test can be used to assess a students knowledge of a skill or content area. For example; a teacher can use this type of test to assess a students knowledge of vocabulary or spelling words and to discover a students strengths and weaknesses to establish whether or not re-teaching is necessary.

Test of this nature allow educators to gain insight as to Positive Characteristics whether students are grasping a specific concept. Teachers can obtain information as to whether or not their instruction is sufficient. These test can be time consuming and costly because of the Negative Characteristics need to design test for student use. They also tend to emphasize factual knowledge rather than higher order thinking. Summative/ Formative These types of assessments can be both summative and formative in nature. Because these test focus on a specific skill or ability, and can be made to assess students skill or ability obtained from a chapter or unit, they can be summative. They can also be considered formative because they can provide information needed to adjust instruction. Many teachers also have practice (formative) test over a specific skill such as spelling, before having a final scored test. (summative)

Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1

Assessment

Cloze Procedure

Definition Purpose

A technique in which the teacher will delete words or structures from a passage and leave blanks in their place. The purpose of using the Cloze Procedure is to have students fill in the blanks by using context clues to determine what is missing. This procedure can help to identify a students knowledge of the reading process. This type of procedure can be used as an assessment for comprehension. The Cloze Procedure can be used as a diagnostic reading assessment technique to determine which cueing systems readers effectively employ to construct meaning from text. A passage or group of sentences can be given to each student to work on independently, or with the teacher individually for assessment.

Example

The Cloze Procedure can encourage students to think Positive Characteristics critically and analytically about text and content. Another positive with using this procedure is that it can be adapted. Choices of words can be given to fill in the blanks. The Cloze Procedure can be adapted yet further by supplying only the first letter of the missing word. The Cloze Procedure relies in part on prior knowledge of Negative Characteristics a subject. This can be a negative aspect in some cases because some students may not have the familiarity of the subject. A students inability to read fluently or to understand context and vocabulary may hinder their ability to identify the correct word or type of words that belong in the passage. Formative This is a formative assessment because it can provide information about a students reading process and comprehension abilities. The information can then be used to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening. The procedure can also be used as a practice to see where a student is lacking so additional, or a change in instruction can be made.

Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1

Assessment

Skills Demonstration

Definition

An assessment in which the student will physically present learning and skills. This type of assessment can be used to get a clear picture of a students skill level and problem solving abilities in relevant context. One could show what they have learned through direct instruction, and from a chapter or unit. One example would be demonstrating a science experiment that shows knowledge gained in a particular area of study.

Purpose

Example

One positive characteristic of skills demonstration is that it Positive Characteristics allows the teacher to actually visualize a students understanding of the material. It is also an excellent way of measuring application and synthesis levels of Blooms Taxonomy. Skills demonstration is also a great way for students to expand their communication and performance skills. One negative is that a student may know the material but Negative Characteristics because they are nervous or anxious about demonstrating the skill their knowledge may not show through. This type of assessment can also be very time consuming. Summative/ Formative I believe that skills demonstration can be used as both a summative and formative assessment. If a skills demonstration is done as an assessment of a students knowledge at the end of a chapter or unit, then it could be considered summative and scored accordingly. If it is incorporated into classroom practice and it is done to provide information that will be used to adjust instruction, then it could be viewed as a formative assessment.

Melissa Burch Reading in Elementary Assessment Chart Grade 1